WorldWideScience

Sample records for surprisingly large population

  1. Ontological Surprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leahu, Lucian

    2016-01-01

    a hybrid approach where machine learning algorithms are used to identify objects as well as connections between them; finally, it argues for remaining open to ontological surprises in machine learning as they may enable the crafting of different relations with and through technologies.......This paper investigates how we might rethink design as the technological crafting of human-machine relations in the context of a machine learning technique called neural networks. It analyzes Google’s Inceptionism project, which uses neural networks for image recognition. The surprising output...

  2. Surprise Trips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias; Kawash, Raghid; Andersen, Lisbet Møller

    2010-01-01

    We report on a platform that augments the natural experience of exploration in diverse indoor and outdoor environments. The system builds on the theme of surprises in terms of user expectations and finding points of interest. It utilizes physical icons as representations of users' interests...... and as notification tokens to alert users when they are within proximity of a surprise. To evaluate the concept, we developed mock-ups, a video prototype and conducted a wizard-of-oz user test for a national park in Denmark....

  3. How Large Asexual Populations Adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Michael

    2007-03-01

    We often think of beneficial mutations as being rare, and of adaptation as a sequence of selected substitutions: a beneficial mutation occurs, spreads through a population in a selective sweep, then later another beneficial mutation occurs, and so on. This simple picture is the basis for much of our intuition about adaptive evolution, and underlies a number of practical techniques for analyzing sequence data. Yet many large and mostly asexual populations -- including a wide variety of unicellular organisms and viruses -- live in a very different world. In these populations, beneficial mutations are common, and frequently interfere or cooperate with one another as they all attempt to sweep simultaneously. This radically changes the way these populations adapt: rather than an orderly sequence of selective sweeps, evolution is a constant swarm of competing and interfering mutations. I will describe some aspects of these dynamics, including why large asexual populations cannot evolve very quickly and the character of the diversity they maintain. I will explain how this changes our expectations of sequence data, how sex can help a population adapt, and the potential role of ``mutator'' phenotypes with abnormally high mutation rates. Finally, I will discuss comparisons of these predictions with evolution experiments in laboratory yeast populations.

  4. Measuring happiness in large population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenas, Annabelle; Sjahputri, Smita; Takwin, Bagus; Primaldhi, Alfindra; Muhamad, Roby

    2016-01-01

    The ability to know emotional states for large number of people is important, for example, to ensure the effectiveness of public policies. In this study, we propose a measure of happiness that can be used in large scale population that is based on the analysis of Indonesian language lexicons. Here, we incorporate human assessment of Indonesian words, then quantify happiness on large-scale of texts gathered from twitter conversations. We used two psychological constructs to measure happiness: valence and arousal. We found that Indonesian words have tendency towards positive emotions. We also identified several happiness patterns during days of the week, hours of the day, and selected conversation topics.

  5. Natural Selection in Large Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Michael

    2011-03-01

    I will discuss theoretical and experimental approaches to the evolutionary dynamics and population genetics of natural selection in large populations. In these populations, many mutations are often present simultaneously, and because recombination is limited, selection cannot act on them all independently. Rather, it can only affect whole combinations of mutations linked together on the same chromosome. Methods common in theoretical population genetics have been of limited utility in analyzing this coupling between the fates of different mutations. In the past few years it has become increasingly clear that this is a crucial gap in our understanding, as sequence data has begun to show that selection appears to act pervasively on many linked sites in a wide range of populations, including viruses, microbes, Drosophila, and humans. I will describe approaches that combine analytical tools drawn from statistical physics and dynamical systems with traditional methods in theoretical population genetics to address this problem, and describe how experiments in budding yeast can help us directly observe these evolutionary dynamics.

  6. Charming surprise

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2011-01-01

    The CP violation in charm quarks has always been thought to be extremely small. So, looking at particle decays involving matter and antimatter, the LHCb experiment has recently been surprised to observe that things might be different. Theorists are on the case. The study of the physics of the charm quark was not in the initial plans of the LHCb experiment, whose letter “b” stands for “beauty quark”. However, already one year ago, the Collaboration decided to look into a wider spectrum of processes that involve charm quarks among other things. The LHCb trigger allows a lot of these processes to be selected, and, among them, one has recently shown interesting features. Other experiments at b-factories have already performed the same measurement but this is the first time that it has been possible to achieve such high precision, thanks to the huge amount of data provided by the very high luminosity of the LHC. “We have observed the decay modes of the D0, a pa...

  7. Charming surprise

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2011-01-01

    The CP violation in charm quarks has always been thought to be extremely small. So, looking at particle decays involving matter and antimatter, the LHCb experiment has recently been surprised to observe that things might be different. Theorists are on the case.   The study of the physics of the charm quark was not in the initial plans of the LHCb experiment, whose letter “b” stands for “beauty quark”. However, already one year ago, the Collaboration decided to look into a wider spectrum of processes that involve charm quarks among other things. The LHCb trigger allows a lot of these processes to be selected, and, among them, one has recently shown interesting features. Other experiments at b-factories have already performed the same measurement but this is the first time that it has been possible to achieve such high precision, thanks to the huge amount of data provided by the very high luminosity of the LHC. “We have observed the decay modes of t...

  8. Summit surprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, N

    1994-01-01

    A New Delhi Population Summit, organized by the Royal Society, the US National Academy of Sciences, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and the Indian National Science Academy, was convened with representation of 120 (only 10% women) scientists from 50 countries and about 12 disciplines and 43 national scientific academies. Despite the common assumption that scientists never agree, a 3000 word statement was signed by 50 prominent national figures and supported by 25 professional papers on diverse subjects. The statement proclaimed that stable world population and "prodigious planning efforts" are required for dealing with global social, economic, and environmental problems. The target should be zero population growth by the next generation. The statement, although containing many uncompromising assertions, was not as strong as a statement by the Royal Society and the US National Academy of Sciences released last year: that, in the future, science and technology may not be able to prevent "irreversible degradation of the environment and continued poverty," and that the capacity to sustain life on the planet may be permanently jeopardized. The Delhi statement was backed by professional papers highlighting several important issues. Dr Mahmoud Fathalla of the Rockefeller Foundation claimed that the 500,000 annual maternal deaths worldwide, of which perhaps 33% are due to "coathanger" abortions, are given far less attention than a one-day political event of 500 deaths would receive. Although biologically women have been given a greater survival advantage, which is associated with their reproductive capacity, socially disadvantaged females are relegated to low status. There is poorer nutrition and overall health care for females, female infanticide, and female fetuses are increasingly aborted in China, India, and other countries. The sex ratio in developed countries is 95-97 males to every 100 females, but in developing Asian countries the ratio is 105 males to 100

  9. Surprise, Recipes for Surprise, and Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, Jeffrey

    2018-02-07

    Surprising people can provide an opening for influencing them. Surprises garner attention, are arousing, are memorable, and can prompt shifts in understanding. Less noted is that, as a result, surprises can serve to persuade others by leading them to shifts in attitudes. Furthermore, because stories, pictures, and music can generate surprises and those can be widely shared, surprise can have broad social influence. People also tend to share surprising items with others, as anyone on social media has discovered. This means that in addition to broadcasting surprising information, surprising items can also spread through networks. The joint result is that surprise not only has individual effects on beliefs and attitudes but also collective effects on the content of culture. Items that generate surprise need not be random or accidental. There are predictable methods or recipes for generating surprise. One such recipe is discussed, the repetition-break plot structure, to explore the psychological and social possibilities of examining surprise. Recipes for surprise offer a useful means for understanding how surprise works and offer prospects for harnessing surprise to a wide array of ends. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. Entry control system for large populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merillat, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    An Entry Control System has been developed which is appropriate for use at an installation with a large population requiring access over a large area. This is accomplished by centralizing the data base management and enrollment functions and decentralizing the guard-assisted, positive personnel identification and access functions. Current information pertaining to all enrollees is maintained through user-friendly enrollment stations. These stations may be used to enroll individuals, alter their area access authorizations, change expiration dates, and other similar functions. An audit trail of data base alterations is provided to the System Manager. Decentrailized systems exist at each area to which access is controlled. The central system provides these systems with the necessary entry control information to allow them to operate microprocessor-driven entry control devices. The system is comprised of commercially available entry control components and is structured such that it will be able to incorporate improved devices as technology porogresses. Currently, access is granted to individuals who possess a valid credential, have current access authorization, can supply a memorized personal identification number, and whose physical hand dimensions match their profile obtained during enrollment. The entry control devices report misuses as security violations to a Guard Alarm Display and Assessment System

  11. Breeding ecology of the southern shrike, Lanius meridionalis, in an agrosystem of south–eastern Spain: the surprisingly excellent breeding success in a declining population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Rueda, G.; Abril-Colon, I.; Lopez-Orta, A.; Alvarez-Benito, I.; Castillo-Gomez, C.; Comas, M.; Rivas, J.M.

    2016-07-01

    The southern shrike, Lanius meridionalis, is declining at the Spanish and European level. One cause of this decline could be low reproductive success due to low availability of prey in agricultural environments. To investigate this possibility we analysed the breeding ecology of a population of southern shrike in an agrosystem in Lomas de Padul (SE Spain). Our results suggest the population is declining in this area. However, contrary to expectations, the population showed the highest reproductive success (% nests in which at least one egg produces a fledgling) reported for this species to date (83.3%), with a productivity of 4.04 fledglings per nest. Reproductive success varied throughout the years, ranging from 75% in the worst year to 92.9% in the best year. Similarly, productivity ranged from 3.25 to 5.0 fledglings per nest depending on the year. Other aspects of reproductive biology, such as clutch size, brood size, and nestling diet, were similar to those reported in other studies. Based on these results, we hypothesise that the determinant of population decline acts on the juvenile fraction, drastically reducing the recruitment rate, or affecting the dispersion of adults and recruits. Nevertheless, the exact factor or factors are unknown. This study shows that a high reproductive success does not guarantee good health status of the population. (Author)

  12. Large population center and core melt accident considerations in siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarinopoulos, L.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of providing suitable demographic siting criteria in the presence of a very large population center in an otherwise sparsely populated region is addressed. Simple calculations were performed making maximum use of pretabulated results of studies where core melt accidents are considered. These show that taking into consideration the air flow patterns in the region can lower the expected population doses from core melt accidents more effectively than distance alone. Expected doses are compared to the annual background radiation dose. A simple siting criterion combining geographical considerations with the probability of a release reaching the large population center is proposed

  13. Surprising finding on colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griglione, Nicole; Naik, Jahnavi; Christie, Jennifer

    2010-02-01

    A 48-year-old man went to his primary care physician for his annual physical. He told his physician that for the past few years, he had intermittent, painless rectal bleeding consisting of small amounts of blood on the toilet paper after defecation. He also mentioned that he often spontaneously awoke, very early in the morning. His past medical history was unremarkable. The patient was born in Cuba but had lived in the United States for more than 30 years. He was divorced, lived alone, and had no children. He had traveled to Latin America-including Mexico, Brazil, and Cuba-off and on over the past 10 years. His last trip was approximately 2 years ago. His physical exam was unremarkable. Rectal examination revealed no masses or external hemorrhoids; stool was brown and Hemoccult negative. Labs were remarkable for eosinophilia ranging from 10% to 24% over the past several years (the white blood cell count ranged from 5200 to 5900/mcL). A subsequent colonoscopy revealed many white, thin, motile organisms dispersed throughout the colon. The organisms were most densely populated in the cecum. Of note, the patient also had nonbleeding internal hemorrhoids. An aspiration of the organisms was obtained and sent to the microbiology lab for further evaluation. What is your diagnosis? How would you manage this condition?

  14. Surprise... Surprise..., An Empirical Investigation on How Surprise is Connected to Customer Satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vanhamme (Joëlle)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis research investigates the specific influence of the emotion of surprise on customer transaction-specific satisfaction. Four empirical studies-two field studies (a diary study and a cross section survey) and two experiments-were conducted. The results show that surprise positively

  15. WKB theory of large deviations in stochastic populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Michael; Meerson, Baruch

    2017-06-01

    Stochasticity can play an important role in the dynamics of biologically relevant populations. These span a broad range of scales: from intra-cellular populations of molecules to population of cells and then to groups of plants, animals and people. Large deviations in stochastic population dynamics—such as those determining population extinction, fixation or switching between different states—are presently in a focus of attention of statistical physicists. We review recent progress in applying different variants of dissipative WKB approximation (after Wentzel, Kramers and Brillouin) to this class of problems. The WKB approximation allows one to evaluate the mean time and/or probability of population extinction, fixation and switches resulting from either intrinsic (demographic) noise, or a combination of the demographic noise and environmental variations, deterministic or random. We mostly cover well-mixed populations, single and multiple, but also briefly consider populations on heterogeneous networks and spatial populations. The spatial setting also allows one to study large fluctuations of the speed of biological invasions. Finally, we briefly discuss possible directions of future work.

  16. WKB theory of large deviations in stochastic populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assaf, Michael; Meerson, Baruch

    2017-01-01

    Stochasticity can play an important role in the dynamics of biologically relevant populations. These span a broad range of scales: from intra-cellular populations of molecules to population of cells and then to groups of plants, animals and people. Large deviations in stochastic population dynamics—such as those determining population extinction, fixation or switching between different states—are presently in a focus of attention of statistical physicists. We review recent progress in applying different variants of dissipative WKB approximation (after Wentzel, Kramers and Brillouin) to this class of problems. The WKB approximation allows one to evaluate the mean time and/or probability of population extinction, fixation and switches resulting from either intrinsic (demographic) noise, or a combination of the demographic noise and environmental variations, deterministic or random. We mostly cover well-mixed populations, single and multiple, but also briefly consider populations on heterogeneous networks and spatial populations. The spatial setting also allows one to study large fluctuations of the speed of biological invasions. Finally, we briefly discuss possible directions of future work. (topical review)

  17. Evolution favors protein mutational robustness in sufficiently large populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venturelli Ophelia S

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important question is whether evolution favors properties such as mutational robustness or evolvability that do not directly benefit any individual, but can influence the course of future evolution. Functionally similar proteins can differ substantially in their robustness to mutations and capacity to evolve new functions, but it has remained unclear whether any of these differences might be due to evolutionary selection for these properties. Results Here we use laboratory experiments to demonstrate that evolution favors protein mutational robustness if the evolving population is sufficiently large. We neutrally evolve cytochrome P450 proteins under identical selection pressures and mutation rates in populations of different sizes, and show that proteins from the larger and thus more polymorphic population tend towards higher mutational robustness. Proteins from the larger population also evolve greater stability, a biophysical property that is known to enhance both mutational robustness and evolvability. The excess mutational robustness and stability is well described by mathematical theory, and can be quantitatively related to the way that the proteins occupy their neutral network. Conclusion Our work is the first experimental demonstration of the general tendency of evolution to favor mutational robustness and protein stability in highly polymorphic populations. We suggest that this phenomenon could contribute to the mutational robustness and evolvability of viruses and bacteria that exist in large populations.

  18. Surprise as a design strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, G.D.S.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Imagine yourself queuing for the cashier’s desk in a supermarket. Naturally, you have picked the wrong line, the one that does not seem to move at all. Soon, you get tired of waiting. Now, how would you feel if the cashier suddenly started to sing? Many of us would be surprised and, regardless of

  19. Argentine Population Genetic Structure: Large Variance in Amerindian Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldin, Michael F.; Tian, Chao; Shigeta, Russell; Scherbarth, Hugo R.; Silva, Gabriel; Belmont, John W.; Kittles, Rick; Gamron, Susana; Allevi, Alberto; Palatnik, Simon A.; Alvarellos, Alejandro; Paira, Sergio; Caprarulo, Cesar; Guillerón, Carolina; Catoggio, Luis J.; Prigione, Cristina; Berbotto, Guillermo A.; García, Mercedes A.; Perandones, Carlos E.; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E.

    2011-01-01

    Argentine population genetic structure was examined using a set of 78 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to assess the contributions of European, Amerindian, and African ancestry in 94 individuals members of this population. Using the Bayesian clustering algorithm STRUCTURE, the mean European contribution was 78%, the Amerindian contribution was 19.4%, and the African contribution was 2.5%. Similar results were found using weighted least mean square method: European, 80.2%; Amerindian, 18.1%; and African, 1.7%. Consistent with previous studies the current results showed very few individuals (four of 94) with greater than 10% African admixture. Notably, when individual admixture was examined, the Amerindian and European admixture showed a very large variance and individual Amerindian contribution ranged from 1.5 to 84.5% in the 94 individual Argentine subjects. These results indicate that admixture must be considered when clinical epidemiology or case control genetic analyses are studied in this population. Moreover, the current study provides a set of informative SNPs that can be used to ascertain or control for this potentially hidden stratification. In addition, the large variance in admixture proportions in individual Argentine subjects shown by this study suggests that this population is appropriate for future admixture mapping studies. PMID:17177183

  20. Response of human populations to large-scale emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrow, James; Wang, Dashun; Barabási, Albert-László

    2010-03-01

    Until recently, little quantitative data regarding collective human behavior during dangerous events such as bombings and riots have been available, despite its importance for emergency management, safety and urban planning. Understanding how populations react to danger is critical for prediction, detection and intervention strategies. Using a large telecommunications dataset, we study for the first time the spatiotemporal, social and demographic response properties of people during several disasters, including a bombing, a city-wide power outage, and an earthquake. Call activity rapidly increases after an event and we find that, when faced with a truly life-threatening emergency, information rapidly propagates through a population's social network. Other events, such as sports games, do not exhibit this propagation.

  1. Fingerprint and Face Identification for Large User Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teddy Ko

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present the state-of-the-art of the current biometric (fingerprint and face technology, lessons learned during the investigative analysis performed to ascertain the benefits of using combined fingerprint and facial technologies, and recommendations for the use of current available fingerprint and face identification technologies for optimum identification performance for applications using large user population. Prior fingerprint and face identification test study results have shown that their identification accuracies are strongly dependent on the image quality of the biometric inputs. Recommended methodologies for ensuring the capture of acceptable quality fingerprint and facial images of subjects are also presented in this paper.

  2. Efficient characterisation of large deviations using population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Tobias; Clark, Stephen R.; Bradford, Russell; Jack, Robert L.

    2018-05-01

    We consider population dynamics as implemented by the cloning algorithm for analysis of large deviations of time-averaged quantities. We use the simple symmetric exclusion process with periodic boundary conditions as a prototypical example and investigate the convergence of the results with respect to the algorithmic parameters, focussing on the dynamical phase transition between homogeneous and inhomogeneous states, where convergence is relatively difficult to achieve. We discuss how the performance of the algorithm can be optimised, and how it can be efficiently exploited on parallel computing platforms.

  3. Sizing the star cluster population of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatti, Andrés E.

    2018-04-01

    The number of star clusters that populate the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) at deprojected distances knowledge of the LMC cluster formation and dissolution histories, we closely revisited such a compilation of objects and found that only ˜35 per cent of the previously known catalogued clusters have been included. The remaining entries are likely related to stellar overdensities of the LMC composite star field, because there is a remarkable enhancement of objects with assigned ages older than log(t yr-1) ˜ 9.4, which contrasts with the existence of the LMC cluster age gap; the assumption of a cluster formation rate similar to that of the LMC star field does not help to conciliate so large amount of clusters either; and nearly 50 per cent of them come from cluster search procedures known to produce more than 90 per cent of false detections. The lack of further analyses to confirm the physical reality as genuine star clusters of the identified overdensities also glooms those results. We support that the actual size of the LMC main body cluster population is close to that previously known.

  4. A surprising palmar nevus: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Rafiei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Raised palmar or plantar nevus especially in white people is an unusual feature. We present an uncommon palmar compound nevus in a 26-year-old woman with a large diameter (6 mm which had a collaret-shaped margin. In histopathologic evaluation intralymphatic protrusions of nevic nests were noted. This case was surprising to us for these reasons: size, shape, location and histopathology of the lesion. Palmar nevi are usually junctional (flat and below 3 mm diameter and intra lymphatic protrusion or invasion in nevi is an extremely rare phenomenon.

  5. Molecular computational elements encode large populations of small objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna de Silva, A.; James, Mark R.; McKinney, Bernadine O. F.; Pears, David A.; Weir, Sheenagh M.

    2006-10-01

    Since the introduction of molecular computation, experimental molecular computational elements have grown to encompass small-scale integration, arithmetic and games, among others. However, the need for a practical application has been pressing. Here we present molecular computational identification (MCID), a demonstration that molecular logic and computation can be applied to a widely relevant issue. Examples of populations that need encoding in the microscopic world are cells in diagnostics or beads in combinatorial chemistry (tags). Taking advantage of the small size (about 1nm) and large `on/off' output ratios of molecular logic gates and using the great variety of logic types, input chemical combinations, switching thresholds and even gate arrays in addition to colours, we produce unique identifiers for members of populations of small polymer beads (about 100μm) used for synthesis of combinatorial libraries. Many millions of distinguishable tags become available. This method should be extensible to far smaller objects, with the only requirement being a `wash and watch' protocol. Our focus on converting molecular science into technology concerning analog sensors, turns to digital logic devices in the present work.

  6. Transcranial Doppler velocities in a large, healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegeler, Charles H; Crutchfield, Kevin; Katsnelson, Michael; Kim, Jongyeol; Tang, Rong; Passmore Griffin, Leah; Rundek, Tanja; Evans, Greg

    2013-07-01

    Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography has been extensively used in the evaluation and management of patients with cerebrovascular disease since the clinical application was first described in 1982 by Aaslid and colleagues TCD is a painless, safe, and noninvasive diagnostic technique that measures blood flow velocity in various cerebral arteries. Numerous commercially available TCD devices are currently approved for use worldwide, and TCD is recognized to have an established clinical value for a variety of clinical indications and settings. Although many studies have reported normal values, there have been few recently, and none to include a large cohort of healthy subjects across age, race, and gender. As more objective, automated processes are being developed to assist with the performance and interpretation of TCD studies, and with the potential to easily compare results against a reference population, it is important to define stable normal values and variances across age, race, and gender, with clear understanding of variability of the measurements, as well as the yield from various anatomic segments. To define normal TCD values in a healthy population, we enrolled 364 healthy subjects, ages 18-80 years, to have a complete, nonimaging TCD examination. Subjects with known or suspected cerebrovascular disorders, systemic disorders with cerebrovascular effects, as well as those with known hypertension, diabetes, stroke, coronary artery disease, or myocardial infarction, were excluded. Self-reported ethnicity, handedness, BP, and BMI were recorded. A complete TCD examination was performed by a single experienced sonographer, using a single gate nonimaging TCD device, and a standardized protocol to interrogate up to 23 arterial segments. Individual Doppler spectra were saved for each segment, with velocity and pulsatility index (PI) values calculated using the instrument's automated waveform tracking function. Descriptive analysis was done to determine the mean

  7. Some Surprising Introductory Physics Facts and Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallmann, A. James

    2016-01-01

    In the entertainment world, people usually like, and find memorable, novels, short stories, and movies with surprise endings. This suggests that classroom teachers might want to present to their students examples of surprising facts associated with principles of physics. Possible benefits of finding surprising facts about principles of physics are…

  8. Cutaneous melanoma in situ: translational evidence from a large population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone; Nitti, Donato

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma in situ (CMIS) is a nosologic entity surrounded by health concerns and unsolved debates. We aimed to shed some light on CMIS by means of a large population-based study. Patients with histologic diagnosis of CMIS were identified from the Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) database. The records of 93,863 cases of CMIS were available for analysis. CMIS incidence has been steadily increasing over the past 3 decades at a rate higher than any other in situ or invasive tumor, including invasive skin melanoma (annual percentage change [APC]: 9.5% versus 3.6%, respectively). Despite its noninvasive nature, CMIS is treated with excision margins wider than 1 cm in more than one third of cases. CMIS is associated with an increased risk of invasive melanoma (standardized incidence ratio [SIR]: 8.08; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.66-8.57), with an estimated 3:5 invasive/in situ ratio; surprisingly, it is also associated with a reduced risk of gastrointestinal (SIR: 0.78, CI: 0.72-0.84) and lung (SIR: 0.65, CI: 0.59-0.71) cancers. Relative survival analysis shows that persons with CMIS have a life expectancy equal to that of the general population. CMIS is increasingly diagnosed and is often overtreated, although it does not affect the life expectancy of its carriers. Patients with CMIS have an increased risk of developing invasive melanoma (which warrants their enrollment in screening programs) but also a reduced risk of some epithelial cancers, which raises the intriguing hypothesis that genetic/environmental risk factors for some tumors may oppose the pathogenesis of others.

  9. Engaging a state: Facebook comments on a large population biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Tevah; Platt, Jodyn; Thiel, Daniel; Kardia, Sharon L R

    2017-07-01

    Scholarship on newborn screening, dried bloodspot retention, and large population biobanking call consistently for improved public engagement. Communication with participants likely occurs only in the context of collection, consent, or notification, if at all. We ran an 11-week advertising campaign to inform Michigan Facebook users unlikely to know that their or their children's dried bloodspots (DBSs) were stored in a state biobank. We investigated the pattern and content of comments posted during the campaign, focusing on users' questions, attitudes and concerns, and the role the moderator played in addressing them. We used Facebook data to quantitatively assess engagement and employed conventional content analysis to investigate themes, attitudes, and social dynamics among user and moderator comments. Five ad sets elicited comments during campaign weeks 4-8, reaching ∼800,000 Facebook users ($6000). Gravitating around broad, underlying ethical, legal, and social issues, 180 posts from 129 unique users related to newborn screening or biobanking. Thirty six conveyed negative attitudes and 33 conveyed positive attitudes; 53 posed questions. The most prevalent themes identified were consent, privacy, bloodspot use, identifiability, inclusion criteria, research benefits, (mis)trust, genetics, DBS destruction, awareness, and the role of government. The moderator's 81 posts were responsive-answering questions, correcting or clarifying information, or providing information about opting out. Facebook ad campaigns can improve engagement by pushing out relevant content and creating dynamic, responsive, visible forums for discussion. Reduced control over messaging may be worth the trade-off for creating accessible, transparent, people-centered engagement on public health issues that are sensitive and complex.

  10. Suicide in a large population of former psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Gabriele; Tondo, Leonardo; Koukopoulos, Athanasios; Reginaldi, Daniela; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D; Koukopoulos, Alexia E; Manfredi, Giovanni; Mazzarini, Lorenzo; Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Simonetti, Alessio; Ambrosi, Elisa; Angeletti, Gloria; Girardi, Paolo; Tatarelli, Roberto

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify predictors of completed suicide in a wide sample of psychiatric inpatients receiving retrospective and prospective DSM-IV diagnoses. We followed up 4441 severe psychiatric patients who were hospitalized for some time during a 35-year period in a private hospital setting. We collected sociodemographic, clinical and temperamental data. Ninety-six patients from the sample committed suicide. There were no sex differences in suicide completion and no differences between major psychiatric disorders, but people who had been hospitalized for anxiety disorders did not commit suicide and people with bipolar disorders were more likely to commit suicide than people with unipolar major depression. Shorter-term treatment with lithium and anticonvulsants, longer-term treatment with antidepressants, history of suicide attempts, suicidal thinking, and single status positively predicted completed suicide. Suicide tended to occur after a mean period of about 14 years of duration of disease. Patients' symptoms during the period preceding suicide were assessed through interviewing patients' physicians or family members. Symptoms occurring in >10% of cases were, in decreasing order, inner tension, racing/crowded thoughts, aggressive behavior, guilt, psychomotor agitation, persecutory ideation, anxiety, and hallucinations. Surprisingly, cyclothymic temperament was less associated with completed suicide as compared to other temperaments. Suicide is likely to occur in a milieu of agitation, mixed anxiety and depression, and psychosis. Longer-term mood stabilizer treatment may reduce the rate of completed suicide. © 2011 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2011 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  11. The role of surprise in satisfaction judgements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhamme, J.; Snelders, H.M.J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Empirical findings suggest that surprise plays an important role in consumer satisfaction, but there is a lack of theory to explain why this is so. The present paper provides explanations for the process through which positive (negative) surprise might enhance (reduce) consumer satisfaction. First,

  12. Estimating population effects of vaccination using large, routinely collected data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, M Elizabeth; Hudgens, Michael G

    2018-01-30

    Vaccination in populations can have several kinds of effects. Establishing that vaccination produces population-level effects beyond the direct effects in the vaccinated individuals can have important consequences for public health policy. Formal methods have been developed for study designs and analysis that can estimate the different effects of vaccination. However, implementing field studies to evaluate the different effects of vaccination can be expensive, of limited generalizability, or unethical. It would be advantageous to use routinely collected data to estimate the different effects of vaccination. We consider how different types of data are needed to estimate different effects of vaccination. The examples include rotavirus vaccination of young children, influenza vaccination of elderly adults, and a targeted influenza vaccination campaign in schools. Directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Assessing senescence patterns in populations of large mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaillard, J.-M.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical models such as those of Gompertz and Weibull are commonly used to study senescence in survival for humans and laboratory or captive animals. For wild populations of vertebrates, senescence in survival has more commonly been assessed by fitting simple linear or quadratic relationships between survival and age. By using appropriate constraints on survival parameters in Capture-Mark-Recapture (CMR models, we propose a first analysis of the suitability of the Gompertz and the two-parameter Weibull models for describing aging-related mortality in free-ranging populations of ungulates. We first show how to handle the Gompertz and the two-parameter Weibull models in the context of CMR analyses. Then we perform a comparative analysis of senescence patterns in both sexes of two ungulate species highly contrasted according to the intensity of sexual selection. Our analyses provide support to the Gompertz model for describing senescence patterns in ungulates. Evolutionary implications of our results are discussed

  14. Intraocular surgery in a large diabetes patient population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostri, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is on the increase in developed countries. Accordingly, the prevention and treatment of vision-threatening diabetic eye complications is assuming greater importance. The overall aim of this thesis is to analyse risk factors for intraocular surgery in a large diabetes po...... surgery, which can be used for preventive purposes, surgical decision-making and patient counselling....

  15. Dispersion and activity patterns of three populations of large termite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ventilation shafts are numerous on large, unshaded mounds of M. subhyalinus, confirming the main purpose of the shafts, which may however limit the maximum size of mounds. M. michaelseni, which has no external openings, uses a different system for ventilation. Flighting by Macrotermes alates shows interesting ...

  16. Detecting differential protein expression in large-scale population proteomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Soyoung; Qian, Weijun; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Davis, Ronald W.; Xiao, Wenzhong

    2014-06-17

    Mass spectrometry-based high-throughput quantitative proteomics shows great potential in clinical biomarker studies, identifying and quantifying thousands of proteins in biological samples. However, methods are needed to appropriately handle issues/challenges unique to mass spectrometry data in order to detect as many biomarker proteins as possible. One issue is that different mass spectrometry experiments generate quite different total numbers of quantified peptides, which can result in more missing peptide abundances in an experiment with a smaller total number of quantified peptides. Another issue is that the quantification of peptides is sometimes absent, especially for less abundant peptides and such missing values contain the information about the peptide abundance. Here, we propose a Significance Analysis for Large-scale Proteomics Studies (SALPS) that handles missing peptide intensity values caused by the two mechanisms mentioned above. Our model has a robust performance in both simulated data and proteomics data from a large clinical study. Because varying patients’ sample qualities and deviating instrument performances are not avoidable for clinical studies performed over the course of several years, we believe that our approach will be useful to analyze large-scale clinical proteomics data.

  17. Diabetic vitrectomy in a large type 1 diabetes patient population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostri, Christoffer; la Cour, Morten; Lund-Andersen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    1996 and 2010. Surgical history was obtained from The Danish National Patient Register. RESULTS: The population consisted of 3980 patients with type 1 diabetes. Median follow-up was 10.0 years. In total, 106 patients underwent diabetic vitrectomy in the observation period. Surgery indications were...... nonclearing vitreous haemorrhage (43%) or tractional retinal detachment (57%). The cumulative incidence rates of diabetic vitrectomy were 1.6% after 5 years and 2.9% after 10 years. When excluding patients with no or mild diabetic retinopathy, the corresponding rates were higher; 3.7% and 6.4%, respectively...... (p diabetic vitrectomy increased in patients experiencing glycosylated haemoglobin A1c > 75 mmol/mol in the observation period (p

  18. Climate Change as a Predictable Surprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazerman, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I analyze climate change as a 'predictable surprise', an event that leads an organization or nation to react with surprise, despite the fact that the information necessary to anticipate the event and its consequences was available (Bazerman and Watkins, 2004). I then assess the cognitive, organizational, and political reasons why society fails to implement wise strategies to prevent predictable surprises generally and climate change specifically. Finally, I conclude with an outline of a set of response strategies to overcome barriers to change

  19. A toolkit for detecting technical surprise.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, Michael Wayne; Foehse, Mark C.

    2010-10-01

    The detection of a scientific or technological surprise within a secretive country or institute is very difficult. The ability to detect such surprises would allow analysts to identify the capabilities that could be a military or economic threat to national security. Sandia's current approach utilizing ThreatView has been successful in revealing potential technological surprises. However, as data sets become larger, it becomes critical to use algorithms as filters along with the visualization environments. Our two-year LDRD had two primary goals. First, we developed a tool, a Self-Organizing Map (SOM), to extend ThreatView and improve our understanding of the issues involved in working with textual data sets. Second, we developed a toolkit for detecting indicators of technical surprise in textual data sets. Our toolkit has been successfully used to perform technology assessments for the Science & Technology Intelligence (S&TI) program.

  20. Cardiovascular Disease Risk in a Large, Population-Based Cohort of Breast Cancer Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, Naomi B.; Schaapveld, Michael; Gietema, Jourik A.; Russell, Nicola S.; Poortmans, Philip; Theuws, Jacqueline C. M.; Schinagl, Dominic A. X.; Rietveld, Derek H. F.; Versteegh, Michel I. M.; Visser, Otto; Rutgers, Emiel J. T.; Aleman, Berthe M. P.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct a large, population-based study on cardiovascular disease (CVD) in breast cancer (BC) survivors treated in 1989 or later. Methods and Materials: A large, population-based cohort comprising 70,230 surgically treated stage I to III BC patients diagnosed before age 75 years between

  1. Surprisal analysis and probability matrices for rotational energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, R.D.; Bernstein, R.B.; Kahana, P.; Procaccia, I.; Upchurch, E.T.

    1976-01-01

    The information-theoretic approach is applied to the analysis of state-to-state rotational energy transfer cross sections. The rotational surprisal is evaluated in the usual way, in terms of the deviance of the cross sections from their reference (''prior'') values. The surprisal is found to be an essentially linear function of the energy transferred. This behavior accounts for the experimentally observed exponential gap law for the hydrogen halide systems. The data base here analyzed (taken from the literature) is largely computational in origin: quantal calculations for the hydrogenic systems H 2 +H, He, Li + ; HD+He; D 2 +H and for the N 2 +Ar system; and classical trajectory results for H 2 +Li + ; D 2 +Li + and N 2 +Ar. The surprisal analysis not only serves to compact a large body of data but also aids in the interpretation of the results. A single surprisal parameter theta/subR/ suffices to account for the (relative) magnitude of all state-to-state inelastic cross sections at a given energy

  2. Surprise: a belief or an emotion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellers, Barbara; Fincher, Katrina; Drummond, Caitlin; Bigony, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Surprise is a fundamental link between cognition and emotion. It is shaped by cognitive assessments of likelihood, intuition, and superstition, and it in turn shapes hedonic experiences. We examine this connection between cognition and emotion and offer an explanation called decision affect theory. Our theory predicts the affective consequences of mistaken beliefs, such as overconfidence and hindsight. It provides insight about why the pleasure of a gain can loom larger than the pain of a comparable loss. Finally, it explains cross-cultural differences in emotional reactions to surprising events. By changing the nature of the unexpected (from chance to good luck), one can alter the emotional reaction to surprising events. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Viral marketing: the use of surprise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindgreen, A.; Vanhamme, J.; Clarke, I.; Flaherty, T.B.

    2005-01-01

    Viral marketing involves consumers passing along a company's marketing message to their friends, family, and colleagues. This chapter reviews viral marketing campaigns and argues that the emotion of surprise often is at work and that this mechanism resembles that of word-of-mouth marketing.

  4. Exploration, Novelty, Surprise and Free Energy Minimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp eSchwartenbeck

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews recent developments under the free energy principle that introduce a normative perspective on classical economic (utilitarian decision-making based on (active Bayesian inference. It has been suggested that the free energy principle precludes novelty and complexity, because it assumes that biological systems – like ourselves - try to minimise the long-term average of surprise to maintain their homeostasis. However, recent formulations show that minimising surprise leads naturally to concepts such as exploration and novelty bonuses. In this approach, agents infer a policy that minimises surprise by minimising the difference (or relative entropy between likely and desired outcomes, which involves both pursuing the goal-state that has the highest expected utility (often termed ‘exploitation’ and visiting a number of different goal-states (‘exploration’. Crucially, the opportunity to visit new states increases the value of the current state. Casting decision-making problems within a variational framework, therefore, predicts that our behaviour is governed by both the entropy and expected utility of future states. This dissolves any dialectic between minimising surprise and exploration or novelty seeking.

  5. Glial heterotopia of maxilla: A clinical surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Mahalik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Glial heterotopia is a rare congenital mass lesion which often presents as a clinical surprise. We report a case of extranasal glial heterotopia in a neonate with unusual features. The presentation, management strategy, etiopathogenesis and histopathology of the mass lesion has been reviewed.

  6. A Shocking Surprise in Stephan's Quintet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This false-color composite image of the Stephan's Quintet galaxy cluster clearly shows one of the largest shock waves ever seen (green arc). The wave was produced by one galaxy falling toward another at speeds of more than one million miles per hour. The image is made up of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and a ground-based telescope in Spain. Four of the five galaxies in this picture are involved in a violent collision, which has already stripped most of the hydrogen gas from the interiors of the galaxies. The centers of the galaxies appear as bright yellow-pink knots inside a blue haze of stars, and the galaxy producing all the turmoil, NGC7318b, is the left of two small bright regions in the middle right of the image. One galaxy, the large spiral at the bottom left of the image, is a foreground object and is not associated with the cluster. The titanic shock wave, larger than our own Milky Way galaxy, was detected by the ground-based telescope using visible-light wavelengths. It consists of hot hydrogen gas. As NGC7318b collides with gas spread throughout the cluster, atoms of hydrogen are heated in the shock wave, producing the green glow. Spitzer pointed its infrared spectrograph at the peak of this shock wave (middle of green glow) to learn more about its inner workings. This instrument breaks light apart into its basic components. Data from the instrument are referred to as spectra and are displayed as curving lines that indicate the amount of light coming at each specific wavelength. The Spitzer spectrum showed a strong infrared signature for incredibly turbulent gas made up of hydrogen molecules. This gas is caused when atoms of hydrogen rapidly pair-up to form molecules in the wake of the shock wave. Molecular hydrogen, unlike atomic hydrogen, gives off most of its energy through vibrations that emit in the infrared. This highly disturbed gas is the most turbulent molecular hydrogen ever seen. Astronomers were surprised not only by the turbulence

  7. Sex ratio and time to pregnancy: analysis of four large European population surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, Mike; Bennett, James; Best, Nicky

    2007-01-01

    To test whether the secondary sex ratio (proportion of male births) is associated with time to pregnancy, a marker of fertility. Design Analysis of four large population surveys. Setting Denmark and the United Kingdom. Participants 49 506 pregnancies.......To test whether the secondary sex ratio (proportion of male births) is associated with time to pregnancy, a marker of fertility. Design Analysis of four large population surveys. Setting Denmark and the United Kingdom. Participants 49 506 pregnancies....

  8. Radar Design to Protect Against Surprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Technological and doctrinal surprise is about rendering preparations for conflict as irrelevant or ineffective . For a sensor, this means essentially rendering the sensor as irrelevant or ineffective in its ability to help determine truth. Recovery from this sort of surprise is facilitated by flexibility in our own technology and doctrine. For a sensor, this mean s flexibility in its architecture, design, tactics, and the designing organizations ' processes. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory manage d and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000.

  9. Surprise: Dwarf Galaxy Harbors Supermassive Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The surprising discovery of a supermassive black hole in a small nearby galaxy has given astronomers a tantalizing look at how black holes and galaxies may have grown in the early history of the Universe. Finding a black hole a million times more massive than the Sun in a star-forming dwarf galaxy is a strong indication that supermassive black holes formed before the buildup of galaxies, the astronomers said. The galaxy, called Henize 2-10, 30 million light-years from Earth, has been studied for years, and is forming stars very rapidly. Irregularly shaped and about 3,000 light-years across (compared to 100,000 for our own Milky Way), it resembles what scientists think were some of the first galaxies to form in the early Universe. "This galaxy gives us important clues about a very early phase of galaxy evolution that has not been observed before," said Amy Reines, a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Virginia. Supermassive black holes lie at the cores of all "full-sized" galaxies. In the nearby Universe, there is a direct relationship -- a constant ratio -- between the masses of the black holes and that of the central "bulges" of the galaxies, leading them to conclude that the black holes and bulges affected each others' growth. Two years ago, an international team of astronomers found that black holes in young galaxies in the early Universe were more massive than this ratio would indicate. This, they said, was strong evidence that black holes developed before their surrounding galaxies. "Now, we have found a dwarf galaxy with no bulge at all, yet it has a supermassive black hole. This greatly strengthens the case for the black holes developing first, before the galaxy's bulge is formed," Reines said. Reines, along with Gregory Sivakoff and Kelsey Johnson of the University of Virginia and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), and Crystal Brogan of the NRAO, observed Henize 2-10 with the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array radio telescope and

  10. Pupil size tracks perceptual content and surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Niels A; Meindertsma, Thomas; van Loon, Anouk M; Lamme, Victor A F; Bonneh, Yoram S; Donner, Tobias H

    2015-04-01

    Changes in pupil size at constant light levels reflect the activity of neuromodulatory brainstem centers that control global brain state. These endogenously driven pupil dynamics can be synchronized with cognitive acts. For example, the pupil dilates during the spontaneous switches of perception of a constant sensory input in bistable perceptual illusions. It is unknown whether this pupil dilation only indicates the occurrence of perceptual switches, or also their content. Here, we measured pupil diameter in human subjects reporting the subjective disappearance and re-appearance of a physically constant visual target surrounded by a moving pattern ('motion-induced blindness' illusion). We show that the pupil dilates during the perceptual switches in the illusion and a stimulus-evoked 'replay' of that illusion. Critically, the switch-related pupil dilation encodes perceptual content, with larger amplitude for disappearance than re-appearance. This difference in pupil response amplitude enables prediction of the type of report (disappearance vs. re-appearance) on individual switches (receiver-operating characteristic: 61%). The amplitude difference is independent of the relative durations of target-visible and target-invisible intervals and subjects' overt behavioral report of the perceptual switches. Further, we show that pupil dilation during the replay also scales with the level of surprise about the timing of switches, but there is no evidence for an interaction between the effects of surprise and perceptual content on the pupil response. Taken together, our results suggest that pupil-linked brain systems track both the content of, and surprise about, perceptual events. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Large-scale control site selection for population monitoring: an example assessing Sage-grouse trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedy, Bradley C.; O'Donnell, Michael; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2015-01-01

    Human impacts on wildlife populations are widespread and prolific and understanding wildlife responses to human impacts is a fundamental component of wildlife management. The first step to understanding wildlife responses is the documentation of changes in wildlife population parameters, such as population size. Meaningful assessment of population changes in potentially impacted sites requires the establishment of monitoring at similar, nonimpacted, control sites. However, it is often difficult to identify appropriate control sites in wildlife populations. We demonstrated use of Geographic Information System (GIS) data across large spatial scales to select biologically relevant control sites for population monitoring. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hearafter, sage-grouse) are negatively affected by energy development, and monitoring of sage-grouse population within energy development areas is necessary to detect population-level responses. Weused population data (1995–2012) from an energy development area in Wyoming, USA, the Atlantic Rim Project Area (ARPA), and GIS data to identify control sites that were not impacted by energy development for population monitoring. Control sites were surrounded by similar habitat and were within similar climate areas to the ARPA. We developed nonlinear trend models for both the ARPA and control sites and compared long-term trends from the 2 areas. We found little difference between the ARPA and control sites trends over time. This research demonstrated an approach for control site selection across large landscapes and can be used as a template for similar impact-monitoring studies. It is important to note that identification of changes in population parameters between control and treatment sites is only the first step in understanding the mechanisms that underlie those changes. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Transfrontier consequences to the population of Greece of large scale nuclear accidents: a preliminary assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollas, J.G.; Catsaros, Nicolas.

    1985-06-01

    In this report the consequences to the population of Greece from hypothetical large scale nuclear accidents at the Kozlodui (Bulgaria) nuclear power station are estimated under some simplifying assumptions. Three different hypothetical accident scenarios - the most serious for pressurized water reactors - are examined. The analysis is performed by the current Greek version of code CRAC2 and includes health and economic consequences to the population of Greece. (author)

  13. Old Star's "Rebirth" Gives Astronomers Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope are taking advantage of a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to watch an old star suddenly stir back into new activity after coming to the end of its normal life. Their surprising results have forced them to change their ideas of how such an old, white dwarf star can re-ignite its nuclear furnace for one final blast of energy. Sakurai's Object Radio/Optical Images of Sakurai's Object: Color image shows nebula ejected thousands of years ago. Contours indicate radio emission. Inset is Hubble Space Telescope image, with contours indicating radio emission; this inset shows just the central part of the region. CREDIT: Hajduk et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF, ESO, StSci, NASA Computer simulations had predicted a series of events that would follow such a re-ignition of fusion reactions, but the star didn't follow the script -- events moved 100 times more quickly than the simulations predicted. "We've now produced a new theoretical model of how this process works, and the VLA observations have provided the first evidence supporting our new model," said Albert Zijlstra, of the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom. Zijlstra and his colleagues presented their findings in the April 8 issue of the journal Science. The astronomers studied a star known as V4334 Sgr, in the constellation Sagittarius. It is better known as "Sakurai's Object," after Japanese amateur astronomer Yukio Sakurai, who discovered it on February 20, 1996, when it suddenly burst into new brightness. At first, astronomers thought the outburst was a common nova explosion, but further study showed that Sakurai's Object was anything but common. The star is an old white dwarf that had run out of hydrogen fuel for nuclear fusion reactions in its core. Astronomers believe that some such stars can undergo a final burst of fusion in a shell of helium that surrounds a core of heavier nuclei such as carbon and oxygen. However, the

  14. Human impacts on large benthic foraminifers near a densely populated area of Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Yoko; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Umezawa, Yu; Kayanne, Hajime; Ide, Yoichi; Nagaoka, Tatsutoshi; Miyajima, Toshihiro; Yamano, Hiroya

    2010-08-01

    Human impacts on sand-producing, large benthic foraminifers were investigated on ocean reef flats at the northeast Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands, along a human population gradient. The densities of dominant foraminifers Calcarina and Amphistegina declined with distance from densely populated islands. Macrophyte composition on ocean reef flats differed between locations near sparsely or densely populated islands. Nutrient concentrations in reef-flat seawater and groundwater were high near or on densely populated islands. delta(15)N values in macroalgal tissues indicated that macroalgae in nearshore lagoons assimilate wastewater-derived nitrogen, whereas those on nearshore ocean reef flats assimilate nitrogen from other sources. These results suggest that increases in the human population result in high nutrient loading in groundwater and possibly into nearshore waters. High nutrient inputs into ambient seawater may have both direct and indirect negative effects on sand-producing foraminifers through habitat changes and/or the collapse of algal symbiosis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Human impacts on large benthic foraminifers near a densely populated area of Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osawa, Yoko; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Umezawa, Yu; Kayanne, Hajime; Ide, Yoichi; Nagaoka, Tatsutoshi; Miyajima, Toshihiro; Yamano, Hiroya

    2010-01-01

    Human impacts on sand-producing, large benthic foraminifers were investigated on ocean reef flats at the northeast Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands, along a human population gradient. The densities of dominant foraminifers Calcarina and Amphistegina declined with distance from densely populated islands. Macrophyte composition on ocean reef flats differed between locations near sparsely or densely populated islands. Nutrient concentrations in reef-flat seawater and groundwater were high near or on densely populated islands. δ 15 N values in macroalgal tissues indicated that macroalgae in nearshore lagoons assimilate wastewater-derived nitrogen, whereas those on nearshore ocean reef flats assimilate nitrogen from other sources. These results suggest that increases in the human population result in high nutrient loading in groundwater and possibly into nearshore waters. High nutrient inputs into ambient seawater may have both direct and indirect negative effects on sand-producing foraminifers through habitat changes and/or the collapse of algal symbiosis.

  16. High prices for rare species can drive large populations extinct: the anthropogenic Allee effect revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Matthew H; McDonald-Madden, Eve

    2017-09-21

    Consumer demand for plant and animal products threatens many populations with extinction. The anthropogenic Allee effect (AAE) proposes that such extinctions can be caused by prices for wildlife products increasing with species rarity. This price-rarity relationship creates financial incentives to extract the last remaining individuals of a population, despite higher search and harvest costs. The AAE has become a standard approach for conceptualizing the threat of economic markets on endangered species. Despite its potential importance for conservation, AAE theory is based on a simple graphical model with limited analysis of possible population trajectories. By specifying a general class of functions for price-rarity relationships, we show that the classic theory can understate the risk of species extinction. AAE theory proposes that only populations below a critical Allee threshold will go extinct due to increasing price-rarity relationships. Our analysis shows that this threshold can be much higher than the original theory suggests, depending on initial harvest effort. More alarmingly, even species with population sizes above this Allee threshold, for which AAE predicts persistence, can be destined to extinction. Introducing even a minimum price for harvested individuals, close to zero, can cause large populations to cross the classic anthropogenic Allee threshold on a trajectory towards extinction. These results suggest that traditional AAE theory may give a false sense of security when managing large harvested populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Association of maternal risk factors with large for gestational age fetuses in Indian population

    OpenAIRE

    Shamim Khandaker; Shabana Munshi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the risk of delivering large-for gestational age (LGA) fetuses associated with maternal obesity, excessive maternal weight gain, and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)- in Indian mothers. Design: Retrospective study. Settings: Fernandez Hospital Private Limited, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India; a tertiary perinatal centre. Populations: Pregnant singleton mothers with correct pregnancy dating. Methods: Estimated fetal weight (EFW) is determined using ultrasound variabl...

  18. Large Scale Flood Risk Analysis using a New Hyper-resolution Population Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.; Neal, J. C.; Bates, P. D.; Quinn, N.; Wing, O.

    2017-12-01

    Here we present the first national scale flood risk analyses, using high resolution Facebook Connectivity Lab population data and data from a hyper resolution flood hazard model. In recent years the field of large scale hydraulic modelling has been transformed by new remotely sensed datasets, improved process representation, highly efficient flow algorithms and increases in computational power. These developments have allowed flood risk analysis to be undertaken in previously unmodeled territories and from continental to global scales. Flood risk analyses are typically conducted via the integration of modelled water depths with an exposure dataset. Over large scales and in data poor areas, these exposure data typically take the form of a gridded population dataset, estimating population density using remotely sensed data and/or locally available census data. The local nature of flooding dictates that for robust flood risk analysis to be undertaken both hazard and exposure data should sufficiently resolve local scale features. Global flood frameworks are enabling flood hazard data to produced at 90m resolution, resulting in a mis-match with available population datasets which are typically more coarsely resolved. Moreover, these exposure data are typically focused on urban areas and struggle to represent rural populations. In this study we integrate a new population dataset with a global flood hazard model. The population dataset was produced by the Connectivity Lab at Facebook, providing gridded population data at 5m resolution, representing a resolution increase over previous countrywide data sets of multiple orders of magnitude. Flood risk analysis undertaken over a number of developing countries are presented, along with a comparison of flood risk analyses undertaken using pre-existing population datasets.

  19. Primary Care Practice: Uncertainty and Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Benjamin F.

    I will focus my comments on uncertainty and surprise in primary care practices. I am a medical anthropologist by training, and have been a full-time researcher in family medicine for close to twenty years. In this talk I want to look at primary care practices as complex systems, particularly taking the perspective of translating evidence into practice. I am going to discuss briefly the challenges we have in primary care, and in medicine in general, of translating new evidence into the everyday care of patients. To do this, I will look at two studies that we have conducted on family practices, then think about how practices can be best characterized as complex adaptive systems. Finally, I will focus on the implications of this portrayal for disseminating new knowledge into practice.

  20. Surprises and counterexamples in real function theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rajwade, A R

    2007-01-01

    This book presents a variety of intriguing, surprising and appealing topics and nonroutine theorems in real function theory. It is a reference book to which one can turn for finding that arise while studying or teaching analysis.Chapter 1 is an introduction to algebraic, irrational and transcendental numbers and contains the Cantor ternary set. Chapter 2 contains functions with extraordinary properties; functions that are continuous at each point but differentiable at no point. Chapters 4 and intermediate value property, periodic functions, Rolle's theorem, Taylor's theorem, points of tangents. Chapter 6 discusses sequences and series. It includes the restricted harmonic series, of alternating harmonic series and some number theoretic aspects. In Chapter 7, the infinite peculiar range of convergence is studied. Appendix I deal with some specialized topics. Exercises at the end of chapters and their solutions are provided in Appendix II.This book will be useful for students and teachers alike.

  1. HIV populations are large and accumulate high genetic diversity in a nonlinear fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldarelli, Frank; Kearney, Mary; Palmer, Sarah; Stephens, Robert; Mican, JoAnn; Polis, Michael A; Davey, Richard T; Kovacs, Joseph; Shao, Wei; Rock-Kress, Diane; Metcalf, Julia A; Rehm, Catherine; Greer, Sarah E; Lucey, Daniel L; Danley, Kristen; Alter, Harvey; Mellors, John W; Coffin, John M

    2013-09-01

    HIV infection is characterized by rapid and error-prone viral replication resulting in genetically diverse virus populations. The rate of accumulation of diversity and the mechanisms involved are under intense study to provide useful information to understand immune evasion and the development of drug resistance. To characterize the development of viral diversity after infection, we carried out an in-depth analysis of single genome sequences of HIV pro-pol to assess diversity and divergence and to estimate replicating population sizes in a group of treatment-naive HIV-infected individuals sampled at single (n = 22) or multiple, longitudinal (n = 11) time points. Analysis of single genome sequences revealed nonlinear accumulation of sequence diversity during the course of infection. Diversity accumulated in recently infected individuals at rates 30-fold higher than in patients with chronic infection. Accumulation of synonymous changes accounted for most of the diversity during chronic infection. Accumulation of diversity resulted in population shifts, but the rates of change were low relative to estimated replication cycle times, consistent with relatively large population sizes. Analysis of changes in allele frequencies revealed effective population sizes that are substantially higher than previous estimates of approximately 1,000 infectious particles/infected individual. Taken together, these observations indicate that HIV populations are large, diverse, and slow to change in chronic infection and that the emergence of new mutations, including drug resistance mutations, is governed by both selection forces and drift.

  2. The conceptualization model problem—surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, John

    2005-03-01

    The foundation of model analysis is the conceptual model. Surprise is defined as new data that renders the prevailing conceptual model invalid; as defined here it represents a paradigm shift. Limited empirical data indicate that surprises occur in 20-30% of model analyses. These data suggest that groundwater analysts have difficulty selecting the appropriate conceptual model. There is no ready remedy to the conceptual model problem other than (1) to collect as much data as is feasible, using all applicable methods—a complementary data collection methodology can lead to new information that changes the prevailing conceptual model, and (2) for the analyst to remain open to the fact that the conceptual model can change dramatically as more information is collected. In the final analysis, the hydrogeologist makes a subjective decision on the appropriate conceptual model. The conceptualization problem does not render models unusable. The problem introduces an uncertainty that often is not widely recognized. Conceptual model uncertainty is exacerbated in making long-term predictions of system performance. C'est le modèle conceptuel qui se trouve à base d'une analyse sur un modèle. On considère comme une surprise lorsque le modèle est invalidé par des données nouvelles; dans les termes définis ici la surprise est équivalente à un change de paradigme. Des données empiriques limitées indiquent que les surprises apparaissent dans 20 à 30% des analyses effectuées sur les modèles. Ces données suggèrent que l'analyse des eaux souterraines présente des difficultés lorsqu'il s'agit de choisir le modèle conceptuel approprié. Il n'existe pas un autre remède au problème du modèle conceptuel que: (1) rassembler autant des données que possible en utilisant toutes les méthodes applicables—la méthode des données complémentaires peut conduire aux nouvelles informations qui vont changer le modèle conceptuel, et (2) l'analyste doit rester ouvert au fait

  3. 4P: fast computing of population genetics statistics from large DNA polymorphism panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzo, Andrea; Panziera, Alex; Bertorelle, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Massive DNA sequencing has significantly increased the amount of data available for population genetics and molecular ecology studies. However, the parallel computation of simple statistics within and between populations from large panels of polymorphic sites is not yet available, making the exploratory analyses of a set or subset of data a very laborious task. Here, we present 4P (parallel processing of polymorphism panels), a stand-alone software program for the rapid computation of genetic variation statistics (including the joint frequency spectrum) from millions of DNA variants in multiple individuals and multiple populations. It handles a standard input file format commonly used to store DNA variation from empirical or simulation experiments. The computational performance of 4P was evaluated using large SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) datasets from human genomes or obtained by simulations. 4P was faster or much faster than other comparable programs, and the impact of parallel computing using multicore computers or servers was evident. 4P is a useful tool for biologists who need a simple and rapid computer program to run exploratory population genetics analyses in large panels of genomic data. It is also particularly suitable to analyze multiple data sets produced in simulation studies. Unix, Windows, and MacOs versions are provided, as well as the source code for easier pipeline implementations.

  4. Productivity and abundance of large sponge populations on Flinders Reef flats, Coral Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Clive R.

    1987-04-01

    Large populations of flattened sponges with cyanobacterial symbionts were observed on the shallow reef-flats of the Flinders Reefs, Coral Sea. Estimates of these populations indicated as many as 60 individuals with a total wet biomass of 1.2 kg per m2 in some areas. Along a metre wide transect across 1.3 km of reef flat the population was estimated at 530 kg wet weight sponge (mean 411 g m-2). The four prominent species had instantaneous P/R ratios between 1.3 and 1.8 at optimum light such that photosynthetic productivity was calculated to provide between 61 and 80% of sponge energy requirements in summer and 48 to 64% in winter. While such sponge beds are a prominent feature of these reefs, they appear to contribute less than 10% of gross reef-flat productivity.

  5. Coverage of the migrant population in large-scale assessment surveys. Experiences from PIAAC in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora B. Maehler

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background European countries, and especially Germany, are currently very much affected by human migration flows, with the result that the task of integration has become a challenge. Only very little empirical evidence on topics such as labor market participation and processes of social integration of migrant subpopulations is available to date from large-scale population surveys. The present paper provides an overview of the representation of the migrant population in the German Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC sample and evaluates reasons for the under-coverage of this population. Methods We examine outcome rates and reasons for nonresponse among the migrant population based on sampling frame data, and we also examine para data from the interviewers’ contact protocols to evaluate time patterns for the successful contacting of migrants. Results and Conclusions This is the first time that results of this kind have been presented for a large-scale assessment in educational research. These results are also discussed in the context of future PIAAC cycles. Overall, they confirm the expectations in the literature that factors such as language problems result in lower contact and response rates among migrants.

  6. Estimating demographic parameters from large-scale population genomic data using Approximate Bayesian Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Sen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC approach has been used to infer demographic parameters for numerous species, including humans. However, most applications of ABC still use limited amounts of data, from a small number of loci, compared to the large amount of genome-wide population-genetic data which have become available in the last few years. Results We evaluated the performance of the ABC approach for three 'population divergence' models - similar to the 'isolation with migration' model - when the data consists of several hundred thousand SNPs typed for multiple individuals by simulating data from known demographic models. The ABC approach was used to infer demographic parameters of interest and we compared the inferred values to the true parameter values that was used to generate hypothetical "observed" data. For all three case models, the ABC approach inferred most demographic parameters quite well with narrow credible intervals, for example, population divergence times and past population sizes, but some parameters were more difficult to infer, such as population sizes at present and migration rates. We compared the ability of different summary statistics to infer demographic parameters, including haplotype and LD based statistics, and found that the accuracy of the parameter estimates can be improved by combining summary statistics that capture different parts of information in the data. Furthermore, our results suggest that poor choices of prior distributions can in some circumstances be detected using ABC. Finally, increasing the amount of data beyond some hundred loci will substantially improve the accuracy of many parameter estimates using ABC. Conclusions We conclude that the ABC approach can accommodate realistic genome-wide population genetic data, which may be difficult to analyze with full likelihood approaches, and that the ABC can provide accurate and precise inference of demographic parameters from

  7. X rays and radioactivity: a complete surprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radvanyi, P.; Bordry, M.

    1995-01-01

    The discoveries of X rays and of radioactivity came as complete experimental surprises; the physicists, at that time, had no previous hint of a possible structure of atoms. It is difficult now, knowing what we know, to replace ourselves in the spirit, astonishment and questioning of these years, between 1895 and 1903. The nature of X rays was soon hypothesized, but the nature of the rays emitted by uranium, polonium and radium was much more difficult to disentangle, as they were a mixture of different types of radiations. The origin of the energy continuously released in radioactivity remained a complete mystery for a few years. The multiplicity of the radioactive substances became soon a difficult matter: what was real and what was induced ? Isotopy was still far ahead. It appeared that some radioactive substances had ''half-lifes'': were they genuine radioactive elements or was it just a transitory phenomenon ? Henri Becquerel (in 1900) and Pierre and Marie Curie (in 1902) hesitated on the correct answer. Only after Ernest Rutherford and Frederick Soddy established that radioactivity was the transmutation of one element into another, could one understand that a solid element transformed into a gaseous element, which in turn transformed itself into a succession of solid radioactive elements. It was only in 1913 - after the discovery of the atomic nucleus -, through precise measurements of X ray spectra, that Henry Moseley showed that the number of electrons of a given atom - and the charge of its nucleus - was equal to its atomic number in the periodic table. (authors)

  8. X rays and radioactivity: a complete surprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radvanyi, P. [Laboratoire National Saturne, Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bordry, M. [Institut du Radium, 75 - Paris (France)

    1995-12-31

    The discoveries of X rays and of radioactivity came as complete experimental surprises; the physicists, at that time, had no previous hint of a possible structure of atoms. It is difficult now, knowing what we know, to replace ourselves in the spirit, astonishment and questioning of these years, between 1895 and 1903. The nature of X rays was soon hypothesized, but the nature of the rays emitted by uranium, polonium and radium was much more difficult to disentangle, as they were a mixture of different types of radiations. The origin of the energy continuously released in radioactivity remained a complete mystery for a few years. The multiplicity of the radioactive substances became soon a difficult matter: what was real and what was induced ? Isotopy was still far ahead. It appeared that some radioactive substances had ``half-lifes``: were they genuine radioactive elements or was it just a transitory phenomenon ? Henri Becquerel (in 1900) and Pierre and Marie Curie (in 1902) hesitated on the correct answer. Only after Ernest Rutherford and Frederick Soddy established that radioactivity was the transmutation of one element into another, could one understand that a solid element transformed into a gaseous element, which in turn transformed itself into a succession of solid radioactive elements. It was only in 1913 - after the discovery of the atomic nucleus -, through precise measurements of X ray spectra, that Henry Moseley showed that the number of electrons of a given atom - and the charge of its nucleus - was equal to its atomic number in the periodic table. (authors).

  9. Correction of population stratification in large multi-ethnic association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Serre

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of genetic risk factors for complex diseases have, taken individually, a small effect on the end phenotype. Population-based association studies therefore need very large sample sizes to detect significant differences between affected and non-affected individuals. Including thousands of affected individuals in a study requires recruitment in numerous centers, possibly from different geographic regions. Unfortunately such a recruitment strategy is likely to complicate the study design and to generate concerns regarding population stratification.We analyzed 9,751 individuals representing three main ethnic groups - Europeans, Arabs and South Asians - that had been enrolled from 154 centers involving 52 countries for a global case/control study of acute myocardial infarction. All individuals were genotyped at 103 candidate genes using 1,536 SNPs selected with a tagging strategy that captures most of the genetic diversity in different populations. We show that relying solely on self-reported ethnicity is not sufficient to exclude population stratification and we present additional methods to identify and correct for stratification.Our results highlight the importance of carefully addressing population stratification and of carefully "cleaning" the sample prior to analyses to obtain stronger signals of association and to avoid spurious results.

  10. Large herbivore population performance and climate in a South African semi-arid savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin H. Seydack

    2012-02-01

    Interpretation according to a climate–vegetation response model suggested that acclimation of forage plants to increasing temperature had resulted in temperature-enhanced plant productivity, initially increasing food availability and supporting transient synchronous increases in population abundance of both blue wildebeest and zebra, and selective grazers. As acclimation of plants to concurrently rising minimum (nocturnal temperature (Tmin took effect, adjustments in metabolic functionality occurred involving accelerated growth activity at the cost of storage-based metabolism. Growth-linked nitrogen dilution and reduced carbon-nutrient quality of forage then resulted in phases of subsequently declining herbivore populations. Over the long term (1910–2010, progressive plant functionality shifts towards accelerated metabolic growth rather than storage priority occurred in response to Tmin rising faster than maximum temperature (Tmax, thereby cumulatively compromising the carbon-nutrient quality of forage, a key resource for selective grazers. The results of analyses thus revealed consistency between herbivore population trends and levels of forage quantity and quality congruent with expected plant metabolic responses to climate effects. Thus, according to the climate-vegetation response model, climate effects were implicated as the ultimate cause of large herbivore population performance in space and over time. Conservation implications: In its broadest sense, the objective of this study was to contribute towards the enhanced understanding of landscape-scale functioning of savanna systems with regard to the interplay between climate, vegetation and herbivore population dynamics.

  11. Hepatobiliary fascioliasis in non-endemic zones: a surprise diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ashish Kumar; Goenka, Mahesh Kumar; Goenka, Usha; Chakrabarti, Amrita

    2013-03-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Fasciola hepatica. Because of population migration and international food trade, human fascioliasis is being an increasingly recognised entity in nonendemic zones. In most parts of Asia, hepatobiliary fascioliasis is sporadic. Human hepatobiliary infection by this trematode has two distinct phases: an acute hepatic phase and a chronic biliary phase. Hepatobiliary infection is mostly associated with intense peripheral eosinophilia. In addition to classically defined hepatic phase and biliary phase fascioliasis, some cases may have an overlap of these two phases. Chronic liver abscess formation is a rare presentation. We describe a surprise case of hepatobiliary fascioliasis who presented to us with liver abscess without intense peripheral eosinophilia, a rare presentation of human fascioliasis especially in non-endemic zones. Copyright © 2013 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Managing Natural and Reintroduced Rare Plant Populations within a Large Government Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, T M; Paterson, L E; Alfaro, T M

    2009-07-15

    California is home to many large government reservations that have been in existence for decades. Many of these reservations were formed to support various Department of Defense and Department of Energy national defense activities. Often, only a very small percentage of the reservation is actively used for programmatic activities, resulting in large areas of intact habitat. In some cases, this has benefited rare plant populations, as surrounding lands have been developed for residential or industrial use. However, land management activities such as the suppression or active use of fire and other disturbance (such as fire trail grading) can also work to either the detriment or benefit of rare plant populations at these sites. A management regime that is beneficial to the rare plant populations of interest and is at best consistent with existing site programmatic activities, and at a minimum does not impact such activities, has the best potential for a positive outcome. As a result, some species may be 'difficult' while others may be 'easy' to manage in this context, depending on how closely the species biological requirements match the programmatic activities on the reservation. To illustrate, we compare and contrast two rare annual plant species found at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Site 300. Although several populations of Amsinckia grandiflora have been restored on the site, and all populations are intensively managed, this species continues to decline. In contrast, Blepharizonia plumosa appears to take advantage of the annual controlled burns conducted on the site, and is thriving.

  13. Equilibrium deuterium isotope effect of surprising magnitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, M.J.; Pressman, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    Seemingly large deuterium isotope effects are reported for the preference of deuterium for the α-chloro site to the bridgehead or to the vinyl site in samples of anti-7-chlorobicyclo[4.3.2]undecatetraene-d 1 . Studies of molecular models did not provide a basis for these large equilibrium deuterium isotope effects. The possibility is proposed that these isotope effects only appear to be large for want of comparison with isotope effects measured for molecules that might provide even greater contrasts in local force fields

  14. The limits of weak selection and large population size in evolutionary game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, Christine; Allen, Benjamin

    2017-11-01

    Evolutionary game theory is a mathematical approach to studying how social behaviors evolve. In many recent works, evolutionary competition between strategies is modeled as a stochastic process in a finite population. In this context, two limits are both mathematically convenient and biologically relevant: weak selection and large population size. These limits can be combined in different ways, leading to potentially different results. We consider two orderings: the [Formula: see text] limit, in which weak selection is applied before the large population limit, and the [Formula: see text] limit, in which the order is reversed. Formal mathematical definitions of the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] limits are provided. Applying these definitions to the Moran process of evolutionary game theory, we obtain asymptotic expressions for fixation probability and conditions for success in these limits. We find that the asymptotic expressions for fixation probability, and the conditions for a strategy to be favored over a neutral mutation, are different in the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] limits. However, the ordering of limits does not affect the conditions for one strategy to be favored over another.

  15. Emergence of a super-synchronized mobbing state in a large population of coupled chemical oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Gourab; Muñuzuri, Alberto P.; Pérez-Mercader, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Oscillatory phenomena are ubiquitous in Nature. The ability of a large population of coupled oscillators to synchronize constitutes an important mechanism to express information and establish communication among members. To understand such phenomena, models and experimental realizations of globally coupled oscillators have proven to be invaluable in settings as varied as chemical, biological and physical systems. A variety of rich dynamical behavior has been uncovered, although usually in the context of a single state of synchronization or lack thereof. Through the experimental and numerical study of a large population of discrete chemical oscillators, here we report on the unexpected discovery of a new phenomenon revealing the existence of dynamically distinct synchronized states reflecting different degrees of communication. Specifically, we discover a novel large-amplitude super-synchronized state separated from the conventionally reported synchronized and quiescent states through an unusual sharp jump transition when sampling the strong coupling limit. Our results assume significance for further elucidating globally coherent phenomena, such as in neuropathologies, bacterial cell colonies, social systems and semiconductor lasers.

  16. Surprises in the suddenly-expanded infinite well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslangul, Claude

    2008-01-01

    I study the time evolution of a particle prepared in the ground state of an infinite well after the latter is suddenly expanded. It turns out that the probability density |Ψ(x, t)| 2 shows up quite a surprising behaviour: for definite times, plateaux appear for which |Ψ(x, t)| 2 is constant on finite intervals for x. Elements of theoretical explanation are given by analysing the singular component of the second derivative ∂ xx Ψ(x, t). Analytical closed expressions are obtained for some specific times, which easily allow us to show that, at these times, the density organizes itself into regular patterns provided the size of the box is large enough; more, above some critical size depending on the specific time, the density patterns are independent of the expansion parameter. It is seen how the density at these times simply results from a construction game with definite rules acting on the pieces of the initial density

  17. The Value of Change: Surprises and Insights in Stellar Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bildsten, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Astronomers with large-format cameras regularly scan the sky many times per night to detect what's changing, and telescopes in space such as Kepler and, soon, TESS obtain very accurate brightness measurements of nearly a million stars over time periods of years. These capabilities, in conjunction with theoretical and computational efforts, have yielded surprises and remarkable new insights into the internal properties of stars and how they end their lives. I will show how asteroseismology reveals the properties of the deep interiors of red giants, and highlight how astrophysical transients may be revealing unusual thermonuclear outcomes from exploding white dwarfs and the births of highly magnetic neutron stars. All the while, stellar science has been accelerated by the availability of open source tools, such as Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA), and the nearly immediate availability of observational results.

  18. Fixation probability of a nonmutator in a large population of asexual mutators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Kavita; James, Ananthu

    2017-11-21

    In an adapted population of mutators in which most mutations are deleterious, a nonmutator that lowers the mutation rate is under indirect selection and can sweep to fixation. Using a multitype branching process, we calculate the fixation probability of a rare nonmutator in a large population of asexual mutators. We show that when beneficial mutations are absent, the fixation probability is a nonmonotonic function of the mutation rate of the mutator: it first increases sublinearly and then decreases exponentially. We also find that beneficial mutations can enhance the fixation probability of a nonmutator. Our analysis is relevant to an understanding of recent experiments in which a reduction in the mutation rates has been observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Present scenario of hemoglobinopathies in West Bengal, India: An analysis of a large population

    OpenAIRE

    Prakas Kumar Mandal; Suman Kumar Maji; Tuphan Kanti Dolai

    2014-01-01

    Background: To find out the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies by screening large population in West Bengal from Eastern India. Materials and Methods: A total of 50,487 subjects are screened for hemoglobinopathies from June 2010 to August 2013. A 2.5 ml of venous blood samples were collected in the tri-potassium EDTA vacuum container from each subject and tested with automated blood cell counter (Sysmex KX21) for red cell indices. Diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies was done by VARIANT TM (Bio-Rad ...

  20. Fundamental surprise in the application of airpower

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    explain transformations in scientific research proposed by Thomas Kuhn in his book “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions." Kuhn proposed the idea...that the accepted traditions of scientific research within a particular community, known as a paradigm, provide the tools to perform "normal science...the large-scale attacks on Lebanese infrastructure would have on the regime, this concept was a non- starter . The order issued to the IDF on 12 July

  1. Circadian analysis of large human populations: inferences from the power grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowie, Adam C; Amicarelli, Mario J; Crosier, Caitlin J; Mymko, Ryan; Glass, J David

    2015-03-01

    Few, if any studies have focused on the daily rhythmic nature of modern industrialized populations. The present study utilized real-time load data from the U.S. Pacific Northwest electrical power grid as a reflection of human operative household activity. This approach involved actigraphic analyses of continuously streaming internet data (provided in 5 min bins) from a human subject pool of approximately 43 million primarily residential users. Rhythm analyses reveal striking seasonal and intra-week differences in human activity patterns, largely devoid of manufacturing and automated load interference. Length of the diurnal activity period (alpha) is longer during the spring than the summer (16.64 h versus 15.98 h, respectively; p job-related or other weekday morning arousal cues, substantiating a preference or need to sleep longer on weekends. Finally, a shift in onset time can be seen during the transition to Day Light Saving Time, but not the transition back to Standard Time. The use of grid power load as a means for human actimetry assessment thus offers new insights into the collective diurnal activity patterns of large human populations.

  2. The Influence of Negative Surprise on Hedonic Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Kieling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After some time using a product or service, the consumer tends to feel less pleasure with consumption. This reduction of pleasure is known as hedonic adaptation. One of the emotions that interfere in this process is surprise. Based on two experiments, we suggest that negative surprise – differently to positive – influences with the level of pleasure foreseen and experienced by the consumer. Study 1 analyzes the influence of negative (vs. positive surprise on the consumer’s post-purchase hedonic adaptation expectation. Results showed that negative surprise influences the intensity of adaptation, augmenting its strength. Study 2 verifies the influence of negative (vs positive surprise over hedonic adaptation. The findings suggested that negative surprise makes adaptation happen more intensively and faster as time goes by, which brings consequences to companies and consumers in the post-purchase process, such as satisfaction and loyalty.

  3. Voluntary rewards mediate the evolution of pool punishment for maintaining public goods in large populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Uchida, Satoshi; Chen, Xiaojie

    2015-03-01

    Punishment is a popular tool when governing commons in situations where free riders would otherwise take over. It is well known that sanctioning systems, such as the police and courts, are costly and thus can suffer from those who free ride on other's efforts to maintain the sanctioning systems (second-order free riders). Previous game-theory studies showed that if populations are very large, pool punishment rarely emerges in public good games, even when participation is optional, because of second-order free riders. Here we show that a matching fund for rewarding cooperation leads to the emergence of pool punishment, despite the presence of second-order free riders. We demonstrate that reward funds can pave the way for a transition from a population of free riders to a population of pool punishers. A key factor in promoting the transition is also to reward those who contribute to pool punishment, yet not abstaining from participation. Reward funds eventually vanish in raising pool punishment, which is sustainable by punishing the second-order free riders. This suggests that considering the interdependence of reward and punishment may help to better understand the origins and transitions of social norms and institutions.

  4. Cardiovascular Disease Risk in a Large, Population-Based Cohort of Breast Cancer Survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boekel, Naomi B.; Schaapveld, Michael [Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gietema, Jourik A. [Medical Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Russell, Nicola S. [Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Poortmans, Philip [Radiation Oncology, Institute Verbeeten, Tilburg (Netherlands); Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Theuws, Jacqueline C.M. [Radiotherapy, Catharina Hospital Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Schinagl, Dominic A.X. [Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Rietveld, Derek H.F. [Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Versteegh, Michel I.M. [Steering Committee Cardiac Interventions Netherlands, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Visser, Otto [Registration and Research, Comprehensive Cancer Center The Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rutgers, Emiel J.T. [Surgery, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Aleman, Berthe M.P. [Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leeuwen, Flora E. van, E-mail: f.v.leeuwen@nki.nl [Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: To conduct a large, population-based study on cardiovascular disease (CVD) in breast cancer (BC) survivors treated in 1989 or later. Methods and Materials: A large, population-based cohort comprising 70,230 surgically treated stage I to III BC patients diagnosed before age 75 years between 1989 and 2005 was linked with population-based registries for CVD. Cardiovascular disease risks were compared with the general population, and within the cohort using competing risk analyses. Results: Compared with the general Dutch population, BC patients had a slightly lower CVD mortality risk (standardized mortality ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-0.97). Only death due to valvular heart disease was more frequent (standardized mortality ratio 1.28, 95% CI 1.08-1.52). Left-sided radiation therapy after mastectomy increased the risk of any cardiovascular event compared with both surgery alone (subdistribution hazard ratio (sHR) 1.23, 95% CI 1.11-1.36) and right-sided radiation therapy (sHR 1.19, 95% CI 1.04-1.36). Radiation-associated risks were found for not only ischemic heart disease, but also for valvular heart disease and congestive heart failure (CHF). Risks were more pronounced in patients aged <50 years at BC diagnosis (sHR 1.48, 95% CI 1.07-2.04 for left- vs right-sided radiation therapy after mastectomy). Left- versus right-sided radiation therapy after wide local excision did not increase the risk of all CVD combined, yet an increased ischemic heart disease risk was found (sHR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.28). Analyses including detailed radiation therapy information showed an increased CVD risk for left-sided chest wall irradiation alone, left-sided breast irradiation alone, and internal mammary chain field irradiation, all compared with right-sided breast irradiation alone. Compared with patients not treated with chemotherapy, chemotherapy used ≥1997 (ie, anthracyline-based chemotherapy) increased the risk of CHF (sHR 1.35, 95% CI 1

  5. Cardiovascular Disease Risk in a Large, Population-Based Cohort of Breast Cancer Survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boekel, Naomi B.; Schaapveld, Michael; Gietema, Jourik A.; Russell, Nicola S.; Poortmans, Philip; Theuws, Jacqueline C.M.; Schinagl, Dominic A.X.; Rietveld, Derek H.F.; Versteegh, Michel I.M.; Visser, Otto; Rutgers, Emiel J.T.; Aleman, Berthe M.P.; Leeuwen, Flora E. van

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct a large, population-based study on cardiovascular disease (CVD) in breast cancer (BC) survivors treated in 1989 or later. Methods and Materials: A large, population-based cohort comprising 70,230 surgically treated stage I to III BC patients diagnosed before age 75 years between 1989 and 2005 was linked with population-based registries for CVD. Cardiovascular disease risks were compared with the general population, and within the cohort using competing risk analyses. Results: Compared with the general Dutch population, BC patients had a slightly lower CVD mortality risk (standardized mortality ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-0.97). Only death due to valvular heart disease was more frequent (standardized mortality ratio 1.28, 95% CI 1.08-1.52). Left-sided radiation therapy after mastectomy increased the risk of any cardiovascular event compared with both surgery alone (subdistribution hazard ratio (sHR) 1.23, 95% CI 1.11-1.36) and right-sided radiation therapy (sHR 1.19, 95% CI 1.04-1.36). Radiation-associated risks were found for not only ischemic heart disease, but also for valvular heart disease and congestive heart failure (CHF). Risks were more pronounced in patients aged <50 years at BC diagnosis (sHR 1.48, 95% CI 1.07-2.04 for left- vs right-sided radiation therapy after mastectomy). Left- versus right-sided radiation therapy after wide local excision did not increase the risk of all CVD combined, yet an increased ischemic heart disease risk was found (sHR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.28). Analyses including detailed radiation therapy information showed an increased CVD risk for left-sided chest wall irradiation alone, left-sided breast irradiation alone, and internal mammary chain field irradiation, all compared with right-sided breast irradiation alone. Compared with patients not treated with chemotherapy, chemotherapy used ≥1997 (ie, anthracyline-based chemotherapy) increased the risk of CHF (sHR 1.35, 95% CI 1

  6. A Dichotomic Analysis of the Surprise Examination Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Franceschi, Paul

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a dichotomic analysis of the surprise examination paradox. In section 1, I analyse the surprise notion in detail. I introduce then in section 2, the distinction between a monist and dichotomic analysis of the paradox. I also present there a dichotomy leading to distinguish two basically and structurally different versions of the paradox, respectively based on a conjoint and a disjoint definition of the surprise. In section 3, I describe the solution to SEP corresponding to...

  7. Population growth rate and genetic variability of small and large populations of Red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) following multigenerational exposure to copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, Ryszard; Radwan, Jacek; Kuduk, Katarzyna; Mendrok, Magdalena; Kramarz, Paulina

    2015-07-01

    We reared large (1000 individuals) and small (20 individuals) populations of Tribolium castaneum on diet contaminated with copper in order to determine if the size of a population affects its ability to adapt to adverse environmental conditions. After 10 generations, we used microsatellite markers to estimate and subsequently compare the genetic variability of the copper-treated populations with that of the control populations, which were reared on uncontaminated medium. Additionally, we conducted a full cross-factorial experiment which evaluated the effects of 10 generations of "pre-exposure" to copper on a population's fitness in control and copper-contaminated environments. In order to distinguish results potentially arising from genetic adaptation from those due to non-genetic effects associated to parental exposure to copper, we subjected also F11 generation, originating from parents not exposed to copper, to the same cross-factorial experiment. The effects of long-term exposure to copper depended on population size: the growth rates of small populations that were pre-exposed to copper were inhibited compared to those of small populations reared in uncontaminated environments. Large Cu-exposed populations had a higher growth rate in the F10 generation compared to the control groups, while the growth rate of the F11 generation was unaffected by copper exposure history. The only factor that had a significant effect on genetic variability was population size, but this was to be expected given the large difference in the number of individuals between large and small populations. Neither copper contamination nor its interaction with population size affected the number of microsatellite alleles retained in the F10 generation.

  8. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis to construct a core collection from a large Capsicum germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hea-Young; Ro, Na-Young; Jeong, Hee-Jin; Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Jo, Jinkwan; Ha, Yeaseong; Jung, Ayoung; Han, Ji-Woong; Venkatesh, Jelli; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2016-11-14

    Conservation of genetic diversity is an essential prerequisite for developing new cultivars with desirable agronomic traits. Although a large number of germplasm collections have been established worldwide, many of them face major difficulties due to large size and a lack of adequate information about population structure and genetic diversity. Core collection with a minimum number of accessions and maximum genetic diversity of pepper species and its wild relatives will facilitate easy access to genetic material as well as the use of hidden genetic diversity in Capsicum. To explore genetic diversity and population structure, we investigated patterns of molecular diversity using a transcriptome-based 48 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a large germplasm collection comprising 3,821 accessions. Among the 11 species examined, Capsicum annuum showed the highest genetic diversity (H E  = 0.44, I = 0.69), whereas the wild species C. galapagoense showed the lowest genetic diversity (H E  = 0.06, I = 0.07). The Capsicum germplasm collection was divided into 10 clusters (cluster 1 to 10) based on population structure analysis, and five groups (group A to E) based on phylogenetic analysis. Capsicum accessions from the five distinct groups in an unrooted phylogenetic tree showed taxonomic distinctness and reflected their geographic origins. Most of the accessions from European countries are distributed in the A and B groups, whereas the accessions from Asian countries are mainly distributed in C and D groups. Five different sampling strategies with diverse genetic clustering methods were used to select the optimal method for constructing the core collection. Using a number of allelic variations based on 48 SNP markers and 32 different phenotypic/morphological traits, a core collection 'CC240' with a total of 240 accessions (5.2 %) was selected from within the entire Capsicum germplasm. Compared to the other core collections, CC240 displayed higher

  9. A WASHINGTON PHOTOMETRIC SURVEY OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD FIELD STAR POPULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piatti, Andrés E.; Geisler, Doug; Mateluna, Renee

    2012-01-01

    We present photometry for an unprecedented database of some 5.5 million stars distributed throughout the Large Magellanic Cloud main body, from 21 fields covering a total area of 7.6 deg 2 , obtained from Washington CT 1 T 2 CTIO 4 m MOSAIC data. Extensive artificial star tests over the whole mosaic image data set and the observed behavior of the photometric errors with magnitude demonstrate the accuracy of the morphology and clearly delineate the position of the main features in the color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). The representative T 1 (MS TO) mags are on average ∼0.5 mag brighter than the T 1 mags for the 100% completeness level of the respective field, allowing us to derive an accurate age estimate. We have analyzed the CMD Hess diagrams and used the peaks in star counts at the main sequence turnoff and red clump (RC) locations to age date the most dominant sub-population (or 'representative' population) in the stellar population mix. The metallicity of this representative population is estimated from the locus of the most populous red giant branch track. We use these results to derive age and metallicity estimates for all of our fields. The analyzed fields span age and metallicity ranges covering most of the galaxy's lifetime and chemical enrichment, i.e., ages and metallicities between ∼1 and 13 Gyr and ∼–0.2 and –1.2 dex, respectively. We show that the dispersions associated with the mean ages and metallicities represent in general a satisfactory estimate of the age/metallicity spread (∼1-3 Gyr/0.2-0.3 dex), although a few subfields have a slightly larger age/metallicity spread. Finally, we revisit the study of the vertical structure (VS) phenomenon, a striking feature composed of stars that extend from the bottom, bluest end of the RC to ∼0.45 mag fainter. We confirm that the VS phenomenon is not clearly seen in most of the studied fields and suggest that its occurrence is linked to some other condition(s) in addition to the appropriate age

  10. A WASHINGTON PHOTOMETRIC SURVEY OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD FIELD STAR POPULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piatti, Andres E. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428, Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Geisler, Doug; Mateluna, Renee, E-mail: andres@iafe.uba.ar [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)

    2012-10-01

    We present photometry for an unprecedented database of some 5.5 million stars distributed throughout the Large Magellanic Cloud main body, from 21 fields covering a total area of 7.6 deg{sup 2}, obtained from Washington CT{sub 1} T{sub 2} CTIO 4 m MOSAIC data. Extensive artificial star tests over the whole mosaic image data set and the observed behavior of the photometric errors with magnitude demonstrate the accuracy of the morphology and clearly delineate the position of the main features in the color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). The representative T{sub 1}(MS TO) mags are on average {approx}0.5 mag brighter than the T{sub 1} mags for the 100% completeness level of the respective field, allowing us to derive an accurate age estimate. We have analyzed the CMD Hess diagrams and used the peaks in star counts at the main sequence turnoff and red clump (RC) locations to age date the most dominant sub-population (or 'representative' population) in the stellar population mix. The metallicity of this representative population is estimated from the locus of the most populous red giant branch track. We use these results to derive age and metallicity estimates for all of our fields. The analyzed fields span age and metallicity ranges covering most of the galaxy's lifetime and chemical enrichment, i.e., ages and metallicities between {approx}1 and 13 Gyr and {approx}-0.2 and -1.2 dex, respectively. We show that the dispersions associated with the mean ages and metallicities represent in general a satisfactory estimate of the age/metallicity spread ({approx}1-3 Gyr/0.2-0.3 dex), although a few subfields have a slightly larger age/metallicity spread. Finally, we revisit the study of the vertical structure (VS) phenomenon, a striking feature composed of stars that extend from the bottom, bluest end of the RC to {approx}0.45 mag fainter. We confirm that the VS phenomenon is not clearly seen in most of the studied fields and suggest that its occurrence is linked to

  11. Older Galaxy Pair Has Surprisingly Youthful Glow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version A pair of interacting galaxies might be experiencing the galactic equivalent of a mid-life crisis. For some reason, the pair, called Arp 82, didn't make their stars early on as is typical of most galaxies. Instead, they got a second wind later in life -- about 2 billion years ago -- and started pumping out waves of new stars as if they were young again. Arp 82 is an interacting pair of galaxies with a strong bridge and a long tail. NGC 2535 is the big galaxy and NGC 2536 is its smaller companion. The disk of the main galaxy looks like an eye, with a bright 'pupil' in the center and oval-shaped 'eyelids.' Dramatic 'beads on a string' features are visible as chains of evenly spaced star-formation complexes along the eyelids. These are presumably the result of large-scale gaseous shocks from a grazing encounter. The colors of this galaxy indicate that the observed stars are young to intermediate in age, around 2 million to 2 billion years old, much less than the age of the universe (13.7 billion years). The puzzle is: why didn't Arp 82 form many stars earlier, like most galaxies of that mass range? Scientifically, it is an oddball and provides a relatively nearby lab for studying the age of intermediate-mass galaxies. This picture is a composite captured by Spitzer's infrared array camera with light at wavelength 8 microns shown in red, NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer combined 1530 and 2310 Angstroms shown in blue, and the Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy Observatory light at 6940 Angstroms shown in green.

  12. The Value of Surprising Findings for Research on Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    JS Armstrong

    2004-01-01

    In the work of Armstrong (Journal of Business Research, 2002), I examined empirical research on the scientific process and related these to marketing science. The findings of some studies were surprising. In this reply, I address surprising findings and other issues raised by commentators.

  13. Spiral wave chimera states in large populations of coupled chemical oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totz, Jan Frederik; Rode, Julian; Tinsley, Mark R.; Showalter, Kenneth; Engel, Harald

    2018-03-01

    The coexistence of coherent and incoherent dynamics in a population of identically coupled oscillators is known as a chimera state1,2. Discovered in 20023, this counterintuitive dynamical behaviour has inspired extensive theoretical and experimental activity4-15. The spiral wave chimera is a particularly remarkable chimera state, in which an ordered spiral wave rotates around a core consisting of asynchronous oscillators. Spiral wave chimeras were theoretically predicted in 200416 and numerically studied in a variety of systems17-23. Here, we report their experimental verification using large populations of nonlocally coupled Belousov-Zhabotinsky chemical oscillators10,18 in a two-dimensional array. We characterize previously unreported spatiotemporal dynamics, including erratic motion of the asynchronous spiral core, growth and splitting of the cores, as well as the transition from the chimera state to disordered behaviour. Spiral wave chimeras are likely to occur in other systems with long-range interactions, such as cortical tissues24, cilia carpets25, SQUID metamaterials26 and arrays of optomechanical oscillators9.

  14. Treatment of Displaced Indigenous Populations in Two Large Hydro Projects in Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Finley-Brook

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Consultation practices with affected populations prior to hydro concessions often remained poor in the decade since the World Commission on Dams (WCD although, in some cases the involvement of local people in the details of resettlement has improved. Numerous international and national actors, such as state agencies, multilateral banks, corporate shareholders, and pro-business media, support the development of dams, but intergovernmental agencies struggle to assure the protection of fundamental civil, human, and indigenous rights at the permitting and construction stages. We analyse two large-scale Panamanian dams with persistent disrespect for indigenous land tenure. Free, prior, and informed consent was sidestepped even though each dam required or will require Ngöbe, Emberá, or Kuna villages to relocate. When populations protested, additional human rights violations occurred, including state-sponsored violence. International bodies are slowly identifying and denouncing this abuse of power. Simultaneously, many nongovernmental organisations (NGOs seek change in Panama consistent with WCD’s good-practice guidelines. A number of NGOs have tied hydro projects to unethical greenhouse gas (GHG emissions trade. As private and state institutions market formerly collective water and carbon resources for profit, these Panamanian cases have become central to a public debate over equitable and green hydro development. Media communication feeds disputes through frontline coverage of cooperation and confrontation.

  15. Did Large-Scale Vaccination Drive Changes in the Circulating Rotavirus Population in Belgium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzer, Virginia E.; Bilcke, Joke; Heylen, Elisabeth; Crawford, Forrest W.; Callens, Michael; De Smet, Frank; Van Ranst, Marc; Zeller, Mark; Matthijnssens, Jelle

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination can place selective pressures on viral populations, leading to changes in the distribution of strains as viruses evolve to escape immunity from the vaccine. Vaccine-driven strain replacement is a major concern after nationwide rotavirus vaccine introductions. However, the distribution of the predominant rotavirus genotypes varies from year to year in the absence of vaccination, making it difficult to determine what changes can be attributed to the vaccines. To gain insight in the underlying dynamics driving changes in the rotavirus population, we fitted a hierarchy of mathematical models to national and local genotype-specific hospitalization data from Belgium, where large-scale vaccination was introduced in 2006. We estimated that natural- and vaccine-derived immunity was strongest against completely homotypic strains and weakest against fully heterotypic strains, with an intermediate immunity amongst partially heterotypic strains. The predominance of G2P[4] infections in Belgium after vaccine introduction can be explained by a combination of natural genotype fluctuations and weaker natural and vaccine-induced immunity against infection with strains heterotypic to the vaccine, in the absence of significant variation in strain-specific vaccine effectiveness against disease. However, the incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis is predicted to remain low despite vaccine-driven changes in the distribution of genotypes. PMID:26687288

  16. Adaptation in Coding by Large Populations of Neurons in the Retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioffe, Mark L.

    A comprehensive theory of neural computation requires an understanding of the statistical properties of the neural population code. The focus of this work is the experimental study and theoretical analysis of the statistical properties of neural activity in the tiger salamander retina. This is an accessible yet complex system, for which we control the visual input and record from a substantial portion--greater than a half--of the ganglion cell population generating the spiking output. Our experiments probe adaptation of the retina to visual statistics: a central feature of sensory systems which have to adjust their limited dynamic range to a far larger space of possible inputs. In Chapter 1 we place our work in context with a brief overview of the relevant background. In Chapter 2 we describe the experimental methodology of recording from 100+ ganglion cells in the tiger salamander retina. In Chapter 3 we first present the measurements of adaptation of individual cells to changes in stimulation statistics and then investigate whether pairwise correlations in fluctuations of ganglion cell activity change across different stimulation conditions. We then transition to a study of the population-level probability distribution of the retinal response captured with maximum-entropy models. Convergence of the model inference is presented in Chapter 4. In Chapter 5 we first test the empirical presence of a phase transition in such models fitting the retinal response to different experimental conditions, and then proceed to develop other characterizations which are sensitive to complexity in the interaction matrix. This includes an analysis of the dynamics of sampling at finite temperature, which demonstrates a range of subtle attractor-like properties in the energy landscape. These are largely conserved when ambient illumination is varied 1000-fold, a result not necessarily apparent from the measured low-order statistics of the distribution. Our results form a consistent

  17. Sleep patterns and predictors of disturbed sleep in a large population of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Hannah G; Reider, Brian D; Whiting, Annie B; Prichard, J Roxanne

    2010-02-01

    To characterize sleep patterns and predictors of poor sleep quality in a large population of college students. This study extends the 2006 National Sleep Foundation examination of sleep in early adolescence by examining sleep in older adolescents. One thousand one hundred twenty-five students aged 17 to 24 years from an urban Midwestern university completed a cross-sectional online survey about sleep habits that included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Horne-Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Scale, the Profile of Mood States, the Subjective Units of Distress Scale, and questions about academic performance, physical health, and psychoactive drug use. Students reported disturbed sleep; over 60% were categorized as poor-quality sleepers by the PSQI, bedtimes and risetimes were delayed during weekends, and students reported frequently taking prescription, over the counter, and recreational psychoactive drugs to alter sleep/wakefulness. Students classified as poor-quality sleepers reported significantly more problems with physical and psychological health than did good-quality sleepers. Students overwhelmingly stated that emotional and academic stress negatively impacted sleep. Multiple regression analyses revealed that tension and stress accounted for 24% of the variance in the PSQI score, whereas exercise, alcohol and caffeine consumption, and consistency of sleep schedule were not significant predictors of sleep quality. These results demonstrate that insufficient sleep and irregular sleep-wake patterns, which have been extensively documented in younger adolescents, are also present at alarming levels in the college student population. Given the close relationships between sleep quality and physical and mental health, intervention programs for sleep disturbance in this population should be considered. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Active recruitment and limited participant-load related to high participation in large population-based biobank studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zon, Sander K. R.; Scholtens, Salome; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Smidt, Nynke; Bultmann, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Insight into baseline participation rates and their determinants is crucial for designing future population-based biobank studies. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of baseline participation rates and their determinants in large longitudinal population-based

  19. Corrugator Activity Confirms Immediate Negative Affect in Surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha eTopolinski

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The emotion of surprise entails a complex of immediate responses, such as cognitive interruption, attention allocation to, and more systematic processing of the surprising stimulus. All these processes serve the ultimate function to increase processing depth and thus cognitively master the surprising stimulus. The present account introduces phasic negative affect as the underlying mechanism responsible for these consequences. Surprising stimuli are schema-discrepant and thus entail cognitive disfluency, which elicits immediate negative affect. This affect in turn works like a phasic cognitive tuning switching the current processing mode from more automatic and heuristic to more systematic and reflective processing. Directly testing the initial elicitation of negative affect by suprising events, the present experiment presented high and low surprising neutral trivia statements to N = 28 participants while assessing their spontaneous facial expressions via facial electromyography. High compared to low suprising trivia elicited higher corrugator activity, indicative of negative affect and mental effort, while leaving zygomaticus (positive affect and frontalis (cultural surprise expression activity unaffected. Future research shall investigate the mediating role of negative affect in eliciting surprise-related outcomes.

  20. Characteristics of Resistant Hypertension in a Large Ethnically Diverse Hypertension Population of an Integrated Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, John J.; Bhandari, Simran K.; Shi, Jiaxiao; In Liu, Lu A.; Calhoun, David A.; McGlynn, Elizabeth A.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Jacobsen, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prevalence and characterize resistant hypertension from a large representative population with successful hypertension management and reliable health information. Patient and Methods We performed a cross sectional study using clinical encounter, laboratory, and administrative information from the Kaiser Permanente Southern California health system during 1/1/2006–12/31/2007. From individuals age >17 years with hypertension, resistant hypertension was identified and prevalence determined. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) with adjustments for demographics, clinical variables, and medication use. Results Among 470,386 hypertensive individuals, 12.8% were identified as resistant representing15.3% of those on medications. Overall, 37,061 (7.9%) had uncontrolled hypertension while on ≥ 3 medicines. OR (95% confidence interval) for resistant hypertension were greater for black race (1.68, 1.62–1.75), older age (1.11, 1.10–1.11 for every 5 year increase), males (1.06, 1.03–1.10), and obesity (1.46, 1.42–1.51). Medication adherence rates were higher in resistant hypertension (93 vs 90%, phypertension. Conclusion Within a more standardized hypertension treatment environment, we observed a rate of resistant hypertension comparable to past studies using more fragmented data sources. Past observations have been limited due to non-representative populations, reliability of the data, heterogeneity of the treatment environments, and less than ideal control rates. This cohort which was established with an electronic medical record based approach has the potential to provide a better understanding of resistant hypertension and outcomes. PMID:24079679

  1. Surprise Gift” Purchases of Small Electric Appliances: A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vanhamme (Joëlle); C.J.P.M. de Bont (Cees)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractUnderstanding decision-making processes for gifts is of strategic importance for companies selling small electrical appliances as gifts account for a large part of their sales. Among all gifts, the ones that are surprising are the most valued by recipients. However, research about

  2. No large population of unbound or wide-orbit Jupiter-mass planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mróz, Przemek; Udalski, Andrzej; Skowron, Jan; Poleski, Radosław; Kozłowski, Szymon; Szymański, Michał K; Soszyński, Igor; Wyrzykowski, Łukasz; Pietrukowicz, Paweł; Ulaczyk, Krzysztof; Skowron, Dorota; Pawlak, Michał

    2017-08-10

    Planet formation theories predict that some planets may be ejected from their parent systems as result of dynamical interactions and other processes. Unbound planets can also be formed through gravitational collapse, in a way similar to that in which stars form. A handful of free-floating planetary-mass objects have been discovered by infrared surveys of young stellar clusters and star-forming regions as well as wide-field surveys, but these studies are incomplete for objects below five Jupiter masses. Gravitational microlensing is the only method capable of exploring the entire population of free-floating planets down to Mars-mass objects, because the microlensing signal does not depend on the brightness of the lensing object. A characteristic timescale of microlensing events depends on the mass of the lens: the less massive the lens, the shorter the microlensing event. A previous analysis of 474 microlensing events found an excess of ten very short events (1-2 days)-more than known stellar populations would suggest-indicating the existence of a large population of unbound or wide-orbit Jupiter-mass planets (reported to be almost twice as common as main-sequence stars). These results, however, do not match predictions of planet-formation theories and surveys of young clusters. Here we analyse a sample of microlensing events six times larger than that of ref. 11 discovered during the years 2010-15. Although our survey has very high sensitivity (detection efficiency) to short-timescale (1-2 days) microlensing events, we found no excess of events with timescales in this range, with a 95 per cent upper limit on the frequency of Jupiter-mass free-floating or wide-orbit planets of 0.25 planets per main-sequence star. We detected a few possible ultrashort-timescale events (with timescales of less than half a day), which may indicate the existence of Earth-mass and super-Earth-mass free-floating planets, as predicted by planet-formation theories.

  3. A deployable in vivo EPR tooth dosimeter for triage after a radiation event involving large populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Benjamin B.; Dong, Ruhong; Flood, Ann Barry; Grinberg, Oleg; Kmiec, Maciej; Lesniewski, Piotr N.; Matthews, Thomas P.; Nicolalde, Roberto J.; Raynolds, Tim; Salikhov, Ildar K.; Swartz, Harold M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to meet the potential need for emergency large-scale retrospective radiation biodosimetry following an accident or attack, we have developed instrumentation and methodology for in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to quantify concentrations of radiation-induced radicals within intact teeth. This technique has several very desirable characteristics for triage, including independence from confounding biologic factors, a non-invasive measurement procedure, the capability to make measurements at any time after the event, suitability for use by non-expert operators at the site of an event, and the ability to provide immediate estimates of individual doses. Throughout development there has been a particular focus on the need for a deployable system, including instrumental requirements for transport and field use, the need for high throughput, and use by minimally trained operators. Numerous measurements have been performed using this system in clinical and other non-laboratory settings, including in vivo measurements with unexposed populations as well as patients undergoing radiation therapies. The collection and analyses of sets of three serially-acquired spectra with independent placements of the resonator, in a data collection process lasting approximately 5 min, provides dose estimates with standard errors of prediction of approximately 1 Gy. As an example, measurements were performed on incisor teeth of subjects who had either received no irradiation or 2 Gy total body irradiation for prior bone marrow transplantation; this exercise provided a direct and challenging test of our capability to identify subjects who would be in need of acute medical care. -- Highlights: → Advances in radiation biodosimetry are needed for large-scale emergency response. → Radiation-induced radicals in tooth enamel can be measured using in vivo EPR. → A novel transportable spectrometer was applied in the laboratory and at remote sites. → The current

  4. A deployable in vivo EPR tooth dosimeter for triage after a radiation event involving large populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Benjamin B., E-mail: Benjamin.B.Williams@dartmouth.edu [Dartmouth Physically Based Biodosimetry Center for Medical Countermeasures Against Radiation (Dart-Dose CMCR), Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03768 (United States); Section of Radiation Oncology, Department of Medicine, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH (United States); Dong, Ruhong [Dartmouth Physically Based Biodosimetry Center for Medical Countermeasures Against Radiation (Dart-Dose CMCR), Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03768 (United States); Flood, Ann Barry [Dartmouth Physically Based Biodosimetry Center for Medical Countermeasures Against Radiation (Dart-Dose CMCR), Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03768 (United States); Clin-EPR, LLC, Lyme, NH (United States); Grinberg, Oleg [Clin-EPR, LLC, Lyme, NH (United States); Kmiec, Maciej; Lesniewski, Piotr N.; Matthews, Thomas P.; Nicolalde, Roberto J.; Raynolds, Tim [Dartmouth Physically Based Biodosimetry Center for Medical Countermeasures Against Radiation (Dart-Dose CMCR), Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03768 (United States); Salikhov, Ildar K. [Clin-EPR, LLC, Lyme, NH (United States); Swartz, Harold M. [Dartmouth Physically Based Biodosimetry Center for Medical Countermeasures Against Radiation (Dart-Dose CMCR), Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03768 (United States); Clin-EPR, LLC, Lyme, NH (United States)

    2011-09-15

    In order to meet the potential need for emergency large-scale retrospective radiation biodosimetry following an accident or attack, we have developed instrumentation and methodology for in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to quantify concentrations of radiation-induced radicals within intact teeth. This technique has several very desirable characteristics for triage, including independence from confounding biologic factors, a non-invasive measurement procedure, the capability to make measurements at any time after the event, suitability for use by non-expert operators at the site of an event, and the ability to provide immediate estimates of individual doses. Throughout development there has been a particular focus on the need for a deployable system, including instrumental requirements for transport and field use, the need for high throughput, and use by minimally trained operators. Numerous measurements have been performed using this system in clinical and other non-laboratory settings, including in vivo measurements with unexposed populations as well as patients undergoing radiation therapies. The collection and analyses of sets of three serially-acquired spectra with independent placements of the resonator, in a data collection process lasting approximately 5 min, provides dose estimates with standard errors of prediction of approximately 1 Gy. As an example, measurements were performed on incisor teeth of subjects who had either received no irradiation or 2 Gy total body irradiation for prior bone marrow transplantation; this exercise provided a direct and challenging test of our capability to identify subjects who would be in need of acute medical care. -- Highlights: > Advances in radiation biodosimetry are needed for large-scale emergency response. > Radiation-induced radicals in tooth enamel can be measured using in vivo EPR. > A novel transportable spectrometer was applied in the laboratory and at remote sites. > The current instrument

  5. Enhancement of natural radiation and population exposures due to the activity of large steelworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niewiadomski, T; Godek, J; Jasinska, M; Wasiolek, P [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland)

    1984-09-01

    Radionuclide releases and resulting population exposures from large industrial plants have recently become a subject of some public concern. Methods for assessing these effects were developed and, as an example, a complex of large steelworks located in the vicinity of the city of Krakow was investigated. The following critical pathways were considered: atmospheric release, and use of fly ash for production of building materials. For assessing annual average radionuclide concentrations in air and in soil around the works, a computer program was developed while other mathematical methods were applied to the assessment of maximum individual effective dose equivalent commitments (EDEC) due to inhalation, ingestion, and external gamma radiation. In order to acquire data for calculations many samples of raw materials, coal, ash, and dust were analysed as to their radionuclide concentration. The total individual EDEC at the place of maximum immission was estimated to be about 100 ..mu..Sv a/sup -1/ (i.e., about 6% of the natural exposure in this region), this being mainly due to ingestion (ca. 65 ..mu..Sv a/sup -1/) and to gamma radiation (ca. 30 ..mu..Sv a/sup -1/). The enhancement of dose rates over the ponds and of radioactivity concentration of liquid discharges from the ponds was found to be negligible. Dose rates in houses built entirely of fly ash were estimated to be higher than those in red-brick houses by not more than 0.2 ..mu..Sv a/sup -1/. The collective EDEC from the operational discharge of the steelworks is less than 11 man Sv a/sup -1/ and that of use of fly-ash prefabricated elements will be in the future less than 45 man Sv a/sup -1/.

  6. Fast and reliable methods for extracting functional connectivity in large populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roudi, Yasser; Tyrcha, Joanna; Hertz, John

    2009-01-01

    in that time bin, and 1 if it has emitted one spike or more. One then can construct an Ising model, P(s )=Z-1exp{h.s+sJs} for the spike patterns with the same means and pair correlations as the data, using Boltzmann learning, which is in principle exact.  The elements Jij , of the matrix J can be considered...... to be functional couplings. However, Boltzmann learning is prohibitively time-consuming for large networks. Here, we compare the results from five fast approximate methods for finding the couplings with those from Boltzmann learning.      We used data from a simulated network of spiking neurons operating...... in a balanced state of asynchronous firing with a mean rate of ~10 Hz for excitatory neurons. Employing a bin size of 10 ms, we performed Boltzmann learning to fit Ising models for populations of size N up to 200 excitatory neurons chosen randomly from the 800 in the simulated network.  We studied the following...

  7. Reducing NIR prediction errors with nonlinear methods and large populations of intact compound feedstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Ahumada, E; Gómez, A; Vallesquino, P; Guerrero, J E; Pérez-Marín, D; Garrido-Varo, A; Fearn, T

    2008-01-01

    According to the current demands of the authorities, the manufacturers and the consumers, controls and assessments of the feed compound manufacturing process have become a key concern. Among others, it must be assured that a given compound feed is well manufactured and labelled in terms of the ingredient composition. When near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) together with linear models were used for the prediction of the ingredient composition, the results were not always acceptable. Therefore, the performance of nonlinear methods has been investigated. Artificial neural networks and least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) have been applied to a large (N = 20 320) and heterogeneous population of non-milled feed compounds for the NIR prediction of the inclusion percentage of wheat and sunflower meal, as representative of two different classes of ingredients. Compared to partial least squares regression, results showed considerable reductions of standard error of prediction values for both methods and ingredients: reductions of 45% with ANN and 49% with LS-SVM for wheat and reductions of 44% with ANN and 46% with LS-SVM for sunflower meal. These improvements together with the facility of NIRS technology to be implemented in the process make it ideal for meeting the requirements of the animal feed industry

  8. A large outbreak of shigellosis commencing in an internally displaced population, Papua New Guinea, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benny, Edwin; Mesere, Kelly; Pavlin, Boris I; Yakam, Logan; Ford, Rebecca; Yoannes, Mition; Kisa, Debbie; Abdad, Mohammad Y; Menda, Lincoln; Greenhill, Andrew R; Horwood, Paul F

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate a large outbreak of shigellosis in Papua New Guinea that began in a camp for internally displaced persons before spreading throughout the general community. Outbreak mitigation strategies were implemented in the affected area to curtail the spread of the disease. Data were collected from the surveillance system and analysed by time, place and person. Rectal swab samples were tested by standard culture methods and real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the etiology of the outbreak. Laboratory analysis at two independent institutions established that the outbreak was caused by Shigella sp., with one strain further characterized as Shigella flexneri serotype 2. Approximately 1200 suspected cases of shigellosis were reported in a two-month period from two townships in Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea. The outbreak resulted in at least five deaths, all in young children. This outbreak of shigellosis highlights the threat of enteric diseases to vulnerable populations such as internally displaced persons in Papua New Guinea, as has been observed in other global settings.

  9. Ten-year detection rate of brain arteriovenous malformations in a large, multiethnic, defined population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Rodney A; Kim, Helen; Sidney, Stephen; McCulloch, Charles E; Singh, Vineeta; Johnston, S Claiborne; Ko, Nerissa U; Achrol, Achal S; Zaroff, Jonathan G; Young, William L

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate whether increased neuroimaging use is associated with increased brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) detection, we examined detection rates in the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program of northern California between 1995 and 2004. We reviewed medical records, radiology reports, and administrative databases to identify BAVMs, intracranial aneurysms (IAs: subarachnoid hemorrhage [SAH] and unruptured aneurysms), and other vascular malformations (OVMs: dural fistulas, cavernous malformations, Vein of Galen malformations, and venous malformations). Poisson regression (with robust standard errors) was used to test for trend. Random-effects meta-analysis generated a pooled measure of BAVM detection rate from 6 studies. We identified 401 BAVMs (197 ruptured, 204 unruptured), 570 OVMs, and 2892 IAs (2079 SAHs and 813 unruptured IAs). Detection rates per 100 000 person-years were 1.4 (95% CI, 1.3 to 1.6) for BAVMs, 2.0 (95% CI, 1.8 to 2.3) for OVMs, and 10.3 (95% CI, 9.9 to 10.7) for IAs. Neuroimaging utilization increased 12% per year during the time period (PIAs (PIAs (P4) per 100 000 person-years, without heterogeneity between studies (P=0.25). Rates for BAVMs, OVMs, and IAs in this large, multiethnic population were similar to those in other series. During 1995 to 2004, a period of increasing neuroimaging utilization, we did not observe an increased rate of detection of unruptured BAVMs, despite increased detection of unruptured IAs.

  10. Preferential enrichment of large-sized very low density lipoprotein populations with transferred cholesteryl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, S.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of lipid transfer proteins on the exchange and transfer of cholesteryl esters from rat plasma HDL2 to human very low (VLDL) and low density (LDL) lipoprotein populations was studied. The use of a combination of radiochemical and chemical methods allowed separate assessment of [ 3 H]cholesteryl ester exchange and of cholesteryl ester transfer. VLDL-I was the preferred acceptor for transferred cholesteryl esters, followed by VLDL-II and VLDL-III. LDL did not acquire cholesteryl esters. The contribution of exchange of [ 3 H]cholesteryl esters to total transfer was highest for LDL and decreased in reverse order along the VLDL density range. Inactivation of lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and heating the HDL2 for 60 min at 56 degrees C accelerated transfer and exchange of [ 3 H]cholesteryl esters. Addition of lipid transfer proteins increased cholesterol esterification in all systems. The data demonstrate that large-sized, triglyceride-rich VLDL particles are preferred acceptors for transferred cholesteryl esters. It is suggested that enrichment of very low density lipoproteins with cholesteryl esters reflects the triglyceride content of the particles

  11. Work-related risk factors for incidence of lateral epicondylitis in a large working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herquelot, Eleonore; Guéguen, Alice; Roquelaure, Yves; Bodin, Julie; Sérazin, Celine; Ha, Catherine; Leclerc, Annette; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Descatha, Alexis

    2013-11-01

    This study aims to estimate the association between repeated measures of occupational risk factors and the incidence of lateral epicondylitis in a large working population. A total of 3710 workers in a French region were included in 2002-2005, and among them 1046 had a complete follow-up in 2007-2010. At both stages, occupational health physicians assessed the presence of lateral epicondylitis and workers self-reported their occupational exposures. Poisson models were performed to assess the incidence rate ratios (IRR) separately by sex using multiple imputed data. The annual incidence rate of lateral epicondylitis was estimated as 1.0 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.7-1.3] per 100 workers among men and 0.9 (95% CI 0.6-1.3) among women. Workers aged >45 years had higher incidence than those aged 2 hours/day) was a risk factor, with an age-adjusted IRR of 3.2 (95% CI 1.5-6.4) for workers exposed at both questionnaires [3.3 (95% CI 1.4-7.6) among women]. This study highlights the importance of temporal dimensions for occupational risk factors on the incidence of lateral epicondylitis. Further research should evaluate the risk associated with the duration and repetition of occupational exposure on the incidence of lateral epicondylitis.

  12. A large outbreak of shigellosis commencing in an internally displaced population, Papua New Guinea, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Benny

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate a large outbreak of shigellosis in Papua New Guinea that began in a camp for internally displaced persons before spreading throughout the general community. Methods: Outbreak mitigation strategies were implemented in the affected area to curtail the spread of the disease. Data were collected from the surveillance system and analysed by time, place and person. Rectal swab samples were tested by standard culture methods and real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the etiology of the outbreak. Results: Laboratory analysis at two independent institutions established that the outbreak was caused by Shigella sp., with one strain further characterized as Shigella flexneri serotype 2. Approximately 1200 suspected cases of shigellosis were reported in a two-month period from two townships in Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea. The outbreak resulted in at least five deaths, all in young children. Discussion: This outbreak of shigellosis highlights the threat of enteric diseases to vulnerable populations such as internally displaced persons in Papua New Guinea, as has been observed in other global settings.

  13. Sleep and academic performance in later adolescence: results from a large population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysing, Mari; Harvey, Allison G; Linton, Steven J; Askeland, Kristin G; Sivertsen, Børge

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the association between sleep duration and sleep patterns and academic performance in 16-19 year-old adolescents using registry-based academic grades. A large population-based study from Norway conducted in 2012, the youth@hordaland-survey, surveyed 7798 adolescents aged 16-19 years (53.5% girls). The survey was linked with objective outcome data on school performance. Self-reported sleep measures provided information on sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep deficit and bedtime differences between weekday and weekend. School performance [grade point average (GPA)] was obtained from official administrative registries. Most sleep parameters were associated with increased risk for poor school performance. After adjusting for sociodemographic information, short sleep duration and sleep deficit were the sleep measures with the highest odds of poor GPA (lowest quartile). Weekday bedtime was associated significantly with GPA, with adolescents going to bed between 22:00 and 23:00 hours having the best GPA. Also, delayed sleep schedule during weekends was associated with poor academic performance. The associations were somewhat reduced after additional adjustment for non-attendance at school, but remained significant in the fully adjusted models. In conclusion, the demonstrated relationship between sleep problems and poor academic performance suggests that careful assessment of sleep is warranted when adolescents are underperforming at school. Future studies are needed on the association between impaired sleep in adolescence and later functioning in adulthood. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  14. Managing Uncertainity: Soviet Views on Deception, Surprise, and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hull, Andrew

    1989-01-01

    .... In the first two cases (deception and surprise), the emphasis is on how the Soviets seek to sow uncertainty in the minds of the enemy and how the Soviets then plan to use that uncertainty to gain military advantage...

  15. Chandra Finds Surprising Black Hole Activity In Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    bright active galaxies, often referred to as Active Galactic Nuclei, or AGN. Many astronomers think that all galaxies have central, supermassive black holes, yet only a small percent show activity. What is needed to power the AGN is fuel in the form of a nearby reservoir of gas and dust. Galaxy clusters contain hundreds to thousands of galaxies. They are the largest known structures in the universe and serve as a microcosm for the mechanics of the Universe at large. The galaxies in clusters are often old, reddish elliptically shaped galaxies, distinct from blue, spiral galaxies like our own. These old galaxies also do not have many young stars. The theory now in question is that as galaxies enter into clusters at high speeds, they are stripped of their interstellar gas, much as a strong wind strips leaves from a tree. Galaxies may also collide with one another and use up all of their gas in one huge burst of star formation triggered by this interaction. These processes remove most, if not all, of the gas that isn't locked up in stars. As they no longer have the raw material to form new stars, the stellar population slowly gets old and the Galaxy appears red. No gas is left to fuel an AGN. Previous surveys of galaxy clusters with optical telescopes have found that about only one percent of the galaxies in a cluster have AGN. This latest Chandra observation if typical, however, bumps the count up to about 5 percent. The team found six red galaxies with high X-ray activity during a nearly 14-hour Chandra observation of a galaxy cluster named Abell 2104, over 700 million light years from Earth. Based on previous optical surveys, only one was expected. "If we relied on optical data alone, we would have missed these hidden monsters," said co-author Dr. John Mulchaey. Only one of the six AGN, in fact, had the optical spectral properties typical of AGN activity. "The presence of these AGN indicate that supermassive black holes have somehow retained a fuel source, despite the

  16. Dividend announcements reconsidered: Dividend changes versus dividend surprises

    OpenAIRE

    Andres, Christian; Betzer, André; van den Bongard, Inga; Haesner, Christian; Theissen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the issue of share price reactions to dividend announcements. Previous papers rely almost exclusively on a naive dividend model in which the dividend change is used as a proxy for the dividend surprise. We use the difference between the actual dividend and the analyst consensus forecast as obtained from I/B/E/S as a proxy for the dividend surprise. Using data from Germany, we find significant share price reactions after dividend announcements. Once we control for analys...

  17. The Surprise Examination Paradox and the Second Incompleteness Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Kritchman, Shira; Raz, Ran

    2010-01-01

    We give a new proof for Godel's second incompleteness theorem, based on Kolmogorov complexity, Chaitin's incompleteness theorem, and an argument that resembles the surprise examination paradox. We then go the other way around and suggest that the second incompleteness theorem gives a possible resolution of the surprise examination paradox. Roughly speaking, we argue that the flaw in the derivation of the paradox is that it contains a hidden assumption that one can prove the consistency of the...

  18. Migration, distribution and population (stock) structure of shallow-water hake (Merluccius capensis) in the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem inferred using a geostatistical population model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Kristensen, Kasper; Kainge, Paulus Inekela

    2016-01-01

    Shallow-water hake (Merluccius capensis) is of considerable ecological and economic importance in the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem in South Africa and Namibia. Optimal management of the resource is currently constrained by the limited understanding of migration patterns and population...

  19. Population census of a large common tern colony with a small unmanned aircraft.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Chabot

    Full Text Available Small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS may be useful for conducting high-precision, low-disturbance waterbird surveys, but limited data exist on their effectiveness. We evaluated the capacity of a small UAS to census a large (>6,000 nests coastal Common tern (Sterna hirundo colony of which ground surveys are particularly disruptive and time-consuming. We compared aerial photographic tern counts to ground nest counts in 45 plots (5-m radius throughout the colony at three intervals over a nine-day period in order to identify sources of variation and establish a coefficient to estimate nest numbers from UAS surveys. We also compared a full colony ground count to full counts from two UAS surveys conducted the following day. Finally, we compared colony disturbance levels over the course of UAS flights to matched control periods. Linear regressions between aerial and ground counts in plots had very strong correlations in all three comparison periods (R2 = 0.972-0.989, P < 0.001 and regression coefficients ranged from 0.928-0.977 terns/nest. Full colony aerial counts were 93.6% and 94.0%, respectively, of the ground count. Varying visibility of terns with ground cover, weather conditions and image quality, and changing nest attendance rates throughout incubation were likely sources of variation in aerial detection rates. Optimally timed UAS surveys of Common tern colonies following our method should yield population estimates in the 93-96% range of ground counts. Although the terns were initially disturbed by the UAS flying overhead, they rapidly habituated to it. Overall, we found no evidence of sustained disturbance to the colony by the UAS. We encourage colonial waterbird researchers and managers to consider taking advantage of this burgeoning technology.

  20. Intelligence and neuroticism in relation to depression and psychological distress: Evidence from two large population cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrady, L B; Ritchie, S J; Chan, S W Y; Kerr, D M; Adams, M J; Hawkins, E H; Porteous, D; Deary, I J; Gale, C R; Batty, G D; McIntosh, A M

    2017-06-01

    Neuroticism is a risk factor for selected mental and physical illnesses and is inversely associated with intelligence. Intelligence appears to interact with neuroticism and mitigate its detrimental effects on physical health and mortality. However, the inter-relationships of neuroticism and intelligence for major depressive disorder (MDD) and psychological distress has not been well examined. Associations and interactions between neuroticism and general intelligence (g) on MDD, self-reported depression, and psychological distress were examined in two population-based cohorts: Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS, n=19,200) and UK Biobank (n=90,529). The Eysenck Personality Scale Short Form-Revised measured neuroticism and g was extracted from multiple cognitive ability tests in each cohort. Family structure was adjusted for in GS:SFHS. Neuroticism was strongly associated with increased risk for depression and higher psychological distress in both samples. Although intelligence conferred no consistent independent effects on depression, it did increase the risk for depression across samples once neuroticism was adjusted for. Results suggest that higher intelligence may ameliorate the association between neuroticism and self-reported depression although no significant interaction was found for clinical MDD. Intelligence was inversely associated with psychological distress across cohorts. A small interaction was found across samples such that lower psychological distress associates with higher intelligence and lower neuroticism, although effect sizes were small. From two large cohort studies, our findings suggest intelligence acts a protective factor in mitigating the effects of neuroticism on psychological distress. Intelligence does not confer protection against diagnosis of depression in those high in neuroticism. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  1. Aquaporin-4 antibody in neuromyelitis optica: re-testing study in a large population from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Youming; Liang, Junyan; Zhong, Rong; Wu, Linzhan; Qiu, Wei; Lin, Shaopeng; Gao, Cong; Chen, Xiaohui; Zheng, Xueping; Yang, Ning; Gao, Min; Wang, Zhanhang

    2017-09-01

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody sero-positivity is critically important in neuromyelitis optica (NMO). However, the sensitivity of different assays is highly variable. Repeating detection with a highly sensitive assay in a large population is necessary in the case of so-called negative NMO. Retrospective analysis where AQP4 antibodies were detected by commercial cell-based assay (CBA), in-house M23-CBA and in-house M1-CBA. Of the 1011 serum samples, 206 (20.4%) were sero-positive by primary commercial CBA. In the retest, all 206 participants positive by primary commercial CBA also yielded positive results by in-house M23-CBA and the second commercial CBA again, but only 124 positive in in-house M1-CBA. Among the 805 participants negative by primary commercial CBA, 71 participants were positive for in-house M23-CBA, of which 20 participants were positive for the second commercial CBA, and none were positive by in-house M1-CBA. Of the 171 cerebral spinal fluid samples, 75 (43.9%) were positive by primary commercial CBA. All 75 participants positive by primary commercial CBA also yielded positive results by in-house M23-CBA and the second commercial CBA. Forty-nine (65.3%) of these 75 participants were positive by in-house M1-CBA. Among the 96 participants negative by primary commercial CBA, 15 participants were positive for in-house M23-CBA and none were positive by in-house M1-CBA and the second commercial CBA. Different AQP4 isoforms in CBA result in different detection effects, and in-house M23-CBA is the most sensitive method. Some AQP4 antibody-negative NMO may be subject to diagnostic uncertainty due to limitations of the assays.

  2. Refractory Hypertension: Determination of Prevalence, Risk Factors and Comorbidities in a Large, Population-Based Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, David A.; Booth, John N.; Oparil, Suzanne; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Shimbo, Daichi; Lackland, Daniel T.; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M.; Muntner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Refractory hypertension is an extreme phenotype of antihypertensive treatment failure. Participants in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study, a large (n=30,239), population-based cohort were evaluated to determine the prevalence of refractory hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities. Refractory hypertension was defined as uncontrolled blood pressure (systolic/diastolic ≥ 140/90 mm Hg) on ≥ 5 antihypertensive drug classes. Participants with resistant hypertension (systolic/diastolic ≥140/90 mm Hg on ≥ 3 orhypertensive participants served as comparator groups. Of 14,809 REGARDS participants receiving antihypertensive treatment, 78 (0.5%) had refractory hypertension. The prevalence of refractory hypertension was 3.6% among participants with resistant hypertension(n=2,144) and 41.7% among participants on 5 or more antihypertensive drug classes. Among all hypertensive participants, African American race, male gender, living in the stroke belt or buckle, higher body mass index, lower heart rate, reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, diabetes and history of stroke and coronary heart disease were associated with refractory hypertension. Compared to resistant hypertension, prevalence ratios for refractory hypertension were increased for African Americans (3.00, 95% CI 1.68 – 5.37) and those with albuminuria (2.22, 95% CI 1.40 – 3.52) and diabetes (2.09, 95% CI 1.32 – 3.31). The median 10-year Framingham risk for coronary heart disease and stroke was higher among participants with refractory hypertension compared to either comparator group. These data indicate that while resistant hypertension is relatively common among treated hypertensive patients, true antihypertensive treatment failure is rare. PMID:24324035

  3. Social norms for population displacements caused by large dams France, 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelle Faure

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available With the passage of time and insights from a number of historical studies it is now possible to take a look back at the way rural populations in France were displaced for the construction of large dams during and after the Second World War. Today, international standards relating to the social implications of dam development projects are imposed on dam builders by both governments and financing institutions. However, in the absence of these international social standards, how did population displacements take place in the past? This paper provides a retrospective look in the light of the current "protection policies" developed by the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank. Retrospective case studies are based on research conducted in the Alps by Virginie Bodon on Tignes and Serre-Ponçon for her doctoral thesis in history (1999 and on the book by D. Varaschin on Tignes. The author uses her own studies on the impact of the large dams of the Upper Dordogne, based on research conducted in departmental and municipal archives and on interviews with those who witnessed the implementation of displacement policies and with their children (1998-2005. The author draws on her experience as an anthropologist for the World Bank to analyse the ways in which these displacements were actually carried out. The forced displacements, euphemistically referred to as "involuntary resettlement" in discourses on development, took on increasing notoriety with the international energy crisis. The dams gave rise to an international debate on their social and environmental impacts, a debate continued by the World Commission on Dams. Today, when financing has again become available for the construction of new dams throughout the world, it seems opportune to provide some insights into the social implications of large dam development projects based on the experience of France, a country that has been, in many respects, one of the most innovative in the implementation of

  4. Seasonal Differences in Determinants of Time Location Patterns in an Urban Population: A Large Population-Based Study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sewon; Lee, Kiyoung

    2017-06-22

    Time location patterns are a significant factor for exposure assessment models of air pollutants. Factors associated with time location patterns in urban populations are typically due to high air pollution levels in urban areas. The objective of this study was to determine the seasonal differences in time location patterns in two urban cities. A Time Use Survey of Korean Statistics (KOSTAT) was conducted in the summer, fall, and winter of 2014. Time location data from Seoul and Busan were collected, together with demographic information obtained by diaries and questionnaires. Determinants of the time spent at each location were analyzed by multiple linear regression and the stepwise method. Seoul and Busan participants had similar time location profiles over the three seasons. The time spent at own home, other locations, workplace/school and during walk were similar over the three seasons in both the Seoul and Busan participants. The most significant time location pattern factors were employment status, age, gender, monthly income, and spouse. Season affected the time spent at the workplace/school and other locations in the Seoul participants, but not in the Busan participants. The seasons affected each time location pattern of the urban population slightly differently, but overall there were few differences.

  5. Population Structure and Dispersal Patterns within and between Atlantic and Mediterranean Populations of a Large-Range Pelagic Seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovart, Meritxell; Thibault, Jean-Claude; Igual, José Manuel; Bauzà-Ribot, Maria del Mar; Rabouam, Corinne; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Dispersal is critically linked to the demographic and evolutionary trajectories of populations, but in most seabird species it may be difficult to estimate. Using molecular tools, we explored population structure and the spatial dispersal pattern of a highly pelagic but philopatric seabird, the Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea. Microsatellite fragments were analysed from samples collected across almost the entire breeding range of the species. To help disentangle the taxonomic status of the two subspecies described, the Atlantic form C. d. borealis and the Mediterranean form C. d. diomedea, we analysed genetic divergence between subspecies and quantified both historical and recent migration rates between the Mediterranean and Atlantic basins. We also searched for evidence of isolation by distance (IBD) and addressed spatial patterns of gene flow. We found a low genetic structure in the Mediterranean basin. Conversely, strong genetic differentiation appeared in the Atlantic basin. Even if the species was mostly philopatric (97%), results suggest recent dispersal between basins, especially from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean (aprox. 10% of migrants/generation across the last two generations). Long-term gene flow analyses also suggested an historical exchange between basins (about 70 breeders/generation). Spatial analysis of genetic variation indicates that distance is not the main factor in shaping genetic structure in this species. Given our results we recommend gathering more data before concluded whether these taxa should be treated as two species or subspecies. PMID:23950986

  6. Seasonal Differences in Determinants of Time Location Patterns in an Urban Population: A Large Population-Based Study in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sewon Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Time location patterns are a significant factor for exposure assessment models of air pollutants. Factors associated with time location patterns in urban populations are typically due to high air pollution levels in urban areas. The objective of this study was to determine the seasonal differences in time location patterns in two urban cities. A Time Use Survey of Korean Statistics (KOSTAT was conducted in the summer, fall, and winter of 2014. Time location data from Seoul and Busan were collected, together with demographic information obtained by diaries and questionnaires. Determinants of the time spent at each location were analyzed by multiple linear regression and the stepwise method. Seoul and Busan participants had similar time location profiles over the three seasons. The time spent at own home, other locations, workplace/school and during walk were similar over the three seasons in both the Seoul and Busan participants. The most significant time location pattern factors were employment status, age, gender, monthly income, and spouse. Season affected the time spent at the workplace/school and other locations in the Seoul participants, but not in the Busan participants. The seasons affected each time location pattern of the urban population slightly differently, but overall there were few differences.

  7. Plasma free amino acid profiles evaluate risk of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension in a large Asian population

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Natsu; Mahbub, MH; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Hase, Ryosuke; Ishimaru, Yasutaka; Sunagawa, Hiroshi; Amano, Hiroki; Kobayashi- Miura, Mikiko; Kanda, Hideyuki; Fujita, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Mai; Kikuchi, Shinya; Ikeda, Atsuko; Takasu, Mariko

    2017-01-01

    Background Recently, the association of plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profile and lifestyle-related diseases has been reported. However, few studies have been reported in large Asian populations, about the usefulness of PFAAs for evaluating disease risks. We examined the ability of PFAA profiles to evaluate lifestyle-related diseases in so far the largest Asian population. Methods We examined plasma concentrations of 19 amino acids in 8589 Japanese subjects, and determined the association wit...

  8. Effects of selective logging on large mammal populations in a remote indigenous territory in the northern Peruvian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Mayor; Pedro Pérez-Peña; Mark Bowler; Pablo E. Puertas; Maire Kirkland; Richard Bodmer

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of selective timber logging carried out by local indigenous people in remote areas within indigenous territories on the mammal populations of the Yavari-Mirin River basin on the Peru-Brazil border. Recent findings show that habitat change in the study area is minimal, and any effect of logging activities on large mammal populations is highly likely to be the result of hunting associated with logging operations. We used hunting registers to estimate the monthly and year...

  9. POPULATION III STAR FORMATION IN LARGE COSMOLOGICAL VOLUMES. I. HALO TEMPORAL AND PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, Brian D.; O' Shea, Brian W.; Smith, Britton D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Turk, Matthew J. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10025 (United States); Hahn, Oliver, E-mail: crosbyb1@msu.edu [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2013-08-20

    We present a semi-analytic, computationally inexpensive model to identify halos capable of forming a Population III star in cosmological simulations across a wide range of times and environments. This allows for a much more complete and representative set of Population III star forming halos to be constructed, which will lead to Population III star formation simulations that more accurately reflect the diversity of Population III stars, both in time and halo mass. This model shows that Population III and chemically enriched stars coexist beyond the formation of the first generation of stars in a cosmological simulation until at least z {approx} 10, and likely beyond, though Population III stars form at rates that are 4-6 orders of magnitude lower than chemically enriched stars by z = 10. A catalog of more than 40,000 candidate Population III forming halos were identified, with formation times temporally ranging from z = 30 to z = 10, and ranging in mass from 2.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} to 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }. At early times, the environment that Population III stars form in is very similar to that of halos hosting chemically enriched star formation. At later times Population III stars are found to form in low-density regions that are not yet chemically polluted due to a lack of previous star formation in the area. Population III star forming halos become increasingly spatially isolated from one another at later times, and are generally closer to halos hosting chemically enriched star formation than to another halo hosting Population III star formation by z {approx} 10.

  10. An efficient community detection algorithm using greedy surprise maximization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yawen; Jia, Caiyan; Yu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Community detection is an important and crucial problem in complex network analysis. Although classical modularity function optimization approaches are widely used for identifying communities, the modularity function (Q) suffers from its resolution limit. Recently, the surprise function (S) was experimentally proved to be better than the Q function. However, up until now, there has been no algorithm available to perform searches to directly determine the maximal surprise values. In this paper, considering the superiority of the S function over the Q function, we propose an efficient community detection algorithm called AGSO (algorithm based on greedy surprise optimization) and its improved version FAGSO (fast-AGSO), which are based on greedy surprise optimization and do not suffer from the resolution limit. In addition, (F)AGSO does not need the number of communities K to be specified in advance. Tests on experimental networks show that (F)AGSO is able to detect optimal partitions in both simple and even more complex networks. Moreover, algorithms based on surprise maximization perform better than those algorithms based on modularity maximization, including Blondel–Guillaume–Lambiotte–Lefebvre (BGLL), Clauset–Newman–Moore (CNM) and the other state-of-the-art algorithms such as Infomap, order statistics local optimization method (OSLOM) and label propagation algorithm (LPA). (paper)

  11. Comparison of genetic population structure of the large blue butterflies Maculinea nausithous and M. teleius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figurny-Puchalska, Edyta; Gadeberg, Rebekka M.E.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the genetic population structure of two rare myrmecophilous lycaenid butterflies, Maculinea nausithous and M. teleius, which often live sympatrically and have similar biology. In Europe, both species occur in highly fragmented populations and are vulnerable to local extinction. Th...

  12. A bio-economic model to improve profitability in a large national beef cattle population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Paredes, J.; Jiménez-Montero, J.A.; Pérez-Cabal, M.A.; González-Recio, O.; Alenda, R.

    2017-07-01

    A bio-economic model was developed for estimating economic values for use in improving profitability in a large national beef cattle population from birth to slaughter. Results were divided into fattening costs, production costs and income. Economic values were derived for 17 traits for two regions, mature weight (-0.43 € and -0.38 €/+1 kg of live weight), age at first calving (-0.13 € and -0.11 €/+1d), calving interval (-1.06 € and -1.02 €/+1d), age at last calving (0.03 € and 0.03 €/+1d), mortality 0-48 h (-5.86 € and -5.63 €/1% calves per cow and year), pre-weaning mortality (-5.96 € and -5.73 €/+1% calves per cow and year), fattening mortality (-8.23 € and -7.88 €/+1% calves per cow and year), adult mortality (-8.92 € and -7.34 €/+1% adult cows per cow and year), pre-weaning average daily gain (2.56 € and 2.84 €/+10g/d), fattening young animals average daily gain (2.65 € and 3.00 €/+10g/d), culled cow in fattening average daily gain (0.25 € and 0.16 €/+10g/d), culled cow dressing carcass percentage (3.09 € and 2.42 €/+1%), culled cow price (4.59 € and 3.59 €/+0.06 €/kg), carcass conformation score (16.39 € and 15.3 €/+1 SEUROP class), dressing carcass rate of calf (18.22 € and 18.23 €/+1%), carcass growth (9.00 € and 10.09 €/+10g of carcass weight/d) and age at slaughter (0.27 € and 0.44 €/+1d). Two sample herds were used to show the economic impact of calving interval and age at first calving shortening in the profit per slaughtered young animal, which was 178 € and 111 € for Herds A and B, respectively. The economic values of functional traits were reduced and production traits were enhanced when fertility traits were improved. The model could be applied in a Spanish national program.

  13. A bio-economic model to improve profitability in a large national beef cattle population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier López-Paredes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A bio-economic model was developed for estimating economic values for use in improving profitability in a large national beef cattle population from birth to slaughter. Results were divided into fattening costs, production costs and income. Economic values were derived for 17 traits for two regions, mature weight (-0.43 € and -0.38 €/+1 kg of live weight, age at first calving (-0.13 € and -0.11 €/+1d, calving interval (-1.06 € and -1.02 €/+1d, age at last calving (0.03 € and 0.03 €/+1d, mortality 0-48 h (-5.86 € and -5.63 €/1% calves per cow and year, pre-weaning mortality (-5.96 € and -5.73 €/+1% calves per cow and year, fattening mortality (-8.23 € and -7.88 €/+1% calves per cow and year, adult mortality (-8.92 € and -7.34 €/+1% adult cows per cow and year, pre-weaning average daily gain (2.56 € and 2.84 €/+10g/d, fattening young animals average daily gain (2.65 € and 3.00 €/+10g/d, culled cow in fattening average daily gain (0.25 € and 0.16 €/+10g/d, culled cow dressing carcass percentage (3.09 € and 2.42 €/+1%, culled cow price (4.59 € and 3.59 €/+0.06 €/kg, carcass conformation score (16.39 € and 15.3 €/+1 SEUROP class, dressing carcass rate of calf (18.22 € and 18.23 €/+1%, carcass growth (9.00 € and 10.09 €/+10g of carcass weight/d and age at slaughter (0.27 € and 0.44 €/+1d. Two sample herds were used to show the economic impact of calving interval and age at first calving shortening in the profit per slaughtered young animal, which was 178 € and 111 € for Herds A and B, respectively. The economic values of functional traits were reduced and production traits were enhanced when fertility traits were improved. The model could be applied in a Spanish national program.

  14. A bio-economic model to improve profitability in a large national beef cattle population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Paredes, J.; Jiménez-Montero, J.A.; Pérez-Cabal, M.A.; González-Recio, O.; Alenda, R.

    2017-01-01

    A bio-economic model was developed for estimating economic values for use in improving profitability in a large national beef cattle population from birth to slaughter. Results were divided into fattening costs, production costs and income. Economic values were derived for 17 traits for two regions, mature weight (-0.43 € and -0.38 €/+1 kg of live weight), age at first calving (-0.13 € and -0.11 €/+1d), calving interval (-1.06 € and -1.02 €/+1d), age at last calving (0.03 € and 0.03 €/+1d), mortality 0-48 h (-5.86 € and -5.63 €/1% calves per cow and year), pre-weaning mortality (-5.96 € and -5.73 €/+1% calves per cow and year), fattening mortality (-8.23 € and -7.88 €/+1% calves per cow and year), adult mortality (-8.92 € and -7.34 €/+1% adult cows per cow and year), pre-weaning average daily gain (2.56 € and 2.84 €/+10g/d), fattening young animals average daily gain (2.65 € and 3.00 €/+10g/d), culled cow in fattening average daily gain (0.25 € and 0.16 €/+10g/d), culled cow dressing carcass percentage (3.09 € and 2.42 €/+1%), culled cow price (4.59 € and 3.59 €/+0.06 €/kg), carcass conformation score (16.39 € and 15.3 €/+1 SEUROP class), dressing carcass rate of calf (18.22 € and 18.23 €/+1%), carcass growth (9.00 € and 10.09 €/+10g of carcass weight/d) and age at slaughter (0.27 € and 0.44 €/+1d). Two sample herds were used to show the economic impact of calving interval and age at first calving shortening in the profit per slaughtered young animal, which was 178 € and 111 € for Herds A and B, respectively. The economic values of functional traits were reduced and production traits were enhanced when fertility traits were improved. The model could be applied in a Spanish national program.

  15. Forecasting climate change impacts on plant populations over large spatial extents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tredennick, Andrew T.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Homer, Collin G.; Kleinhesselink, Andrew R.; Adler, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    Plant population models are powerful tools for predicting climate change impacts in one location, but are difficult to apply at landscape scales. We overcome this limitation by taking advantage of two recent advances: remotely sensed, species-specific estimates of plant cover and statistical models developed for spatiotemporal dynamics of animal populations. Using computationally efficient model reparameterizations, we fit a spatiotemporal population model to a 28-year time series of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) percent cover over a 2.5 × 5 km landscape in southwestern Wyoming while formally accounting for spatial autocorrelation. We include interannual variation in precipitation and temperature as covariates in the model to investigate how climate affects the cover of sagebrush. We then use the model to forecast the future abundance of sagebrush at the landscape scale under projected climate change, generating spatially explicit estimates of sagebrush population trajectories that have, until now, been impossible to produce at this scale. Our broadscale and long-term predictions are rooted in small-scale and short-term population dynamics and provide an alternative to predictions offered by species distribution models that do not include population dynamics. Our approach, which combines several existing techniques in a novel way, demonstrates the use of remote sensing data to model population responses to environmental change that play out at spatial scales far greater than the traditional field study plot.

  16. A Large Plasmodium vivax Reservoir and Little Population Structure in the South Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Koepfli

    Full Text Available The importance of Plasmodium vivax in malaria elimination is increasingly being recognized, yet little is known about its population size and population genetic structure in the South Pacific, an area that is the focus of intensified malaria control.We have genotyped 13 microsatellite markers in 295 P. vivax isolates from four geographically distinct sites in Papua New Guinea (PNG and one site from Solomon Islands, representing different transmission intensities.Diversity was very high with expected heterozygosity values ranging from 0.62 to 0.98 for the different markers. Effective population size was high (12'872 to 19'533 per site. In PNG population structuring was limited with moderate levels of genetic differentiation. F ST values (adjusted for high diversity of markers were 0.14-0.15. Slightly higher levels were observed between PNG populations and Solomon Islands (F ST = 0.16.Low levels of population structure despite geographical barriers to transmission are in sharp contrast to results from regions of low P. vivax endemicity. Prior to intensification of malaria control programs in the study area, parasite diversity and effective population size remained high.

  17. Surprising results: HIV testing and changes in contraceptive practices among young women in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennott, Christie; Yeatman, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This study uses eight waves of data from the population-based Tsogolo la Thanzi study (2009–2011) in rural Malawi to examine changes in young women’s contraceptive practices, including the use of condoms, non-barrier contraceptive methods, and abstinence, following positive and negative HIV tests. The analysis factors in women’s prior perceptions of their HIV status that may already be shaping their behaviour and separates surprise HIV test results from those that merely confirm what was already believed. Fixed effects logistic regression models show that HIV testing frequently affects the contraceptive practices of young Malawian women, particularly when the test yields an unexpected result. Specifically, women who are surprised to test HIV positive increase their condom use and are more likely to use condoms consistently. Following an HIV negative test (whether a surprise or expected), women increase their use of condoms and decrease their use of non-barrier contraceptives; the latter may be due to an increase in abstinence following a surprise negative result. Changes in condom use following HIV testing are robust to the inclusion of potential explanatory mechanisms including fertility preferences, relationship status, and the perception that a partner is HIV positive. The results demonstrate that both positive and negative tests can influence women’s sexual and reproductive behaviours, and emphasise the importance of conceptualizing of HIV testing as offering new information only insofar as results deviate from prior perceptions of HIV status. PMID:26160156

  18. Disentangling the effects of climate, density dependence, and harvest on an iconic large herbivore's population dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koons, David; Colchero, Fernando; Hersey, Kent

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the relative effects of climate, harvest, and density dependence on population dynamics is critical for guiding sound population management, especially for ungulates in arid and semi-arid environments experiencing climate change. To address these issues for bison in southern Utah, we...... than precipitation and other temperature-related variables (model weight > 3 times more than that for other climate variables). Although we hypothesized that harvest is the primary driving force of bison population dynamics in southern Utah, our elasticity analysis indicated that changes in early...... spring temperature could have a greater ‘relative effect’ on equilibrium abundance than either harvest or the strength of density dependence. Our findings highlight the utility of incorporating elasticity analyses into state-space population models, and the need to include climatic processes in wildlife...

  19. NASA Orbital Debris Large-Object Baseline Population in ORDEM 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisco, Paula H.; Vavrin, A. B.; Anz-Meador, P. D.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) has created and validated high fidelity populations of the debris environment for the latest Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM 3.0). Though the model includes fluxes of objects 10 um and larger, this paper considers particle fluxes for 1 cm and larger debris objects from low Earth orbit (LEO) through Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). These are validated by several reliable radar observations through the Space Surveillance Network (SSN), Haystack, and HAX radars. ORDEM 3.0 populations were designed for the purpose of assisting, debris researchers and sensor developers in planning and testing. This environment includes a background derived from the LEO-to-GEO ENvironment Debris evolutionary model (LEGEND) with a Bayesian rescaling as well as specific events such as the FY-1C anti-satellite test, the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 accidental collision, and the Soviet/Russian Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite (RORSAT) sodium-potassium droplet releases. The environment described in this paper is the most realistic orbital debris population larger than 1 cm, to date. We describe derivations of the background population and added specific populations. We present sample validation charts of our 1 cm and larger LEO population against Space Surveillance Network (SSN), Haystack, and HAX radar measurements.

  20. Confirmation of association of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor gene with systemic sclerosis in a large European population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossini-Castillo, L.; Simeon, C.P.; Beretta, L.; Vonk, M.C.; Callejas-Rubio, J.L.; Espinosa, G.; Carreira, P.; Camps, M.T.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, L.; Rodriguez-Carballeira, M.; Garcia-Hernandez, F.J.; Lopez-Longo, F.J.; Hernandez-Hernandez, V.; Saez-Comet, L.; Egurbide, M.V.; Hesselstrand, R.; Nordin, A.; Hoffmann-Vold, A.M.; Vanthuyne, M.; Smith, V.; Langhe, E. De; Kreuter, A.; Riemekasten, G.; Witte, T.J.M. de; Hunzelmann, N.; Voskuyl, A.E.; Schuerwegh, A.J.; Lunardi, C.; Airo, P.; Scorza, R.; Shiels, P.; Laar, J.M. van; Fonseca, C.; Denton, C.; Herrick, A.; Worthington, J.; Koeleman, B.P.; Rueda, B.; Radstake, T.R.D.J.; Martin, J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to confirm the implication of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) gene in SSc susceptibility or clinical phenotypes in a large European population. Methods. A total of 3800 SSc patients and 4282 healthy controls of white Caucasian ancestry from eight

  1. The validity of the diagnosis of inflammatory arthritis in a large population-based primary care database.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.M.J.; Ursum, J.; Schellevis, F.G.; Korevaar, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Large population-based databases based on electronic medical records (EMRs) of patients in primary care are a useful data source to investigate morbidity and health care utilization. Diagnoses recorded in EMRs are doctor-defined, but their validity can be disputed. In this study we

  2. Macroecological factors explain large-scale spatial population patterns of ancient agriculturalists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, C.; Chen, B.; Abades, S.; Reino, L.; Teng, S.; Ljungqvist, F.C.; Huang, Z.Y.X.; Liu, X.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: It has been well demonstrated that the large-scale distribution patterns of numerous species are driven by similar macroecological factors. However, understanding of this topic remains limited when applied to our own species. Here we take a large-scale look at ancient agriculturalist

  3. Surprise and Memory as Indices of Concrete Operational Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, Thomas M.

    1973-01-01

    Normal and retarded children's use of color, number, length and continuous quantity as attributes of identification was assessed by presenting them with contrived changes in three properties. Surprise and correct memory responses for color preceded those to number, which preceded logical verbal responses to a conventional number-conservation task.…

  4. Effects of surprisal and locality on Danish sentence processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Kizach, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    An eye-tracking experiment in Danish investigates two dominant accounts of sentence processing: locality-based theories that predict a processing advantage for sentences where the distance between the major syntactic heads is minimized, and the surprisal theory which predicts that processing time...

  5. Things may not be as expected: Surprising findings when updating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-14

    May 14, 2015 ... Things may not be as expected: Surprising findings when updating .... (done at the end of three months after the first review month) ..... Allen G. Getting beyond form filling: The role of institutional governance in human research ...

  6. Automation surprise : results of a field survey of Dutch pilots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, R.J.; Hurts, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Automation surprise (AS) has often been associated with aviation safety incidents. Although numerous laboratory studies have been conducted, few data are available from routine flight operations. A survey among a representative sample of 200 Dutch airline pilots was used to determine the prevalence

  7. Thermal specialization across large geographical scales predicts the resilience of mangrove crab populations to global warming

    KAUST Repository

    Fusi, Marco; Giomi, Folco; Babbini, Simone; Daffonchio, Daniele; Mcquaid, Christopher D.; Porri, Francesca; Cannicci, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The broad prediction that ectotherms will be more vulnerable to climate change in the tropics than in temperate regions includes assumptions about centre/edge population effects that can only be tested by within-species comparisons across wide latitudinal gradients. Here, we investigated the thermal vulnerability of two mangrove crab species, comparing populations at the centre (Kenya) and edge (South Africa) of their distributions. At the same time, we investigated the role of respiratory mode (water- versus air-breathing) in determining the thermal tolerance in amphibious organisms. To do this, we compared the vulnerability to acute temperature fluctuations of two sympatric species with two different lifestyle adaptations: the free living Perisesarma guttatum and the burrowing Uca urvillei, both pivotal to the ecosystem functioning of mangroves. The results revealed the air-breathing U. urvillei to be a thermal generalist with much higher thermal tolerances than P. guttatum. Importantly, however, we found that, while U. urvillei showed little difference between edge and centre populations, P. guttatum showed adaptation to local conditions. Equatorial populations had elevated tolerances to acute heat stress and mechanisms of partial thermoregulation, which make them less vulnerable to global warming than temperate conspecifics. The results reveal both the importance of respiratory mode to thermal tolerance and the unexpected potential for low latitude populations/species to endure a warming climate. The results also contribute to a conceptual model on the latitudinal thermal tolerance of these key species. This highlights the need for an integrated population-level approach to predict the consequences of climate change. © 2014 The Authors.

  8. Thermal specialization across large geographical scales predicts the resilience of mangrove crab populations to global warming

    KAUST Repository

    Fusi, Marco

    2014-11-18

    The broad prediction that ectotherms will be more vulnerable to climate change in the tropics than in temperate regions includes assumptions about centre/edge population effects that can only be tested by within-species comparisons across wide latitudinal gradients. Here, we investigated the thermal vulnerability of two mangrove crab species, comparing populations at the centre (Kenya) and edge (South Africa) of their distributions. At the same time, we investigated the role of respiratory mode (water- versus air-breathing) in determining the thermal tolerance in amphibious organisms. To do this, we compared the vulnerability to acute temperature fluctuations of two sympatric species with two different lifestyle adaptations: the free living Perisesarma guttatum and the burrowing Uca urvillei, both pivotal to the ecosystem functioning of mangroves. The results revealed the air-breathing U. urvillei to be a thermal generalist with much higher thermal tolerances than P. guttatum. Importantly, however, we found that, while U. urvillei showed little difference between edge and centre populations, P. guttatum showed adaptation to local conditions. Equatorial populations had elevated tolerances to acute heat stress and mechanisms of partial thermoregulation, which make them less vulnerable to global warming than temperate conspecifics. The results reveal both the importance of respiratory mode to thermal tolerance and the unexpected potential for low latitude populations/species to endure a warming climate. The results also contribute to a conceptual model on the latitudinal thermal tolerance of these key species. This highlights the need for an integrated population-level approach to predict the consequences of climate change. © 2014 The Authors.

  9. Decline of heterozygosity in a large but isolated population: a 45-year examination of moose genetic diversity on Isle Royale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renae L. Sattler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife conservation and management approaches typically focus on demographic measurements to assess population viability over both short and long periods. However, genetic diversity is an important predictor of long term population vitality. We investigated the pattern of change in genetic diversity in a large and likely isolated moose (Alces alces population on Isle Royale (Lake Superior from 1960–2005. We characterized samples, partitioned into five different 5-year periods, using nine microsatellite loci and a portion of the mtDNA control region. We also simulated the moose population to generate a theoretical backdrop of genetic diversity change. In the empirical data, we found that the number of alleles was consistently low and that observed heterozygosity notably declined from 1960 to 2005 (p = 0.08, R2 = 0.70. Furthermore, inbreeding coefficients approximately doubled from 0.08 in 1960–65 to 0.16 in 2000–05. Finally, we found that the empirical rate of observed heterozygosity decline was faster than the rate of observed heterozygosity loss in our simulations. Combined, these data suggest that genetic drift and inbreeding occurred in the Isle Royale moose populations over the study period, leading to significant losses in heterozygosity. Although inbreeding can be mitigated by migration, we found no evidence to support the occurrence of recent migrants into the population using analysis of our mtDNA haplotypes nor microsatellite data. Therefore, the Isle Royale moose population illustrates that even large populations are subjected to inbreeding in the absence of migration.

  10. Understanding the faint red galaxy population using large-scale clustering measurements from SDSS DR7

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Ashley; Tojeiro, Rita; Percival, Will

    2011-01-01

    We use data from the SDSS to investigate the evolution of the large-scale galaxy bias as a function of luminosity for red galaxies. We carefully consider correlation functions of galaxies selected from both photometric and spectroscopic data, and cross-correlations between them, to obtain multiple measurements of the large-scale bias. We find, for our most robust analyses, a strong increase in bias with luminosity for the most luminous galaxies, an intermediate regime where bias does not evol...

  11. Improved method for calculation of population doses from nuclear complexes over large geographical areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corley, J.P.; Baker, D.A.; Hill, E.R.; Wendell, L.L.

    1977-09-01

    To simplify the calculation of potential long-distance environmental impacts, an overall average population exposure coefficient (P.E.C.) for the entire contiguous United States was calculated for releases to the atmosphere from Hanford facilities. The method, requiring machine computation, combines Bureau of Census population data by census enumeration district and an annual average atmospheric dilution factor (anti chi/Q') derived from 12-hourly gridded wind analyses provided by the NOAA's National Meteorological Center. A variable-trajectory puff-advection model was used to calculate an hourly anti chi/Q' for each grid square, assuming uniform hourly releases; seasonal and annual averages were then calculated. For Hanford, using 1970 census data, a P.E.C. of 2 x 10 -3 man-seconds per cubic meter was calculated. The P.E.C. is useful for both radioactive and nonradioactive releases. To calculate population doses for the entire contiguous United States, the P.E.C. is multiplied by the annual average release rate and then by the dose factor (rem/yr per Ci/m 3 ) for each radionuclide, and the dose contribution in man-rem is summed for all radionuclides. For multiple pathways, the P.E.C. is still useful, provided that doses from a unit release can be obtained from a set of atmospheric dose factors. The methodology is applicable to any point source, any set of population data by map grid coordinates, and any geographical area covered by equivalent meteorological data

  12. Comparison of recruitment and retention among demographic subgroups in a large diverse population study of diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwen L. Alexander, PhD

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: While study recruitment remains challenging, once recruited most participants, regardless of race/ethnicity, completed two 24-h dietary recalls, both interviewer-administered and self-administered on the web. This study demonstrates the feasibility of collecting multiple 24-h recalls including less expensive automated self-administered recalls among diverse populations.

  13. Large subclonal variation in Phytophthora infestans populations associated with Ecuadorian potato landraces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delgado, R.A.; Monteros-Altamiro, A.R.; Li, Y.; Visser, R.G.F.; Lee, van der T.A.J.; Vosman, B.

    2013-01-01

    The population of Phytophthora infestans on potato landraces in three provinces (Carchi, Chimborazo and Loja) of Ecuador was analysed. All isolates (n = 66) were of the A1 mating type. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) were used to assess the genetic diversity of the isolates. The P. infestans isolates

  14. Chronic Physical Illness and Mental Health in Children. Results from a Large-Scale Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysing, Mari; Elgen, Irene; Gillberg, Christopher; Lie, Stein Atle; Lundervold, Astri J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in detecting emotional and behavioural problems among children with chronic illness (CI). Methods: Parents and teachers of a population of primary school children in Norway (n = 9430) completed a…

  15. Large-Scale Modelling of the Environmentally-Driven Population Dynamics of Temperate Aedes albopictus (Skuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Erguler

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a highly invasive vector species. It is a proven vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses, with the potential to host a further 24 arboviruses. It has recently expanded its geographical range, threatening many countries in the Middle East, Mediterranean, Europe and North America. Here, we investigate the theoretical limitations of its range expansion by developing an environmentally-driven mathematical model of its population dynamics. We focus on the temperate strain of Ae. albopictus and compile a comprehensive literature-based database of physiological parameters. As a novel approach, we link its population dynamics to globally-available environmental datasets by performing inference on all parameters. We adopt a Bayesian approach using experimental data as prior knowledge and the surveillance dataset of Emilia-Romagna, Italy, as evidence. The model accounts for temperature, precipitation, human population density and photoperiod as the main environmental drivers, and, in addition, incorporates the mechanism of diapause and a simple breeding site model. The model demonstrates high predictive skill over the reference region and beyond, confirming most of the current reports of vector presence in Europe. One of the main hypotheses derived from the model is the survival of Ae. albopictus populations through harsh winter conditions. The model, constrained by the environmental datasets, requires that either diapausing eggs or adult vectors have increased cold resistance. The model also suggests that temperature and photoperiod control diapause initiation and termination differentially. We demonstrate that it is possible to account for unobserved properties and constraints, such as differences between laboratory and field conditions, to derive reliable inferences on the environmental dependence of Ae. albopictus populations.

  16. Heritability and demographic analyses in the large isolated population of Val Borbera suggest advantages in mapping complex traits genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Traglia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Isolated populations are a useful resource for mapping complex traits due to shared stable environment, reduced genetic complexity and extended Linkage Disequilibrium (LD compared to the general population. Here we describe a large genetic isolate from the North West Apennines, the mountain range that runs through Italy from the North West Alps to the South.The study involved 1,803 people living in 7 villages of the upper Borbera Valley. For this large population cohort, data from genealogy reconstruction, medical questionnaires, blood, anthropometric and bone status QUS parameters were evaluated. Demographic and epidemiological analyses indicated a substantial genetic component contributing to each trait variation as well as overlapping genetic determinants and family clustering for some traits.The data provide evidence for significant heritability of medical relevant traits that will be important in mapping quantitative traits. We suggest that this population isolate is suitable to identify rare variants associated with complex phenotypes that may be difficult to study in larger but more heterogeneous populations.

  17. A framework for comparative evaluation of dosimetric methods to triage a large population following a radiological event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flood, Ann Barry; Nicolalde, Roberto J.; Demidenko, Eugene; Williams, Benjamin B.; Shapiro, Alla; Wiley, Albert L.; Swartz, Harold M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: To prepare for a possible major radiation disaster involving large numbers of potentially exposed people, it is important to be able to rapidly and accurately triage people for treatment or not, factoring in the likely conditions and available resources. To date, planners have had to create guidelines for triage based on methods for estimating dose that are clinically available and which use evidence extrapolated from unrelated conditions. Current guidelines consequently focus on measuring clinical symptoms (e.g., time-to-vomiting), which may not be subject to the same verification of standard methods and validation processes required for governmental approval processes of new and modified procedures. Biodosimeters under development have not yet been formally approved for this use. Neither set of methods has been tested in settings involving large-scale populations at risk for exposure. Objective: To propose a framework for comparative evaluation of methods for such triage and to evaluate biodosimetric methods that are currently recommended and new methods as they are developed. Methods: We adapt the NIH model of scientific evaluations and sciences needed for effective translational research to apply to biodosimetry for triaging very large populations following a radiation event. We detail criteria for translating basic science about dosimetry into effective multi-stage triage of large populations and illustrate it by analyzing 3 current guidelines and 3 advanced methods for biodosimetry. Conclusions: This framework for evaluating dosimetry in large populations is a useful technique to compare the strengths and weaknesses of different dosimetry methods. It can help policy-makers and planners not only to compare the methods' strengths and weaknesses for their intended use but also to develop an integrated approach to maximize their effectiveness. It also reveals weaknesses in methods that would benefit from further research and evaluation.

  18. A framework for comparative evaluation of dosimetric methods to triage a large population following a radiological event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flood, Ann Barry, E-mail: Ann.B.Flood@Dartmouth.Edu [Dartmouth Physically Based Biodosimetry Center for Medical Countermeasures Against Radiation (Dart-Dose CMCR), Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03768 (United States); Nicolalde, Roberto J., E-mail: Roberto.J.Nicolalde@Dartmouth.Edu [Dartmouth Physically Based Biodosimetry Center for Medical Countermeasures Against Radiation (Dart-Dose CMCR), Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03768 (United States); Demidenko, Eugene, E-mail: Eugene.Demidenko@Dartmouth.Edu [Dartmouth Physically Based Biodosimetry Center for Medical Countermeasures Against Radiation (Dart-Dose CMCR), Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03768 (United States); Williams, Benjamin B., E-mail: Benjamin.B.Williams@Dartmouth.Edu [Dartmouth Physically Based Biodosimetry Center for Medical Countermeasures Against Radiation (Dart-Dose CMCR), Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03768 (United States); Shapiro, Alla, E-mail: Alla.Shapiro@fda.hhs.gov [Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Rockville, MD (United States); Wiley, Albert L., E-mail: Albert.Wiley@orise.orau.gov [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Swartz, Harold M., E-mail: Harold.M.Swartz@Dartmouth.Edu [Dartmouth Physically Based Biodosimetry Center for Medical Countermeasures Against Radiation (Dart-Dose CMCR), Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03768 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Background: To prepare for a possible major radiation disaster involving large numbers of potentially exposed people, it is important to be able to rapidly and accurately triage people for treatment or not, factoring in the likely conditions and available resources. To date, planners have had to create guidelines for triage based on methods for estimating dose that are clinically available and which use evidence extrapolated from unrelated conditions. Current guidelines consequently focus on measuring clinical symptoms (e.g., time-to-vomiting), which may not be subject to the same verification of standard methods and validation processes required for governmental approval processes of new and modified procedures. Biodosimeters under development have not yet been formally approved for this use. Neither set of methods has been tested in settings involving large-scale populations at risk for exposure. Objective: To propose a framework for comparative evaluation of methods for such triage and to evaluate biodosimetric methods that are currently recommended and new methods as they are developed. Methods: We adapt the NIH model of scientific evaluations and sciences needed for effective translational research to apply to biodosimetry for triaging very large populations following a radiation event. We detail criteria for translating basic science about dosimetry into effective multi-stage triage of large populations and illustrate it by analyzing 3 current guidelines and 3 advanced methods for biodosimetry. Conclusions: This framework for evaluating dosimetry in large populations is a useful technique to compare the strengths and weaknesses of different dosimetry methods. It can help policy-makers and planners not only to compare the methods' strengths and weaknesses for their intended use but also to develop an integrated approach to maximize their effectiveness. It also reveals weaknesses in methods that would benefit from further research and evaluation.

  19. Radiation safety of population at large failures - is lessons of Chelyabinsk and Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prister, B.S.; Aleksakhin, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Generalization of researches as evaluated by influence of irradiation of population in a first period after the Chelyabinsk and Chernobyl's failures allows to draw a conclusion, that weight of many medical and social consequences to a great extent is related to the ill-timed informing of population, about a failure, basic factors and degree of danger, and with lateness in conducting of counter-measures. In spite of failings and errors the complex of counter-measures, realized in the USSR, and then in Byelorussian, Russia and Ukraine, was adequate on the whole to the folded situation and allowed substantially to reduce influencing of negative factors of failure and decrease its consequences for life and health of people

  20. Bladder cancer in cancer patients: population-based estimates from a large Swedish study

    OpenAIRE

    Bermejo, J Lorenzo; Sundquist, J; Hemminki, K

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study quantified the risk of urinary bladder neoplasms in cancer patients taking into account the age at first diagnosis, the gender of the patients and the lead time between diagnoses. Methods: We used standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) to compare the incidence of bladder tumours in 967?767 cancer patients with the incidence rate in the general Swedish population. A total of 3324 male and 1560 female patients developed bladder tumours at least 1 year after first cancer dia...

  1. Scavenger receptor AI/II truncation, lung function and COPD: a large population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, M; Nordestgaard, B G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The scavenger receptor A-I/II (SRA-I/II) on alveolar macrophages is involved in recognition and clearance of modified lipids and inhaled particulates. A rare variant of the SRA-I/II gene, Arg293X, truncates the distal collagen-like domain, which is essential for ligand recognition. We tested...... whether the Arg293X variant is associated with reduced lung function and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the general population....

  2. Latin America: how a region surprised the experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sherbinin, A

    1993-02-01

    In 1960-1970, family planning specialists and demographers worried that poverty, limited education, Latin machismo, and strong catholic ideals would obstruct family planning efforts to reduce high fertility in Latin America. It had the highest annual population growth rate in the world (2.8%), which would increase the population 2-fold in 25 years. Yet, the UN's 1992 population projection for Latin America and the Caribbean in the year 2000 was about 20% lower than its 1963 projection (just over 500 vs. 638 million). Since life expectancy increased simultaneously from 57 to 68 years, this reduced projection was caused directly by a large decline in fertility from 5.9 to 3. A regression analysis of 11 Latin American and Caribbean countries revealed that differences in the contraceptive prevalence rates accounted for 90% of the variation in the total fertility rate between countries. Thus, contraception played a key role in the fertility decline. The second most significant determinant of fertility decline was an increase in the average age at first marriage from about 20 to 23 years. Induced abortion and breast feeding did not contribute significantly to fertility decline. The major socioeconomic factors responsible for the decline included economic development and urbanization, resulting in improvements in health care, reduced infant and child mortality, and increases in female literacy, education, and labor force participation. Public and private family planning programs also contributed significantly to the decline. They expanded from cities to remote rural areas, thereby increasing access to contraception. By the early 1990s, Brazil, Mexico, and Colombia had among the lowest levels of unmet need (13-24%) in developing countries. Other key factors of fertility decline were political commitment, strong communication efforts, and stress on quality services. Latin America provides hope to other regions where religion and culture promote a large family size.

  3. Habitat use by a large population of Pinna nobilis in shallow waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Prado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the habitat use and size structure of the fan mussel, Pinna nobilis L. in the Alfacs Bay (Ebro Delta, Spain, NW Mediterranean. Shore-parallel transects were conducted to assess the abundance, size, and orientation of individuals and to record habitat features along the Banya Sandspit, at depths of 20 to 130 cm. Results showed two distinctive areas in terms of population density, marked by the end of local salt pan dikes that we named Good Habitat (GH and Bad Habitat (BH. To extrapolate these results to the full area of BH and GH, perpendicular transects were conducted to determine the local bathymetry. Then, the underestimation of individuals due to the effects of distance, depth and seagrass cover (Distance 6 computer package was added to raw abundances to obtain a corrected population of 90303 individuals (12085 in the BH and 782018 in the GH, the largest so far reported at such low depths. Most recorded individuals were adults (40 to 60 cm shell length, with no occurrence of sizes < 20 cm, and with a strong association with Cymodocea nodosa seagrass beds. Given the shallow distribution of the population, the absence of small sizes during the study period, and the presence of human activities that may damage P. nobilis and its habitat, the development of a management plan appears imperative for the conservation of the species.

  4. Mutation rate estimation for 15 autosomal STR loci in a large population from Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhuo; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Hua; Liu, Zhi-Peng; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Yuan; Sun, Li; Zhang, Hui

    2015-09-01

    STR, short tandem repeats, are well known as a type of powerful genetic marker and widely used in studying human population genetics. Compared with the conventional genetic markers, the mutation rate of STR is higher. Additionally, the mutations of STR loci do not lead to genetic inconsistencies between the genotypes of parents and children; therefore, the analysis of STR mutation is more suited to assess the population mutation. In this study, we focused on 15 autosomal STR loci. DNA samples from a total of 42,416 unrelated healthy individuals (19,037 trios) from the population of Mainland China collected between Jan 2012 and May 2014 were successfully investigated. In our study, the allele frequencies, paternal mutation rates, maternal mutation rates and average mutation rates were detected. Furthermore, we also investigated the relationship between paternal ages, maternal ages, area, the time of pregnancy and average mutation rate. We found that the paternal mutation rate was higher than the maternal mutation rate and the paternal, maternal, and average mutation rates had a positive correlation with paternal age, maternal age and the time of pregnancy respectively. Additionally, the average mutation rate of coastal areas was higher than that of inland areas.

  5. Social class and (un)ethical behavior : A framework, with evidence from a large population sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trautmann, S.T.; van de Kuilen, G.; Zeckhauser, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Differences in ethical behavior between members of the upper and lower classes have been at the center of civic debates in recent years. In this article, we present a framework for understanding how class affects ethical standards and behaviors. We apply the framework using data from a large Dutch

  6. AGN Populations in Large-volume X-Ray Surveys: Photometric Redshifts and Population Types Found in the Stripe 82X Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananna, Tonima Tasnin; Salvato, Mara; LaMassa, Stephanie; Urry, C. Megan; Cappelluti, Nico; Cardamone, Carolin; Civano, Francesca; Farrah, Duncan; Gilfanov, Marat; Glikman, Eilat; Hamilton, Mark; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Lanzuisi, Giorgio; Marchesi, Stefano; Merloni, Andrea; Nandra, Kirpal; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Richards, Gordon T.; Timlin, John

    2017-11-01

    Multiwavelength surveys covering large sky volumes are necessary to obtain an accurate census of rare objects such as high-luminosity and/or high-redshift active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Stripe 82X is a 31.3 X-ray survey with Chandra and XMM-Newton observations overlapping the legacy Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 field, which has a rich investment of multiwavelength coverage from the ultraviolet to the radio. The wide-area nature of this survey presents new challenges for photometric redshifts for AGNs compared to previous work on narrow-deep fields because it probes different populations of objects that need to be identified and represented in the library of templates. Here we present an updated X-ray plus multiwavelength matched catalog, including Spitzer counterparts, and estimated photometric redshifts for 5961 (96% of a total of 6181) X-ray sources that have a normalized median absolute deviation, σnmad=0.06, and an outlier fraction, η = 13.7%. The populations found in this survey and the template libraries used for photometric redshifts provide important guiding principles for upcoming large-area surveys such as eROSITA and 3XMM (in X-ray) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (optical).

  7. Sleeping beauties in theoretical physics 26 surprising insights

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Thanu

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses a fascinating set of questions in theoretical physics which will both entertain and enlighten all students, teachers and researchers and other physics aficionados. These range from Newtonian mechanics to quantum field theory and cover several puzzling issues that do not appear in standard textbooks. Some topics cover conceptual conundrums, the solutions to which lead to surprising insights; some correct popular misconceptions in the textbook discussion of certain topics; others illustrate deep connections between apparently unconnected domains of theoretical physics; and a few provide remarkably simple derivations of results which are not often appreciated. The connoisseur of theoretical physics will enjoy a feast of pleasant surprises skilfully prepared by an internationally acclaimed theoretical physicist. Each topic is introduced with proper background discussion and special effort is taken to make the discussion self-contained, clear and comprehensible to anyone with an undergraduate e...

  8. The June surprises: balls, strikes, and the fog of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Charles

    2013-04-01

    At first, few constitutional experts took seriously the argument that the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act exceeded Congress's power under the commerce clause. The highly political opinions of two federal district judges - carefully chosen by challenging plaintiffs - of no particular distinction did not shake that confidence that the act was constitutional. This disdain for the challengers' arguments was only confirmed when the act was upheld by two highly respected conservative court of appeals judges in two separate circuits. But after the hostile, even mocking questioning of the government's advocate in the Supreme Court by the five Republican-appointed justices, the expectation was that the act would indeed be struck down on that ground. So it came as no surprise when the five opined the act did indeed exceed Congress's commerce clause power. But it came as a great surprise when Chief Justice John Roberts, joined by the four Democrat-appointed justices, ruled that the act could be sustained as an exercise of Congress's taxing power - a ground urged by the government almost as an afterthought. It was further surprising, even shocking, that Justices Antonin Scalia, Anthony Kennedy, Clarence Thomas, and Samuel Alito not only wrote a joint opinion on the commerce clause virtually identical to that of their chief, but that in writing it they did not refer to or even acknowledge his opinion. Finally surprising was the fact that Justices Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Stephen Breyer joined the chief in holding that aspects of the act's Medicaid expansion were unconstitutional. This essay ponders and tries to unravel some of these puzzles.

  9. ORMS IN SURPRISING PLACES: CLINICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myroshnychenko MS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Helminthes are the most common human diseases, which are characterized by involvement in the pathological process of all organs and systems. In this article, the authors discuss a few cases of typical and atypical localizations for parasitic worms such as filarial and pinworms which were recovered from surprising places in the bodies of patients in Kharkiv region. This article will allow the doctors of practical health care to pay special attention to the timely prevention and diagnostics of this pathology.

  10. Spatiotemporal neural characterization of prediction error valence and surprise during reward learning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouragnan, Elsa; Queirazza, Filippo; Retzler, Chris; Mullinger, Karen J; Philiastides, Marios G

    2017-07-06

    Reward learning depends on accurate reward associations with potential choices. These associations can be attained with reinforcement learning mechanisms using a reward prediction error (RPE) signal (the difference between actual and expected rewards) for updating future reward expectations. Despite an extensive body of literature on the influence of RPE on learning, little has been done to investigate the potentially separate contributions of RPE valence (positive or negative) and surprise (absolute degree of deviation from expectations). Here, we coupled single-trial electroencephalography with simultaneously acquired fMRI, during a probabilistic reversal-learning task, to offer evidence of temporally overlapping but largely distinct spatial representations of RPE valence and surprise. Electrophysiological variability in RPE valence correlated with activity in regions of the human reward network promoting approach or avoidance learning. Electrophysiological variability in RPE surprise correlated primarily with activity in regions of the human attentional network controlling the speed of learning. Crucially, despite the largely separate spatial extend of these representations our EEG-informed fMRI approach uniquely revealed a linear superposition of the two RPE components in a smaller network encompassing visuo-mnemonic and reward areas. Activity in this network was further predictive of stimulus value updating indicating a comparable contribution of both signals to reward learning.

  11. Development of large engineered cartilage constructs from a small population of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Jillian M; Kunz, Manuela; Tse, Man Yat; Winterborn, Andrew; Bardana, Davide D; Pang, Stephen C; Waldman, Stephen D

    2013-01-01

    Confronted with articular cartilage's limited capacity for self-repair, joint resurfacing techniques offer an attractive treatment for damaged or diseased tissue. Although tissue engineered cartilage constructs can be created, a substantial number of cells are required to generate sufficient quantities of tissue for the repair of large defects. As routine cell expansion methods tend to elicit negative effects on chondrocyte function, we have developed an approach to generate phenotypically stable, large-sized engineered constructs (≥3 cm(2) ) directly from a small amount of donor tissue or cells (as little as 20,000 cells to generate a 3 cm(2) tissue construct). Using rabbit donor tissue, the bioreactor-cultivated constructs were hyaline-like in appearance and possessed a biochemical composition similar to native articular cartilage. Longer bioreactor cultivation times resulted in increased matrix deposition and improved mechanical properties determined over a 4 week period. Additionally, as the anatomy of the joint will need to be taken in account to effectively resurface large affected areas, we have also explored the possibility of generating constructs matched to the shape and surface geometry of a defect site through the use of rapid-prototyped defect tissue culture molds. Similar hyaline-like tissue constructs were developed that also possessed a high degree of shape correlation to the original defect mold. Future studies will be aimed at determining the effectiveness of this approach to the repair of cartilage defects in an animal model and the creation of large-sized osteochondral constructs. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  12. Effectiveness of Acupuncture Therapy on Stress in a Large Urban College Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Stefanie; Burnis, James; Denton, Antony; Krasnow, Aaron; Raghu, T S; Mathis, Kimberly

    2017-06-01

    This study is a randomized controlled clinical trial to study the effectiveness of acupuncture on the perception of stress in patients who study or work on a large, urban college campus. The hypothesis was that verum acupuncture would demonstrate a significant positive impact on perceived stress as compared to sham acupuncture. This study included 111 participants with high self-reported stress levels who either studied or worked at a large, urban public university in the southwestern United States. However, only 62 participants completed the study. The participants were randomized into a verum acupuncture or sham acupuncture group. Both the groups received treatment once a week for 12 weeks. The Cohen's global measure of perceived stress scale (PSS-14) was completed by each participant prior to treatment, at 6 weeks, at 12 weeks, and 6 weeks and 12 weeks post-treatment completion. While participants of both the groups showed a substantial initial decrease in perceived stress scores, at 12 weeks post treatment, the verum acupuncture group showed a significantly greater treatment effect than the sham acupuncture group. This study indicates that acupuncture may be successful in decreasing the perception of stress in students and staff at a large urban university, and this effect persists for at least 3 months after the completion of treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. The Association between Bone Quality and Atherosclerosis: Results from Two Large Population-Based Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lange

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. It is highly debated whether associations between osteoporosis and atherosclerosis are independent of cardiovascular risk factors. We aimed to explore the associations between quantitative ultrasound (QUS parameters at the heel with the carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT, the presence of carotid artery plaques, and the ankle-brachial index (ABI. Methods. The study population comprised 5680 men and women aged 20–93 years from two population-based cohort studies: Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP and SHIP-Trend. QUS measurements were performed at the heel. The extracranial carotid arteries were examined with B-mode ultrasonography. ABI was measured in a subgroup of 3853 participants. Analyses of variance and linear and logistic regression models were calculated and adjusted for major cardiovascular risk factors. Results. Men but not women had significantly increased odds for carotid artery plaques with decreasing QUS parameters independent of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Beyond this, the QUS parameters were not significantly associated with IMT or ABI in fully adjusted models. Conclusions. Our data argue against an independent role of bone metabolism in atherosclerotic changes in women. Yet, in men, associations with advanced atherosclerosis, exist. Thus, men presenting with clinical signs of osteoporosis may be at increased risk for atherosclerotic disease.

  14. The Association between Bone Quality and Atherosclerosis: Results from Two Large Population-Based Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, V; Dörr, M; Schminke, U; Völzke, H; Nauck, M; Wallaschofski, H; Hannemann, A

    2017-01-01

    It is highly debated whether associations between osteoporosis and atherosclerosis are independent of cardiovascular risk factors. We aimed to explore the associations between quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters at the heel with the carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), the presence of carotid artery plaques, and the ankle-brachial index (ABI). The study population comprised 5680 men and women aged 20-93 years from two population-based cohort studies: Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) and SHIP-Trend. QUS measurements were performed at the heel. The extracranial carotid arteries were examined with B-mode ultrasonography. ABI was measured in a subgroup of 3853 participants. Analyses of variance and linear and logistic regression models were calculated and adjusted for major cardiovascular risk factors. Men but not women had significantly increased odds for carotid artery plaques with decreasing QUS parameters independent of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Beyond this, the QUS parameters were not significantly associated with IMT or ABI in fully adjusted models. Our data argue against an independent role of bone metabolism in atherosclerotic changes in women. Yet, in men, associations with advanced atherosclerosis, exist. Thus, men presenting with clinical signs of osteoporosis may be at increased risk for atherosclerotic disease.

  15. Stars Form Surprisingly Close to Milky Way's Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    million low mass, sun-like stars in and around the ring, whereas in the disk model, the number of low mass stars could be much less. Nayakshin and his coauthor, Rashid Sunyaev of the Max Plank Institute for Physics in Garching, Germany, used Chandra observations to compare the X-ray glow from the region around Sgr A* to the X-ray emission from thousands of young stars in the Orion Nebula star cluster. They found that the Sgr A* star cluster contains only about 10,000 low mass stars, thereby ruling out the migration model. "We can now say that the stars around Sgr A* were not deposited there by some passing star cluster, rather they were born there," said Sunyaev . "There have been theories that this was possible, but this is the first real evidence. Many scientists are going to be very surprised by these results." Because the Galactic Center is shrouded in dust and gas, it has not been possible to look for the low-mass stars in optical observations. In contrast, X-ray data have allowed astronomers to penetrate the veil of gas and dust and look for these low mass stars. Scenario Dismissed by Chandra Results Scenario Dismissed by Chandra Results "In one of the most inhospitable places in our Galaxy, stars have prevailed," said Nayakshin. "It appears that star formation is much more tenacious than we previously believed." The results suggest that the "rules" of star formation change when stars form in the disk of a giant black hole. Because this environment is very different from typical star formation regions, there is a change in the proportion of stars that form. For example, there is a much higher percentage of massive stars in the disks around black holes. And, when these massive stars explode as supernovae, they will "fertilize" the region with heavy elements such as oxygen. This may explain the large amounts of such elements observed in the disks of young supermassive black holes. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for

  16. Are seismic hazard assessment errors and earthquake surprises unavoidable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Why earthquake occurrences bring us so many surprises? The answer seems evident if we review the relationships that are commonly used to assess seismic hazard. The time-span of physically reliable Seismic History is yet a small portion of a rupture recurrence cycle at an earthquake-prone site, which makes premature any kind of reliable probabilistic statements about narrowly localized seismic hazard. Moreover, seismic evidences accumulated to-date demonstrate clearly that most of the empirical relations commonly accepted in the early history of instrumental seismology can be proved erroneous when testing statistical significance is applied. Seismic events, including mega-earthquakes, cluster displaying behaviors that are far from independent or periodic. Their distribution in space is possibly fractal, definitely, far from uniform even in a single segment of a fault zone. Such a situation contradicts generally accepted assumptions used for analytically tractable or computer simulations and complicates design of reliable methodologies for realistic earthquake hazard assessment, as well as search and definition of precursory behaviors to be used for forecast/prediction purposes. As a result, the conclusions drawn from such simulations and analyses can MISLEAD TO SCIENTIFICALLY GROUNDLESS APPLICATION, which is unwise and extremely dangerous in assessing expected societal risks and losses. For example, a systematic comparison of the GSHAP peak ground acceleration estimates with those related to actual strong earthquakes, unfortunately, discloses gross inadequacy of this "probabilistic" product, which appears UNACCEPTABLE FOR ANY KIND OF RESPONSIBLE SEISMIC RISK EVALUATION AND KNOWLEDGEABLE DISASTER PREVENTION. The self-evident shortcomings and failures of GSHAP appeals to all earthquake scientists and engineers for an urgent revision of the global seismic hazard maps from the first principles including background methodologies involved, such that there becomes: (a) a

  17. Sustainably Harvesting a Large Carnivore? Development of Eurasian Lynx Populations in Norway During 160 Years of Shifting Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnell, John D. C.; Broseth, Henrik; Odden, John; Nilsen, Erlend Birkeland

    2010-05-01

    The management of large carnivores in multiuse landscapes is always controversial, and managers need to balance a wide range of competing interests. Hunter harvest is often used to limit population size and distribution but is proving to be both controversialand technically challenging. Eurasian lynx ( Lynx lynx) are currently managed as a game species in Norway. We describe an adaptive management approach where quota setting is based on an annual census and chart the population development through the period 1996-2008, as management has become significantly more sophisticated and better informed by the increased availability of scientific data. During this period the population has been through a period of high quotas and population decline caused by fragmented management authority and overoptimistic estimates of lynx reproduction, followed by a period of recovery due to quota reductions. The modern management regime is placed in the context of shifting policy during the last 160 years, during which management goals have moved from extermination stimulated by bounties, through a short phase of protection, and now to quota-regulated harvest. Much management authority has also been delegated from central to local levels. We conclude that adaptive management has the potential to keep the population within some bounded limits, although there will inevitably be fluctuation.

  18. Hypothyroidism in Patients with Psoriasis or Rosacea: A Large Population Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Sara M; Hill, Dane E; Feldman, Steven R

    2016-10-15

    Hypothyroidism is a common disease, and there may be a link between hypothyroidism and inflammatory skin disease. The purpose of this study is to assess whether hypothyroidism is more prevalent in psoriasis or rosacea patients. We utilized a large claims-based database to analyze rates of hypothyroidism in patients with psoriasis and rosacea compared to other patients with skin diseases. Participants were patients between 20-64 years of age with ICD-9 diagnosis codes for psoriasis, rosacea, and hypothyroidism. We found that rates of hypothyroidism in rosacea and psoriasis patients were similar to rates of hypothyroidism in those without rosacea or psoriasis.

  19. Inferring Population Size History from Large Samples of Genome-Wide Molecular Data - An Approximate Bayesian Computation Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Boitard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Inferring the ancestral dynamics of effective population size is a long-standing question in population genetics, which can now be tackled much more accurately thanks to the massive genomic data available in many species. Several promising methods that take advantage of whole-genome sequences have been recently developed in this context. However, they can only be applied to rather small samples, which limits their ability to estimate recent population size history. Besides, they can be very sensitive to sequencing or phasing errors. Here we introduce a new approximate Bayesian computation approach named PopSizeABC that allows estimating the evolution of the effective population size through time, using a large sample of complete genomes. This sample is summarized using the folded allele frequency spectrum and the average zygotic linkage disequilibrium at different bins of physical distance, two classes of statistics that are widely used in population genetics and can be easily computed from unphased and unpolarized SNP data. Our approach provides accurate estimations of past population sizes, from the very first generations before present back to the expected time to the most recent common ancestor of the sample, as shown by simulations under a wide range of demographic scenarios. When applied to samples of 15 or 25 complete genomes in four cattle breeds (Angus, Fleckvieh, Holstein and Jersey, PopSizeABC revealed a series of population declines, related to historical events such as domestication or modern breed creation. We further highlight that our approach is robust to sequencing errors, provided summary statistics are computed from SNPs with common alleles.

  20. Selective exploitation of large pike Esox lucius-Effects on mercury concentrations in fish populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Chhatra Mani; Borgstrom, Reidar; Huitfeldt, Jorgen Sinkaberg; Rosseland, Bjorn Olav

    2008-01-01

    The present study outlines two main trends of mercury transfer patterns through the fish community: 1) the Hg concentrations increase with increase in the trophic level, with top predators having the highest concentrations, and 2) a fast growth rate may dilute the concentrations of Hg in fish muscle tissue (growth biodilution). In 2004, an extensive reduction in number of large pike (Esox lucius L.), was initiated by selective gillnet fishing in Lake Arungen, Norway, in order to increase the pike recruitment due to an expected reduction in cannibalism. In this connection, total mercury (THg) concentrations in the fish community were studied both before (2003) and after (2005) the removal of large pike. The δ 15 N signatures and stomach content analyses indicated that pike and perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) occupied the highest trophic position, while roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)) was at the lower level, and rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus L.) at the lowest. The piscivores, pike and perch, had the highest concentrations of THg. The biomagnification rate of THg through the food web in the fish community was 0.163 ( per milleδ 15 N), with the highest uptake rate (0.232) in perch. A significant decrease in THg concentrations was found in all fish species in 2005 compared to 2003. Removal of the top predators in an Hg contaminated lake might thus be an important management tool for reducing Hg levels in fish, thereby reducing health risk to humans

  1. Spatio-temporal trends in the predation of large gulls by peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus in an insular breeding population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Luke J.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Individual diet specialization occurs in many populations of generalist predators, with specific individuals developing specialist strategies in their feeding behaviour. Intraspecific resource partitioning is hypothesised to be common amongst species in higher trophic levels where competition for resources is intense, and a key driver in breeding success and community structure. Though well-studied in other predators, there is sparse data on ecological specialization in raptors, which are important drivers of community and trophic structure. In this study, the breeding season diet of an insular population of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus was determined from indirect analysis of prey remains collected over three years. An unexpected result was the high proportion of large gulls (Laridae, of the genus Larus, in the diet of two breeding pairs of peregrines. Large gulls made up 18.44% by frequency of total prey recorded and 30.81% by biomass. Herring gulls (Larus argentatus were the most common large gull prey, with immatures most frequent (67.95% compared to adults (19.23%. Overall, most gulls predated were immatures (80.77%. Frequency of predation varied between breeding pairs and months, but was consistent over the three years. Most gulls were taken in April (37.17%, followed by May (19.23%, with a smaller peak of immature herring gulls taken in August and September. The pattern of regular predation by peregrines on large gulls is a new observation with important implications for understanding individual diet specialization in raptors, and its effect on bird populations and community structure.

  2. Variability in mutational fitness effects prevents full lethal transitions in large quasispecies populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardanyés, Josep; Simó, Carles; Martínez, Regina; Solé, Ricard V.; Elena, Santiago F.

    2014-04-01

    The distribution of mutational fitness effects (DMFE) is crucial to the evolutionary fate of quasispecies. In this article we analyze the effect of the DMFE on the dynamics of a large quasispecies by means of a phenotypic version of the classic Eigen's model that incorporates beneficial, neutral, deleterious, and lethal mutations. By parameterizing the model with available experimental data on the DMFE of Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Tobacco etch virus (TEV), we found that increasing mutation does not totally push the entire viral quasispecies towards deleterious or lethal regions of the phenotypic sequence space. The probability of finding regions in the parameter space of the general model that results in a quasispecies only composed by lethal phenotypes is extremely small at equilibrium and in transient times. The implications of our findings can be extended to other scenarios, such as lethal mutagenesis or genomically unstable cancer, where increased mutagenesis has been suggested as a potential therapy.

  3. A Population of Gamma-Ray Millisecond Pulsars Seen with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumora, D.; Grondin, M.H.; Guillemot, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lovellette, M.N.; Parent, D.; Smith, D.A.; Abdo, A.A.; Chekhtman, A.; Dermer, C.D.; Grove, J.E.; Johnson, W.N.; Makeev, A.; Ray, P.S.; Strickman, M.S.; Wood, K.S.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, E.D.; Borgland, A.W.; Cameron, R.A.; Charles, E.; Chiang, J.; Claus, R.; Digel, S.W.; Silva, E.D.E.; Drell, P.S.; Dubois, R.; Edmonds, Y.; Focke, W.B.; Funk, S.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Hayashida, M.; Johannesson, G.; Kocian, M.L.; Lande, J.; Madejski, G.M.; Michelson, P.F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Monzani, M.E.; Moskalenko, I.V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P.L.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J.H.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Rochester, L.S.; Romani, R.W.; Tajima, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J.B.; Thayer, J.G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T.L.; Van Etten, A.; Waite, A.P.; Wang, P.; Watters, K.; Atwood, W.B.; Dormody, M.; Johnson, R.P.; Porter, T.A.; Sadrozinski, H.F.W.; Schalk, T.L.; Thorsett, S.E.; Ziegler, M.; Axelsson, M.; Carlson, P.; Conrad, J.; Meurer, C.; Ryde, F.; Ylinen, T.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Kuss, M.; Latronico, L.; Omodei, N.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Razzano, M.; Sgro, C.; Spandre, G.; Ballet, J.; Casandjian, J.M.; Grenier, I.A.; Starck, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Pulsars are born with sub-second spin periods and slow by electromagnetic braking for several tens of millions of years, when detectable radiation ceases. A second life can occur for neutron stars in binary systems. They can acquire mass and angular momentum from their companions, to be spun up to millisecond periods and begin radiating again. We searched Fermi Large Area Telescope data for pulsations from all known millisecond pulsars (MSPs) outside of globular clusters, using rotation parameters from radio telescopes. Strong gamma-ray pulsations were detected for eight MSPs. The gamma-ray pulse profiles and spectral properties resemble those of young gamma-ray pulsars. The basic emission mechanism seems to be the same for MSPs and young pulsars, with the emission originating in regions far from the neutron star surface. (authors)

  4. An internet-based food frequency questionnaire for a large Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ren-Nan; Du, Shan-Shan; Chen, Yang; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Ying-Feng; Sun, Chang-Hao; Jiang, Yong-Shuai

    2016-12-01

    National dietary surveys are needed and difficult to conduct in China. The current study aims to develop and validate an internet-based diet questionnaire for Chinese (IDQC) to assess intakes in Northern China. We recruited 292 city residents by email and telephone in Harbin to obtain the IDQC and 3-day diet diaries. The food group and nutrient intakes from the IDQC were validated against those from the 3-day diet diaries. Paired sample t-tests were used to compare the methodological differences, and repeatability was estimated using Pearson's correlations. Cross-classification was used to calculate the percentage agreement in quartiles for all food groups and nutrients. Positive correlations were found between the IDQC and 3-day diet diaries for all food groups after energy adjustment (from 0.28 for seeds and nuts to 0.63 for dairy products). Positive correlations were observed for all nutrients between the IDQC and 3-day diet diaries, with correlations ranging from 0.37 for folic acid to 0.98 for iodine. The overall agreements for food groups and nutrients were above 69.2%, indicating satisfactory consistency between the IDQC and 3-day diet diaries. The IDQC can be used to estimate the food and nutrient intakes in a Northern China population for both clinical nutrition epidemiological and public health nutritional purposes. The questionnaire system IDQC (v1.0) is freely available at http://www.yyjy365.org/diet/.

  5. Validating the extract, transform, load process used to populate a large clinical research database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Michael J; Long, Dustin M; Armistead, Matthew G; Anderson, Jamie L; Conway, Baqiyyah N

    2016-10-01

    Informaticians at any institution that are developing clinical research support infrastructure are tasked with populating research databases with data extracted and transformed from their institution's operational databases, such as electronic health records (EHRs). These data must be properly extracted from these source systems, transformed into a standard data structure, and then loaded into the data warehouse while maintaining the integrity of these data. We validated the correctness of the extract, load, and transform (ETL) process of the extracted data of West Virginia Clinical and Translational Science Institute's Integrated Data Repository, a clinical data warehouse that includes data extracted from two EHR systems. Four hundred ninety-eight observations were randomly selected from the integrated data repository and compared with the two source EHR systems. Of the 498 observations, there were 479 concordant and 19 discordant observations. The discordant observations fell into three general categories: a) design decision differences between the IDR and source EHRs, b) timing differences, and c) user interface settings. After resolving apparent discordances, our integrated data repository was found to be 100% accurate relative to its source EHR systems. Any institution that uses a clinical data warehouse that is developed based on extraction processes from operational databases, such as EHRs, employs some form of an ETL process. As secondary use of EHR data begins to transform the research landscape, the importance of the basic validation of the extracted EHR data cannot be underestimated and should start with the validation of the extraction process itself. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Improved survival prediction from lung function data in a large population sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, M.R.; Pedersen, O.F.; Lange, P.

    2008-01-01

    Studies relating tung function to survival commonly express lung function impairment as a percent of predicted but this retains age, height and sex bias. We have studied alternative methods of expressing forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) for predicting all cause and airway related lung disease.......1 respectively. Cut levels of lung function were used to categorise impairment and the HR for multivariate prediction of all cause and airway related lung disease mortality were 10 and 2044 respectively for the worst category of FEV1/ht(2) compared to 5 and 194 respectively for the worst category of FEV1PP....... In univariate predictions of all cause mortality the HR for FEV1/ht(2) categories was 2-4 times higher than those for FEV1PP and 3-10 times higher for airway related tung disease mortality. We conclude that FEV1/ht(2) is superior to FEV1PP for predicting survival. in a general population and this method...

  7. Diabetes among non-obese Filipino Americans: Findings from a large population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Roy, Adity; Chan, Keith Tsz-Kit; Kobayashi, Karen M

    2017-04-20

    Filipino Americans form the second-largest Asian American and Pacific Islanders subgroup. Growing evidence suggests that Filipino Americans have higher rates of diabetes than non-Hispanic whites. The key objectives of this study are 1) to determine the prevalence of diabetes in non-obese Filipino Americans compared to non-obese non-Hispanic whites, and 2) to identify risk factors for diabetes in non-obese Filipino men and women. Secondary analysis of population-based data from combined waves (2007, 2009 and 2011) of the adult California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). The study sample was restricted to non-obese Filipino Americans (n = 1629) and non-Hispanic whites (n = 72 072). Non-obese Filipino Americans had more than twice the odds of diabetes compared to non-Hispanic whites, even after correcting for several known risk factors (OR = 2.80, p < 0.001). For non-obese Filipino men, older age, poverty, cigarette smoking, and being overweight are associated with increased odds for diabetes, while older age was the only factor associated with diabetes among Filipina women. Diabetes prevention approaches need to be targeted towards non-obese Filipino Americans, due to their high risk of diabetes.

  8. Rapid impact testing for quantitative assessment of large populations of bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun; Prader, John; DeVitis, John; Deal, Adrienne; Zhang, Jian; Moon, Franklin; Aktan, A. Emin

    2011-04-01

    Although the widely acknowledged shortcomings of visual inspection have fueled significant advances in the areas of non-destructive evaluation and structural health monitoring (SHM) over the last several decades, the actual practice of bridge assessment has remained largely unchanged. The authors believe the lack of adoption, especially of SHM technologies, is related to the 'single structure' scenarios that drive most research. To overcome this, the authors have developed a concept for a rapid single-input, multiple-output (SIMO) impact testing device that will be capable of capturing modal parameters and estimating flexibility/deflection basins of common highway bridges during routine inspections. The device is composed of a trailer-mounted impact source (capable of delivering a 50 kip impact) and retractable sensor arms, and will be controlled by an automated data acquisition, processing and modal parameter estimation software. The research presented in this paper covers (a) the theoretical basis for SISO, SIMO and MIMO impact testing to estimate flexibility, (b) proof of concept numerical studies using a finite element model, and (c) a pilot implementation on an operating highway bridge. Results indicate that the proposed approach can estimate modal flexibility within a few percent of static flexibility; however, the estimated modal flexibility matrix is only reliable for the substructures associated with the various SIMO tests. To overcome this shortcoming, a modal 'stitching' approach for substructure integration to estimate the full Eigen vector matrix is developed, and preliminary results of these methods are also presented.

  9. Breast implants and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma: a danish population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vase, Maja Ølholm; Friis, Søren; Bautz, Andrea; Bendix, Knud; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; d'Amore, Francesco

    2013-11-01

    A potential link between breast implants and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) has been suggested. We examined lymphoma occurrence in a nationwide cohort of 19,885 Danish women who underwent breast implant surgery during 1973-2010. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR), with 95% confidence intervals (CI), for ALCL and lymphoma overall associated with breast implantation were calculated. During 179,246 person-years of follow-up, we observed 31 cases of lymphoma among cohort members. No cases of ALCL were identified. SIRs for ALCL and lymphoma overall were zero (95% CI, 0-10.3) and 1.20 (95% CI, 0.82-1.70), respectively. In our nationwide cohort study, we did not find an increased risk of lymphoma in general, or ALCL in particular, among Danish women who underwent breast implantation. However, our evaluation of ALCL risk was limited by the rarity of the disease. Our results do not support an association between breast implants and ALCL and are consistent with other studies on cancer risk and breast implants. ©2013 AACR.

  10. Genotype-phenotype correlation in a large population of muscular dystrophy patients with LAMA2 mutations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Geranmayeh, Fatemeh

    2010-04-01

    Merosin deficient congenital muscular dystrophy 1A (MDC1A) results from mutations in the LAMA2 gene. We report 51 patients with MDC1A and examine the relationship between degree of merosin expression, genotype and clinical features. Thirty-three patients had absence of merosin and 13 showed some residual merosin. Compared to the residual merosin group, patients with absent merosin had an earlier presentation (<7days) (P=0.0073), were more likely to lack independent ambulation (P=0.0215), or require enteral feeding (P=0.0099) and ventilatory support (P=0.0354). We identified 33 novel LAMA2 mutations; these were distributed throughout the gene in patients with absent merosin, with minor clusters in exon 27, 14, 25 and 26 (55% of mutations). Patients with residual merosin often carried at least one splice site mutation and less frequently frameshift mutations. This large study identified novel LAMA2 mutations and highlights the role of immunohistochemical studies for merosin status in predicting clinical severity of MDC1A.

  11. On the surprising rigidity of the Pauli exclusion principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, O.W.

    1989-01-01

    I review recent attempts to construct a local quantum field theory of small violations of the Pauli exclusion principle and suggest a qualitative reason for the surprising rigidity of the Pauli principle. I suggest that small violations can occur in our four-dimensional world as a consequence of the compactification of a higher-dimensional theory in which the exclusion principle is exactly valid. I briefly mention a recent experiment which places a severe limit on possible violations of the exclusion principle. (orig.)

  12. Teacher Supply and Demand: Surprises from Primary Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Wayne

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of primary research studies on public school teacher supply and demand revealed four surprises. Projections show that enrollments are leveling off. Relatedly, annual hiring increases should be only about two or three percent over the next few years. Results from studies of teacher attrition also yield unexpected results. Excluding retirements, only about one in 20 teachers leaves each year, and the novice teachers who quit mainly cite personal and family reasons, not job dissatisfaction. Each of these findings broadens policy makers' options for teacher supply.

  13. The Feasibility of Using Large-Scale Text Mining to Detect Adverse Childhood Experiences in a VA-Treated Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Kenric W; Ben-Ari, Alon Y; Laundry, Ryan J; Boyko, Edward J; Samore, Matthew H

    2015-12-01

    Free text in electronic health records resists large-scale analysis. Text records facts of interest not found in encoded data, and text mining enables their retrieval and quantification. The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) clinical data repository affords an opportunity to apply text-mining methodology to study clinical questions in large populations. To assess the feasibility of text mining, investigation of the relationship between exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and recorded diagnoses was conducted among all VA-treated Gulf war veterans, utilizing all progress notes recorded from 2000-2011. Text processing extracted ACE exposures recorded among 44.7 million clinical notes belonging to 243,973 veterans. The relationship of ACE exposure to adult illnesses was analyzed using logistic regression. Bias considerations were assessed. ACE score was strongly associated with suicide attempts and serious mental disorders (ORs = 1.84 to 1.97), and less so with behaviorally mediated and somatic conditions (ORs = 1.02 to 1.36) per unit. Bias adjustments did not remove persistent associations between ACE score and most illnesses. Text mining to detect ACE exposure in a large population was feasible. Analysis of the relationship between ACE score and adult health conditions yielded patterns of association consistent with prior research. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  14. Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma in the Elderly: Real World Outcomes of Immunochemotherapy in Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Ja Min; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Kang, Beodeul; Kim, Ji-Won; Kim, Se Hyun; Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Yu Jung; Lee, Keun-Wook; Bang, Soo-Mee; Lee, Jong Seok

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated the real-life treatment outcomes of elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma from a homogenous Asian population and defined the cutoff age for "elderly." The medical records of 192 DLBCL patients aged > 60 years who had received first-line immunochemotherapy were retrospectively evaluated. The treatment schedule, adverse events, and survival outcomes were analyzed overall and stratified by 4 age groups (> 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, and ≥ 75 years). Patient age of ≥ 75 years was associated with a significantly lower complete remission rate (86.5% vs. 81.4% vs. 82.0% vs. 51%; P population, 75 years seems to be a judicious cutoff for predicting treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. THE MAGELLANIC MOPRA ASSESSMENT (MAGMA). I. THE MOLECULAR CLOUD POPULATION OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Tony; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert A.; Looney, Leslie W.; Seale, Jonathan; Welty, Daniel E.; Hughes, Annie; Maddison, Sarah; Ott, Jürgen; Muller, Erik; Fukui, Yasuo; Kawamura, Akiko; Mizuno, Yoji; Pineda, Jorge L.; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Paradis, Deborah; Henkel, Christian; Klein, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    We present the properties of an extensive sample of molecular clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) mapped at 11 pc resolution in the CO(1-0) line. Targets were chosen based on a limiting CO flux and peak brightness as measured by the NANTEN survey. The observations were conducted with the ATNF Mopra Telescope as part of the Magellanic Mopra Assessment. We identify clouds as regions of connected CO emission and find that the distributions of cloud sizes, fluxes, and masses are sensitive to the choice of decomposition parameters. In all cases, however, the luminosity function of CO clouds is steeper than dN/dL∝L –2 , suggesting that a substantial fraction of mass is in low-mass clouds. A correlation between size and linewidth, while apparent for the largest emission structures, breaks down when those structures are decomposed into smaller structures. We argue that the correlation between virial mass and CO luminosity is the result of comparing two covariant quantities, with the correlation appearing tighter on larger scales where a size-linewidth relation holds. The virial parameter (the ratio of a cloud's kinetic to self-gravitational energy) shows a wide range of values and exhibits no clear trends with the CO luminosity or the likelihood of hosting young stellar object (YSO) candidates, casting further doubt on the assumption of virialization for molecular clouds in the LMC. Higher CO luminosity increases the likelihood of a cloud harboring a YSO candidate, and more luminous YSOs are more likely to be coincident with detectable CO emission, confirming the close link between giant molecular clouds and massive star formation.

  16. Large-scale Reconstructions and Independent, Unbiased Clustering Based on Morphological Metrics to Classify Neurons in Selective Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Elise M; Briggs, Farran

    2017-02-15

    This protocol outlines large-scale reconstructions of neurons combined with the use of independent and unbiased clustering analyses to create a comprehensive survey of the morphological characteristics observed among a selective neuronal population. Combination of these techniques constitutes a novel approach for the collection and analysis of neuroanatomical data. Together, these techniques enable large-scale, and therefore more comprehensive, sampling of selective neuronal populations and establish unbiased quantitative methods for describing morphologically unique neuronal classes within a population. The protocol outlines the use of modified rabies virus to selectively label neurons. G-deleted rabies virus acts like a retrograde tracer following stereotaxic injection into a target brain structure of interest and serves as a vehicle for the delivery and expression of EGFP in neurons. Large numbers of neurons are infected using this technique and express GFP throughout their dendrites, producing "Golgi-like" complete fills of individual neurons. Accordingly, the virus-mediated retrograde tracing method improves upon traditional dye-based retrograde tracing techniques by producing complete intracellular fills. Individual well-isolated neurons spanning all regions of the brain area under study are selected for reconstruction in order to obtain a representative sample of neurons. The protocol outlines procedures to reconstruct cell bodies and complete dendritic arborization patterns of labeled neurons spanning multiple tissue sections. Morphological data, including positions of each neuron within the brain structure, are extracted for further analysis. Standard programming functions were utilized to perform independent cluster analyses and cluster evaluations based on morphological metrics. To verify the utility of these analyses, statistical evaluation of a cluster analysis performed on 160 neurons reconstructed in the thalamic reticular nucleus of the thalamus

  17. Mortality, Causes of Death and Associated Factors Relate to a Large HIV Population-Based Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriga, César; García de Olalla, Patricia; Miró, Josep M; Ocaña, Inma; Knobel, Hernando; Barberá, Maria Jesús; Humet, Victoria; Domingo, Pere; Gatell, Josep M; Ribera, Esteve; Gurguí, Mercè; Marco, Andrés; Caylà, Joan A

    2015-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has led to a decrease in HIV-related mortality and to the emergence of non-AIDS defining diseases as competing causes of death. This study estimates the HIV mortality rate and their risk factors with regard to different causes in a large city from January 2001 to June 2013. We followed-up 3137 newly diagnosed HIV non-AIDS cases. Causes of death were classified as HIV-related, non-HIV-related and external. We examined the effect of risk factors on survival using mortality rates, Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox models. Finally, we estimated survival for each main cause of death groups through Fine and Gray models. 182 deaths were found [14.0/1000 person-years of follow-up (py); 95% confidence interval (CI):12.0-16.1/1000 py], 81.3% of them had a known cause of death. Mortality rate by HIV-related causes and non-HIV-related causes was the same (4.9/1000 py; CI:3.7-6.1/1000 py), external was lower [1.7/1000 py; (1.0-2.4/1000 py)]. Kaplan-Meier estimate showed worse survival in intravenous drug user (IDU) and heterosexuals than in men having sex with men (MSM). Factors associated with HIV-related causes of death include: IDU male (subHazard Ratio (sHR):3.2; CI:1.5-7.0) and causes of death include: ageing (sHR:1.5; CI:1.4-1.7) and heterosexual female (sHR:2.8; CI:1.1-7.3) versus MSM. Factors associated with external causes of death were IDU male (sHR:28.7; CI:6.7-123.2) and heterosexual male (sHR:11.8; CI:2.5-56.4) versus MSM. There are important differences in survival among transmission groups. Improved treatment is especially necessary in IDUs and heterosexual males.

  18. Clinical manifestations and management of prune-belly syndrome in a large contemporary pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Natan E; Arlen, Angela M; Smith, Edwin A; Kirsch, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    To review the clinical manifestations and operative management of a large contemporary pediatric cohort of patients with prune-belly syndrome (PBS). PBS patients aged <21 years followed up in our pediatric urology clinic were identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code (756.71). Demographics, concomitant diagnoses, surgical history, imaging studies, and renal or bladder function were evaluated. Data were available for 46 pediatric patients (44 boys and 2 girls). Mean age was 7.6 ± 4.7 years (range, 0.9-20 years). Average length of clinical follow-up was 6.8 ± 5 years. Forty-five children (97.8%) had hydroureteronephrosis, and 36 of them (78.3%) had vesicoureteral reflux. Five patients (10.9%) had significant pulmonary insufficiency, and 2 patients (4.3%) were oxygen dependent. Eighteen children (39.1%) had other congenital malformations, including cardiac in 4 patients (8.7%) and musculoskeletal anomalies in 10 patients (21.7%). Orchidopexy was the most common surgery, with all boys aged ≥3 years having undergone the procedure. Twenty-two patients (47.8%) had a history of ureteral surgery, 22 (47.8%) had bladder surgery, 11 (23.9%) had renal surgery, and 6 (13%) had urethral procedures. Nineteen patients (41.3%) underwent abdominoplasty. Eighteen children (39.1%) had documented chronic kidney disease, and 8 children (17.4%) underwent renal transplantation. Average age at transplantation was 5.1 ± 2.9 years. The mean nadir creatinine level for patients with end-stage renal disease was 1.4 mg/dL compared with 0.4 mg/dL for those not requiring transplantation (P <.001). Children with PBS have significant comorbidities and require frequent operative intervention, with disease heterogeneity necessitating an individualized management approach. Early end-stage renal disease is prevalent, with approximately 15% of children requiring kidney transplantation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mortality, Causes of Death and Associated Factors Relate to a Large HIV Population-Based Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Garriga

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy has led to a decrease in HIV-related mortality and to the emergence of non-AIDS defining diseases as competing causes of death. This study estimates the HIV mortality rate and their risk factors with regard to different causes in a large city from January 2001 to June 2013.We followed-up 3137 newly diagnosed HIV non-AIDS cases. Causes of death were classified as HIV-related, non-HIV-related and external. We examined the effect of risk factors on survival using mortality rates, Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox models. Finally, we estimated survival for each main cause of death groups through Fine and Gray models.182 deaths were found [14.0/1000 person-years of follow-up (py; 95% confidence interval (CI:12.0-16.1/1000 py], 81.3% of them had a known cause of death. Mortality rate by HIV-related causes and non-HIV-related causes was the same (4.9/1000 py; CI:3.7-6.1/1000 py, external was lower [1.7/1000 py; (1.0-2.4/1000 py].Kaplan-Meier estimate showed worse survival in intravenous drug user (IDU and heterosexuals than in men having sex with men (MSM. Factors associated with HIV-related causes of death include: IDU male (subHazard Ratio (sHR:3.2; CI:1.5-7.0 and <200 CD4 at diagnosis (sHR:2.7; CI:1.3-5.7 versus ≥500 CD4. Factors associated with non-HIV-related causes of death include: ageing (sHR:1.5; CI:1.4-1.7 and heterosexual female (sHR:2.8; CI:1.1-7.3 versus MSM. Factors associated with external causes of death were IDU male (sHR:28.7; CI:6.7-123.2 and heterosexual male (sHR:11.8; CI:2.5-56.4 versus MSM.There are important differences in survival among transmission groups. Improved treatment is especially necessary in IDUs and heterosexual males.

  20. Fatty liver is associated with insulin resistance, risk of coronary heart disease, and early atherosclerosis in a large European population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gastaldelli, Amalia; Kozakova, Michaela; Højlund, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Patients with fatty liver (FL) disease have a high risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The aim was to evaluate the association between FL, insulin resistance (IR), coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, and early atherosclerosis in a large European population (RISC Study). In 1...... cholesterol (r = 0.33), alanine aminotransferase (r = 0.48), aspartate aminotransferase (r = 0.25), systolic blood pressure (r = 0.39) and IMT (r = 0.30), and reduced insulin sensitivity (r = -0.43), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = -0.50), adiponectin (r = -0.42), and physical activity (r = -0...

  1. Estimations of expectedness and potential surprise in possibility theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prade, Henri; Yager, Ronald R.

    1992-01-01

    This note investigates how various ideas of 'expectedness' can be captured in the framework of possibility theory. Particularly, we are interested in trying to introduce estimates of the kind of lack of surprise expressed by people when saying 'I would not be surprised that...' before an event takes place, or by saying 'I knew it' after its realization. In possibility theory, a possibility distribution is supposed to model the relative levels of mutually exclusive alternatives in a set, or equivalently, the alternatives are assumed to be rank-ordered according to their level of possibility to take place. Four basic set-functions associated with a possibility distribution, including standard possibility and necessity measures, are discussed from the point of view of what they estimate when applied to potential events. Extensions of these estimates based on the notions of Q-projection or OWA operators are proposed when only significant parts of the possibility distribution are retained in the evaluation. The case of partially-known possibility distributions is also considered. Some potential applications are outlined.

  2. New limits on the population of normal and millisecond pulsars in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, J. P.; Lorimer, D. R.

    2010-07-01

    We model the potentially observable populations of normal and millisecond radio pulsars in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC, respectively) where the known population currently stands at 19 normal radio pulsars. Taking into account the detection thresholds of previous surveys, and assuming optimal period and luminosity distributions based on studies of Galactic pulsars, we estimate that there are (1.79 +/- 0.20) × 104 and (1.09 +/- 0.16) × 104 normal pulsars in the LMC and SMC, respectively. When we attempt to correct for beaming effects, and the fraction of high-velocity pulsars which escape the clouds, we estimate birth rates in both the LMC and SMC to be comparable and in the range of 0.5-1 pulsars per century. Although higher than estimates for the rate of core-collapse supernovae in the clouds, these pulsar birth rates are consistent with historical supernova observations in the past 300 yr. A substantial population of active radio pulsars (of the order of a few hundred thousand) has escaped the LMC and SMC and populates the local intergalactic medium. For the millisecond pulsar (MSP) population, the lack of any detections from current surveys leads to respective upper limits (at the 95 per cent confidence level) of 15000 for the LMC and 23000 for the SMC. Several MSPs could be detected by a currently ongoing survey of the SMC with improved time and frequency resolution using the Parkes multibeam system. Giant-pulse emitting neutron stars could also be seen by this survey.

  3. Effects of selective logging on large mammal populations in a remote indigenous territory in the northern Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Mayor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of selective timber logging carried out by local indigenous people in remote areas within indigenous territories on the mammal populations of the Yavari-Mirin River basin on the Peru-Brazil border. Recent findings show that habitat change in the study area is minimal, and any effect of logging activities on large mammal populations is highly likely to be the result of hunting associated with logging operations. We used hunting registers to estimate the monthly and yearly biomass extracted during timber operations and to calculate the catch per unit effort (CPUE in subsistence hunting in the community of Esperanza 2 to 5 years before logging activities started and 4 to 7 years after logging began. We also used line transects and the distance method to estimate animal densities before and after logging. We found that 1389 hunted animals and 27,459 kg of mammal biomass were extracted per year from logging concessions. CPUE for ungulates declined; however, it increased for other mammal orders, such as rodents and primates, indicating a shift to alternative prey items. Although collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu and tapirs (Tapirus terrestris may also have declined in numbers, this shift may have been caused by a possibly natural population crash in white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari that coincided with the logging periods. We found no evidence that populations of primates were reduced by the logging activities. Because primates are sensitive to hunting, and their populations were of principal concern as logging commenced, this indicates that these forests remain of high conservation value. The unusual socioeconomic situation of these remote territories may mean that they are compatible with wildlife conservation in the Yavari-Mirin basin.

  4. Automated Atmospheric Composition Dataset Level Metadata Discovery. Difficulties and Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strub, R. F.; Falke, S. R.; Kempler, S.; Fialkowski, E.; Goussev, O.; Lynnes, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Composition Portal (ACP) is an aggregator and curator of information related to remotely sensed atmospheric composition data and analysis. It uses existing tools and technologies and, where needed, enhances those capabilities to provide interoperable access, tools, and contextual guidance for scientists and value-adding organizations using remotely sensed atmospheric composition data. The initial focus is on Essential Climate Variables identified by the Global Climate Observing System - CH4, CO, CO2, NO2, O3, SO2 and aerosols. This poster addresses our efforts in building the ACP Data Table, an interface to help discover and understand remotely sensed data that are related to atmospheric composition science and applications. We harvested GCMD, CWIC, GEOSS metadata catalogs using machine to machine technologies - OpenSearch, Web Services. We also manually investigated the plethora of CEOS data providers portals and other catalogs where that data might be aggregated. This poster is our experience of the excellence, variety, and challenges we encountered.Conclusions:1.The significant benefits that the major catalogs provide are their machine to machine tools like OpenSearch and Web Services rather than any GUI usability improvements due to the large amount of data in their catalog.2.There is a trend at the large catalogs towards simulating small data provider portals through advanced services. 3.Populating metadata catalogs using ISO19115 is too complex for users to do in a consistent way, difficult to parse visually or with XML libraries, and too complex for Java XML binders like CASTOR.4.The ability to search for Ids first and then for data (GCMD and ECHO) is better for machine to machine operations rather than the timeouts experienced when returning the entire metadata entry at once. 5.Metadata harvest and export activities between the major catalogs has led to a significant amount of duplication. (This is currently being addressed) 6.Most (if not

  5. A Genome-Wide Association Study in Large White and Landrace Pig Populations for Number Piglets Born Alive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfelder-Drüing, Sarah; Grosse-Brinkhaus, Christine; Lind, Bianca; Erbe, Malena; Schellander, Karl; Simianer, Henner; Tholen, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    The number of piglets born alive (NBA) per litter is one of the most important traits in pig breeding due to its influence on production efficiency. It is difficult to improve NBA because the heritability of the trait is low and it is governed by a high number of loci with low to moderate effects. To clarify the biological and genetic background of NBA, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were performed using 4,012 Large White and Landrace pigs from herdbook and commercial breeding companies in Germany (3), Austria (1) and Switzerland (1). The animals were genotyped with the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. Because of population stratifications within and between breeds, clusters were formed using the genetic distances between the populations. Five clusters for each breed were formed and analysed by GWAS approaches. In total, 17 different significant markers affecting NBA were found in regions with known effects on female reproduction. No overlapping significant chromosome areas or QTL between Large White and Landrace breed were detected. PMID:25781935

  6. A genome-wide association study in large white and landrace pig populations for number piglets born alive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bergfelder-Drüing

    Full Text Available The number of piglets born alive (NBA per litter is one of the most important traits in pig breeding due to its influence on production efficiency. It is difficult to improve NBA because the heritability of the trait is low and it is governed by a high number of loci with low to moderate effects. To clarify the biological and genetic background of NBA, genome-wide association studies (GWAS were performed using 4,012 Large White and Landrace pigs from herdbook and commercial breeding companies in Germany (3, Austria (1 and Switzerland (1. The animals were genotyped with the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. Because of population stratifications within and between breeds, clusters were formed using the genetic distances between the populations. Five clusters for each breed were formed and analysed by GWAS approaches. In total, 17 different significant markers affecting NBA were found in regions with known effects on female reproduction. No overlapping significant chromosome areas or QTL between Large White and Landrace breed were detected.

  7. Efficient inference of population size histories and locus-specific mutation rates from large-sample genomic variation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Anand; Wang, Y X Rachel; Song, Yun S

    2015-02-01

    With the recent increase in study sample sizes in human genetics, there has been growing interest in inferring historical population demography from genomic variation data. Here, we present an efficient inference method that can scale up to very large samples, with tens or hundreds of thousands of individuals. Specifically, by utilizing analytic results on the expected frequency spectrum under the coalescent and by leveraging the technique of automatic differentiation, which allows us to compute gradients exactly, we develop a very efficient algorithm to infer piecewise-exponential models of the historical effective population size from the distribution of sample allele frequencies. Our method is orders of magnitude faster than previous demographic inference methods based on the frequency spectrum. In addition to inferring demography, our method can also accurately estimate locus-specific mutation rates. We perform extensive validation of our method on simulated data and show that it can accurately infer multiple recent epochs of rapid exponential growth, a signal that is difficult to pick up with small sample sizes. Lastly, we use our method to analyze data from recent sequencing studies, including a large-sample exome-sequencing data set of tens of thousands of individuals assayed at a few hundred genic regions. © 2015 Bhaskar et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  8. Serum phosphorus and association with anemia among a large diverse population with and without chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Lac; Batech, Michael; Rhee, Connie M.; Streja, Elani; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Jacobsen, Steven J.; Sim, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that phosphorus has an effect on anemia in both normal kidney function and early chronic kidney disease (CKD). We sought to determine whether higher phosphorus levels are associated with anemia in a large diverse population without CKD and early CKD. Methods This study is a historical population-based study within the Kaiser Permanente Southern California health system (1 January 1998 to 31 December 2013) among individuals aged 18 years and older with estimated glomerular filtration rate >30 mL/min/1.73 m2 and measurements of serum phosphorus, creatinine and hemoglobin. Individuals were excluded if they had secondary causes of anemia. Odds ratio (OR) estimated for moderate anemia defined as hemoglobin phosphorus levels ≥3.5 mg/dL were associated with both mild and moderate anemia. Moderate anemia OR (95% confidence interval) was 1.16 (1.04–1.29) for every 0.5 mg/dL phosphorus increase and 1.26 (1.07–1.48) in the highest versus middle phosphorus tertile. Additional independent anemia risk factors, including female sex, Asian race, diabetes, low albumin and low iron saturation, were observed, but did not alter the anemia–phosphorus association. Conclusions Higher phosphorus levels were associated with a greater likelihood for anemia in a population with early CKD and normal kidney function. Phosphorus may be a biomarker for anemia and may affect aspects of hematopoiesis. PMID:26254460

  9. Large indoor cage study of the suppression of stable Aedes aegypti populations by the release of thiotepa-sterilised males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Gato

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The sterile insect technique (SIT is a promising pest control method in terms of efficacy and environmental compatibility. In this study, we determined the efficacy of thiotepa-sterilised males in reducing the target Aedes aegypti populations. Treated male pupae were released weekly into large laboratory cages at a constant ratio of either 5:1 or 2:1 sterile-to-fertile males. A two-to-one release ratio reduced the hatch rate of eggs laid in the cage by approximately a third and reduced the adult catch rate by approximately a quarter, but a 5:1 release drove the population to elimination after 15 weeks of release. These results indicate that thiotepa exposure is an effective means of sterilising Ae. aegypti and males thus treated are able to reduce the reproductive capacity of a stable population under laboratory conditions. Further testing of the method in semi-field enclosures is required to evaluate the mating competitiveness of sterile males when exposed to natural environmental conditions. If proven effective, SIT using thiotepa-sterilised males may be incorporated into an integrated programme of vector control to combat dengue in Cuba.

  10. Multiple lifestyle behaviours and mortality, findings from a large population-based Norwegian cohort study - The HUNT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinar Krokstad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifestyle risk behaviours are responsible for a large proportion of disease burden and premature mortality worldwide. Risk behaviours tend to cluster in populations. We developed a new lifestyle risk index by including emerging risk factors (sleep, sitting time, and social participation and examine unique risk combinations and their associations with all-cause and cardio-metabolic mortality. Methods Data are from a large population-based cohort study in a Norway, the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT, with an average follow-up time of 14.1 years. Baseline data from 1995–97 were linked to the Norwegian Causes of Death Registry. The analytic sample comprised 36 911 adults aged 20–69 years. Cox regression models were first fitted for seven risk factors (poor diet, excessive alcohol consumption, current smoking, physical inactivity, excessive sitting, too much/too little sleep, and poor social participation separately and then adjusted for socio-demographic covariates. Based on these results, a lifestyle risk index was developed. Finally, we explored common combinations of the risk factors in relation to all-cause and cardio-metabolic mortality outcomes. Results All single risk factors, except for diet, were significantly associated with both mortality outcomes, and were therefore selected to form a lifestyle risk index. Risk of mortality increased as the index score increased. The hazard ratio for all-cause mortality increased from 1.37 (1.15-1.62 to 6.15 (3.56-10.63 as the number of index risk factors increased from one to six respectively. Among the most common risk factor combinations the association with mortality was particularly strong when smoking and/or social participation were included. Conclusions This study adds to previous research on multiple risk behaviours by incorporating emerging risk factors. Findings regarding social participation and prolonged sitting suggest new components of healthy lifestyles and

  11. Physics Nobel prize 2004: Surprising theory wins physics Nobel

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    From left to right: David Politzer, David Gross and Frank Wilczek. For their understanding of counter-intuitive aspects of the strong force, which governs quarks inside protons and neutrons, on 5 October three American physicists were awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics. David J. Gross (Kavli Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara), H. David Politzer (California Institute of Technology), and Frank Wilczek (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) made a key theoretical discovery with a surprising result: the closer quarks are together, the weaker the force - opposite to what is seen with electromagnetism and gravity. Rather, the strong force is analogous to a rubber band stretching, where the force increases as the quarks get farther apart. These physicists discovered this property of quarks, known as asymptotic freedom, in 1976. It later became a key part of the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the Standard Model, the current best theory to describe the interac...

  12. Workplace bullying and sleep disturbances: findings from a large scale cross-sectional survey in the French working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedhammer, Isabelle; David, Simone; Degioanni, Stephanie; Drummond, Anne; Philip, Pierre; Acquarone, D; Aicardi, F; André-Mazeaud, P; Arsento, M; Astier, R; Baille, H; Bajon-Thery, F; Barre, E; Basire, C; Battu, J L; Baudry, S; Beatini, C; Beaud'huin, N; Becker, C; Bellezza, D; Beque, C; Bernstein, O; Beyssier, C; Blanc-Cascio, F; Blanchet, N; Blondel, C; Boisselot, R; Bordes-Dupuy, G; Borrelly, N; Bouhnik, D; Boulanger, M F; Boulard, J; Borreau, P; Bourret, D; Boustière, A M; Breton, C; Bugeon, G; Buono-Michel, M; Canonne, J F; Capella, D; Cavin-Rey, M; Cervoni, C; Charreton, D; Charrier, D; Chauvin, M A; Chazal, B; Cougnot, C; Cuvelier, G; Dalivoust, G; Daumas, R; Debaille, A; De Bretteville, L; Delaforge, G; Delchambre, A; Domeny, L; Donati, Y; Ducord-Chapelet, J; Duran, C; Durand-Bruguerolle, D; Fabre, D; Faivre, A; Falleri, R; Ferrando, G; Ferrari-Galano, J; Flutet, M; Fouché, J P; Fournier, F; Freyder, E; Galy, M; Garcia, A; Gazazian, G; Gérard, C; Girard, F; Giuge, M; Goyer, C; Gravier, C; Guyomard, A; Hacquin, M C; Halimi, E; Ibagnes, T; Icart, P; Jacquin, M C; Jaubert, B; Joret, J P; Julien, J P; Kacel, M; Kesmedjian, E; Lacroix, P; Lafon-Borelli, M; Lallai, S; Laudicina, J; Leclercq, X; Ledieu, S; Leroy, J; Leroyer, L; Loesche, F; Londi, D; Longueville, J M; Lotte, M C; Louvain, S; Lozé, M; Maculet-Simon, M; Magallon, G; Marcelot, V; Mareel, M C; Martin, P; Masse, A M; Méric, M; Milliet, C; Mokhtari, R; Monville, A M; Muller, B; Obadia, G; Pelser, M; Peres, L; Perez, E; Peyron, M; Peyronnin, F; Postel, S; Presseq, P; Pyronnet, E; Quinsat, C; Raulot-Lapointe, H; Rigaud, P; Robert, F; Robert, O; Roger, K; Roussel, A; Roux, J P; Rubini-Remigy, D; Sabate, N; Saccomano-Pertus, C; Salengro, B; Salengro-Trouillez, P; Samson, E; Sendra-Gille, L; Seyrig, C; Stoll, G; Tarpinian, N; Tavernier, M; Tempesta, S; Terracol, H; Torresani, F; Triglia, M F; Vandomme, V; Vieillard, F; Vilmot, K; Vital, N

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the associations between workplace bullying, the characteristics of workplace bullying, and sleep disturbances in a large sample of employees of the French working population. Workplace bullying, evaluated using the validated instrument developed by Leymann, and sleep disturbances, as well as covariates, were measured using a self-administered questionnaire. Covariates included age, marital status, presence of children, education, occupation, working hours, night work, physical and chemical exposures at work, self-reported health, and depressive symptoms. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression analysis and was carried out separately for men and women. General working population. The study population consisted of a random sample of 3132 men and 4562 women of the working population in the southeast of France. Workplace bullying was strongly associated with sleep disturbances. Past exposure to bullying also increased the risk for this outcome. The more frequent the exposure to bullying, the higher the risk of experiencing sleep disturbances. Observing someone else being bullied in the workplace was also associated with the outcome. Adjustment for covariates did not modify the results. Additional adjustment for self-reported health and depressive symptoms diminished the magnitude of the associations that remained significant. The prevalence of workplace bullying (around 10%) was found to be high in this study as well was the impact of this major job-related stressor on sleep disturbances. Although no conclusion about causality could be drawn from this cross-sectional study, the findings suggest that the contribution of workplace bullying to the burden of sleep disturbances may be substantial.

  13. Exploring the concept of climate surprises. A review of the literature on the concept of surprise and how it is related to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glantz, M.H.; Moore, C.M.; Streets, D.G.; Bhatti, N.; Rosa, C.H.

    1998-01-01

    This report examines the concept of climate surprise and its implications for environmental policymaking. Although most integrated assessment models of climate change deal with average values of change, it is usually the extreme events or surprises that cause the most damage to human health and property. Current models do not help the policymaker decide how to deal with climate surprises. This report examines the literature of surprise in many aspects of human society: psychology, military, health care, humor, agriculture, etc. It draws together various ways to consider the concept of surprise and examines different taxonomies of surprise that have been proposed. In many ways, surprise is revealed to be a subjective concept, triggered by such factors as prior experience, belief system, and level of education. How policymakers have reacted to specific instances of climate change or climate surprise in the past is considered, particularly with regard to the choices they made between proactive and reactive measures. Finally, the report discusses techniques used in the current generation of assessment models and makes suggestions as to how climate surprises might be included in future models. The report concludes that some kinds of surprises are simply unpredictable, but there are several types that could in some way be anticipated and assessed, and their negative effects forestalled

  14. Exploring the concept of climate surprises. A review of the literature on the concept of surprise and how it is related to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, M.H.; Moore, C.M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Streets, D.G.; Bhatti, N.; Rosa, C.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Stewart, T.R. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report examines the concept of climate surprise and its implications for environmental policymaking. Although most integrated assessment models of climate change deal with average values of change, it is usually the extreme events or surprises that cause the most damage to human health and property. Current models do not help the policymaker decide how to deal with climate surprises. This report examines the literature of surprise in many aspects of human society: psychology, military, health care, humor, agriculture, etc. It draws together various ways to consider the concept of surprise and examines different taxonomies of surprise that have been proposed. In many ways, surprise is revealed to be a subjective concept, triggered by such factors as prior experience, belief system, and level of education. How policymakers have reacted to specific instances of climate change or climate surprise in the past is considered, particularly with regard to the choices they made between proactive and reactive measures. Finally, the report discusses techniques used in the current generation of assessment models and makes suggestions as to how climate surprises might be included in future models. The report concludes that some kinds of surprises are simply unpredictable, but there are several types that could in some way be anticipated and assessed, and their negative effects forestalled.

  15. Atrial Fibrillation in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Prevalence, Clinical Correlations, and Mortality in a Large High‐Risk Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siontis, Konstantinos C.; Geske, Jeffrey B.; Ong, Kevin; Nishimura, Rick A.; Ommen, Steve R.; Gersh, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common sequela of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), but evidence on its prevalence, risk factors, and effect on mortality is sparse. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of AF, identify clinical and echocardiographic correlates, and assess its effect on mortality in a large high‐risk HCM population. Methods and Results We identified HCM patients who underwent evaluation at our institution from 1975 to 2012. AF was defined by known history (either chronic or paroxysmal), electrocardiogram, or Holter monitoring at index visit. We examined clinical and echocardiographic variables in association with AF. The effect of AF on overall and cause‐specific mortality was evaluated with multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Of 3673 patients with HCM, 650 (18%) had AF. Patients with AF were older and more symptomatic (P<0.001). AF was less common among patients with obstructive HCM phenotype and was associated with larger left atria, higher E/e’ ratios, and worse cardiopulmonary exercise tolerance (all P values<0.001). During median (interquartile range) follow‐up of 4.1 (0.2 to 10) years, 1069 (29%) patients died. Patients with AF had worse survival compared to those without AF (P<0.001). In multivariate analysis adjusted for established risk factors of mortality in HCM, the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for the effect of AF on overall mortality was 1.48 (1.27 to 1.71). AF did not have an effect on sudden or nonsudden cardiac death. Conclusions In this large referral HCM population, approximately 1 in 5 patients had AF. AF was a strong predictor of mortality, even after adjustment for established risk factors. PMID:24965028

  16. CONSTRAINTS ON THE GALACTIC POPULATION OF TeV PULSAR WIND NEBULAE USING FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acero, F.; Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ackermann, M. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Buehler, R. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Baldini, L. [Universita di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D.; Buson, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bonamente, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Brigida, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' M. Merlin' ' dell' Universita e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bruel, P., E-mail: funk@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: joshualande@gmail.com, E-mail: lemoine@cenbg.in2p3.fr, E-mail: rousseau@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); and others

    2013-08-10

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) have been established as the most populous class of TeV {gamma}-ray emitters. Since launch, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has identified five high-energy (100 MeV < E < 100 GeV) {gamma}-ray sources as PWNe and detected a large number of PWN candidates, all powered by young and energetic pulsars. The wealth of multi-wavelength data available and the new results provided by Fermi-LAT give us an opportunity to find new PWNe and to explore the radiative processes taking place in known ones. The TeV {gamma}-ray unidentified (UNID) sources are the best candidates for finding new PWNe. Using 45 months of Fermi-LAT data for energies above 10 GeV, an analysis was performed near the position of 58 TeV PWNe and UNIDs within 5 Degree-Sign of the Galactic plane to establish new constraints on PWN properties and find new clues on the nature of UNIDs. Of the 58 sources, 30 were detected, and this work provides their {gamma}-ray fluxes for energies above 10 GeV. The spectral energy distributions and upper limits, in the multi-wavelength context, also provide new information on the source nature and can help distinguish between emission scenarios, i.e., between classification as a pulsar candidate or as a PWN candidate. Six new GeV PWN candidates are described in detail and compared with existing models. A population study of GeV PWN candidates as a function of the pulsar/PWN system characteristics is presented.

  17. CONSTRAINTS ON THE GALACTIC POPULATION OF TeV PULSAR WIND NEBULAE USING FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acero, F.; Brandt, T. J.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Buehler, R.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.

    2013-01-01

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) have been established as the most populous class of TeV γ-ray emitters. Since launch, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has identified five high-energy (100 MeV < E < 100 GeV) γ-ray sources as PWNe and detected a large number of PWN candidates, all powered by young and energetic pulsars. The wealth of multi-wavelength data available and the new results provided by Fermi-LAT give us an opportunity to find new PWNe and to explore the radiative processes taking place in known ones. The TeV γ-ray unidentified (UNID) sources are the best candidates for finding new PWNe. Using 45 months of Fermi-LAT data for energies above 10 GeV, an analysis was performed near the position of 58 TeV PWNe and UNIDs within 5° of the Galactic plane to establish new constraints on PWN properties and find new clues on the nature of UNIDs. Of the 58 sources, 30 were detected, and this work provides their γ-ray fluxes for energies above 10 GeV. The spectral energy distributions and upper limits, in the multi-wavelength context, also provide new information on the source nature and can help distinguish between emission scenarios, i.e., between classification as a pulsar candidate or as a PWN candidate. Six new GeV PWN candidates are described in detail and compared with existing models. A population study of GeV PWN candidates as a function of the pulsar/PWN system characteristics is presented

  18. Optical Coherence Tomography in the UK Biobank Study - Rapid Automated Analysis of Retinal Thickness for Large Population-Based Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearse A Keane

    Full Text Available To describe an approach to the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT imaging in large, population-based studies, including methods for OCT image acquisition, storage, and the remote, rapid, automated analysis of retinal thickness.In UK Biobank, OCT images were acquired between 2009 and 2010 using a commercially available "spectral domain" OCT device (3D OCT-1000, Topcon. Images were obtained using a raster scan protocol, 6 mm x 6 mm in area, and consisting of 128 B-scans. OCT image sets were stored on UK Biobank servers in a central repository, adjacent to high performance computers. Rapid, automated analysis of retinal thickness was performed using custom image segmentation software developed by the Topcon Advanced Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (TABIL. This software employs dual-scale gradient information to allow for automated segmentation of nine intraretinal boundaries in a rapid fashion.67,321 participants (134,642 eyes in UK Biobank underwent OCT imaging of both eyes as part of the ocular module. 134,611 images were successfully processed with 31 images failing segmentation analysis due to corrupted OCT files or withdrawal of subject consent for UKBB study participation. Average time taken to call up an image from the database and complete segmentation analysis was approximately 120 seconds per data set per login, and analysis of the entire dataset was completed in approximately 28 days.We report an approach to the rapid, automated measurement of retinal thickness from nearly 140,000 OCT image sets from the UK Biobank. In the near future, these measurements will be publically available for utilization by researchers around the world, and thus for correlation with the wealth of other data collected in UK Biobank. The automated analysis approaches we describe may be of utility for future large population-based epidemiological studies, clinical trials, and screening programs that employ OCT imaging.

  19. Reference interval for the disc-macula distance to disc diameter ratio in a large population of healthy Japanese adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ken-ichi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study presents the calculated reference interval for the disc-to-macula distance to disc diameter ratio (DM:DD) based on a large population of healthy Japanese adults. A total of 308 consecutive, healthy Japanese adults were examined in this prospective observational study. Eighteen subjects were also excluded because of poor quality of the fundus photograph of one or both eyes; 290 (161 men and 129 women) were included in this study. For each subject, a color fundus photograph of one eye, either the right or left, was randomly selected and used for analysis. On the photograph, the distances between the fovea and the nearest temporal margin of the optic disc (Dft), and the two kinds of disc diameters (D1 and D2), which bisected at right angles and one of which was directed to the fovea (D1), were measured. DM:DD was estimated using the formula: (2Dft + D1)/(D1 + D2). The mean ± standard deviation of DM:DD was 2.91 ± 0.49 for men and 2.96 ± 0.54 for women; there was no sex difference (P = .78, Mann–Whitney U test). Also, almost no relationship was found between DM:DD and age (ρ = −.12, P = .04, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient). The data did not fit a normal distribution (P < .001, Kolmogorov–Smirnov test). The estimated reference interval for DM:DD corresponding to the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles was 2.12 to 4.18. Using a nonparametric approach, the reference interval for DM:DD of a large population of healthy Japanese adults was calculated to be 2.12 to 4.18, regardless of age or sex. PMID:28403107

  20. Decline and recovery of a large carnivore: environmental change and long-term trends in an endangered brown bear population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Cano, Isabel; Taboada, Fernando González; Naves, Javier; Fernández-Gil, Alberto; Wiegand, Thorsten

    2016-11-30

    Understanding what factors drive fluctuations in the abundance of endangered species is a difficult ecological problem but a major requirement to attain effective management and conservation success. The ecological traits of large mammals make this task even more complicated, calling for integrative approaches. We develop a framework combining individual-based modelling and statistical inference to assess alternative hypotheses on brown bear dynamics in the Cantabrian range (Iberian Peninsula). Models including the effect of environmental factors on mortality rates were able to reproduce three decades of variation in the number of females with cubs of the year (Fcoy), including the decline that put the population close to extinction in the mid-nineties, and the following increase in brown bear numbers. This external effect prevailed over density-dependent mechanisms (sexually selected infanticide and female reproductive suppression), with a major impact of climate driven changes in resource availability and a secondary role of changes in human pressure. Predicted changes in population structure revealed a nonlinear relationship between total abundance and the number of Fcoy, highlighting the risk of simple projections based on indirect abundance indices. This study demonstrates the advantages of integrative, mechanistic approaches and provides a widely applicable framework to improve our understanding of wildlife dynamics. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Depletion of trophy large-sized sharks populations of the Argentinean coast, south-western Atlantic: insights from fishers' knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejo Irigoyen

    Full Text Available Abstract Globally, sharks are impacted by a wide range of human activities, resulting in many populations being depleted. Trophy large-sized sharks of the Argentinean coast, the sand-tiger Carcharias taurus , the copper Carcharhinus brachyurus and the sevengill shark Notorynchus cepedianus are under intense sport and artisanal fishing since the 50's decade. However, the current and historical information for the assessment of its populations status is scarce. The aim of this work was to analyze the status of conservation of these species through the gathering of expert fishermen knowledge (FK on semi-structured interviews. Abundance variation perception between the beginning and the end of fishermen careers revealed a critical status for the species study (means variation between -77 and -90 %. Furthermore, a best day's catch analysis reinforce this result in the case of the sand tiger shark. The school shark Galeorhinus galeus was included on this work with the objective of contrast FK with formal information available of catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE time series. Both sources of information, despite are not comparable, shows declines ~ - 80%. The critical conservation situation of study species needs urgent management action, particularly for the san tiger shark which could became regionally extinct before the reaction of stakeholders occurs.

  2. Su Lyncis, a Hard X-Ray Bright M Giant: Clues Point to a Large Hidden Population of Symbiotic Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, K.; Luna, G. J. M.; Cusumano, G.; Segreto, A.; Munari, U.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Lucy, A. B.; Nelson, T.; Nunez, N. E.

    2016-01-01

    Symbiotic star surveys have traditionally relied almost exclusively on low resolution optical spectroscopy. However, we can obtain a more reliable estimate of their total Galactic population by using all available signatures of the symbiotic phenomenon. Here we report the discovery of a hard X-ray source, 4PBC J0642.9+5528, in the Swift hard X-ray all-sky survey, and identify it with a poorly studied red giant, SU Lyn, using pointed Swift observations and ground-based optical spectroscopy. The X-ray spectrum, the optical to UV spectrum, and the rapid UV variability of SU Lyn are all consistent with our interpretation that it is a symbiotic star containing an accreting white dwarf. The symbiotic nature of SU Lyn went unnoticed until now, because it does not exhibit emission lines strong enough to be obvious in low resolution spectra. We argue that symbiotic stars without shell-burning have weak emission lines, and that the current lists of symbiotic stars are biased in favor of shell-burning systems. We conclude that the true population of symbiotic stars has been underestimated, potentially by a large factor.

  3. Investigation and functional characterization of rare genetic variants in the adipose triglyceride lipase in a large healthy working population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Coassin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrated a strong influence of rare genetic variants on several lipid-related traits. However, their impact on free fatty acid (FFA plasma concentrations, as well as the role of rare variants in a general population, has not yet been thoroughly addressed. The adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL is encoded by the PNPLA2 gene and catalyzes the rate-limiting step of lipolysis. It represents a prominent candidate gene affecting FFA concentrations. We therefore screened the full genomic region of ATGL for mutations in 1,473 randomly selected individuals from the SAPHIR (Salzburg Atherosclerosis Prevention program in subjects at High Individual Risk Study using a combined Ecotilling and sequencing approach and functionally investigated all detected protein variants by in-vitro studies. We observed 55 novel mostly rare genetic variants in this general population sample. Biochemical evaluation of all non-synonymous variants demonstrated the presence of several mutated but mostly still functional ATGL alleles with largely varying residual lipolytic activity. About one-quarter (3 out of 13 of the investigated variants presented a marked decrease or total loss of catalytic function. Genetic association studies using both continuous and dichotomous approaches showed a shift towards lower plasma FFA concentrations for rare variant carriers and an accumulation of variants in the lower 10%-quantile of the FFA distribution. However, the generally rather small effects suggest either only a secondary role of rare ATGL variants on the FFA levels in the SAPHIR population or a recessive action of ATGL variants. In contrast to these rather small effects, we describe here also the first patient with "neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy" (NLSDM with a point mutation in the catalytic dyad, but otherwise intact protein.

  4. Characteristics of visitors to practitioners of homeopathy in a large adult Norwegian population (the HUNT 3 study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løhre, Audhild; Rise, Marit By; Steinsbekk, Aslak

    2012-07-01

    The aim was to investigate characteristics of female and male visitors to practitioners of homeopathy in a large adult population in Norway. A cross-sectional adult total population health survey from Central Norway (the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study--HUNT 3) conducted in 2008. Variables included demographics, lifestyle, health status and health care use. Multivariate logistic regression models were employed to analyse the data. In total 50,827 participated (54% of the total population). The prevalence of visits to practitioners of homeopathy was 1.3%, a decline from 4.3% 10 years earlier. Both female and male visitors were 4-5 times more likely to experience recent somatic complaints. Further, female visitors were characterised by higher education, non-smoking, more chronic complaints, and visiting a physician or a chiropractor the past year whereas male visitors were characterised by seeking help for psychiatric complaints and visiting a chiropractor. There were no associations of age, marital status, physical activity, perceived global health, respiratory, skin, or musculoskeletal diseases with visiting practitioners of homeopathy. CONCLUSIONS AND PROPOSALS: There has been a marked decline in visits to practitioners of homeopathy. The results indicate a change in reasons to consult from complaints that influences the visitors' global health to less chronic complaints. Further research should compare changes in visits complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners and the characteristics of visitors to practitioners of homeopathy to characteristics of other CAM visitors. Copyright © 2012 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Atom Surprise: Using Theatre in Primary Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Ran; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet

    2011-10-01

    Early exposure to science may have a lifelong effect on children's attitudes towards science and their motivation to learn science in later life. Out-of-class environments can play a significant role in creating favourable attitudes, while contributing to conceptual learning. Educational science theatre is one form of an out-of-class environment, which has received little research attention. This study aims to describe affective and cognitive learning outcomes of watching such a play and to point to connections between theatrical elements and specific outcomes. "Atom Surprise" is a play portraying several concepts on the topic of matter. A mixed methods approach was adopted to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of children (grades 1-6) from two different school settings who watched the play. Data were gathered using questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Analysis suggested that in both schools children's knowledge on the topic of matter increased after the play with younger children gaining more conceptual knowledge than their older peers. In the public school girls showed greater gains in conceptual knowledge than boys. No significant changes in students' general attitudes towards science were found, however, students demonstrated positive changes towards science learning. Theatrical elements that seemed to be important in children's recollection of the play were the narrative, props and stage effects, and characters. In the children's memory, science was intertwined with the theatrical elements. Nonetheless, children could distinguish well between scientific facts and the fictive narrative.

  6. X-rays from comets - a surprising discovery

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    Comets are kilometre-size aggregates of ice and dust, which remained from the formation of the solar system. It was not obvious to expect X-ray emission from such objects. Nevertheless, when comet Hyakutake (C/1996 B2) was observed with the ROSAT X-ray satellite during its close approach to Earth in March 1996, bright X-ray emission from this comet was discovered. This finding triggered a search in archival ROSAT data for comets, which might have accidentally crossed the field of view during observations of unrelated targets. To increase the surprise even more, X-ray emission was detected from four additional comets, which were optically 300 to 30 000 times fainter than Hyakutake. For one of them, comet Arai (C/1991 A2), X-ray emission was even found in data which were taken six weeks before the comet was optically discovered. These findings showed that comets represent a new class of celestial X-ray sources. The subsequent detection of X-ray emission from several other comets in dedicated observations confir...

  7. Genetic diversity and population structure assessed by SSR and SNP markers in a large germplasm collection of grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The economic importance of grapevine has driven significant efforts in genomics to accelerate the exploitation of Vitis resources for development of new cultivars. However, although a large number of clonally propagated accessions are maintained in grape germplasm collections worldwide, their use for crop improvement is limited by the scarcity of information on genetic diversity, population structure and proper phenotypic assessment. The identification of representative and manageable subset of accessions would facilitate access to the diversity available in large collections. A genome-wide germplasm characterization using molecular markers can offer reliable tools for adjusting the quality and representativeness of such core samples. Results We investigated patterns of molecular diversity at 22 common microsatellite loci and 384 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2273 accessions of domesticated grapevine V. vinifera ssp. sativa, its wild relative V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris, interspecific hybrid cultivars and rootstocks. Despite the large number of putative duplicates and extensive clonal relationships among the accessions, we observed high level of genetic variation. In the total germplasm collection the average genetic diversity, as quantified by the expected heterozygosity, was higher for SSR loci (0.81) than for SNPs (0.34). The analysis of the genetic structure in the grape germplasm collection revealed several levels of stratification. The primary division was between accessions of V. vinifera and non-vinifera, followed by the distinction between wild and domesticated grapevine. Intra-specific subgroups were detected within cultivated grapevine representing different eco-geographic groups. The comparison of a phenological core collection and genetic core collections showed that the latter retained more genetic diversity, while maintaining a similar phenotypic variability. Conclusions The comprehensive molecular characterization of our grape

  8. Self-organizing weights for Internet AS-graphs and surprisingly simple routing metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholz, Jan Carsten; Greiner, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The transport capacity of Internet-like communication networks and hence their efficiency may be improved by a factor of 5–10 through the use of highly optimized routing metrics, as demonstrated previously. The numerical determination of such routing metrics can be computationally demanding...... to an extent that prohibits both investigation of and application to very large networks. In an attempt to find a numerically less expensive way of constructing a metric with a comparable performance increase, we propose a local, self-organizing iteration scheme and find two surprisingly simple and efficient...... metrics. The new metrics have negligible computational cost and result in an approximately 5-fold performance increase, providing distinguished competitiveness with the computationally costly counterparts. They are applicable to very large networks and easy to implement in today's Internet routing...

  9. Beyond surprise : A longitudinal study on the experience of visual-tactual incongruities in products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, G.D.S.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Hekkert, P.

    2012-01-01

    When people encounter products with visual-tactual incongruities, they are likely to be surprised because the product feels different than expected. In this paper, we investigate (1) the relationship between surprise and the overall liking of the products, (2) the emotions associated with surprise,

  10. Surprising Incentive: An Instrument for Promoting Safety Performance of Construction Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhradin Ghasemi

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study proved that the surprising incentive would improve the employees' safety performance just in the short term because the surprising value of the incentives dwindle over time. For this reason and to maintain the surprising value of the incentive system, the amount and types of incentives need to be evaluated and modified annually or biannually.

  11. The Role of Surprise in Game-Based Learning for Mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Pieter; van Oostendorp, Herre; ter Vrugte, Judith; Vandercruysse, Sylke; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.; Elen, Jan; De Gloria, Alessandro; Veltkamp, Remco

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the potential of surprise on learning with prevocational students in the domain of proportional reasoning. Surprise involves an emotional reaction, but it also serves a cognitive goal as it directs attention to explain why the surprising event occurred and to learn for

  12. Human amygdala response to dynamic facial expressions of positive and negative surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrticka, Pascal; Lordier, Lara; Bediou, Benoît; Sander, David

    2014-02-01

    Although brain imaging evidence accumulates to suggest that the amygdala plays a key role in the processing of novel stimuli, only little is known about its role in processing expressed novelty conveyed by surprised faces, and even less about possible interactive encoding of novelty and valence. Those investigations that have already probed human amygdala involvement in the processing of surprised facial expressions either used static pictures displaying negative surprise (as contained in fear) or "neutral" surprise, and manipulated valence by contextually priming or subjectively associating static surprise with either negative or positive information. Therefore, it still remains unresolved how the human amygdala differentially processes dynamic surprised facial expressions displaying either positive or negative surprise. Here, we created new artificial dynamic 3-dimensional facial expressions conveying surprise with an intrinsic positive (wonderment) or negative (fear) connotation, but also intrinsic positive (joy) or negative (anxiety) emotions not containing any surprise, in addition to neutral facial displays either containing ("typical surprise" expression) or not containing ("neutral") surprise. Results showed heightened amygdala activity to faces containing positive (vs. negative) surprise, which may either correspond to a specific wonderment effect as such, or to the computation of a negative expected value prediction error. Findings are discussed in the light of data obtained from a closely matched nonsocial lottery task, which revealed overlapping activity within the left amygdala to unexpected positive outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Characterizing abnormal behavior in a large population of zoo-housed chimpanzees: prevalence and potential influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Jacobson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal behaviors in captive animals are generally defined as behaviors that are atypical for the species and are often considered to be indicators of poor welfare. Although some abnormal behaviors have been empirically linked to conditions related to elevated stress and compromised welfare in primates, others have little or no evidence on which to base such a relationship. The objective of this study was to investigate a recent claim that abnormal behavior is endemic in the captive population by surveying a broad sample of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, while also considering factors associated with the origins of these behaviors. We surveyed animal care staff from 26 accredited zoos to assess the prevalence of abnormal behavior in a large sample of chimpanzees in the United States for which we had information on origin and rearing history. Our results demonstrated that 64% of this sample was reported to engage in some form of abnormal behavior in the past two years and 48% of chimpanzees engaged in abnormal behavior other than coprophagy. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the historical variables that best predicted the occurrence of all abnormal behavior, any abnormal behavior that was not coprophagy, and coprophagy. Rearing had opposing effects on the occurrence of coprophagy and the other abnormal behaviors such that mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform coprophagy, whereas non-mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform other abnormal behaviors. These results support the assertion that coprophagy may be classified separately when assessing abnormal behavior and the welfare of captive chimpanzees. This robust evaluation of the prevalence of abnormal behavior in our sample from the U.S. zoo population also demonstrates the importance of considering the contribution of historical variables to present behavior, in order to better understand the causes of these behaviors and any potential relationship to

  14. Association of Barrett's esophagus with type II Diabetes Mellitus: results from a large population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Prasad G; Borah, Bijan J; Heien, Herbert C; Das, Ananya; Cooper, Gregory S; Chak, Amitabh

    2013-09-01

    Central obesity could increase the risk for Barrett's esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma by mechanical and/or metabolic mechanisms, such as hyperinsulinemia. We performed an epidemiologic study to determine whether prior type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is associated with BE. We performed a population-based case-control study using the General Practice Research Database, a UK primary care database that contains information on more than 8 million subjects, to identify cases of BE (using previously validated codes; n = 14,245) and matched controls without BE (by age, sex, enrollment date, duration of follow-up evaluation, and practice region by incidence density sampling; n = 70,361). We assessed the association of a prior diagnosis of DM2 with BE using conditional univariate and multivariable regression analysis. Confounders assessed included smoking, obesity measured by body mass index (BMI), and gastroesophageal reflux disease. BE cases were more likely than controls to have smoked (52.4% vs 49.9%), have a higher mean BMI (27.2 vs 26.9), and a higher prevalence of DM2 than controls (5.8% vs 5.3%). On multivariable analysis, DM2 was associated with a 49% increase in the risk of BE, independent of other known risk factors (odds ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.91). This association was stronger in women than men. Results remained stable with sensitivity analyses. In a large population-based case-control study, DM2 was a risk factor for BE, independent of obesity (as measured by BMI) and other risk factors (smoking and gastroesophageal reflux disease). These data suggest that metabolic pathways related to DM2 should be explored in BE pathogenesis and esophageal carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The spectrum of thyroid disease and risk of new onset atrial fibrillation: a large population cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmer, Christian; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Hansen, Morten Lock; Lindhardsen, Jesper; Olsen, Anne-Marie Schjerning; Madsen, Jesper Clausager; Faber, Jens; Hansen, Peter Riis; Pedersen, Ole Dyg; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar

    2012-11-27

    To examine the risk of atrial fibrillation in relation to the whole spectrum of thyroid function in a large cohort of patients. Population based cohort study of general practice patients identified by linkage of nationwide registries at the individual level. Primary care patients in the city of Copenhagen. Registry data for 586,460 adults who had their thyroid function evaluated for the first time by their general practitioner during 2000-10 and who were without previously recorded thyroid disease or atrial fibrillation. Poisson regression models used to estimate risk of atrial fibrillation by thyroid function. Of the 586,460 individuals in the study population (mean (SD) age 50.2 (16.9) years, 39% men), 562,461 (96.0%) were euthyroid, 1670 (0.3%) had overt hypothyroidism, 12,087 (2.0%) had subclinical hypothyroidism, 3966 (0.7%) had overt hyperthyroidism, and 6276 (1.0%) had subclinical hyperthyroidism. Compared with the euthyroid individuals, the risk of atrial fibrillation increased with decreasing levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) from high normal euthyroidism (incidence rate ratio 1.12 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.21)) to subclinical hyperthyroidism with reduced TSH (1.16 (0.99 to 1.36)) and subclinical hyperthyroidism with supressed TSH (1.41 (1.25 to 1.59)). Both overt and subclinical hypothyroidism were associated with a lower risk of atrial fibrillation. The risk of atrial fibrillation was closely associated with thyroid activity, with a low risk in overt hypothyroidism, high risk in hyperthyroidism, and a TSH level dependent association with risk of atrial fibrillation across the spectrum of subclinical thyroid disease.

  16. The Prevalence and Role of Hemoglobin Variants in Biometric Screening of a Multiethnic Population: One Large Health System's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, Clayton R; Bernard, David W; Zieske, Arthur W; Andrieni, Julia; Miller, Tara; Wang, Ping

    2017-06-01

    To characterize and quantitate hemoglobin (Hb) variants discovered during biometric hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) analyses in a large multiethnic population with a focus on the effect of variants on testing method and results. In total, 13,913 individuals had their HbA1c measured via ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography. Samples that had a variant Hb detected or HbF fraction more than 25% underwent variant Hb characterization and confirmation by gel electrophoresis. RBC indices were also evaluated for possible concomitant thalassemia. Of the 13,913 individuals evaluated, 524 (3.77%) had an Hb variant. The prevalence of each variant was as follows: HbS trait (n = 396, 2.85%), HbSS disease (n = 4, 0.03%), HbC trait (n = 85, 0.61%), HbCC disease (n = 2, 0.01%), HbSC disease (n = 5, 0.04%), HbE trait (n = 18, 0.13%), HbD or G trait (n = 9, 0.06%), HbS β-thalassemia + disease (n = 1, 0.01%), hereditary persistence of HbF (n = 2, 0.01%), and HbMontgomery trait (n = 1, 0.01%). Concomitant α-thalassemia was detected in 20 (3.82%) of the 524 individuals with an Hb variant. This study represents one of the largest epidemiologic investigations into the prevalence of Hb variants in a North American metropolitan, multiethnic workforce and their dependents and reinforces the importance of method selection in populations with Hb variants. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Can small wildlife conservancies maintain genetically stable populations of large mammals? Evidence for increased genetic drift in geographically restricted populations of Cape buffalo in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, R; Okello, J B A; Siegismund, H

    2010-01-01

    populations, the level of genetic differentiation found here is comparable to that among pan-African populations. Overall, correlations between conservancy area and indices of genetic diversity suggest buffalo populations inhabiting small parks are showing signs of genetic erosion, stressing the need for more......The Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) is one of the dominant and most widespread herbivores in sub-Saharan Africa. High levels of genetic diversity and exceptionally low levels of population differentiation have been found in the Cape buffalo compared to other African savannah ungulates...... active management of such populations. Our findings raise concerns about the future of other African savannah ungulates with lower population sizes and inferior dispersal capabilities compared with the buffalo....

  18. Chocolate consumption and risk of stroke among men and women: A large population-based, prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jia-Yi; Iso, Hiroyasu; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-05-01

    Chocolate consumption may have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular health, but evidence from prospective cohort studies is still limited. We aimed to examine the prospective associations between chocolate consumption and risk of stroke among men and women in a large population-based cohort. A total of 38,182 men and 46,415 women aged 44-76 years, and free of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer at baseline in 1995 and 1998, were followed up until the end of 2009 and 2010, respectively. We obtained data on chocolate consumption for each participant using a self-administrated food frequency questionnaire that included 138 food and beverage items. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of stroke in relation to chocolate consumption. During a median follow-up of 12.9 years, we identified 3558 incident strokes cases (2146 cerebral infarctions and 1396 hemorrhagic strokes). After adjustment for age, body mass index, life styles, dietary intakes, and other risk factors, chocolate consumption was associated with a significant lower risk of stroke in women (HR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.71-0.99). However, the association in men was not significant (HR = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.80-1.10). In addition, the association did not vary by stroke subtypes in either men or women. Findings from this large Japanese cohort supported a significant inverse association between chocolate consumption and risk of developing stroke in women. However, residual confounding could not be excluded as an alternative explanation for our findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydroxyurea effectiveness in children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia: A large retrospective, population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarmyne, Maa-Ohui; Dong, Wei; Theodore, Rodney; Anand, Sonia; Barry, Vaughn; Adisa, Olufolake; Buchanan, Iris D; Bost, James; Brown, Robert C; Joiner, Clinton H; Lane, Peter A

    2017-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of hydroxyurea in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) has been well established. However, data about its clinical effectiveness in practice is limited. We evaluated the clinical effectiveness of hydroxyurea in a large pediatric population using a retrospective cohort, pre-post treatment study design to control for disease severity selection bias. The cohort included children with SCA (SS, Sβ 0 thalassemia) who received care at Children's Healthcare of Atlanta (CHOA) and who initiated hydroxyurea in 2009-2011. Children on chronic transfusions, or children with inadequate follow up data and/or children who had taken hydroxyurea in the 3 years prior were excluded. For each patient healthcare utilization, laboratory values, and clinical outcomes for the 2-year period prior to hydroxyurea initiation were compared to those 2 years after initiation. Of 211 children with SCA who initiated hydroxyurea in 2009-2011, 134 met eligibility criteria. After initiation of hydroxyurea, rates of hospitalizations, pain encounters, and emergency department visits were reduced by 47% (Hydroxyurea effectiveness was similar across gender, insurance types and age, although there was a slightly greater reduction in hospitalizations in younger children. Am. J. Hematol. 92:77-81, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Complexity Reduction in Large Quantum Systems: Fragment Identification and Population Analysis via a Local Optimized Minimal Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, Stephan; Masella, Michel; Ratcliff, Laura E.; Genovese, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    We present, within Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory calculations, a quantitative method to identify and assess the partitioning of a large quantum mechanical system into fragments. We then introduce a simple and efficient formalism (which can be written as generalization of other well-known population analyses) to extract, from first principles, electrostatic multipoles for these fragments. The corresponding fragment multipoles can in this way be seen as reliable (pseudo-) observables. By applying our formalism within the code BigDFT, we show that the usage of a minimal set of in-situ optimized basis functions is of utmost importance for having at the same time a proper fragment definition and an accurate description of the electronic structure. With this approach it becomes possible to simplify the modeling of environmental fragments by a set of multipoles, without notable loss of precision in the description of the active quantum mechanical region. Furthermore, this leads to a considerable reduction of the degrees of freedom by an effective coarsegraining approach, eventually also paving the way towards efficient QM/QM and QM/MM methods coupling together different levels of accuracy.

  1. Self-perceived coping resources of middle-aged and older adults - results of a large population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehlen, Friederike H; Herzog, Wolfgang; Schellberg, Dieter; Maatouk, Imad; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Brenner, Hermann; Wild, Beate

    2017-12-01

    Psychosocial resources (personal resources, social resources, and other) are important for coping with aging and impairment. The aim of this study was to describe the resources of older adults and to compare subgroups with frailty, complex health care needs, and/or mental disorders. At the third follow-up of the large population-based German ESTHER study, 3124 elderly persons (aged 55-85) were included. Psychosocial resources were assessed during a home visit by trained study doctors by using a list of 26 different items. Resources were described for the total group, separated by sex, and for the three subgroups of persons with frailty, complex health care needs, and mental disorders. Family, self-efficacy, and financial security were the most frequently reported resources of older adults. Women and men showed significant differences in their self-perceived resources. Personal resources (self-efficacy, optimism, mastery), social resources, and financial security were reported significantly less frequently by frail persons, persons with complex health care needs, and mentally ill older adults compared to non-impaired participants. Apart from external support, patients who experienced complex health care needs reported resources less frequently compared to frail and mentally ill patients. Coping resources in older adults are associated with sex and impairment. Evaluation and support of personal resources of frail or mentally ill persons or individuals with complex health care needs should be integrated in the therapeutic process.

  2. A large, population-based study of age-related associations between vaginal pH and human papillomavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Megan A; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Gage, Julia C; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Wacholder, Sholom; Burk, Robert; Schiffman, Mark

    2012-02-08

    Vaginal pH is related to genital tract inflammation and changes in the bacterial flora, both suggested cofactors for persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. To evaluate the relationship between vaginal pH and HPV, we analyzed data from our large population-based study in Guanacaste, Costa Rica. We examined vaginal pH and the risk of HPV infection, cytological abnormalities, and C. trachomatis infection. Our study included 9,165 women aged 18-97 at enrollment with a total of 28,915 visits (mean length of follow-up = 3.4 years). Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the relationship between vaginal pH and HPV infection (both overall and single versus multiple types) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), the cytomorphic manifestation of HPV infection. The relationship between enrollment vaginal pH and C. trachomatis infection was assessed by logistic regression. Results were stratified by age at visit. Detection of HPV was positively associated with vaginal pH, mainly in women vaginal pH was associated with 30% greater risk of infection with multiple HPV types and with LSIL, predominantly in women younger than 35 and 65+ years of age. Detection of C. trachomatis DNA was associated with increased vaginal pH in women vaginal pH in a more complex assessment of hormonal changes and the cervicovaginal microbiome as they relate to the natural history of cervical neoplasia.

  3. Prevalence and characteristics of painful diabetic neuropathy in a large community-based diabetic population in the U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Caroline A; Malik, Rayaz A; van Ross, Ernest R E; Kulkarni, Jai; Boulton, Andrew J M

    2011-10-01

    To assess, in the general diabetic population, 1) the prevalence of painful neuropathic symptoms; 2) the relationship between symptoms and clinical severity of neuropathy; and 3) the role of diabetes type, sex, and ethnicity in painful neuropathy. Observational study of a large cohort of diabetic patients receiving community-based health care in northwest England (n = 15,692). Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) was assessed using neuropathy symptom score (NSS) and neuropathy disability score (NDS). Prevalence of painful symptoms (NSS ≥5) and PDN (NSS ≥5 and NDS ≥3) was 34 and 21%, respectively. Painful symptoms occurred in 26% of patients without neuropathy (NDS ≤2) and 60% of patients with severe neuropathy (NDS >8). Adjusted risk of painful neuropathic symptoms in type 2 diabetes was double that of type 1 diabetes (odds ratio [OR] = 2.1 [95% CI 1.7-2.4], P diabetic patients have painful neuropathy symptoms, regardless of their neuropathic deficit. PDN was more prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes, women, and people of South Asian origin. This highlights a significant morbidity due to painful neuropathy and identifies key groups who warrant screening for PDN.

  4. Efficacy of selective arterial embolisation for the treatment of life-threatening post-partum haemorrhage in a large population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Touboul

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess efficacy and determine the optimal indication of selective arterial embolisation (SAE in patients with life-threatening post-partum haemorrhage (PPH. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred and two patients with PPH underwent SAE and were included from January 1998 to January 2002 in our university care center. Embolisation was considered effective when no other surgical procedure was required. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis were performed. SAE was effective for 73 patients (71.5%, while 29 required surgical procedures. SAE was effective in 88.6% of women with uterine atony that was associated with positive outcome (OR 4.13, 1.35-12.60, whereas caesarean deliveries (OR 0.16, 0.04-0.5 and haemodynamic shock (OR 0.21, 0.07-0.60 were associated with high failure rates, 47.6% and 39.1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Success rate for SAE observed in a large population is lower than previously reported. It is most likely to succeed for uterine atony but not recommended in case of haemodynamic shock or after caesarean section.

  5. Relation between metabolic syndrome and body compositions among Chinese adolescents and adults from a large-scale population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Xu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few nationally representative surveys regarding body composition and metabolic syndrome (MetS have been done in a large-scale representative Chinese population to explore the prediction of body composition indicators for MetS. The objective of this study was to examine the relation of body composition and MetS and to determine the optimal cut-off values of body composition indicators that predict MetS in a large representative Chinese sample based on multiple provinces and ethnicities, covering a broad age range from 10 to 80 years old. Methods The subjects came from a large-scale population survey on Chinese physiological constants and health conditions conducted in six provinces. 32,036 subjects completed all blood biochemical testing and body composition measure. Subjects meeting at least 3 of the following 5 criteria qualify as having MetS: elevated blood pressure, lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol level, higher triglyceride level, higher fasting glucose level and abdominal obesity. Results The total prevalence rate of MetS for males (9.29% was lower than for females (11.58%. The prevalence rates were 12.03% for male adults and 15.57% for female adults respectively. The risk of MetS increased 44.6% (OR = 1.446, 95%CI: 1.414–1.521 for males and 53.4% (OR = 1.534, 95%CI: 1.472–1.598 for females with each 5% increase of percentage of body fat. The risk of MetS increased two-fold (OR = 2.020, 95%CI: 1.920–2.125 for males; OR = 2.047, 95%CI: 1.954–2.144 for females respectively with each 5% increase of waist-hip ratio. The risk of MetS increased three-fold (OR = 2.915, 95%CI: 2.742–3.099 for males; OR = 2.950, 95%CI: 2.784–3.127 for females respectively with each 5% increase of Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR. Areas under the receiver operating curve (AUC of most body composition indicators were larger than 0.70 and the sensitivities and the specificities of most cut-off values were larger than 0

  6. Estimating micro area behavioural risk factor prevalence from large population-based surveys: a full Bayesian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Seliske

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important public health goal is to decrease the prevalence of key behavioural risk factors, such as tobacco use and obesity. Survey information is often available at the regional level, but heterogeneity within large geographic regions cannot be assessed. Advanced spatial analysis techniques are demonstrated to produce sensible micro area estimates of behavioural risk factors that enable identification of areas with high prevalence. Methods A spatial Bayesian hierarchical model was used to estimate the micro area prevalence of current smoking and excess bodyweight for the Erie-St. Clair region in southwestern Ontario. Estimates were mapped for male and female respondents of five cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS. The micro areas were 2006 Census Dissemination Areas, with an average population of 400–700 people. Two individual-level models were specified: one controlled for survey cycle and age group (model 1, and one controlled for survey cycle, age group and micro area median household income (model 2. Post-stratification was used to derive micro area behavioural risk factor estimates weighted to the population structure. SaTScan analyses were conducted on the granular, postal-code level CCHS data to corroborate findings of elevated prevalence. Results Current smoking was elevated in two urban areas for both sexes (Sarnia and Windsor, and an additional small community (Chatham for males only. Areas of excess bodyweight were prevalent in an urban core (Windsor among males, but not females. Precision of the posterior post-stratified current smoking estimates was improved in model 2, as indicated by narrower credible intervals and a lower coefficient of variation. For excess bodyweight, both models had similar precision. Aggregation of the micro area estimates to CCHS design-based estimates validated the findings. Conclusions This is among the first studies to apply a full Bayesian model to complex

  7. 'Surprise': Outbreak of Campylobacter infection associated with chicken liver pâté at a surprise birthday party, Adelaide, Australia, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Amy; Fearnley, Emily; Denehy, Emma

    2012-10-01

    In July 2012, an outbreak of Campylobacter infection was investigated by the South Australian Communicable Disease Control Branch and Food Policy and Programs Branch. The initial notification identified illness at a surprise birthday party held at a restaurant on 14 July 2012. The objective of the investigation was to identify the potential source of infection and institute appropriate intervention strategies to prevent further illness. A guest list was obtained and a retrospective cohort study undertaken. A combination of paper-based and telephone questionnaires were used to collect exposure and outcome information. An environmental investigation was conducted by Food Policy and Programs Branch at the implicated premises. All 57 guests completed the questionnaire (100% response rate), and 15 met the case definition. Analysis showed a significant association between illness and consumption of chicken liver pâté (relative risk: 16.7, 95% confidence interval: 2.4-118.6). No other food or beverage served at the party was associated with illness. Three guests submitted stool samples; all were positive for Campylobacter. The environmental investigation identified that the cooking process used in the preparation of chicken liver pâté may have been inconsistent, resulting in some portions not cooked adequately to inactivate potential Campylobacter contamination. Chicken liver products are a known source of Campylobacter infection; therefore, education of food handlers remains a high priority. To better identify outbreaks among the large number of Campylobacter notifications, routine typing of Campylobacter isolates is recommended.

  8. Carbon Dioxide: Surprising Effects on Decision Making and Neurocognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2013-01-01

    The occupants of modern submarines and the International Space Station (ISS) have much in common as far as their air quality is concerned. Air is polluted by materials offgassing, use of utility compounds, leaks of systems chemicals, and anthropogenic sources. The primary anthropogenic compound of concern to submariners and astronauts has been carbon dioxide (CO2). NASA and the US Navy rely on the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRC-COT) to help formulate exposure levels to CO2 that are thought to be safe for exposures of 3-6 months. NASA calls its limits Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs). Years of experience aboard the ISS and a recent publication on deficits in decision making in ground-based subjects exposed briefly to 0.25% CO2 suggest that exposure levels that have been presumed acceptable to preserve health and performance need to be reevaluated. The current CO2 exposure limits for 3-6 months set by NASA and the UK Navy are 0.7%, and the limit for US submariners is 0.5%, although the NRC-COT recommended a 90-day level of 0.8% as safe a few years ago. NASA has set a 1000-day SMAC at 0.5% for exploration-class missions. Anecdotal experience with ISS operations approaching the current 180-day SMAC of 0.7% suggest that this limit is too high. Temporarily, NASA has limited exposures to 0.5% until further peer-reviewed data become available. In the meantime, a study published last year in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives (Satish U, et al. 2012) demonstrated that complexdecision- making performance is somewhat affected at 0.1% CO2 and becomes "dysfunctional" for at least half of the 9 indices of performance at concentrations approaching 0.25% CO2. The investigators used the Strategic Management Simulation (SMS) method of testing for decisionmaking ability, and the results were so surprising to the investigators that they declared that their findings need to be independently confirmed. NASA has responded to the

  9. The Association of Perceived Memory Loss with Osteoarthritis and Related Joint Pain in a Large Appalachian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Kim E; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2017-05-19

    Previous studies have documented memory impairment in several chronic pain syndromes. However, the potential link between memory loss and osteoarthritis (OA), the second most common cause of chronic pain, remains little explored. In this cross-sectional study, we examine the association of perceived memory loss to OA and assess the potential mediating influence of sleep and mood disturbance in a large Appalachian population.  Cross-sectional.  US Ohio Valley.  A total of 21,982 Appalachian adults age 40 years or older drawn from the C8 Health Project (N = 19,004 adults without and 2,478 adults with OA). All participants completed a comprehensive health survey between 2005 and 2006. Medical history, including physician diagnosis of OA, lifestyle factors, short- and long-term memory loss, sleep quality, and mood were assessed via self-report.  After adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, health-related, and other factors, participants with OA were almost three times as likely to report frequent memory loss (adjusted odds ratios [ORs] for short- and long-term memory loss, respectively = 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.2-3.3, and 2.6, 95% CI = 2.0-3.3). The magnitude of these associations increased significantly with rising frequency of reported joint pain (adjusted OR for OA with frequent joint pain vs no OA = 3.3, 95% CI = 2.6-4.1, P trend  memory loss = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.6-2.4, and 2.1, 95% CI = 1.7-2.8, adjusted for sleep and mood impairment, respectively; OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.4-2.2, adjusted for both factors).  In this large cross-sectional study, OA and related joint pain were strongly associated with perceived memory loss; these associations may be partially mediated by sleep and mood disturbance. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Segmentation, Diarization and Speech Transcription: Surprise Data Unraveled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, M.A.H.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, research on large vocabulary continuous speech recognition for unknown audio conditions is presented. For automatic speech recognition systems based on statistical methods, it is important that the conditions of the audio used for training the statistical models match the conditions

  11. Q fever and pneumonia in an area with a high livestock density: a large population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidwien A M Smit

    Full Text Available Concerns about public health risks of intensive animal production in The Netherlands continue to rise, in particular related to outbreaks of infectious diseases. The aim was to investigate associations between the presence of farm animals around the home address and Q fever and pneumonia.Electronic medical record data for the year 2009 of all patients of 27 general practitioners (GPs in a region with a high density of animal farms were used. Density of farm animals around the home address was calculated using a Geographic Information System. During the study period, a large Q fever outbreak occurred in this region. Associations between farm exposure variables and pneumonia or 'other infectious disease', the diagnosis code used by GPs for registration of Q fever, were analyzed in 22,406 children (0-17 y and 70,142 adults (18-70 y, and adjusted for age and sex. In adults, clear exposure-response relationships between the number of goats within 5 km of the home address and pneumonia and 'other infectious disease' were observed. The association with 'other infectious disease' was particularly strong, with an OR [95%CI] of 12.03 [8.79-16.46] for the fourth quartile (>17,190 goats compared with the first quartile (<2,251 goats. The presence of poultry within 1 km was associated with an increased incidence of pneumonia among adults (OR [95%CI] 1.25 [1.06-1.47].A high density of goats in a densely populated region was associated with human Q fever. The use of GP records combined with individual exposure estimates using a Geographic Information System is a powerful approach to assess environmental health risks.

  12. Association between ambulatory blood pressure values and central aortic pressure in a large population of normotensive and hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouxinol-Dias, Ana; Araújo, Sara; Silva, José A; Barbosa, Loide; Polónia, Jorge

    2018-02-01

    Our aim was to examine the association of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and central blood pressure (CBP) data in a large set of normotensive and hypertensive patients and its relation with pulse wave velocity (PWV). This cross-sectional study was carried out in a single centre and included 2864 individuals who carried out an ABPM, measurement of CBP from the aortic waveform (SphygmoCor) and carotid-femoral PWV (Complior). In our study, 26.6% of the normotensive individuals and 32.5% of controlled hypertensive patients had abnormal values of at least one or of both ABPM and CBP values, compared with 96.6% of uncontrolled hypertensive patients. In the overall population, normal ABPM and CBP occurred in 25.3% (group 1), abnormal ABPM and CBP occurred in 44.4% (group 4), abnormal ABPM and normal CBP occurred in 10.5% (group 3) and normal ABPM and abnormal CBP occurred in 19.8% (group 2). PWV was significantly superior in group 4 versus group 3; group 4 versus group 1 and group 3 versus group 2 and group 2 versus group 1 (Mann-Whitney U-test; PABPM or CBP associated with target organ damages. When abnormal values of ABPM and CBP coexist, target organ damage (aortic stiffness) is greater than that occurring when only one abnormal ABPM or CBP is present in the absence of the other. Isolated central hypertension entails greater organ damage than both normal ABPM and CBP. These patients may be at higher risk of further target organ damage because of unawareness of their central hypertension.

  13. Balance ability of 7 and 10 year old children in the population: results from a large UK birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphriss, Rachel; Hall, Amanda; May, Margaret; Macleod, John

    2011-01-01

    The literature contains many reports of balance function in children, but these are often on atypical samples taken from hospital-based clinics and may not be generalisable to the population as a whole. The purpose of the present study is to describe balance test results from a large UK-based birth cohort study. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were analysed. A total of 5402 children completed the heel-to-toe walking test at age 7 years. At age 10 years, 6915 children underwent clinical tests of balance including beam-walking, standing heel-to-toe on a beam and standing on one leg. A proportion of the children returned to the clinic for retesting within 3 months allowing test-retest agreement to be measured. Frequency distributions for each of the balance tests are given. Correlations between measures of dynamic balance at ages 7 and 10 years were weak. The static balance of 10 year old children was found to be poorer with eyes closed than with eyes open, and poorer in boys than in girls for all measures. Balance on one leg was poorer than heel-to-toe balance on a beam. A significant learning effect was found when first and second attempts of the tests were compared. Measures of static and dynamic balance appeared independent. Consistent with previous reports in the literature, test-retest reliability was found to be low. This study provides information about the balance ability of children aged 7 and 10 years and provides clinicians with reference data for balance tests commonly used in the paediatric clinic. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Association of atrial fibrillation and cancer: Analysis from two large population-based case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Walid; Rennert, Hedy S; Gronich, Naomi; Gruber, Stephen B; Rennert, Gad

    2018-01-01

    An association between atrial fibrillation (AF) and risk of cancer has been suggested in several studies, including prospective cohort studies. However, the magnitude and the temporal nature of this association remain unclear. Data from two large prospective population-based case-control studies, the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (MECC, n = 8,383) and the Breast Cancer in Northern Israel Study (BCINIS, n = 11,608), were used to better understand the nature and temporality of a possible association between cancer diagnosis and AF events before and after cancer diagnosis. A case-control study approach was employed to study prior AF as a risk factor for cancer, and a cohort study approach was employed to study incident cancer as a risk factor for AF. AF was associated with a significant reduced odds of cancer as reflected in the case-control approach, with an adjusted OR = 0.77 (95% CI, 0.65-0.91), while cancer was not found to be significantly associated with elevated risk of AF in the cohort approach, with an adjusted HR = 1.10 (0.98-1.23). The immediate period (90 days) after an AF event was associated with a 1.85 times increased risk of cancer, and the immediate period after the diagnosis of cancer was associated with a 3.4 fold increased risk of AF. These findings probably reflect both the effect of acute transient conditions associated with new cancer diagnosis and detection bias. Similar results were identified with colorectal and breast cancer cases. Atrial fibrillation of longer than 90 days duration is associated with reduced odds of new cancer diagnosis. The results of this study suggest that an association observed in prior research may be due to instances related to cancer diagnosis and detection bias rather than a causal relationship. However, there may be bias in the sampling and residual confounding that distort the associations.

  15. The Genealogical Population Dynamics of HIV-1 in a Large Transmission Chain: Bridging within and among Host Evolutionary Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancken, Bram; Rambaut, Andrew; Suchard, Marc A.; Drummond, Alexei; Baele, Guy; Derdelinckx, Inge; Van Wijngaerden, Eric; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Van Laethem, Kristel; Lemey, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Transmission lies at the interface of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) evolution within and among hosts and separates distinct selective pressures that impose differences in both the mode of diversification and the tempo of evolution. In the absence of comprehensive direct comparative analyses of the evolutionary processes at different biological scales, our understanding of how fast within-host HIV-1 evolutionary rates translate to lower rates at the between host level remains incomplete. Here, we address this by analyzing pol and env data from a large HIV-1 subtype C transmission chain for which both the timing and the direction is known for most transmission events. To this purpose, we develop a new transmission model in a Bayesian genealogical inference framework and demonstrate how to constrain the viral evolutionary history to be compatible with the transmission history while simultaneously inferring the within-host evolutionary and population dynamics. We show that accommodating a transmission bottleneck affords the best fit our data, but the sparse within-host HIV-1 sampling prevents accurate quantification of the concomitant loss in genetic diversity. We draw inference under the transmission model to estimate HIV-1 evolutionary rates among epidemiologically-related patients and demonstrate that they lie in between fast intra-host rates and lower rates among epidemiologically unrelated individuals infected with HIV subtype C. Using a new molecular clock approach, we quantify and find support for a lower evolutionary rate along branches that accommodate a transmission event or branches that represent the entire backbone of transmitted lineages in our transmission history. Finally, we recover the rate differences at the different biological scales for both synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates, which is only compatible with the ‘store and retrieve’ hypothesis positing that viruses stored early in latently infected cells

  16. Meat intake and risk of colorectal polyps: results from a large population-based screening study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Prudence R; Holleczek, Bernd; Stegmaier, Christa; Brenner, Hermann; Hoffmeister, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Background: Red and processed meats have been shown to be associated with colorectal adenomas in many, but not all, studies, and the association according to the type of colorectal adenoma or the location in the colorectum is unclear. Objectives: We investigated the association of meat intake in relation to colorectal polyps and further investigated the association according to histologic subtypes and subsites in a large population-based screening study in Germany. Design: In this cross-sectional study, 15,950 participants aged ≥55 y underwent a screening colonoscopy. We calculated prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% CIs for associations between meat intake and the most-advanced findings from a colonoscopy with the use of log binomial regression. Results: Overall, 3340 participants (20.4%) had nonadvanced adenomas, 1643 participants (10.0%) had advanced adenomas, and 189 participants (1.2%) had colorectal cancer. We observed no statistically significant association between red or processed meat consumption and the prevalence of any adenomas or advanced adenomas [highest compared with lowest: red meat, PR: 1.07 (95% CI: 0.83, 1.37); processed meat, PR: 1.11 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.36)]. In site-specific analyses, although no dose-response relation was observed, processed meat was positively associated with the prevalence of advanced adenomas in the rectum only (multiple times per day compared with meat intake and the prevalence of any adenomas or advanced adenomas. However, processed meat may be positively associated with the prevalence of advanced adenomas in the rectum, but prospective cohort studies are needed to further clarify this association. There is no association between poultry consumption and the prevalence of colorectal polyps in this study. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Maternal underweight and obesity and risk of orofacial clefts in a large international consortium of population-based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutbi, Hebah; Wehby, George L; Moreno Uribe, Lina M; Romitti, Paul A; Carmichael, Suzan; Shaw, Gary M; Olshan, Andrew F; DeRoo, Lisa; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Murray, Jeffrey C; Wilcox, Allen; Lie, Rolv T; Munger, Ronald G

    2017-02-01

    Evidence on association of maternal pre-pregnancy weight with risk of orofacial clefts is inconsistent. Six large case-control studies of orofacial clefts from Northern Europe and the USA were included in analyses pooling individual-level data. Cases included 4943 mothers of children with orofacial clefts (cleft lip only: 1135, cleft palate with cleft lip: 2081, cleft palate only: 1727) and controls included 10 592 mothers of unaffected children. Association of orofacial cleft risk with pre-pregnancy maternal weight classified by level of body mass index (BMI, kg/m 2 ) was evaluated using logistic regression adjusting for multiple covariates. Cleft palate, both alone and with cleft lip (CP+/-CL), was associated with maternal class II+ pre-pregnancy obesity (≥ 35)compared with normal weight [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.16, 1.58]. CP+/-CL was marginally associated with maternal underweight (aOR = 1.16; 95% CI = 0.98, 1.36). Cleft lip alone was not associated with BMI. In this largest population-based study to date, we found an increased risk of cleft palate, with or without cleft lip, in class II+ obese mothers compared with normal-weight mothers; underweight mothers may also have an increased risk, but this requires further study. These results also suggest that extremes of weight may have a specific effect on palatal development. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  18. Relationship of Sleep Duration with Sociodemographic Characteristics, Lifestyle, Mental Health, and Chronic Diseases in a Large Chinese Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shibin; Li, Bo; Wu, Yanhua; Ungvari, Gabor S; Ng, Chee H; Fu, Yingli; Kou, Changgui; Yu, Yaqin; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2017-03-15

    Pattern of sleep duration and its correlates have rarely been reported in China. This study examined the sleep duration and its relationship with sociodemographic variables, lifestyle, mental health, and chronic diseases in a large Chinese adult population. This cross-sectional study used multistage stratified cluster sampling. A total of 17,320 participants from Jilin province were selected and interviewed using standardized assessment tools. Basic socio-demographic and clinical data were collected. Sleep duration was classified as short ( 9 h per day) and medium sleep (7-9 h per day). The mean age of the sample was 42.60 ± 10.60 y, with 51.4% being female. The mean sleep duration was 7.31 ± 1.44 h. Short and long sleepers accounted for 30.9% and 6.9% of the sample, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that older age, current smoking, irregular meal pattern, lack of physical exercise, poor mental health, and chronic diseases or multimorbidity were positively associated with short sleep. Being married and living in rural areas were, however, negatively associated with short sleep. In addition, living in rural area, current smoking, current alcohol use and lack of physical exercise were positively associated with long sleep, while older age and lower education were negatively associated with long sleep. Given the high frequency of short sleep and its negative effect on health, health professionals should pay more attention to sleep patterns in general health care. Nationwide epidemiologic surveys in China are needed to further explore the relationship between sleep duration and health. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  19. Genetic and environmental influences on adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: a large Swedish population-based study of twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, H; Asherson, P; Chang, Z; Ljung, T; Friedrichs, B; Larsson, J-O; Lichtenstein, P

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently persists into adulthood. Family and twin studies delineate a disorder with strong genetic influences among children and adolescents based on parent- and teacher-reported data but little is known about the genetic and environmental contribution to DSM-IV ADHD symptoms in adulthood. We therefore aimed to investigate the impact of genetic and environmental influences on the inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms of ADHD in adults. Twin methods were applied to self-reported assessments of ADHD symptoms from a large population-based Swedish twin study that included data from 15 198 Swedish male and female twins aged 20 to 46 years. The broad heritability [i.e., A + D, where A is an additive genetic factor and D (dominance) a non-additive genetic factor] was 37% (A = 11%, D = 26%) for inattention and 38% (A = 18%, D = 20%) for hyperactivity-impulsivity. The results also indicate that 52% of the phenotypic correlation between inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity (r = 0.43) was explained by genetic influences whereas the remaining part of the covariance was explained by non-shared environmental influences. These results were replicated across age strata. Our findings of moderate broad heritability estimates are consistent with previous literature on self-rated ADHD symptoms in older children, adolescents and adults and retrospective reports of self-rated childhood ADHD by adults but differ from studies of younger children with informant ratings. Future research needs to clarify whether our data indicate a true decrease in the heritability of ADHD in adults compared to children, or whether this relates to the use of self-ratings in contrast to informant data.

  20. Mind-Body Practice and Body Weight Status in a Large Population-Based Sample of Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Géraldine M; Méjean, Caroline; Bellisle, France; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2016-04-01

    In industrialized countries characterized by a high prevalence of obesity and chronic stress, mind-body practices such as yoga or meditation may facilitate body weight control. However, virtually no data are available to ascertain whether practicing mind-body techniques is associated with weight status. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the practice of mind-body techniques and weight status in a large population-based sample of adults. A total of 61,704 individuals aged ≥18 years participating in the NutriNet-Santé study (2009-2014) were included in this cross-sectional analysis conducted in 2014. Data on mind-body practices were collected, as well as self-reported weight and height. The association between the practice of mind-body techniques and weight status was assessed using multiple linear and multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors. After adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, regular users of mind-body techniques were less likely to be overweight (OR=0.68, 95% CI=0.63, 0.74) or obese (OR=0.55, 95% CI=0.50, 0.61) than never users. In addition, regular users had a lower BMI than never users (-3.19%, 95% CI=-3.71, -2.68). These data provide novel information about an inverse relationship between mind-body practice and weight status. If causal links were demonstrated in further prospective studies, such practice could be fostered in obesity prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Successive sheep grazing reduces population density of Brandt's voles in steppe grassland by altering food resources: a large manipulative experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoliang; Yin, Baofa; Wan, Xinrong; Wei, Wanhong; Wang, Guiming; Krebs, Charles J; Zhang, Zhibin

    2016-01-01

    Livestock grazing has shaped grassland ecosystems around the world. Previous studies indicated grazing showed various impacts on small rodents; however, most studies were conducted over 1-2 years without controlling for confounding factors such as immigration/emigration and predation in rodents. Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii) are generally recognized as pests because of food overlap with domestic herbivores, but are also important for biodiversity conservation because they provide nests or food to many birds. Fully understanding the ecological relationship between domestic herbivores and small mammals is essential to making ecosystem management decisions. To address these needs, we carried out a field experiment during the period 2010-2013 to assess the effects of sheep grazing on vegetation and the population density of Brandt's voles along a gradient of three grazing intensities by using 12 large-scale enclosures. Responses of Brandt's voles to livestock grazing varied with grazing intensity and year. As compared to the control group, sheep grazing had no effect on vole abundance in the first year but an overall negative effect on vole abundance in the following 3 years. Successive grazing caused decreases in survival and male body mass of voles, but had no significant effect on fecundity. Negative effects of grazing were associated with a grazing-induced deterioration in both food quantity (reflected by biomass and cover of less-preferred plants), and food quality (measured by tannin and total phenol content). Our findings highlight the urgent need for more flexible management of yearly rotational grazing to optimize livestock production while maintaining species diversity and ecosystem health.

  2. Reconstructing eight decades of genetic variation in an isolated Danish population of the large blue butterfly Maculinea arion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugelvig, Line V; Nielsen, Per S; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2011-01-01

    structure over the last 77 years from museum specimens. We also tested amplification efficiency in such historical samples as a function of repeat length and sample age. Low population numbers in the 1980s did not affect genetic diversity, but considerable turnover of alleles has characterized...... between dispersal, effective population size, and long-term genetic erosion of these endangered butterflies remains unknown. Using non-destructive sampling, we investigated the genetic diversity of the last extant population of M. arion in Denmark, which experienced critically low numbers in the 1980s....... Results: Using nine microsatellite markers, we show that the population is genetically impoverished compared to nearby populations in Sweden, but less so than monitoring programs suggested. Ten additional short repeat microsatellites were used to reconstruct changes in genetic diversity and population...

  3. Mitigating Surprise Through Enhanced Operational Design: Civilian Conceptual Planning Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    political, historical, cultural , and economic contexts. If we are going to fight among the people, we must understand them.1 When evaluating US military...represents both the Christian and Yoruba minorities as well as the military, continues to compete against rival elites representing disparate elements...undeniably have to learn a new culture , the physical battlespace would not be alien since MS-13 maintains a large presence in areas that are home to

  4. Large effective population size and temporal genetic stability in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Swain, Douglas P.

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, many commercial fish stocks have experienced dramatic declines due to overfishing. Such fisheries-induced population reductions could potentially erode the genetic diversity of marine fish populations. Based on analyses of DNA extracted from archived and contemporary samples, this paper...

  5. Reconstructing eight decades of genetic variation in an isolated Danish population of the large blue butterfly Maculinea arion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boomsma Jacobus J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fragmentation of terrestrial ecosystems has had detrimental effects on metapopulations of habitat specialists. Maculinea butterflies have been particularly affected because of their specialized lifecycles, requiring both specific food-plants and host-ants. However, the interaction between dispersal, effective population size, and long-term genetic erosion of these endangered butterflies remains unknown. Using non-destructive sampling, we investigated the genetic diversity of the last extant population of M. arion in Denmark, which experienced critically low numbers in the 1980s. Results Using nine microsatellite markers, we show that the population is genetically impoverished compared to nearby populations in Sweden, but less so than monitoring programs suggested. Ten additional short repeat microsatellites were used to reconstruct changes in genetic diversity and population structure over the last 77 years from museum specimens. We also tested amplification efficiency in such historical samples as a function of repeat length and sample age. Low population numbers in the 1980s did not affect genetic diversity, but considerable turnover of alleles has characterized this population throughout the time-span of our analysis. Conclusions Our results suggest that M. arion is less sensitive to genetic erosion via population bottlenecks than previously thought, and that managing clusters of high quality habitat may be key for long-term conservation.

  6. The extended Moran effect and large-scale synchronous fluctuations in the size of great tit and blue tit populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saether, B-E.; Engen, S.; Grøtan, V.; Fiedler, W.; Matthysen, E.; Visser, M.E.; Wright, J.; Møller, A.P.; Adriaensen, F.; van Balen, H.; Balmer, D.; Mainwaring, M.C.; McCleery, R.; Pampus, M.; Winkel, W.

    2007-01-01

    1. Synchronous fluctuations of geographically separated populations are in general explained by the Moran effect, i.e. a common influence on the local population dynamics of environmental variables that are correlated in space. Empirical support for such a Moran effect has been difficult to provide,

  7. Copper excess-induced large reversible and small irreversible adaptations in a population of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CW15 (Chlorophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Pluciński

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Two Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CW15 populations modified by an excess of copper in growth medium were obtained: a “Cu” population that was continuously grown under the selection pressure of 5 µM Cu2+ (for at least 48 weeks and the “Re” population, where a relatively short (9 week exposure to elevated copper, necessary for acquiring tolerance, was followed by a prolonged period (at least 39 weeks of cultivation at a normal (0.25 µM copper concentration. Cells of the Cu population were able to multiply at a Cu2+ concentration 16 times higher than that of the control population at a normal light intensity and at a Cu2+ concentration 64 times higher when cultivated in dim light. The potential quantum yield of photosystem II (FV/FM ratio under copper stress was also significantly higher for the Cu population than for Re and control populations. The Re population showed only residual tolerance towards the elevated concentration of copper, which is revealed by an FV/FM ratio slightly higher than in the control population under Cu2+ stress in dim light or in darkness. We postulate that in the Chlamydomonas populations studied in this paper, at least two mechanisms of copper tolerance operate. The first mechanism is maintained during cultivation at a standard copper concentration and seems to be connected with photosynthetic apparatus. This mechanism, however, has only low adaptive value under excess of copper. The other mechanism, with a much higher adaptive value, is probably connected with Cu2+ homeostasis at the cellular level, but is lost during cultivation at a normal copper concentration.

  8. A Neural Mechanism for Surprise-related Interruptions of Visuospatial Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Jan R

    2018-01-01

    Surprising perceptual events recruit a fronto-basal ganglia mechanism for inhibition, which suppresses motor activity following surprise. A recent study found that this inhibitory mechanism also disrupts the maintenance of verbal working memory (WM) after surprising tones. However, it is unclear whether this same mechanism also relates to surprise-related interruptions of non-verbal WM. We tested this hypothesis using a change-detection task, in which surprising tones impaired visuospatial WM. Participants also performed a stop-signal task (SST). We used independent component analysis and single-trial scalp-electroencephalogram to test whether the same inhibitory mechanism that reflects motor inhibition in the SST relates to surprise-related visuospatial WM decrements, as was the case for verbal WM. As expected, surprising tones elicited activity of the inhibitory mechanism, and this activity correlated strongly with the trial-by-trial level of surprise. However, unlike for verbal WM, the activity of this mechanism was unrelated to visuospatial WM accuracy. Instead, inhibition-independent activity that immediately succeeded the inhibitory mechanism was increased when visuospatial WM was disrupted. This shows that surprise-related interruptions of visuospatial WM are not effected by the same inhibitory mechanism that interrupts verbal WM, and instead provides evidence for a 2-stage model of distraction. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The influence of hydrology and waterway distance on population structure of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in a large river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, J B; Beacham, T D; Wetklo, M; Seeb, L W; Smith, C T; Flannery, B G; Wenburg, J K

    2010-04-01

    Adult Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha navigate in river systems using olfactory cues that may be influenced by hydrologic factors such as flow and the number, size and spatial distribution of tributaries. Thus, river hydrology may influence both homing success and the level of straying (gene flow), which in turn influences population structure. In this study, two methods of multivariate analysis were used to examine the extent to which four indicators of hydrology and waterway distance explained population structure of O. tshawytscha in the Yukon River. A partial Mantel test showed that the indicators of hydrology were positively associated with broad-scale (Yukon basin) population structure, when controlling for the influence of waterway distance. Multivariate multiple regression showed that waterway distance, supplemented with the number and flow of major drainage basins, explained more variation in broad-scale population structure than any single indicator. At an intermediate spatial scale, indicators of hydrology did not appear to influence population structure after accounting for waterway distance. These results suggest that habitat changes in the Yukon River, which alter hydrology, may influence the basin-wide pattern of population structure in O. tshawytscha. Further research is warranted on the role of hydrology in concert with waterway distance in influencing population structure in Pacific salmon.

  10. Use of two population metrics clarifies biodiversity dynamics in large-scale monitoring: the case of trees in Japanese old-growth forests: the need for multiple population metrics in large-scale monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Mifuyu; Yamaura, Yuichi; Abe, Shin; Hoshino, Daisuke; Hoshizaki, Kazuhiko; Iida, Shigeo; Katsuki, Toshio; Masaki, Takashi; Niiyama, Kaoru; Saito, Satoshi; Sakai, Takeshi; Sugita, Hisashi; Tanouchi, Hiroyuki; Amano, Tatsuya; Taki, Hisatomo; Okabe, Kimiko

    2011-07-01

    Many indicators/indices provide information on whether the 2010 biodiversity target of reducing declines in biodiversity have been achieved. The strengths and limitations of the various measures used to assess the success of such measures are now being discussed. Biodiversity dynamics are often evaluated by a single biological population metric, such as the abundance of each species. Here we examined tree population dynamics of 52 families (192 species) at 11 research sites (three vegetation zones) of Japanese old-growth forests using two population metrics: number of stems and basal area. We calculated indices that track the rate of change in all species of tree by taking the geometric mean of changes in population metrics between the 1990s and the 2000s at the national level and at the levels of the vegetation zone and family. We specifically focused on whether indices based on these two metrics behaved similarly. The indices showed that (1) the number of stems declined, whereas basal area did not change at the national level and (2) the degree of change in the indices varied by vegetation zone and family. These results suggest that Japanese old-growth forests have not degraded and may even be developing in some vegetation zones, and indicate that the use of a single population metric (or indicator/index) may be insufficient to precisely understand the state of biodiversity. It is therefore important to incorporate more metrics into monitoring schemes to overcome the risk of misunderstanding or misrepresenting biodiversity dynamics.

  11. The Surprising Impact of Seat Location on Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Katherine K.; Wieman, Carl E.

    2005-01-01

    Every physics instructor knows that the most engaged and successful students tend to sit at the front of the class and the weakest students tend to sit at the back. However, it is normally assumed that this is merely an indication of the respective seat location preferences of weaker and stronger students. Here we present evidence suggesting that in fact this may be mixing up the cause and effect. It may be that the seat selection itself contributes to whether the student does well or poorly, rather than the other way around. While a number of studies have looked at the effect of seat location on students, the results are often inconclusive, and few, if any, have studied the effects in college classrooms with randomly assigned seats. In this paper, we report on our observations of a large introductory physics course in which we randomly assigned students to particular seat locations at the beginning of the semester. Seat location during the first half of the semester had a noticeable impact on student success in the course, particularly in the top and bottom parts of the grade distribution. Students sitting in the back of the room for the first half of the term were nearly six times as likely to receive an F as students who started in the front of the room. A corresponding but less dramatic reversal was evident in the fractions of students receiving As. These effects were in spite of many unusual efforts to engage students at the back of the class and a front-to-back reversal of seat location halfway through the term. These results suggest there may be inherent detrimental effects of large physics lecture halls that need to be further explored.

  12. Influence of a large late summer precipitation event on food limitation and grasshopper population dynamics in a northern Great Plains grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, David H

    2008-06-01

    The complex interplay between grasshoppers, weather conditions, and plants that cause fluctuations in grasshopper populations remains poorly understood, and little is known about the ecological processes that generate grasshopper outbreaks. Grasshopper populations respond to interacting extrinsic and intrinsic factors, with yearly and decadal weather patterns and the timing of precipitation all potentially important. The effects of initial and increasing grasshopper densities on grasshopper survival and reproductive correlates were examined at a northern mixed-grass prairie site through manipulations of grasshopper densities inside 10-m2 cages. High-quality grass growth occurred after a 9.1-cm mid-August rain. Reduced proportional survival was apparent in the two higher density treatments before the rain, indicative of food-limited density-dependent mortality. However, the large late summer rainfall event mediated the effects of exploitative competition on demographic characteristics because of the high-quality vegetation growth. This led to weaker effects of food limitation on survival and reproduction at the end of the experiment. The results indicate a direct link between weather variation, resource quality and grasshopper population dynamics led to a severe grasshopper outbreak and show that infrequent large precipitation events can have significant effects on population dynamics. Additional research is needed to examine the importance of infrequent large precipitation events on grasshopper population dynamics in grassland ecosystems.

  13. Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and fibrosis in a large population cohort in the north of the Netherlands: A lifelines cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Berg, E.H.; Amini, M.; Schreuder, T.C.M.A.; Dullaart, R.P.F.; Faber, K.N.; Alizadeh, B.Z.; Blokzijl, H.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasing health issue, being part of the worldwide epidemic of obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of NAFLD and fibrosis and analyze biochemical characteristics in a large population-based cohort

  14. Large Country-Lot Quality Assurance Sampling : A New Method for Rapid Monitoring and Evaluation of Health, Nutrition and Population Programs at Sub-National Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Hedt, Bethany L.; Olives, Casey; Pagano, Marcello; Valadez, Joseph J.

    2008-01-01

    Sampling theory facilitates development of economical, effective and rapid measurement of a population. While national policy maker value survey results measuring indicators representative of a large area (a country, state or province), measurement in smaller areas produces information useful for managers at the local level. It is often not possible to disaggregate a national survey to obt...

  15. Using large-scale data analysis to assess life history and behavioural traits: the case of the reintroduced White stork Ciconia ciconia population in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doligez, B.; Thomson, D.L.; Van Noordwijk, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    The White stork Ciconia ciconia has been the object of several successful reintroduction programmes in the last decades. As a consequence, populations have been monitored over large spatial scales. Despite these intense efforts, very few reliable estimates of life history traits are available for

  16. A large-scale population-based study of the association of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms with bone mineral density.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.L.A. van Dalen; C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); J.C. Birkenhäger (Jan); J.P.T.M. van Leeuwen (Hans); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractConflicting results have been reported on the association between restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) at the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene locus (i.e., for BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI) and bone mineral density (BMD). We analyzed this association in a large population-based sample

  17. Post-hoc principal component analysis on a largely illiterate elderly population from North-west India to identify important elements of mini-mental state examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Raina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mini-mental state examination (MMSE scale measures cognition using specific elements that can be isolated, defined, and subsequently measured. This study was conducted with the aim to analyze the factorial structure of MMSE in a largely, illiterate, elderly population in India and to reduce the number of variables to a few meaningful and interpretable combinations. Methodology: Principal component analysis (PCA was performed post-hoc on the data generated by a research project conducted to estimate the prevalence of dementia in four geographically defined habitations in Himachal Pradesh state of India. Results: Questions on orientation and registration account for high percentage of cumulative variance in comparison to other questions. Discussion: The PCA conducted on the data derived from a largely, illiterate population reveals that the most important components to consider for the estimation of cognitive impairment in illiterate Indian population are temporal orientation, spatial orientation, and immediate memory.

  18. Post-hoc principal component analysis on a largely illiterate elderly population from North-west India to identify important elements of mini-mental state examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Sunil Kumar; Chander, Vishav; Raina, Sujeet; Grover, Ashoo

    2016-01-01

    Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scale measures cognition using specific elements that can be isolated, defined, and subsequently measured. This study was conducted with the aim to analyze the factorial structure of MMSE in a largely, illiterate, elderly population in India and to reduce the number of variables to a few meaningful and interpretable combinations. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed post-hoc on the data generated by a research project conducted to estimate the prevalence of dementia in four geographically defined habitations in Himachal Pradesh state of India. Questions on orientation and registration account for high percentage of cumulative variance in comparison to other questions. The PCA conducted on the data derived from a largely, illiterate population reveals that the most important components to consider for the estimation of cognitive impairment in illiterate Indian population are temporal orientation, spatial orientation, and immediate memory.

  19. Orbital melanocytoma: When a tumor becomes a relieving surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haytham E. Nasr

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Melanocytomas are rare pigmented tumors that arise form melanocytes and have been reported in the central nervous system. Orbital melanocytomas “also known as blue nevus” are rarely reported. The occurrence of choroidal melanoma and orbital melanocytomas has never been described. Observations: This is a case of orbital melanocytoma in a 34 year old female who presented with left proptosis and ecchymosis. She has the right eye enucleated to treat a large choroidal melanoma, 6 years earlier. Orbital metastasis was suspected. After orbital imaging and systemic evaluation, incisional biopsy was planned yet the mass could be totally excised and it turned out to be melanocytoma. The condition was not associated with nevus of Ota and the patient is not known to have any predisposing condition for melanocytic lesions. Conclusion and importance: Melanocytoma and malignant melanoma share the same cell of origin. The benign course, the well differentiated cells, absence of anaplasia and the positive reaction to Human Melanoma Black-45 (HMB-45 and S-100 proteins established the diagnosis of the former. Such diagnosis was a relief for this one eyed patient.(HMB-45:human melanoma black-45. Keywords: Orbit, Melanocytoma, Choroidal melanoma, HMB-45, S-100

  20. Ampullary Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinoma: Surprise Histology, Familiar Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahansaria, Shyam Sunder; Agrawal, Nikhil; Arora, Asit; Bihari, Chhagan; Appukuttan, Murali; Chattopadhyay, Tushar Kanti

    2017-10-01

    Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC) has recently been defined by the World Health Organization in 2010. These are rare tumors and MANECs of ampullary region are even rarer. Only 19 cases have been reported in literature. We present 3 cases; the largest series, second case of amphicrine tumor and first case associated with chronic pancreatitis. Retrospective review of 3 patients who were diagnosed to have ampullary MANEC. All 3 patients were diagnosed preoperatively as neuroendocrine carcinoma and underwent margin negative pancreaticoduodenectomy. The histopathology revealed MANECs of small cell, mixed type in 2 patients and large cell, amphicrine type in 1 patient. The neuroendocrine component was grade 3 in all, the tumor was T3 in 2 and T2 in 1 and all had nodal metastases. Two patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and 2 of them had recurrence at 13 and 16 months. The median survival was 15 months. Ampullary MANECs are rare tumors. They are diagnosed on histopathologic examination of the resected specimen. Clinical presentation, management, and prognosis is similar to ampullary adenocarcinoma in literature.

  1. Aeolian comminution experiments revealing surprising sandball mineral aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørnberg, P.; Bak, E.; Finster, K.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Iversen, J. J.; Jensen, S. Knak; Merrison, J. P.

    2014-06-01

    We have undertaken a set of wind erosion experiments on a simple and well defined mineral, quartz. In these experiments wind action is simulated by end over end tumbling of quartz grains in a sealed quartz flask. The tumbling induces collisions among the quartz grains and the walls of the flask. This process simulates wind action impact speed of ∼1.2 m/s. After several months of tumbling we observed the formation of a large number of spherical sand aggregates, which resemble small snowballs under optical microscopy. Upon mechanical load the aggregates are seen to be more elastic than quartz and their mechanical strength is comparable, though slightly lower than that of sintered silica aerogels. Aggregates of this kind have not been reported from field sites or from closed circulation systems. However, sparse occurrence might explain this, or in nature the concentration of the aggregate building particles is so low that they never meet and just appear as the most fine grained tail of the sediment particle size distribution.

  2. Quantification of population sizes of large herbivores and their long-term functional role in ecosystems using dung fungal spores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, Ambroise G.; Cornelissen, Perry; Bhagwat, Shonil A.; Vera, Frans M.W.; Willis, Katherine J.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between large herbivore numbers and landscape cover over time is poorly understood. There are two schools of thought: one views large herbivores as relatively passive elements upon the landscape and the other as ecosystem engineers driving vegetation succession. The latter

  3. Genetic Polymorphisms of the Mitochondrial Aldehyde Dehydrogenase ALDH2 Gene in a Large Ethnic Hakka Population in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhixiong; Hou, Jingyuan; Li, Bin; Zhang, Qifeng; Li, Cunren; Liu, Zhidong; Yang, Min; Zhong, Wei; Zhao, Pingsen

    2018-04-06

    BACKGROUND Human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) plays a critical role in the detoxification of the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde. The ALDH2*2 (rs671) gene variant is mainly absent among Europeans but is prevalent in populations in East Asia. The aim of this study was to investigate ALDH2*2 mutant alleles and genotype frequencies in the Hakka population of China. MATERIAL AND METHODS Between January 2016 and June 2017, 7,966 unrelated individuals were recruited into the study from the Hakka ethnic population residing in the Meizhou area of Guangdong Province, China, who provided venous blood samples. Genotyping of ALDH2 genotypes were determined using a gene chip platform and confirmed by DNA sequencing. RESULTS In the 7,966 individuals from the Hakka population of China in this study, the frequencies of the ALDH2 genotypes *1/*1, *1/*2 and *2/*2 were 52.03%, 39.67%, and 8.30%, respectively; 47.97% of the individuals were found to carry the ALDH2*2 genotype, which was associated with a deficiency in the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) enzyme activity. The frequency of the ALDH2*2 allele was lower than that previously reported in the Japanese population but higher than that reported in other Oriental populations. CONCLUSIONS The findings of this study have provided new information on the ALDH2 gene polymorphisms in the Hakka ethnic population residing in the Meizhou area of Guangdong Province, China, including an understanding of the origin of the atypical ALDH2*2 allele. Also, the study findings may be relevant to the primary care of patients in China.

  4. Surprising structures hiding in Penrose’s future null infinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Ezra T.

    2017-07-01

    Since the late1950s, almost all discussions of asymptotically flat (Einstein-Maxwell) space-times have taken place in the context of Penrose’s null infinity, I+. In addition, almost all calculations have used the Bondi coordinate and tetrad systems. Beginning with a known asymptotically flat solution to the Einstein-Maxwell equations, we show first, that there are other natural coordinate systems, near I+, (analogous to light-cones in flat-space) that are based on (asymptotically) shear-free null geodesic congruences (analogous to the flat-space case). Using these new coordinates and their associated tetrad, we define the complex dipole moment, (the mass dipole plus i times angular momentum), from the l  =  1 harmonic coefficient of a component of the asymptotic Weyl tensor. Second, from this definition, from the Bianchi identities and from the Bondi-Sachs mass and linear momentum, we show that there exists a large number of results—identifications and dynamics—identical to those of classical mechanics and electrodynamics. They include, among many others, {P}=M{v}+..., {L}= {r} × {P} , spin, Newton’s second law with the rocket force term (\\dotM v) and radiation reaction, angular momentum conservation and others. All these relations take place in the rather mysterious H-space rather than in space-time. This leads to the enigma: ‘why do these well known relations of classical mechanics take place in H-space?’ and ‘What is the physical meaning of H-space?’

  5. Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal representations of the environment, and surprising events are indications for encoding new representations of the environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system, including the hippocampus and surrounding cortex, encodes surprising events and is influenced by motivational state. Because behavior reflects the goals of an individual, we investigated whether motivational valence (i.e., pursuing rewards versus avoiding punishments) also impacts neural and mnemonic encoding of surprising events. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants encountered perceptually unexpected events either during the pursuit of rewards or avoidance of punishments. Despite similar levels of motivation across groups, reward and punishment facilitated the processing of surprising events in different medial temporal lobe regions. Whereas during reward motivation, perceptual surprises enhanced activation in the hippocampus, during punishment motivation surprises instead enhanced activation in parahippocampal cortex. Further, we found that reward motivation facilitated hippocampal coupling with ventromedial PFC, whereas punishment motivation facilitated parahippocampal cortical coupling with orbitofrontal cortex. Behaviorally, post-scan testing revealed that reward, but not punishment, motivation resulted in greater memory selectivity for surprising events encountered during goal pursuit. Together these findings demonstrate that neuromodulatory systems engaged by anticipation of reward and punishment target separate components of the medial temporal lobe, modulating medial temporal lobe sensitivity and connectivity. Thus, reward and punishment motivation yield distinct neural contexts for learning, with distinct consequences for how surprises are incorporated into predictive mnemonic models of the environment. PMID:26854903

  6. Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; LaBar, Kevin S; Adcock, R Alison

    2016-10-01

    Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal representations of the environment, and surprising events are indications for encoding new representations of the environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system, including the hippocampus and surrounding cortex, encodes surprising events and is influenced by motivational state. Because behavior reflects the goals of an individual, we investigated whether motivational valence (i.e., pursuing rewards versus avoiding punishments) also impacts neural and mnemonic encoding of surprising events. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants encountered perceptually unexpected events either during the pursuit of rewards or avoidance of punishments. Despite similar levels of motivation across groups, reward and punishment facilitated the processing of surprising events in different medial temporal lobe regions. Whereas during reward motivation, perceptual surprises enhanced activation in the hippocampus, during punishment motivation surprises instead enhanced activation in parahippocampal cortex. Further, we found that reward motivation facilitated hippocampal coupling with ventromedial PFC, whereas punishment motivation facilitated parahippocampal cortical coupling with orbitofrontal cortex. Behaviorally, post-scan testing revealed that reward, but not punishment, motivation resulted in greater memory selectivity for surprising events encountered during goal pursuit. Together these findings demonstrate that neuromodulatory systems engaged by anticipation of reward and punishment target separate components of the medial temporal lobe, modulating medial temporal lobe sensitivity and connectivity. Thus, reward and punishment motivation yield distinct neural contexts for learning, with distinct consequences for how surprises are incorporated into predictive mnemonic models of the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes of population trends and mortality patterns in response to the reintroduction of large predators: The case study of African ungulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Sophie; Owen-Smith, Norman; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Druce, Dave J.; Moleón, Marcos; Mgobozi, Mandisa

    2012-07-01

    Large predators have been reintroduced to an increasing number of protected areas in South Africa. However, the conditions allowing both prey and predator populations to be sustained in enclosed areas are still unclear as there is a lack of understanding of the consequences of such reintroductions for ungulate population dynamics. Variation in lion numbers, two decades after their first release, offered a special opportunity to test the effects of predation pressure on the population dynamics of seven ungulate species in the 960 km2 Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park (HiP), South Africa. We used two different approaches to examine predator-prey relationships: the population response of ungulates to predation pressure after accounting for possible confounding factors, and the pattern of ungulate adult mortality observed from carcass records. Rainfall patterns affected observed mortalities of several ungulate species in HiP. Although lion predation accounted for most ungulate mortality, it still had no detectable influence on ungulate population trends and mortality patterns, with one possible exception. This evidence suggests that the lion population had not yet attained the maximum abundance potentially supported by their ungulate prey; but following recent increases in lion numbers it will probably occur soon. It remains uncertain whether a quasi-stable balance will be reached between prey and predator populations, or whether favoured prey species will be depressed towards levels potentially generating oscillatory dynamics in this complex large mammal assemblage. We specifically recommend a continuous monitoring of predator and prey populations in HiP since lions are likely to show more impacts on their prey species in the next years.

  8. Further evidence of large-scale population decline and range contraction of the little owl Athene noctua in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chrenková, M.; Dobrý, M.; Šálek, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 2 (2017), s. 106-116 ISSN 0139-7893 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : farmland birds * population trend * distribution * breeding places * agricultural buildings * conservation measures Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.739, year: 2016

  9. Stochastic Nonlinear Evolutional Model of the Large-Scaled Neuronal Population and Dynamic Neural Coding Subject to Stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Rubin; Yu Wei

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how the population of neuronal oscillators deals with information and the dynamic evolution of neural coding when the external stimulation acts on it. Numerically computing method is used to describe the evolution process of neural coding in three-dimensioned space. The numerical result proves that only the suitable stimulation can change the coupling structure and plasticity of neurons

  10. Effects of Large-Scale Releases on the Genetic Structure of Red Sea Bream (Pagrus major, Temminck et Schlegel) Populations in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Gonzalez, Enrique; Aritaki, Masato; Knutsen, Halvor; Taniguchi, Nobuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale hatchery releases are carried out for many marine fish species worldwide; nevertheless, the long-term effects of this practice on the genetic structure of natural populations remains unclear. The lack of knowledge is especially evident when independent stock enhancement programs are conducted simultaneously on the same species at different geographical locations, as occurs with red sea bream (Pagrus major, Temminck et Schlegel) in Japan. In this study, we examined the putative effects of intensive offspring releases on the genetic structure of red sea bream populations along the Japanese archipelago by genotyping 848 fish at fifteen microsatellite loci. Our results suggests weak but consistent patterns of genetic divergence (F(ST) = 0.002, p Red sea bream in Japan appeared spatially structured with several patches of distinct allelic composition, which corresponded to areas receiving an important influx of fish of hatchery origin, either released intentionally or from unintentional escapees from aquaculture operations. In addition to impacts upon local populations inhabiting semi-enclosed embayments, large-scale releases (either intentionally or from unintentional escapes) appeared also to have perturbed genetic structure in open areas. Hence, results of the present study suggest that independent large-scale marine stock enhancement programs conducted simultaneously on one species at different geographical locations may compromise native genetic structure and lead to patchy patterns in population genetic structure.

  11. Estimating large carnivore populations at global scale based on spatial predictions of density and distribution – Application to the jaguar (Panthera onca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Hugh S.; Abarca, Maria; Zeller, Katherine A.; Velasquez, Grisel; Paemelaere, Evi A. D.; Goldberg, Joshua F.; Payan, Esteban; Hoogesteijn, Rafael; Boede, Ernesto O.; Schmidt, Krzysztof; Lampo, Margarita; Viloria, Ángel L.; Carreño, Rafael; Robinson, Nathaniel; Lukacs, Paul M.; Nowak, J. Joshua; Salom-Pérez, Roberto; Castañeda, Franklin; Boron, Valeria; Quigley, Howard

    2018-01-01

    Broad scale population estimates of declining species are desired for conservation efforts. However, for many secretive species including large carnivores, such estimates are often difficult. Based on published density estimates obtained through camera trapping, presence/absence data, and globally available predictive variables derived from satellite imagery, we modelled density and occurrence of a large carnivore, the jaguar, across the species’ entire range. We then combined these models in a hierarchical framework to estimate the total population. Our models indicate that potential jaguar density is best predicted by measures of primary productivity, with the highest densities in the most productive tropical habitats and a clear declining gradient with distance from the equator. Jaguar distribution, in contrast, is determined by the combined effects of human impacts and environmental factors: probability of jaguar occurrence increased with forest cover, mean temperature, and annual precipitation and declined with increases in human foot print index and human density. Probability of occurrence was also significantly higher for protected areas than outside of them. We estimated the world’s jaguar population at 173,000 (95% CI: 138,000–208,000) individuals, mostly concentrated in the Amazon Basin; elsewhere, populations tend to be small and fragmented. The high number of jaguars results from the large total area still occupied (almost 9 million km2) and low human densities (conservation actions. PMID:29579129

  12. Determining causes of genetic isolation in a large carnivore (Ursus americanus population to direct contemporary conservation measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Pelletier

    Full Text Available The processes leading to genetic isolation influence a population's local extinction risk, and should thus be identified before conservation actions are implemented. Natural or human-induced circumstances can result in historical or contemporary barriers to gene flow and/or demographic bottlenecks. Distinguishing between these hypotheses can be achieved by comparing genetic diversity and differentiation in isolated vs. continuous neighboring populations. In Ontario, American black bears (Ursus americanus are continuously distributed, genetically diverse, and exhibit an isolation-by-distance structuring pattern, except on the Bruce Peninsula (BP. To identify the processes that led to the genetic isolation of BP black bears, we modelled various levels of historical and contemporary migration and population size reductions using forward simulations. We compared simulation results with empirical genetic indices from Ontario black bear populations under different levels of geographic isolation, and conducted additional simulations to determine if translocations could help achieve genetic restoration. From a genetic standpoint, conservation concerns for BP black bears are warranted because our results show that: i a recent demographic bottleneck associated with recently reduced migration best explains the low genetic diversity on the BP; and ii under sustained isolation, BP black bears could lose between 70% and 80% of their rare alleles within 100 years. Although restoring migration corridors would be the most effective method to enhance long-term genetic diversity and prevent inbreeding, it is unrealistic to expect connectivity to be re-established. Current levels of genetic diversity could be maintained by successfully translocating 10 bears onto the peninsula every 5 years. Such regular translocations may be more practical than landscape restoration, because areas connecting the peninsula to nearby mainland black bear populations have been

  13. Practical Bias Correction in Aerial Surveys of Large Mammals: Validation of Hybrid Double-Observer with Sightability Method against Known Abundance of Feral Horse (Equus caballus) Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubow, Bruce C; Ransom, Jason I

    2016-01-01

    Reliably estimating wildlife abundance is fundamental to effective management. Aerial surveys are one of the only spatially robust tools for estimating large mammal populations, but statistical sampling methods are required to address detection biases that affect accuracy and precision of the estimates. Although various methods for correcting aerial survey bias are employed on large mammal species around the world, these have rarely been rigorously validated. Several populations of feral horses (Equus caballus) in the western United States have been intensively studied, resulting in identification of all unique individuals. This provided a rare opportunity to test aerial survey bias correction on populations of known abundance. We hypothesized that a hybrid method combining simultaneous double-observer and sightability bias correction techniques would accurately estimate abundance. We validated this integrated technique on populations of known size and also on a pair of surveys before and after a known number was removed. Our analysis identified several covariates across the surveys that explained and corrected biases in the estimates. All six tests on known populations produced estimates with deviations from the known value ranging from -8.5% to +13.7% and corrected by our statistical models. Our results validate the hybrid method, highlight its potentially broad applicability, identify some limitations, and provide insight and guidance for improving survey designs.

  14. HIV Risk Behaviors in the U.S. Transgender Population: Prevalence and Predictors in a Large Internet Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jamie; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Bockting, Walter O.

    2014-01-01

    To study the influence of gender on HIV risk, a sample of the U.S. transgender population (N = 1,229) was recruited via the Internet. HIV risk and prevalence were lower than reported in prior studies of localized, urban samples, but higher than the overall U.S. population. Findings suggest that gender nonconformity alone does not itself result in markedly higher HIV risk. Sex with nontransgender men emerged as the strongest independent predictor of unsafe sex for both male-to-female (MtF) and female-to-male (FtM) participants. These sexual relationships constitute a process that may either affirm or problematize gender identity and sexual orientation, with different emphases for MtFs and FtMs, respectively. PMID:25022491

  15. Public participation in the licensing of large-scale projects with environmental impact. The point of view of the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloede, F.; Buecker-Gaertner, H.

    1989-01-01

    The paper explains purpose, concept and methods of the poll, the structures of the pattern of opinions given, and th causes of opinion forming and overlapping patterns of orientation. A significant aspect observed is that irrespective of differentiation in the opinion forming process among the regional population, public participation seems to have only little legitimatory effect. Applicants as well as authorities meet with distrust on the part of the public, caused by the (subjective feeling) of discrepany between decision-relevant or 'licence-relevant, and social preferences. There is the common feeling that the interests of the propulation are only sometimes taken into account, and the public's power to influence decisions is very limited. This is why over two thirds of the regional population sees a need for modification of the practical execution of the procedures, and of the legal provisions. (orig./HSCH) [de

  16. Exposure to childhood adversity and deficits in emotion recognition: results from a large, population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Erin C; Crawford, Katherine M; Soare, Thomas W; Button, Katherine S; Raffeld, Miriam R; Smith, Andrew D A C; Penton-Voak, Ian S; Munafò, Marcus R

    2018-03-07

    Emotion recognition skills are essential for social communication. Deficits in these skills have been implicated in mental disorders. Prior studies of clinical and high-risk samples have consistently shown that children exposed to adversity are more likely than their unexposed peers to have emotion recognition skills deficits. However, only one population-based study has examined this association. We analyzed data from children participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective birth cohort (n = 6,506). We examined the association between eight adversities, assessed repeatedly from birth to age 8 (caregiver physical or emotional abuse; sexual or physical abuse; maternal psychopathology; one adult in the household; family instability; financial stress; parent legal problems; neighborhood disadvantage) and the ability to recognize facial displays of emotion measured using the faces subtest of the Diagnostic Assessment of Non-Verbal Accuracy (DANVA) at age 8.5 years. In addition to examining the role of exposure (vs. nonexposure) to each type of adversity, we also evaluated the role of the timing, duration, and recency of each adversity using a Least Angle Regression variable selection procedure. Over three-quarters of the sample experienced at least one adversity. We found no evidence to support an association between emotion recognition deficits and previous exposure to adversity, either in terms of total lifetime exposure, timing, duration, or recency, or when stratifying by sex. Results from the largest population-based sample suggest that even extreme forms of adversity are unrelated to emotion recognition deficits as measured by the DANVA, suggesting the possible immutability of emotion recognition in the general population. These findings emphasize the importance of population-based studies to generate generalizable results. © 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  17. The association between socio-demographic characteristics and adherence to breast and colorectal cancer screening: Analysis of large sub populations

    OpenAIRE

    Vainer Anna; Yaari Einat; Peled Ronit; Wilf-Miron Rachel; Porath Avi; Kokia Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Populations having lower socioeconomic status, as well as ethnic minorities, have demonstrated lower utilization of preventive screening, including tests for early detection of breast and colorectal cancer. The objective To explore socio-demographic disparities in adherence to screening recommendations for early detection of cancer. Methods The study was conducted by Maccabi Healthcare Services, an Israeli HMO (health plan) providing healthcare services to 1.9 million memb...

  18. Large-scale, multidirectional larval connectivity among coral reef fish populations in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park

    KAUST Repository

    Williamson, David H.

    2016-11-15

    Larval dispersal is the key process by which populations of most marine fishes and invertebrates are connected and replenished. Advances in larval tagging and genetics have enhanced our capacity to track larval dispersal, assess scales of population connectivity, and quantify larval exchange among no-take marine reserves and fished areas. Recent studies have found that reserves can be a significant source of recruits for populations up to 40 km away, but the scale and direction of larval connectivity across larger seascapes remain unknown. Here, we apply genetic parentage analysis to investigate larval dispersal patterns for two exploited coral reef groupers (Plectropomus maculatus and Plectropomus leopardus) within and among three clusters of reefs separated by 60–220 km within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia. A total of 69 juvenile P. maculatus and 17 juvenile P. leopardus (representing 6% and 9% of the total juveniles sampled, respectively) were genetically assigned to parent individuals on reefs within the study area. We identified both short-distance larval dispersal within regions (200 m to 50 km) and long-distance, multidirectional dispersal of up to ~250 km among regions. Dispersal strength declined significantly with distance, with best-fit dispersal kernels estimating median dispersal distances of ~110 km for P. maculatus and ~190 km for P. leopardus. Larval exchange among reefs demonstrates that established reserves form a highly connected network and contribute larvae for the replenishment of fished reefs at multiple spatial scales. Our findings highlight the potential for long-distance dispersal in an important group of reef fishes, and provide further evidence that effectively protected reserves can yield recruitment and sustainability benefits for exploited fish populations.

  19. Large-scale, multidirectional larval connectivity among coral reef fish populations in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park

    KAUST Repository

    Williamson, David H.; Harrison, Hugo B.; Almany, Glenn R.; Berumen, Michael L.; Bode, Michael; Bonin, Mary C.; Choukroun, Severine; Doherty, Peter J.; Frisch, Ashley J.; Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Jones, Geoffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    Larval dispersal is the key process by which populations of most marine fishes and invertebrates are connected and replenished. Advances in larval tagging and genetics have enhanced our capacity to track larval dispersal, assess scales of population connectivity, and quantify larval exchange among no-take marine reserves and fished areas. Recent studies have found that reserves can be a significant source of recruits for populations up to 40 km away, but the scale and direction of larval connectivity across larger seascapes remain unknown. Here, we apply genetic parentage analysis to investigate larval dispersal patterns for two exploited coral reef groupers (Plectropomus maculatus and Plectropomus leopardus) within and among three clusters of reefs separated by 60–220 km within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia. A total of 69 juvenile P. maculatus and 17 juvenile P. leopardus (representing 6% and 9% of the total juveniles sampled, respectively) were genetically assigned to parent individuals on reefs within the study area. We identified both short-distance larval dispersal within regions (200 m to 50 km) and long-distance, multidirectional dispersal of up to ~250 km among regions. Dispersal strength declined significantly with distance, with best-fit dispersal kernels estimating median dispersal distances of ~110 km for P. maculatus and ~190 km for P. leopardus. Larval exchange among reefs demonstrates that established reserves form a highly connected network and contribute larvae for the replenishment of fished reefs at multiple spatial scales. Our findings highlight the potential for long-distance dispersal in an important group of reef fishes, and provide further evidence that effectively protected reserves can yield recruitment and sustainability benefits for exploited fish populations.

  20. The association between socio-demographic characteristics and adherence to breast and colorectal cancer screening: Analysis of large sub populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vainer Anna

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Populations having lower socioeconomic status, as well as ethnic minorities, have demonstrated lower utilization of preventive screening, including tests for early detection of breast and colorectal cancer. The objective To explore socio-demographic disparities in adherence to screening recommendations for early detection of cancer. Methods The study was conducted by Maccabi Healthcare Services, an Israeli HMO (health plan providing healthcare services to 1.9 million members. Utilization of breast cancer (BC and colorectal cancer (CC screening were analyzed by socio-economic ranks (SERs, ethnicity (Arab vs non-Arab, immigration status and ownership of voluntarily supplemental health insurance (VSHI. Results Data on 157,928 and 303,330 adults, eligible for BC and CC screening, respectively, were analyzed. Those having lower SER, Arabs, immigrants from Former Soviet Union countries and non-owners of VSHI performed fewer cancer screening examinations compared with those having higher SER, non-Arabs, veterans and owners of VSHI (p Conclusion Patients from low socio-economic backgrounds, Arabs, immigrants and those who do not own supplemental insurance do fewer tests for early detection of cancer. These sub-populations should be considered priority populations for targeted intervention programs and improved resource allocation.

  1. A post-genomic surprise. The molecular reinscription of race in science, law and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duster, Troy

    2015-03-01

    The completion of the first draft of the Human Genome Map in 2000 was widely heralded as the promise and future of genetics-based medicines and therapies - so much so that pundits began referring to the new century as 'The Century of Genetics'. Moreover, definitive assertions about the overwhelming similarities of all humans' DNA (99.9 per cent) by the leaders of the Human Genome Project were trumpeted as the end of racial thinking about racial taxonomies of human genetic differences. But the first decade of the new century brought unwelcomed surprises. First, gene therapies turned out to be far more complicated than any had anticipated - and instead the pharmaceutical industry turned to a focus on drugs that might be 'related' to population differences based upon genetic markers. While the language of 'personalized medicine' dominated this frame, research on racially and ethnically designated populations differential responsiveness to drugs dominated the empirical work in the field. Ancestry testing and 'admixture research' would play an important role in a new kind of molecular reification of racial categories. Moreover, the capacity of the super-computer to map differences reverberated into personal identification that would affect both the criminal justice system and forensic science, and generate new levels of concern about personal privacy. Social scientists in general, and sociologists in particular, have been caught short by these developments - relying mainly on assertions that racial categories are socially constructed, regionally and historically contingent, and politically arbitrary. While these assertions are true, the imprimatur of scientific legitimacy has shifted the burden, since now 'admixture research' can claim that its results get at the 'reality' of human differentiation, not the admittedly flawed social constructions of racial categories. Yet what was missing from this framing of the problem: 'admixture research' is itself based upon socially

  2. A Contrast-Based Computational Model of Surprise and Its Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Luis; Cardoso, Amílcar

    2017-11-19

    We review our work on a contrast-based computational model of surprise and its applications. The review is contextualized within related research from psychology, philosophy, and particularly artificial intelligence. Influenced by psychological theories of surprise, the model assumes that surprise-eliciting events initiate a series of cognitive processes that begin with the appraisal of the event as unexpected, continue with the interruption of ongoing activity and the focusing of attention on the unexpected event, and culminate in the analysis and evaluation of the event and the revision of beliefs. It is assumed that the intensity of surprise elicited by an event is a nonlinear function of the difference or contrast between the subjective probability of the event and that of the most probable alternative event (which is usually the expected event); and that the agent's behavior is partly controlled by actual and anticipated surprise. We describe applications of artificial agents that incorporate the proposed surprise model in three domains: the exploration of unknown environments, creativity, and intelligent transportation systems. These applications demonstrate the importance of surprise for decision making, active learning, creative reasoning, and selective attention. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  3. The episode of genetic drift defining the migration of humans out of Africa is derived from a large east African population size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Elhassan

    Full Text Available Human genetic variation particularly in Africa is still poorly understood. This is despite a consensus on the large African effective population size compared to populations from other continents. Based on sequencing of the mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase subunit II (MT-CO2, and genome wide microsatellite data we observe evidence suggesting the effective size (Ne of humans to be larger than the current estimates, with a foci of increased genetic diversity in east Africa, and a population size of east Africans being at least 2-6 fold larger than other populations. Both phylogenetic and network analysis indicate that east Africans possess more ancestral lineages in comparison to various continental populations placing them at the root of the human evolutionary tree. Our results also affirm east Africa as the likely spot from which migration towards Asia has taken place. The study reflects the spectacular level of sequence variation within east Africans in comparison to the global sample, and appeals for further studies that may contribute towards filling the existing gaps in the database. The implication of these data to current genomic research, as well as the need to carry out defined studies of human genetic variation that includes more African populations; particularly east Africans is paramount.

  4. A population approach to disease management: hepatitis C direct-acting antiviral use in a large health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belperio, Pamela S; Backus, Lisa I; Ross, David; Neuhauser, Melinda M; Mole, Larry A

    2014-06-01

    The introduction of the first direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV), telaprevir and boceprevir, marked a unique event in which 2 disease-changing therapies received FDA approval at the same time. Comparative safety and effectiveness data in real-world populations upon which to make formulary decisions did not exist. To describe the implementation, measurement, and outcomes of an enduring population-based approach of surveillance of medication management for HCV. The foundation of the population approach to HCV medication management used by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) relied upon a basic framework of (a) providing data for effective regional and local management, (b) education and training, (c) real-time oversight and feedback from a higher organization level, and (d) prompt outcome sharing. These population-based processes spanned across the continuum of the direct-acting antiviral oversight process. We used the VA's HCV Clinical Case Registry-which includes pharmacy, laboratory, and diagnosis information for all HCV-infected veterans from all VA facilities-to assess DAA treatment eligibility, DAA uptake and timing, appropriate use of DAAs including HCV RNA monitoring and medication possession ratios (MPR), nonconcordance with guidance for adjunct erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) use, hematologic adverse effects, discontinuation rates, and early and sustained virologic responses. Training impact was assessed via survey and change in pharmacist scope of practice. One year after FDA approval, DAAs had been prescribed at 120 of 130 VA facilities. Over 680 VA providers participated in live educational training programs including 380 pharmacists, and pharmacists with a scope of practice for HCV increased from 59 to 110 pharmacists (86%). HCV RNA futility testing improved such that only 1%-3% of veterans did not have appropriate testing compared with 15%-17% 6

  5. A Statistical Analysis of the Relationship between Harmonic Surprise and Preference in Popular Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Scott A; Rosen, David S; Grzywacz, Norberto M

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that some musical pieces may preferentially activate reward centers in the brain. Less is known, however, about the structural aspects of music that are associated with this activation. Based on the music cognition literature, we propose two hypotheses for why some musical pieces are preferred over others. The first, the Absolute-Surprise Hypothesis, states that unexpected events in music directly lead to pleasure. The second, the Contrastive-Surprise Hypothesis, proposes that the juxtaposition of unexpected events and subsequent expected events leads to an overall rewarding response. We tested these hypotheses within the framework of information theory, using the measure of "surprise." This information-theoretic variable mathematically describes how improbable an event is given a known distribution. We performed a statistical investigation of surprise in the harmonic structure of songs within a representative corpus of Western popular music, namely, the McGill Billboard Project corpus. We found that chords of songs in the top quartile of the Billboard chart showed greater average surprise than those in the bottom quartile. We also found that the different sections within top-quartile songs varied more in their average surprise than the sections within bottom-quartile songs. The results of this study are consistent with both the Absolute- and Contrastive-Surprise Hypotheses. Although these hypotheses seem contradictory to one another, we cannot yet discard the possibility that both absolute and contrastive types of surprise play roles in the enjoyment of popular music. We call this possibility the Hybrid-Surprise Hypothesis. The results of this statistical investigation have implications for both music cognition and the human neural mechanisms of esthetic judgments.

  6. Surprises from a Deep ASCA Spectrum of the Broad Absorption Line Quasar PHL 5200

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Smita; Matt, G.; Green, P. J.; Elvis, M.; Singh, K. P.

    2002-01-01

    We present a deep (approx. 85 ks) ASCA observation of the prototype broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO) PHL 5200. This is the best X-ray spectrum of a BALQSO yet. We find the following: (1) The source is not intrinsically X-ray weak. (2) The line-of-sight absorption is very strong, with N(sub H) = 5 x 10(exp 23)/sq cm. (3) The absorber does not cover the source completely; the covering fraction is approx. 90%. This is consistent with the large optical polarization observed in this source, implying multiple lines of sight. The most surprising result of this observation is that (4) the spectrum of this BALQSO is not exactly similar to other radio-quiet quasars. The hard X-ray spectrum of PHL 5200 is steep, with the power-law spectral index alpha approx. 1.5. This is similar to the steepest hard X-ray slopes observed so far. At low redshifts, such steep slopes are observed in narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies, believed to be accreting at a high Eddington rate. This observation strengthens the analogy between BALQSOs and NLS1 galaxies and supports the hypothesis that BALQSOs represent an early evolutionary state of quasars. It is well accepted that the orientation to the line of sight determines the appearance of a quasar: age seems to play a significant role as well.

  7. The Ultraviolet Surprise. Efficient Soft X-Ray High Harmonic Generation in Multiply-Ionized Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popmintchev, Dimitar; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Dollar, Franklin; Mancuso, Christopher; Perez-Hernandez, Jose A.; Chen, Ming-Chang; Hankla, Amelia; Gao, Xiaohui; Shim, Bonggu; Gaeta, Alexander L.; Tarazkar, Maryam; Romanov, Dmitri A.; Levis, Robert J.; Gaffney, Jim A.; Foord, Mark; Libby, Stephen B.; Jaron-Becker, Agnieskzka; Becker, Andreas; Plaja, Luis; Muranane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Popmintchev, Tenio

    2015-01-01

    High-harmonic generation is a universal response of matter to strong femtosecond laser fields, coherently upconverting light to much shorter wavelengths. Optimizing the conversion of laser light into soft x-rays typically demands a trade-off between two competing factors. Reduced quantum diffusion of the radiating electron wave function results in emission from each species which is highest when a short-wavelength ultraviolet driving laser is used. But, phase matching - the constructive addition of x-ray waves from a large number of atoms - favors longer-wavelength mid-infrared lasers. We identified a regime of high-harmonic generation driven by 40-cycle ultraviolet lasers in waveguides that can generate bright beams in the soft x-ray region of the spectrum, up to photon energies of 280 electron volts. Surprisingly, the high ultraviolet refractive indices of both neutral atoms and ions enabled effective phase matching, even in a multiply ionized plasma. We observed harmonics with very narrow linewidths, while calculations show that the x-rays emerge as nearly time-bandwidt-limited pulse trains of ~100 attoseconds

  8. The Oslo Health Study: The impact of self-selection in a large, population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjertness Espen

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on health equity which mainly utilises population-based surveys, may be hampered by serious selection bias due to a considerable number of invitees declining to participate. Sufficient information from all the non-responders is rarely available to quantify this bias. Predictors of attendance, magnitude and direction of non-response bias in prevalence estimates and association measures, are investigated based on information from all 40 888 invitees to the Oslo Health Study. Methods The analyses were based on linkage between public registers in Statistics Norway and the Oslo Health Study, a population-based survey conducted in 2000/2001 inviting all citizens aged 30, 40, 45, 59–60 and 75–76 years. Attendance was 46%. Weighted analyses, logistic regression and sensitivity analyses are performed to evaluate possible selection bias. Results The response rate was positively associated with age, educational attendance, total income, female gender, married, born in a Western county, living in the outer city residential regions and not receiving disability benefit. However, self-rated health, smoking, BMI and mental health (HCSL in the attendees differed only slightly from estimated prevalence values in the target population when weighted by the inverse of the probability of attendance. Observed values differed only moderately provided that the non-attending individuals differed from those attending by no more than 50%. Even though persons receiving disability benefit had lower attendance, the associations between disability and education, residential region and marital status were found to be unbiased. The association between country of birth and disability benefit was somewhat more evident among attendees. Conclusions Self-selection according to sociodemographic variables had little impact on prevalence estimates. As indicated by disability benefit, unhealthy persons attended to a lesser degree than healthy individuals

  9. The Oslo Health Study: The impact of self-selection in a large, population-based survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Selmer, Randi; Bjertness, Espen; Thelle, Dag

    2004-01-01

    Background Research on health equity which mainly utilises population-based surveys, may be hampered by serious selection bias due to a considerable number of invitees declining to participate. Sufficient information from all the non-responders is rarely available to quantify this bias. Predictors of attendance, magnitude and direction of non-response bias in prevalence estimates and association measures, are investigated based on information from all 40 888 invitees to the Oslo Health Study. Methods The analyses were based on linkage between public registers in Statistics Norway and the Oslo Health Study, a population-based survey conducted in 2000/2001 inviting all citizens aged 30, 40, 45, 59–60 and 75–76 years. Attendance was 46%. Weighted analyses, logistic regression and sensitivity analyses are performed to evaluate possible selection bias. Results The response rate was positively associated with age, educational attendance, total income, female gender, married, born in a Western county, living in the outer city residential regions and not receiving disability benefit. However, self-rated health, smoking, BMI and mental health (HCSL) in the attendees differed only slightly from estimated prevalence values in the target population when weighted by the inverse of the probability of attendance. Observed values differed only moderately provided that the non-attending individuals differed from those attending by no more than 50%. Even though persons receiving disability benefit had lower attendance, the associations between disability and education, residential region and marital status were found to be unbiased. The association between country of birth and disability benefit was somewhat more evident among attendees. Conclusions Self-selection according to sociodemographic variables had little impact on prevalence estimates. As indicated by disability benefit, unhealthy persons attended to a lesser degree than healthy individuals, but social inequality in

  10. Population Density and AIDS-Related Stigma in Large-Urban, Small-Urban, and Rural Communities of the Southeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth; Katner, Harold; Banas, Ellen; Kalichman, Moira

    2017-07-01

    AIDS stigmas delay HIV diagnosis, interfere with health care, and contribute to mental health problems among people living with HIV. While there are few studies of the geographical distribution of AIDS stigma, research suggests that AIDS stigmas are differentially experienced in rural and urban areas. We conducted computerized interviews with 696 men and women living with HIV in 113 different zip code areas that were classified as large-urban, small-urban, and rural areas in a southeast US state with high-HIV prevalence. Analyses conducted at the individual level (N = 696) accounting for clustering at the zip code level showed that internalized AIDS-related stigma (e.g., the sense of being inferior to others because of HIV) was experienced with greater magnitude in less densely populated communities. Multilevel models indicated that after adjusting for potential confounding factors, rural communities reported greater internalized AIDS-related stigma compared to large-urban areas and that small-urban areas indicated greater experiences of enacted stigma (e.g., discrimination) than large-urban areas. The associations between anticipated AIDS-related stigma (e.g., expecting discrimination) and population density at the community-level were not significant. Results suggest that people living in rural and small-urban settings experience greater AIDS-related internalized and enacted stigma than their counterparts living in large-urban centers. Research is needed to determine whether low-density population areas contribute to or are sought out by people who experienced greater AIDS-related stigma. Regardless of causal directions, interventions are needed to address AIDS-related stigma, especially among people in sparsely populated areas with limited resources.

  11. Thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin autoantibodies in a large survey of populations with mild and moderate iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, I.B.; Knudsen, N.; Jorgensen, T.

    2003-01-01

    surveys. In the present study we evaluated if TPO-Ab and Tg-Ab tend to develop in parallel or whether one or the other may be more prevalent in subsets of the population. METHODS In a cross-sectional comparative study, performed in two areas of Denmark with mild and moderate iodine deficiency, 4649...... antibodies were more frequently measured in sera from moderate than from mild iodine-deficient area (P = 0.02), whereas no differences were seen in younger subjects. In 38.8% of participants with thyroid autoantibodies in serum, both antibodies were present. In sera with both TPO-Ab and Tg-Ab present...

  12. An aging population and growing disease burden will require a large and specialized health care workforce by 2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall, Timothy M; Gallo, Paul D; Chakrabarti, Ritasree; West, Terry; Semilla, April P; Storm, Michael V

    2013-11-01

    As the US population ages, the increasing prevalence of chronic disease and complex medical conditions will have profound implications for the future health care system. We projected future prevalence of selected diseases and health risk factors to model future demand for health care services for each person in a representative sample of the current and projected future population. Based on changing demographic characteristics and expanded medical coverage under the Affordable Care Act, we project that the demand for adult primary care services will grow by approximately 14 percent between 2013 and 2025. Vascular surgery has the highest projected demand growth (31 percent), followed by cardiology (20 percent) and neurological surgery, radiology, and general surgery (each 18 percent). Market indicators such as long wait times to obtain appointments suggest that the current supply of many specialists throughout the United States is inadequate to meet the current demand. Failure to train sufficient numbers and the correct mix of specialists could exacerbate already long wait times for appointments, reduce access to care for some of the nation's most vulnerable patients, and reduce patients' quality of life.

  13. Measurements of beam halo diffusion and population density in the Tevatron and in the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stancari, Giulio [Fermilab

    2015-03-01

    Halo dynamics influences global accelerator performance: beam lifetimes, emittance growth, dynamic aperture, and collimation efficiency. Halo monitoring and control are also critical for the operation of high-power machines. For instance, in the high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC, the energy stored in the beam tails may reach several megajoules. Fast losses can result in superconducting magnet quenches, magnet damage, or even collimator deformation. The need arises to measure the beam halo and to remove it at controllable rates. In the Tevatron and in the LHC, halo population densities and diffusivities were measured with collimator scans by observing the time evolution of losses following small inward or outward collimator steps, under different experimental conditions: with single beams and in collision, and, in the case of the Tevatron, with a hollow electron lens acting on a subset of bunches. After the LHC resumes operations, it is planned to compare measured diffusivities with the known strength of transverse damper excitations. New proposals for nondestructive halo population density measurements are also briefly discussed.

  14. Decision making on population protection in a large-scale radioactive contamination following a nuclear reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinov, Yu. O.

    1993-01-01

    Since the first years of development of nuclear power the most serious attention has been given to the planning of measures of population protection in the event of a radioactive release to atmosphere from a nuclear reactor. In the 60s 'Criteria for urgent decision making in the event of an accidental radioactive release into the environment' were developed in the USSR. When substantiating numerical values of potential radiation doses reasoning the implementation of countermeasures, specific conditions of emergency situations, characteristics of countermeasures and the real possibilities of timely dosimetric estimation of the situation were considered. The 'Criteria' were designed for urgent decision making at an early stage, in the first hours and days following the emergency. After the start of the Chernobyl accident on April 26, 1986, decisions on measures of protection of the population living in proximity to the site of the accident, including relocation of residents of the town of Pripyat on May 27, 1986, were taken on the basis of this document, as well as decisions for iodine prophylaxis and for relocation of other settlements within the 30 km zone. The decisions were taken by the result of the estimation prediction of the radiation situation which showed a possibility of an excess of criteria levels by external gamma radiation and by inhalation of radioiodine

  15. Early invasion population structure of quagga mussel and associated benthic invertebrate community composition on soft sediment in a large reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marion E.; Chandra, Sudeep; Caires, Andrea; Denton, Marianne; Rosen, Michael R.; Wong, Wai Hing; Teitjen, Todd; Turner, Kent; Roefer, Peggy; Holdren, G. Chris

    2010-01-01

    In 2007 an invasive dreissenid mussel species, Dreissena bugensis (quagga mussel), was discovered in Lake Mead reservoir (AZ–NV). Within 2 years, adult populations have spread throughout the lake and are not only colonizing hard substrates, but also establishing in soft sediments at depths ranging from 1 to >100 m. Dreissena bugensis size class and population density distribution differs between basins; cluster analysis revealed 5 adult cohorts within Boulder Basin and Overton Arm but low densities and low cohort survival in the Las Vegas Basin. Regression analysis suggests depth and temperature are not primary controllers of D. bugensis density in Lake Mead, indicating other factors such as sediment type, food availability or other resource competition may be important. Monthly veliger tows showed at least 2 major spawning events per year, with continuous presence of veligers in the water column. Adult mussels have been found in spawn or post-spawn condition in soft sediments in shallow to deep waters (>80 m) indicating the potential for reproduction at multiple depths. Comparisons to a 1986 benthic survey suggest there have been shifts in nondreissenid macroinvertebrate composition; however, it is unclear if this is due to D. bugensis presence. Current distribution of nondreissenid macroinvertebrates is heterogeneous in all 3 basins, and their biodiversity decreased when D. bugensis density was 2500/m2 or greater.

  16. Prevalence of Coronary Artery Intramyocardial Course in a Large Population of Clinical Patients Detected by Multislice Computed Tomography Coronary Angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Rosa, R.; Sacco, M.; Tedeschi, C.; Pepe, R.; Capogrosso, P.; Montemarano, E.; Rotondo, A.; Runza, G.; Midiri, M.; Cademartiri, F. (UO di Radiologia, Ospedale San Gennaro, Napoli (Italy))

    2008-10-15

    Background: Intramyocardial course, an inborn coronary anomaly, is defined as a segment of a major epicardial coronary artery that runs intramurally through the myocardium; in particular, we distinguish myocardial bridging, in which the vessel returns to an epicardial position after the muscle bridge, and intramyocardial course, which is described as a vessel running and ending in the myocardium. Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence of myocardial bridging and intramyocardial course of coronary arteries as defined by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography. Material and Methods: The study population consisted of 242 consecutive patients (211 men, 31 women; mean age 59+-6 years) with atypical chest pain admitted to our hospital between December 2004 and September 2006. All MDCT examinations were performed using a 16-detector-row scanner (Aquilion 16 CFX; Toshiba Medical System, Tokyo, Japan). Patients with heart rate above 65 bpm received 50 mg atenolol orally for 3 days prior to the MDCT scan, or they increased their usual therapy with beta-blockers, in order to obtain a prescan heart rate <60 bpm. Curved multiplanar and 3D volume reconstructions were performed to explore coronary anatomy. Results: In 235 patients, the CT scan was successful and images were appropriate for evaluation. The prevalence of myocardial bridging and intramyocardial course of coronary arteries was 18.7% (47 cases) in our patient population. In 30 segments (63.8%), the vessels ran and ended in the myocardium. In the remaining 17 segments (36.2%), the vessels returned to an epicardial position after the muscle bridge. We found no difference in the prevalence of this inborn coronary anomaly when comparing different clinical characteristics of the study population (sex, age, body-mass index [BMI], etc.). The mean length of the subepicardial artery was 7 mm (range 5-12 mm), and the mean depth in the diastolic phase was 1.9 mm (range 1.2-2.3 mm). There was no significant difference of

  17. Prevalence and determinants of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in lifelines: A large Dutch population cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline H van den Berg

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is an increasing health issue that develops rather unnoticed with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. We investigated prevalence, determinants and associated metabolic abnormalities of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the largest population-based cohort to date.Biochemical characteristics, type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome were determined in the Lifelines Cohort Study (N = 167,729, a population-based cohort in the North of the Netherlands. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was defined as Fatty Liver Index (FLI≥60. Exclusion criteria were age <18 years, immigrants, missing data to assess FLI and metabolic syndrome, excessive alcohol use, previous-diagnosed hepatitis or cirrhosis and non-fasting blood sampling.Out of 37,496 included participants (median age 44 years, 62.1% female, 8,259 (22.0% had a FLI≥60. Individuals with a FLI≥60 were more often male, older, obese, had higher levels of hemoglobinA1c, fasting glucose, liver enzymes, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, c-reactive protein and leucocytes and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (all P<0.0001. Participants with a FLI≥60 showed higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (9.3% vs. 1.4%, metabolic syndrome (54.2% vs. 6.2%, impaired renal function (20.1% vs. 8.7% and cardiovascular disease (4.6% vs. 1.6% (all P<0.0001. Multivariable logistic analysis showed that smoking, hemoglobin, leucocytes, c-reactive protein, platelets, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, impaired renal function (OR 1.27, 95%CI 1.15-1.41, metabolic syndrome (OR 11.89, 95%CI 11.03-12.82 and its individual components hyperglycemia (OR 2.53, 95%CI 2.34-2.72, hypertension (OR 1.89, 95%CI 1.77-2.01 and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 3.44, 95%CI 3.22-3.68 were independently associated with suspected non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (all P<0.0001.Twenty

  18. Analysis of SLCO1B1 and APOE genetic polymorphisms in a large ethnic Hakka population in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhixiong; Wu, Heming; Li, Bin; Li, Cunren; Liu, Zhidong; Yang, Min; Zhang, Qifeng; Zhong, Wei; Zhao, Pingsen

    2018-02-09

    Statins are the most widely used lipid-lowering drugs, which have a significant effect on the inhibition of cardiovascular disease. The efficacy and side effects of statins are associated with the polymorphisms of SLCO1B1 and APOE genes. The purpose of this study was to analyze the SLCO1B1 and APOE gene polymorphisms in the Hakka population of southern China. A total of 3249 subjects including 2019 males and 1230 females participated in this study. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-fluorescence probe technique for polymorphisms analysis and analyzed the genotypes frequencies of SLCO1B1 and APOE genes. The frequencies of SLCO1B1 521T>C between men and women were statistically significant (SLCO1B1 521TT, χ 2  = 8.431, P = .004; SLCO1B1 521TC, χ 2  = 7.436, P = .007). The frequencies of haplotypes *1b/*1b (40.07%) and *1a/*1b (32.56%) of SLCO1B1 gene accounted for 72.63%, followed by *1b/*15(14.40%), *1a/*1a (5.82%), *1a/*15 (5.57%), *15/*15 (1.45%), and *1a/*5 (0.12%). The frequencies of haplotypes *1a/*15 and *1b/*1b of SLCO1B1 gene between men and women were statistically significant (*1a/*15, χ 2  = 6.789, P = .009; *1b/*1b, χ 2  = 3.998, P = .004). In this study, genotype ɛ3/ɛ3 accounted for 69.04%, followed by ɛ3/ɛ4 (16.19%), ɛ2/ɛ3 (11.60%), ɛ2/ɛ4 (1.35%), ɛ4/ɛ4 (1.08%), and ɛ2/ɛ2 (0.74%) in all subjects, in which ɛ3 had the greatest allele frequency (82.93%), followed by ɛ4 (9.85%) and ɛ2 (7.22%). We found that 47 subjects carrying the SLCO1B1 521 (CC) polymorphism who had not any myopathy caused by statins. We analyzed the SLCO1B1 and APOE gene polymorphisms in the Hakka population of southern China. This study provides a reference for the individualized meditation for Hakka population in this area. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Incidence of new-onset wheeze: a prospective study in a large middle-aged general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Mathias; Torén, Kjell; Andersson, Eva

    2015-12-16

    Wheeze is a very common respiratory symptom, which is associated with several factors and diseases. Studies on incidence of new-onset wheeze in general adult populations are rare. The present prospective study aimed to investigate the incidence rate of new-onset wheeze, and predictors for wheeze, in a general, middle-aged population. Individuals, born 1943-1973, who had participated in a previous Swedish study in 1993 (n = 15,813), were mailed a new respiratory questionnaire in 2003. The questionnaire, which included items about respiratory symptoms, atopy, and smoking was answered by 11,463 (72%). Incidence rates of new-onset wheeze were calculated. Cox regression analyses were performed with incident wheeze as an event and person-years under observation as dependent variable. Among those free of wheeze at baseline (n = 8885), there were 378 new cases of wheeze during the study period (1993-2003). The incidence rate was 4.3/1000 person-years. The adjusted risk was increased in relation to smoking (HR 2.1;95% CI 1.7-2.7), ex-smoking (HR 1.4;95% CI 1.1-1.9), young age (HR 1.7;95% CI 1.3-2.2), chronic bronchitis (HR 2.3;95% CI 0.96-5.7), and rhinitis (HR 1.8;95% CI 1.4-2.2) at baseline, and body mass index ≥30 (HR 1.9;95% CI 1.5-2.6) at follow-up. This is a unique study that presents an incidence rate for new-onset wheeze in a middle-aged, general population sample previously free of adult wheeze. The results indicate that new-onset wheeze is quite common in this age group. Health care staff should bear this in mind since new-onset wheeze could be one of the earliest symptoms of severe respiratory disease. Special attention should be paid to patients with a smoking history, chronic bronchitis, rhinitis or obesity.

  20. Season and outdoor temperature in relation to detection and control of hypertension in a large rural Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Danting; Du, Huaidong; Zhang, Xinwei; Qian, Yijian; Chen, Lingli; Chen, Yaping; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming; Yu, Min

    2014-12-01

    In many Western populations, blood pressure varies moderately with season and outdoor temperature. Relatively little is known about effects of seasonal changes in blood pressure on the detection and control of hypertension in general populations, especially in low- and middle-income countries. We analysed cross-sectional data of 57 375 (42% men) participants aged 30-79 (mean 52.3) years who were enrolled during 2004-08, as part of the China Kadoorie Biobank, from a rural county in the south-east costal Zhejiang Province. Analyses related daily mean outdoor temperature, obtained from local Meteorological Bureau, to mean systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), rate of newly detected hypertension and, among those with self-reported physician-diagnosed hypertension, rate of adequate blood pressure control, using multiple linear and logistic regression models. The overall mean blood pressure was 135.9 mmHg for SBP and 80.5 mmHg for DBP. Daily outdoor temperature ranged between -2.9 and 33.7°C, with July being the hottest month (mean 29.4°C) and January the coldest (mean 4.0°C). Comparing January (the coldest month) with July (the warmest), the differences in the adjusted SBP/DBP were 19.2/7.7 mmHg. Each 10°C lower ambient temperature was associated with 6.9/2.9 mmHg higher SBP/DBP,14.1% higher prevalence of newly detected hypertension and, among those with pre-diagnosed hypertension, 13.0% lower hypertension control rate. In rural China, lower outdoor temperature is strongly associated with higher mean blood pressure and hypertension prevalence as well as poorer hypertension control, and should be considered when conducting population-based hypertension surveys and providing treatment for hypertensive patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  1. Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Murty, Vishnu P.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal representations of the environment, and surprising events are indications for encoding new representations of the environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system, including the hippocampus and surrounding cortex, encodes surprising events and is influenced by motivational state. Because behavior reflects the goals of an individual, we investigated whether motivational valence (i.e., pursuing rewards versus avoiding punishments) also...

  2. Measurements of beam halo diffusion and population density in the Tevatron and in the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Stancari, Giulio

    Halo dynamics influences global accelerator performance: beam lifetimes, emittance growth, dynamic aperture, and collimation efficiency. Halo monitoring and control are also critical for the operation of high-power machines. For instance, in the high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC, the energy stored in the beam tails may reach several megajoules. Fast losses can result in superconducting magnet quenches, magnet damage, or even collimator deformation. The need arises to measure the beam halo and to remove it at controllable rates. In the Tevatron and in the LHC, halo population densities and diffusivities were measured with collimator scans by observing the time evolution of losses following small inward or outward collimator steps, under different experimental conditions: with single beams and in collision, and, in the case of the Tevatron, with a hollow electron lens acting on a subset of bunches. After the LHC resumes operations, it is planned to compare measured diffusivities with the known strength of tran...

  3. Construct validity of the Thai version of the job content questionnaire in a large population of heterogeneous occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phakthongsuk, Pitchaya

    2009-04-01

    To test the construct validity of the Thai version of the job content questionnaire (TJCQ). The present descriptive study recruited 10415 participants from all occupations according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations. The instrument consisted of a 48-item of the job content questionnaire. Eight items newly developed by the authors from in-depth interviews were added. Exploratory factor analysis showed six factor models of work hazards, decision latitude, psychological demand, social support, physical demand, and job security. However, supervisor and co-worker support were not distinguished into two factors and some items distributed differently along the factors extracted. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the construct of six latent factors, although the overall fit was moderately acceptable. Cronbach's alpha coefficients higher than 0.7, supported the internal consistency of TJCQ scales except for job security (0.55). These findings suggest that TJCQ is valid and reliable for assessing job stress among Thai populations.

  4. Cadmium exposure and endometrial cancer risk: A large midwestern U.S. population-based case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane A McElroy

    Full Text Available Estrogen-mimicking chemicals, such as cadmium, may be associated with increased susceptibility to hormone-dependent cancers, though supporting data are sparse, particularly for endometrial cancer. The Health and Environmental Exposure Research (HEER study worked with the Arkansas Central Cancer Registry, Iowa Cancer Registry and Missouri Cancer Registry to obtain names of women diagnosed with endometrial cancer who were willing to be contacted for participation in our case control study. Voter registration lists from Iowa and Missouri were used to randomly select similarly aged women as represented in the case population. Participants were interviewed by telephone to obtain information on known or suspected endometrial risk factors. Urine kits were sent to participants for home collection and returned for analysis. Our case-control study consisted of 631 incident cases of endometrial cancer diagnosed from January 2010 to October 2012 and 879 age-matched population-based controls, ages 18-81 years (mean age 65 years. We quantified cadmium amounts in urine and standardized these values through creatinine adjustment. Using data from all survey completers, we developed a multivariable model for endometrial cancer. Creatinine-adjusted cadmium concentration was added to this model. Odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for endometrial cancer were calculated. After multivariable adjustment, higher creatinine-adjusted cadmium exposure was associated with a statistically significant increase of endometrial cancer risk (OR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.03-1.44. Our results provide evidence that cadmium may increase the risk of endometrial cancer, possibly through estrogenic effects.

  5. Interventional radiology emergency service provision for a large UK urban population: Initial 3.5 years of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christie, A.; Robertson, I.; Moss, J.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To review the activity and impact of an out-of-hours (OOH) interventional radiology service introduced in Glasgow in 2007. Material and methods: A retrospective review of the first 42 months formal OOH activity across 11 hospital sites covering a population of 1.2 million was undertaken. The 30 day mortality and cause of death was logged for each procedural subtype [nephrostomy, biliary and abscess drainage, enteric stenting, transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt (TIPS), thoracic endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (TEVAR), endovascular, and embolization]. Results: From October 2007 to March 2011, 502 cases were identified. The mean number of procedures performed per month was 12 (range 5–21). This represents an event rate of 12/100,000 population/year. A minority (11%) of cases were undertaken after midnight. The activity levels were stable over the 42 month study period. The most frequent procedures were percutaneous nephrostomy (32%) and embolization for haemorrhage (30%). Thirty-day mortality was 17% for the entire group but varied from 53% (biliary intervention) to 0% (TEVAR). There was no death following embolization for obstetric haemorrhage. Approximately half of the deaths were due to a failure of the procedure to control the underlying clinical problem. Conclusion: The demand for OOH services is important but not unduly onerous. There is no evidence of expansion of demand after launching such a service. Mortality rates probably reflect the underlying clinical status of this emergency patient group. Certain procedures carry a high mortality rate, raising issues of clinical judgement, appropriateness of intervention, and/or timing

  6. No apparent association between bipolar disorder and cancer in a large epidemiological study of outpatients in a managed care population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Natan R; Silverman, Barbara; Liphshitz, Irena; Waitman, Dan-Andrei; Ben-Zion, Itzhak; Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Weizman, Abraham; Grinshpoon, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    An association between bipolar disorder (BD) and cancer risk has been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate this association through linkage analysis of a national HMO database and a national cancer registry. All members of the Leumit Health Services (LHS) HMO of Israel from 2000 to 2012 were included. Members with a recorded diagnosis of BD and a record of at least one written or dispensed prescription for pharmacotherapy for treatment of BD were classified as patients with BD. We linked the LHS population with the Israel National Cancer Registry database to capture all cases of cancer reported. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for cancer in the BD population as compared with non-BD LHS members were calculated. A total of 870 323 LHS members were included in the analysis; 3304 of whom met the criteria for inclusion in the BD arm. We identified 24 515 and 110 cancer cases among members without BD and with BD, respectively. Persons with BD were no more likely than other HMO members to be diagnosed with cancer during the follow-up period [SIR, males=0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66-1.22; SIR, females=1.15, 95% CI: 0.89-1.47]. Sensitivity analysis using different criteria for positive BD classification (lithium treatment alone or registered physician diagnosis) had no effect on the estimate of cancer risk. A nonstatistically significant association between breast cancer and BD among women was observed (SIR=1.24, 95% CI: 0.79-1.86). These findings do not corroborate previously reported associations between BD and elevated cancer risk.

  7. Study of depression influencing factors with zero-inflated regression models in a large-scale population survey

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Tao; Zhu, Guangjin; Han, Shaomei

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The number of depression symptoms can be considered as count data in order to get complete and accurate analyses findings in studies of depression. This study aims to compare the goodness of fit of four count outcomes models by a large survey sample to identify the optimum model for a risk factor study of the number of depression symptoms. Methods 15 820 subjects, aged 10 to 80 years old, who were not suffering from serious chronic diseases and had not run a high fever in the past ...

  8. Comment on "Characterizing the population of pulsars in the Galactic bulge with the Fermi large area telescope" [arXiv:1705.00009v1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Richard; Hooper, Dan; Linden, Tim; Mishra-Sharma, Siddharth; Rodd, Nicholas L.; Safdi, Benjamin R.; Slatyer, Tracy R.

    2018-06-01

    The Fermi-LAT Collaboration recently presented a new catalog of gamma-ray sources located within the 40 ° × 40 ° region around the Galactic Center Ajello et al. (2017) - the Second Fermi Inner Galaxy (2FIG) catalog. Utilizing this catalog, they analyzed models for the spatial distribution and luminosity function of sources with a pulsar-like gamma-ray spectrum. Ajello et al. (2017) v1 also claimed to detect, in addition to a disk-like population of pulsar-like sources, an approximately 7 σ preference for an additional centrally concentrated population of pulsar-like sources, which they referred to as a "Galactic Bulge" population. Such a population would be of great interest, as it would support a pulsar interpretation of the gamma-ray excess that has long been observed in this region. In an effort to further explore the implications of this new source catalog, we attempted to reproduce the results presented by the Fermi-LAT Collaboration, but failed to do so. Mimicking as closely as possible the analysis techniques undertaken in Ajello et al. (2017), we instead find that our likelihood analysis favors a very different spatial distribution and luminosity function for these sources. Most notably, our results do not exhibit a strong preference for a "Galactic Bulge" population of pulsars. Furthermore, we find that masking the regions immediately surrounding each of the 2FIG pulsar candidates does not significantly impact the spectrum or intensity of the Galactic Center gamma-ray excess. Although these results refute the claim of strong evidence for a centrally concentrated pulsar population presented in Ajello et al. (2017), they neither rule out nor provide support for the possibility that the Galactic Center excess is generated by a population of low-luminosity and currently largely unobserved pulsars. In a spirit of maximal openness and transparency, we have made our analysis code available at https://github.com/bsafdi/GCE-2FIG.

  9. Large-scale community echocardiographic screening reveals a major burden of undiagnosed valvular heart disease in older people: the OxVALVE Population Cohort Study†

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Arcy, Joanna L.; Coffey, Sean; Loudon, Margaret A.; Kennedy, Andrew; Pearson-Stuttard, Jonathan; Birks, Jacqueline; Frangou, Eleni; Farmer, Andrew J.; Mant, David; Wilson, Jo; Myerson, Saul G.; Prendergast, Bernard D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Valvular heart disease (VHD) is expected to become more common as the population ages. However, current estimates of its natural history and prevalence are based on historical studies with potential sources of bias. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of VHD identified at recruitment of a large cohort of older people. Methods and results We enrolled 2500 individuals aged ≥65 years from a primary care population and screened for undiagnosed VHD using transthoracic echocardiography. Newly identified (predominantly mild) VHD was detected in 51% of participants. The most common abnormalities were aortic sclerosis (34%), mitral regurgitation (22%), and aortic regurgitation (15%). Aortic stenosis was present in 1.3%. The likelihood of undiagnosed VHD was two-fold higher in the two most deprived socioeconomic quintiles than in the most affluent quintile, and three-fold higher in individuals with atrial fibrillation. Clinically significant (moderate or severe) undiagnosed VHD was identified in 6.4%. In addition, 4.9% of the cohort had pre-existing VHD (a total prevalence of 11.3%). Projecting these findings using population data, we estimate that the prevalence of clinically significant VHD will double before 2050. Conclusions Previously undetected VHD affects 1 in 2 of the elderly population and is more common in lower socioeconomic classes. These unique data demonstrate the contemporary clinical and epidemiological characteristics of VHD in a large population-based cohort of older people and confirm the scale of the emerging epidemic of VHD, with widespread implications for clinicians and healthcare resources. PMID:27354049

  10. Large-scale community echocardiographic screening reveals a major burden of undiagnosed valvular heart disease in older people: the OxVALVE Population Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Arcy, Joanna L; Coffey, Sean; Loudon, Margaret A; Kennedy, Andrew; Pearson-Stuttard, Jonathan; Birks, Jacqueline; Frangou, Eleni; Farmer, Andrew J; Mant, David; Wilson, Jo; Myerson, Saul G; Prendergast, Bernard D

    2016-12-14

    Valvular heart disease (VHD) is expected to become more common as the population ages. However, current estimates of its natural history and prevalence are based on historical studies with potential sources of bias. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of VHD identified at recruitment of a large cohort of older people. We enrolled 2500 individuals aged ≥65 years from a primary care population and screened for undiagnosed VHD using transthoracic echocardiography. Newly identified (predominantly mild) VHD was detected in 51% of participants. The most common abnormalities were aortic sclerosis (34%), mitral regurgitation (22%), and aortic regurgitation (15%). Aortic stenosis was present in 1.3%. The likelihood of undiagnosed VHD was two-fold higher in the two most deprived socioeconomic quintiles than in the most affluent quintile, and three-fold higher in individuals with atrial fibrillation. Clinically significant (moderate or severe) undiagnosed VHD was identified in 6.4%. In addition, 4.9% of the cohort had pre-existing VHD (a total prevalence of 11.3%). Projecting these findings using population data, we estimate that the prevalence of clinically significant VHD will double before 2050. Previously undetected VHD affects 1 in 2 of the elderly population and is more common in lower socioeconomic classes. These unique data demonstrate the contemporary clinical and epidemiological characteristics of VHD in a large population-based cohort of older people and confirm the scale of the emerging epidemic of VHD, with widespread implications for clinicians and healthcare resources. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Imputation of the rare HOXB13 G84E mutation and cancer risk in a large population-based cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Hoffmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient approach to characterizing the disease burden of rare genetic variants is to impute them into large well-phenotyped cohorts with existing genome-wide genotype data using large sequenced referenced panels. The success of this approach hinges on the accuracy of rare variant imputation, which remains controversial. For example, a recent study suggested that one cannot adequately impute the HOXB13 G84E mutation associated with prostate cancer risk (carrier frequency of 0.0034 in European ancestry participants in the 1000 Genomes Project. We show that by utilizing the 1000 Genomes Project data plus an enriched reference panel of mutation carriers we were able to accurately impute the G84E mutation into a large cohort of 83,285 non-Hispanic White participants from the Kaiser Permanente Research Program on Genes, Environment and Health Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging cohort. Imputation authenticity was confirmed via a novel classification and regression tree method, and then empirically validated analyzing a subset of these subjects plus an additional 1,789 men from Kaiser specifically genotyped for the G84E mutation (r2 = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.37–0.77. We then show the value of this approach by using the imputed data to investigate the impact of the G84E mutation on age-specific prostate cancer risk and on risk of fourteen other cancers in the cohort. The age-specific risk of prostate cancer among G84E mutation carriers was higher than among non-carriers. Risk estimates from Kaplan-Meier curves were 36.7% versus 13.6% by age 72, and 64.2% versus 24.2% by age 80, for G84E mutation carriers and non-carriers, respectively (p = 3.4x10-12. The G84E mutation was also associated with an increase in risk for the fourteen other most common cancers considered collectively (p = 5.8x10-4 and more so in cases diagnosed with multiple cancer types, both those including and not including prostate cancer, strongly suggesting

  12. Insomnia as a risk factor for ill health: results from the large population-based prospective HUNT Study in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivertsen, Børge; Lallukka, Tea; Salo, Paula; Pallesen, Ståle; Hysing, Mari; Krokstad, Steinar; Simon Øverland

    2014-04-01

    Insomnia co-occurs with many health problems, but less is known about the prospective associations. The aim of the current study was to investigate if insomnia predicts cumulative incidence of mental and physical conditions. Prospective population-based data from the two last Nord-Trøndelag Health Studies (HUNT2 in 1995–97 and HUNT3 in 2006–08), comprising 24 715 people in the working population, were used to study insomnia as a risk factor for incidence of physical and mental conditions. Insomnia was defined according to the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Insomnia at HUNT2 was a significant risk factor for incidence of a range of both mental and physical conditions at HUNT3 11 years later. Most effects were only slightly attenuated when adjusting for confounding factors, and insomnia remained a significant risk factor for the following conditions in the adjusted analyses: depression [odds ratio (OR): 2.38, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.91–2.98], anxiety (OR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.63–2.64), fibromyalgia (OR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.51–2.79), rheumatoidarthritis (OR: 1.87, 95% CI: 1.29–2.52), whiplash (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.21–2.41), arthrosis (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.43–1.98), osteoporosis (OR:1.52, 95% CI: 1.14–2.01, headache (OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.16–1.95,asthma (OR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.16–1.86 and myocardial infarction (OR:1.46, 95% CI: 1.06–2.00). Insomnia was also associated significantly with incidence of angina, hypertension, obesity and stroke in the crude analyses, but not after adjusting for confounders. We conclude that insomnia predicts cumulative incidence of several physical and mental conditions. These results may have important clinical implications, and whether or not treatment of insomnia would have a preventive value for both physical and mental conditions should be studied further.

  13. Prevalence of impaired fasting glucose and type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus in a large nationwide working population in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reviriego, Jesús; Vázquez, Luis Alberto; Goday, Albert; Cabrera, Martha; García-Margallo, María Teresa; Calvo, Eva

    2016-04-01

    To report the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), undiagnosed and diagnosed diabetes, and their association to occupational categories in a representative sample of working population in Spain. A cross-sectional study of workers who attended routine medical check-ups from January 2007 to December 2007. A structured questionnaire was completed, and physical examinations and routine serum biochemical tests were performed. IFG was defined as fasting glucose levels ranging from 100 to 125 mg/dl with no diagnosis of T1DM or T2DM; T1DM was defined as previous diagnosis of T1DM; and T2DM as previous diagnosis of T2DM, treatment with oral antidiabetic drugs or insulin or fasting glucose levels ≥126 mg/dl, according to ADA criteria. Of the 371,997 participants (median age 35 [interquartile range 29-44] years), 72.4% were male. Raw prevalence rates (95% CI) of IFG, undiagnosed (UKDM), and previously known type 2 (KDM2) and type 1 (KDM1) diabetes were 10.4% (10.3-10.5%), 1.3% (1.2-1.3%), 1.1% (1.1-1.2%), and 0.3% (0.3-0.3%), respectively. With the exception of KDM1, prevalence of these conditions increased with age and was greater among manual/blue-collar workers (12.1%, 1.5%, 1.3% and 0.3%, respectively) as compared to non-manual/white-collar workers (7.3%, 0.8%, 0.8% and 0.3%, respectively). Age- and sex-adjusted prevalence rates of IFG, UKDM and KDM2 were 13.1%, 2.0% and 2.4%, respectively. In this sample of Spanish working population, impaired glycemic profiles were common. Prevalence rates of IFG and T2DM were high among blue-collar workers (except for T1DM). These data emphasize the need for earlier structured preventive schemes. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Patterns of variation at Ustilago maydis virulence clusters 2A and 19A largely reflect the demographic history of its populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Kellner

    Full Text Available The maintenance of an intimate interaction between plant-biotrophic fungi and their hosts over evolutionary times involves strong selection and adaptative evolution of virulence-related genes. The highly specialised maize pathogen Ustilago maydis is assigned with a high evolutionary capability to overcome host resistances due to its high rates of sexual recombination, large population sizes and long distance dispersal. Unlike most studied fungus-plant interactions, the U. maydis - Zea mays pathosystem lacks a typical gene-for-gene interaction. It exerts a large set of secreted fungal virulence factors that are mostly organised in gene clusters. Their contribution to virulence has been experimentally demonstrated but their genetic diversity within U. maydis remains poorly understood. Here, we report on the intraspecific diversity of 34 potential virulence factor genes of U. maydis. We analysed their sequence polymorphisms in 17 isolates of U. maydis from Europe, North and Latin America. We focused on gene cluster 2A, associated with virulence attenuation, cluster 19A that is crucial for virulence, and the cluster-independent effector gene pep1. Although higher compared to four house-keeping genes, the overall levels of intraspecific genetic variation of virulence clusters 2A and 19A, and pep1 are remarkably low and commensurate to the levels of 14 studied non-virulence genes. In addition, each gene is present in all studied isolates and synteny in cluster 2A is conserved. Furthermore, 7 out of 34 virulence genes contain either no polymorphisms or only synonymous substitutions among all isolates. However, genetic variation of clusters 2A and 19A each resolve the large scale population structure of U. maydis indicating subpopulations with decreased gene flow. Hence, the genetic diversity of these virulence-related genes largely reflect the demographic history of U. maydis populations.

  15. Use of fertility drugs and risk of uterine cancer: results from a large Danish population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Allan; Sharif, Heidi; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2009-01-01

    and 1998. In a case-cohort study, rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the effects of 4 groups of fertility drugs on overall risk of uterine cancer after adjustment for potentially confounding factors. Through mid-2006, 83 uterine cancers were identified. Ever use of any fertility......Some epidemiologic studies have indicated that uterine cancer risk may be increased after use of fertility drugs. To further assess this association, the authors used data from a large cohort of 54,362 women diagnosed with infertility who were referred to Danish fertility clinics between 1965...... drug was not associated with uterine cancer risk (rate ratio (RR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69, 1.76). However, ever use of gonadotropins (follicle-stimulating hormone and human menopausal gonadotropin) increased uterine cancer risk (RR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.08, 4.50); the risk was primarily...

  16. Generalizability of EXCEL and NOBLE results to a large registry population with unprotected left main coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pil Hyung; Kang, Se Hun; Han, Seungbong; Ahn, Jung-Min; Bae, Jae Seok; Lee, Cheol Hyun; Kang, Soo-Jin; Lee, Seung-Whan; Kim, Young-Hak; Lee, Cheol Whan; Park, Seong-Wook; Park, Duk-Woo; Park, Seung-Jung

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how trial-based findings of EXCEL and NOBLE might be interpreted and generalizable in 'real-world' settings with comparison of data from the large-scaled, all-comer Interventional Research Incorporation Society-Left MAIN Revascularization (IRIS-MAIN) registry. We compared baseline clinical and procedural characteristics and also determined how the relative treatment effect of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was different in EXCEL and NOBLE, compared with those of the multicenter, IRIS-MAIN registry (n=2481). The primary outcome for between-study comparison was a composite of death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke. There were between-study differences in patient risk profiles (age, BMI, diabetes, and clinical presentation), lesion complexities, and procedural characteristics (stent type, the use of off-pump surgery, and radial artery); the proportion of diabetes and acute coronary syndrome was particularly lower in NOBLE than in other studies. Although there was interstudy heterogeneity for the protocol definition of MI, the risks for serious composite outcome of death, MI, or stroke were similar between PCI and CABG in EXCEL [hazard ratio (HR): 1.00; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-1.26; P=0.98] and in the matched cohort of IRIS-MAIN (HR: 1.08; 95%CI: 0.85-1.38; P=0.53), whereas it was significantly higher after PCI than after CABG in NOBLE (HR: 1.47; 95%CI: 1.06-2.05; P=0.02), which was driven by more common MI and stroke after PCI. In the comparison of a large-sized, all-comer registry, the EXCEL trial might represent better generalizability with respect to baseline characteristics and observed clinical outcomes compared with the NOBLE trial.

  17. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in middle-aged adults: A large population-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sangah; Saito, Eiko; Sawada, Norie; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Nanri, Akiko; Shimazu, Taichi; Yamaji, Taiki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2018-06-01

    A finding between dietary pattern and cancer may provide visions beyond the assessment of individual foods or nutrients. We examined the influence of dietary pattern with colorectal cancer (CRC) among a Japanese population. A total of 93,062 subjects (43,591 men, 49,471 women) who participated in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study were followed from 1995-1998 to the end of 2012, during which 2482 cases of CRC (1514 men, 968 women) were newly identified. Dietary data was obtained from a validated food-frequency questionnaire between 1995 and 1998. Three dietary pattern was derived from principal components factor: prudent, westernized, and traditional pattern. After controlled for potential confounders, the prudent pattern showed a decreased association of CRC risk in men (HR for highest quintile vs lowest: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.72-1.00; P trend cancer (P trend cancer in women (P trend pattern showed a significant positive linear trend for colon (P trend cancer (P trend dietary pattern on the overall or any specific sites risk of CRC. A prudent dietary pattern showed an inverse association with CRC risk in men, and a westernized pattern was related with a higher risk of colon and distal cancer in women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. Ignorance, Vulnerability and the Occurrence of "Radical Surprises": Theoretical Reflections and Empirical Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlicke, C.

    2009-04-01

    By definition natural disasters always contain a moment of surprise. Their occurrence is mostly unforeseen and unexpected. They hit people unprepared, overwhelm them and expose their helplessness. Yet, there is surprisingly little known on the reasons for their being surprised. Aren't natural disasters expectable and foreseeable after all? Aren't the return rates of most hazards well known and shouldn't people be better prepared? The central question of this presentation is hence: Why do natural disasters so often radically surprise people at all (and how can we explain this being surprised)? In the first part of the presentation, it is argued that most approaches to vulnerability are not able to grasp this moment of surprise. On the contrary, they have their strength in unravelling the expectable: A person who is marginalized or even oppressed in everyday life is also vulnerable during times of crisis and stress, at least this is the central assumption of most vulnerability studies. In the second part, an understanding of vulnerability is developed, which allows taking into account such radical surprises. First, two forms of the unknown are differentiated: An area of the unknown an actor is more or less aware of (ignorance), and an area, which is not even known to be not known (nescience). The discovery of the latter is mostly associated with a "radical surprise", since it is per definition impossible to prepare for it. Second, a definition of vulnerability is proposed, which allows capturing the dynamics of surprises: People are vulnerable when they discover their nescience exceeding by definition previously established routines, stocks of knowledge and resources—in a general sense their capacities—to deal with their physical and/or social environment. This definition explicitly takes the view of different actors serious and departs from their being surprised. In the third part findings of a case study are presented, the 2002 flood in Germany. It is shown

  19. Large Data Set Mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, I.B.; Broomhall, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Digital emotion research has yet to make history. Until now large data set mining has not been a very active field of research in early modern emotion studies. This is indeed surprising since first, the early modern field has such rich, copyright-free, digitized data sets and second, emotion studies

  20. A study of the health and economic effects of influenza-like illness on the working population under different working environments of a large corporation in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kenneth K C; Li, Shu Chuen; Kwong, Kai Sun; Chan, Thomas Y K; Lee, Vivian W Y; Lau, Joseph T F

    2008-01-01

    The incidence, health and economic impacts of influenza-like illness (ILI) among the working population in Hong Kong had never been studied. Due to the nature of the disease, ILIs can have a significant impact on the operation of a corporation in terms of loss of productivity and reduced work performance. The present study was undertaken to determine the health and economic impacts of ILIs under different environmental conditions on the working population of a large corporation. Over 2,000 employees of a large corporation in the travelling and tourism industry were studied with three different types of working environment (confined, typical office and well ventilated) by two structured questionnaires. The most affected group in terms of productivity and health was the group working in a confined area, whilst those working in a well-ventilated area were least affected. However, symptoms of the confined area group seemed to disappear faster. The infection rate appeared to vary according to work environment for the studied population. Policies on preventive measures and early treatment are important for a corporation to reduce loss in productivity due to ILIs.

  1. Understanding uncertainties in non-linear population trajectories: a Bayesian semi-parametric hierarchical approach to large-scale surveys of coral cover.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Vercelloni

    Full Text Available Recently, attempts to improve decision making in species management have focussed on uncertainties associated with modelling temporal fluctuations in populations. Reducing model uncertainty is challenging; while larger samples improve estimation of species trajectories and reduce statistical errors, they typically amplify variability in observed trajectories. In particular, traditional modelling approaches aimed at estimating population trajectories usually do not account well for nonlinearities and uncertainties associated with multi-scale observations characteristic of large spatio-temporal surveys. We present a Bayesian semi-parametric hierarchical model for simultaneously quantifying uncertainties associated with model structure and parameters, and scale-specific variability over time. We estimate uncertainty across a four-tiered spatial hierarchy of coral cover from the Great Barrier Reef. Coral variability is well described; however, our results show that, in the absence of additional model specifications, conclusions regarding coral trajectories become highly uncertain when considering multiple reefs, suggesting that management should focus more at the scale of individual reefs. The approach presented facilitates the description and estimation of population trajectories and associated uncertainties when variability cannot be attributed to specific causes and origins. We argue that our model can unlock value contained in large-scale datasets, provide guidance for understanding sources of uncertainty, and support better informed decision making.

  2. Examining the sensitivity of ultrasound-guided large core biopsy for invasive breast carcinoma in a population screening programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouse, Hannah C.; Ussher, Simon; Cawson, Jennifer N.; Kavanagh, Anne M.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity of ultrasound-guided core-needle biopsy (UCB) in invasive breast carcinoma and to establish causes of false-negative biopsy in a population screening programme. We identified 571 consecutive women diagnosed with surgically proven invasive breast cancer. Histology from 14-gauge UCB was compared with surgical histology to identify true-positive and false-negative ultrasound core biopsies. True-positive and false-negative groups were compared for tumour size and histology. On blinded review of UCB images and pathology reports from false negative (n=20) and a random sample of true-positive cases (n=80), we compared core sample number and needle visualisation in the lesion. Of 571 carcinomas sampled with UCB, 551 (96.5%) were true positive and 20 (3.5%) were false negative. The mean core number was 2.0 (range 1–3) for false negatives and 2.25 (range 1–4) for true positives (P=0.27). Mean tumour sizes were 13.3 and 16.2mm for the false-negative and true-positive groups, respectively (P=0.25). Tubular carcinomas represented 30% (6/20) of false-negative cases compared with 5.1% (28/551) of the true-positive cases (P<0.001). On blinded review, needle visualisation within the lesion was demonstrated in 47.4% (9/19) of false-negative cases and 76.3% (61/80) of true-positive cases (P=0.02).We demonstrated a sensitivity of 96.5% with a mean of 2.21 cores. False-negative results were more likely in the absence of post-fire needle position verification and with tubular carcinomas. Neither tumour size nor core number predicted diagnostic accuracy.

  3. The Effect of Functional Hearing and Hearing Aid Usage on Verbal Reasoning in a Large Community-Dwelling Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidser, Gitte; Rudner, Mary; Seeto, Mark; Hygge, Staffan; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-01-01

    Verbal reasoning performance is an indicator of the ability to think constructively in everyday life and relies on both crystallized and fluid intelligence. This study aimed to determine the effect of functional hearing on verbal reasoning when controlling for age, gender, and education. In addition, the study investigated whether hearing aid usage mitigated the effect and examined different routes from hearing to verbal reasoning. Cross-sectional data on 40- to 70-year-old community-dwelling participants from the UK Biobank resource were accessed. Data consisted of behavioral and subjective measures of functional hearing, assessments of numerical and linguistic verbal reasoning, measures of executive function, and demographic and lifestyle information. Data on 119,093 participants who had completed hearing and verbal reasoning tests were submitted to multiple regression analyses, and data on 61,688 of these participants, who had completed additional cognitive tests and provided relevant lifestyle information, were submitted to structural equation modeling. Poorer performance on the behavioral measure of functional hearing was significantly associated with poorer verbal reasoning in both the numerical and linguistic domains (p reasoning. Functional hearing significantly interacted with education (p reasoning among those with a higher level of formal education. Among those with poor hearing, hearing aid usage had a significant positive, but not necessarily causal, effect on both numerical and linguistic verbal reasoning (p reasoning and showed that controlling for executive function eliminated the effect. However, when computer usage was controlled for, the eliminating effect of executive function was weakened. Poor functional hearing was associated with poor verbal reasoning in a 40- to 70-year-old community-dwelling population after controlling for age, gender, and education. The effect of functional hearing on verbal reasoning was significantly reduced among

  4. THE AGE-METALLICITY RELATIONSHIP OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD FIELD STAR POPULATION FROM WIDE-FIELD WASHINGTON PHOTOMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piatti, Andrés E.; Geisler, Doug

    2013-01-01

    We analyze age and metallicity estimates for an unprecedented database of some 5.5 million stars distributed throughout the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) main body, obtained from CCD Washington CT 1 photometry, reported on in Piatti et al. We produce a comprehensive field star age-metallicity relationship (AMR) from the earliest epoch until ∼1 Gyr ago. This AMR reveals that the LMC has not evolved chemically as either a closed-box or bursting system, exclusively, but as a combination of both scenarios that have varied in relative strength over the lifetime of the galaxy, although the bursting model falls closer to the data in general. Furthermore, while old and metal-poor field stars have been preferentially formed in the outer disk, younger and more metal-rich stars have mostly been formed in the inner disk, confirming an outside-in formation. We provide evidence for the formation of stars between 5 and 12 Gyr, during the cluster age gap, although chemical enrichment during this period was minimal. We find no significant metallicity gradient in the LMC. We also find that the range in the metallicity of an LMC field has varied during the lifetime of the LMC. In particular, we find only a small range of the metal abundance in the outer disk fields, whereas an average range of Δ[Fe/H] = +0.3 ± 0.1 dex appears in the inner disk fields. Finally, the cluster and field AMRs show a satisfactory match only for the last 3 Gyr, while for the oldest ages (>11 Gyr), the cluster AMR is a remarkable lower envelope to the field AMR. Such a difference may be due to the very rapid early chemical evolution and lack of observed field stars in this regime, whereas the globular clusters are easily studied. This large difference is not easy to explain as coming from stripped ancient Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) clusters, although the field SMC AMR is on average ∼0.4 dex more metal-poor at all ages than that of the LMC but otherwise very similar.

  5. THE AGE-METALLICITY RELATIONSHIP OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD FIELD STAR POPULATION FROM WIDE-FIELD WASHINGTON PHOTOMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piatti, Andres E. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Geisler, Doug, E-mail: andres@iafe.uba.ar [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)

    2013-01-01

    We analyze age and metallicity estimates for an unprecedented database of some 5.5 million stars distributed throughout the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) main body, obtained from CCD Washington CT{sub 1} photometry, reported on in Piatti et al. We produce a comprehensive field star age-metallicity relationship (AMR) from the earliest epoch until {approx}1 Gyr ago. This AMR reveals that the LMC has not evolved chemically as either a closed-box or bursting system, exclusively, but as a combination of both scenarios that have varied in relative strength over the lifetime of the galaxy, although the bursting model falls closer to the data in general. Furthermore, while old and metal-poor field stars have been preferentially formed in the outer disk, younger and more metal-rich stars have mostly been formed in the inner disk, confirming an outside-in formation. We provide evidence for the formation of stars between 5 and 12 Gyr, during the cluster age gap, although chemical enrichment during this period was minimal. We find no significant metallicity gradient in the LMC. We also find that the range in the metallicity of an LMC field has varied during the lifetime of the LMC. In particular, we find only a small range of the metal abundance in the outer disk fields, whereas an average range of {Delta}[Fe/H] = +0.3 {+-} 0.1 dex appears in the inner disk fields. Finally, the cluster and field AMRs show a satisfactory match only for the last 3 Gyr, while for the oldest ages (>11 Gyr), the cluster AMR is a remarkable lower envelope to the field AMR. Such a difference may be due to the very rapid early chemical evolution and lack of observed field stars in this regime, whereas the globular clusters are easily studied. This large difference is not easy to explain as coming from stripped ancient Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) clusters, although the field SMC AMR is on average {approx}0.4 dex more metal-poor at all ages than that of the LMC but otherwise very similar.

  6. Life-history diversity and its importance to population stability and persistence of a migratory fish: steelhead in two large North American watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jonathan W; Yeakel, Justin D; Peard, Dean; Lough, Jeff; Beere, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Life-history strategies can buffer individuals and populations from environmental variability. For instance, it is possible that asynchronous dynamics among different life histories can stabilize populations through portfolio effects. Here, we examine life-history diversity and its importance to stability for an iconic migratory fish species. In particular, we examined steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), an anadromous and iteroparous salmonid, in two large, relatively pristine, watersheds, the Skeena and Nass, in north-western British Columbia, Canada. We synthesized life-history information derived from scales collected from adult steelhead (N = 7227) in these watersheds across a decade. These migratory fishes expressed 36 different manifestations of the anadromous life-history strategy, with 16 different combinations of freshwater and marine ages, 7·6% of fish performing multiple spawning migrations, and up to a maximum of four spawning migrations per lifetime. Furthermore, in the Nass watershed, various life histories were differently prevalent through time - three different life histories were the most prevalent in a given year, and no life history ever represented more than 45% of the population. These asynchronous dynamics among life histories decreased the variability of numerical abundance and biomass of the aggregated population so that it was > 20% more stable than the stability of the weighted average of specific life histories: evidence of a substantial portfolio effect. Year of ocean entry was a key driver of dynamics; the median correlation coefficient of abundance of life histories that entered the ocean the same year was 2·5 times higher than the median pairwise coefficient of life histories that entered the ocean at different times. Simulations illustrated how different elements of life-history diversity contribute to stability and persistence of populations. This study provides evidence that life-history diversity can dampen fluctuations in

  7. Validation of the Omron MIT Elite blood pressure device in a pregnant population with large arm circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lauren; Nzelu, Diane; Hay, Anna; Shennan, Andrew; Kametas, Nikos A

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the Omron MIT Elite automated device in pregnant women with an arm circumference of or above 32 cm, using the British Hypertension Society validation protocol. Blood pressure was measured sequentially in 46 women of any gestation requiring the use of a large cuff (arm circumference ≥32 cm) alternating between the mercury sphygmomanometer and the Omron MIT Elite device. The Omron MIT Elite achieved an overall D/D grade with a mean of the device-observer difference being 7.17±6.67 and 9.31±6.59 for systolic and diastolic blood pressure respectively. Interobserver accuracy was 94.6% for systolic and 95% for diastolic readings within 5 mmHg. The Omron MIT Elite overestimates blood pressure and has failed the British Hypertension Society protocol requirements. Therefore, it cannot be recommended for use in pregnant women with an arm circumference of or above 32 cm.

  8. POLYMORPHISM OF PROLACTIN RECEPTOR GENE (PRLR IN THE POLISH LANDRACE AND POLISH LARGE WHITE SWINE POPULATION AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGATA ZIÓŁKOWSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolactin receptor gene was found in pig chromosome 16, and it is one of the genes with a significant effect on reproduction traits in sows. The objective of the research was to determine polymorphism of the prolactin receptor gene in pigs of two maternal breeds: Polish Landrace and Polish Large White, as well as analyse relations between particular allelomorphic variants, and reproduction traits of examined sows. Two PRLR gene alleles, A and B, were isolated, they were obtained after AluI restriction gene digestion of the PCR product with the length of 163 bp; furthermore, three genotypes were identified: PRLRAA – 85, 59, 19 bp; PRLRAB – 104, 85, 59, 19 bp; PRLRBB – 104, 59 bp. We assessed 122 sows, in terms of their age at the first farrowing, as well as the sizes of the two subsequent litters. No statistically significant differences were found in the examined reproduction traits in sows with different allelomorphic relations, both within each breed and between breeds. Obtained results indicate that it is necessary to conduct further research on a larger animal group.

  9. A novel common large genomic deletion and two new missense mutations identified in the Romanian phenylketonuria population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemperle-Britschgi, Corinne; Iorgulescu, Daniela; Mager, Monica Alina; Anton-Paduraru, Dana; Vulturar, Romana; Thöny, Beat

    2016-01-15

    The mutation spectrum for the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene was investigated in a cohort of 84 hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) patients from Romania identified through newborn screening or neurometabolic investigations. Differential diagnosis identified 81 patients with classic PAH deficiency while 3 had tetrahydropterin-cofactor deficiency and/or remained uncertain due to insufficient specimen. PAH-genetic analysis included a combination of Sanger sequencing of exons and exon–intron boundaries, MLPA and NGS with genomic DNA, and cDNA analysis from immortalized lymphoblasts. A diagnostic efficiency of 99.4% was achieved, as for one allele (out of a total of 162 alleles) no mutation could be identified. The most prevalent mutation was p.Arg408Trp which was found in ~ 38% of all PKU alleles. Three novel mutations were identified, including the two missense mutations p.Gln226Lys and p.Tyr268Cys that were both disease causing by prediction algorithms, and the large genomic deletion EX6del7831 (c.509 + 4140_706 + 510del7831) that resulted in skipping of exon 6 based on PAH-cDNA analysis in immortalized lymphocytes. The genomic deletion was present in a heterozygous state in 12 patients, i.e. in ~ 8% of all the analyzed PKU alleles, and might have originated from a Romanian founder.

  10. Use of fertility drugs and risk of uterine cancer: results from a large Danish population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Allan; Sharif, Heidi; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2009-12-01

    Some epidemiologic studies have indicated that uterine cancer risk may be increased after use of fertility drugs. To further assess this association, the authors used data from a large cohort of 54,362 women diagnosed with infertility who were referred to Danish fertility clinics between 1965 and 1998. In a case-cohort study, rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the effects of 4 groups of fertility drugs on overall risk of uterine cancer after adjustment for potentially confounding factors. Through mid-2006, 83 uterine cancers were identified. Ever use of any fertility drug was not associated with uterine cancer risk (rate ratio (RR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69, 1.76). However, ever use of gonadotropins (follicle-stimulating hormone and human menopausal gonadotropin) increased uterine cancer risk (RR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.08, 4.50); the risk was primarily observed after 10 years of follow-up. Furthermore, uterine cancer risk increased with number of cycles of use for clomiphene (for > or =6 cycles, RR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.03, 3.72) and human chorionic gonadotropin (for > or =6 cycles, RR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.16, 4.08) but not for other gonadotropins. Use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs was not associated with risk. Gonadotropins, and possibly clomiphene and human chorionic gonadotropin, may increase the risk of uterine cancer, with higher doses and longer follow-up leading to greater risk.

  11. Blue straggler stars beyond the Milky Way: a non-segregated population in the Large Magellanic Cloud cluster NGC 2213

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengyuan; Hong, Jongsuk

    2018-06-01

    Using the high-resolution observations obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope, we analysed the blue straggler stars (BSSs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud cluster NGC 2213. We found that the radial distribution of BSSs is consistent with that of the normal giant stars in NGC 2213, showing no evidence of mass segregation. However, an analytic calculation carried out for these BSSs shows that they are already dynamically old, because the estimated half-mass relaxation time for these BSSs is significantly shorter than the isochronal age of the cluster. We also performed direct N-body simulations for an NGC 2213-like cluster to understand the dynamical processes that lead to this non-segregated radial distribution of BSSs. Our numerical simulation shows that the presence of black hole subsystems inside the cluster centre can significantly affect the dynamical evolution of BSSs. The combined effects of the delayed segregation, binary disruption, and exchange interactions of BSS progenitor binaries may result in this non-segregated radial distribution of BSSs in NGC 2213.

  12. Advances towards using finger/toenail dosimetry to triage a large population after potential exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaoming; Gui Jiang; Matthews, Thomas P.; Williams, Benjamin B.; Swarts, Steven G.; Grinberg, Oleg; Sidabras, Jason; Wilcox, Dean E.; Swartz, Harold M.

    2011-01-01

    Rapid and accurate retrospective dosimetry is of critical importance and strategic value for the emergency medical response to a large-scale radiological/nuclear event. One technique that has the potential for rapid and accurate dosimetry measurements is electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of relatively stable radiation-induced signals (RIS) in fingernails and toenails. Two approaches are being developed for EPR nail dosimetry. In the approach using ex vivo measurements on nail clippings, accurate estimation of the dose-dependent amplitude of the RIS is complicated by the presence of mechanically-induced signals (MIS) that are generated during the nail clipping. Recent developments in ex vivo nail dosimetry, including a thorough characterization of the MIS and an appreciation of the role of hydration and the development of effective analytic techniques, have led to improvements in the accuracy and precision of this approach. An in vivo nail dosimetry approach is also very promising, as it eliminates the problems of MIS from the clipping and it has the potential to be an effective and efficient approach for field deployment. Two types of EPR resonators are being developed for in vivo measurements of fingernails and toenails.

  13. Integration of silicon-based neural probes and micro-drive arrays for chronic recording of large populations of neurons in behaving animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michon, Frédéric; Aarts, Arno; Holzhammer, Tobias; Ruther, Patrick; Borghs, Gustaaf; McNaughton, Bruce; Kloosterman, Fabian

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how neuronal assemblies underlie cognitive function is a fundamental question in system neuroscience. It poses the technical challenge to monitor the activity of populations of neurons, potentially widely separated, in relation to behaviour. In this paper, we present a new system which aims at simultaneously recording from a large population of neurons from multiple separated brain regions in freely behaving animals. The concept of the new device is to combine the benefits of two existing electrophysiological techniques, i.e. the flexibility and modularity of micro-drive arrays and the high sampling ability of electrode-dense silicon probes. Newly engineered long bendable silicon probes were integrated into a micro-drive array. The resulting device can carry up to 16 independently movable silicon probes, each carrying 16 recording sites. Populations of neurons were recorded simultaneously in multiple cortical and/or hippocampal sites in two freely behaving implanted rats. Current approaches to monitor neuronal activity either allow to flexibly record from multiple widely separated brain regions (micro-drive arrays) but with a limited sampling density or to provide denser sampling at the expense of a flexible placement in multiple brain regions (neural probes). By combining these two approaches and their benefits, we present an alternative solution for flexible and simultaneous recordings from widely distributed populations of neurons in freely behaving rats.

  14. Associations of Urinary Caffeine and Caffeine Metabolites With Arterial Stiffness in a Large Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, Belen; Pruijm, Menno; Ackermann, Daniel; Ehret, Georg; Ansermot, Nicolas; Staessen, Jan A; Vogt, Bruno; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Burnier, Michel; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Eap, Chin B; Bochud, Murielle; Guessous, Idris

    2018-05-01

    To assess the influence of caffeine on arterial stiffness by exploring the association of urinary excretion of caffeine and its related metabolites with pulse pressure (PP) and pulse wave velocity (PWV). Families were randomly selected from the general population of 3 Swiss cities from November 25, 2009, through April 4, 2013. Pulse pressure was defined as the difference between the systolic and diastolic blood pressures obtained by 24-hour ambulatory monitoring. Carotid-femoral PWV was determined by applanation tonometry. Urinary caffeine, paraxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine excretions were measured in 24-hour urine collections. Multivariate linear and logistic mixed models were used to explore the associations of quartiles of urinary caffeine and metabolite excretions with PP, high PP, and PWV. We included 863 participants with a mean ± SD age of 47.1±17.6 years, 24-hour PP of 41.9±9.2 mm Hg, and PWV of 8.0±2.3 m/s. Mean (SE) brachial PP decreased from 43.5 (0.5) to 40.5 (0.6) mm Hg from the lowest to the highest quartiles of 24-hour urinary caffeine excretion (P<.001). The odds ratio (95% CI) of high PP decreased linearly from 1.0 to 0.52 (0.31-0.89), 0.38 (0.22-0.65), and 0.31 (0.18-0.55) from the lowest to the highest quartile of 24-hour urinary caffeine excretion (P<.001). Mean (SE) PWV in the highest caffeine excretion quartile was significantly lower than in the lowest quartile (7.8 [0.1] vs 8.1 [0.1] m/s; P=.03). Similar associations were found for paraxanthine and theophylline, whereas no associations were found with theobromine. Urinary caffeine, paraxanthine, and theophylline excretions were associated with decreased parameters of arterial stiffness, suggesting a protective effect of caffeine intake beyond its blood pressure-lowering effect. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A 15 Mb large paracentric chromosome 21 inversion identified in Czech population through a pair of flanking duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabova, Jana; Trkova, Marie; Hancarova, Miroslava; Novotna, Drahuse; Hejtmankova, Michaela; Havlovicova, Marketa; Sedlacek, Zdenek

    2014-01-01

    Inversions are balanced structural chromosome rearrangements, which can influence gene expression and the risk of unbalanced chromosome constitution in offspring. Many examples of inversion polymorphisms exist in human, affecting both heterochromatic regions and euchromatin. We describe a novel, 15 Mb long paracentric inversion, inv(21)(q21.1q22.11), affecting more than a third of human 21q. Despite of its length, the inversion cannot be detected using karyotyping due to similar band patterns on the normal and inverted chromosomes, and is therefore likely to escape attention. Its identification was aided by the repeated observation of the same pair of 150 kb long duplications present in cis on chromosome 21 in three Czech families subjected to microarray analysis. The finding prompted us to hypothesise that this co-occurrence of two remote duplications could be associated with an inversion of the intervening segment, and this speculation turned out to be right. The inversion was confirmed in a series of FISH experiments which also showed that the second copy of each of the duplications was always located at the opposite end of the inversion. The presence of the same pair of duplications in additional individuals reported in public databases indicates that the inversion may also be present in other populations. Three out of the total of about 4000 chromosomes 21 examined in our sample carried the duplications and were inverted, corresponding to carrier frequency of about 1/660. Although the breakpoints affect protein-coding genes, the occurrence of the inversion in normal parents and siblings of our patients and the occurrence of the duplications in unaffected controls in databases indicate that this rare variant is rather non-pathogenic. The inverted segment carried an identical shared haplotype in the three families studied. The haplotypes, however, diverged very rapidly in the flanking regions, possibly pointing to an ancient founder event at the origin of the

  16. A large outbreak of hepatitis E among a displaced population in Darfur, Sudan, 2004: the role of water treatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthmann, Jean-Paul; Klovstad, Hilde; Boccia, Delia; Hamid, Nuha; Pinoges, Loretxu; Nizou, Jacques-Yves; Tatay, Mercedes; Diaz, Francisco; Moren, Alain; Grais, Rebecca Freeman; Ciglenecki, Iza; Nicand, Elisabeth; Guerin, Philippe Jean

    2006-06-15

    The conflict in Darfur, Sudan, was responsible for the displacement of 1.8 million civilians. We investigated a large outbreak of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in Mornay camp (78,800 inhabitants) in western Darfur. To describe the outbreak, we used clinical and demographic information from cases recorded at the camp between 26 July and 31 December 2004. We conducted a case-cohort study and a retrospective cohort study to identify risk factors for clinical and asymptomatic hepatitis E, respectively. We collected stool and serum samples from animals and performed a bacteriological analysis of water samples. Human samples were tested for immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibody to HEV (for serum samples) and for amplification of the HEV genome (for serum and stool samples). In 6 months, 2621 hepatitis E cases were recorded (attack rate, 3.3%), with a case-fatality rate of 1.7% (45 deaths, 19 of which involved were pregnant women). Risk factors for clinical HEV infection included age of 15-45 years (odds ratio, 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-4.46) and drinking chlorinated surface water (odds ratio, 2.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-5.08). Both factors were also suggestive of increased risk for asymptomatic HEV infection, although this was not found to be statistically significant. HEV RNA was positively identified in serum samples obtained from 2 donkeys. No bacteria were identified from any sample of chlorinated water tested. Current recommendations to ensure a safe water supply may have been insufficient to inactivate HEV and control this epidemic. This research highlights the need to evaluate current water treatment methods and to identify alternative solutions adapted to complex emergencies.

  17. The Burden of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Papua New Guinea: Results of a Large Population-Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Aia

    Full Text Available Reliable estimates of the burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB are crucial for effective control and prevention of tuberculosis (TB. Papua New Guinea (PNG is a high TB burden country with limited information on the magnitude of the MDR-TB problem.A cross-sectional study was conducted in four PNG provinces: Madang, Morobe, National Capital District and Western Province. Patient sputum samples were tested for rifampicin resistance by the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and those showing the presence of resistance underwent phenotypic susceptibility testing to first- and second-line anti-TB drugs including streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, ofloxacin, amikacin, kanamycin and capreomycin.Among 1,182 TB patients enrolled in the study, MDR-TB was detected in 20 new (2.7%; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.1-4.3% and 24 previously treated (19.1%; 95%CI: 8.5-29.8% TB cases. No case of extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB was detected. Thirty percent (6/20 of new and 33.3% (8/24 of previously treated cases with MDR-TB were detected in a single cluster in Western Province.In PNG the proportion of MDR-TB in new cases is slightly lower than the regional average of 4.4% (95%CI: 2.6-6.3%. A large proportion of MDR-TB cases were identified from a single hospital in Western Province, suggesting that the prevalence of MDR-TB across the country is heterogeneous. Future surveys should further explore this finding. The survey also helped strengthening the use of smear microscopy and Xpert MTB/RIF testing as diagnostic tools for TB in the country.

  18. Comprehensive biostatistical analysis of CpG island methylator phenotype in colorectal cancer using a large population-based sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiko Nosho

    Full Text Available The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP is a distinct phenotype associated with microsatellite instability (MSI and BRAF mutation in colon cancer. Recent investigations have selected 5 promoters (CACNA1G, IGF2, NEUROG1, RUNX3 and SOCS1 as surrogate markers for CIMP-high. However, no study has comprehensively evaluated an expanded set of methylation markers (including these 5 markers using a large number of tumors, or deciphered the complex clinical and molecular associations with CIMP-high determined by the validated marker panel. METHOLODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA methylation at 16 CpG islands [the above 5 plus CDKN2A (p16, CHFR, CRABP1, HIC1, IGFBP3, MGMT, MINT1, MINT31, MLH1, p14 (CDKN2A/ARF and WRN] was quantified in 904 colorectal cancers by real-time PCR (MethyLight. In unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis, the 5 markers (CACNA1G, IGF2, NEUROG1, RUNX3 and SOCS1, CDKN2A, CRABP1, MINT31, MLH1, p14 and WRN were generally clustered with each other and with MSI and BRAF mutation. KRAS mutation was not clustered with any methylation marker, suggesting its association with a random methylation pattern in CIMP-low tumors. Utilizing the validated CIMP marker panel (including the 5 markers, multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that CIMP-high was independently associated with older age, proximal location, poor differentiation, MSI-high, BRAF mutation, and inversely with LINE-1 hypomethylation and beta-catenin (CTNNB1 activation. Mucinous feature, signet ring cells, and p53-negativity were associated with CIMP-high in only univariate analysis. In stratified analyses, the relations of CIMP-high with poor differentiation, KRAS mutation and LINE-1 hypomethylation significantly differed according to MSI status.Our study provides valuable data for standardization of the use of CIMP-high-specific methylation markers. CIMP-high is independently associated with clinical and key molecular features in colorectal cancer. Our data also

  19. Hypertension and diabetes in Africa: design and implementation of a large population-based study of burden and risk factors in rural and urban Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Catharine Crampin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emerging burden of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa threatens the gains made in health by the major international effort to combat infectious diseases. There are few data on distribution of risk factors and outcomes in the region to inform an effective public health response. A comprehensive research programme is being developed aimed at accurately documenting the burden and drivers of NCDs in urban and rural Malawi; to design and test intervention strategies. The programme includes population surveys of all people aged 18 years and above, linking individuals with newly diagnosed hypertension and diabetes to healthcare and supporting clinical services. The successes, challenges and lessons learnt from the programme to date are discussed. Results Over 20,000 adults have been recruited in rural Karonga and urban Lilongwe. The urban population is significantly younger and wealthier than the rural population. Employed urban individuals, particularly males, give particular recruitment challenges; male participation rates were 80.3 % in the rural population and 43.6 % in urban, whilst female rates were 93.6 and 75.6 %, respectively. The study is generating high quality data on hypertension, diabetes, lipid abnormalities and risk factors. Conclusions It is feasible to develop large scale studies that can reliably inform the public health approach to diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other NCDs in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is essential for studies to capture both rural and urban populations to address disparities in risk factors, including age structure. Innovative approaches are needed to address the specific challenge of recruiting employed urban males.

  20. What is a surprise earthquake? The example of the 2002, San Giuliano (Italy event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mucciarelli

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Both in scientific literature and in the mass media, some earthquakes are defined as «surprise earthquakes». Based on his own judgment, probably any geologist, seismologist or engineer may have his own list of past «surprise earthquakes». This paper tries to quantify the underlying individual perception that may lead a scientist to apply such a definition to a seismic event. The meaning is different, depending on the disciplinary approach. For geologists, the Italian database of seismogenic sources is still too incomplete to allow for a quantitative estimate of the subjective degree of belief. For seismologists, quantification is possible defining the distance between an earthquake and its closest previous neighbor. Finally, for engineers, the San Giuliano quake could not be considered a surprise, since probabilistic site hazard estimates reveal that the change before and after the earthquake is just 4%.

  1. Conference of “Uncertainty and Surprise: Questions on Working with the Unexpected and Unknowable”

    CERN Document Server

    McDaniel, Reuben R; Uncertainty and Surprise in Complex Systems : Questions on Working with the Unexpected

    2005-01-01

    Complexity science has been a source of new insight in physical and social systems and has demonstrated that unpredictability and surprise are fundamental aspects of the world around us. This book is the outcome of a discussion meeting of leading scholars and critical thinkers with expertise in complex systems sciences and leaders from a variety of organizations sponsored by the Prigogine Center at The University of Texas at Austin and the Plexus Institute to explore strategies for understanding uncertainty and surprise. Besides distributions to the conference it includes a key digest by the editors as well as a commentary by the late nobel laureat Ilya Prigogine, "Surprises in half of a century". The book is intended for researchers and scientists in complexity science as well as for a broad interdisciplinary audience of both practitioners and scholars. It will well serve those interested in the research issues and in the application of complexity science to physical and social systems.

  2. Salience and attention in surprisal-based accounts of language processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eZarcone

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The notion of salience has been singled out as the explanatory factor for a diverse range oflinguistic phenomena. In particular, perceptual salience (e.g. visual salience of objects in the world,acoustic prominence of linguistic sounds and semantic-pragmatic salience (e.g. prominence ofrecently mentioned or topical referents have been shown to influence language comprehensionand production. A different line of research has sought to account for behavioral correlates ofcognitive load during comprehension as well as for certain patterns in language usage usinginformation-theoretic notions, such as surprisal. Surprisal and salience both affect languageprocessing at different levels, but the relationship between the two has not been adequatelyelucidated, and the question of whether salience can be reduced to surprisal / predictability isstill open. Our review identifies two main challenges in addressing this question: terminologicalinconsistency and lack of integration between high and low levels of representations in salience-based accounts and surprisal-based accounts. We capitalise upon work in visual cognition inorder to orient ourselves in surveying the different facets of the notion of salience in linguisticsand their relation with models of surprisal. We find that work on salience highlights aspects oflinguistic communication that models of surprisal tend to overlook, namely the role of attentionand relevance to current goals, and we argue that the Predictive Coding framework provides aunified view which can account for the role played by attention and predictability at different levelsof processing and which can clarify the interplay between low and high levels of processes andbetween predictability-driven expectation and attention-driven focus.

  3. Salience and Attention in Surprisal-Based Accounts of Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarcone, Alessandra; van Schijndel, Marten; Vogels, Jorrig; Demberg, Vera

    2016-01-01

    The notion of salience has been singled out as the explanatory factor for a diverse range of linguistic phenomena. In particular, perceptual salience (e.g., visual salience of objects in the world, acoustic prominence of linguistic sounds) and semantic-pragmatic salience (e.g., prominence of recently mentioned or topical referents) have been shown to influence language comprehension and production. A different line of research has sought to account for behavioral correlates of cognitive load during comprehension as well as for certain patterns in language usage using information-theoretic notions, such as surprisal. Surprisal and salience both affect language processing at different levels, but the relationship between the two has not been adequately elucidated, and the question of whether salience can be reduced to surprisal / predictability is still open. Our review identifies two main challenges in addressing this question: terminological inconsistency and lack of integration between high and low levels of representations in salience-based accounts and surprisal-based accounts. We capitalize upon work in visual cognition in order to orient ourselves in surveying the different facets of the notion of salience in linguistics and their relation with models of surprisal. We find that work on salience highlights aspects of linguistic communication that models of surprisal tend to overlook, namely the role of attention and relevance to current goals, and we argue that the Predictive Coding framework provides a unified view which can account for the role played by attention and predictability at different levels of processing and which can clarify the interplay between low and high levels of processes and between predictability-driven expectation and attention-driven focus.

  4. Salience and Attention in Surprisal-Based Accounts of Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarcone, Alessandra; van Schijndel, Marten; Vogels, Jorrig; Demberg, Vera

    2016-01-01

    The notion of salience has been singled out as the explanatory factor for a diverse range of linguistic phenomena. In particular, perceptual salience (e.g., visual salience of objects in the world, acoustic prominence of linguistic sounds) and semantic-pragmatic salience (e.g., prominence of recently mentioned or topical referents) have been shown to influence language comprehension and production. A different line of research has sought to account for behavioral correlates of cognitive load during comprehension as well as for certain patterns in language usage using information-theoretic notions, such as surprisal. Surprisal and salience both affect language processing at different levels, but the relationship between the two has not been adequately elucidated, and the question of whether salience can be reduced to surprisal / predictability is still open. Our review identifies two main challenges in addressing this question: terminological inconsistency and lack of integration between high and low levels of representations in salience-based accounts and surprisal-based accounts. We capitalize upon work in visual cognition in order to orient ourselves in surveying the different facets of the notion of salience in linguistics and their relation with models of surprisal. We find that work on salience highlights aspects of linguistic communication that models of surprisal tend to overlook, namely the role of attention and relevance to current goals, and we argue that the Predictive Coding framework provides a unified view which can account for the role played by attention and predictability at different levels of processing and which can clarify the interplay between low and high levels of processes and between predictability-driven expectation and attention-driven focus. PMID:27375525

  5. A multi-stage approach to maximizing geocoding success in a large population-based cohort study through automated and interactive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Sonderman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To enable spatial analyses within a large, prospective cohort study of nearly 86,000 adults enrolled in a 12-state area in the southeastern United States of America from 2002-2009, a multi-stage geocoding protocol was developed to efficiently maximize the proportion of participants assigned an address level geographic coordinate. Addresses were parsed, cleaned and standardized before applying a combination of automated and interactive geocoding tools. Our full protocol increased the non-Post Office (PO Box match rate from 74.5% to 97.6%. Overall, we geocoded 99.96% of participant addresses, with only 5.2% at the ZIP code centroid level (2.8% PO Box and 2.3% non-PO Box addresses. One key to reducing the need for interactive geocoding was the use of multiple base maps. Still, addresses in areas with population density 920 persons/km2 (odds ratio (OR = 5.24; 95% confidence interval (CI = 4.23, 6.49, as were addresses collected from participants during in-person interviews compared with mailed questionnaires (OR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.59, 2.11. This study demonstrates that population density and address ascertainment method can influence automated geocoding results and that high success in address level geocoding is achievable for large-scale studies covering wide geographical areas.

  6. Risk, surprises and black swans fundamental ideas and concepts in risk assessment and risk management

    CERN Document Server

    Aven, Terje

    2014-01-01

    Risk, Surprises and Black Swans provides an in depth analysis of the risk concept with a focus on the critical link to knowledge; and the lack of knowledge, that risk and probability judgements are based on.Based on technical scientific research, this book presents a new perspective to help you understand how to assess and manage surprising, extreme events, known as 'Black Swans'. This approach looks beyond the traditional probability-based principles to offer a broader insight into the important aspects of uncertain events and in doing so explores the ways to manage them.

  7. Inverted U-shaped curve relationship between red blood cell distribution width and hypertension in a large health checkup population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mingfei; Zha, Xiaojuan; Wu, Zewei; Zhu, Xinying; Li, Wenbo; Wu, Huan; Ma, Jun; Wang, Shuyi; Wen, Yufeng

    2018-03-10

    This study was aimed at investigating the relationship between red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and hypertension in a large health check up population in China. A population of 302,527 subjects from Wuhu was enrolled in this cross-sectional health check up study between 2011 and 2016. They consisted of 126,369 women (41.78%) and 176,158 men (58.23%) with mean age of 46.9 ± 13.4 and 48.1 ± 13.7 years, respectively. The investigations included information on demographic characteristics, physical examination, and laboratory testing. Inverted U-shape relationships were observed between RDW and hypertension with peak RDW values of 14.2 (women) and 15.2 (men). After stratification by sex and adjusted with body mass index, age, white blood cells, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, inverted U-shape relationships were also established between RDW and hypertension, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure, with peak RDW of 14.2, 14.5, 14.5 in women and 14.2, 16.0, 14.5 in men. Inverted U-shape relationship exists between RDW and hypertension, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure among the Chinese health check up population studied. Copyright © 2018 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pooled Resequencing of 122 Ulcerative Colitis Genes in a Large Dutch Cohort Suggests Population-Specific Associations of Rare Variants in MUC2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visschedijk, Marijn C; Alberts, Rudi; Mucha, Soren; Deelen, Patrick; de Jong, Dirk J; Pierik, Marieke; Spekhorst, Lieke M; Imhann, Floris; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E; van der Woude, C Janneke; van Bodegraven, Adriaan A; Oldenburg, Bas; Löwenberg, Mark; Dijkstra, Gerard; Ellinghaus, David; Schreiber, Stefan; Wijmenga, Cisca; Rivas, Manuel A; Franke, Andre; van Diemen, Cleo C; Weersma, Rinse K

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have revealed several common genetic risk variants for ulcerative colitis (UC). However, little is known about the contribution of rare, large effect genetic variants to UC susceptibility. In this study, we performed a deep targeted re-sequencing of 122 genes in Dutch UC patients in order to investigate the contribution of rare variants to the genetic susceptibility to UC. The selection of genes consists of 111 established human UC susceptibility genes and 11 genes that lead to spontaneous colitis when knocked-out in mice. In addition, we sequenced the promoter regions of 45 genes where known variants exert cis-eQTL-effects. Targeted pooled re-sequencing was performed on DNA of 790 Dutch UC cases. The Genome of the Netherlands project provided sequence data of 500 healthy controls. After quality control and prioritization based on allele frequency and pathogenicity probability, follow-up genotyping of 171 rare variants was performed on 1021 Dutch UC cases and 1166 Dutch controls. Single-variant association and gene-based analyses identified an association of rare variants in the MUC2 gene with UC. The associated variants in the Dutch population could not be replicated in a German replication cohort (1026 UC cases, 3532 controls). In conclusion, this study has identified a putative role for MUC2 on UC susceptibility in the Dutch population and suggests a population-specific contribution of rare variants to UC.

  9. A large cross-sectional study of health attitudes, knowledge, behaviour and risks in the post-war Croatian population (the First Croatian Health Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turek, S; Rudan, I; Smolej-Narancić, N; Szirovicza, L; Cubrilo-Turek, M; Zerjavić-Hrabak, V; Rak-Kaić, A; Vrhovski-Hebrang, D; Prebeg, Z; Ljubicić, M; Janićijević, B; Rudan, P

    2001-06-01

    As the liberation of occupied Croatian territories ended the war in the country in 1995, the Ministry of Health and Croatian Health Insurance Institute have agreed to create the new framework for developing a long-term strategy of public health planning, prevention and intervention. They provided financial resources to develop the First Croatian Health Project, the rest of the support coming from the World Bank loan and the National Institute of Public Health. A large cross-sectional study was designed aiming to assess health attitudes, knowledge, behaviour and risks in the post-war Croatian population. The large field study was carried out by the Institute for Anthropological Research with technical support from the National Institute of Public Health. The field study was completed between 1995-1997. It included about 10,000 adult volunteers from all 21 Croatian counties. The geographic distribution of the sample covered both coastal and continental areas of Croatia and included rural and urban environments. The specific measurements included antropometry (body mass index and blood pressure). From each examinee a blood sample was collected from which the levels of total plasma cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), HDL-cholesterol (High Density Lipoprotein), LDL-cholesterol (Low Density Lipoprotein), lipoprotein Lp(a), and haemostatic risk factor fibrinogen (F) were determined. The detailed data were collected on the general knowledge and attitudes on health issues, followed by specific investigation of smoking history, alcohol consumption, nutrition habits, physical activity, family history of chronic non-communicable diseases and occupational exposures. From the initial database a targeted sample of 5,840 persons of both sexes, aged 18-65, was created corresponding by age, sex and geographic distribution to the general Croatian population. This paper summarises and discusses the main findings of the project within this representative sample of Croatian population.

  10. Not-so-simple stellar populations in the intermediate-age Large Magellanic Cloud star clusters NGC 1831 and NGC 1868

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chengyuan; De Grijs, Richard [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Deng, Licai, E-mail: joshuali@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: grijs@pku.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Using a combination of high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope/Wide-Field and Planetary Camera-2 observations, we explore the physical properties of the stellar populations in two intermediate-age star clusters, NGC 1831 and NGC 1868, in the Large Magellanic Cloud based on their color-magnitude diagrams. We show that both clusters exhibit extended main-sequence turn offs. To explain the observations, we consider variations in helium abundance, binarity, age dispersions, and the fast rotation of the clusters' member stars. The observed narrow main sequence excludes significant variations in helium abundance in both clusters. We first establish the clusters' main-sequence binary fractions using the bulk of the clusters' main-sequence stellar populations ≳ 1 mag below their turn-offs. The extent of the turn-off regions in color-magnitude space, corrected for the effects of binarity, implies that age spreads of order 300 Myr may be inferred for both clusters if the stellar distributions in color-magnitude space were entirely due to the presence of multiple populations characterized by an age range. Invoking rapid rotation of the population of cluster members characterized by a single age also allows us to match the observed data in detail. However, when taking into account the extent of the red clump in color-magnitude space, we encounter an apparent conflict for NGC 1831 between the age dispersion derived from that based on the extent of the main-sequence turn off and that implied by the compact red clump. We therefore conclude that, for this cluster, variations in stellar rotation rate are preferred over an age dispersion. For NGC 1868, both models perform equally well.

  11. The Most Distant Mature Galaxy Cluster - Young, but surprisingly grown-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Astronomers have used an armada of telescopes on the ground and in space, including the Very Large Telescope at ESO's Paranal Observatory in Chile to discover and measure the distance to the most remote mature cluster of galaxies yet found. Although this cluster is seen when the Universe was less than one quarter of its current age it looks surprisingly similar to galaxy clusters in the current Universe. "We have measured the distance to the most distant mature cluster of galaxies ever found", says the lead author of the study in which the observations from ESO's VLT have been used, Raphael Gobat (CEA, Paris). "The surprising thing is that when we look closely at this galaxy cluster it doesn't look young - many of the galaxies have settled down and don't resemble the usual star-forming galaxies seen in the early Universe." Clusters of galaxies are the largest structures in the Universe that are held together by gravity. Astronomers expect these clusters to grow through time and hence that massive clusters would be rare in the early Universe. Although even more distant clusters have been seen, they appear to be young clusters in the process of formation and are not settled mature systems. The international team of astronomers used the powerful VIMOS and FORS2 instruments on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) to measure the distances to some of the blobs in a curious patch of very faint red objects first observed with the Spitzer space telescope. This grouping, named CL J1449+0856 [1], had all the hallmarks of being a very remote cluster of galaxies [2]. The results showed that we are indeed seeing a galaxy cluster as it was when the Universe was about three billion years old - less than one quarter of its current age [3]. Once the team knew the distance to this very rare object they looked carefully at the component galaxies using both the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based telescopes, including the VLT. They found evidence suggesting that most of the

  12. Dealing with unexpected events on the flight deck : A conceptual model of startle and surprise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman, H.M.; Groen, E.L.; Paassen, M.M. van; Bronkhorst, A.W.; Mulder, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: A conceptual model is proposed in order to explain pilot performance in surprising and startling situations. Background: Today’s debate around loss of control following in-flight events and the implementation of upset prevention and recovery training has highlighted the importance of

  13. Bagpipes and Artichokes: Surprise as a Stimulus to Learning in the Elementary Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Bonnie Schaffhauser

    2016-01-01

    Incorporating surprise into music instruction can stimulate student attention, curiosity, and interest. Novelty focuses attention in the reticular activating system, increasing the potential for brain memory storage. Elementary ages are ideal for introducing novel instruments, pieces, composers, or styles of music. Young children have fewer…

  14. The Educational Philosophies of Mordecai Kaplan and Michael Rosenak: Surprising Similarities and Illuminating Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Jeffrey; Caplan, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The thoughts of Mordecai Kaplan and Michael Rosenak present surprising commonalities as well as illuminating differences. Similarities include the perception that Judaism and Jewish education are in crisis, the belief that Jewish peoplehood must include commitment to meaningful content, the need for teachers to teach from a position of…

  15. Models of Automation surprise : results of a field survey in aviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, Robert; Dekker, Sidney

    2017-01-01

    Automation surprises in aviation continue to be a significant safety concern and the community’s search for effective strategies to mitigate them are ongoing. The literature has offered two fundamentally divergent directions, based on different ideas about the nature of cognition and collaboration

  16. Decision-making under surprise and uncertainty: Arsenic contamination of water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhir, Timothy O.; Mozumder, Pallab; Halim, Nafisa

    2018-05-01

    With ignorance and potential surprise dominating decision making in water resources, a framework for dealing with such uncertainty is a critical need in hydrology. We operationalize the 'potential surprise' criterion proposed by Shackle, Vickers, and Katzner (SVK) to derive decision rules to manage water resources under uncertainty and ignorance. We apply this framework to managing water supply systems in Bangladesh that face severe, naturally occurring arsenic contamination. The uncertainty involved with arsenic in water supplies makes the application of conventional analysis of decision-making ineffective. Given the uncertainty and surprise involved in such cases, we find that optimal decisions tend to favor actions that avoid irreversible outcomes instead of conventional cost-effective actions. We observe that a diversification of the water supply system also emerges as a robust strategy to avert unintended outcomes of water contamination. Shallow wells had a slight higher optimal level (36%) compare to deep wells and surface treatment which had allocation levels of roughly 32% under each. The approach can be applied in a variety of other cases that involve decision making under uncertainty and surprise, a frequent situation in natural resources management.

  17. Surprise, Memory, and Retrospective Judgment Making: Testing Cognitive Reconstruction Theories of the Hindsight Bias Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Ivan K.

    2009-01-01

    Hindsight bias has been shown to be a pervasive and potentially harmful decision-making bias. A review of 4 competing cognitive reconstruction theories of hindsight bias revealed conflicting predictions about the role and effect of expectation or surprise in retrospective judgment formation. Two experiments tested these predictions examining the…

  18. How to reach clients of female sex workers: a survey by surprise in brothels in Dakar, Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espirito Santo, M. E. Gomes do; Etheredge, G. D.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the sampling techniques and survey procedures used in identifying male clients who frequent brothels to buy sexual services from female sex workers in Dakar, Senegal, with the aim of measuring the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and investigating related risk behaviours. METHODS: Surveys were conducted in seven brothels in Dakar, Senegal. Clients were identified "by surprise" and interviewed and requested to donate saliva for HIV testing. RESULTS: Of the 1450 clients of prostitutes who were solicited to enter the study, 1140 (79.8%) agreed to be interviewed; 1083 (95%) of these clients provided saliva samples for testing. Of the samples tested, 47 were positive for HIV-1 or HIV-2, giving an HIV prevalence of 4.4%. CONCLUSION: The procedures adopted were successful in reaching the target population. Men present in the brothels could not deny being there, and it proved possible to explain the purpose of the study and to gain their confidence. Collection of saliva samples was shown to be an excellent method for performing HIV testing in difficult field conditions where it is hard to gain access to the population under study. The surveying of prostitution sites is recommended as a means of identifying core groups for HIV infection with a view to targeting education programmes more effectively. In countries such as Senegal, where the prevalence of HIV infection is still low, interventions among commercial sex workers and their clients may substantially delay the onset of a larger epidemic in the general population. PMID:12378288

  19. The relationship between the Five-Factor Model personality traits and peptic ulcer disease in a large population-based adult sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realo, Anu; Teras, Andero; Kööts-Ausmees, Liisi; Esko, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres; Allik, Jüri

    2015-12-01

    The current study examined the relationship between the Five-Factor Model personality traits and physician-confirmed peptic ulcer disease (PUD) diagnosis in a large population-based adult sample, controlling for the relevant behavioral and sociodemographic factors. Personality traits were assessed by participants themselves and by knowledgeable informants using the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO PI-3). When controlling for age, sex, education, and cigarette smoking, only one of the five NEO PI-3 domain scales - higher Neuroticism - and two facet scales - lower A1: Trust and higher C1: Competence - made a small, yet significant contribution (p personality traits that are associated with the diagnosis of PUD at a particular point in time. Further prospective studies with a longitudinal design and multiple assessments would be needed to fully understand if the FFM personality traits serve as risk factors for the development of PUD. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Favorable Cardiovascular Health Is Associated With Lower Health Care Expenditures and Resource Utilization in a Large US Employee Population: The Baptist Health South Florida Employee Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osondu, Chukwuemeka U; Aneni, Ehimen C; Valero-Elizondo, Javier; Salami, Joseph A; Rouseff, Maribeth; Das, Sankalp; Guzman, Henry; Younus, Adnan; Ogunmoroti, Oluseye; Feldman, Theodore; Agatston, Arthur S; Veledar, Emir; Katzen, Barry; Calitz, Chris; Sanchez, Eduardo; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Nasir, Khurram

    2017-03-13

    To examine the association of favorable cardiovascular health (CVH) status with 1-year health care expenditures and resource utilization in a large health care employee population. Employees of Baptist Health South Florida participated in a health risk assessment from January 1 through September 30, 2014. Information on dietary patterns, physical activity, blood pressure, blood glucose level, total cholesterol level, and smoking were collected. Participants were categorized into CVH profiles using the American Heart Association's ideal CVH construct as optimal (6-7 metrics), moderate (3-5 metrics), and low (0-2 metrics). Two-part econometric models were used to analyze health care expenditures. Of 9097 participants (mean ± SD age, 42.7±12.1 years), 1054 (11.6%) had optimal, 6945 (76.3%) had moderate, and 1098 (12.1%) had low CVH profiles. The mean annual health care expenditures among those with a low CVH profile was $10,104 (95% CI, $8633-$11,576) compared with $5824 (95% CI, $5485-$6164) and $4282 (95% CI, $3639-$4926) in employees with moderate and optimal CVH profiles, respectively. In adjusted analyses, persons with optimal and moderate CVH had a $2021 (95% CI, -$3241 to -$801) and $940 (95% CI, -$1560 to $80) lower mean expenditure, respectively, than those with low CVH. This trend remained even after adjusting for demographic characteristics and comorbid conditions as well as across all demographic subgroups. Similarly, health care resource utilization was significantly lower in those with optimal CVH profiles compared with those with moderate or low CVH profiles. Favorable CVH profile is associated with significantly lower total medical expenditures and health care utilization in a large, young, ethnically diverse, and fully insured employee population. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing the use of digital radiography and a real-time interactive pulmonary nodule analysis system for large population lung cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yan; Ma Daqing; He Wen

    2012-01-01

    Rationale and objectives: To assess the use of chest digital radiograph (DR) assisted with a real-time interactive pulmonary nodule analysis system in large population lung cancer screening. Materials and methods: 346 DR/CR patient studies with corresponding CT images were selected from 12,500 patients screened for lung cancer from year 2007 to 2009. Two expert chest radiologists established CT-confirmed Gold Standard of nodules on DR/CR images with consensus. These cases were read by eight other chest radiologists (participating radiologists) first without using a real-time interactive pulmonary nodule analysis system and then re-read using the system. Performances of participating radiologists and the computer system were analyzed. Results: The computer system achieved similar performance on DR and CR images, with a detection rate of 76% and an average FPs of 2.0 per image. Before and after using the computer-aided detection system, the nodule detection sensitivities of the participating radiologists were 62.3% and 77.3% respectively, and the A z values increased from 0.794 to 0.831. Statistical analysis demonstrated statically significant improvement for the participating radiologists after using the computer analysis system with a P-value 0.05. Conclusion: The computer system could help radiologists identify more lesions, especially small ones that are more likely to be overlooked on chest DR/CR images, and could help reduce inter-observer diagnostic variations, while its FPs were easy to recognize and dismiss. It is suggested that DR/CR assisted by the real-time interactive pulmonary nodule analysis system may be an effective means to screen large populations for lung cancer.

  2. Reference interval for the disc-macula distance to disc diameter ratio in a large population of healthy Japanese adults: A prospective, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ken-Ichi

    2017-04-01

    This study presents the calculated reference interval for the disc-to-macula distance to disc diameter ratio (DM:DD) based on a large population of healthy Japanese adults.A total of 308 consecutive, healthy Japanese adults were examined in this prospective observational study. Eighteen subjects were also excluded because of poor quality of the fundus photograph of one or both eyes; 290 (161 men and 129 women) were included in this study. For each subject, a color fundus photograph of one eye, either the right or left, was randomly selected and used for analysis. On the photograph, the distances between the fovea and the nearest temporal margin of the optic disc (Dft), and the two kinds of disc diameters (D1 and D2), which bisected at right angles and one of which was directed to the fovea (D1), were measured. DM:DD was estimated using the formula: (2Dft + D1)/(D1 + D2).The mean ± standard deviation of DM:DD was 2.91 ± 0.49 for men and 2.96 ± 0.54 for women; there was no sex difference (P = .78, Mann-Whitney U test). Also, almost no relationship was found between DM:DD and age (ρ = -.12, P = .04, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient). The data did not fit a normal distribution (P < .001, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test). The estimated reference interval for DM:DD corresponding to the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles was 2.12 to 4.18.Using a nonparametric approach, the reference interval for DM:DD of a large population of healthy Japanese adults was calculated to be 2.12 to 4.18, regardless of age or sex.

  3. [The different experession of human papilloma viral types 6 and 11 in Uyghur and Chinese juvenile recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in a large pediatric population in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainura, Amrulla; Yalkun, Yasin; Wu, Mei

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the Human papilloma viral types 6 and 11 in a large pediatric population in XinJiang and the different expression in chinese and uyghur pediatric population. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we analyzed paraffin embedded tissue in 42 cases of juvenile Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (JRRP)and determined the HPV types 6 and 11, and to correlate these results with retrospectively analysis about those cases who were consecutively treated in our ENT department, meanwhile we carry out a critical review of the literature of JRRP. A total HPV infection positive rate was 97.61% (41/42), and HPV11 positive rate was 63.41% (41/26), HPV6 positive rate was 36.58% (41/15). In uyghur patient HPV11 positive rate was 65.38% (17/26), HPV6 positive rate was53. 33% (8/15). in Chince patient HPV11 positive rate was 34.61% (9/26), HPV6 positive rate was 46.67% (7/15). Juvenile laryngeal papilloma is associated with HPV11, HPV6 infection and we considered that HPV11 infection may be the important guideline of the evaluation of disease prognosis. but no statistical signtificance was determined in the patients of various ethnic groups in Xin jiang (P > 0.05).

  4. POPULATION PARAMETERS OF INTERMEDIATE-AGE STAR CLUSTERS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. II. NEW INSIGHTS FROM EXTENDED MAIN-SEQUENCE TURNOFFS IN SEVEN STAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goudfrooij, Paul; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera; Puzia, Thomas H.; Chandar, Rupali

    2011-01-01

    We discuss new photometry from high-resolution images of seven intermediate-age (1-2 Gyr) star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We fit color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with several different sets of theoretical isochrones and determine systematic uncertainties for population parameters when derived using any one set of isochrones. The cluster CMDs show several interesting features, including extended main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) regions, narrow red giant branches, and clear sequences of unresolved binary stars. We show that the extended MSTOs are not caused by photometric uncertainties, contamination by field stars, or the presence of binary stars. Enhanced helium abundances in a fraction of cluster stars are also ruled out as the reason for the extended MSTOs. Quantitative comparisons with simulations indicate that the MSTO regions are better described by a spread in ages than by a bimodal age distribution, although we cannot formally rule out the latter for the three lowest-mass clusters in our sample (which have masses lower than ∼3 x 10 4 M sun ). This conclusion differs from that of some previous works which suggested that the age distribution in massive clusters in our sample is bimodal. This suggests that any secondary star formation occurred in an extended fashion rather than through short bursts. We discuss these results in the context of the nature of multiple stellar populations in star clusters.

  5. Using large-scale data analysis to assess life history and behavioural traits: the case of the reintroduced White stork Ciconia ciconia population in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doligez, B.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The White stork Ciconia ciconia has been the object of several successful reintroduction programmes in the last decades. As a consequence, populations have been monitored over large spatial scales. Despite these intense efforts, very few reliable estimates of life history traits are available for this species. Such general knowledge however constitutes a prerequisite for investigating the consequences of conservation measures. Using the large–scale and long–term ringing and resighting data set of White storks in the Netherlands, we investigated the variation of survival and resighting rates with age, time and previous individual resighting history, and in a second step supplementary feeding, using capture–recapture models. Providing food did not seem to affect survival directly, but may have an indirect effect via the alteration of migratory behaviour. Large–scale population monitoring is important in obtaining precise and reliable estimates of life history traits and assessing the consequences of conservation measures on these traits, which will prove useful for managers to take adequate measures in future conservation strategies.

  6. Association of Common Polymorphisms in the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Alpha4 Subunit Gene with an Electrophysiological Endophenotype in a Large Population-Based Sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mobascher

    Full Text Available Variation in genes coding for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR subunits affect cognitive processes and may contribute to the genetic architecture of neuropsychiatric disorders. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the CHRNA4 gene that codes for the alpha4 subunit of alpha4/beta2-containing receptors have previously been implicated in aspects of (mostly visual attention and smoking-related behavioral measures. Here we investigated the effects of six synonymous but functional CHRNA4 exon 5 SNPs on the N100 event-related potential (ERP, an electrophysiological endophenotype elicited by a standard auditory oddball. A total of N = 1,705 subjects randomly selected from the general population were studied with electroencephalography (EEG as part of the German Multicenter Study on nicotine addiction. Two of the six variants, rs1044396 and neighboring rs1044397, were significantly associated with N100 amplitude. This effect was pronounced in females where we also observed an effect on reaction time. Sequencing of the complete exon 5 region in the population sample excluded the existence of additional/functional variants that may be responsible for the observed effects. This is the first large-scale population-based study investigation the effects of CHRNA4 SNPs on brain activity measures related to stimulus processing and attention. Our results provide further evidence that common synonymous CHRNA4 exon 5 SNPs affect cognitive processes and suggest that they also play a role in the auditory system. As N100 amplitude reduction is considered a schizophrenia-related endophenotype the SNPs studied here may also be associated with schizophrenia outcome measures.

  7. Quiescent Galaxies in the 3D-HST Survey: Spectroscopic Confirmation of a Large Number of Galaxies with Relatively Old Stellar Populations at z ~ 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Katherine E.; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Brammer, Gabriel; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Skelton, Rosalind; Franx, Marijn; Kriek, Mariska; Labbé, Ivo; Fumagalli, Mattia; Lundgren, Britt F.; Nelson, Erica J.; Patel, Shannon G.; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2013-06-01

    Quiescent galaxies at z ~ 2 have been identified in large numbers based on rest-frame colors, but only a small number of these galaxies have been spectroscopically confirmed to show that their rest-frame optical spectra show either strong Balmer or metal absorption lines. Here, we median stack the rest-frame optical spectra for 171 photometrically quiescent galaxies at 1.4 < z < 2.2 from the 3D-HST grism survey. In addition to Hβ (λ4861 Å), we unambiguously identify metal absorption lines in the stacked spectrum, including the G band (λ4304 Å), Mg I (λ5175 Å), and Na I (λ5894 Å). This finding demonstrates that galaxies with relatively old stellar populations already existed when the universe was ~3 Gyr old, and that rest-frame color selection techniques can efficiently select them. We find an average age of 1.3^{+0.1}_{-0.3} Gyr when fitting a simple stellar population to the entire stack. We confirm our previous result from medium-band photometry that the stellar age varies with the colors of quiescent galaxies: the reddest 80% of galaxies are dominated by metal lines and have a relatively old mean age of 1.6^{+0.5}_{-0.4} Gyr, whereas the bluest (and brightest) galaxies have strong Balmer lines and a spectroscopic age of 0.9^{+0.2}_{-0.1} Gyr. Although the spectrum is dominated by an evolved stellar population, we also find [O III] and Hβ emission. Interestingly, this emission is more centrally concentrated than the continuum with {L_{{O}\\,\\scriptsize{III}}}=1.7+/- 0.3\\times 10^{40} erg s-1, indicating residual central star formation or nuclear activity.

  8. Treatment cost and life expectancy of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL): a discrete event simulation model on a UK population-based observational cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han-I; Smith, Alexandra; Aas, Eline; Roman, Eve; Crouch, Simon; Burton, Cathy; Patmore, Russell

    2017-03-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the commonest non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Previous studies examining the cost of treating DLBCL have generally focused on a specific first-line therapy alone; meaning that their findings can neither be extrapolated to the general patient population nor to other points along the treatment pathway. Based on empirical data from a representative population-based patient cohort, the objective of this study was to develop a simulation model that could predict costs and life expectancy of treating DLBCL. All patients newly diagnosed with DLBCL in the UK's population-based Haematological Malignancy Research Network ( www.hmrn.org ) in 2007 were followed until 2013 (n = 271). Mapped treatment pathways, alongside cost information derived from the National Tariff 2013/14, were incorporated into a patient-level simulation model in order to reflect the heterogeneities of patient characteristics and treatment options. The NHS and social services perspective was adopted, and all outcomes were discounted at 3.5 % per annum. Overall, the expected total medical costs were £22,122 for those treated with curative intent, and £2930 for those managed palliatively. For curative chemotherapy, the predicted medical costs were £14,966, £23,449 and £7376 for first-, second- and third-line treatments, respectively. The estimated annual cost for treating DLBCL across the UK was around £88-92 million. This is the first cost modelling study using empirical data to provide 'real world' evidence throughout the DLBCL treatment pathway. Future application of the model could include evaluation of new technologies/treatments to support healthcare decision makers, especially in the era of personalised medicine.

  9. Towards a Population Dynamics Theory for Evolutionary Computing: Learning from Biological Population Dynamics in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhanshan (Sam)

    In evolutionary computing (EC), population size is one of the critical parameters that a researcher has to deal with. Hence, it was no surprise that the pioneers of EC, such as De Jong (1975) and Holland (1975), had already studied the population sizing from the very beginning of EC. What is perhaps surprising is that more than three decades later, we still largely depend on the experience or ad-hoc trial-and-error approach to set the population size. For example, in a recent monograph, Eiben and Smith (2003) indicated: "In almost all EC applications, the population size is constant and does not change during the evolutionary search." Despite enormous research on this issue in recent years, we still lack a well accepted theory for population sizing. In this paper, I propose to develop a population dynamics theory forEC with the inspiration from the population dynamics theory of biological populations in nature. Essentially, the EC population is considered as a dynamic system over time (generations) and space (search space or fitness landscape), similar to the spatial and temporal dynamics of biological populations in nature. With this conceptual mapping, I propose to 'transplant' the biological population dynamics theory to EC via three steps: (i) experimentally test the feasibility—whether or not emulating natural population dynamics improves the EC performance; (ii) comparatively study the underlying mechanisms—why there are improvements, primarily via statistical modeling analysis; (iii) conduct theoretical analysis with theoretical models such as percolation theory and extended evolutionary game theory that are generally applicable to both EC and natural populations. This article is a summary of a series of studies we have performed to achieve the general goal [27][30]-[32]. In the following, I start with an extremely brief introduction on the theory and models of natural population dynamics (Sections 1 & 2). In Sections 4 to 6, I briefly discuss three

  10. Validation of the MOS Social Support Survey 6-item (MOS-SSS-6) measure with two large population-based samples of Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Lee, Christina; Hockey, Richard; Ware, Robert S; Dobson, Annette J

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to validate a 6-item 1-factor global measure of social support developed from the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) for use in large epidemiological studies. Data were obtained from two large population-based samples of participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. The two cohorts were aged 53-58 and 28-33 years at data collection (N = 10,616 and 8,977, respectively). Items selected for the 6-item 1-factor measure were derived from the factor structure obtained from unpublished work using an earlier wave of data from one of these cohorts. Descriptive statistics, including polychoric correlations, were used to describe the abbreviated scale. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess internal consistency and confirmatory factor analysis to assess scale validity. Concurrent validity was assessed using correlations between the new 6-item version and established 19-item version, and other concurrent variables. In both cohorts, the new 6-item 1-factor measure showed strong internal consistency and scale reliability. It had excellent goodness-of-fit indices, similar to those of the established 19-item measure. Both versions correlated similarly with concurrent measures. The 6-item 1-factor MOS-SSS measures global functional social support with fewer items than the established 19-item measure.

  11. A text messaging intervention to improve heart failure self-management after hospital discharge in a largely African-American population: before-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nundy, Shantanu; Razi, Rabia R; Dick, Jonathan J; Smith, Bryan; Mayo, Ainoa; O'Connor, Anne; Meltzer, David O

    2013-03-11

    There is increasing interest in finding novel approaches to reduce health disparities in readmissions for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Text messaging is a promising platform for improving chronic disease self-management in low-income populations, yet is largely unexplored in ADHF. The purpose of this pre-post study was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a text message-based (SMS: short message service) intervention in a largely African American population with ADHF and explore its effects on self-management. Hospitalized patients with ADHF were enrolled in an automated text message-based heart failure program for 30 days following discharge. Messages provided self-care reminders and patient education on diet, symptom recognition, and health care navigation. Demographic and cell phone usage data were collected on enrollment, and an exit survey was administered on completion. The Self-Care of Heart Failure Index (SCHFI) was administered preintervention and postintervention and compared using sample t tests (composite) and Wilcoxon rank sum tests (individual). Clinical data were collected through chart abstraction. Of 51 patients approached for recruitment, 27 agreed to participate and 15 were enrolled (14 African-American, 1 White). Barriers to enrollment included not owning a personal cell phone (n=12), failing the Mini-Mental exam (n=3), needing a proxy (n=2), hard of hearing (n=1), and refusal (n=3). Another 3 participants left the study for health reasons and 3 others had technology issues. A total of 6 patients (5 African-American, 1 White) completed the postintervention surveys. The mean age was 50 years (range 23-69) and over half had Medicaid or were uninsured (60%, 9/15). The mean ejection fraction for those with systolic dysfunction was 22%, and at least two-thirds had a prior hospitalization in the past year. Participants strongly agreed that the program was easy to use (83%), reduced pills missed (66%), and decreased salt intake

  12. Prevalence of large endoparasites at necropsy in horses infected with Population B small strongyles in a herd established in Kentucky in 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Collins, S S

    2006-07-01

    Two closed horse herds (Old Lot 4 and Field 24), infected since 1966 with Population B small strongyles resistant to thiabendazole (TBZ) and phenothiazine (PTZ), were terminated in February, March, and May, 2005. At necropsy, only the large endoparasites were identified and counted. The number of horses on pasture was 14 (239 days of age to 23 years old) for Old Lot 4 and two (3 to 20 years old) for Field 24. The time of the last antiparasitic treatment, relative to the year (2005) of necropsy, was 26 years for Old Lot 4 and 9 years for Field 24 horses. Gasterophilus intestinalis third instars (three to 113 specimens/horse) were found in all 16 horses and second instars (one to two) in two horses. Gasterophilus nasalis third instars (one to three) were recovered from five horses. Parascaris equorum infections (23 to 144) were in four horses (239 days to 4 years old). Strongylus vulgaris were present in the large intestine (one to 155) of 13 horses from 239 days to 23 years old and in the cranial mesenteric artery (two to 79) in 10 horses from 239 days to 23 years old. Strongylus edentatus were in the large intestine (two to 101) of 12 horses, ranging in age from 2.5 to 23 years old and in the ventral abdominal wall (one to 53) of six horses from 239 days to 21 years old. Specimens (seven to 872) of Anoplocephala perfoliata were in all horses. Oxyuris equi (one to 129) were recovered from seven horses (330 days to 23 years old). Thelazia lacrymalis (one to 85) infected the eyes of five horses (317 days to 11 years old).

  13. Models of Automation Surprise: Results of a Field Survey in Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert De Boer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Automation surprises in aviation continue to be a significant safety concern and the community’s search for effective strategies to mitigate them are ongoing. The literature has offered two fundamentally divergent directions, based on different ideas about the nature of cognition and collaboration with automation. In this paper, we report the results of a field study that empirically compared and contrasted two models of automation surprises: a normative individual-cognition model and a sensemaking model based on distributed cognition. Our data prove a good fit for the sense-making model. This finding is relevant for aviation safety, since our understanding of the cognitive processes that govern human interaction with automation drive what we need to do to reduce the frequency of automation-induced events.

  14. A multiwavelength survey of H I-excess galaxies with surprisingly inefficient star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geréb, K.; Janowiecki, S.; Catinella, B.; Cortese, L.; Kilborn, V.

    2018-05-01

    We present the results of a multiwavelength survey of H I-excess galaxies, an intriguing population with large H I reservoirs associated with little current star formation. These galaxies have stellar masses M⋆ > 1010 M⊙, and were identified as outliers in the gas fraction versus NUV-r colour and stellar mass surface density scaling relations based on the GALEX Arecibo SDSS Survey (GASS). We obtained H I interferometry with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, Keck optical long-slit spectroscopy, and deep optical imaging (where available) for four galaxies. Our analysis reveals multiple possible reasons for the H I excess in these systems. One galaxy, AGC 10111, shows an H I disc that is counter-rotating with respect to the stellar bulge, a clear indication of external origin of the gas. Another galaxy appears to host a Malin 1-type disc, where a large specific angular momentum has to be invoked to explain the extreme M_{H I}/M⋆ ratio of 166 per cent. The other two galaxies have early-type morphology with very high gas fractions. The lack of merger signatures (unsettled gas, stellar shells, and streams) in these systems suggests that these gas-rich discs have been built several Gyr ago, but it remains unclear how the gas reservoirs were assembled. Numerical simulations of large cosmological volumes are needed to gain insight into the formation of these rare and interesting systems.

  15. Human Amygdala Tracks a Feature-Based Valence Signal Embedded within the Facial Expression of Surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M Justin; Mattek, Alison M; Bennett, Randi H; Solomon, Kimberly M; Shin, Jin; Whalen, Paul J

    2017-09-27

    Human amygdala function has been traditionally associated with processing the affective valence (negative vs positive) of an emotionally charged event, especially those that signal fear or threat. However, this account of human amygdala function can be explained by alternative views, which posit that the amygdala might be tuned to either (1) general emotional arousal (activation vs deactivation) or (2) specific emotion categories (fear vs happy). Delineating the pure effects of valence independent of arousal or emotion category is a challenging task, given that these variables naturally covary under many circumstances. To circumvent this issue and test the sensitivity of the human amygdala to valence values specifically, we measured the dimension of valence within the single facial expression category of surprise. Given the inherent valence ambiguity of this category, we show that surprised expression exemplars are attributed valence and arousal values that are uniquely and naturally uncorrelated. We then present fMRI data from both sexes, showing that the amygdala tracks these consensus valence values. Finally, we provide evidence that these valence values are linked to specific visual features of the mouth region, isolating the signal by which the amygdala detects this valence information. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT There is an open question as to whether human amygdala function tracks the valence value of cues in the environment, as opposed to either a more general emotional arousal value or a more specific emotion category distinction. Here, we demonstrate the utility of surprised facial expressions because exemplars within this emotion category take on valence values spanning the dimension of bipolar valence (positive to negative) at a consistent level of emotional arousal. Functional neuroimaging data showed that amygdala responses tracked the valence of surprised facial expressions, unconfounded by arousal. Furthermore, a machine learning classifier identified

  16. Prediction, Expectation, and Surprise: Methods, Designs, and Study of a Deployed Traffic Forecasting Service

    OpenAIRE

    Horvitz, Eric J.; Apacible, Johnson; Sarin, Raman; Liao, Lin

    2012-01-01

    We present research on developing models that forecast traffic flow and congestion in the Greater Seattle area. The research has led to the deployment of a service named JamBayes, that is being actively used by over 2,500 users via smartphones and desktop versions of the system. We review the modeling effort and describe experiments probing the predictive accuracy of the models. Finally, we present research on building models that can identify current and future surprises, via efforts on mode...

  17. The effect of emotionally valenced eye region images on visuocortical processing of surprised faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuaixia; Li, Ping; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Xiangru; Luo, Wenbo

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we presented pictorial representations of happy, neutral, and fearful expressions projected in the eye regions to determine whether the eye region alone is sufficient to produce a context effect. Participants were asked to judge the valence of surprised faces that had been preceded by a picture of an eye region. Behavioral results showed that affective ratings of surprised faces were context dependent. Prime-related ERPs with presentation of happy eyes elicited a larger P1 than those for neutral and fearful eyes, likely due to the recognition advantage provided by a happy expression. Target-related ERPs showed that surprised faces in the context of fearful and happy eyes elicited dramatically larger C1 than those in the neutral context, which reflected the modulation by predictions during the earliest stages of face processing. There were larger N170 with neutral and fearful eye contexts compared to the happy context, suggesting faces were being integrated with contextual threat information. The P3 component exhibited enhanced brain activity in response to faces preceded by happy and fearful eyes compared with neutral eyes, indicating motivated attention processing may be involved at this stage. Altogether, these results indicate for the first time that the influence of isolated eye regions on the perception of surprised faces involves preferential processing at the early stages and elaborate processing at the late stages. Moreover, higher cognitive processes such as predictions and attention can modulate face processing from the earliest stages in a top-down manner. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  18. Analysis of physiological signals for recognition of boredom, pain, and surprise emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun-Hye; Park, Byoung-Jun; Park, Mi-Sook; Kim, Sang-Hyeob; Sohn, Jin-Hun

    2015-06-18

    The aim of the study was to examine the differences of boredom, pain, and surprise. In addition to that, it was conducted to propose approaches for emotion recognition based on physiological signals. Three emotions, boredom, pain, and surprise, are induced through the presentation of emotional stimuli and electrocardiography (ECG), electrodermal activity (EDA), skin temperature (SKT), and photoplethysmography (PPG) as physiological signals are measured to collect a dataset from 217 participants when experiencing the emotions. Twenty-seven physiological features are extracted from the signals to classify the three emotions. The discriminant function analysis (DFA) as a statistical method, and five machine learning algorithms (linear discriminant analysis (LDA), classification and regression trees (CART), self-organizing map (SOM), Naïve Bayes algorithm, and support vector machine (SVM)) are used for classifying the emotions. The result shows that the difference of physiological responses among emotions is significant in heart rate (HR), skin conductance level (SCL), skin conductance response (SCR), mean skin temperature (meanSKT), blood volume pulse (BVP), and pulse transit time (PTT), and the highest recognition accuracy of 84.7% is obtained by using DFA. This study demonstrates the differences of boredom, pain, and surprise and the best emotion recognizer for the classification of the three emotions by using physiological signals.

  19. The health system and population health implications of large-scale diabetes screening in India: a microsimulation model of alternative approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Basu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Like a growing number of rapidly developing countries, India has begun to develop a system for large-scale community-based screening for diabetes. We sought to identify the implications of using alternative screening instruments to detect people with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes among diverse populations across India.We developed and validated a microsimulation model that incorporated data from 58 studies from across the country into a nationally representative sample of Indians aged 25-65 y old. We estimated the diagnostic and health system implications of three major survey-based screening instruments and random glucometer-based screening. Of the 567 million Indians eligible for screening, depending on which of four screening approaches is utilized, between 158 and 306 million would be expected to screen as "high risk" for type 2 diabetes, and be referred for confirmatory testing. Between 26 million and 37 million of these people would be expected to meet international diagnostic criteria for diabetes, but between 126 million and 273 million would be "false positives." The ratio of false positives to true positives varied from 3.9 (when using random glucose screening to 8.2 (when using a survey-based screening instrument in our model. The cost per case found would be expected to be from US$5.28 (when using random glucose screening to US$17.06 (when using a survey-based screening instrument, presenting a total cost of between US$169 and US$567 million. The major limitation of our analysis is its dependence on published cohort studies that are unlikely fully to capture the poorest and most rural areas of the country. Because these areas are thought to have the lowest diabetes prevalence, this may result in overestimation of the efficacy and health benefits of screening.Large-scale community-based screening is anticipated to produce a large number of false-positive results, particularly if using currently available survey-based screening

  20. Adherence to 2016 European Society of Cardiology guidelines predicts outcome in a large real-world population of heart failure patients requiring cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, Giuseppe; Pepi, Patrizia; Palmisano, Pietro; D'Onofrio, Antonio; De Simone, Antonio; Caico, Salvatore Ivan; Pecora, Domenico; Rapacciuolo, Antonio; Arena, Giuseppe; Marini, Massimiliano; Pieragnoli, Paolo; Badolati, Sandra; Savarese, Gianluca; Maglia, Gianpiero; Iuliano, Assunta; Botto, Giovanni Luca; Malacrida, Maurizio; Bertaglia, Emanuele

    2018-04-14

    Professional guidelines are based on the best available evidence. However, patients treated in clinical practice may differ from those included in reference trials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in a large population of patients implanted with a CRT device stratified in accordance with the 2016 European heart failure (HF) guidelines. We collected data on 930 consecutive patients from the Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy MOdular REgistry. The primary end point was a composite of death and HF hospitalization. Five hundred sixty-three (60.5%) patients met class I indications, 145 (15.6%) class IIa, 108 (11.6%) class IIb, and 114 (12.3%) class III. After a median follow-up of 1001 days, 120 patients who had an indication for CRT implantation had died and 71 had been hospitalized for HF. The time to the end point was longer in patients with a class I indication (hazard ratio 0.55; 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.76; P = .0001). After 12 months, left ventricular (LV) end-systolic volume had decreased by ≥15% in 61.5% of patients whereas in 57.5% of patients the absolute LV ejection fraction improvement was ≥5%. Adherence to class I was also associated with an absolute LV ejection fraction increase of >5% (P = .0142) and an LV end-systolic volume decrease of ≥15% (P = .0055). In our population, ∼60% of patients underwent implantation according to the 2016 European HF guidelines class I indication. Adherence to class I was associated with a lower death and HF hospitalization rate and better LV reverse remodeling. Copyright © 2018 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Association of Barrett’s Esophagus With Type II Diabetes Mellitus: Results From a Large Population-based Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    IYER, PRASAD G.; BORAH, BIJAN J.; HEIEN, HERBERT C.; DAS, ANANYA; COOPER, GREGORY S.; CHAK, AMITABH

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Central obesity could increase the risk for Barrett’s esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma by mechanical and/or metabolic mechanisms, such as hyperinsulinemia. We performed an epidemiologic study to determine whether prior type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is associated with BE. METHODS We performed a population-based case-control study using the General Practice Research Database, a UK primary care database that contains information on more than 8 million subjects, to identify cases of BE (using previously validated codes; n = 14,245) and matched controls without BE (by age, sex, enrollment date, duration of follow-up evaluation, and practice region by incidence density sampling; n = 70,361). We assessed the association of a prior diagnosis of DM2 with BE using conditional univariate and multivariable regression analysis. Confounders assessed included smoking, obesity measured by body mass index (BMI), and gastroesophageal reflux disease. RESULTS BE cases were more likely than controls to have smoked (52.4% vs 49.9%), have a higher mean BMI (27.2 vs 26.9), and a higher prevalence of DM2 than controls (5.8% vs 5.3%). On multivariable analysis, DM2 was associated with a 49% increase in the risk of BE, independent of other known risk factors (odds ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.16–1.91). This association was stronger in women than men. Results remained stable with sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS In a large population-based case-control study, DM2 was a risk factor for BE, independent of obesity (as measured by BMI) and other risk factors (smoking and gastroesophageal reflux disease). These data suggest that metabolic pathways related to DM2 should be explored in BE pathogenesis and esophageal carcinogenesis. PMID:23591277

  2. Usual Intake Distribution of Vitamins and Prevalence of Inadequacy in a Large Sample of Iranian At-Risk Population: Application of NCI Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Zahra; Feizi, Awat; Azadbakht, Leila; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2016-01-01

    This study provides an assessment of usual intake distribution of vitamins and estimating prevalence of inadequacy and excess among a large representative sample of middle-aged and elderly people in central regions of Iran. A cross-sectional study that is a second follow-up to the Isfahan Cohort Study (ICS). The study setting included urban and rural areas from 3 cities (Isfahan, Najafabad, and Arak) in central regions of Iran. Subjects included 1922 people aged 40 years and older, with a mean age of 55.9 ± 10.6; 50.4% were male and the majority (79.3%) were urban. Dietary intakes were collected using a 24-hour recall and 2 food records. Distribution of vitamins intake was estimated using traditional and national cancer institute (NCI) methods. The proportion of subjects at risk of vitamin intake inadequacy or excess was estimated using the estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method and the tolerable upper intake levels (UL) index. There were differences between values obtained from traditional and NCI methods, particularly in the lower and upper percentiles of the intake distribution. High prevalence of inadequacies for vitamins A, D, E, B2, B3 (especially among females), and B9 was observed. Significant gender differences were found in terms of inadequate intakes for vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B6, B9, B12, and C (p vitamin intake was observed in the middle-aged and elderly Iranian population. Nutritional interventions particularly through population-based educational programs in order to improve diet variety and consume nutrient supplements may be necessary.

  3. Accelerated fetal growth in early pregnancy and risk of severe large-for-gestational-age and macrosomic infant: a cohort study in a low-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic, Marija; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Stephansson, Olof

    2017-10-01

    Our objective was to examine the association between fetal growth in early pregnancy and risk of severe large-for-gestational-age (LGA) and macrosomia at birth in a low-risk population. Cohort study that included 68 771 women with non-anomalous singleton pregnancies, without history of diabetes or hypertension, based on an electronic database on pregnancies and deliveries in Stockholm-Gotland Region, Sweden, 2008-2014. We performed multivariable logistic regression to estimate the association between accelerated fetal growth occurring in the first through early second trimester as measured by ultrasound and LGA and macrosomia at birth. Restricted analyses were performed in the groups without gestational diabetes and with normal body mass index (18.5-24.9 kg/m 2 ). When adjusting for confounders, the odds of having a severely LGA or macrosomic infant were elevated in mothers with fetuses that were at least 7 days larger than expected as compared with mothers without age discrepancy at the second-trimester scan (adjusted odds ratio 1.80; 95% CI 1.23-2.64 and adjusted odds ratio 2.15; 95% CI 1.55-2.98, respectively). Additionally, mothers without gestational diabetes and mothers with normal weight had an elevated risk of having a severely LGA or macrosomic infant when the age discrepancy by second-trimester ultrasound was at least 7 days. In a low-risk population, ultrasound-estimated accelerated fetal growth in early pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of having a severely LGA or macrosomic infant. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Vegetarian diet and all-cause mortality: Evidence from a large population-based Australian cohort - the 45 and Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihrshahi, Seema; Ding, Ding; Gale, Joanne; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Banks, Emily; Bauman, Adrian E

    2017-04-01

    The vegetarian diet is thought to have health benefits including reductions in type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. Evidence to date suggests that vegetarians tend to have lower mortality rates when compared with non-vegetarians, but most studies are not population-based and other healthy lifestyle factors may have confounded apparent protective effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between categories of vegetarian diet (including complete, semi and pesco-vegetarian) and all-cause mortality in a large population-based Australian cohort. The 45 and Up Study is a cohort study of 267,180 men and women aged ≥45years in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Vegetarian diet status was assessed by baseline questionnaire and participants were categorized into complete vegetarians, semi-vegetarians (eat meat≤once/week), pesco-vegetarians and regular meat eaters. All-cause mortality was determined by linked registry data to mid-2014. Cox proportional hazards models quantified the association between vegetarian diet and all-cause mortality adjusting for a range of potential confounding factors. Among 243,096 participants (mean age: 62.3years, 46.7% men) there were 16,836 deaths over a mean 6.1years of follow-up. Following extensive adjustment for potential confounding factors there was no significant difference in all-cause mortality for vegetarians versus non-vegetarians [HR=1.16 (95% CI 0.93-1.45)]. There was also no significant difference in mortality risk between pesco-vegetarians [HR=0.79 (95% CI 0.59-1.06)] or semi-vegetarians [HR=1.12 (95% CI 0.96-1.31)] versus regular meat eaters. We found no evidence that following a vegetarian diet, semi-vegetarian diet or a pesco-vegetarian diet has an independent protective effect on all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reconciling the Log-Linear and Non-Log-Linear Nature of the TSH-Free T4 Relationship: Intra-Individual Analysis of a Large Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothacker, Karen M; Brown, Suzanne J; Hadlow, Narelle C; Wardrop, Robert; Walsh, John P

    2016-03-01

    The TSH-T4 relationship was thought to be inverse log-linear, but recent cross-sectional studies report a complex, nonlinear relationship; large, intra-individual studies are lacking. Our objective was to analyze the TSH-free T4 relationship within individuals. We analyzed data from 13 379 patients, each with six or more TSH/free T4 measurements and at least a 5-fold difference between individual median TSH and minimum or maximum TSH. Linear and nonlinear regression models of log TSH on free T4 were fitted to data from individuals and goodness of fit compared by likelihood ratio testing. Comparing all models, the linear model achieved best fit in 31% of individuals, followed by quartic (27%), cubic (15%), null (12%), and quadratic (11%) models. After eliminating least favored models (with individuals reassigned to best fitting, available models), the linear model fit best in 42% of participants, quartic in 43%, and null model in 15%. As the number of observations per individual increased, so did the proportion of individuals in whom the linear model achieved best fit, to 66% in those with more than 20 observations. When linear models were applied to all individuals and averaged according to individual median free T4 values, variations in slope and intercept indicated a nonlinear log TSH-free T4 relationship across the population. The log TSH-free T4 relationship appears linear in some individuals and nonlinear in others, but is predominantly linear in those with the largest number of observations. A log-linear relationship within individuals can be reconciled with a non-log-linear relationship in a population.

  6. Increased risk for diabetes development in subjects with large variation in total cholesterol levels in 2,827,950 Koreans: A nationwide population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jung Rhee

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest a role for hyperlipidemia in the development of diabetes. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between variations of total cholesterol (TC levels and the risk for type 2 diabetes development from a Korean nationwide population-based database.We examined the General Health Check-up sub-dataset of the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS of 2,827,950 participants who had at least three health check-ups between 2002 and 2007, and were not reported to have diabetes during that time. The variations of TC levels between the examinations were calculated as follows: [Formula: see text]. The examinees were divided into 10 groups according to TC variation, and the hazard ratio for diabetes development from 2007 to 2013, were analyzed.During the follow-up period, 3.4% of the participants had developed diabetes. The hazard ratio (HR for diabetes development relative to the overall risk in the whole study population started to be higher than 1.0 from eighth decile of TC variation. The highest decile group showed an increased HR for diabetes development after adjustment for confounding variables (1.139; 95% confidence interval 1.116~1.163. These results were similar regardless of the use of anti-hyperlipidemic medication and baseline TC levels.The participants with a large variation in TC levels showed an increased risk for diabetes development, independent of the use of anti-hyperlipidemic medications. These results suggest a relationship between fluctuations in lipid levels and the development of type 2 diabetes.

  7. On the relationship between calcified neurocysticercosis and epilepsy in an endemic village: A large-scale, computed tomography-based population study in rural Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Arroyo, Gianfranco; Del Brutto, Victor J; Zambrano, Mauricio; García, Héctor H

    2017-11-01

    Using a large-scale population-based study, we aimed to assess prevalence and patterns of presentation of neurocysticercosis (NCC) and its relationship with epilepsy in community-dwellers aged ≥20 years living in Atahualpa (rural Ecuador). In a three-phase epidemiological study, individuals with suspected seizures were identified during a door-to-door survey and an interview (phase I). Then, neurologists evaluated suspected cases and randomly selected negative persons to estimate epilepsy prevalence (phase II). In phase III, all participants were offered noncontrast computed tomography (CT) for identifying NCC cases. The independent association between NCC (exposure) and epilepsy (outcome) was assessed by the use of multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, level of education, and alcohol intake. CT findings were subsequently compared to archived brain magnetic resonance imaging in a sizable subgroup of participants. Of 1,604 villagers aged ≥20 years, 1,462 (91%) were enrolled. Forty-one persons with epilepsy (PWE) were identified, for a crude prevalence of epilepsy of 28 per 1,000 population (95% confidence interval [CI] = 20.7-38.2). A head CT was performed in 1,228 (84%) of 1,462 participants, including 39 of 41 PWE. CT showed lesions consistent with calcified parenchymal brain cysticerci in 118 (9.6%) cases (95% CI = 8.1-11.4%). No patient had other forms of NCC. Nine of 39 PWE, as opposed to 109 of 1,189 participants without epilepsy, had NCC (23.1% vs. 9.2%, p = 0.004). This difference persisted in the adjusted logistic regression model (odds ratio = 3.04, 95% CI = 1.35-6.81, p = 0.007). This large CT-based study demonstrates that PWE had three times the odds of having NCC than those without epilepsy, providing robust epidemiological evidence favoring the relationship between NCC and epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  8. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis: a longitudinal study comparing severity associated with human papilloma viral types 6 and 11 and other risk factors in a large pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiatrak, Brian J; Wiatrak, Deborah W; Broker, Thomas R; Lewis, Linda

    2004-11-01

    A database was developed for prospective, longitudinal study of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) in a large population of pediatric patients. Data recorded for each patient included epidemiological factors, human papilloma virus (HPV) type, clinical course, staged severity of disease at each surgical intervention, and frequency of surgical intervention. The study hypothesizes that patients with HPV type 11 (HPV-11) and patients younger than 3 years of age at diagnosis are at risk for more aggressive and extensive disease. The 10-year prospective epidemiological study used disease staging for each patient with an original scoring system. Severity scores were updated at each surgical procedure. Parents of children with RRP referred to the authors' hospital completed a detailed epidemiological questionnaire at the initial visit or at the first return visit after the study began. At the first endoscopic debridement after study enrollment, tissue was obtained and submitted for HPV typing using polymerase chain reaction techniques and in situ hybridization. Staging of disease severity was performed in real time at each endoscopic procedure using an RRP scoring system developed by one of the authors (B.J.W.). The frequency of endoscopic operative debridement was recorded for each patient. Information in the database was analyzed to identify statistically significant relationships between extent of disease and/or HPV type, patient age at diagnosis, and selected epidemiological factors. The study may represent the first longitudinal prospective analysis of a large pediatric RRP population. Fifty-eight of the 73 patients in the study underwent HPV typing. Patients infected with HPV-11 were significantly more likely to have higher severity scores, require more frequent surgical intervention, and require adjuvant therapy to control disease progression. In addition, patients with HPV-11 RRP were significantly more likely to develop tracheal disease, to require

  9. Cold-knife conisation and large loop excision of transformation zone significantly increase the risk for spontaneous preterm birth: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jančar, Nina; Mihevc Ponikvar, Barbara; Tomšič, Sonja

    2016-08-01

    Our aim was to explore the association between cold-knife conisation and large loop excision of transformation zone (LLETZ) with spontaneous preterm birth in a large 10-year national sample. We wanted to explore further the association of these procedures with preterm birth according to gestation. We conducted a population based retrospective cohort study, using data from national Medical Birth Registry. The study population consisted of all women giving birth to singletons in the period 2003-2012 in Slovenia, excluding all induced labors and elective cesarean sections before 37 weeks of gestation (N=192730). We compared the prevalence of spontaneous preterm births (before 28 weeks, before 32 weeks, before 34 weeks and before 37 weeks of gestation) in women with cold-knife conisation or LLETZ compared to women without history of conisation, calculating odds ratios (OR), adjusted for potential confounders. Chi-square test was used for descriptive analysis. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate crude odds ratio (OR) and adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) with two-sided probability (p) values. A total of 8420 (4.4%) women had a preterm birth before 37 weeks of gestation, 2250 (1.2%) before 34 weeks of gestation, 1333 (0.7%) before 32 weeks of gestation and 603 (0.3%) before 28 weeks of gestation. A total of 4580 (2.4%) women had some type of conisation in their medical history: 2083 (1.1%) had cold-knife conisation and 2498 (1.3%) had LLETZ. In women with history of cold-knife conisation, the adjusted OR for preterm birth before 37 weeks of gestation was 3.13 (95% CI; 2.74-3.57) and for preterm birth before 28 weeks of gestation 5.96 (95% CI; 4.3-8.3). In women with history of LLETZ, the adjusted OR was 1.95 (95% CI; 1.68-2.25) and 2.88 (95% CI; 1.87-4.43), respectively. Women with cervical excision procedure of any kind have significantly increased odds for preterm birth, especially for preterm birth before 28

  10. Assessment of the effects and limitations of the 1998 to 2008 Abbreviated Injury Scale map using a large population-based dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklyn Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trauma systems should consistently monitor a given trauma population over a period of time. The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS and derived scores such as the Injury Severity Score (ISS are commonly used to quantify injury severities in trauma registries. To reflect contemporary trauma management and treatment, the most recent version of the AIS (AIS08 contains many codes which differ in severity from their equivalents in the earlier 1998 version (AIS98. Consequently, the adoption of AIS08 may impede comparisons between data coded using different AIS versions. It may also affect the number of patients classified as major trauma. Methods The entire AIS98-coded injury dataset of a large population based trauma registry was retrieved and mapped to AIS08 using the currently available AIS98-AIS08 dictionary map. The percentage of codes which had increased or decreased in severity, or could not be mapped, was examined in conjunction with the effect of these changes to the calculated ISS. The potential for free text information accompanying AIS coding to improve the quality of AIS mapping was explored. Results A total of 128280 AIS98-coded injuries were evaluated in 32134 patients, 15471 patients of whom were classified as major trauma. Although only 4.5% of dictionary codes decreased in severity from AIS98 to AIS08, this represented almost 13% of injuries in the registry. In 4.9% of patients, no injuries could be mapped. ISS was potentially unreliable in one-third of patients, as they had at least one AIS98 code which could not be mapped. Using AIS08, the number of patients classified as major trauma decreased by between 17.3% and 30.3%. Evaluation of free text descriptions for some injuries demonstrated the potential to improve mapping between AIS versions. Conclusions Converting AIS98-coded data to AIS08 results in a significant decrease in the number of patients classified as major trauma. Many AIS98 codes are missing from the

  11. The ion population of the magnetotail during the 17 April 2002 magnetic storm: Large-scale kinetic simulations and IMAGE/HENA observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroomian, Vahé; El-Alaoui, Mostafa; Brandt, Pontus C.:son

    2011-05-01

    The contribution of solar wind and ionospheric ions to the ion population of the magnetotail during the 17 April 2002 geomagnetic storm was investigated by using large-scale kinetic (LSK) particle tracing calculations. We began our investigation by carrying out a global magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the storm event by using upstream solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field data from the ACE spacecraft. We launched solar wind H+ ions and ionospheric O+ ions beginning at 0900 UT, ˜2 h prior to the sudden storm commencement (SSC), until 2000 UT. We found that during this Dst ˜ -98 nT storm, solar wind ions carried the bulk of the density and energy density in the nightside ring current and plasma sheet, with the notable exception of the 90 min immediately after the SSC when O+ densities in the ring current exceeded those of H+ ions. The LSK simulation did a very good job of reproducing ion densities observed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory spacecraft at geosynchronous orbit and reproduced the changes in the inner magnetosphere and the injection of ions observed by the IMAGE spacecraft during a substorm that occurred at 1900 UT. These comparisons with observations serve to validate our results throughout the magnetotail and allow us to obtain time-dependent maps of H+ and O+ density and energy density where IMAGE cannot make measurements. In essence, this work extends the viewing window of the IMAGE spacecraft far downtail.

  12. MR imaging of the brain in large cohort studies: feasibility report of the population- and patient-based BiDirect study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teuber, Anja; Berger, Klaus; Wersching, Heike; Sundermann, Benedikt; Kugel, Harald; Schwindt, Wolfram; Heindel, Walter; Minnerup, Jens; Dannlowski, Udo

    2017-01-01

    To describe the implementation and protocol of cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the longitudinal BiDirect study and to report rates of study participation as well as management of incidental findings. Data came from the BiDirect study that investigates the relationship between depression and arteriosclerosis and comprises 2258 participants in three cohorts: 999 patients with depression, 347 patients with manifest cardiovascular disease (CVD) and 912 population-based controls. The study program includes MRI of the brain. Reasons for non-participation were systematically collected. Incidental findings were categorized and disclosed according to clinical relevance. At baseline 2176 participants were offered MRI, of whom 1453 (67 %) completed it. Reasons for non-participation differed according to cohort, age and gender with controls showing the highest participation rate of 79 %. Patient cohorts had higher refusal rates and CVD patients a high prevalence of contraindications. In the first follow-up examination 69 % of participating subjects completed MRI. Incidental findings were disclosed to 246 participants (17 %). The majority of incidental findings were extensive white matter hyperintensities requiring further diagnostic work-up. Knowledge about subjects and sensible definition of incidental findings are crucial for large-scale imaging projects. Our data offer practical and concrete information for the design of future studies. (orig.)

  13. How much can a large population study on genes, environments, their interactions and common diseases contribute to the health of the American people?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaufan, Claudia

    2007-10-01

    I offer a critical perspective on a large-scale population study on gene-environment interactions and common diseases proposed by the US Secretary of Health and Human Services' Advisory Committee on Genetics, Health, and Society (SACGHS). I argue that for scientific and policy reasons this and similar studies have little to add to current knowledge about how to prevent, treat, or decrease inequalities in common diseases, all of which are major claims of the proposal. I use diabetes as an exemplar of the diseases that the study purports to illuminate. I conclude that the question is not whether the study will meet expectations or whether the current emphasis on a genetic paradigm is real or imagined, desirable or not. Rather, the question is why, given the flaws of the science underwriting the study, its assumptions remain unchallenged. Future research should investigate the reasons for this immunity from criticism and for the popularity of this and similar projects among laypersons as well as among intellectuals.

  14. MR imaging of the brain in large cohort studies: feasibility report of the population- and patient-based BiDirect study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuber, Anja; Berger, Klaus; Wersching, Heike [University of Muenster, Institute of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Muenster (Germany); Sundermann, Benedikt; Kugel, Harald; Schwindt, Wolfram; Heindel, Walter [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenster (Germany); Minnerup, Jens [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Neurology, Muenster (Germany); Dannlowski, Udo [University of Muenster, Department of Psychiatry, Muenster (Germany); University of Marburg, Department of Psychiatry, Marburg (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    To describe the implementation and protocol of cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the longitudinal BiDirect study and to report rates of study participation as well as management of incidental findings. Data came from the BiDirect study that investigates the relationship between depression and arteriosclerosis and comprises 2258 participants in three cohorts: 999 patients with depression, 347 patients with manifest cardiovascular disease (CVD) and 912 population-based controls. The study program includes MRI of the brain. Reasons for non-participation were systematically collected. Incidental findings were categorized and disclosed according to clinical relevance. At baseline 2176 participants were offered MRI, of whom 1453 (67 %) completed it. Reasons for non-participation differed according to cohort, age and gender with controls showing the highest participation rate of 79 %. Patient cohorts had higher refusal rates and CVD patients a high prevalence of contraindications. In the first follow-up examination 69 % of participating subjects completed MRI. Incidental findings were disclosed to 246 participants (17 %). The majority of incidental findings were extensive white matter hyperintensities requiring further diagnostic work-up. Knowledge about subjects and sensible definition of incidental findings are crucial for large-scale imaging projects. Our data offer practical and concrete information for the design of future studies. (orig.)

  15. Comparing deep neural network and other machine learning algorithms for stroke prediction in a large-scale population-based electronic medical claims database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen-Ying Hung; Wei-Chen Chen; Po-Tsun Lai; Ching-Heng Lin; Chi-Chun Lee

    2017-07-01

    Electronic medical claims (EMCs) can be used to accurately predict the occurrence of a variety of diseases, which can contribute to precise medical interventions. While there is a growing interest in the application of machine learning (ML) techniques to address clinical problems, the use of deep-learning in healthcare have just gained attention recently. Deep learning, such as deep neural network (DNN), has achieved impressive results in the areas of speech recognition, computer vision, and natural language processing in recent years. However, deep learning is often difficult to comprehend due to the complexities in its framework. Furthermore, this method has not yet been demonstrated to achieve a better performance comparing to other conventional ML algorithms in disease prediction tasks using EMCs. In this study, we utilize a large population-based EMC database of around 800,000 patients to compare DNN with three other ML approaches for predicting 5-year stroke occurrence. The result shows that DNN and gradient boosting decision tree (GBDT) can result in similarly high prediction accuracies that are better compared to logistic regression (LR) and support vector machine (SVM) approaches. Meanwhile, DNN achieves optimal results by using lesser amounts of patient data when comparing to GBDT method.

  16. Common low-density lipoprotein receptor p.G116S variant has a large effect on plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in circumpolar inuit populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Joseph B; Wang, Jian; Cao, Henian; McIntyre, Adam D; Johansen, Christopher T; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Stringer, Randa; Hosseinzadeh, Siyavash; Kennedy, Brooke A; Ban, Matthew R; Young, T Kue; Connelly, Philip W; Dewailly, Eric; Bjerregaard, Peter; Boyer, Bert B; Hegele, Robert A

    2015-02-01

    Inuit are considered to be vulnerable to cardiovascular disease because their lifestyles are becoming more Westernized. During sequence analysis of Inuit individuals at extremes of lipid traits, we identified 2 nonsynonymous variants in low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), namely p.G116S and p.R730W. Genotyping these variants in 3324 Inuit from Alaska, Canada, and Greenland showed they were common, with allele frequencies 10% to 15%. Only p.G116S was associated with dyslipidemia: the increase in LDL cholesterol was 0.54 mmol/L (20.9 mg/dL) per allele (P=5.6×10(-49)), which was >3× larger than the largest effect sizes seen with other common variants in other populations. Carriers of p.G116S had a 3.02-fold increased risk of hypercholesterolemia (95% confidence interval, 2.34-3.90; P=1.7×10(-17)), but did not have classical familial hypercholesterolemia. In vitro, p.G116S showed 60% reduced ligand-binding activity compared with wild-type receptor. In contrast, p.R730W was associated with neither LDL cholesterol level nor altered in vitro activity. LDLR p.G116S is thus unique: a common dysfunctional variant in Inuit whose large effect on LDL cholesterol may have public health implications. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. About Ganoderma boninense in oil palm plantations of Sumatra and peninsular Malaysia: Ancient population expansion, extensive gene flow and large scale dispersion ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercière, Maxime; Boulord, Romain; Carasco-Lacombe, Catherine; Klopp, Christophe; Lee, Yang-Ping; Tan, Joon-Sheong; Syed Alwee, Sharifah S R; Zaremski, Alba; De Franqueville, Hubert; Breton, Frédéric; Camus-Kulandaivelu, Létizia

    Wood rot fungi form one of the main classes of phytopathogenic fungus. The group includes many species, but has remained poorly studied. Many species belonging to the Ganoderma genus are well known for causing decay in a wide range of tree species around the world. Ganoderma boninense, causal agent of oil palm basal stem rot, is responsible for considerable yield losses in Southeast Asian oil palm plantations. In a large-scale sampling operation, 357 sporophores were collected from oil palm plantations spread over peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra and genotyped using 11 SSR markers. The genotyping of these samples made it possible to investigate the population structure and demographic history of G. boninense across the oldest known area of interaction between oil palm and G. boninense. Results show that G. boninense possesses a high degree of genetic diversity and no detectable genetic structure at the scale of Sumatra and peninsular Malaysia. The fact that few duplicate genotypes were found in several studies including this one supports the hypothesis of spore dispersal in the spread of G. boninense. Meanwhile, spatial autocorrelation analysis shows that G. boninense is able to disperse across both short and long distances. These results bring new insight into mechanisms by which G. boninense spreads in oil palm plantations. Finally, the use of approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) modelling indicates that G. boninense has undergone a demographic expansion in the past, probably before the oil palm was introduced into Southeast Asia. Copyright © 2017 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Heat stress increase under climate change twice as large in cities as in rural areas: A study for a densely populated midlatitude maritime region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Hendrik; De Ridder, Koen; Poelmans, Lien; Willems, Patrick; Brouwers, Johan; Hosseinzadehtalaei, Parisa; Tabari, Hossein; Vanden Broucke, Sam; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.; Demuzere, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    Urban areas are usually warmer than their surrounding natural areas, an effect known as the urban heat island effect. As such, they are particularly vulnerable to global warming and associated increases in extreme temperatures. Yet ensemble climate-model projections are generally performed on a scale that is too coarse to represent the evolution of temperatures in cities. Here, for the first time, we combine unprecedented long-term (35 years) urban climate model integrations at the convection-permitting scale (2.8 km resolution) with information from an ensemble of general circulation models to assess temperature-based heat stress for Belgium, a densely populated midlatitude maritime region. We discover that the heat stress increase toward the mid-21st century is twice as large in cities compared to their surrounding rural areas. The exacerbation is driven by the urban heat island itself, its concurrence with heat waves, and urban expansion. Cities experience a heat stress multiplication by a factor 1.4 and 15 depending on the scenario. Remarkably, the future heat stress surpasses everywhere the urban hot spots of today. Our results demonstrate the need to combine information from climate models, acting on different scales, for climate change risk assessment in heterogeneous regions. Moreover, these results highlight the necessity for adaptation to increasing heat stress, especially in urban areas.

  19. Are testosterone levels and depression risk linked based on partnering and parenting? Evidence from a large population-representative study of U.S. men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettler, Lee T; Oka, Rahul C

    2016-08-01

    Partnered adults tend to have lower risks of depression than do single individuals, while parents are more commonly depressed than non-parents. Low testosterone men, and possibly women, are also at greater risk of depression. A large body of research has shown that partnered parents have lower testosterone than single non-parents in some cultural settings, including the U.S. Here, we drew on a large (n = 2438), U.S.-population representative cohort of reproductive aged adults (age: 38.1 years ± 11.1 SD) to test hypotheses regarding the intersections between partnering and parenting, testosterone, socio-demographic characteristics, and depression outcomes. Men and women's depression prevalence did not vary based on testosterone. Partnered fathers had lower testosterone than single (never married, divorced) non-fathers, but were less commonly depressed than those single non-fathers. Partnered mothers had reduced testosterone compared to never married and partnered non-mothers. Never married mothers had higher depression prevalence and elevated depressive symptomology compared to partnered mothers; these differences were largely accounted for by key health-related covariates (e.g. cigarette smoking, BMI). We found significant three-way-interactions between socioeconomic status (SES), testosterone, and parenting for adults' depression risks. High testosterone, high SES fathers had the lowest prevalence of mild depression, whereas low testosterone, low SES non-fathers had the highest. Compared to other mothers, low SES, low testosterone mothers had elevated prevalence of mild depression. Overall, low SES, high testosterone non-mothers had substantially elevated depression risks compared to other women. We suggest that psychobiological profiles (e.g. a male with low testosterone) can emerge through variable psychosomatic and psychosocial pathways and the net effect of those profiles for depression are influenced by the social (e.g. partnering and parenting status

  20. The influence of the surprising decay properties of element 108 on search experiments for new elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, S.; Armbruster, P.; Muenzenberg, G.; Reisdorf, W.; Schmidt, K.H.; Burkhard, H.G.; Hessberger, F.P.; Schoett, H.J.; Agarwal, Y.K.; Berthes, G.; Gollerthan, U.; Folger, H.; Hingmann, J.G.; Keller, J.G.; Leino, M.E.; Lemmertz, P.; Montoya, M.; Poppensieker, K.; Quint, B.; Zychor, I.

    1986-01-01

    Results of experiments to synthesize the heaviest elements are reported. Surprising is the high stability against fission not only of the odd and odd-odd nuclei but also of even isotopes of even elements. Alpha decay data gave an increasing stability of nuclei by shell effects up to 266 109, the heaviest known element. Theoretically, the high stability is explained by an island of nuclei with big quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations around Z=109 and N=162. Future experiments will be planned to prove the island character of these heavy nuclei. (orig.)

  1. Relationship between body composition, body mass index and bone mineral density in a large population of normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, A; Bazzocchi, A; Celi, M; Lauro, D; Sorge, R; Tarantino, U; Guglielmi, G

    2011-10-01

    The knowledge of factors modulating the behaviour of bone mass is crucial for preventing and treating osteoporotic disease; among these factors, body weight (BW) has been shown to be of primary importance in postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, the relative effects of body composition indices are still being debated. Our aim was to analyze the relationship between body mass index (BMI), fat and lean mass and bone mineral density (BMD) in a large population of women. Moreover, this study represents a first important report on reference standard values for body composition in Italian women. Between 2005 and 2008, weight and height of 6,249 Italian women (aged 30-80 years) were measured and BMI was calculated; furthermore BMD, bone mineral content, fat and lean mass were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Individuals were divided into five groups by decades (group 1, 30.0-39.9; group 2, 40.0-49.9; group 3, 50.0-59.9; group 4, 60.0-69.9; group 5, 70.0-79.9). Differences among decades for all variables were calculated using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni test by the SPSS programme. Mean BW was 66.8±12.1 kg, mean height 159.1±6.3 cm and mean BMI 26.4±4.7 kg/m(2). According to BW and BMI, there was an increase of obesity with age, especially in women older than 50 years (posteoporosis in the examined population was 43.0% and 16.7%, respectively. Our data show that obesity significantly decreased the risk for osteoporosis but did not decrease the risk for osteopenia. It is strongly recommended that a strong policy regarding prevention of osteopenia and osteoporosis be commenced. An overall examination of our results suggests that both fat and lean body mass can influence bone mass and that their relative effect on bone could be modulated by their absolute amount and ratio to total BW.

  2. Surprisal analysis of Glioblastoma Multiform (GBM) microRNA dynamics unveils tumor specific phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadran, Sohila; Remacle, Francoise; Levine, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    Gliomablastoma multiform (GBM) is the most fatal form of all brain cancers in humans. Currently there are limited diagnostic tools for GBM detection. Here, we applied surprisal analysis, a theory grounded in thermodynamics, to unveil how biomolecule energetics, specifically a redistribution of free energy amongst microRNAs (miRNAs), results in a system deviating from a non-cancer state to the GBM cancer -specific phenotypic state. Utilizing global miRNA microarray expression data of normal and GBM patients tumors, surprisal analysis characterizes a miRNA system response capable of distinguishing GBM samples from normal tissue biopsy samples. We indicate that the miRNAs contributing to this system behavior is a disease phenotypic state specific to GBM and is therefore a unique GBM-specific thermodynamic signature. MiRNAs implicated in the regulation of stochastic signaling processes crucial in the hallmarks of human cancer, dominate this GBM-cancer phenotypic state. With this theory, we were able to distinguish with high fidelity GBM patients solely by monitoring the dynamics of miRNAs present in patients' biopsy samples. We anticipate that the GBM-specific thermodynamic signature will provide a critical translational tool in better characterizing cancer types and in the development of future therapeutics for GBM.

  3. Cloud Surprises in Moving NASA EOSDIS Applications into Amazon Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlin, Brett

    2017-01-01

    NASA ESDIS has been moving a variety of data ingest, distribution, and science data processing applications into a cloud environment over the last 2 years. As expected, there have been a number of challenges in migrating primarily on-premises applications into a cloud-based environment, related to architecture and taking advantage of cloud-based services. What was not expected is a number of issues that were beyond purely technical application re-architectures. We ran into surprising network policy limitations, billing challenges in a government-based cost model, and difficulty in obtaining certificates in an NASA security-compliant manner. On the other hand, this approach has allowed us to move a number of applications from local hosting to the cloud in a matter of hours (yes, hours!!), and our CMR application now services 95% of granule searches and an astonishing 99% of all collection searches in under a second. And most surprising of all, well, you'll just have to wait and see the realization that caught our entire team off guard!

  4. A Large Scale Biorational Approach Using Bacillus thuringiensis israeliensis (Strain AM65-52 for Managing Aedes aegypti Populations to Prevent Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Pruszynski

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti is a container-inhabiting mosquito and a vector of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. In 2009 several cases of autochthonous dengue transmission were reported in Key West, Florida, USA prompting a comprehensive response to control A. aegypti. In Key West, larvae of this mosquito develop in containers around human habitations which can be numerous and labor intensive to find and treat. Aerial applications of larvicide covering large areas in a short time can be an efficient and economical method to control A. aegypti. Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti is a bacterial larvicide which is highly target specific and appropriate for wide area spraying over urban areas, but to date, there are no studies that evaluate aerial spraying of Bti to control container mosquitoes like A. aegypti.This paper examines the effectiveness of aerial larvicide applications using VectoBac® WG, a commercially available Bti formulation, for A. aegypti control in an urban setting in the USA. Droplet characteristics and spray drop deposition were evaluated in Key West, Florida, USA. The mortality of A. aegypti in containers placed under canopy in an urban environment was also evaluated. Efficacy of multiple larvicide applications on adult female A. aegypti population reduction was compared between an untreated control and treatment site.Droplet characteristics showed that small droplets can penetrate through dense canopy to reach small containers. VectoBac WG droplets reached small containers under heavy canopy in sufficient amounts to cause > 55% mortality on all application days and >90% mortality on 3 of 5 application days while controls had 50%. Aerial larvicide applications using VectoBac WG can cover wide areas in a short period of time and can be effective in controlling A. aegypti and reducing A. aegypti-borne transmission in urban areas similar to Key West, Florida, USA.

  5. Falling in the elderly: Do statistical models matter for performance criteria of fall prediction? Results from two large population-based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabeshova, Anastasiia; Launay, Cyrille P; Gromov, Vasilii A; Fantino, Bruno; Levinoff, Elise J; Allali, Gilles; Beauchet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    To compare performance criteria (i.e., sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, area under receiver operating characteristic curve and accuracy) of linear and non-linear statistical models for fall risk in older community-dwellers. Participants were recruited in two large population-based studies, "Prévention des Chutes, Réseau 4" (PCR4, n=1760, cross-sectional design, retrospective collection of falls) and "Prévention des Chutes Personnes Agées" (PCPA, n=1765, cohort design, prospective collection of falls). Six linear statistical models (i.e., logistic regression, discriminant analysis, Bayes network algorithm, decision tree, random forest, boosted trees), three non-linear statistical models corresponding to artificial neural networks (multilayer perceptron, genetic algorithm and neuroevolution of augmenting topologies [NEAT]) and the adaptive neuro fuzzy interference system (ANFIS) were used. Falls ≥1 characterizing fallers and falls ≥2 characterizing recurrent fallers were used as outcomes. Data of studies were analyzed separately and together. NEAT and ANFIS had better performance criteria compared to other models. The highest performance criteria were reported with NEAT when using PCR4 database and falls ≥1, and with both NEAT and ANFIS when pooling data together and using falls ≥2. However, sensitivity and specificity were unbalanced. Sensitivity was higher than specificity when identifying fallers, whereas the converse was found when predicting recurrent fallers. Our results showed that NEAT and ANFIS were non-linear statistical models with the best performance criteria for the prediction of falls but their sensitivity and specificity were unbalanced, underscoring that models should be used respectively for the screening of fallers and the diagnosis of recurrent fallers. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Associations between seasonal meteorological conditions and the daily step count of adults in Yokohama, Japan: Results of year-round pedometer measurements in a large population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihiro Hino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available People's year-round interpersonal step count variations according to meteorological conditions are not fully understood, because complete year-round data from a sufficient sample of the general population are difficult to acquire. This study examined the associations between meteorological conditions and objectively measured step counts using year-round data collected from a large cohort (N=24,625 in Yokohama, Japan from April 2015 to March 2016.Two-piece linear regression analysis was used to examine the associations between the monthly median daily step count and three meteorological indices (mean values of temperature, temperature-humidity index (THI, and net effective temperature (NET.The number of steps per day peaked at temperatures between 19.4 and 20.7°C. At lower temperatures, the increase in steps per day was between 46.4 and 52.5 steps per 1°C increase. At temperatures higher than those at which step counts peaked, the decrease in steps per day was between 98.0 and 187.9 per 1°C increase. Furthermore, these effects were more obvious in elderly than non-elderly persons in both sexes. A similar tendency was seen when using THI and NET instead of temperature. Among the three meteorological indices, the highest R2 value with step counts was observed with THI in all four groups.Both high and low meteorological indices discourage people from walking and higher values of the indices adversely affect step count more than lower values, particularly among the elderly. Among the three indices assessed, THI best explains the seasonal fluctuations in step counts. Keywords: Elderly, Developed countries, Health policy, Humidity, Linear regression, Physical activity, Temperature

  7. Identification of rare recurrent copy number variants in high-risk autism families and their prevalence in a large ASD population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nori Matsunami

    Full Text Available Structural variation is thought to play a major etiological role in the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, and numerous studies documenting the relevance of copy number variants (CNVs in ASD have been published since 2006. To determine if large ASD families harbor high-impact CNVs that may have broader impact in the general ASD population, we used the Affymetrix genome-wide human SNP array 6.0 to identify 153 putative autism-specific CNVs present in 55 individuals with ASD from 9 multiplex ASD pedigrees. To evaluate the actual prevalence of these CNVs as well as 185 CNVs reportedly associated with ASD from published studies many of which are insufficiently powered, we designed a custom Illumina array and used it to interrogate these CNVs in 3,000 ASD cases and 6,000 controls. Additional single nucleotide variants (SNVs on the array identified 25 CNVs that we did not detect in our family studies at the standard SNP array resolution. After molecular validation, our results demonstrated that 15 CNVs identified in high-risk ASD families also were found in two or more ASD cases with odds ratios greater than 2.0, strengthening their support as ASD risk variants. In addition, of the 25 CNVs identified using SNV probes on our custom array, 9 also had odds ratios greater than 2.0, suggesting that these CNVs also are ASD risk variants. Eighteen of the validated CNVs have not been reported previously in individuals with ASD and three have only been observed once. Finally, we confirmed the association of 31 of 185 published ASD-associated CNVs in our dataset with odds ratios greater than 2.0, suggesting they may be of clinical relevance in the evaluation of children with ASDs. Taken together, these data provide strong support for the existence and application of high-impact CNVs in the clinical genetic evaluation of children with ASD.

  8. A comparative study teaching chemistry using the 5E learning cycle and traditional teaching with a large English language population in a middle-school setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWright, Cynthia Nicole

    For decades science educators and educational institutions have been concerned with the status of science content being taught in K-12 schools and the delivery of the content. Thus, educational reformers in the United States continue to strive to solve the problem on how to best teach science for optimal success in learning. The constructivist movement has been at the forefront of this effort. With mandatory testing nationwide and an increase in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) jobs with little workforce to fulfill these needs, the question of what to teach and how to teach science remains a concern among educators and all stakeholders. The purpose of this research was to determine if students' chemistry knowledge and interest can be increased by using the 5E learning cycle in a middle school with a high population of English language learners. The participants were eighth-grade middle school students in a large metropolitan area. Students participated in a month-long chemistry unit. The study was a quantitative, quasi-experimental design with a control group using a traditional lecture-style teaching strategy and an experimental group using the 5E learning cycle. Students completed a pre-and post-student attitude in science surveys, a pretest/posttest for each mini-unit taught and completed daily exit tickets using the Expert Science Teaching Educational Evaluation Model (ESTEEM) instrument to measure daily student outcomes in main idea, student inquiry, and relevancy. Analysis of the data showed that there was no statistical difference between the two groups overall, and all students experienced a gain in content knowledge overall. All students demonstrated a statistically significant difference in their interest in science class, activities in science class, and outside of school. Data also showed that scores in writing the main idea and writing inquiry questions about the content increased over time.

  9. Enhancing Diversity In The Geosciences; Intensive Field Experience In USA And Mexico For Middle And High School Teachers Serving Large Hispanic Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Bautista, R. M.; Kitts, K. B.; Velazquez Oliman, G.; Perry, E. C.

    2008-12-01

    To encourage Hispanic participation and enrolment in the geosciences and ultimately enhance diversity within the discipline, we recruited ten middle and high school science teachers serving large Hispanic populations (60-97%) for a paid three-week field experience supported by an NSF Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences grant. In 2006, the field experiences focused on volcanic events and the water problems of the Central part of Mexico. In 2008, the field experiences focused on karstic and hydrogeological conditions of the Yucatan Peninsula. In addition to the geological aspects of the fieldwork experience, the trip to Mexico exposed the teachers to a social environment outside of their community where they interacted with a diverse group of scientists from the Universidad National Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Centro de Investigacion Cientifica de Yucatan (CICY) and Centro Nacional de Desastres (CENAPRED). A key part of this project was the encounter between American and Mexican teachers that included a day of presentations, panel discussion and some class-room activities. Direct interaction between the cooperating teachers and the American and Mexican geoscientists provided actual scientific research experiences to educate and to help dispel misconceptions the teachers themselves may have had about who geoscientists really are and what they do. Teachers of the 2006 group produced educational materials from their field experiences and presented these materials at professional conferences. We measured the efficacy of these activities quantitatively via pre- and post-tests assessing confidence levels, preconceptions and biases, NIU staff observations of participants in their home institutions, and evaluations of participants' field books and pedagogical materials. We present these data here and identify specific activities that are both effective and efficient in changing teacher behaviours and attitudes enabling them to better connect with their

  10. A Large Scale Biorational Approach Using Bacillus thuringiensis israeliensis (Strain AM65-52) for Managing Aedes aegypti Populations to Prevent Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruszynski, Catherine A; Hribar, Lawrence J; Mickle, Robert; Leal, Andrea L

    2017-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is a container-inhabiting mosquito and a vector of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. In 2009 several cases of autochthonous dengue transmission were reported in Key West, Florida, USA prompting a comprehensive response to control A. aegypti. In Key West, larvae of this mosquito develop in containers around human habitations which can be numerous and labor intensive to find and treat. Aerial applications of larvicide covering large areas in a short time can be an efficient and economical method to control A. aegypti. Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) is a bacterial larvicide which is highly target specific and appropriate for wide area spraying over urban areas, but to date, there are no studies that evaluate aerial spraying of Bti to control container mosquitoes like A. aegypti. This paper examines the effectiveness of aerial larvicide applications using VectoBac® WG, a commercially available Bti formulation, for A. aegypti control in an urban setting in the USA. Droplet characteristics and spray drop deposition were evaluated in Key West, Florida, USA. The mortality of A. aegypti in containers placed under canopy in an urban environment was also evaluated. Efficacy of multiple larvicide applications on adult female A. aegypti population reduction was compared between an untreated control and treatment site. Droplet characteristics showed that small droplets can penetrate through dense canopy to reach small containers. VectoBac WG droplets reached small containers under heavy canopy in sufficient amounts to cause > 55% mortality on all application days and >90% mortality on 3 of 5 application days while controls had treated sites was >50%. Aerial larvicide applications using VectoBac WG can cover wide areas in a short period of time and can be effective in controlling A. aegypti and reducing A. aegypti-borne transmission in urban areas similar to Key West, Florida, USA.

  11. Assessment of prognostic value of semiquantitative parameters on gated single photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in a large middle eastern population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavoshi, Maryam; Fard-Esfahani, Armaghan; Fallahi, Babak; Emami-Ardekani, Alireza; Beiki, Davood; Hassanzadeh-Rad, Arman; Eftekhari, Mohammad

    2005-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. The goal of this study is to determine the prognostic value of semiquantitative parameters of electrocardiogram-gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in a large Middle Eastern (Iranian) population. This study was a prospective study including all patients referred to our center for myocardial perfusion scan. The patients were followed annually up to 24 months and their survival information was collected. From 1148 patients, 473 (41.2%) men and 675 (58.8%) women, 40.6% had normal MPI, 13.3% near normal and 46.1% abnormal MPI. After follow-up of 929 patients, 97.4% of patients were alive, and 2.6% succumbed to cardiac deaths. Abnormal ejection fraction was related with cardiac events (P = 0.001), but neither transient ischemic dilation (TID) (P = 0.09) nor lung/heart ratio (P = 0.92) showed such relationship. Association between summed difference score (SDS) and soft cardiac events (P < 0.001) was significant. Summed motion score (SMS) and summed thickening score (STS) showed a significant relation with hard cardiac events, including myocardial infarction and cardiac death (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). Totally, risk of all cardiac events was significantly higher in abnormal MPI group than normal group (P < 0.001, 0.02, and 0.025, respectively). No significant relationship was found between TID and total cardiac events (P = 0.478). Semiquantitative variables derived from gated SPECT MPI have independent prognostic value. Rate of total cardiac events is higher in patients with higher summed stress score and SDS. Total and hard cardiac events are higher in upper scores of functional parameters (SMS and STS). Total cardiac events are higher in patients with lower left ventricular ejection fraction

  12. What are key factors influencing malnutrition screening in community-dwelling elderly populations by general practitioners? A large cross-sectional survey in two areas of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaboreau, Y; Imbert, P; Jacquet, J-P; Marchand, O; Couturier, P; Gavazzi, G

    2013-11-01

    Malnutrition is associated with a high morbi-mortality in elderly populations and their institutionalization at an early stage. The incidence is well known despite being often under-diagnosed in primary care. General practitioners (GPs) have a key role in home care. What are the factors affecting malnutrition-screening implementation by French GPs? We conducted a cross-sectional survey in two areas in the southeast of France (Savoie and Isère). In May 2008, an anonymized survey was sent by e-mail and/or post to all GPs with a large clinical practice. Two months later, reminder letters were sent. Potential barriers were measured by dichotomous scale. On GPs' characteristics (socio-demographic, medical training, geriatric practice and knowledge), multiple regression logistic was performed to identify others factors affecting malnutrition screening. In all, 493 GPs (26.85%) answered and 72.2% felt that malnutrition screening was useful although only 26.6% implemented it each year and 11.9% every 2-5 years. The main barriers to the implementation were patient selection (60.4%) and forgetting to screen (26.6%). Minor barriers were lack of knowledge (19.5%) or time (15%). New factors were identified: unsuitable working conditions (19.1%), insufficient motivation (6.8%) or technical support (7.2%). The quality of malnutrition information received was found to be the only promoter of annual screening (odds ratio=1.44 (1.087-1.919); P=0.011). This survey is the first in France to reveal GPs' factors affecting malnutrition implementation. New obstacles were identified in this survey. The hope of implementing regular malnutrition screening by GPs seems to lie with the quality of malnutrition information received.

  13. Ethnic differences in maternal dietary patterns are largely explained by socio-economic score and integration score: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Christine; Sletner, Line; Jenum, Anne K; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Andersen, Lene F; Birkeland, Kåre I; Mosdøl, Annhild

    2013-01-01

    The impact of socio-economic position and integration level on the observed ethnic differences in dietary habits has received little attention. To identify and describe dietary patterns in a multi-ethnic population of pregnant women, to explore ethnic differences in odds ratio (OR) for belonging to a dietary pattern, when adjusted for socio-economic status and integration level and to examine whether the dietary patterns were reflected in levels of biomarkers related to obesity and hyperglycaemia. This cross-sectional study was a part of the STORK Groruddalen study. In total, 757 pregnant women, of whom 59% were of a non-Western origin, completed a food frequency questionnaire in gestational week 28±2. Dietary patterns were extracted through cluster analysis using Ward's method. Four robust clusters were identified where cluster 4 was considered the healthier dietary pattern and cluster 1 the least healthy. All non-European women as compared to Europeans had higher OR for belonging to the unhealthier dietary patterns 1-3 vs. cluster 4. Women from the Middle East and Africa had the highest OR, 21.5 (95% CI 10.6-43.7), of falling into cluster 1 vs. 4 as compared to Europeans. The ORs decreased substantially after adjusting for socio-economic score and integration score. A non-European ethnic origin, low socio-economic and integration scores, conduced higher OR for belonging to clusters 1, 2, and 3 as compared to cluster 4. Significant differences in fasting and 2-h glucose, fasting insulin, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and total cholesterol were observed across the dietary patterns. After adjusting for ethnicity, differences in fasting insulin (p=0.015) and HOMA-IR (p=0.040) across clusters remained significant, despite low power. The results indicate that socio-economic and integration level may explain a large proportion of the ethnic differences in dietary patterns.

  14. Observed Differences between Males and Females in Surgically Treated Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Among Non-manual Workers: A Sensitivity Analysis of Findings from a Large Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farioli, Andrea; Curti, Stefania; Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Baldasseroni, Alberto; Spatari, Giovanna; Mattioli, Stefano; Violante, Francesco Saverio

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objectives We aimed at assessing whether differences among males and females in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) epidemiology might be attributable to segregation with respect to occupational biomechanical exposures or differential access to care by sex. Methods We analysed surgically treated cases of CTS occurring among non-manual workers in Tuscany between 1997 and 2000. We conducted a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the difference in occupational biomechanical exposures between males and females necessary to explain the observed incidence rate ratios. We also accounted for the sex-specific probability of receiving surgery after the diagnosis of CTS, as women were reported to be more likely to undergo surgery in a subset of our study population. We quantified the hypothetical biomechanical overload through the hand activity level (HAL) metric proposed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. To quantify the effect of HAL on CTS risk, we assumed a prior distribution based on findings from two large cohort studies of industrial workers. Results After adjustment for the probability of receiving surgery, women showed a 4-fold incidence of CTS as compared with men. To explain this association among non-manual workers, women should have an average value of HAL at least 5 points higher. Conclusions Our analysis does not support the hypothesis that the difference in CTS incidence between males and females is entirely attributable to occupational risk factors or to differential access to surgery. The causal pathway between sex and CTS might include more determinants such as hormonal factors, anthropometric characteristics, and non-occupational exposure to biomechanical overload (e.g. household tasks). PMID:29579135

  15. A Large Scale Biorational Approach Using Bacillus thuringiensis israeliensis (Strain AM65-52) for Managing Aedes aegypti Populations to Prevent Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruszynski, Catherine A.; Hribar, Lawrence J.; Mickle, Robert; Leal, Andrea L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti is a container-inhabiting mosquito and a vector of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. In 2009 several cases of autochthonous dengue transmission were reported in Key West, Florida, USA prompting a comprehensive response to control A. aegypti. In Key West, larvae of this mosquito develop in containers around human habitations which can be numerous and labor intensive to find and treat. Aerial applications of larvicide covering large areas in a short time can be an efficient and economical method to control A. aegypti. Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) is a bacterial larvicide which is highly target specific and appropriate for wide area spraying over urban areas, but to date, there are no studies that evaluate aerial spraying of Bti to control container mosquitoes like A. aegypti. Methodology This paper examines the effectiveness of aerial larvicide applications using VectoBac® WG, a commercially available Bti formulation, for A. aegypti control in an urban setting in the USA. Droplet characteristics and spray drop deposition were evaluated in Key West, Florida, USA. The mortality of A. aegypti in containers placed under canopy in an urban environment was also evaluated. Efficacy of multiple larvicide applications on adult female A. aegypti population reduction was compared between an untreated control and treatment site. Conclusions Droplet characteristics showed that small droplets can penetrate through dense canopy to reach small containers. VectoBac WG droplets reached small containers under heavy canopy in sufficient amounts to cause > 55% mortality on all application days and >90% mortality on 3 of 5 application days while controls had 50%. Aerial larvicide applications using VectoBac WG can cover wide areas in a short period of time and can be effective in controlling A. aegypti and reducing A. aegypti-borne transmission in urban areas similar to Key West, Florida, USA. PMID:28199323

  16. Both stimulatory and inhibitory effects of dietary 5-hydroxytryptophan and tyrosine are found on urinary excretion of serotonin and dopamine in a large human population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J Trachte

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available George J Trachte1, Thomas Uncini2, Marty Hinz31Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of MN Medical School Duluth, Duluth, MN, USA; 2Chief Medical Examiner, St. Louis County, Hibbing, MN, USA; 3Clinical Research, NeuroResearch Clinics, Inc., Duluth, MN, USA Abstract: Amino acid precursors of dopamine and serotonin have been administered for decades to treat a variety of clinical conditions including depression, anxiety, insomnia, obesity, and a host of other illnesses. Dietary administration of these amino acids is designed to increase dopamine and serotonin levels within the body, particularly the brain. Convincing evidence exists that these precursors normally elevate dopamine and serotonin levels within critical brain tissues and other organs. However, their effects on urinary excretion of neurotransmitters are described in few studies and the results appear equivocal. The purpose of this study was to define, as precisely as possible, the influence of both 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP and tyrosine on urinary excretion of serotonin and dopamine in a large human population consuming both 5-HTP and tyrosine. Curiously, only 5-HTP exhibited a marginal stimulatory influence on urinary serotonin excretion when 5-HTP doses were compared to urinary serotonin excretion; however, a robust relationship was observed when alterations in 5-HTP dose were compared to alterations in urinary serotonin excretion in individual patients. The data indicate three statistically discernible components to 5-HTP responses, including inverse, direct, and no relationships between urinary serotonin excretion and 5-HTP doses. The response to tyrosine was more consistent but primarily yielded an unexpected reduction in urinary dopamine excretion. These data indicate that the urinary excretion pattern of neurotransmitters after consumption of their precursors is far more complex than previously appreciated. These data on urinary neurotransmitter excretion might

  17. Heterozygosity in an isolated population of a large mammal founded by four individuals is predicted by an individual-based genetic model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaana Kekkonen

    Full Text Available Within-population genetic diversity is expected to be dramatically reduced if a population is founded by a low number of individuals. Three females and one male white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus, a North American species, were successfully introduced in Finland in 1934 and the population has since been growing rapidly, but remained in complete isolation from other populations.Based on 14 microsatellite loci, the expected heterozygosity H was 0.692 with a mean allelic richness (AR of 5.36, which was significantly lower than what was found in Oklahoma, U.S.A. (H = 0.742; AR = 9.07, demonstrating that a bottleneck occurred. Observed H was in line with predictions from an individual-based model where the genealogy of the males and females in the population were tracked and the population's demography was included.Our findings provide a rare within-population empirical test of the founder effect and suggest that founding a population by a small number of individuals need not have a dramatic impact on heterozygosity in an iteroparous species.

  18. Use of a Web-based physical activity record system to analyze behavior in a large population: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, Hideyuki; Yamada, Yosuke; Ishida, Mika; Takase, Hideto; Kimura, Misaka

    2015-03-19

    The use of Web-based physical activity systems has been proposed as an easy method for collecting physical activity data. We have developed a system that has exhibited high accuracy as assessed by the doubly labeled water method. The purpose of this study was to collect behavioral data from a large population using our Web-based physical activity record system and assess the physical activity of the population based on these data. In this paper, we address the difference in physical activity for each urban scale. In total, 2046 participants (aged 30-59 years; 1105 men and 941 women) participated in the study. They were asked to complete data entry before bedtime using their personal computer on 1 weekday and 1 weekend day. Their residential information was categorized as urban, urban-rural, or rural. Participant responses expressed the intensity of each activity at 15-minute increments and were recorded on a Web server. Residential areas were compared and multiple regression analysis was performed. Most participants had a metabolic equivalent (MET) ranging from 1.4 to 1.8, and the mean MET was 1.60 (SD 0.28). The median value of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, ≥3 MET) was 7.92 MET-hours/day. A 1-way ANCOVA showed that total physical activity differed depending on the type of residential area (F2,2027=5.19, P=.006). The urban areas (n=950) had the lowest MET-hours/day (mean 37.8, SD, 6.0), followed by urban-rural areas (n=432; mean 38.6, SD 6.5; P=.04), and rural areas (n=664; mean 38.8, SD 7.4; P=.002). Two-way ANCOVA showed a significant interaction between sex and area of residence on the urban scale (F2,2036=4.53, P=.01). Men in urban areas had the lowest MET-hours/day (MVPA, ≥3 MET) at mean 7.9 (SD 8.7); men in rural areas had a MET-hours/day (MVPA, ≥3 MET) of mean 10.8 (SD 12.1, P=.002). No significant difference was noted in women among the 3 residential areas. Multiple regression analysis showed that physical activity consisting of

  19. Large differences in incidences of overt hyper- and hypothyroidism associated with a small difference in iodine intake: A prospective comparative register-based population survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, I.B.; Knudsen, N.; Jorgensen, T.

    2002-01-01

    Around 3-4 billion people in the world are covered by iodine supplementation programs to prevent developmental brain damage and other iodine deficiency (ID) disorders. Mild ID is associated with more hyperthyroidism and less hypothyroidism in the population than a high iodine intake. Knowledge...... that iodine supplementation of a population may increase the incidence of overt hypothyroidism, even if the population is moderately iodine-deficient. In such a population, the increase in risk of hypothyroidism should be weighed against the risk of ID disorders such as hyperthyroidism due to multinodular...... of the iodine intake levels where the shifts in incidences occur is important for planning of iodine supplementation programs. A computer-based register linked to thyroid diagnostic laboratories was used to continuously identify all new cases of overt hyper- and hypothyroidism in two population cohorts...

  20. Vascular legacy: HOPE ADVANCEs to EMPA-REG and LEADER: A Surprising similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently reported cardiovascular outcome studies on empagliflozin (EMPA-REG and liraglutide (LEADER have spurred interest in this field of diabetology. This commentary compares and contrasts these studies with two equally important outcome trials conducted using blood pressure lowering agents. A comparison with MICROHOPE (using ramipril and ADVANCE (using perindopril + indapamide blood pressure arms throws up interesting facts. The degree of blood pressure lowering, dissociation between cardiovascular and cerebrovascular benefits, and discordance between renal and retinal outcomes are surprisingly similar in these trials, conducted using disparate molecules. The time taken to achieve such benefits is similar for all drugs except empagliflozin. Such discussion helps inform rational and evidence-based choice of therapy and forms the framework for future research.

  1. Probing Critical Point Energies of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Surprising Indirect Gap of Single Layer WSe 2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chendong

    2015-09-21

    By using a comprehensive form of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have revealed detailed quasi-particle electronic structures in transition metal dichalcogenides, including the quasi-particle gaps, critical point energy locations, and their origins in the Brillouin zones. We show that single layer WSe surprisingly has an indirect quasi-particle gap with the conduction band minimum located at the Q-point (instead of K), albeit the two states are nearly degenerate. We have further observed rich quasi-particle electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of atomic structures and spin-orbit couplings. Such a local probe for detailed electronic structures in conduction and valence bands will be ideal to investigate how electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides are influenced by variations of local environment.

  2. Probing Critical Point Energies of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Surprising Indirect Gap of Single Layer WSe 2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chendong; Chen, Yuxuan; Johnson, Amber; Li, Ming-yang; Li, Lain-Jong; Mende, Patrick C.; Feenstra, Randall M.; Shih, Chih Kang

    2015-01-01

    By using a comprehensive form of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have revealed detailed quasi-particle electronic structures in transition metal dichalcogenides, including the quasi-particle gaps, critical point energy locations, and their origins in the Brillouin zones. We show that single layer WSe surprisingly has an indirect quasi-particle gap with the conduction band minimum located at the Q-point (instead of K), albeit the two states are nearly degenerate. We have further observed rich quasi-particle electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of atomic structures and spin-orbit couplings. Such a local probe for detailed electronic structures in conduction and valence bands will be ideal to investigate how electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides are influenced by variations of local environment.

  3. Retrospective evaluation of focal hypermetabolic thyroid nodules incidentally identified by 18F-FDG PET/CT in a large population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Zhiwei; Xu Baixuan; Chen Yingmao; Zhang Jinming; Tian Jiahe

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of focal hypermetabolic thyroid nodules incidentally detected by 18 F-FDG PET/CT in a relatively large population and explore its value in differentiating malignancy from benign thyroid nodules. Methods: During August 2007 to March 2010, 8463 patients with no history of thyroid cancer or thyroidectomy underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT. Among them, 145 patients were found to have abnormal hypermetabolic thyroid nodules. Sixty-eight patients were conformed with histopathological or clinical follow-up, including 37 with malignancy and 31 with benign nodules (male 21, female 47, average age (53.66 ± 10.85)y). The SUV max , nodule size, single or multiple nodules, with or without calcification and patient's age were chosen as the parameters for predicting malignancy in hypermetabolic thyroid nodules. Univariate analysis was performed using t test, χ 2 test and Fisher exact test. Binary logistic regression was performed for multi-variate analysis. The AUCs of SUV max and logistic regression analysis were compared. Results: The incidence of focal hypermetabolic thyroid nodules was 1.71% (145/8463), with malignancy rate 54.41% (37/68). The SUV max of benign and malignant nodules were 5.13 ±4.02 and 7.61 ± 4.78, respectively (t=2.235, P=0.029). Logistic regression indicated that SUV max , with or without calcification, single or multiple nodules, nodule size and patient's age were all the predictors for malignancy in hypermetabolic thyroid nodules. The AUC of logistic regressive model (AUC L ) and SUV max (AUC S )were 0.878 ±0.043 (95% CI: 0.793-0.962, P<0.05) and 0.694 ±0.067 (95% CI: 0.562-0.825, P<0.05), respectively (P<0.05). Conclusions: Focal hypermetabolic thyroid nodules incidentally identified by 18 F-FDG PET/CT come with high rate of thyroid malignancy. Differential diagnosis could be improved significantly using SUV max and logistic regressive model aided by other parameters from 18 F-FDG PET/CT as well as patient

  4. Pet exposure in utero and postnatal decreases the effects of air pollutants on hypertension in children: A large population based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Wayne R; Yang, Mo; Lin, Shao; Wang, Si-Quan; Liu, Yimin; Ma, Huimin; Chen, Duo-Hong; Yang, Bo-Yi; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Hu, Li-Wen; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2018-07-01

    The effect of ambient air pollution exposure on childhood hypertension has emerged as a concern in China, and previous studies suggested pet ownership is associated with lower blood pressure (BP). However, limited information exists on the interactive effects pet ownership and air pollution exposure has on hypertension. We investigated the interactions between exposure to pet ownership and air pollutants on hypertension in Chinese children. 9354 students in twenty-four elementary and middle schools (aged 5-17 years) in Northeastern China were evaluated during 2012-2013. Four-year average concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of ≤10 μm (PM 10 ), SO 2 , NO 2 , and O 3 , were collected in the 24 districts from 2009 to 2012. Hypertension was defined as average diastolic or systolic BP (three time measurements) in the 95th percentile or higher based on height, age, and sex. To examine effects, two-level regression analysis was used, controlling covariates. Consistent interactions between exposure to pet and air pollutants were observed. Compared to children exposed to pet, those not exposed exhibited consistently stronger effects of air pollution. The highest odds ratios (ORs) per 30.6 μg/m 3 increase in PM 10 were 1.79 (95%confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.29-2.50) in children without current pet exposure compared to 1.24 (95%CI: 0.85-1.82) in children with current pet exposure. As for BP, only O 3 had an interaction for all exposure to pet ownership types, and showed lower BP in children exposed to pet. The increases in mean diastolic BP per 46.3 μg/m 3 increase in O 3 were 0.60  mmHg (95%CI: 0.21, 0.48) in children without pet exposure in utero compared with 0.34  mmHg (95%CI: 0.21, 0.48) in their counterparts. When stratified by age, pet exposure was more protective among younger children. In conclusion, in this large population-based cohort, pet ownership is associated with smaller associations between air pollution and

  5. Variation of skin surface pH, sebum content and stratum corneum hydration with age and gender in a large Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, M Q; Xin, S J; Song, S P; Cho, S Y; Zhang, X J; Tu, C X; Feingold, K R; Elias, P M

    2009-01-01

    Evidence suggests the importance of skin biophysical properties in predicting diseases and in developing appropriate skin care. The results to date of studies on skin surface pH, stratum corneum (SC) hydration and sebum content in both genders and at various ages have been inconclusive, which was in part due to small sample size. Additionally, little is known about the skin physical properties of Asian, especially Chinese, subjects. In the present study, we assess the difference in skin surface pH, sebum content and SC hydration at various ages and in both genders in a large Chinese population without skin diseases. 713 subjects (328 males and 385 females) aged 0.5-94 years were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided by age into 5 groups, i.e., 0-12, 13-35, 36-50, 51-70 and over 70 years old. A multifunctional skin physiology monitor was used to measure SC hydration, skin surface pH and sebum content on both the forehead and the forearms. In males, the highest sebum content was found on the forearm and the forehead in the age groups 36-50 (93.47 +/- 10.01 microg/cm(2)) and 51-70 years (9.16 +/- 1.95 microg/cm(2)), while in females, the highest sebum content was found on the forearm and the forehead in the age groups 13-35 (61.91 +/- 6.12 microg/cm(2)) and 51-70 years (7.54 +/- 2.55 microg/cm(2)). The forehead sebum content was higher in males aged 13-70 years than in age-matched females; the sebum content on the forehead in both males and females was higher than that on the forearm. Skin surface pH on the forehead of both males and females over the age of 70 years was higher than that in younger groups. SC hydration on the forehead in both males and females was lower above the age of 70, and the one in males aged 13-35 was higher than that in females (43.99 +/- 1.88 vs. 36.38 +/- 1.67 AU, p pH, sebum content and SC hydration vary with age, gender and body site. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. THE MASS-LOSS RETURN FROM EVOLVED STARS TO THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. VI. LUMINOSITIES AND MASS-LOSS RATES ON POPULATION SCALES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riebel, D.; Meixner, M.; Srinivasan, S.; Sargent, B.

    2012-01-01

    We present results from the first application of the Grid of Red Supergiant and Asymptotic Giant Branch ModelS (GRAMS) model grid to the entire evolved stellar population of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). GRAMS is a pre-computed grid of 80,843 radiative transfer models of evolved stars and circumstellar dust shells composed of either silicate or carbonaceous dust. We fit GRAMS models to ∼30,000 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and red supergiant (RSG) stars in the LMC, using 12 bands of photometry from the optical to the mid-infrared. Our published data set consists of thousands of evolved stars with individually determined evolutionary parameters such as luminosity and mass-loss rate. The GRAMS grid has a greater than 80% accuracy rate discriminating between oxygen- and carbon-rich chemistry. The global dust injection rate to the interstellar medium (ISM) of the LMC from RSGs and AGB stars is on the order of 2.1 × 10 –5 M ☉ yr –1 , equivalent to a total mass injection rate (including the gas) into the ISM of ∼6 × 10 –3 M ☉ yr –1 . Carbon stars inject two and a half times as much dust into the ISM as do O-rich AGB stars, but the same amount of mass. We determine a bolometric correction factor for C-rich AGB stars in the K s band as a function of J – K s color, BC K s = -0.40(J-K s ) 2 + 1.83(J-K s ) + 1.29. We determine several IR color proxies for the dust mass-loss rate (M-dot d ) from C-rich AGB stars, such as log M-dot d = (-18.90/((K s -[8.0])+3.37) - 5.93. We find that a larger fraction of AGB stars exhibiting the 'long-secondary period' phenomenon are more O-rich than stars dominated by radial pulsations, and AGB stars without detectable mass loss do not appear on either the first-overtone or fundamental-mode pulsation sequences.

  7. Real world costs and cost-effectiveness of Rituximab for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients: a population-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Sara; Beca, Jaclyn; Krahn, Murray; Hodgson, David; Lee, Linda; Crump, Michael; Bremner, Karen E; Luo, Jin; Mamdani, Muhammad; Bell, Chaim M; Sawka, Carol; Gavura, Scott; Sullivan, Terrence; Trudeau, Maureen; Peacock, Stuart; Hoch, Jeffrey S

    2014-08-12

    Current treatment of diffuse-large-B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) includes rituximab, an expensive drug, combined with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy. Economic models have predicted rituximab plus CHOP (RCHOP) to be a cost-effective alternative to CHOP alone as first-line treatment of DLBCL, but it remains unclear what its real-world costs and cost-effectiveness are in routine clinical practice. We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study from 1997 to 2007, using linked administrative databases in Ontario, Canada, to evaluate the costs and cost-effectiveness of RCHOP compared to CHOP alone. A historical control cohort (n = 1,099) with DLBCL who received CHOP before rituximab approval was hard-matched on age and treatment intensity and then propensity-score matched on sex, comorbidity, and histology to 1,099 RCHOP patients. All costs and outcomes were adjusted for censoring using the inverse probability weighting method. The main outcome measure was incremental cost per life-year gained (LYG). Rituximab was associated with a life expectancy increase of 3.2 months over 5 years at an additional cost of $16,298, corresponding to an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $61,984 (95% CI $34,087-$135,890) per LYG. The probability of being cost-effective was 90% if the willingness-to-pay threshold was $100,000/LYG. The cost-effectiveness ratio was most favourable for patients less than 60 years old ($31,800/LYG) but increased to $80,600/LYG for patients 60-79 years old and $110,100/LYG for patients ≥ 80 years old. We found that post-market survival benefits of rituximab are similar to or lower than those reported in clinical trials, while the costs, incremental costs and cost-effectiveness ratios are higher than in published economic models and differ by age. Our results showed that the addition of rituximab to standard CHOP chemotherapy was associated with improvement in survival but at a higher cost, and was

  8. Surprising judgments about robot drivers: Experiments on rising expectations and blaming humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Danielson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available N-Reasons is an experimental Internet survey platform designed to enhance public participation in applied ethics and policy. N-Reasons encourages individuals to generate reasons to support their judgments, and groups to converge on a common set of reasons pro and con various issues.  In the Robot Ethics Survey some of the reasons contributed surprising judgments about autonomous machines. Presented with a version of the trolley problem with an autonomous train as the agent, participants gave unexpected answers, revealing high expectations for the autonomous machine and shifting blame from the automated device to the humans in the scenario. Further experiments with a standard pair of human-only trolley problems refine these results. While showing the high expectations even when no autonomous machine is involved, human bystanders are only blamed in the machine case. A third experiment explicitly aimed at responsibility for driverless cars confirms our findings about shifting blame in the case of autonomous machine agents. We conclude methodologically that both results point to the power of an experimental survey based approach to public participation to explore surprising assumptions and judgments in applied ethics. However, both results also support using caution when interpreting survey results in ethics, demonstrating the importance of qualitative data to provide further context for evaluating judgments revealed by surveys. On the ethics side, the result about shifting blame to humans interacting with autonomous machines suggests caution about the unintended consequences of intuitive principles requiring human responsibility.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v9i1.1727

  9. How closely does genetic diversity in finite populations conform to predictions of neutral theory? Large deficits in regions of low recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankham, R

    2012-03-01

    Levels of genetic diversity in finite populations are crucial in conservation and evolutionary biology. Genetic diversity is required for populations to evolve and its loss is related to inbreeding in random mating populations, and thus to reduced population fitness and increased extinction risk. Neutral theory is widely used to predict levels of genetic diversity. I review levels of genetic diversity in finite populations in relation to predictions of neutral theory. Positive associations between genetic diversity and population size, as predicted by neutral theory, are observed for microsatellites, allozymes, quantitative genetic variation and usually for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). However, there are frequently significant deviations from neutral theory owing to indirect selection at linked loci caused by balancing selection, selective sweeps and background selection. Substantially lower genetic diversity than predicted under neutrality was found for chromosomes with low recombination rates and high linkage disequilibrium (compared with 'normally' recombining chromosomes within species and adjusted for different copy numbers and mutation rates), including W (median 100% lower) and Y (89% lower) chromosomes, dot fourth chromosomes in Drosophila (94% lower) and mtDNA (67% lower). Further, microsatellite genetic and allelic diversity were lost at 12 and 33% faster rates than expected in populations adapting to captivity, owing to widespread selective sweeps. Overall, neither neutral theory nor most versions of the genetic draft hypothesis are compatible with all empirical results.

  10. Imaginary populations

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Abraín, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    A few years ago, Camus & Lima (2002) wrote an essay to stimulate ecologists to think about how we define and use a fundamental concept in ecology: the population. They concluded, concurring with Berryman (2002), that a population is "a group of individuals of the same species that live together in an area of sufficient size to permit normal dispersal and/or migration behaviour and in which population changes are largely the results of birth and death processes". They pointed out that ecologis...

  11. The roles of large top predators in coastal ecosystems: new insights from long term ecological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Adam E.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Mather, Martha E.; Matich, Philip; Nifong, James C.; Ripple, William J.; Silliman, Brian R.

    2013-01-01

    During recent human history, human activities such as overhunting and habitat destruction have severely impacted many large top predator populations around the world. Studies from a variety of ecosystems show that loss or diminishment of top predator populations can have serious consequences for population and community dynamics and ecosystem stability. However, there are relatively few studies of the roles of large top predators in coastal ecosystems, so that we do not yet completely understand what could happen to coastal areas if large top predators are extirpated or significantly reduced in number. This lack of knowledge is surprising given that coastal areas around the globe are highly valued and densely populated by humans, and thus coastal large top predator populations frequently come into conflict with coastal human populations. This paper reviews what is known about the ecological roles of large top predators in coastal systems and presents a synthesis of recent work from three coastal eastern US Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites where long-term studies reveal what appear to be common themes relating to the roles of large top predators in coastal systems. We discuss three specific themes: (1) large top predators acting as mobile links between disparate habitats, (2) large top predators potentially affecting nutrient and biogeochemical dynamics through localized behaviors, and (3) individual specialization of large top predator behaviors. We also discuss how research within the LTER network has led to enhanced understanding of the ecological roles of coastal large top predators. Highlighting this work is intended to encourage further investigation of the roles of large top predators across diverse coastal aquatic habitats and to better inform researchers and ecosystem managers about the importance of large top predators for coastal ecosystem health and stability.

  12. Hillslope, river, and Mountain: some surprises in Landscape evolution (Ralph Alger Bagnold Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, G. E.

    2012-04-01

    Geomorphology, like the rest of geoscience, has always had two major themes: a quest to understand the earth's history and 'products' - its landscapes and seascapes - and, in parallel, a quest to understand its formative processes. This dualism is manifest in the remarkable career of R. A. Bagnold, who was inspired by landforms such as dunes, and dedicated to understanding the physical processes that shaped them. His legacy inspires us to emulate two principles at the heart of his contributions: the benefits of rooting geomorphic theory in basic physics, and the importance of understanding geomorphic systems in terms of simple equations framed around energy or force. Today, following Bagnold's footsteps, the earth-surface process community is engaged in a quest to build, test, and refine an ever-improving body of theory to describe our planet's surface and its evolution. In this lecture, I review a small sample of some of the fruits of that quest, emphasizing the value of surprises encountered along the way. The first example involves models of long-term river incision into bedrock. When the community began to grapple with how to represent this process mathematically, several different ideas emerged. Some were based on the assumption that sediment transport is the limiting factor; others assumed that hydraulic stress on rock is the key, while still others treated rivers as first-order 'reactors.' Thanks in part to advances in digital topography and numerical computing, the predictions of these models can be tested using natural-experiment case studies. Examples from the King Range, USA, the Central Apennines, Italy, and the fold-thrust belt of Taiwan, illustrate that independent knowledge of history and/or tectonics makes it possible to quantify how the rivers have responded to external forcing. Some interesting surprises emerge, such as: that the relief-uplift relationship can be highly nonlinear in a steady-state landscape because of grain-entrainment thresholds

  13. Cerebral metastasis masquerading as cerebritis: A case of misguiding history and radiological surprise!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral metastases usually have a characteristic radiological appearance. They can be differentiated rather easily from any infective etiology. Similarly, positive medical history also guides the neurosurgeon towards the possible diagnosis and adds to the diagnostic armamentarium. However, occasionally, similarities on imaging may be encountered where even history could lead us in the wrong direction and tends to bias the clinician. We report a case of a 40-year-old female with a history of mastoidectomy for otitis media presenting to us with a space occupying lesion in the right parietal region, which was thought pre-operatively as an abscess along with the cerebritis. Surprisingly, the histopathology proved it to be a metastatic adenocarcinoma. Hence, a ring enhancing lesion may be a high grade neoplasm/metastasis/abscess, significant gyral enhancement; a feature of cerebritis is not linked with a neoplastic etiology more often. This may lead to delayed diagnosis, incorrect prognostication and treatment in patients having coincidental suggestive history of infection. We review the literature and highlight the key points helping to differentiate an infective from a neoplastic pathology which may look similar at times.

  14. Beyond interests and institutions: US health policy reform and the surprising silence of big business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyrl, Marc E

    2014-02-01

    Interest-based arguments do not provide satisfying explanations for the surprising reticence of major US employers to take a more active role in the debate surrounding the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Through focused comparison with the Bismarckian systems of France and Germany, on the one hand, and with the 1950s and 1960s in the United States, on the other, this article concludes that while institutional elements do account for some of the observed behavior of big business, a necessary complement to this is a fuller understanding of the historically determined legitimating ideology of US firms. From the era of the "corporate commonwealth," US business inherited the principles of private welfare provision and of resistance to any expansion of government control. Once complementary, these principles are now mutually exclusive: employer-provided health insurance increasingly is possible only at the cost of ever-increasing government subsidy and regulation. Paralyzed by the uncertainty that followed from this clash of legitimate ideas, major employers found themselves unable to take a coherent and unified stand for or against the law. As a consequence, they failed either to oppose it successfully or to secure modifications to it that would have been useful to them.

  15. Surprise responses in the human brain demonstrate statistical learning under high concurrent cognitive demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Marta Isabel; Teng, Chee Leong James; Taylor, Jeremy Alexander; Rowe, Elise Genevieve; Mattingley, Jason Brett

    2016-06-01

    The ability to learn about regularities in the environment and to make predictions about future events is fundamental for adaptive behaviour. We have previously shown that people can implicitly encode statistical regularities and detect violations therein, as reflected in neuronal responses to unpredictable events that carry a unique prediction error signature. In the real world, however, learning about regularities will often occur in the context of competing cognitive demands. Here we asked whether learning of statistical regularities is modulated by concurrent cognitive load. We compared electroencephalographic metrics associated with responses to pure-tone sounds with frequencies sampled from narrow or wide Gaussian distributions. We showed that outliers evoked a larger response than those in the centre of the stimulus distribution (i.e., an effect of surprise) and that this difference was greater for physically identical outliers in the narrow than in the broad distribution. These results demonstrate an early neurophysiological marker of the brain's ability to implicitly encode complex statistical structure in the environment. Moreover, we manipulated concurrent cognitive load by having participants perform a visual working memory task while listening to these streams of sounds. We again observed greater prediction error responses in the narrower distribution under both low and high cognitive load. Furthermore, there was no reliable reduction in prediction error magnitude under high-relative to low-cognitive load. Our findings suggest that statistical learning is not a capacity limited process, and that it proceeds automatically even when cognitive resources are taxed by concurrent demands.

  16. Pseudohalide (SCN(-))-Doped MAPbI3 Perovskites: A Few Surprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Ansuman; Chulliyil, Ramya; Subbiah, Anand S; Khan, Tuhin; Chattoraj, Shyamtanu; Chowdhury, Arindam; Sarkar, Shaibal K

    2015-09-03

    Pseudohalide thiocyanate anion (SCN(-)) has been used as a dopant in a methylammonium lead tri-iodide (MAPbI3) framework, aiming for its use as an absorber layer for photovoltaic applications. The substitution of SCN(-) pseudohalide anion, as verified using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, results in a comprehensive effect on the optical properties of the original material. Photoluminescence measurements at room temperature reveal a significant enhancement in the emission quantum yield of MAPbI3-x(SCN)x as compared to MAPbI3, suggestive of suppression of nonradiative channels. This increased intensity is attributed to a highly edge specific emission from MAPbI3-x(SCN)x microcrystals as revealed by photoluminescence microscopy. Fluoresence lifetime imaging measurements further established contrasting carrier recombination dynamics for grain boundaries and the bulk of the doped material. Spatially resolved emission spectroscopy on individual microcrystals of MAPbI3-x(SCN)x reveals that the optical bandgap and density of states at various (local) nanodomains are also nonuniform. Surprisingly, several (local) emissive regions within MAPbI3-x(SCN)x microcrystals are found to be optically unstable under photoirradiation, and display unambiguous temporal intermittency in emission (blinking), which is extremely unusual and intriguing. We find diverse blinking behaviors for the undoped MAPbI3 crystals as well, which leads us to speculate that blinking may be a common phenomenon for most hybrid perovskite materials.

  17. From Lithium-Ion to Sodium-Ion Batteries: Advantages, Challenges, and Surprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Prasant Kumar; Yang, Liangtao; Brehm, Wolfgang; Adelhelm, Philipp

    2018-01-02

    Mobile and stationary energy storage by rechargeable batteries is a topic of broad societal and economical relevance. Lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology is at the forefront of the development, but a massively growing market will likely put severe pressure on resources and supply chains. Recently, sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have been reconsidered with the aim of providing a lower-cost alternative that is less susceptible to resource and supply risks. On paper, the replacement of lithium by sodium in a battery seems straightforward at first, but unpredictable surprises are often found in practice. What happens when replacing lithium by sodium in electrode reactions? This review provides a state-of-the art overview on the redox behavior of materials when used as electrodes in lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries, respectively. Advantages and challenges related to the use of sodium instead of lithium are discussed. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Effect of Temperature Shock and Inventory Surprises on Natural Gas and Heating Oil Futures Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, John Wei-Shan; Lin, Chien-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of temperature shock on both near-month and far-month natural gas and heating oil futures returns by extending the weather and storage models of the previous study. Several notable findings from the empirical studies are presented. First, the expected temperature shock significantly and positively affects both the near-month and far-month natural gas and heating oil futures returns. Next, significant temperature shock has effect on both the conditional mean and volatility of natural gas and heating oil prices. The results indicate that expected inventory surprises significantly and negatively affects the far-month natural gas futures returns. Moreover, volatility of natural gas futures returns is higher on Thursdays and that of near-month heating oil futures returns is higher on Wednesdays than other days. Finally, it is found that storage announcement for natural gas significantly affects near-month and far-month natural gas futures returns. Furthermore, both natural gas and heating oil futures returns are affected more by the weighted average temperature reported by multiple weather reporting stations than that reported by a single weather reporting station. PMID:25133233

  19. Surprises from the resolution of operator mixing in N=4 SYM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, Massimo; Rossi, Giancarlo; Stanev, Yassen S.

    2004-01-01

    We reexamine the problem of operator mixing in N=4 SYM. Particular attention is paid to the correct definition of composite gauge invariant local operators, which is necessary for the computation of their anomalous dimensions beyond lowest order. As an application we reconsider the case of operators with naive dimension Δ 0 =4, already studied in the literature. Stringent constraints from the resummation of logarithms in power behaviours are exploited and the role of the generalized N=4 Konishi anomaly in the mixing with operators involving fermions is discussed. A general method for the explicit (numerical) resolution of the operator mixing and the computation of anomalous dimensions is proposed. We then resolve the order g 2 mixing for the 15 (purely scalar) singlet operators of naive dimension Δ 0 =6. Rather surprisingly we find one isolated operator which has a vanishing anomalous dimension up to order g 4 , belonging to an apparently long multiplet. We also solve the order g 2 mixing for the 26 operators belonging to the representation 20' of SU(4). We find an operator with the same one-loop anomalous dimension as the Konishi multiplet

  20. Cycling to School Is Associated With Lower BMI and Lower Odds of Being Overweight or Obese in a Large Population-Based Study of Danish Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Grøntved, Anders; Bjørkelund Børrestad, Line Anita

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have been inconclusive concerning the effect of active transport on BMI. Our objective was to investigate the association between travel mode and BMI in a large community-based sample of Danish adolescents.......Previous studies have been inconclusive concerning the effect of active transport on BMI. Our objective was to investigate the association between travel mode and BMI in a large community-based sample of Danish adolescents....<