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Sample records for surprisingly large population

  1. Expectation and surprise determine neural population responses in the ventral visual stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egner, Tobias; Monti, Jim M; Summerfield, Christopher

    2010-12-08

    Visual cortex is traditionally viewed as a hierarchy of neural feature detectors, with neural population responses being driven by bottom-up stimulus features. Conversely, "predictive coding" models propose that each stage of the visual hierarchy harbors two computationally distinct classes of processing unit: representational units that encode the conditional probability of a stimulus and provide predictions to the next lower level; and error units that encode the mismatch between predictions and bottom-up evidence, and forward prediction error to the next higher level. Predictive coding therefore suggests that neural population responses in category-selective visual regions, like the fusiform face area (FFA), reflect a summation of activity related to prediction ("face expectation") and prediction error ("face surprise"), rather than a homogenous feature detection response. We tested the rival hypotheses of the feature detection and predictive coding models by collecting functional magnetic resonance imaging data from the FFA while independently varying both stimulus features (faces vs houses) and subjects' perceptual expectations regarding those features (low vs medium vs high face expectation). The effects of stimulus and expectation factors interacted, whereby FFA activity elicited by face and house stimuli was indistinguishable under high face expectation and maximally differentiated under low face expectation. Using computational modeling, we show that these data can be explained by predictive coding but not by feature detection models, even when the latter are augmented with attentional mechanisms. Thus, population responses in the ventral visual stream appear to be determined by feature expectation and surprise rather than by stimulus features per se.

  2. Surprising Existence of Massive and Large Molecular Gas Reservoirs in A Distant Protocluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannerbauer, Helmut

    2017-07-01

    We know that environment has a critical impact on galaxy growth and evolution. What we do not know is when it starts to have an impact and how it does it. I present results of our on-going survey of low surface brightness emission of cold molecular gas in protoclusters galaxies and their halos with the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). These findings alter our view of the important topics of the development and gas phase distribution of the "proto-intracluster medium": how ram pressure stripping may operate in protoclusters, how the galaxies may contribute to the proto-intracluster medium and how their star formation may be limited by dynamics. Finally, I present our new ATCA Large Program, COALAS (CO ATCA Legacy Archive of Star-Forming Galaxies), which will extend significantly our study of environmental effects on cluster and field galaxies.

  3. Ontological Surprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leahu, Lucian

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how we might rethink design as the technological crafting of human-machine relations in the context of a machine learning technique called neural networks. It analyzes Google’s Inceptionism project, which uses neural networks for image recognition. The surprising output of...... a hybrid approach where machine learning algorithms are used to identify objects as well as connections between them; finally, it argues for remaining open to ontological surprises in machine learning as they may enable the crafting of different relations with and through technologies....

  4. Surprise Trips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias; Kawash, Raghid; Andersen, Lisbet Møller

    We report on a platform that augments the natural experience of exploration in diverse indoor and outdoor environments. The system builds on the theme of surprises in terms of user expectations and finding points of interest. It utilizes physical icons as representations of users' interests and a...

  5. Measuring happiness in large population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenas, Annabelle; Sjahputri, Smita; Takwin, Bagus; Primaldhi, Alfindra; Muhamad, Roby

    2016-01-01

    The ability to know emotional states for large number of people is important, for example, to ensure the effectiveness of public policies. In this study, we propose a measure of happiness that can be used in large scale population that is based on the analysis of Indonesian language lexicons. Here, we incorporate human assessment of Indonesian words, then quantify happiness on large-scale of texts gathered from twitter conversations. We used two psychological constructs to measure happiness: valence and arousal. We found that Indonesian words have tendency towards positive emotions. We also identified several happiness patterns during days of the week, hours of the day, and selected conversation topics.

  6. Charming surprise

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2011-01-01

    The CP violation in charm quarks has always been thought to be extremely small. So, looking at particle decays involving matter and antimatter, the LHCb experiment has recently been surprised to observe that things might be different. Theorists are on the case.   The study of the physics of the charm quark was not in the initial plans of the LHCb experiment, whose letter “b” stands for “beauty quark”. However, already one year ago, the Collaboration decided to look into a wider spectrum of processes that involve charm quarks among other things. The LHCb trigger allows a lot of these processes to be selected, and, among them, one has recently shown interesting features. Other experiments at b-factories have already performed the same measurement but this is the first time that it has been possible to achieve such high precision, thanks to the huge amount of data provided by the very high luminosity of the LHC. “We have observed the decay modes of t...

  7. Charming surprise

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2011-01-01

    The CP violation in charm quarks has always been thought to be extremely small. So, looking at particle decays involving matter and antimatter, the LHCb experiment has recently been surprised to observe that things might be different. Theorists are on the case. The study of the physics of the charm quark was not in the initial plans of the LHCb experiment, whose letter “b” stands for “beauty quark”. However, already one year ago, the Collaboration decided to look into a wider spectrum of processes that involve charm quarks among other things. The LHCb trigger allows a lot of these processes to be selected, and, among them, one has recently shown interesting features. Other experiments at b-factories have already performed the same measurement but this is the first time that it has been possible to achieve such high precision, thanks to the huge amount of data provided by the very high luminosity of the LHC. “We have observed the decay modes of the D0, a pa...

  8. Surprisingly low compliance to local guidelines for risk factor based screening for gestational diabetes mellitus - A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winkvist Anna

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is routine during pregnancy in many countries in the world. The screening programs are either based on general screening offered to all pregnant women or risk factor based screening stipulated in local clinical guidelines. The aims of this study were to investigate: 1 the compliance with local guidelines of screening for GDM and 2 the outcomes of pregnancy and birth in relation to risk factors of GDM and whether or not exposed to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. Methods This study design was a population-based retrospective cross-sectional study of 822 women. A combination of questionnaire data and data collected from medical records was applied. Compliance to the local guidelines of risk factor based screening for GDM was examined and a comparison of outcomes of pregnancy and delivery in relation to risk factor groups for GDM was performed. Results Of the 822 participants, 257 (31.3% women fulfilled at least one criterion for being exposed to screening for GDM according to the local clinical guidelines. However, only 79 (30.7% of these women were actually exposed to OGTT and of those correctly exposed for screening, seven women were diagnosed with GDM. Women developing risk factors for GDM during pregnancy had a substantially increased risk of giving birth to an infant with macrosomia. Conclusion Surprisingly low compliance with the local clinical guidelines for screening for GDM during pregnancy was found. Furthermore, the prevalence of the risk factors of GDM in our study was almost doubled compared to previous Swedish studies. Pregnant women developing risk factors of GDM during pregnancy were found to be at substantially increased risk of giving birth to an infant with macrosomia. There is a need of actions improving compliance to the local guidelines.

  9. Susceptibility of large populations of coupled oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daido, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    It is an important and interesting problem to elucidate how the degree of phase order in a large population of coupled oscillators responds to a synchronizing periodic force from the outside. Here this problem is studied analytically as well as numerically by introducing the concept of susceptibility for globally coupled phase oscillators with either nonrandom or random interactions. It is shown that the susceptibility diverges at the critical point in the nonrandom case with Widom's equality satisfied, while it exhibits a cusp in the most random case.

  10. Accurate reaction barrier heights of pericyclic reactions: Surprisingly large deviations for the CBS-QB3 composite method and their consequences in DFT benchmark studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karton, Amir; Goerigk, Lars

    2015-04-05

    Accurate barrier heights are obtained for the 26 pericyclic reactions in the BHPERI dataset by means of the high-level Wn-F12 thermochemical protocols. Very often, the complete basis set (CBS)-type composite methods are used in similar situations, but herein it is shown that they in fact result in surprisingly large errors with root mean square deviations (RMSDs) of about 2.5 kcal mol(-1). In comparison, other composite methods, particularly G4-type and estimated coupled cluster with singles, doubles, and quasiperturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)/CBS] approaches, show deviations well below the chemical-accuracy threshold of 1 kcal mol(-1). With the exception of SCS-MP2 and the herein newly introduced MP3.5 approach, all other tested Møller-Plesset perturbative procedures give poor performance with RMSDs of up to 8.0 kcal mol(-1). The finding that CBS-type methods fail for barrier heights of these reactions is unexpected and it is particularly troublesome given that they are often used to obtain reference values for benchmark studies. Significant differences are identified in the interpretation and final ranking of density functional theory (DFT) methods when using the original CBS-QB3 rather than the new Wn-F12 reference values for BHPERI. In particular, it is observed that the more accurate Wn-F12 benchmark results in lower statistical errors for those methods that are generally considered to be robust and accurate. Two examples are the PW6B95-D3(BJ) hybrid-meta-general-gradient approximation and the PWPB95-D3(BJ) double-hybrid functionals, which result in the lowest RMSDs of the entire DFT study (1.3 and 1.0 kcal mol(-1), respectively). These results indicate that CBS-QB3 should be applied with caution in computational modeling and benchmark studies involving related systems.

  11. More Supernova Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    SEP 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE More Supernova Surprises 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...PERSPECTIVES More Supernova Surprises ASTRONOMY J. Martin Laming Spectroscopic observations of the supernova SN1987A are providing a new window into high...a core-collapse supernova ) have stretched and motivated research that has expanded our knowledge of astrophysics. The brightest such event in

  12. What is the mechanism of Ketamine's rapid-onset antidepressant effect? A concise overview of the surprisingly large number of possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, S E; Bhimani, P M; Kaabe, J H; Krysiak, J T; Nanchanatt, D L; Nguyen, T N; Pough, K A; Prince, T A; Ramsey, N S; Savsani, K H; Scandlen, L; Cavaretta, M J; Raffa, R B

    2017-04-01

    Abundant clinical data now confirm that ketamine produces a remarkable rapid-onset antidepressant effect - hours or days - in contrast to the delayed onset (typically weeks) of current antidepressant drugs. This surprising and revolutionary finding may lead to the development of life-saving pharmacotherapy for depressive illness by reducing the high suicide risk associated with the delayed onset of effect of current drugs. As ketamine has serious self-limiting drawbacks that restrict its widespread use for this purpose, a safer alternative is needed. Our objective is to review the proposed mechanism(s) of ketamine's rapid-onset antidepressant action for new insights into the physiological basis of depressive illness that may lead to new and novel targets for antidepressant drug discovery. A search was conducted on published literature (e.g. PubMed) and Internet sources to identify information relevant to ketamine's rapid-acting antidepressant action and, specifically, to the possible mechanism(s) of this action. Key search words included 'ketamine', 'antidepressant', 'mechanism of action', 'depression' and 'rapid acting', either individually or in combination. Information was sought that would include less well-known, as well as well-known, basic pharmacologic properties of ketamine and that identified and evaluated the several hypotheses about ketamine's mechanism of antidepressant action. Whether the mechanistic explanation for ketamine's rapid-onset antidepressant action is related to its well-known antagonism of the NMDA (N-Methyl-d-aspartate) subtype of glutamate receptor or to something else has not yet been fully elucidated. The evidence from pharmacologic, medicinal chemistry, animal model and drug-discovery sources reveals a wide variety of postulated mechanisms. The surprising discovery of ketamine's rapid-onset antidepressant effect is a game-changer for the understanding and treatment of depressive illness. There is some convergence on NMDA receptor

  13. Surprises with Nonrelativistic Naturalness

    CERN Document Server

    Horava, Petr

    2016-01-01

    We explore the landscape of technical naturalness for nonrelativistic systems, finding surprises which challenge and enrich our relativistic intuition already in the simplest case of a single scalar field. While the immediate applications are expected in condensed matter and perhaps in cosmology, the study is motivated by the leading puzzles of fundamental physics involving gravity: The cosmological constant problem and the Higgs mass hierarchy problem.

  14. Evaluative Appraisals of Environmental Mystery and Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Jack L.; Cubukcu, Ebru

    2011-01-01

    This study used a desktop virtual environment (VE) of 15 large-scale residential streets to test the effects of environmental mystery and surprise on response. In theory, mystery and surprise should increase interest and visual appeal. For each VE, participants walked through an approach street and turned right onto a post-turn street. We designed…

  15. Evaluative Appraisals of Environmental Mystery and Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Jack L.; Cubukcu, Ebru

    2011-01-01

    This study used a desktop virtual environment (VE) of 15 large-scale residential streets to test the effects of environmental mystery and surprise on response. In theory, mystery and surprise should increase interest and visual appeal. For each VE, participants walked through an approach street and turned right onto a post-turn street. We designed…

  16. Surprises in astrophysical gasdynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Balbus, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Much of astrophysics consists of the study of ionised gas under the influence of gravitational and magnetic fields. Thus, it is not possible to understand the astrophysical universe without a detailed knowledge of the dynamics of magnetised fluids. Fluid dynamics is, however, a notoriously tricky subject, in which it is all too easy for one's a priori intuition to go astray. In this review, we seek to guide the reader through a series of illuminating yet deceptive problems, all with an enlightening twist. We cover a broad range of topics including the instabilities acting in accretion discs, the hydrodynamics governing the convective zone of the Sun, the magnetic shielding of a cooling galaxy cluster, and the behaviour of thermal instabilities and evaporating clouds. The aim of this review is to surprise and intrigue even veteran astrophysical theorists with an idiosynchratic choice of problems and counterintuitive results. At the same time, we endeavour to bring forth the fundamental ideas, to set out import...

  17. Surprises in astrophysical gasdynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbus, Steven A.; Potter, William J.

    2016-06-01

    Much of astrophysics consists of the study of ionized gas under the influence of gravitational and magnetic fields. Thus, it is not possible to understand the astrophysical universe without a detailed knowledge of the dynamics of magnetized fluids. Fluid dynamics is, however, a notoriously tricky subject, in which it is all too easy for one’s a priori intuition to go astray. In this review, we seek to guide the reader through a series of illuminating yet deceptive problems, all with an enlightening twist. We cover a broad range of topics including the instabilities acting in accretion discs, the hydrodynamics governing the convective zone of the Sun, the magnetic shielding of a cooling galaxy cluster, and the behaviour of thermal instabilities and evaporating clouds. The aim of this review is to surprise and intrigue even veteran astrophysical theorists with an idiosyncratic choice of problems and counterintuitive results. At the same time, we endeavour to bring forth the fundamental ideas, to set out important assumptions, and to describe carefully whatever novel techniques may be appropriate to the problem at hand. By beginning at the beginning, and analysing a wide variety of astrophysical settings, we seek not only to make this review suitable for fluid dynamic veterans, but to engage novice recruits as well with what we hope will be an unusual and instructive introduction to the subject.

  18. Surprises in astrophysical gasdynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbus, Steven A; Potter, William J

    2016-06-01

    Much of astrophysics consists of the study of ionized gas under the influence of gravitational and magnetic fields. Thus, it is not possible to understand the astrophysical universe without a detailed knowledge of the dynamics of magnetized fluids. Fluid dynamics is, however, a notoriously tricky subject, in which it is all too easy for one's a priori intuition to go astray. In this review, we seek to guide the reader through a series of illuminating yet deceptive problems, all with an enlightening twist. We cover a broad range of topics including the instabilities acting in accretion discs, the hydrodynamics governing the convective zone of the Sun, the magnetic shielding of a cooling galaxy cluster, and the behaviour of thermal instabilities and evaporating clouds. The aim of this review is to surprise and intrigue even veteran astrophysical theorists with an idiosyncratic choice of problems and counterintuitive results. At the same time, we endeavour to bring forth the fundamental ideas, to set out important assumptions, and to describe carefully whatever novel techniques may be appropriate to the problem at hand. By beginning at the beginning, and analysing a wide variety of astrophysical settings, we seek not only to make this review suitable for fluid dynamic veterans, but to engage novice recruits as well with what we hope will be an unusual and instructive introduction to the subject.

  19. Breeding ecology of the southern shrike, Lanius meridionalis, in an agrosystem of south–eastern Spain: the surprisingly excellent breeding success in a declining population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Rueda, G.; Abril-Colon, I.; Lopez-Orta, A.; Alvarez-Benito, I.; Castillo-Gomez, C.; Comas, M.; Rivas, J.M.

    2016-07-01

    The southern shrike, Lanius meridionalis, is declining at the Spanish and European level. One cause of this decline could be low reproductive success due to low availability of prey in agricultural environments. To investigate this possibility we analysed the breeding ecology of a population of southern shrike in an agrosystem in Lomas de Padul (SE Spain). Our results suggest the population is declining in this area. However, contrary to expectations, the population showed the highest reproductive success (% nests in which at least one egg produces a fledgling) reported for this species to date (83.3%), with a productivity of 4.04 fledglings per nest. Reproductive success varied throughout the years, ranging from 75% in the worst year to 92.9% in the best year. Similarly, productivity ranged from 3.25 to 5.0 fledglings per nest depending on the year. Other aspects of reproductive biology, such as clutch size, brood size, and nestling diet, were similar to those reported in other studies. Based on these results, we hypothesise that the determinant of population decline acts on the juvenile fraction, drastically reducing the recruitment rate, or affecting the dispersion of adults and recruits. Nevertheless, the exact factor or factors are unknown. This study shows that a high reproductive success does not guarantee good health status of the population. (Author)

  20. Jordan: Surprisingly Stable

    OpenAIRE

    Ådnegard, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, research has demonstrated that conflict spreads to the host country as a consequence of massive influx of refugees. Most studies gathered empirical evidence from African countries and focused on cases where conflict had already spread. In contrast to this literature, the main objective of this thesis is to examine the absence of conflict in Jordan after receiving Syrian refugees that amount to about 10 percent of Jordan s original population over the past three years, 2011-201...

  1. AN INVARIANCE PRINCIPLE IN LARGE POPULATION STOCHASTIC DYNAMIC GAMES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minyi HUANG; Peter E. CAINES; Roland P. MALHAM(E)

    2007-01-01

    We study large population stochastic dynamic games where the so-called Nash certainty equivalence based control laws are implemented by the individual players. We first show a martingale property for the limiting control problem of a single agent and then perform averaging across the population; this procedure leads to a constant value for the martingale which shows an invariance property of the population behavior induced by the Nash strategies.

  2. WKB theory of large deviations in stochastic populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Michael; Meerson, Baruch

    2017-06-01

    Stochasticity can play an important role in the dynamics of biologically relevant populations. These span a broad range of scales: from intra-cellular populations of molecules to population of cells and then to groups of plants, animals and people. Large deviations in stochastic population dynamics—such as those determining population extinction, fixation or switching between different states—are presently in a focus of attention of statistical physicists. We review recent progress in applying different variants of dissipative WKB approximation (after Wentzel, Kramers and Brillouin) to this class of problems. The WKB approximation allows one to evaluate the mean time and/or probability of population extinction, fixation and switches resulting from either intrinsic (demographic) noise, or a combination of the demographic noise and environmental variations, deterministic or random. We mostly cover well-mixed populations, single and multiple, but also briefly consider populations on heterogeneous networks and spatial populations. The spatial setting also allows one to study large fluctuations of the speed of biological invasions. Finally, we briefly discuss possible directions of future work.

  3. Surprise... Surprise..., An Empirical Investigation on How Surprise is Connected to Customer Satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vanhamme (Joëlle)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis research investigates the specific influence of the emotion of surprise on customer transaction-specific satisfaction. Four empirical studies-two field studies (a diary study and a cross section survey) and two experiments-were conducted. The results show that surprise positively

  4. Surprise... Surprise..., An Empirical Investigation on How Surprise is Connected to Customer Satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vanhamme (Joëlle)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis research investigates the specific influence of the emotion of surprise on customer transaction-specific satisfaction. Four empirical studies-two field studies (a diary study and a cross section survey) and two experiments-were conducted. The results show that surprise positively [n

  5. Argentine Population Genetic Structure: Large Variance in Amerindian Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldin, Michael F.; Tian, Chao; Shigeta, Russell; Scherbarth, Hugo R.; Silva, Gabriel; Belmont, John W.; Kittles, Rick; Gamron, Susana; Allevi, Alberto; Palatnik, Simon A.; Alvarellos, Alejandro; Paira, Sergio; Caprarulo, Cesar; Guillerón, Carolina; Catoggio, Luis J.; Prigione, Cristina; Berbotto, Guillermo A.; García, Mercedes A.; Perandones, Carlos E.; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E.

    2011-01-01

    Argentine population genetic structure was examined using a set of 78 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to assess the contributions of European, Amerindian, and African ancestry in 94 individuals members of this population. Using the Bayesian clustering algorithm STRUCTURE, the mean European contribution was 78%, the Amerindian contribution was 19.4%, and the African contribution was 2.5%. Similar results were found using weighted least mean square method: European, 80.2%; Amerindian, 18.1%; and African, 1.7%. Consistent with previous studies the current results showed very few individuals (four of 94) with greater than 10% African admixture. Notably, when individual admixture was examined, the Amerindian and European admixture showed a very large variance and individual Amerindian contribution ranged from 1.5 to 84.5% in the 94 individual Argentine subjects. These results indicate that admixture must be considered when clinical epidemiology or case control genetic analyses are studied in this population. Moreover, the current study provides a set of informative SNPs that can be used to ascertain or control for this potentially hidden stratification. In addition, the large variance in admixture proportions in individual Argentine subjects shown by this study suggests that this population is appropriate for future admixture mapping studies. PMID:17177183

  6. Surprise as a design strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, G.D.S.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Imagine yourself queuing for the cashier’s desk in a supermarket. Naturally, you have picked the wrong line, the one that does not seem to move at all. Soon, you get tired of waiting. Now, how would you feel if the cashier suddenly started to sing? Many of us would be surprised and, regardless of

  7. Surprise as a design strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, G.D.S.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Imagine yourself queuing for the cashier’s desk in a supermarket. Naturally, you have picked the wrong line, the one that does not seem to move at all. Soon, you get tired of waiting. Now, how would you feel if the cashier suddenly started to sing? Many of us would be surprised and, regardless of th

  8. Fingerprint and Face Identification for Large User Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teddy Ko

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present the state-of-the-art of the current biometric (fingerprint and face technology, lessons learned during the investigative analysis performed to ascertain the benefits of using combined fingerprint and facial technologies, and recommendations for the use of current available fingerprint and face identification technologies for optimum identification performance for applications using large user population. Prior fingerprint and face identification test study results have shown that their identification accuracies are strongly dependent on the image quality of the biometric inputs. Recommended methodologies for ensuring the capture of acceptable quality fingerprint and facial images of subjects are also presented in this paper.

  9. Brazilian rescue plan sparks surprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to Financial Times,when Guido Mantega,Brazil's finance minister,suddenly proposed a “Bric” rescue package for the eurozone this week,he caught not only other world leaders by surprise but also many of his fellow countrymen.Even as officials from other members of the so-called Bric grouping,Russia,India and China,said it was the first they heard of the idea,many ordinary Brazilians expressed shock at the notion of bailing out the world's richest trading bloc.

  10. Contrasting life histories in neighbouring populations of a large mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom H E Mason

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A fundamental life history question is how individuals should allocate resources to reproduction optimally over time (reproductive allocation. The reproductive restraint hypothesis predicts that reproductive effort (RE; the allocation of resources to current reproduction should peak at prime-age, whilst the terminal investment hypothesis predicts that individuals should continue to invest more resources in reproduction throughout life, owing to an ever-decreasing residual reproductive value. There is evidence supporting both hypotheses in the scientific literature. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used an uncommonly large, 38 year dataset on Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra shot at various times during the rutting period to test these two hypotheses. We assumed that body mass loss in rutting males was strongly related to RE and, using a process-based approach, modelled how male relative mass loss rates varied with age. For different regions of our study area, we provide evidence consistent with different hypotheses for reproductive allocation. In sites where RE declined in older age, this appears to be strongly linked to declining body condition in old males. In this species, terminal investment may only occur in areas with lower rates of body mass senescence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that patterns of reproductive allocation may be more plastic than previously thought. It appears that there is a continuum from downturns in RE at old age to terminal investment that can be manifest, even across adjacent populations. Our work identifies uncertainty in the relationship between reproductive restraint and a lack of competitive ability in older life (driven by body mass senescence; both could explain a decline in RE in old age and may be hard to disentangle in empirical data. We discuss a number of environmental and anthropogenic factors which could influence reproductive life histories, underlining that life history

  11. Some Surprises in Relativistic Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, N O

    2016-01-01

    General Relativity has had tremendous success both on the theoretical and the experimental fronts for over a century now. However, the contents of the theory are far from exhausted. Only very recently, with the detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes, we have started probing the behavior of gravity in the strongly non-linear regime. Even today, the studies of black holes keep revealing more and more paradoxes and bizarre results. In this paper, inspired by David Hilbert's startling observation, we show that, contrary to the conventional wisdom, a freely falling test particle feels gravitational repulsion by a black hole as seen by the asymptotic observer. We dig deeper into this surprising behavior of relativistic gravity and offer some explanations.

  12. The first large population based twin study of coeliac disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, L; Romino, R; Coto, I; Di Cosmo, N; Percopo, S; Maglio, M; Paparo, F; Gasperi, V; Limongelli, M G; Cotichini, R; D'Agate, C; Tinto, N; Sacchetti, L; Tosi, R; Stazi, M A

    2002-01-01

    Background and aims: The genetic load in coeliac disease has hitherto been inferred from case series or anecdotally referred twin pairs. We have evaluated the genetic component in coeliac disease by estimating the concordance rate for the disease among twin pairs in a large population based study. Methods: The Italian Twin Registry was matched with the membership lists of a patient support group. Forty seven twin pairs were recruited and screened for antiendomysial (EMA) and antihuman-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG) antibodies; zygosity was verified by DNA fingerprinting and twins were typed for HLA class II DRB1 and DQB1 molecules. Results: Concordance rates for coeliac disease differ significantly between monozygotic (MZ) (0.86 probandwise and 0.75 pairwise) and dizygotic (DZ) (0.20 probandwise and 0.11 pairwise) twins. This is the highest concordance so far reported for a multifactorial disease. A logistic regression model, adjusted for age, sex, number of shared HLA haplotypes, and zygosity, showed that genotypes DQA1*0501/DQB1*0201 and DQA1*0301/DQB1*0302 (encoding for heterodimers DQ2 and DQ8, respectively) conferred to the non-index twin a risk of contracting the disease of 3.3 and 1.4, respectively. The risk of being concordant for coeliac disease estimated for the non-index twin of MZ pairs was 17 (95% confidence interval 2.1–134), independent of the DQ at risk genotype. Conclusion: This study provides substantial evidence for a very strong genetic component in coeliac disease, which is only partially due to the HLA region. PMID:11950806

  13. Engaging a state: Facebook comments on a large population biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Tevah; Platt, Jodyn; Thiel, Daniel; Kardia, Sharon L R

    2017-04-05

    Scholarship on newborn screening, dried bloodspot retention, and large population biobanking call consistently for improved public engagement. Communication with participants likely occurs only in the context of collection, consent, or notification, if at all. We ran an 11-week advertising campaign to inform Michigan Facebook users unlikely to know that their or their children's dried bloodspots (DBSs) were stored in a state biobank. We investigated the pattern and content of comments posted during the campaign, focusing on users' questions, attitudes and concerns, and the role the moderator played in addressing them. We used Facebook data to quantitatively assess engagement and employed conventional content analysis to investigate themes, attitudes, and social dynamics among user and moderator comments. Five ad sets elicited comments during campaign weeks 4-8, reaching ∼800,000 Facebook users ($6000). Gravitating around broad, underlying ethical, legal, and social issues, 180 posts from 129 unique users related to newborn screening or biobanking. Thirty six conveyed negative attitudes and 33 conveyed positive attitudes; 53 posed questions. The most prevalent themes identified were consent, privacy, bloodspot use, identifiability, inclusion criteria, research benefits, (mis)trust, genetics, DBS destruction, awareness, and the role of government. The moderator's 81 posts were responsive-answering questions, correcting or clarifying information, or providing information about opting out. Facebook ad campaigns can improve engagement by pushing out relevant content and creating dynamic, responsive, visible forums for discussion. Reduced control over messaging may be worth the trade-off for creating accessible, transparent, people-centered engagement on public health issues that are sensitive and complex.

  14. Some Surprising Introductory Physics Facts and Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallmann, A. James

    2016-01-01

    In the entertainment world, people usually like, and find memorable, novels, short stories, and movies with surprise endings. This suggests that classroom teachers might want to present to their students examples of surprising facts associated with principles of physics. Possible benefits of finding surprising facts about principles of physics are…

  15. Intraocular surgery in a large diabetes patient population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostri, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    population and to report surgical results. The specific objectives are to (1) estimate the incidence of diabetic vitrectomy and analyse risk factors (Study I), (2) report long-term results, prognostic factors and incidence of cataract surgery after diabetic vitrectomy (Study II), (3) report results...... retinopathy screening population. Study I (cohort study, 3980 type 1 diabetes patients) illustrates that diabetic vitrectomy is rarely required in a diabetes patient population with varying degrees of diabetic retinopathy. The risk of reaching diabetic vitrectomy increases fourfold with poor metabolic control...

  16. Young Galaxy's Magnetism Surprises Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Astronomers have made the first direct measurement of the magnetic field in a young, distant galaxy, and the result is a big surprise. Looking at a faraway protogalaxy seen as it was 6.5 billion years ago, the scientists measured a magnetic field at least 10 times stronger than that of our own Milky Way. They had expected just the opposite. The GBT Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF The scientists made the discovery using the National Science Foundation's ultra-sensitive Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. "This new measurement indicates that magnetic fields may play a more important role in the formation and evolution of galaxies than we have realized," said Arthur Wolfe, of the University of California-San Diego (UCSD). At its great distance, the protogalaxy is seen as it was when the Universe was about half its current age. According to the leading theory, cosmic magnetic fields are generated by the dynamos of rotating galaxies -- a process that would produce stronger fields with the passage of time. In this scenario, the magnetic fields should be weaker in the earlier Universe, not stronger. The new, direct magnetic-field measurement comes on the heels of a July report by Swiss and American astronomers who made indirect measurements that also implied strong magnetic fields in the early Universe. "Our results present a challenge to the dynamo model, but they do not rule it out," Wolfe said. There are other possible explanations for the strong magnetic field seen in the one protogalaxy Wolfe's team studied. "We may be seeing the field close to the central region of a massive galaxy, and we know such fields are stronger toward the centers of nearby galaxies. Also, the field we see may have been amplified by a shock wave caused by the collision of two galaxies," he said. The protogalaxy studied with the GBT, called DLA-3C286, consists of gas with little or no star formation occurring in it. The astronomers suspect that

  17. Education in Japan: Surprising Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasy, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    Reports on an indepth probe of the Japanese educational system by American educators. This study shows that the United States cannot expect to achieve economic growth by copying the Japanese system, which has been shaped largely by its geography and culture and society. (MD)

  18. Distinct human stem cell populations in small and large intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Julie M; Thompson, Timothy; Geskin, Albert; LaFramboise, William; Lagasse, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The intestine is composed of an epithelial layer containing rapidly proliferating cells that mature into two regions, the small and the large intestine. Although previous studies have identified stem cells as the cell-of-origin for intestinal epithelial cells, no studies have directly compared stem cells derived from these anatomically distinct regions. Here, we examine intrinsic differences between primary epithelial cells isolated from human fetal small and large intestine, after in vitro expansion, using the Wnt agonist R-spondin 2. We utilized flow cytometry, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, gene expression analysis and a three-dimensional in vitro differentiation assay to characterize their stem cell properties. We identified stem cell markers that separate subpopulations of colony-forming cells in the small and large intestine and revealed important differences in differentiation, proliferation and disease pathways using gene expression analysis. Single cells from small and large intestine cultures formed organoids that reflect the distinct cellular hierarchy found in vivo and respond differently to identical exogenous cues. Our characterization identified numerous differences between small and large intestine epithelial stem cells suggesting possible connections to intestinal disease.

  19. Distinct human stem cell populations in small and large intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M Cramer

    Full Text Available The intestine is composed of an epithelial layer containing rapidly proliferating cells that mature into two regions, the small and the large intestine. Although previous studies have identified stem cells as the cell-of-origin for intestinal epithelial cells, no studies have directly compared stem cells derived from these anatomically distinct regions. Here, we examine intrinsic differences between primary epithelial cells isolated from human fetal small and large intestine, after in vitro expansion, using the Wnt agonist R-spondin 2. We utilized flow cytometry, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, gene expression analysis and a three-dimensional in vitro differentiation assay to characterize their stem cell properties. We identified stem cell markers that separate subpopulations of colony-forming cells in the small and large intestine and revealed important differences in differentiation, proliferation and disease pathways using gene expression analysis. Single cells from small and large intestine cultures formed organoids that reflect the distinct cellular hierarchy found in vivo and respond differently to identical exogenous cues. Our characterization identified numerous differences between small and large intestine epithelial stem cells suggesting possible connections to intestinal disease.

  20. Assessing senescence patterns in populations of large mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaillard, J.-M.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical models such as those of Gompertz and Weibull are commonly used to study senescence in survival for humans and laboratory or captive animals. For wild populations of vertebrates, senescence in survival has more commonly been assessed by fitting simple linear or quadratic relationships between survival and age. By using appropriate constraints on survival parameters in Capture-Mark-Recapture (CMR models, we propose a first analysis of the suitability of the Gompertz and the two-parameter Weibull models for describing aging-related mortality in free-ranging populations of ungulates. We first show how to handle the Gompertz and the two-parameter Weibull models in the context of CMR analyses. Then we perform a comparative analysis of senescence patterns in both sexes of two ungulate species highly contrasted according to the intensity of sexual selection. Our analyses provide support to the Gompertz model for describing senescence patterns in ungulates. Evolutionary implications of our results are discussed

  1. Diabetic vitrectomy in a large type 1 diabetes patient population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostri, Christoffer; la Cour, Morten; Lund-Andersen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    1996 and 2010. Surgical history was obtained from The Danish National Patient Register. RESULTS: The population consisted of 3980 patients with type 1 diabetes. Median follow-up was 10.0 years. In total, 106 patients underwent diabetic vitrectomy in the observation period. Surgery indications were......Hg, diabetes duration, age, gender and nephropathy were not associated with an increased risk of reaching diabetic vitrectomy (p > 0.05 for all variables). CONCLUSIONS: Diabetic vitrectomy is rarely required in a type 1 diabetes population with varying degrees of retinopathy, but the risk increases markedly...... nonclearing vitreous haemorrhage (43%) or tractional retinal detachment (57%). The cumulative incidence rates of diabetic vitrectomy were 1.6% after 5 years and 2.9% after 10 years. When excluding patients with no or mild diabetic retinopathy, the corresponding rates were higher; 3.7% and 6.4%, respectively...

  2. Echo Behavior in Large Populations of Chemical Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianran; Tinsley, Mark R.; Ott, Edward; Showalter, Kenneth

    2016-10-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies are reported, for the first time, on the observation and characterization of echo phenomena in oscillatory chemical reactions. Populations of uncoupled and coupled oscillators are globally perturbed. The macroscopic response to this perturbation dies out with time: At some time τ after the perturbation (where τ is long enough that the response has died out), the system is again perturbed, and the initial response to this second perturbation again dies out. Echoes can potentially appear as responses that arise at 2 τ ,3 τ ,... after the first perturbation. The phase-resetting character of the chemical oscillators allows a detailed analysis, offering insights into the origin of the echo in terms of an intricate structure of phase relationships. Groups of oscillators experiencing different perturbations are analyzed with a geometric approach and in an analytical theory. The characterization of echo phenomena in populations of chemical oscillators reinforces recent theoretical studies of the behavior in populations of phase oscillators [E. Ott et al., Chaos 18, 037115 (2008)]. This indicates the generality of the behavior, including its likely occurrence in biological systems.

  3. Analysis of large dislocation populations in deformed metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N.; Hughes, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The microstructural evolution is followed in pure aluminium and nickel cold-rolled over a large strain range. A number of dislocation configurations are characterized and classified and it is found that dislocation rotation boundaries are the dominant feature which subdivide the grains on a finer...

  4. Collective response of human populations to large-scale emergencies

    CERN Document Server

    Bagrow, James P; Barabási, Albert-László; 10.1371/journal.pone.0017680

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent advances in uncovering the quantitative features of stationary human activity patterns, many applications, from pandemic prediction to emergency response, require an understanding of how these patterns change when the population encounters unfamiliar conditions. To explore societal response to external perturbations we identified real-time changes in communication and mobility patterns in the vicinity of eight emergencies, such as bomb attacks and earthquakes, comparing these with eight non-emergencies, like concerts and sporting events. We find that communication spikes accompanying emergencies are both spatially and temporally localized, but information about emergencies spreads globally, resulting in communication avalanches that engage in a significant manner the social network of eyewitnesses. These results offer a quantitative view of behavioral changes in human activity under extreme conditions, with potential long-term impact on emergency detection and response.

  5. Collective response of human populations to large-scale emergencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Bagrow

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in uncovering the quantitative features of stationary human activity patterns, many applications, from pandemic prediction to emergency response, require an understanding of how these patterns change when the population encounters unfamiliar conditions. To explore societal response to external perturbations we identified real-time changes in communication and mobility patterns in the vicinity of eight emergencies, such as bomb attacks and earthquakes, comparing these with eight non-emergencies, like concerts and sporting events. We find that communication spikes accompanying emergencies are both spatially and temporally localized, but information about emergencies spreads globally, resulting in communication avalanches that engage in a significant manner the social network of eyewitnesses. These results offer a quantitative view of behavioral changes in human activity under extreme conditions, with potential long-term impact on emergency detection and response.

  6. Analyst Information Precision and Small Earnings Surprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Bissessur; D. Veenman

    2014-01-01

    Prior research attributes zero and small positive earnings surprises to managers’ incentives for earnings management. In contrast, this study introduces and empirically tests an explanation for zero and small positive earnings surprises based on predictable variation in analyst forecast errors. We a

  7. Cognitive and Social Perspectives on Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhami, Mundler

    2007-01-01

    Meanings of "surprise" are wide and include uplifting and engaging facets like wonder and amazement on the one hand as well as ones that may be of the opposite nature like interruption and disrupt on the other. Pedagogically, educators who use surprise in class activities are focusing on students being "taken aback" by a situation, hopefully…

  8. Surprises from Saturn: Implications for Other Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, A. J.

    2014-05-01

    The exploration of Saturn by Cassini has provided many surprises regarding: Saturn's rapidly rotating magnetosphere, interactions with its diverse moons, and interactions with the solar wind. Enceladus, orbiting at 4 Saturn radii (RS), was found to have plumes of water vapour and ice which are the dominant source for the inner magnetosphere. Charged water clusters, charged dust and photoelectrons provide key populations in the 'dusty plasma' observed. Direct pickup is seen near Enceladus and field-aligned currents create a spot in Saturn's aurora. At Titan, orbiting at 20 RS, unexpected heavy negative and positive ions are seen in the ionosphere, which provide the source for Titan's haze. Ionospheric plasma is seen in Titan's tail, enabling ion escape to be estimated at 7 tonnes per day. Saturn's ring ionosphere was seen early in the mission and a return will be made in 2017. In addition, highly accelerated electrons are seen at Saturn's high Mach number (MA˜100) quasi-parallel bow shock. Here we review some of these key new results, and discuss the implications for other solar system objects.

  9. Dynamics of airborne fungal populations in a large office building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, H. A.; Pierson, D. L.; Groves, T. O.; Strawn, K. F.; Mishra, S. K.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing concern with bioaerosols in large office buildings prompted this prospective study of airborne fungal concentrations in a newly constructed building on the Gulf coast. We collected volumetric culture plate air samples on 14 occasions over the 18-month period immediately following building occupancy. On each sampling occasion, we collected duplicate samples from three sites on three floors of this six-story building, and an outdoor sample. Fungal concentrations indoors were consistently below those outdoors, and no sample clearly indicated fungal contamination in the building, although visible growth appeared in the ventilation system during the course of the study. We conclude that modern mechanically ventilated buildings prevent the intrusion of most of the outdoor fungal aerosol, and that even relatively extensive air sampling protocols may not sufficiently document the microbial status of buildings.

  10. Cardiovascular Disease Risk in a Large, Population-Based Cohort of Breast Cancer Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, N.B.; Schaapveld, M.; Gietema, J.A.; Russell, N.S.; Poortmans, P.; Theuws, J.C.; Schinagl, D.A.; Rietveld, D.H.; Versteegh, M.I.; Visser, O; Rutgers, E.J.; Aleman, B.M.; Leeuwen, F.E. van

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To conduct a large, population-based study on cardiovascular disease (CVD) in breast cancer (BC) survivors treated in 1989 or later. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A large, population-based cohort comprising 70,230 surgically treated stage I to III BC patients diagnosed before age 75 years between

  11. Variation in Fitness-Related Characters among Small and Large Populations of Salvia-Pratensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouborg, N.J.; Van Treuren, R.

    1995-01-01

    1 The threatened perennial Salvia pratensis is restricted to a few isolated populations in the Netherlands, which vary in size from 10 to 1500 flowering individuals. Small populations are known to have significantly lower allozyme diversity than the large populations, probably as a consequence of ge

  12. VARIATION IN FITNESS-RELATED CHARACTERS AMONG SMALL AND LARGE POPULATIONS OF SALVIA-PRATENSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OUBORG, NJ; VANTREUREN, R

    1995-01-01

    1 The threatened perennial Salvia pratensis is restricted to a few isolated populations in the Netherlands, which vary in size from 10 to 1500 flowering individuals. Small populations are known to have significantly lower allozyme diversity than the large populations, probably as a consequence of ge

  13. Variation in Fitness-Related Characters among Small and Large Populations of Salvia-Pratensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouborg, N.J.; Van Treuren, R.

    1995-01-01

    1 The threatened perennial Salvia pratensis is restricted to a few isolated populations in the Netherlands, which vary in size from 10 to 1500 flowering individuals. Small populations are known to have significantly lower allozyme diversity than the large populations, probably as a consequence of ge

  14. VARIATION IN FITNESS-RELATED CHARACTERS AMONG SMALL AND LARGE POPULATIONS OF SALVIA-PRATENSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OUBORG, NJ; VANTREUREN, R

    1995-01-01

    1 The threatened perennial Salvia pratensis is restricted to a few isolated populations in the Netherlands, which vary in size from 10 to 1500 flowering individuals. Small populations are known to have significantly lower allozyme diversity than the large populations, probably as a consequence of ge

  15. Different Evolutionary Paths to Complexity for Small and Large Populations of Digital Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A major aim of evolutionary biology is to explain the respective roles of adaptive versus non-adaptive changes in the evolution of complexity. While selection is certainly responsible for the spread and maintenance of complex phenotypes, this does not automatically imply that strong selection enhances the chance for the emergence of novel traits, that is, the origination of complexity. Population size is one parameter that alters the relative importance of adaptive and non-adaptive processes: as population size decreases, selection weakens and genetic drift grows in importance. Because of this relationship, many theories invoke a role for population size in the evolution of complexity. Such theories are difficult to test empirically because of the time required for the evolution of complexity in biological populations. Here, we used digital experimental evolution to test whether large or small asexual populations tend to evolve greater complexity. We find that both small and large—but not intermediate-sized—populations are favored to evolve larger genomes, which provides the opportunity for subsequent increases in phenotypic complexity. However, small and large populations followed different evolutionary paths towards these novel traits. Small populations evolved larger genomes by fixing slightly deleterious insertions, while large populations fixed rare beneficial insertions that increased genome size. These results demonstrate that genetic drift can lead to the evolution of complexity in small populations and that purifying selection is not powerful enough to prevent the evolution of complexity in large populations. PMID:27923053

  16. A toolkit for detecting technical surprise.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, Michael Wayne; Foehse, Mark C.

    2010-10-01

    The detection of a scientific or technological surprise within a secretive country or institute is very difficult. The ability to detect such surprises would allow analysts to identify the capabilities that could be a military or economic threat to national security. Sandia's current approach utilizing ThreatView has been successful in revealing potential technological surprises. However, as data sets become larger, it becomes critical to use algorithms as filters along with the visualization environments. Our two-year LDRD had two primary goals. First, we developed a tool, a Self-Organizing Map (SOM), to extend ThreatView and improve our understanding of the issues involved in working with textual data sets. Second, we developed a toolkit for detecting indicators of technical surprise in textual data sets. Our toolkit has been successfully used to perform technology assessments for the Science & Technology Intelligence (S&TI) program.

  17. Deciphering network community structure by surprise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aldecoa, Rodrigo; Marín, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    .... A fundamental, unsolved problem is how to characterize the community structure of a network. Here, using both standard and novel benchmarks, we show that maximization of a simple global parameter, which we call Surprise...

  18. A Surprising Culprit Behind Celiac Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_164503.html A Surprising Culprit Behind Celiac Disease? Study suggests harmless viruses may set stage ... typically harmless type of virus might sometimes trigger celiac disease, a new study suggests. Celiac disease is ...

  19. Identification and analysis of genomic regions with large between-population differentiation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, S; Tang, K; Somel, M; Green, R E; Kelso, J; Stoneking, M

    2008-01-01

    The primary aim of genetic association and linkage studies is to identify genetic variants that contribute to phenotypic variation within human populations. Since the overwhelming majority of human genetic variation is found within populations, these methods are expected to be effective and can likely be extrapolated from one human population to another. However, they may lack power in detecting the genetic variants that contribute to phenotypes that differ greatly between human populations. Phenotypes that show large differences between populations are expected to be associated with genomic regions exhibiting large allele frequency differences between populations. Thus, from genome-wide polymorphism data genomic regions with large allele frequency differences between populations can be identified, and evaluated as candidates for large between-population phenotypic differences. Here we use allele frequency data from approximately 1.5 million SNPs from three human populations, and present an algorithm that identifies genomic regions containing SNPs with extreme Fst. We demonstrate that our candidate regions have reduced heterozygosity in Europeans and Chinese relative to African-Americans, and are likely enriched with genes that have experienced positive natural selection. We identify genes that are likely responsible for phenotypes known to differ dramatically between human populations and present several candidates worthy of future investigation. Our list of high Fst genomic regions is a first step in identifying the genetic variants that contribute to large phenotypic differences between populations, many of which have likely experienced positive natural selection. Our approach based on between population differences can compliment traditional within population linkage and association studies to uncover novel genotype-phenotype relationships.

  20. Population expansion and individual age affect endoparasite richness and diversity in a recolonising large carnivore population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesniak, Ines; Heckmann, Ilja; Heitlinger, Emanuel; Szentiks, Claudia A.; Nowak, Carsten; Harms, Verena; Jarausch, Anne; Reinhardt, Ilka; Kluth, Gesa; Hofer, Heribert; Krone, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    The recent recolonisation of the Central European lowland (CEL) by the grey wolf (Canis lupus) provides an excellent opportunity to study the effect of founder events on endoparasite diversity. Which role do prey and predator populations play in the re-establishment of endoparasite life cycles? Which intrinsic and extrinsic factors control individual endoparasite diversity in an expanding host population? In 53 individually known CEL wolves sampled in Germany, we revealed a community of four cestode, eight nematode, one trematode and 12 potential Sarcocystis species through molecular genetic techniques. Infections with zoonotic Echinococcus multilocularis, Trichinella britovi and T. spiralis occurred as single cases. Per capita endoparasite species richness and diversity significantly increased with population size and changed with age, whereas sex, microsatellite heterozygosity, and geographic origin had no effect. Tapeworm abundance (Taenia spp.) was significantly higher in immigrants than natives. Metacestode prevalence was slightly higher in ungulates from wolf territories than from control areas elsewhere. Even though alternative canid definitive hosts might also play a role within the investigated parasite life cycles, our findings indicate that (1) immigrated wolves increase parasite diversity in German packs, and (2) prevalence of wolf-associated parasites had declined during wolf absence and has now risen during recolonisation. PMID:28128348

  1. Population expansion and individual age affect endoparasite richness and diversity in a recolonising large carnivore population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesniak, Ines; Heckmann, Ilja; Heitlinger, Emanuel; Szentiks, Claudia A.; Nowak, Carsten; Harms, Verena; Jarausch, Anne; Reinhardt, Ilka; Kluth, Gesa; Hofer, Heribert; Krone, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    The recent recolonisation of the Central European lowland (CEL) by the grey wolf (Canis lupus) provides an excellent opportunity to study the effect of founder events on endoparasite diversity. Which role do prey and predator populations play in the re-establishment of endoparasite life cycles? Which intrinsic and extrinsic factors control individual endoparasite diversity in an expanding host population? In 53 individually known CEL wolves sampled in Germany, we revealed a community of four cestode, eight nematode, one trematode and 12 potential Sarcocystis species through molecular genetic techniques. Infections with zoonotic Echinococcus multilocularis, Trichinella britovi and T. spiralis occurred as single cases. Per capita endoparasite species richness and diversity significantly increased with population size and changed with age, whereas sex, microsatellite heterozygosity, and geographic origin had no effect. Tapeworm abundance (Taenia spp.) was significantly higher in immigrants than natives. Metacestode prevalence was slightly higher in ungulates from wolf territories than from control areas elsewhere. Even though alternative canid definitive hosts might also play a role within the investigated parasite life cycles, our findings indicate that (1) immigrated wolves increase parasite diversity in German packs, and (2) prevalence of wolf-associated parasites had declined during wolf absence and has now risen during recolonisation.

  2. Sex ratio and time to pregnancy: analysis of four large European population surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, Mike; Bennett, James; Best, Nicky

    2007-01-01

    To test whether the secondary sex ratio (proportion of male births) is associated with time to pregnancy, a marker of fertility. Design Analysis of four large population surveys. Setting Denmark and the United Kingdom. Participants 49 506 pregnancies.......To test whether the secondary sex ratio (proportion of male births) is associated with time to pregnancy, a marker of fertility. Design Analysis of four large population surveys. Setting Denmark and the United Kingdom. Participants 49 506 pregnancies....

  3. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome-related disorders in a large adult population in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Yokusoglu Mehmet; Hasimi Adnan; Oktenli Cagatay; Sanisoglu S Yavuz; Ugurlu Mehmet

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background There are few existing large population studies on the epidemiology of metabolic syndrome-related disorders of Turkey. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome-related disorders in the Turkish adult population, to address sex, age, educational and geographical differences, and to examine blood pressure, body mass index, fasting blood glucose and serum lipids in Turkey. Methods This study was executed under the population study "The Healt...

  4. Surprises in numerical expressions of physical constants

    CERN Document Server

    Amir, Ariel; Tokieda, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    In science, as in life, `surprises' can be adequately appreciated only in the presence of a null model, what we expect a priori. In physics, theories sometimes express the values of dimensionless physical constants as combinations of mathematical constants like pi or e. The inverse problem also arises, whereby the measured value of a physical constant admits a `surprisingly' simple approximation in terms of well-known mathematical constants. Can we estimate the probability for this to be a mere coincidence, rather than an inkling of some theory? We answer the question in the most naive form.

  5. Macroecological factors explain large-scale spatial population patterns of ancient agriculturalists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, C.; Chen, B.; Abades, S.; Reino, L.; Teng, S.; Ljungqvist, F.C.; Huang, Z.Y.X.; Liu, X.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: It has been well demonstrated that the large-scale distribution patterns of numerous species are driven by similar macroecological factors. However, understanding of this topic remains limited when applied to our own species. Here we take a large-scale look at ancient agriculturalist population

  6. Surprising Connections between Partitions and Divisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Thomas J.; Hassen, Abdulkadir; Chandrupatla, Tirupathi R.

    2007-01-01

    The sum of the divisors of a positive integer is one of the most interesting concepts in multiplicative number theory, while the number of ways of expressing a number as a sum is a primary topic in additive number theory. In this article, we describe some of the surprising connections between and similarities of these two concepts.

  7. Surprises from extragalactic propagation of UHECRs

    CERN Document Server

    Boncioli, Denise; Grillo, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-high energy cosmic ray experimental data are now of very good statistical significance even in the region of the expected GZK feature. The identification of their sources requires sophisticate analysis of their propagation in the extragalactic space. When looking at the details of this propagation some unforeseen features emerge. We will discuss some of these "surprises".

  8. A Shocking Surprise in Stephan's Quintet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This false-color composite image of the Stephan's Quintet galaxy cluster clearly shows one of the largest shock waves ever seen (green arc). The wave was produced by one galaxy falling toward another at speeds of more than one million miles per hour. The image is made up of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and a ground-based telescope in Spain. Four of the five galaxies in this picture are involved in a violent collision, which has already stripped most of the hydrogen gas from the interiors of the galaxies. The centers of the galaxies appear as bright yellow-pink knots inside a blue haze of stars, and the galaxy producing all the turmoil, NGC7318b, is the left of two small bright regions in the middle right of the image. One galaxy, the large spiral at the bottom left of the image, is a foreground object and is not associated with the cluster. The titanic shock wave, larger than our own Milky Way galaxy, was detected by the ground-based telescope using visible-light wavelengths. It consists of hot hydrogen gas. As NGC7318b collides with gas spread throughout the cluster, atoms of hydrogen are heated in the shock wave, producing the green glow. Spitzer pointed its infrared spectrograph at the peak of this shock wave (middle of green glow) to learn more about its inner workings. This instrument breaks light apart into its basic components. Data from the instrument are referred to as spectra and are displayed as curving lines that indicate the amount of light coming at each specific wavelength. The Spitzer spectrum showed a strong infrared signature for incredibly turbulent gas made up of hydrogen molecules. This gas is caused when atoms of hydrogen rapidly pair-up to form molecules in the wake of the shock wave. Molecular hydrogen, unlike atomic hydrogen, gives off most of its energy through vibrations that emit in the infrared. This highly disturbed gas is the most turbulent molecular hydrogen ever seen. Astronomers were surprised not only by the turbulence

  9. Rapid declines of large mammal populations after the collapse of the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragina, Eugenia V; Ives, A R; Pidgeon, A M; Kuemmerle, T; Baskin, L M; Gubar, Y P; Piquer-Rodríguez, M; Keuler, N S; Petrosyan, V G; Radeloff, V C

    2015-06-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that socioeconomic shocks strongly affect wildlife populations, but quantitative evidence is sparse. The collapse of socialism in Russia in 1991 caused a major socioeconomic shock, including a sharp increase in poverty. We analyzed population trends of 8 large mammals in Russia from 1981 to 2010 (i.e., before and after the collapse). We hypothesized that the collapse would first cause population declines, primarily due to overexploitation, and then population increases due to adaptation of wildlife to new environments following the collapse. The long-term Database of the Russian Federal Agency of Game Mammal Monitoring, consisting of up to 50,000 transects that are monitored annually, provided an exceptional data set for investigating these population trends. Three species showed strong declines in population growth rates in the decade following the collapse, while grey wolf (Canis lupus) increased by more than 150%. After 2000 some trends reversed. For example, roe deer (Capreolus spp.) abundance in 2010 was the highest of any period in our study. Likely reasons for the population declines in the 1990s include poaching and the erosion of wildlife protection enforcement. The rapid increase of the grey wolf populations is likely due to the cessation of governmental population control. In general, the widespread declines in wildlife populations after the collapse of the Soviet Union highlight the magnitude of the effects that socioeconomic shocks can have on wildlife populations and the possible need for special conservation efforts during such times. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Overcoming the dichotomy between open and isolated populations using genomic data from a large European dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Paolo; Dominici, Valentina; Battaggia, Cinzia; Pagani, Luca; Vilar, Miguel; Wells, R Spencer; Pettener, Davide; Sarno, Stefania; Boattini, Alessio; Francalacci, Paolo; Colonna, Vincenza; Vona, Giuseppe; Calò, Carla; Destro Bisol, Giovanni; Tofanelli, Sergio

    2017-02-01

    Human populations are often dichotomized into "isolated" and "open" categories using cultural and/or geographical barriers to gene flow as differential criteria. Although widespread, the use of these alternative categories could obscure further heterogeneity due to inter-population differences in effective size, growth rate, and timing or amount of gene flow. We compared intra and inter-population variation measures combining novel and literature data relative to 87,818 autosomal SNPs in 14 open populations and 10 geographic and/or linguistic European isolates. Patterns of intra-population diversity were found to vary considerably more among isolates, probably due to differential levels of drift and inbreeding. The relatively large effective size estimated for some population isolates challenges the generalized view that they originate from small founding groups. Principal component scores based on measures of intra-population variation of isolated and open populations were found to be distributed along a continuum, with an area of intersection between the two groups. Patterns of inter-population diversity were even closer, as we were able to detect some differences between population groups only for a few multidimensional scaling dimensions. Therefore, different lines of evidence suggest that dichotomizing human populations into open and isolated groups fails to capture the actual relations among their genomic features.

  11. A simple method for estimating genetic diversity in large populations from finite sample sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajora Om P

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sample size is one of the critical factors affecting the accuracy of the estimation of population genetic diversity parameters. Small sample sizes often lead to significant errors in determining the allelic richness, which is one of the most important and commonly used estimators of genetic diversity in populations. Correct estimation of allelic richness in natural populations is challenging since they often do not conform to model assumptions. Here, we introduce a simple and robust approach to estimate the genetic diversity in large natural populations based on the empirical data for finite sample sizes. Results We developed a non-linear regression model to infer genetic diversity estimates in large natural populations from finite sample sizes. The allelic richness values predicted by our model were in good agreement with those observed in the simulated data sets and the true allelic richness observed in the source populations. The model has been validated using simulated population genetic data sets with different evolutionary scenarios implied in the simulated populations, as well as large microsatellite and allozyme experimental data sets for four conifer species with contrasting patterns of inherent genetic diversity and mating systems. Our model was a better predictor for allelic richness in natural populations than the widely-used Ewens sampling formula, coalescent approach, and rarefaction algorithm. Conclusions Our regression model was capable of accurately estimating allelic richness in natural populations regardless of the species and marker system. This regression modeling approach is free from assumptions and can be widely used for population genetic and conservation applications.

  12. Radar Design to Protect Against Surprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Technological and doctrinal surprise is about rendering preparations for conflict as irrelevant or ineffective . For a sensor, this means essentially rendering the sensor as irrelevant or ineffective in its ability to help determine truth. Recovery from this sort of surprise is facilitated by flexibility in our own technology and doctrine. For a sensor, this mean s flexibility in its architecture, design, tactics, and the designing organizations ' processes. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory manage d and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000.

  13. Surprise Leads to Noisier Perceptual Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta I Garrido

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Surprising events in the environment can impair task performance. This might be due to complete distraction, leading to lapses during which performance is reduced to guessing. Alternatively, unpredictability might cause a graded withdrawal of perceptual resources from the task at hand and thereby reduce sensitivity. Here we attempt to distinguish between these two mechanisms. Listeners performed a novel auditory pitch—duration discrimination, where stimulus loudness changed occasionally and incidentally to the task. Responses were slower and less accurate in the surprising condition, where loudness changed unpredictably, than in the predictable condition, where the loudness was held constant. By explicitly modelling both lapses and changes in sensitivity, we found that unpredictable changes diminished sensitivity but did not increase the rate of lapses. These findings suggest that background environmental uncertainty can disrupt goal-directed behaviour. This graded processing strategy might be adaptive in potentially threatening contexts, and reflect a flexible system for automatic allocation of perceptual resources.

  14. Radar Design to Protect Against Surprise.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2015-02-01

    Technological and doctrinal surprise is about rendering preparations for conflict as irrelevant or ineffective . For a sensor, this means essentially rendering the sensor as irrelevant or ineffective in its ability to help determine truth. Recovery from this sort of surprise is facilitated by flexibility in our own technology and doctrine. For a sensor, this mean s flexibility in its architecture, design, tactics, and the designing organizations ' processes. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory manage d and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000.

  15. Large-scale control site selection for population monitoring: an example assessing Sage-grouse trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedy, Bradley C.; O'Donnell, Michael; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2015-01-01

    Human impacts on wildlife populations are widespread and prolific and understanding wildlife responses to human impacts is a fundamental component of wildlife management. The first step to understanding wildlife responses is the documentation of changes in wildlife population parameters, such as population size. Meaningful assessment of population changes in potentially impacted sites requires the establishment of monitoring at similar, nonimpacted, control sites. However, it is often difficult to identify appropriate control sites in wildlife populations. We demonstrated use of Geographic Information System (GIS) data across large spatial scales to select biologically relevant control sites for population monitoring. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hearafter, sage-grouse) are negatively affected by energy development, and monitoring of sage-grouse population within energy development areas is necessary to detect population-level responses. Weused population data (1995–2012) from an energy development area in Wyoming, USA, the Atlantic Rim Project Area (ARPA), and GIS data to identify control sites that were not impacted by energy development for population monitoring. Control sites were surrounded by similar habitat and were within similar climate areas to the ARPA. We developed nonlinear trend models for both the ARPA and control sites and compared long-term trends from the 2 areas. We found little difference between the ARPA and control sites trends over time. This research demonstrated an approach for control site selection across large landscapes and can be used as a template for similar impact-monitoring studies. It is important to note that identification of changes in population parameters between control and treatment sites is only the first step in understanding the mechanisms that underlie those changes. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Challenges of cardiac image analysis in large-scale population-based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano-Gracia, Pau; Cowan, Brett R; Suinesiaputra, Avan; Young, Alistair A

    2015-03-01

    Large-scale population-based imaging studies of preclinical and clinical heart disease are becoming possible due to the advent of standardized robust non-invasive imaging methods and infrastructure for big data analysis. This gives an exciting opportunity to gain new information about the development and progression of heart disease across population groups. However, the large amount of image data and prohibitive time required for image analysis present challenges for obtaining useful derived data from the images. Automated analysis tools for cardiac image analysis are only now becoming available. This paper reviews the challenges and possible solutions to the analysis of big imaging data in population studies. We also highlight the potential of recent large epidemiological studies using cardiac imaging to discover new knowledge on heart health and well-being.

  17. Surprise-Based Learning for Autonomous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-28

    for scientific theories containing recursive theoretical terms". British Journal of Philosophy of Science, 44. 641-652, 1993. Piaget J.. "The Origins...paradigm stems from Piaget’s theory of Developmental Psychology [5], Herben Simon’s theory on dual-space search for knowledge and problem solving [6...34, Twenty-First Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, Edinburgh, Scotland, July 2005. [34] Itti L., Baldi P., "A Surprising Theory of

  18. Assessing the use of global land cover data for guiding large area population distribution modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linard, Catherine; Gilbert, Marius; Tatem, Andrew J

    2011-10-01

    Gridded population distribution data are finding increasing use in a wide range of fields, including resource allocation, disease burden estimation and climate change impact assessment. Land cover information can be used in combination with detailed settlement extents to redistribute aggregated census counts to improve the accuracy of national-scale gridded population data. In East Africa, such analyses have been done using regional land cover data, thus restricting application of the approach to this region. If gridded population data are to be improved across Africa, an alternative, consistent and comparable source of land cover data is required. Here these analyses were repeated for Kenya using four continent-wide land cover datasets combined with detailed settlement extents and accuracies were assessed against detailed census data. The aim was to identify the large area land cover dataset that, combined with detailed settlement extents, produce the most accurate population distribution data. The effectiveness of the population distribution modelling procedures in the absence of high resolution census data was evaluated, as was the extrapolation ability of population densities between different regions. Results showed that the use of the GlobCover dataset refined with detailed settlement extents provided significantly more accurate gridded population data compared to the use of refined AVHRR-derived, MODIS-derived and GLC2000 land cover datasets. This study supports the hypothesis that land cover information is important for improving population distribution model accuracies, particularly in countries where only coarse resolution census data are available. Obtaining high resolution census data must however remain the priority. With its higher spatial resolution and its more recent data acquisition, the GlobCover dataset was found as the most valuable resource to use in combination with detailed settlement extents for the production of gridded population datasets

  19. Extinction time and age of an allele in a large finite population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herwaarden, van O.A.; Wal, van der N.J.

    2002-01-01

    For a single locus with two alleles we study the expected extinction and fixation times of the alleles under the influence of selection and genetic drift. Using a diffusion model we derive asymptotic approximations for these expected exit times for large populations. We consider the case where the f

  20. Pupil size tracks perceptual content and surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Niels A; Meindertsma, Thomas; van Loon, Anouk M; Lamme, Victor A F; Bonneh, Yoram S; Donner, Tobias H

    2015-04-01

    Changes in pupil size at constant light levels reflect the activity of neuromodulatory brainstem centers that control global brain state. These endogenously driven pupil dynamics can be synchronized with cognitive acts. For example, the pupil dilates during the spontaneous switches of perception of a constant sensory input in bistable perceptual illusions. It is unknown whether this pupil dilation only indicates the occurrence of perceptual switches, or also their content. Here, we measured pupil diameter in human subjects reporting the subjective disappearance and re-appearance of a physically constant visual target surrounded by a moving pattern ('motion-induced blindness' illusion). We show that the pupil dilates during the perceptual switches in the illusion and a stimulus-evoked 'replay' of that illusion. Critically, the switch-related pupil dilation encodes perceptual content, with larger amplitude for disappearance than re-appearance. This difference in pupil response amplitude enables prediction of the type of report (disappearance vs. re-appearance) on individual switches (receiver-operating characteristic: 61%). The amplitude difference is independent of the relative durations of target-visible and target-invisible intervals and subjects' overt behavioral report of the perceptual switches. Further, we show that pupil dilation during the replay also scales with the level of surprise about the timing of switches, but there is no evidence for an interaction between the effects of surprise and perceptual content on the pupil response. Taken together, our results suggest that pupil-linked brain systems track both the content of, and surprise about, perceptual events.

  1. Global distribution of large lunar craters: implications for resurfacing and impactor populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, James W; Fassett, Caleb I; Kadish, Seth J; Smith, David E; Zuber, Maria T; Neumann, Gregory A; Mazarico, Erwan

    2010-09-17

    By using high-resolution altimetric measurements of the Moon, we produced a catalog of all impact craters ≥20 kilometers in diameter on the lunar surface and analyzed their distribution and population characteristics. The most-densely cratered portion of the highlands reached a state of saturation equilibrium. Large impact events, such as Orientale Basin, locally modified the prebasin crater population to ~2 basin radii from the basin center. Basins such as Imbrium, Orientale, and Nectaris, which are important stratigraphic markers in lunar history, are temporally distinguishable on the basis of crater statistics. The characteristics of pre- and postmare crater populations support the hypothesis that there were two populations of impactors in early solar system history and that the transition occurred near the time of the Orientale Basin event.

  2. Large scale molecular analysis of traditional European maize populations. Relationships with morphological variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebourg, C; Gouesnard, B; Charcosset, A

    2001-05-01

    A representative sample of 130 European traditional maize populations was analysed for both their morphological and molecular variation. The morphological analysis of 19 variables revealed a significant variability. Correlation analysis allowed us to distinguish between traits affected by earliness (plant and ear height) and structural traits (plant architecture, grain structure). Two main morphological types could be distinguished. Molecular analyses were performed for 29 RFLP loci on DNA bulks. The number of alleles detected was high when compared to previous studies (9.59 alleles per locus). Genetic diversity was also high (0.55), with a strong differentiation between populations (GST value of 35.6%). A clear relationship between the genetic diversity of the populations and their agronomic performances was highlighted. Morphological and molecular distances showed a tendency towards a triangular relationship. We therefore considered a two-phase process to be the most efficient approach for the classification of genetic resources: firstly, a molecular study to define groups of genetically close populations, and secondly a morphological description of populations from each group. In our European collection, this approach allowed us to separate the populations from Northern and Southern Europe and to define six groups of genetically close populations, comparable to European races. This study opens new prospects concerning the molecular analysis of very large collections of genetic resources, hitherto limited by the necessity of individual analyses, and proposes a first molecular classification of European maize germplasm.

  3. Large population solution of the stochastic Luria-Delbruck evolution model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, David A; Levine, Herbert

    2013-07-16

    Luria and Delbrück introduced a very useful and subsequently widely adopted framework for quantitatively understanding the emergence of new cellular lineages. Here, we provide an analytical treatment of the fully stochastic version of the model, enabled by the fact that population sizes at the time of measurement are invariably very large and mutation rates are low. We show that the Lea-Coulson generating function describes the "inner solution," where the number of mutants is much smaller than the total population. We find that the corresponding distribution function interpolates between a monotonic decrease at relatively small populations, (compared with the inverse of the mutation probability), whereas it goes over to a Lévy α-stable distribution in the very large population limit. The moments are completely determined by the outer solution, and so are devoid of practical significance. The key to our solution is focusing on the fixed population size ensemble, which we show is very different from the fixed time ensemble due to the extreme variability in the evolutionary process.

  4. Models of population-based analyses for data collected from large extended families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenyu; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Fabsitz, Richard R; Devereux, Richard B; MacCluer, Jean W; Laston, Sandra; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Shara, Nawar M; Welty, Thomas K

    2010-12-01

    Large studies of extended families usually collect valuable phenotypic data that may have scientific value for purposes other than testing genetic hypotheses if the families were not selected in a biased manner. These purposes include assessing population-based associations of diseases with risk factors/covariates and estimating population characteristics such as disease prevalence and incidence. Relatedness among participants however, violates the traditional assumption of independent observations in these classic analyses. The commonly used adjustment method for relatedness in population-based analyses is to use marginal models, in which clusters (families) are assumed to be independent (unrelated) with a simple and identical covariance (family) structure such as those called independent, exchangeable and unstructured covariance structures. However, using these simple covariance structures may not be optimally appropriate for outcomes collected from large extended families, and may under- or over-estimate the variances of estimators and thus lead to uncertainty in inferences. Moreover, the assumption that families are unrelated with an identical family structure in a marginal model may not be satisfied for family studies with large extended families. The aim of this paper is to propose models incorporating marginal models approaches with a covariance structure for assessing population-based associations of diseases with their risk factors/covariates and estimating population characteristics for epidemiological studies while adjusting for the complicated relatedness among outcomes (continuous/categorical, normally/non-normally distributed) collected from large extended families. We also discuss theoretical issues of the proposed models and show that the proposed models and covariance structure are appropriate for and capable of achieving the aim.

  5. Experience with High-Intensity Beam Scraping and Tail Population at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S; Burkart, F; Bruce, R; Mirarchi, D; Salvachua, B; Valentino, G; Wollmann, D

    2013-01-01

    The population of beam tails at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a source of concern for the operation at higher beam energies and intensities when even small fractions of the beam could represent a potential danger is case of slow or fast losses, e.g. caused by orbit transients or by collimator movements. Different studies have been performed using the technique of collimator scans to probe the beam tail population in different conditions. The experience accumulated during the operation at 3.5 TeV and 4 TeV is reviewed.

  6. Some surprising facts about (the problem of) surprising facts (from the Dusseldorf Conference, February 2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, D

    2014-03-01

    A common intuition about evidence is that if data x have been used to construct a hypothesis H, then x should not be used again in support of H. It is no surprise that x fits H, if H was deliberately constructed to accord with x. The question of when and why we should avoid such "double-counting" continues to be debated in philosophy and statistics. It arises as a prohibition against data mining, hunting for significance, tuning on the signal, and ad hoc hypotheses, and as a preference for predesignated hypotheses and "surprising" predictions. I have argued that it is the severity or probativeness of the test--or lack of it--that should determine whether a double-use of data is admissible. I examine a number of surprising ambiguities and unexpected facts that continue to bedevil this debate.

  7. Stroke Recovery: Surprising Influences and Residual Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argye E. Hillis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is startling individual variability in the degree to which people recover from stroke and the duration of time over which recovery of some symptoms occurs. There are a variety of mechanisms of recovery from stroke which take place at distinct time points after stroke and are influenced by different variables. We review recent studies from our laboratory that unveil some surprising findings, such as the role of education in chronic recovery. We also report data showing that the consequences that most plague survivors of stroke and their caregivers are loss of high level cortical functions, such as empathy or written language. These results have implications for rehabilitation and management of stroke.

  8. Large herbivore population performance and climate in a South African semi-arid savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin H. Seydack

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term population performance trends of eight large herbivore species belonging to groups of disparate foraging styles were studied in the semi-arid savanna of the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Over the past century the number of bulk feeders (buffalo, waterbuck, blue wildebeest and plains zebra had increased towards comparatively high population densities, whereas population numbers of selectively feeding antelope species (sable antelope, roan antelope, tsessebe and eland declined progressively. Detailed analyses revealed that population numbers of buffalo and waterbuck fluctuated in association with food quantity determined by rainfall. Population performance ratings (1944–2003 of the species for which forage quality was important (blue wildebeest, zebra and selective grazers were correlated negatively with minimum temperature and positively with dry-season rainfall.Interpretation according to a climate–vegetation response model suggested that acclimation of forage plants to increasing temperature had resulted in temperature-enhanced plant productivity, initially increasing food availability and supporting transient synchronous increases in population abundance of both blue wildebeest and zebra, and selective grazers. As acclimation of plants to concurrently rising minimum (nocturnal temperature (Tmin took effect, adjustments in metabolic functionality occurred involving accelerated growth activity at the cost of storage-based metabolism. Growth-linked nitrogen dilution and reduced carbon-nutrient quality of forage then resulted in phases of subsequently declining herbivore populations. Over the long term (1910–2010, progressive plant functionality shifts towards accelerated metabolic growth rather than storage priority occurred in response to Tmin rising faster than maximum temperature (Tmax, thereby cumulatively compromising the carbon-nutrient quality of forage, a key resource for selective grazers.The results of analyses

  9. Surprises and mysteries in urban soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groffman, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the Baltimore Ecosystem Study, one of two urban long-term ecological research (LTER) projects funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, we are using "the watershed approach" to integrate ecological, physical and social sciences. Urban and suburban watershed input/output budgets for nitrogen have shown surprisingly high retention which has led to detailed analysis of sources and sinks in soils these watersheds. Home lawns, thought to be major sources of reactive nitrogen in suburban watersheds, have more complex coupled carbon and nitrogen dynamics than previously thought, and are likely the site of much nitrogen retention. Riparian zones, thought to be an important sink for reactive nitrogen in many watersheds, have turned out be nitrogen sources in urban watersheds due to hydrologic changes that disconnect streams from their surrounding landscape. Urban effects on atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and nitrogen deposition have strong effects on soil nitrogen cycling processes and soil:atmosphere fluxes of nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane. Efforts to manage urban soils and watersheds through geomorphic stream restoration, creation of stormwater management features and changes in lawn and forest management can have significant effects on watershed carbon and nitrogen dynamics. Urban soils present a basic and applied science frontier that challenges our understanding of biological, physical, chemical and social science processes. The watershed approach provides an effective platform for integrating these disciplines and for articulating critical questions that arise from surprising results. This approach can help us to meet the challenge of urban soils, which is critical to achieving sustainability goals in cities across the world.

  10. 河南灵宝市西坡遗址发现一座仰韶文化中期特大房址%A Surprisingly Large House of the Middle Yangshao Period Discovered on the Xipo Site in Lingbao, Henan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中国社会科学院考古研究所河南一队; 河南省文物考古研究所; 三门峡市文物考古研究所; 灵宝市文物保护管理所; 荆山黄帝陵管理所

    2005-01-01

    After the discovery of House F105. which is 204 sq m in floor area, another surprisingly large semi-subterranean House F106 was exposed at tile Xipo site, Lingbao. Henan, in 2004. The house, about 240 sq m in floor area. ix rectangular in shape. In the middle of its north wall ix a doorway with an azimuth of 24°. The walls of its subterrarlearl part are buih of rammed earth, pasted with fine clay and painted in red Oll the surface.The floor, with a total thickness of 25.5 era. eonsists of seven sub-layers of fine clay and rammed earth and is also painted red oil the surface. 45 postholes were found —— 41 in the walls and four in the middle of the floor. Some traces indicate the existence of rammed earth outer walls in the periphery of the subterranean part. The discoveryof F106 is very important to a better understanding of alehiteetural teehniques during the middle Yangshao period(ea. 6000 BC - ea. 5500 BC).

  11. Estimating demographic parameters from large-scale population genomic data using Approximate Bayesian Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Sen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC approach has been used to infer demographic parameters for numerous species, including humans. However, most applications of ABC still use limited amounts of data, from a small number of loci, compared to the large amount of genome-wide population-genetic data which have become available in the last few years. Results We evaluated the performance of the ABC approach for three 'population divergence' models - similar to the 'isolation with migration' model - when the data consists of several hundred thousand SNPs typed for multiple individuals by simulating data from known demographic models. The ABC approach was used to infer demographic parameters of interest and we compared the inferred values to the true parameter values that was used to generate hypothetical "observed" data. For all three case models, the ABC approach inferred most demographic parameters quite well with narrow credible intervals, for example, population divergence times and past population sizes, but some parameters were more difficult to infer, such as population sizes at present and migration rates. We compared the ability of different summary statistics to infer demographic parameters, including haplotype and LD based statistics, and found that the accuracy of the parameter estimates can be improved by combining summary statistics that capture different parts of information in the data. Furthermore, our results suggest that poor choices of prior distributions can in some circumstances be detected using ABC. Finally, increasing the amount of data beyond some hundred loci will substantially improve the accuracy of many parameter estimates using ABC. Conclusions We conclude that the ABC approach can accommodate realistic genome-wide population genetic data, which may be difficult to analyze with full likelihood approaches, and that the ABC can provide accurate and precise inference of demographic parameters from

  12. On the Spatial Distribution of Stellar Populations in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, J; Harris, Jason; Zaritsky, Dennis

    1999-01-01

    We measure the angular correlation function of stars in a region of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) that spans 2 degrees by 1.5 degrees. We find that the correlation functions of stellar populations are represented well by exponential functions of the angular separation for separations between 2 and 40 arcmin (corresponding to ~ 30 pc and 550 pc for an LMC distance of 50 kpc). The inner boundary is set by the presence of distinct, highly correlated structures, which are the more familiar stellar clusters, and the outer boundary is set by the observed region's size and the presence of two principal centers of star formation within the region. We also find that the normalization and scale length of the correlation function changes systematically with the mean age of the stellar population. The existence of positive correlation at large separations (~300 pc), even in the youngest population, argues for large-scale hierarchical structure in current star formation. The evolution of the angular correlation toward ...

  13. Biotic and abiotic factors predicting the global distribution and population density of an invasive large mammal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jesse S.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Burdett, Chris L.; Theobald, David M.; Gray, Miranda; Miller, Ryan S.

    2017-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic factors are increasingly acknowledged to synergistically shape broad-scale species distributions. However, the relative importance of biotic and abiotic factors in predicting species distributions is unclear. In particular, biotic factors, such as predation and vegetation, including those resulting from anthropogenic land-use change, are underrepresented in species distribution modeling, but could improve model predictions. Using generalized linear models and model selection techniques, we used 129 estimates of population density of wild pigs (Sus scrofa) from 5 continents to evaluate the relative importance, magnitude, and direction of biotic and abiotic factors in predicting population density of an invasive large mammal with a global distribution. Incorporating diverse biotic factors, including agriculture, vegetation cover, and large carnivore richness, into species distribution modeling substantially improved model fit and predictions. Abiotic factors, including precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, were also important predictors. The predictive map of population density revealed wide-ranging potential for an invasive large mammal to expand its distribution globally. This information can be used to proactively create conservation/management plans to control future invasions. Our study demonstrates that the ongoing paradigm shift, which recognizes that both biotic and abiotic factors shape species distributions across broad scales, can be advanced by incorporating diverse biotic factors. PMID:28276519

  14. The conceptualization model problem—surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, John

    2005-03-01

    The foundation of model analysis is the conceptual model. Surprise is defined as new data that renders the prevailing conceptual model invalid; as defined here it represents a paradigm shift. Limited empirical data indicate that surprises occur in 20-30% of model analyses. These data suggest that groundwater analysts have difficulty selecting the appropriate conceptual model. There is no ready remedy to the conceptual model problem other than (1) to collect as much data as is feasible, using all applicable methods—a complementary data collection methodology can lead to new information that changes the prevailing conceptual model, and (2) for the analyst to remain open to the fact that the conceptual model can change dramatically as more information is collected. In the final analysis, the hydrogeologist makes a subjective decision on the appropriate conceptual model. The conceptualization problem does not render models unusable. The problem introduces an uncertainty that often is not widely recognized. Conceptual model uncertainty is exacerbated in making long-term predictions of system performance. C'est le modèle conceptuel qui se trouve à base d'une analyse sur un modèle. On considère comme une surprise lorsque le modèle est invalidé par des données nouvelles; dans les termes définis ici la surprise est équivalente à un change de paradigme. Des données empiriques limitées indiquent que les surprises apparaissent dans 20 à 30% des analyses effectuées sur les modèles. Ces données suggèrent que l'analyse des eaux souterraines présente des difficultés lorsqu'il s'agit de choisir le modèle conceptuel approprié. Il n'existe pas un autre remède au problème du modèle conceptuel que: (1) rassembler autant des données que possible en utilisant toutes les méthodes applicables—la méthode des données complémentaires peut conduire aux nouvelles informations qui vont changer le modèle conceptuel, et (2) l'analyste doit rester ouvert au fait

  15. The local stellar population of novae regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Subramanian, A; Subramaniam, Annapurni

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of novae across the face of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and star formation history (SFH) of nearby regions around them are presented using photometric data of stars and star clusters in the OGLE II survey and star cluster catalogues. The nova population in the LMC belong, predominantly to the fast category, with only 11.8% belonging to the slow nova population. All the novae detected within the Bar are fast novae.The age of the stellar population within a few arcmin around novae regions are estimated using isochrone fits to the V vs (V-I) colour-magnitude diagrams. Of the 15 regions studied, excepting the one around the slow nova, all the other regions do not show stellar population in the range 4 - 10 Gyr and the star formation is found to have started between 4 - 2.0 Gyr, with a majority of regions starting the star formation at 3.2 Gyr. This star formation event lasted until 1.6 - 1.8 Gyr. Based on the SFH, it is estimated that the parent population of the fast and moderately fast nov...

  16. Correction of population stratification in large multi-ethnic association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Serre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The vast majority of genetic risk factors for complex diseases have, taken individually, a small effect on the end phenotype. Population-based association studies therefore need very large sample sizes to detect significant differences between affected and non-affected individuals. Including thousands of affected individuals in a study requires recruitment in numerous centers, possibly from different geographic regions. Unfortunately such a recruitment strategy is likely to complicate the study design and to generate concerns regarding population stratification. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed 9,751 individuals representing three main ethnic groups - Europeans, Arabs and South Asians - that had been enrolled from 154 centers involving 52 countries for a global case/control study of acute myocardial infarction. All individuals were genotyped at 103 candidate genes using 1,536 SNPs selected with a tagging strategy that captures most of the genetic diversity in different populations. We show that relying solely on self-reported ethnicity is not sufficient to exclude population stratification and we present additional methods to identify and correct for stratification. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results highlight the importance of carefully addressing population stratification and of carefully "cleaning" the sample prior to analyses to obtain stronger signals of association and to avoid spurious results.

  17. Large-scale natural disturbance alters genetic population structure of the sailfin molly, Poecilia latipinna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Joseph J; Trexler, Joel C; Jue, Nathaniel K; Schrader, Matthew; Travis, Joseph

    2013-02-01

    Many inferences about contemporary rates of gene flow are based on the assumption that the observed genetic structure among populations is stable. Recent studies have uncovered several cases in which this assumption is tenuous. Most of those studies have focused on the effects that regular environmental fluctuations can have on genetic structure and gene flow patterns. Occasional catastrophic disturbances could also alter either the distribution of habitat or the spatial distribution of organisms in a way that affects population structure. However, evidence of such effects is sparse in the literature because it is difficult to obtain. Hurricanes, in particular, have the potential to exert dramatic effects on population structure of organisms found on islands or coral reefs or in near shore and coastal habitats. Here we draw on a historic genetic data set and new data to suggest that the genetic structure of sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna) populations in north Florida was altered dramatically by an unusually large and uncommon type of storm surge associated with Hurricane Dennis in 2005. We compare the spatial pattern of genetic variation in these populations after Hurricane Dennis to the patterns described in an earlier study in this same area. We use comparable genetic data from another region of Florida, collected in the same two periods, to estimate the amount of change expected from typical temporal variation in population structure. The comparative natural history of sailfin mollies in these two regions indicates that the change in population structure produced by the storm surge is not the result of many local extinctions with recolonization from a few refugia but emerged from a pattern of mixing and redistribution.

  18. Managing Natural and Reintroduced Rare Plant Populations within a Large Government Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, T M; Paterson, L E; Alfaro, T M

    2009-07-15

    California is home to many large government reservations that have been in existence for decades. Many of these reservations were formed to support various Department of Defense and Department of Energy national defense activities. Often, only a very small percentage of the reservation is actively used for programmatic activities, resulting in large areas of intact habitat. In some cases, this has benefited rare plant populations, as surrounding lands have been developed for residential or industrial use. However, land management activities such as the suppression or active use of fire and other disturbance (such as fire trail grading) can also work to either the detriment or benefit of rare plant populations at these sites. A management regime that is beneficial to the rare plant populations of interest and is at best consistent with existing site programmatic activities, and at a minimum does not impact such activities, has the best potential for a positive outcome. As a result, some species may be 'difficult' while others may be 'easy' to manage in this context, depending on how closely the species biological requirements match the programmatic activities on the reservation. To illustrate, we compare and contrast two rare annual plant species found at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Site 300. Although several populations of Amsinckia grandiflora have been restored on the site, and all populations are intensively managed, this species continues to decline. In contrast, Blepharizonia plumosa appears to take advantage of the annual controlled burns conducted on the site, and is thriving.

  19. Surprising characteristics of visual systems of invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín-Moro, J; Hernández-Verdejo, J L; Jiménez-Gahete, A E

    2017-01-01

    To communicate relevant and striking aspects about the visual system of some close invertebrates. Review of the related literature. The capacity of snails to regenerate a complete eye, the benefit of the oval shape of the compound eye of many flying insects as a way of stabilising the image during flight, the potential advantages related to the extreme refractive error that characterises the ocelli of many insects, as well as the ability to detect polarised light as a navigation system, are some of the surprising capabilities present in the small invertebrate eyes that are described in this work. The invertebrate eyes have capabilities and sensorial modalities that are not present in the human eye. The study of the eyes of these animals can help us to improve our understanding of our visual system, and inspire the development of optical devices. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. 10 years of surprises at Saturn: CAPS and INMS highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, A. J.; Waite, J. H.

    2014-04-01

    The Cassini mission at Saturn has provided many surprises on Saturn's rapidly rotating magnetosphere and its interaction with the diverse moons, as well as its interaction with the solar wind. One of the early discoveries was the water-rich composition of the magnetosphere. Its structure and dynamics indicate remarkable injections, periodicities and interchange events. Enceladus, orbiting at 4 RS, was found to have plumes of water vapour and ice which are the dominant source for the inner magnetosphere. Charged water clusters, charged dust and photoelectrons provide key populations in the 'dusty plasma' seen here, as well as chemical complexity in the plume material. Direct pickup is seen near Enceladus and field aligned currents create a spot in Saturn's aurora. At Titan, orbiting at 20 RS, heavy negative and positive ions are seen in the ionosphere, as well as neutrals, all of which have surprising chemical complexity. These provide the source for Titan's haze. Ionospheric plasma is seen in Titan's tail, enabling ion escape to be estimated at 7 tonnes per day. Saturn's ring ionosphere was seen early in the mission, which was oxygen rich and produced photoelectrons; a return will be made in 2017. At Rhea, pickup positive and negative ions indicated weak atmospheres sustained by energetic particle impact, seen in the neutrals also. A weak atmosphere was also seen at Dione. The exosphere production process operates at Jupiter's moons also. Here we review some of the key new results, and discuss the implications for other solar system contexts.

  1. The limits of weak selection and large population size in evolutionary game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, Christine; Allen, Benjamin

    2017-03-28

    Evolutionary game theory is a mathematical approach to studying how social behaviors evolve. In many recent works, evolutionary competition between strategies is modeled as a stochastic process in a finite population. In this context, two limits are both mathematically convenient and biologically relevant: weak selection and large population size. These limits can be combined in different ways, leading to potentially different results. We consider two orderings: the [Formula: see text] limit, in which weak selection is applied before the large population limit, and the [Formula: see text] limit, in which the order is reversed. Formal mathematical definitions of the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] limits are provided. Applying these definitions to the Moran process of evolutionary game theory, we obtain asymptotic expressions for fixation probability and conditions for success in these limits. We find that the asymptotic expressions for fixation probability, and the conditions for a strategy to be favored over a neutral mutation, are different in the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] limits. However, the ordering of limits does not affect the conditions for one strategy to be favored over another.

  2. High Accuracy Decoding of Dynamical Motion from a Large Retinal Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Marre

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Motion tracking is a challenge the visual system has to solve by reading out the retinal population. It is still unclear how the information from different neurons can be combined together to estimate the position of an object. Here we recorded a large population of ganglion cells in a dense patch of salamander and guinea pig retinas while displaying a bar moving diffusively. We show that the bar's position can be reconstructed from retinal activity with a precision in the hyperacuity regime using a linear decoder acting on 100+ cells. We then took advantage of this unprecedented precision to explore the spatial structure of the retina's population code. The classical view would have suggested that the firing rates of the cells form a moving hill of activity tracking the bar's position. Instead, we found that most ganglion cells in the salamander fired sparsely and idiosyncratically, so that their neural image did not track the bar. Furthermore, ganglion cell activity spanned an area much larger than predicted by their receptive fields, with cells coding for motion far in their surround. As a result, population redundancy was high, and we could find multiple, disjoint subsets of neurons that encoded the trajectory with high precision. This organization allows for diverse collections of ganglion cells to represent high-accuracy motion information in a form easily read out by downstream neural circuits.

  3. Daphnias: from the individual based model to the large population equation

    CERN Document Server

    Metz, J A J

    2012-01-01

    The class of deterministic 'Daphnia' models treated by Diekmann et al. (J Math Biol 61: 277-318, 2010) has a long history going back to Nisbet and Gurney (Theor Pop Biol 23: 114-135, 1983) and Diekmann et al. (Nieuw Archief voor Wiskunde 4: 82-109, 1984). In this note, we formulate the individual based models (IBM) supposedly underlying those deterministic models. The models treat the interaction between a general size-structured consumer population ('Daphnia') and an unstructured resource ('algae'). The discrete, size and age-structured Daphnia population changes through births and deaths of its individuals and throught their aging and growth. The birth and death rates depend on the sizes of the individuals and on the concentration of the algae. The latter is supposed to be a continuous variable with a deterministic dynamics that depends on the Daphnia population. In this model setting we prove that when the Daphnia population is large, the stochastic differential equation describing the IBM can be approxima...

  4. Population genetic divergence corresponds with species-level biodiversity patterns in the large genus Begonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, M; Hollingsworth, P M

    2008-06-01

    Begonia is one of the largest angiosperm genera, containing over 1500 species. Some aspects of the distribution of biodiversity in the genus, such as the geographical restrictions of monophyletic groups, the rarity and morphological variability of widespread species, and a preponderance of narrow endemics, suggest that restricted gene flow may have been a factor in the formation of so many species. In order to investigate whether this inference based on large-scale patterns is supported by data at the population level, we examined the distribution of genetic variation within Begonia sutherlandii in the indigenous forests of Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, using microsatellite markers. Despite the species being predominantly outbreeding, we found high and significant levels of population structure (standardized =F'ST= 0.896). Even within individual populations, there was evidence for clear differentiation of subpopulations. There is thus congruence in evolutionary patterns ranging from interspecific phylogeny, the distribution of individual species, to the levels of population differentiation. Despite this species-rich genus showing a pan-tropical distribution, these combined observations suggest that differentiation occurs over very local scales. Although strongly selected allelic variants can maintain species cohesion with only low levels of gene flow, we hypothesize that in Begonia, gene flow levels are often so low, that divergence in allopatry is likely to be a frequent occurrence, and the lack of widespread species may in part be attributable to a lack of a mechanism for holding them together.

  5. Seed population in large Solar Energetic Particle events and the twin-CME scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Liu-Guan; Le, Gui-Ming; Gu, Bin; Cao, Xin-Xin

    2016-01-01

    It has been recently suggested that large solar energetic particle (SEP) events are often caused by twin CMEs. In the twin-CME scenario, the preceding CME is to provide both an enhanced turbulence level and enhanced seed population at the main CME-driven shock. In this work, we study the effect of the preceding CMEs on the seed population. We examine event-integrated abundance of iron to oxygen ratio (Fe/O) at energies above 25 MeV/nuc for large SEP events in solar cycle 23. We find that the Fe/O ratio (normalized to the reference coronal value of $0.134$) $\\leq2.0$ for almost all single-CME events and these events tend to have smaller peak intensities. In comparison, the Fe/O ratio of twin-CME events scatters in a larger range, reaching as high as $8$, suggesting the presence of flare material from perhaps preceding flares. For extremely large SEP events with peak intensity above $1000$ pfu, the Fe/O drop below $2$, indicating that in these extreme events the seed particles are dominated by coronal material ...

  6. Emergence of a super-synchronized mobbing state in a large population of coupled chemical oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Gourab; Muñuzuri, Alberto P.; Pérez-Mercader, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Oscillatory phenomena are ubiquitous in Nature. The ability of a large population of coupled oscillators to synchronize constitutes an important mechanism to express information and establish communication among members. To understand such phenomena, models and experimental realizations of globally coupled oscillators have proven to be invaluable in settings as varied as chemical, biological and physical systems. A variety of rich dynamical behavior has been uncovered, although usually in the context of a single state of synchronization or lack thereof. Through the experimental and numerical study of a large population of discrete chemical oscillators, here we report on the unexpected discovery of a new phenomenon revealing the existence of dynamically distinct synchronized states reflecting different degrees of communication. Specifically, we discover a novel large-amplitude super-synchronized state separated from the conventionally reported synchronized and quiescent states through an unusual sharp jump transition when sampling the strong coupling limit. Our results assume significance for further elucidating globally coherent phenomena, such as in neuropathologies, bacterial cell colonies, social systems and semiconductor lasers.

  7. Comparative studies on some genetic characteristics among four large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dexiang; WANG Jun; DING Shaoxiong; SU Yongquan

    2007-01-01

    The genetic structure was compared among four large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) populations, an important aquaculture species in China. RAPD and ISSR results show that the genetic distances between domestic stocks and their wild counterparts are significantly larger than those between the three wild stocks. The sequence of mtDNA cyt b shows that the three wild populations share the same sequence, with differences in the four bases from the cultured stock: two transitions [ 57 ( C-T), 291 (G-A) ] and two transversions [ 66 (C-G) ,223 (A-C) ]. Cluster analysis reveals that the domestic stock has diverged from its parental wild stock [ Min-Yuedong (Fujian Province-eastern Guangdong Province, China) stock]. Results demonstrate that 20 a of domestication of the Pseudosciaena crocea stock has resulted in significant genetic changes.

  8. Context-dependence of long-term responses of terrestrial gastropod populations to large-scale disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher P. Bloch; Michael R. Willi

    2006-01-01

    Large-scale natural disturbances, such as hurricanes, can have profound effects on animal populations. Nonetheless, generalizations about the effects of disturbance are elusive, and few studies consider long-term responses of a single population or community to multiple large-scale disturbance events. In the last 20 y, twomajor hurricanes (Hugo and Georges) have struck...

  9. Fixation in large populations: a continuous view of a discrete problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalub, Fabio A C C; Souza, Max O

    2016-01-01

    We study fixation in large, but finite, populations with two types, and dynamics governed by birth-death processes. By considering a restricted class of such processes, which includes many of the evolutionary processes usually discussed in the literature, we derive a continuous approximation for the probability of fixation that is valid beyond the weak-selection (WS) limit. Indeed, in the derivation three regimes naturally appear: selection-driven, balanced, and quasi-neutral--the latter two require WS, while the former can appear with or without WS. From the continuous approximations, we then obtain asymptotic approximations for evolutionary dynamics with at most one equilibrium, in the selection-driven regime, that does not preclude a weak-selection regime. As an application, we study the fixation pattern when the infinite population limit has an interior evolutionary stable strategy (ESS): (1) we show that the fixation pattern for the Hawk and Dove game satisfies what we term the one-half law: if the ESS is outside a small interval around 1/2, the fixation is of dominance type; (2) we also show that, outside of the weak-selection regime, the long-term dynamics of large populations can have very little resemblance to the infinite population case; in addition, we also present results for the case of two equilibria, and show that even when there is weak-selection the long-term dynamics can be dramatically different from the one predicted by the replicator dynamics. Finally, we present continuous restatements valid for large populations of two classical concepts naturally defined in the discrete case: (1) the definition of an ESSN strategy; (2) the definition of a risk-dominant strategy. We then present three applications of these restatements: (1) we obtain an asymptotic definition valid in the quasi-neutral regime that recovers both the one-third law under linear fitness and the generalised one-third law for d-player games; (2) we extend the ideas behind the

  10. A Connectionist Modeling Approach to Rapid Analysis of Emergent Social Cognition Properties in Large-Populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perumalla, Kalyan S [ORNL; Schryver, Jack C [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Traditional modeling methodologies, such as those based on rule-based agent modeling, are exhibiting limitations in application to rich behavioral scenarios, especially when applied to large population aggregates. Here, we propose a new modeling methodology based on a well-known "connectionist approach," and articulate its pertinence in new applications of interest. This methodology is designed to address challenges such as speed of model development, model customization, model reuse across disparate geographic/cultural regions, and rapid and incremental updates to models over time.

  11. A law of large numbers approximation for Markov population processes with countably many types

    CERN Document Server

    Barbour, A D

    2010-01-01

    When modelling metapopulation dynamics, the influence of a single patch on the metapopulation depends on the number of individuals in the patch. Since the population size has no natural upper limit, this leads to systems in which there are countably infinitely many possible types of individual. Analogous considerations apply in the transmission of parasitic diseases. In this paper, we prove a law of large numbers for rather general systems of this kind, together with a rather sharp bound on the rate of convergence in an appropriately chosen weighted $\\ell_1$ norm.

  12. Large-scale population study of human cell lines indicates that dosage compensation is virtually complete.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette M Johnston

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available X chromosome inactivation in female mammals results in dosage compensation of X-linked gene products between the sexes. In humans there is evidence that a substantial proportion of genes escape from silencing. We have carried out a large-scale analysis of gene expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines from four human populations to determine the extent to which escape from X chromosome inactivation disrupts dosage compensation. We conclude that dosage compensation is virtually complete. Overall expression from the X chromosome is only slightly higher in females and can largely be accounted for by elevated female expression of approximately 5% of X-linked genes. We suggest that the potential contribution of escape from X chromosome inactivation to phenotypic differences between the sexes is more limited than previously believed.

  13. Which processes shape stellar population gradients of massive galaxies at large radii?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmann, Michaela

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the differential impact of physical mechanisms, mergers (stellar accretion) and internal energetic phenomena, on the evolution of stellar population gradients in massive, present-day galaxies employing a set of high-resolution, cosmological zoom simulations. We demonstrate that negative metallicity and color gradients at large radii (>2Reff) originate from the accretion of metal-poor stellar systems. At larger radii, galaxies become typically more dominated by stars accreted from satellite galaxies in major and minor mergers. However, only strong galactic winds can sufficiently reduce the metallicity content of the accreted stars to realistically steepen the outer metallicity and colour gradients in agreement with present-day observations. In contrast, the gradients of the models without winds are inconsistent with observations (too flat). In the wind model, colour and metallicity gradients are significantly steeper for systems which have accreted stars in minor mergers, while galaxies with major mergers have relatively flat gradients, confirming previous results. This analysis greatly highlights the importance of both energetic processes and merger events for stellar population properties of massive galaxies at large radii. Our results are expected to significantly contribute to the interpretation of current and up-coming IFU surveys (like MaNGA and Califa), which in turn can help to better constrain still uncertain models for energetic processes in simulations.

  14. Artemia parthenogenetica (Branchiopoda: Anostraca) from the Large Aral Sea: Abundance, distribution, population structure and cyst production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arashkevich, Elena G.; Sapozhnikov, P. V.; Soloviov, K. A.; Kudyshkin, T. V.; Zavialov, P. O.

    2009-03-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica appeared in the Large Aral Sea (Central Asia) in 1998 when mineralization reached 63 ppt. Data on Artemia abundance and biomass, along with temperature and salinity measurements were collected in the western basin during 2002-2006, primarily in the autumn. During the study period, population density grew progressively, both in terms of number, from 250 to 1260 individuals per m 3, and in terms of biomass, from 0.3 to 1.3 g per m 3. In 2005, the population density and spatial distribution in the different parts of the sea (western and eastern basins and strait) was assessed. The horizontal distribution of the Artemia population was uniform in the deep central part of the western basin, although the distribution was quite patchy in the shallow coastal zone. Depth habitat of Artemia was restricted to the upper 20-25 m of depth, as the oxygen depletion and formation of anoxic layer prevented distribution of Artemia to the deeper waters. In autumn, all females reproduced oviparously, with an average clutch size of 30-35 eggs per female. The number of eggs in a clutch was positively correlated with female body length ( r2 = 0.36-0.44).

  15. Voluntary rewards mediate the evolution of pool punishment for maintaining public goods in large populations

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Chen, Xiaojie

    2015-01-01

    Punishment is a popular tool when governing commons in situations where free riders would otherwise take over. It is well known that sanctioning systems, such as the police and courts, are costly and thus can suffer from those who free ride on other's efforts to maintain the sanctioning systems (second-order free riders). Previous game-theory studies showed that if populations are very large, pool punishment rarely emerges in public good games, even when participation is optional, because of second-order free riders. Here we show that a matching fund for rewarding cooperation leads to the emergence of pool punishment, despite the presence of second-order free riders. We demonstrate that reward funds can pave the way for a transition from a population of free riders to a population of pool punishers. A key factor in promoting the transition is also to reward those who contribute to pool punishment, yet not abstaining from participation. Reward funds eventually vanish in raising pool punishment, which is sustai...

  16. Voluntary rewards mediate the evolution of pool punishment for maintaining public goods in large populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Uchida, Satoshi; Chen, Xiaojie

    2015-03-01

    Punishment is a popular tool when governing commons in situations where free riders would otherwise take over. It is well known that sanctioning systems, such as the police and courts, are costly and thus can suffer from those who free ride on other's efforts to maintain the sanctioning systems (second-order free riders). Previous game-theory studies showed that if populations are very large, pool punishment rarely emerges in public good games, even when participation is optional, because of second-order free riders. Here we show that a matching fund for rewarding cooperation leads to the emergence of pool punishment, despite the presence of second-order free riders. We demonstrate that reward funds can pave the way for a transition from a population of free riders to a population of pool punishers. A key factor in promoting the transition is also to reward those who contribute to pool punishment, yet not abstaining from participation. Reward funds eventually vanish in raising pool punishment, which is sustainable by punishing the second-order free riders. This suggests that considering the interdependence of reward and punishment may help to better understand the origins and transitions of social norms and institutions.

  17. Epidemiological features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a large clinic-based African American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazamel, Mohamed; Cutter, Gary; Claussen, Gwendolyn; Alsharabati, Mohammad; Oh, Shin J; Lu, Liang; King, Peter H

    2013-09-01

    Our objective was to identify the main clinical and epidemiological features of ALS in a large cohort of African American (AA) patients and compare them to Caucasian (CA) patients in a clinic-based population. We retrospectively identified 207 patients who were diagnosed with ALS based on the revised El Escorial criteria (60 AA and 147 CA subjects). Patients were seen in the Neuromuscular Division at the University Medical Center. We compared epidemiological and clinical features of these two groups, focusing on age of onset and diagnosis, clinical presentation and survival. Results showed that AA patients had a significantly younger age of disease onset (55 years vs. 61 years for CA, p = 0.011) and were diagnosed at an earlier age (56 years vs. 62 years, p = 0.012). In younger ALS patients (population and males in the CA population (p = 0.025). In a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model, survival rates were not different between the groups. In both groups, survival significantly increased with younger age. In conclusion, AA patients presented at an earlier age, but there was no difference in survival compared to CA patients. A gender reversal occurred in younger ALS patients, with AA patients more likely to be female and CA patients more likely to be male.

  18. Population growth rate and genetic variability of small and large populations of Red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) following multigenerational exposure to copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, Ryszard; Radwan, Jacek; Kuduk, Katarzyna; Mendrok, Magdalena; Kramarz, Paulina

    2015-07-01

    We reared large (1000 individuals) and small (20 individuals) populations of Tribolium castaneum on diet contaminated with copper in order to determine if the size of a population affects its ability to adapt to adverse environmental conditions. After 10 generations, we used microsatellite markers to estimate and subsequently compare the genetic variability of the copper-treated populations with that of the control populations, which were reared on uncontaminated medium. Additionally, we conducted a full cross-factorial experiment which evaluated the effects of 10 generations of "pre-exposure" to copper on a population's fitness in control and copper-contaminated environments. In order to distinguish results potentially arising from genetic adaptation from those due to non-genetic effects associated to parental exposure to copper, we subjected also F11 generation, originating from parents not exposed to copper, to the same cross-factorial experiment. The effects of long-term exposure to copper depended on population size: the growth rates of small populations that were pre-exposed to copper were inhibited compared to those of small populations reared in uncontaminated environments. Large Cu-exposed populations had a higher growth rate in the F10 generation compared to the control groups, while the growth rate of the F11 generation was unaffected by copper exposure history. The only factor that had a significant effect on genetic variability was population size, but this was to be expected given the large difference in the number of individuals between large and small populations. Neither copper contamination nor its interaction with population size affected the number of microsatellite alleles retained in the F10 generation.

  19. PADI4 genotype is not associated with rheumatoid arthritis in a large UK Caucasian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Marian L; Naseem, Haris; Hinks, Anne; Eyre, Steve; Gibbons, Laura J; Bowes, John; Wilson, Anthony G; Maxwell, James; Morgan, Ann W; Emery, Paul; Steer, Sophia; Hocking, Lynne; Reid, David M; Wordsworth, Paul; Harrison, Pille; Thomson, Wendy; Worthington, Jane; Barton, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Background Polymorphisms of the peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PADI4) gene confer susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in East Asian people. However, studies in European populations have produced conflicting results. This study explored the association of the PADI4 genotype with RA in a large UK Caucasian population. Methods The PADI4_94 (rs2240340) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was directly genotyped in a cohort of unrelated UK Caucasian patients with RA (n=3732) and population controls (n=3039). Imputed data from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) was used to investigate the association of PADI4_94 with RA in an independent group of RA cases (n=1859) and controls (n=10 599). A further 56 SNPs spanning the PADI4 gene were investigated for association with RA using data from the WTCCC study. Results The PADI4_94 genotype was not associated with RA in either the present cohort or the WTCCC cohort. Combined analysis of all the cases of RA (n=5591) and controls (n=13 638) gave an overall OR of 1.01 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.05, p=0.72). No association with anti-CCP antibodies and no interaction with either shared epitope or PTPN22 was detected. No evidence for association with RA was identified for any of the PADI4 SNPs investigated. Meta-analysis of previously published studies and our data confirmed no significant association between the PADI4_94 genotype and RA in people of European descent (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.13, p=0.12). Conclusion In the largest study performed to date, the PADI4 genotype was not a significant risk factor for RA in people of European ancestry, in contrast to Asian populations. PMID:19470526

  20. Characterization of mitochondrial haplogroups in a large population-based sample from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sabrina L; Goodloe, Robert; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Pendergrass, Sarah A; Murdock, Deborah G; Crawford, Dana C

    2014-07-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups are valuable for investigations in forensic science, molecular anthropology, and human genetics. In this study, we developed a custom panel of 61 mtDNA markers for high-throughput classification of European, African, and Native American/Asian mitochondrial haplogroup lineages. Using these mtDNA markers, we constructed a mitochondrial haplogroup classification tree and classified 18,832 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). To our knowledge, this is the largest study to date characterizing mitochondrial haplogroups in a population-based sample from the United States, and the first study characterizing mitochondrial haplogroup distributions in self-identified Mexican Americans separately from Hispanic Americans of other descent. We observed clear differences in the distribution of maternal genetic ancestry consistent with proposed admixture models for these subpopulations, underscoring the genetic heterogeneity of the United States Hispanic population. The mitochondrial haplogroup distributions in the other self-identified racial/ethnic groups within NHANES were largely comparable to previous studies. Mitochondrial haplogroup classification was highly concordant with self-identified race/ethnicity (SIRE) in non-Hispanic whites (94.8 %), but was considerably lower in admixed populations including non-Hispanic blacks (88.3 %), Mexican Americans (81.8 %), and other Hispanics (61.6 %), suggesting SIRE does not accurately reflect maternal genetic ancestry, particularly in populations with greater proportions of admixture. Thus, it is important to consider inconsistencies between SIRE and genetic ancestry when performing genetic association studies. The mitochondrial haplogroup data that we have generated, coupled with the epidemiologic variables in NHANES, is a valuable resource for future studies investigating the contribution of mtDNA variation to human health and disease.

  1. Population parameter estimates for performance and reproductive traits in Polish Large White nucleus herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplon, M J; Rothschild, M F; Berger, P J; Healey, M

    1991-01-01

    Performance test records from on-farm tests of young Polish Large White boars and reproductive records of Polish Large White sows from 94 nucleus farms during 1978 to 1987 were used to estimate population parameters for the measured traits. The number of boar performance records after editing was 114,347 from 3,932 sires, 21,543 dams, 44,493 litters and 1,075 herd-year-seasons. Reproductive performance records of sows involved 41,080 litters from 2,348 sires, 18,683 dams and 1,520 herd-year-seasons. Both data sets were analyzed by using restricted maximum-likelihood programs. The model used for the performance records included fixed herd-year-seasons, random sires, dams and error effects, and covariances for the year of birth of sire and year of birth of dam. The model used for the reproduction data set was the same as the performance data with parity as an additional fixed effect. Estimated heritabilities were .27, .29, .26, .07, .06, .06 for average daily gain standardized to 180 d (ADG), backfat thickness standardized to 110 kg BW (BF), days to 110 kg (DAYS), litter size at birth born alive (NBA), litter size at 21 d (N21) and litter weight at 21 d (W21), respectively. Estimated common environmental effects for the same traits were .09, .10, .09, .06, .07 and .08, respectively. Genetic correlations were .25 (ADG and BF), -.99 (ADG and DAYS), -.21 (BF and DAYS), .91 (NBA and N21), .68 (NBA and W21) and .80 (N21 and W21). The respective phenotypic correlations were .23, -.99, -.20, .88, .75, .86. These population parameters for Polish Large White pigs are similar to those for breeds in other countries.

  2. Can small wildlife conservancies maintain genetically stable populations of large mammals? Evidence for increased genetic drift in geographically restricted populations of Cape buffalo in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, R; Okello, J B A; Siegismund, H

    2010-01-01

    . Patterns of genetic variation reveal large effective population sizes and indicate that Cape buffalos have historically been interbreeding across considerable distances. Throughout much of its range, the Cape buffalo is now largely confined to protected areas due to habitat fragmentation and increasing...

  3. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis to construct a core collection from a large Capsicum germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hea-Young; Ro, Na-Young; Jeong, Hee-Jin; Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Jo, Jinkwan; Ha, Yeaseong; Jung, Ayoung; Han, Ji-Woong; Venkatesh, Jelli; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2016-11-14

    Conservation of genetic diversity is an essential prerequisite for developing new cultivars with desirable agronomic traits. Although a large number of germplasm collections have been established worldwide, many of them face major difficulties due to large size and a lack of adequate information about population structure and genetic diversity. Core collection with a minimum number of accessions and maximum genetic diversity of pepper species and its wild relatives will facilitate easy access to genetic material as well as the use of hidden genetic diversity in Capsicum. To explore genetic diversity and population structure, we investigated patterns of molecular diversity using a transcriptome-based 48 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a large germplasm collection comprising 3,821 accessions. Among the 11 species examined, Capsicum annuum showed the highest genetic diversity (HE = 0.44, I = 0.69), whereas the wild species C. galapagoense showed the lowest genetic diversity (HE = 0.06, I = 0.07). The Capsicum germplasm collection was divided into 10 clusters (cluster 1 to 10) based on population structure analysis, and five groups (group A to E) based on phylogenetic analysis. Capsicum accessions from the five distinct groups in an unrooted phylogenetic tree showed taxonomic distinctness and reflected their geographic origins. Most of the accessions from European countries are distributed in the A and B groups, whereas the accessions from Asian countries are mainly distributed in C and D groups. Five different sampling strategies with diverse genetic clustering methods were used to select the optimal method for constructing the core collection. Using a number of allelic variations based on 48 SNP markers and 32 different phenotypic/morphological traits, a core collection 'CC240' with a total of 240 accessions (5.2 %) was selected from within the entire Capsicum germplasm. Compared to the other core collections, CC240 displayed higher genetic

  4. A phenomenological approach to the simulation of metabolism and proliferation dynamics of large tumour cell populations

    CERN Document Server

    Chignola, R; Chignola, Roberto; Milotti, Edoardo

    2005-01-01

    A major goal of modern computational biology is to simulate the collective behaviour of large cell populations starting from the intricate web of molecular interactions occurring at the microscopic level. In this paper we describe a simplified model of cell metabolism, growth and proliferation, suitable for inclusion in a multicell simulator, now under development (Chignola R and Milotti E 2004 Physica A 338 261-6). Nutrients regulate the proliferation dynamics of tumor cells which adapt their behaviour to respond to changes in the biochemical composition of the environment. This modeling of nutrient metabolism and cell cycle at a mesoscopic scale level leads to a continuous flow of information between the two disparate spatiotemporal scales of molecular and cellular dynamics that can be simulated with modern computers and tested experimentally.

  5. Comparison of large crater and multiringed basin populations on Mars, Mercury, and the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, M. C.

    1976-01-01

    The maximum regional areal densities of large impact craters on Mars, Mercury, and the moon appear to be inversely proportional to the surface areas of the planets. This would not be expected if the objects impacting the planetary surfaces came from common sources and were moving with high velocities relative to the planets; rather, a uniform areal density would be anticipated. Another way of stating the observation is that each planet was bombarded by the same number of objects. Two speculative explanations for the observation are that: (1) all planets underwent a uniform bombardment but were resurfaced by processes proportional to planetary surface area, or (2) equally populated families of objects, moving about the sun in orbits similar to those of the planets, were independently depopulated by the respective planets.

  6. Exploratory factor analysis of self-reported symptoms in a large, population-based military cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bliese Paul D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background US military engagements have consistently raised concern over the array of health outcomes experienced by service members postdeployment. Exploratory factor analysis has been used in studies of 1991 Gulf War-related illnesses, and may increase understanding of symptoms and health outcomes associated with current military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The objective of this study was to use exploratory factor analysis to describe the correlations among numerous physical and psychological symptoms in terms of a smaller number of unobserved variables or factors. Methods The Millennium Cohort Study collects extensive self-reported health data from a large, population-based military cohort, providing a unique opportunity to investigate the interrelationships of numerous physical and psychological symptoms among US military personnel. This study used data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a large, population-based military cohort. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the covariance structure of symptoms reported by approximately 50,000 cohort members during 2004-2006. Analyses incorporated 89 symptoms, including responses to several validated instruments embedded in the questionnaire. Techniques accommodated the categorical and sometimes incomplete nature of the survey data. Results A 14-factor model accounted for 60 percent of the total variance in symptoms data and included factors related to several physical, psychological, and behavioral constructs. A notable finding was that many factors appeared to load in accordance with symptom co-location within the survey instrument, highlighting the difficulty in disassociating the effects of question content, location, and response format on factor structure. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential strengths and weaknesses of exploratory factor analysis to heighten understanding of the complex associations among symptoms. Further research is needed to

  7. Sleep patterns and predictors of disturbed sleep in a large population of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Hannah G; Reider, Brian D; Whiting, Annie B; Prichard, J Roxanne

    2010-02-01

    To characterize sleep patterns and predictors of poor sleep quality in a large population of college students. This study extends the 2006 National Sleep Foundation examination of sleep in early adolescence by examining sleep in older adolescents. One thousand one hundred twenty-five students aged 17 to 24 years from an urban Midwestern university completed a cross-sectional online survey about sleep habits that included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Horne-Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Scale, the Profile of Mood States, the Subjective Units of Distress Scale, and questions about academic performance, physical health, and psychoactive drug use. Students reported disturbed sleep; over 60% were categorized as poor-quality sleepers by the PSQI, bedtimes and risetimes were delayed during weekends, and students reported frequently taking prescription, over the counter, and recreational psychoactive drugs to alter sleep/wakefulness. Students classified as poor-quality sleepers reported significantly more problems with physical and psychological health than did good-quality sleepers. Students overwhelmingly stated that emotional and academic stress negatively impacted sleep. Multiple regression analyses revealed that tension and stress accounted for 24% of the variance in the PSQI score, whereas exercise, alcohol and caffeine consumption, and consistency of sleep schedule were not significant predictors of sleep quality. These results demonstrate that insufficient sleep and irregular sleep-wake patterns, which have been extensively documented in younger adolescents, are also present at alarming levels in the college student population. Given the close relationships between sleep quality and physical and mental health, intervention programs for sleep disturbance in this population should be considered. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Platelet serotonin transporter (5HTt): physiological influences on kinetic characteristics in a large human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banović, Miroslav; Bordukalo-Niksić, Tatjana; Balija, Melita; Cicin-Sain, Lipa; Jernej, Branimir

    2010-01-01

    The present study had two goals: first, to give a detailed description of a reliable method for full kinetic analysis of serotonin transporter (5HTt) on the membrane of human platelets, and second, as a main issue, to report on physiological influences on kinetic characteristics of this transmembrane transport on a large population of healthy individuals. Full kinetic analyses of platelet serotonin uptake were performed on 334 blood donors of both sexes by the use of 14C-radioisotopic method, which was first optimized according to assumptions of enzyme kinetic analyses, with regard to platelet concentration, duration of uptake, concentration of substrate as well as important technical parameters (underpressure of filtration, blanks, incubating temperature, etc). Kinetic parameters of platelet serotonin uptake in the whole population were for V(max): 142 +/- 25.3 pmol 5HT/10(8) platelets/minute and for K(m): 0.404 +/- 0.089 microM 5HT. Besides the report on kinetic values of 5HT transporter protein, we have also described major physiological influences on the mentioned parameters, V(max), K(m) and their derivative, V(max)/K(m) (transporter efficiency): range and frequency distribution of normal values, intraindividual stability over time, lack of age influence, gender dependence and seasonal variations. The report on kinetic values and main physiological influences on platelet serotonin transport kinetics, obtained by the use of thoroughly reassessed methodology, and on by far the largest human population studied until now, offers a reliable frame of reference for pathophysiological studies of this parameter in various clinical fields.

  9. Treatment of Displaced Indigenous Populations in Two Large Hydro Projects in Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Finley-Brook

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Consultation practices with affected populations prior to hydro concessions often remained poor in the decade since the World Commission on Dams (WCD although, in some cases the involvement of local people in the details of resettlement has improved. Numerous international and national actors, such as state agencies, multilateral banks, corporate shareholders, and pro-business media, support the development of dams, but intergovernmental agencies struggle to assure the protection of fundamental civil, human, and indigenous rights at the permitting and construction stages. We analyse two large-scale Panamanian dams with persistent disrespect for indigenous land tenure. Free, prior, and informed consent was sidestepped even though each dam required or will require Ngöbe, Emberá, or Kuna villages to relocate. When populations protested, additional human rights violations occurred, including state-sponsored violence. International bodies are slowly identifying and denouncing this abuse of power. Simultaneously, many nongovernmental organisations (NGOs seek change in Panama consistent with WCD’s good-practice guidelines. A number of NGOs have tied hydro projects to unethical greenhouse gas (GHG emissions trade. As private and state institutions market formerly collective water and carbon resources for profit, these Panamanian cases have become central to a public debate over equitable and green hydro development. Media communication feeds disputes through frontline coverage of cooperation and confrontation.

  10. A large stellar evolution database for population synthesis studies. I. Scaled solar models and isochrones

    CERN Document Server

    Pietrinferni, A; Salaris, M; Castelli, F

    2004-01-01

    We present a large and updated stellar evolution database for low-, intermediate- and high-mass stars in a wide metallicity range, suitable for studying Galactic and extragalactic simple and composite stellar populations using population synthesis techniques. The stellar mass range is between \\sim0.5Mo and 10Mo with a fine mass spacing. The metallicity [Fe/H] comprises 10 values ranging from -2.27 to 0.40, with a scaled solar metal distribution. The initial He mass fraction ranges from Y=0.245, for the more metal-poor composition, up to 0.303 for the more metal-rich one, with Delta Y/Delta Z\\sim 1.4. For each adopted chemical composition, the evolutionary models have been computed without and with overshooting from the Schwarzschild boundary of the convective cores during the central H-burning phase. The whole set of evolutionary models can be used to compute isochrones in a wide age range, from \\sim30 Myr to \\sim15Gyr. Both evolutionary tracks and isochrones are available in several observational planes, emp...

  11. Factor analysis of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale from a large cancer population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam B; Selby, Peter J; Velikova, Galina; Stark, Dan; Wright, E Penny; Gould, Ann; Cull, Ann

    2002-06-01

    The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is widely used as a tool for assessing psychological distress in patients and non-clinical groups. Previous studies have demonstrated conflicting results regarding the factor structure of the questionnaire for different groups of patients, and the general population. This study investigated the factor structure of the HADS in a large heterogeneous cancer population of 1474 patients. It also sought to investigate emerging evidence that the HADS conforms to the tripartite model of anxiety and depression (Clark & Watson, 1993), and to test the proposal that detection rates for clinical cases of anxiety and depression could be enhanced by partialling out the effects of higher order factors from the HADS (Dunbar et al., 2000). The results demonstrated a two-factor structure corresponding to the Anxiety and Depression subscales of the questionnaire. The factor structure remained stable for different subgroups of the sample, for males and females, as well as for different age groups, and a subgroup of metastatic cancer patients. The two factors were highly correlated (r =.52) and subsequent secondary factor analyses demonstrated a single higher order factor corresponding to psychological distress or negative affectivity. We concluded that the HADS comprises two factors corresponding to anhedonia and autonomic anxiety, which share a common variance with a primary factor namely psychological distress, and that the subscales of the HADS, rather than the residual scores (e.g. Dunbar et al., 2000) were more effective at detecting clinical cases of anxiety and depression.

  12. The Influence of Negative Surprise on Hedonic Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Kieling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After some time using a product or service, the consumer tends to feel less pleasure with consumption. This reduction of pleasure is known as hedonic adaptation. One of the emotions that interfere in this process is surprise. Based on two experiments, we suggest that negative surprise – differently to positive – influences with the level of pleasure foreseen and experienced by the consumer. Study 1 analyzes the influence of negative (vs. positive surprise on the consumer’s post-purchase hedonic adaptation expectation. Results showed that negative surprise influences the intensity of adaptation, augmenting its strength. Study 2 verifies the influence of negative (vs positive surprise over hedonic adaptation. The findings suggested that negative surprise makes adaptation happen more intensively and faster as time goes by, which brings consequences to companies and consumers in the post-purchase process, such as satisfaction and loyalty.

  13. Constraints on the Galactic Population of TEV Pulsar Wind Nebulae Using Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Acero, F; Ajello, M; Allafort, A; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Bottacini, E; Brandt, T J; Bregeon, J; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Cecchi, C; Charles, E; Chaves, R C G; Chekhtman, A; Chiang, J; Chiaro, G; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; Dalton, M; D'Ammando, F; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; Di Venere, L; Silva, E do Couto e; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Falletti, L; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Ferrara, E C; Focke, W B; Franckowiak, A; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grégoire, T; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M -H; Grove, J E; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hayashi, K; Hays, E; Hewitt, J; Hill, A B; Horan, D; Hou, X; Hughes, R E; Inoue, Y; Jackson, M S; Jogler, T; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Kamae, T; Kawano, T; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Marelli, M; Massaro, F; Mayer, M; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Mehault, J; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Nemmen, R; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Orienti, M; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Perkins, J S; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Roth, M; Rousseau, R; Parkinson, P M Saz; Schulz, A; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Suson, D J; Takahashi, H; Takeuchi, Y; Thayer, J G; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Tibolla, O; Tinivella, M; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Troja, E; Uchiyama, Y; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Werner, M; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Yang, Z

    2013-01-01

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) have been established as the most populous class of TeV gamma-ray emitters. Since launch, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT)identified five high-energy (100MeV large number of PWNe candidates, all powered by young and energetic pulsars. The wealth of multi-wavelength data available and the new results provided by Fermi-LAT give us an opportunity to find new PWNe and to explore the radiative processes taking place in known ones. The TeV gamma-ray unidentifiedsources (UNIDs) are the best candidates for finding new PWNe. Using 45 months of Fermi-LAT data for energies above 10 GeV, an analysis was performed near the position of 58TeV PWNe and UNIDs within 5deg of the Galactic Plane to establish new constraints on PWNe properties and find new clues on the nature of UNIDs. Of the 58 sources, 30 were detected, and this work provides their gamma-rayfluxes for energies above 10 GeV. The spectral energy distributions (SED) anduppe...

  14. Effects of Surprisal and Locality on Danish Sentence Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Kizach, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    An eye-tracking experiment in Danish investigates two dominant accounts of sentence processing: locality-based theories that predict a processing advantage for sentences where the distance between the major syntactic heads is minimized, and the surprisal theory which predicts that processing time...... constructions with two postverbal NP-objects. An eye-tracking experiment showed a clear advantage for local syntactic relations, with only a marginal effect of lexicalised surprisal and no effect of syntactic surprisal. We conclude that surprisal has a relatively marginal effect, which may be clearest for verbs...

  15. Presence of anticitrullinated protein antibodies in a large population-based cohort from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zanten, A; Arends, S; Roozendaal, C; Limburg, P C; Maas, F; Trouw, L A; Toes, R E M; Huizinga, T W J; Bootsma, H; Brouwer, E

    2017-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) and their association with known rheumatoid arthritis (RA) risk factors in the general population. Lifelines is a multidisciplinary prospective population-based cohort study in the Netherlands. Cross-sectional data from 40 136 participants were used. The detection of ACPA was performed by measuring anti-CCP2 on the Phadia-250 analyser with levels ≥6.2 U/mL considered positive. An extensive questionnaire was taken on demographic and clinical information, including smoking, periodontal health and early symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders. RA was defined by a combination of self-reported RA, medication use for the indication of rheumatism and visiting a medical specialist within the last year. Of the total 40 136 unselected individuals, 401 (1.0%) had ACPA level ≥6.2 U/mL. ACPA positivity was significantly associated with older age, female gender, smoking, joint complaints, RA and first degree relatives with rheumatism. Of the ACPA-positive participants, 22.4% had RA (15.2% had defined RA according to our criteria and 7.2% self-reported RA only). In participants without RA, 311 (0.8%) were ACPA-positive. In the non-RA group, older age, smoking and joint complaints remained significantly more frequently present in ACPA-positive compared with ACPA-negative participants. In this large population-based study, the prevalence of ACPA levels ≥6.2 U/mL was 1.0% for the total group and 0.8% when excluding patients with RA. Older age, smoking and joint complaints were more frequently present in ACPA-positive Lifelines participants. To our knowledge, this study is the largest study to date on ACPA positivity in the general, mostly Caucasian population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome-related disorders in a large adult population in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokusoglu Mehmet

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few existing large population studies on the epidemiology of metabolic syndrome-related disorders of Turkey. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome-related disorders in the Turkish adult population, to address sex, age, educational and geographical differences, and to examine blood pressure, body mass index, fasting blood glucose and serum lipids in Turkey. Methods This study was executed under the population study "The Healthy Nutrition for Healthy Heart Study" conducted between December 2000 and December 2002 by the Health Ministry of Turkey. Overall, 15,468 Caucasian inhabitants aged over 30 were recruited in 14 centers in the seven main different regions of Turkey. The data were analyzed with the Students' t, ANOVA or Chi-Square tests. Results Overall, more than one-third (35.08 % of the participants was obese. The hypertensive people ratio in the population was 13.66 %, while these ratios for DM and metabolic syndrome were 4.16 % and 17.91 %, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, metabolic syndrome and obesity were higher in females than males, whereas diabetes mellitus was higher in males than females. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and related disorders were found to be significantly different across educational attainments for both men and women. The prevalence of hypertension increased with age, while it was remarkable that in the age group of 60–69 years, prevalence of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome reached a peak value and than decreased. For obesity, the peak prevalence occurred in the 50–59 year old group. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and related disorders were found to be significantly different according to geographical region. Conclusion In conclusion, high prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome, particularly among women, is one of the major public health problems in Turkey. Interestingly, obesity prevalence is relatively

  17. Mesocosms Reveal Ecological Surprises from Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordham, Damien A

    2015-12-01

    Understanding, predicting, and mitigating the impacts of climate change on biodiversity poses one of the most crucial challenges this century. Currently, we know more about how future climates are likely to shift across the globe than about how species will respond to these changes. Two recent studies show how mesocosm experiments can hasten understanding of the ecological consequences of climate change on species' extinction risk, community structure, and ecosystem functions. Using a large-scale terrestrial warming experiment, Bestion et al. provide the first direct evidence that future global warming can increase extinction risk for temperate ectotherms. Using aquatic mesocosms, Yvon-Durocher et al. show that human-induced climate change could, in some cases, actually enhance the diversity of local communities, increasing productivity. Blending these theoretical and empirical results with computational models will improve forecasts of biodiversity loss and altered ecosystem processes due to climate change.

  18. Mesocosms Reveal Ecological Surprises from Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien A Fordham

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding, predicting, and mitigating the impacts of climate change on biodiversity poses one of the most crucial challenges this century. Currently, we know more about how future climates are likely to shift across the globe than about how species will respond to these changes. Two recent studies show how mesocosm experiments can hasten understanding of the ecological consequences of climate change on species' extinction risk, community structure, and ecosystem functions. Using a large-scale terrestrial warming experiment, Bestion et al. provide the first direct evidence that future global warming can increase extinction risk for temperate ectotherms. Using aquatic mesocosms, Yvon-Durocher et al. show that human-induced climate change could, in some cases, actually enhance the diversity of local communities, increasing productivity. Blending these theoretical and empirical results with computational models will improve forecasts of biodiversity loss and altered ecosystem processes due to climate change.

  19. The Energetic Universe: a Nobel Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    he history of cosmic expansion can be accurately traced using Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) as standard candles. Over the past 40 years, this effort has improved its precision and extended its reach in redshift. Recently, the distances to SN Ia have been measured to a precision of ~5% using luminosity information that is encoded in the shape of the supernova's rest frame optical light curve. By combining observations of supernova distances as measured from their light curves and redshifts measured from spectra, we can detect changes in the cosmic expansion rate. This empirical approach was successfully exploited by the High-Z Supernova Team and by the Supernova Cosmology Project to detect cosmic expansion and to infer the presence of dark energy. The 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Perlmutter, Schmidt and Riess for this discovery. The world's sample of well-observed SN Ia light curves at high redshift and low, approaching 1000 objects, is now large enough to make statistical errors due to sample size a thing of the past. Systematic errors are now the challenge. To learn the properties of dark energy and determine, for example, whether it has an equation-of-state that is different from the cosmological constant demands higher precision and better accuracy. The largest systematic uncertainties come from light curve fitters, photometric calibration errors, and from uncertain knowledge of the scattering properties of dust along the line of sight. Efforts to use SN Ia spectra as luminosity indicators have had some success, but have not yet produced a big step forward. Fortunately, observations of SN Ia in the near infrared (NIR), from 1 to 2 microns, offer a very promising path to better knowledge of the Hubble constant and to improved constraints on dark energy. In the NIR, SN Ia are better standard candles and the effects of dust absorption are smaller. We have begun an HST program dubbed RAISIN (SN IA in the IR) to tighten our grip on dark energy properties

  20. The Orion Nebula: Still Full of Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    shows the glowing hydrogen gas, were coloured red. Light in the yellow-green part of the spectrum is coloured green, blue light is coloured blue and light that passed through an ultraviolet filter has been coloured purple. The exposure times were about 52 minutes through each filter. This image was processed by ESO using the observational data found by Igor Chekalin (Russia) [1], who participated in ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition [2], organised by ESO in October-November 2010, for everyone who enjoys making beautiful images of the night sky using real astronomical data. Notes [1] Igor searched through ESO's archive and identified datasets that he used to compose his image of Messier 42, which was the seventh highest ranked entry in the competition, out of almost 100 entries. His original work can be seen here. Igor Chekalin was awarded the first prize of the competition for his composition of Messier 78, and he also submitted an image of NGC3169, NGC3166 and SN 2003cg, which was ranked second highest. [2] ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 competition gave amateur astronomers the opportunity to search through ESO's vast archives of astronomical data, hoping to find a well-hidden gem that needed polishing by the entrants. Participants submitted nearly 100 entries and ten skilled people were awarded some extremely attractive prizes, including an all expenses paid trip for the overall winner to ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) on Cerro Paranal, in Chile, the world's most advanced optical telescope. The ten winners submitted a total of 20 images that were ranked as the highest entries in the competition out of the near 100 images. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 15 countries: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal

  1. Characteristics of Resistant Hypertension in a Large Ethnically Diverse Hypertension Population of an Integrated Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, John J.; Bhandari, Simran K.; Shi, Jiaxiao; In Liu, Lu A.; Calhoun, David A.; McGlynn, Elizabeth A.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Jacobsen, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prevalence and characterize resistant hypertension from a large representative population with successful hypertension management and reliable health information. Patient and Methods We performed a cross sectional study using clinical encounter, laboratory, and administrative information from the Kaiser Permanente Southern California health system during 1/1/2006–12/31/2007. From individuals age >17 years with hypertension, resistant hypertension was identified and prevalence determined. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) with adjustments for demographics, clinical variables, and medication use. Results Among 470,386 hypertensive individuals, 12.8% were identified as resistant representing15.3% of those on medications. Overall, 37,061 (7.9%) had uncontrolled hypertension while on ≥ 3 medicines. OR (95% confidence interval) for resistant hypertension were greater for black race (1.68, 1.62–1.75), older age (1.11, 1.10–1.11 for every 5 year increase), males (1.06, 1.03–1.10), and obesity (1.46, 1.42–1.51). Medication adherence rates were higher in resistant hypertension (93 vs 90%, phypertension. Conclusion Within a more standardized hypertension treatment environment, we observed a rate of resistant hypertension comparable to past studies using more fragmented data sources. Past observations have been limited due to non-representative populations, reliability of the data, heterogeneity of the treatment environments, and less than ideal control rates. This cohort which was established with an electronic medical record based approach has the potential to provide a better understanding of resistant hypertension and outcomes. PMID:24079679

  2. Circulating Osteopontin and Prediction of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Development in a Large European Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; Misra, Sandeep; Stepien, Magdalena; Plymoth, Amelie; Muller, David; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Baglietto, Laura; Severi, Gianluca; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Turzanski-Fortner, Renee; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Ardanaz, Eva; Gavrila, Diana; Dorronsoro, Miren; Werner, Mårten; Hemmingsson, Oskar; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sjöberg, Klas; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Gunter, Marc J; Cross, Amanda J; Riboli, Elio; Jenab, Mazda; Hainaut, Pierre; Beretta, Laura

    2016-09-01

    We previously identified osteopontin (OPN) as a promising marker for the early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we investigated the association between prediagnostic circulating OPN levels and HCC incidence in a large population-based cohort. A nested case-control study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. During a mean follow-up of 4.8 years, 100 HCC cases were identified. Each case was matched to two controls and OPN levels were measured in baseline plasma samples. Viral hepatitis, liver function, and α-fetoprotein (AFP) tests were also conducted. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate multivariable odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for OPN levels in relation to HCC. Receiver operating characteristics curves were constructed to determine the discriminatory accuracy of OPN alone or in combination with other liver biomarkers in the prediction of HCC. OPN levels were positively associated with HCC risk (per 10% increment, ORmultivariable = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.14-1.48). The association was stronger among cases diagnosed within 2 years of follow-up. Adding liver function tests to OPN improved the discriminatory performance for subjects who developed HCC (AUC = 0.86). For cases diagnosed within 2 years, the combination of OPN and AFP was best able to predict HCC risk (AUC = 0.88). The best predictive model for HCC in this low-risk population is OPN in combination with liver function tests. Within 2 years of diagnosis, the combination of OPN and AFP best predicted HCC development, suggesting that measuring OPN and AFP could identify high-risk groups independently of a liver disease diagnosis. Cancer Prev Res; 9(9); 758-65. ©2016 AACR.

  3. Gout treatment and comorbidities: a retrospective cohort study in a large US managed care population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plana Estel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gout prevalence increased in recent years to become one of the most common causes of inflammatory arthritis in most industrialised countries. Comorbidities may affect the disease severity and treatment patterns. We describe the main characteristics of gout patients, gout-related treatment patterns and prevalent comorbidities in a managed care population. Methods From the large US PharMetrics Patient-Centric Database, patients aged 20-89 with at least 2 claims for a diagnosis of gout (ICD9 274.xx and related prescriptions between January 1, 1996 and December 31, 2008 were included. Gout flares were ascertained during follow-up. Sex-specific multivariable Poisson regression models were used to assess factors associated with number of flares. Results 177,637 gout patients were included (mean age 55.2 years; men 75.6%. Overall, more than half (58.1% had any of the considered comorbidities; hypertension (36.1%, dyslipidemia (27.0% and diabetes (15.1% being the most common. Nonselective NSAIDs were the most commonly dispensed (in 38.7% of patients. Notably, 39% of patients did not receive any prescription medication for gout. Patients with comorbidities were significantly more likely to receive anti-gout prescriptions. During an acute episode the prescription of NSAIDs and colchicine increased; and 29.9% of patients received allopurinol. The risk of flares was associated with cardiometabolic comorbidities and older age in women (highest at age 60-69, while in men it decreased by age. Women with these conditions were 60% more likely to have flares (incidence rate ratio, IRR 1.60;1.48-1.74, while men were 10% (IRR 1.10; 1.06-1.13 more likely. Conclusions Comorbidities affected gout treatment patterns and the occurrence and frequency of acute attacks. Cardiometabolic comorbidities, common in this patients' population, were associated with an increased risk of flares.

  4. Prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in a large unselected general population in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hatsushi Yamagishi; Katsuaki Kato; Daisuke Shibuya; Shigemitsu Aida; Tooru Shimosegawa; Tomoyuki Koike; Shuichi Ohara; Shigeyuki Kobayashi; Ken Ariizumi; Yasuhiko Abe; Katsunori Iijima; Akira Imatani; Yoshifumi Inomata

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To examine the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms in a large unselected general population in Japan.METHODS:In Japan,mature adults are offered regular check-ups for the prevention of gastric cancer.A notice was sent by mail to all inhabitants aged>40 years.A total of 160983 Japanese (60774 male,100209 female;mean age 61.9 years) who underwent a stomach check up were enrolled in this study.In addition,from these 160983 subjects,we randomly selected a total of 82894(34275 male,48619 female; mean age 62.4 years)to evaluate the prevalence of abdominal pain.The respective subjects were prospectively asked to complete questionnaires concerning the symptoms of heartburn,dysphagia,and abdominal pain for a 1 mo period.RESULTS:The respective prevalences of the symptoms in males and females were:heartburn,15.8% vs 20.7%;dysphagia,5.4% vs 7.8%; and abdominal pain,6.6%vs 9.6% .Among these symptoms,heartburn was significantly high compared with the other symptoms,and the prevalence of heartburn was significantly more frequent in females than in males in the 60-89-year age group.Dysphagia was also significantly more frequent in female patients.CONCLUSION:The prevalence of typical GERD symptoms (heartburn) was high,at about 20% of the Japan population,and the frequency was especially high in females in the 60-89 year age group.

  5. Large population survey: strengths and limits. Methodology of the EDIFICE survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Claire; Touboul, Chantal

    2011-01-01

    In France, mass screening for breast and colon cancer issupported by the French National Cancer Institute (INCa). In these nationwide screening campaigns, individuals aged between 50 and 74 years receive a personalized letter inviting them for a screening examination every 2 years. Prostate cancer screening is, however, still controversial and has not been included in the INCa recommendations so far. Research organizations are particularly interested in screening and indeed, several studies have been conducted in France and other countries to examine the different aspects of the subject. To provide actual benefits, screening should be undertaken on a regular scheduled basis. Therefore, several studies have assessed the factors influencing the participation rate of women in breast cancer screening in France (). The Institut National de Prévention et d'Education pour la Santé conducted one of these in 2005: the Baromètre Cancer (including 4046 individuals aged 15 years or older, interviewed by telephone) analysed beliefs and perceptions about cancer screening and studied attendance rates for breast, colon and prostate cancer (including scheduled screening). No previous survey has ever been conducted simultaneously among the general population and physicians with regard to individual and scheduled screening for breast cancer and colorectal cancer (CRC) or individual screening for prostate cancer. EDIFICE is thus the first large-scale survey to assess screening practices in France by analysing the targeted population on the one hand and the clinical practice of French general practitioners (GPs) on the other hand, using the 'mirror study' method to compare results. Two national surveys were conducted in 2005 and 2008. In 2005, only 22 geographical regions were included in the screening programme for CRC.

  6. No large population of unbound or wide-orbit Jupiter-mass planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mróz, Przemek; Udalski, Andrzej; Skowron, Jan; Poleski, Radosław; Kozłowski, Szymon; Szymański, Michał K.; Soszyński, Igor; Wyrzykowski, Łukasz; Pietrukowicz, Paweł; Ulaczyk, Krzysztof; Skowron, Dorota; Pawlak, Michał

    2017-08-01

    Planet formation theories predict that some planets may be ejected from their parent systems as result of dynamical interactions and other processes. Unbound planets can also be formed through gravitational collapse, in a way similar to that in which stars form. A handful of free-floating planetary-mass objects have been discovered by infrared surveys of young stellar clusters and star-forming regions as well as wide-field surveys, but these studies are incomplete for objects below five Jupiter masses. Gravitational microlensing is the only method capable of exploring the entire population of free-floating planets down to Mars-mass objects, because the microlensing signal does not depend on the brightness of the lensing object. A characteristic timescale of microlensing events depends on the mass of the lens: the less massive the lens, the shorter the microlensing event. A previous analysis of 474 microlensing events found an excess of ten very short events (1-2 days)—more than known stellar populations would suggest—indicating the existence of a large population of unbound or wide-orbit Jupiter-mass planets (reported to be almost twice as common as main-sequence stars). These results, however, do not match predictions of planet-formation theories and surveys of young clusters. Here we analyse a sample of microlensing events six times larger than that of ref. 11 discovered during the years 2010-15. Although our survey has very high sensitivity (detection efficiency) to short-timescale (1-2 days) microlensing events, we found no excess of events with timescales in this range, with a 95 per cent upper limit on the frequency of Jupiter-mass free-floating or wide-orbit planets of 0.25 planets per main-sequence star. We detected a few possible ultrashort-timescale events (with timescales of less than half a day), which may indicate the existence of Earth-mass and super-Earth-mass free-floating planets, as predicted by planet-formation theories.

  7. Surprise and Sense Making: Undergraduate Placement Experiences in SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Andreas; Thomas, Rhodri; Jameson, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore undergraduate placement experiences in tourism and hospitality SMEs, focusing on the notions of surprise and sense making. It aims to argue that surprises and sense making are important elements not only of the adjustment process when entering new work environments, but also of the learning experience that…

  8. Risk factors of dental disease in working age population of a large industrial city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Klimenko

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Back in 2005, the WHO has identified European targets by 2020, that provide specific measures for improving dental health and define clear rates of intensity and prevalence of dental diseases. Most EU countries that adopted the WHO recommended principles have already achieved the goals regarding dental health. Level of diseases of the teeth and oral cavity among the population of Ukraine is higher than in the EU countries. Consistently high prevalence of dental diseases among population of all age groups, especially prevalence of dental caries, which is confirmed by the results of various epidemiological studies is a cause of concern. Nowadays factors that influence occurrence of the teeth and oral cavity diseases among the working age population of a large industrial city are not enough studied. The aim of the study was to determine the factors leading to the worsening of the working age population of the large industrial city dental health. To establish the risk factors was developed a special closed-type questionnaire, careful attention in which was paid to personal oral hygiene. Methods and results.The most influential factors leading to the increase of the Green - Vermilon index are personal oral hygiene factors and lifestyle of the individual: brushing teeth less than 2 times a day (odds ratio OR=2,64, 95% СІ: 0,97-7,14; р<0,05; smoking (odds ratio OR=2,07, 95% СІ: 0,78-5,53; р<0,05; alcohol intake 1-2 times a week and more often (odds ratio OR=1,82, 95% СІ: 0,61-5,42; р<0,05 lead to increased chances of a low level of oral hygiene. The level of oral hygiene is also affected by the socio-economic factors: higher education in 1.9 times decreases chances of a low level of oral hygiene (odds ratio OR=1,88, 95% СІ: 0,68-5,22; р<0,05; income at subsistence level and below (odds ratio OR=1,20, 95% СІ: 0,45-3,19; р<0,05. According to our research, level of oral hygiene is also influenced by medical and organizational factors

  9. A deployable in vivo EPR tooth dosimeter for triage after a radiation event involving large populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Benjamin B., E-mail: Benjamin.B.Williams@dartmouth.edu [Dartmouth Physically Based Biodosimetry Center for Medical Countermeasures Against Radiation (Dart-Dose CMCR), Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03768 (United States); Section of Radiation Oncology, Department of Medicine, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH (United States); Dong, Ruhong [Dartmouth Physically Based Biodosimetry Center for Medical Countermeasures Against Radiation (Dart-Dose CMCR), Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03768 (United States); Flood, Ann Barry [Dartmouth Physically Based Biodosimetry Center for Medical Countermeasures Against Radiation (Dart-Dose CMCR), Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03768 (United States); Clin-EPR, LLC, Lyme, NH (United States); Grinberg, Oleg [Clin-EPR, LLC, Lyme, NH (United States); Kmiec, Maciej; Lesniewski, Piotr N.; Matthews, Thomas P.; Nicolalde, Roberto J.; Raynolds, Tim [Dartmouth Physically Based Biodosimetry Center for Medical Countermeasures Against Radiation (Dart-Dose CMCR), Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03768 (United States); Salikhov, Ildar K. [Clin-EPR, LLC, Lyme, NH (United States); Swartz, Harold M. [Dartmouth Physically Based Biodosimetry Center for Medical Countermeasures Against Radiation (Dart-Dose CMCR), Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03768 (United States); Clin-EPR, LLC, Lyme, NH (United States)

    2011-09-15

    In order to meet the potential need for emergency large-scale retrospective radiation biodosimetry following an accident or attack, we have developed instrumentation and methodology for in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to quantify concentrations of radiation-induced radicals within intact teeth. This technique has several very desirable characteristics for triage, including independence from confounding biologic factors, a non-invasive measurement procedure, the capability to make measurements at any time after the event, suitability for use by non-expert operators at the site of an event, and the ability to provide immediate estimates of individual doses. Throughout development there has been a particular focus on the need for a deployable system, including instrumental requirements for transport and field use, the need for high throughput, and use by minimally trained operators. Numerous measurements have been performed using this system in clinical and other non-laboratory settings, including in vivo measurements with unexposed populations as well as patients undergoing radiation therapies. The collection and analyses of sets of three serially-acquired spectra with independent placements of the resonator, in a data collection process lasting approximately 5 min, provides dose estimates with standard errors of prediction of approximately 1 Gy. As an example, measurements were performed on incisor teeth of subjects who had either received no irradiation or 2 Gy total body irradiation for prior bone marrow transplantation; this exercise provided a direct and challenging test of our capability to identify subjects who would be in need of acute medical care. -- Highlights: > Advances in radiation biodosimetry are needed for large-scale emergency response. > Radiation-induced radicals in tooth enamel can be measured using in vivo EPR. > A novel transportable spectrometer was applied in the laboratory and at remote sites. > The current instrument

  10. Neural Responses to Rapid Facial Expressions of Fear and Surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Facial expression recognition is mediated by a distributed neural system in humans that involves multiple, bilateral regions. There are six basic facial expressions that may be recognized in humans (fear, sadness, surprise, happiness, anger, and disgust; however, fearful faces and surprised faces are easily confused in rapid presentation. The functional organization of the facial expression recognition system embodies a distinction between these two emotions, which is investigated in the present study. A core system that includes the right parahippocampal gyrus (BA 30, fusiform gyrus, and amygdala mediates the visual recognition of fear and surprise. We found that fearful faces evoked greater activity in the left precuneus, middle temporal gyrus (MTG, middle frontal gyrus, and right lingual gyrus, whereas surprised faces were associated with greater activity in the right postcentral gyrus and left posterior insula. These findings indicate the importance of common and separate mechanisms of the neural activation that underlies the recognition of fearful and surprised faces.

  11. CYP1A1 and CYP2E1 polymorphism frequencies in a large Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata dos Santos Coura

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzymes encoded by the polymorphic genes CYP1A1 and CYP2E1 play an important role in the activation and inactivation of xenobiotics. These enzymes have been associated with xenobiotic-induced diseases, such as cancer, therapeutic failure and adverse effects of drugs. The aim of the present study was to determine the allelic and genotypic frequencies of these polymorphisms in a large, ethnically mixed Brazilian population sample from Rio de Janeiro. Polymorphisms CYP1A1 and CYP2E1 were determined in 870 unrelated individuals by PCR-RFLP analysis in peripheral blood DNA. The observed allelic frequencies were 0.90 for CYP1A1*1A and 0.95 for CYP2E1*1A, in the total sample. The allelic frequency of CYP1A1*2C in "pardos" (0.13 and Brazilian whites (0.11 was higher than in Caucasians (0.05, which may be a result of the Amerindian genetic component, that presents the highest frequency of this allele observed up to now. The genotype distributions for both polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and were statistically different between males and females, and among ethnic groups.

  12. Fast and reliable methods for extracting functional connectivity in large populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roudi, Yasser; Tyrcha, Joanna; Hertz, John

    2009-01-01

    in that time bin, and 1 if it has emitted one spike or more. One then can construct an Ising model, P(s )=Z-1exp{h.s+sJs} for the spike patterns with the same means and pair correlations as the data, using Boltzmann learning, which is in principle exact.  The elements Jij , of the matrix J can be considered...... to be functional couplings. However, Boltzmann learning is prohibitively time-consuming for large networks. Here, we compare the results from five fast approximate methods for finding the couplings with those from Boltzmann learning.      We used data from a simulated network of spiking neurons operating...... methods:  A) a naive mean-field approximation, for which J is equal to minus the inverse of the covariance matrix. B) an independent-pair approximation, C) a low rate, small-population approximation (the low-rate limit of (B), which is valid generally in the limit of small Nrt, where r is the average rate...

  13. Sleep and academic performance in later adolescence: results from a large population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysing, Mari; Harvey, Allison G; Linton, Steven J; Askeland, Kristin G; Sivertsen, Børge

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the association between sleep duration and sleep patterns and academic performance in 16-19 year-old adolescents using registry-based academic grades. A large population-based study from Norway conducted in 2012, the youth@hordaland-survey, surveyed 7798 adolescents aged 16-19 years (53.5% girls). The survey was linked with objective outcome data on school performance. Self-reported sleep measures provided information on sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep deficit and bedtime differences between weekday and weekend. School performance [grade point average (GPA)] was obtained from official administrative registries. Most sleep parameters were associated with increased risk for poor school performance. After adjusting for sociodemographic information, short sleep duration and sleep deficit were the sleep measures with the highest odds of poor GPA (lowest quartile). Weekday bedtime was associated significantly with GPA, with adolescents going to bed between 22:00 and 23:00 hours having the best GPA. Also, delayed sleep schedule during weekends was associated with poor academic performance. The associations were somewhat reduced after additional adjustment for non-attendance at school, but remained significant in the fully adjusted models. In conclusion, the demonstrated relationship between sleep problems and poor academic performance suggests that careful assessment of sleep is warranted when adolescents are underperforming at school. Future studies are needed on the association between impaired sleep in adolescence and later functioning in adulthood.

  14. Present scenario of hemoglobinopathies in West Bengal, India: An analysis of a large population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakas Kumar Mandal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: To find out the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies by screening large population in West Bengal from Eastern India. Materials and Methods: A total of 50,487 subjects are screened for hemoglobinopathies from June 2010 to August 2013. A 2.5 ml of venous blood samples were collected in the tri-potassium EDTA vacuum container from each subject and tested with automated blood cell counter (Sysmex KX21 for red cell indices. Diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies was done by VARIANT TM (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA, USA high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results: Out of 50,487 cases, 44,620 (88.38% had normal and 5,867(11.62% showed abnormal hemoglobin fractions on HPLC. Of these, 5,180(10.26% were heterozygotes (traits and 687(1.36% cases were either homozygotes or compound heterozygote for different types of hemoglobinopathies. The following hemoglobinopathies were present: β-thalassemia trait 6.61%, HbE trait 2.78%, sickle cell trait 0.56%, HbD-Punjab trait 0.21%, β-thalassemia major 0.73%, HbEE 0.05%, compound heterozygosity for HbE-β-thalassemia 0.42%, and HbS-β-thalassemia 0.15%. Conclusion: Among the hemoglobinopathies, β-thalassemia trait (6.61% and HbE trait (2.78% are prevalent in rural Bengal.

  15. A large outbreak of shigellosis commencing in an internally displaced population, Papua New Guinea, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Benny

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate a large outbreak of shigellosis in Papua New Guinea that began in a camp for internally displaced persons before spreading throughout the general community. Methods: Outbreak mitigation strategies were implemented in the affected area to curtail the spread of the disease. Data were collected from the surveillance system and analysed by time, place and person. Rectal swab samples were tested by standard culture methods and real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the etiology of the outbreak. Results: Laboratory analysis at two independent institutions established that the outbreak was caused by Shigella sp., with one strain further characterized as Shigella flexneri serotype 2. Approximately 1200 suspected cases of shigellosis were reported in a two-month period from two townships in Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea. The outbreak resulted in at least five deaths, all in young children. Discussion: This outbreak of shigellosis highlights the threat of enteric diseases to vulnerable populations such as internally displaced persons in Papua New Guinea, as has been observed in other global settings.

  16. Effect of candidate gene polymorphisms on reproductive traits in a Large White pig population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shuji; Kikuchi, Takashi; Uemoto, Yoshinobu; Mikawa, Satoshi; Suzuki, Keiichi

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to test for association of candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with sow prolificacy reproductive traits, such as litter size, ovulation rate and lifetime performance, in gilts of a Large White pig population. Preliminary research on 25 animals selected from the high- and low-performance groups of 347 animals with case-control studies indicated that seven genes were associated with total number of piglets born (TNB). Six of the seven genes were associated with reproductive traits, including TNB, number of piglets born alive (NBA) and average weight of piglet weaning (AWW). A MBL2 SNP was significantly associated with TNB and NBA in first parity. A CFB SNP was associated with TNB in first parity. An ACE SNP was associated with TNB in first and second parities. An EGF polymorphism was associated with TNB, NBA and AWW in second parity. A KCNC2 polymorphism was significantly associated with TNB and NBA in second parity. A SLC22A5 SNP was associated with TNB and NBA in second parity. Six candidate SNPs were associated with TNB; the only exception was a PRKAG3 polymorphism. A candidate gene approach enables some of these polymorphisms to be used in genetic improvement programs based on marker-assisted selection. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. On the population of X-ray supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Maggi, P; Kavanagh, P J; Sasaki, M; Bozzetto, L M; Filipović, M D; Vasilopoulos, G; Pietsch, W; Points, S D; Chu, Y -H; Dickel, J; Ehle, M; Williams, R; Greiner, J

    2016-01-01

    We present a comprehensive X-ray study of the population of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the LMC. Using primarily XMM-Newton, we conduct a systematic spectral analysis of LMC SNRs to gain new insights on their evolution and the interplay with their host galaxy. We combine all the archival XMM observations of the LMC with those of our Very Large Programme survey. We produce X-ray images and spectra of 51 SNRs, out of a list of 59. Using a careful modeling of the background, we consistently analyse all the X-ray spectra and measure temperatures, luminosities, and chemical compositions. We investigate the spatial distribution of SNRs in the LMC and the connection with their environment, characterised by various SFHs. We tentatively type all LMC SNRs to constrain the ratio of core-collapse to type Ia SN rates in the LMC. We compare the X-ray-derived column densities to HI maps to probing the 3D structure of the LMC. This work provides the first homogeneous catalogue of X-ray spectral properties of LMC SNRs. It of...

  18. Ab initio phenomenological simulation of the growth of large tumor cell populations

    CERN Document Server

    Chignola, R; Milotti, E; Pellegrina, C D; Chignola, Roberto; Fabbro, Alessio Del; Milotti, Edoardo; Pellegrina, Chiara Dalla

    2007-01-01

    In a previous paper we have introduced a phenomenological model of cell metabolism and of the cell cycle to simulate the behavior of large tumor cell populations (Chignola R and Milotti E, Phys. Biol. 2 (2005) 8-22). Here we describe a refined and extended version of the model that includes some of the complex interactions between cells and their surrounding environment. The present version takes into consideration several additional energy-consuming biochemical pathways such as protein and DNA synthesis, the tuning of extracellular pH and of the cell membrane potential. The control of the cell cycle - that was previously modeled by means of ad hoc thresholds - has been directly addressed here by considering checkpoints from proteins that act as targets for phosphorylation on multiple sites. As simulated cells grow, they can now modify the chemical composition of the surrounding environment which in turn acts as a feedback mechanism to tune cell metabolism and hence cell proliferation: in this way we obtain g...

  19. Comparison of genetic population structure of the large blue butterflies Maculinea nausithous and M. teleius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figurny-Puchalska, Edyta; Gadeberg, Rebekka M.E.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the genetic population structure of two rare myrmecophilous lycaenid butterflies, Maculinea nausithous and M. teleius, which often live sympatrically and have similar biology. In Europe, both species occur in highly fragmented populations and are vulnerable to local extinction...

  20. Incidence of X and Y Chromosomal Aneuploidy in a Large Child Bearing Population

    OpenAIRE

    Samango-Sprouse, Carole; Kırkızlar, Eser; Hall, Megan P.; Lawson, Patrick; Demko, Zachary; Zneimer, Susan M.; Curnow, Kirsten J.; Gross, Susan; Gropman, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background X&Y chromosomal aneuploidies are among the most common human whole-chromosomal copy number changes, but the population-based incidence and prevalence in the child-bearing population is unclear. Methods This retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data leveraged a routine non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) using parental genotyping to estimate the population-based incidence of X&Y chromosome variations in this population referred for NIPT (generally due to advanced maternal...

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of sleep disturbances in a large HIV-infected adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde Allavena

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sleep disturbances are frequently reported in HIV-infected patients but there is a lack of large studies on prevalence and risk factors, particularly in the context of current improved immuno-clinical status and use of the newest antiretrovirals (ARV. Method: Cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with sleep disturbance in adult HIV-infected patients in six French centres of the region “Pays de la Loire”. Patients filled a self-administered questionnaire on their health behaviour, sleep attitudes (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index PSQI, quality of life (WHO QOL HIV BREF questionnaire and depression (Beck depression Inventory (BDI-II questionnaire. Socio-demographic and immunovirologic data, medical history, ARVs were collected. Results: From November 2012 to May 2013, 1354 consecutive non-selected patients were enrolled. Patients’ characteristics were: 73.5% male, median age 47 years, active employment 56.7%, France-native 83% and Africa-native 14.7%, CDC stage C 21%, hepatitis co-infection 13%, lipodystrophy 11.8%, dyslipidemia 20%, high BP 15.1%, diabetes 3%, tobacco smokers 39%, marijuana and cocaine users, 11.7% and 1.7% respectively, and excessive alcohol drinkers 9%. Median (med duration of HIV infection was 12.4 years, med CD4 count was 604/mm3; 94% of Patients were on ARVs, 87% had undetectable viral load. Median sleeping time was 7 hours. Sleep disturbances (defined as PSQI score >5 were observed in 47% of the patients, more frequently in female (56.4% than in male (43.9% (p19 in 19.7% of the patients. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with sleep disturbances (p10 vs. <10 y. (OR 1.5; CI 1.1–2.0, ARV regimen containing nevirapine (OR 0.7; CI 0.5–0.9 or efavirenz (OR 0.5; CI 0.3–0.7. Conclusions: Prevalence of sleep disturbances is high in this HIV population and roughly similar to the French population. Associated factors are rather related to social and psychological

  2. Awareness of osteoporosis and its relationship with calcaneus quantitative ultrasound in a large Chinese community population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu J

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Jingjing Xu,1,* Min Sun,1,* Zhixiao Wang,1,* Qi Fu,1 Mengdei Cao,1 Zhenxin Zhu,1 Chuchen Meng,1 Yan Yan,1 Jia Mao,1 Hua Tao,1 Xiaoping Huang,1 Zheng Lin,2 Tao Yang,1 Wei He1 1Department of Endocrinology, 2Department of Nursing, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The People’s Republic of China has the largest population affected by osteoporosis in the world. However, no population-based survey of osteoporosis awareness in People’s Republic of China has been reported. This study investigated the level of basic awareness of osteoporosis in a large community in People’s Republic of China. The relationship between level of awareness and quantitative ultrasound (US measurements at the calcaneus was also assessed. Methods: A questionnaire was completed by 9983 men and women aged 40 years or older in Nanjing, People’s Republic of China, between June and December 2011. During this time, the study participants underwent quantitative US measurement. Data from 9049 of the subjects were included in the final analysis. Results: The proportion of subjects who were aware of osteoporosis was very low. Only 30.7% had heard of osteoporosis, and only 18.5% had heard of osteoporotic fracture. In total, 52.9% of the subjects drank milk, 16.0% took calcium, 7.1% took vitamin D, and 47.2% were performing regular physical activity. Logistic regression showed that more highly educated older women had significantly better awareness of osteoporosis (P < 0.05. Subjects with a history of a previous osteoporotic fracture also had better awareness (P < 0.05 than subjects without such a history, except for those who drank milk. Similar to previous reports, female sex, old age, a low education level, and a personal history of osteoporotic fracture were significantly associated with a low quantitative US measurement (P < 0.001. Further, drinking milk

  3. Surprise Gift” Purchases of Small Electric Appliances: A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vanhamme (Joëlle); C.J.P.M. de Bont (Cees)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractUnderstanding decision-making processes for gifts is of strategic importance for companies selling small electrical appliances as gifts account for a large part of their sales. Among all gifts, the ones that are surprising are the most valued by recipients. However, research about

  4. The surprising diversity of clostridial hydrogenases: a comparative genomic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calusinska, Magdalena; Happe, Thomas; Joris, Bernard; Wilmotte, Annick

    2010-06-01

    Among the large variety of micro-organisms capable of fermentative hydrogen production, strict anaerobes such as members of the genus Clostridium are the most widely studied. They can produce hydrogen by a reversible reduction of protons accumulated during fermentation to dihydrogen, a reaction which is catalysed by hydrogenases. Sequenced genomes provide completely new insights into the diversity of clostridial hydrogenases. Building on previous reports, we found that [FeFe] hydrogenases are not a homogeneous group of enzymes, but exist in multiple forms with different modular structures and are especially abundant in members of the genus Clostridium. This unusual diversity seems to support the central role of hydrogenases in cell metabolism. In particular, the presence of multiple putative operons encoding multisubunit [FeFe] hydrogenases highlights the fact that hydrogen metabolism is very complex in this genus. In contrast with [FeFe] hydrogenases, their [NiFe] hydrogenase counterparts, widely represented in other bacteria and archaea, are found in only a few clostridial species. Surprisingly, a heteromultimeric Ech hydrogenase, known to be an energy-converting [NiFe] hydrogenase and previously described only in methanogenic archaea and some sulfur-reducing bacteria, was found to be encoded by the genomes of four cellulolytic strains: Clostridum cellulolyticum, Clostridum papyrosolvens, Clostridum thermocellum and Clostridum phytofermentans.

  5. Refractory Hypertension: Determination of Prevalence, Risk Factors and Comorbidities in a Large, Population-Based Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, David A.; Booth, John N.; Oparil, Suzanne; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Shimbo, Daichi; Lackland, Daniel T.; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M.; Muntner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Refractory hypertension is an extreme phenotype of antihypertensive treatment failure. Participants in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study, a large (n=30,239), population-based cohort were evaluated to determine the prevalence of refractory hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities. Refractory hypertension was defined as uncontrolled blood pressure (systolic/diastolic ≥ 140/90 mm Hg) on ≥ 5 antihypertensive drug classes. Participants with resistant hypertension (systolic/diastolic ≥140/90 mm Hg on ≥ 3 orhypertensive participants served as comparator groups. Of 14,809 REGARDS participants receiving antihypertensive treatment, 78 (0.5%) had refractory hypertension. The prevalence of refractory hypertension was 3.6% among participants with resistant hypertension(n=2,144) and 41.7% among participants on 5 or more antihypertensive drug classes. Among all hypertensive participants, African American race, male gender, living in the stroke belt or buckle, higher body mass index, lower heart rate, reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, diabetes and history of stroke and coronary heart disease were associated with refractory hypertension. Compared to resistant hypertension, prevalence ratios for refractory hypertension were increased for African Americans (3.00, 95% CI 1.68 – 5.37) and those with albuminuria (2.22, 95% CI 1.40 – 3.52) and diabetes (2.09, 95% CI 1.32 – 3.31). The median 10-year Framingham risk for coronary heart disease and stroke was higher among participants with refractory hypertension compared to either comparator group. These data indicate that while resistant hypertension is relatively common among treated hypertensive patients, true antihypertensive treatment failure is rare. PMID:24324035

  6. Refractory hypertension: determination of prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidities in a large, population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, David A; Booth, John N; Oparil, Suzanne; Irvin, Marguerite R; Shimbo, Daichi; Lackland, Daniel T; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M; Muntner, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Refractory hypertension is an extreme phenotype of antihypertensive treatment failure. Participants in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study, a large (n=30 239), population-based cohort were evaluated to determine the prevalence of refractory hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities. Refractory hypertension was defined as uncontrolled blood pressure (systolic/diastolic, ≥140/90 mm Hg) on ≥5 antihypertensive drug classes. Participants with resistant hypertension (systolic/diastolic, ≥140/90 mm Hg on ≥3 or hypertension served as comparator groups. Of 14 809 REGARDS participants receiving antihypertensive treatment, 78 (0.5%) had refractory hypertension. The prevalence of refractory hypertension was 3.6% among participants with resistant hypertension (n=2144) and 41.7% among participants on ≥5 antihypertensive drug classes. Among all participants with hypertension, black race, male sex, living in the stroke belt or buckle, higher body mass index, lower heart rate, reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, diabetes mellitus, and history of stroke and coronary heart disease were associated with refractory hypertension. Compared with resistant hypertension, prevalence ratios for refractory hypertension were increased for blacks (3.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.68-5.37) and those with albuminuria (2.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.40-3.52) and diabetes mellitus (2.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-3.31). The median 10-year Framingham risk for coronary heart disease and stroke was higher among participants with refractory hypertension when compared with those with either comparator group. These data indicate that although resistant hypertension is relatively common among treated patients with hypertension, true antihypertensive treatment failure is rare.

  7. Coffee and green tea as a large source of antioxidant polyphenols in the Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Yoichi; Ohie, Takashi; Yonekawa, Yasuhiko; Yonemoto, Kohei; Aizawa, Hiroki; Mori, Yoko; Watanabe, Makoto; Takeuchi, Masato; Hasegawa, Maiko; Taguchi, Chie; Kondo, Kazuo

    2009-02-25

    Food and beverages rich in polyphenols with antioxidant activity are highlighted as a potential factor for risk reduction of lifestyle related diseases. This study was conducted to elucidate total polyphenol consumption from beverages in Japanese people. Total polyphenol (TP) contents in beverages were measured using a modified Folin-Ciocalteu method removing the interference of reduced sugars by using reverse-phase column chromatography. A beverage consumption survey was conducted in the Tokyo and Osaka areas in 2004. Randomly selected male and female subjects (10-59 years old, n = 8768) recorded the amounts and types of all nonalcoholic beverages consumed in a week. Concentration of TP in coffee, green tea, black tea, Oolong tea, barley tea, fruit juice, tomato/vegetable juice, and cocoa drinks were at 200, 115, 96, 39, 9, 34, 69, and 62 mg/100 mL, respectively. Total consumption of beverages in a Japanese population was 1.11 +/- 0.51 L/day, and TP contents from beverages was 853 +/- 512 mg/day. Coffee and green tea shared 50% and 34% of TP consumption in beverages, respectively, and contribution of each of the other beverages was less than 10%. TP contents in 20 major vegetables and 5 fruits were 0-49 mg and 2-55 mg/100 g, respectively. Antioxidant activities, Cu reducing power, and scavenging activities for DPPH and superoxide, of those samples correlated to the TP contents (p coffee, contributed to a large share of the consumption of polyphenols, as antioxidants, in the Japanese diet.

  8. Population census of a large common tern colony with a small unmanned aircraft.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Chabot

    Full Text Available Small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS may be useful for conducting high-precision, low-disturbance waterbird surveys, but limited data exist on their effectiveness. We evaluated the capacity of a small UAS to census a large (>6,000 nests coastal Common tern (Sterna hirundo colony of which ground surveys are particularly disruptive and time-consuming. We compared aerial photographic tern counts to ground nest counts in 45 plots (5-m radius throughout the colony at three intervals over a nine-day period in order to identify sources of variation and establish a coefficient to estimate nest numbers from UAS surveys. We also compared a full colony ground count to full counts from two UAS surveys conducted the following day. Finally, we compared colony disturbance levels over the course of UAS flights to matched control periods. Linear regressions between aerial and ground counts in plots had very strong correlations in all three comparison periods (R2 = 0.972-0.989, P < 0.001 and regression coefficients ranged from 0.928-0.977 terns/nest. Full colony aerial counts were 93.6% and 94.0%, respectively, of the ground count. Varying visibility of terns with ground cover, weather conditions and image quality, and changing nest attendance rates throughout incubation were likely sources of variation in aerial detection rates. Optimally timed UAS surveys of Common tern colonies following our method should yield population estimates in the 93-96% range of ground counts. Although the terns were initially disturbed by the UAS flying overhead, they rapidly habituated to it. Overall, we found no evidence of sustained disturbance to the colony by the UAS. We encourage colonial waterbird researchers and managers to consider taking advantage of this burgeoning technology.

  9. Social norms for population displacements caused by large dams France, 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelle Faure

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available With the passage of time and insights from a number of historical studies it is now possible to take a look back at the way rural populations in France were displaced for the construction of large dams during and after the Second World War. Today, international standards relating to the social implications of dam development projects are imposed on dam builders by both governments and financing institutions. However, in the absence of these international social standards, how did population displacements take place in the past? This paper provides a retrospective look in the light of the current "protection policies" developed by the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank. Retrospective case studies are based on research conducted in the Alps by Virginie Bodon on Tignes and Serre-Ponçon for her doctoral thesis in history (1999 and on the book by D. Varaschin on Tignes. The author uses her own studies on the impact of the large dams of the Upper Dordogne, based on research conducted in departmental and municipal archives and on interviews with those who witnessed the implementation of displacement policies and with their children (1998-2005. The author draws on her experience as an anthropologist for the World Bank to analyse the ways in which these displacements were actually carried out. The forced displacements, euphemistically referred to as "involuntary resettlement" in discourses on development, took on increasing notoriety with the international energy crisis. The dams gave rise to an international debate on their social and environmental impacts, a debate continued by the World Commission on Dams. Today, when financing has again become available for the construction of new dams throughout the world, it seems opportune to provide some insights into the social implications of large dam development projects based on the experience of France, a country that has been, in many respects, one of the most innovative in the implementation of

  10. The Association of Hot Red Chili Pepper Consumption and Mortality: A Large Population-Based Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chopan, Mustafa; Littenberg, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    The evidence base for the health effects of spice consumption is insufficient, with only one large population-based study and no reports from Europe or North America. Our objective was to analyze the association between consumption of hot red chili peppers and mortality, using a population-based prospective cohort from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) III, a representative sample of US noninstitutionalized adults, in which participants were surveyed from 1988 to...

  11. Chandra Finds Surprising Black Hole Activity In Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    bright active galaxies, often referred to as Active Galactic Nuclei, or AGN. Many astronomers think that all galaxies have central, supermassive black holes, yet only a small percent show activity. What is needed to power the AGN is fuel in the form of a nearby reservoir of gas and dust. Galaxy clusters contain hundreds to thousands of galaxies. They are the largest known structures in the universe and serve as a microcosm for the mechanics of the Universe at large. The galaxies in clusters are often old, reddish elliptically shaped galaxies, distinct from blue, spiral galaxies like our own. These old galaxies also do not have many young stars. The theory now in question is that as galaxies enter into clusters at high speeds, they are stripped of their interstellar gas, much as a strong wind strips leaves from a tree. Galaxies may also collide with one another and use up all of their gas in one huge burst of star formation triggered by this interaction. These processes remove most, if not all, of the gas that isn't locked up in stars. As they no longer have the raw material to form new stars, the stellar population slowly gets old and the Galaxy appears red. No gas is left to fuel an AGN. Previous surveys of galaxy clusters with optical telescopes have found that about only one percent of the galaxies in a cluster have AGN. This latest Chandra observation if typical, however, bumps the count up to about 5 percent. The team found six red galaxies with high X-ray activity during a nearly 14-hour Chandra observation of a galaxy cluster named Abell 2104, over 700 million light years from Earth. Based on previous optical surveys, only one was expected. "If we relied on optical data alone, we would have missed these hidden monsters," said co-author Dr. John Mulchaey. Only one of the six AGN, in fact, had the optical spectral properties typical of AGN activity. "The presence of these AGN indicate that supermassive black holes have somehow retained a fuel source, despite the

  12. Defense Science Board (DSB) Summer Study Report on Strategic Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    DSB Summer Study Report on Strategic Surprise July 2015 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden...SUBTITLE DSB Summer Study Report on Strategic Surprise 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Defense Science Board ( DSB ),The Pentagon ,OUSD(AT&L

  13. Microalbuminuria is independently associated with ischaemic electrocardiographic abnormalities in a large non-diabetic population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diercks, GFH; van Boven, AJ; Hillege, HL; Janssen, WMT; Kors, JA; de Jong, PE; Grobbee, DE; Crijns, HJGM; van Gilst, WH

    2000-01-01

    Aim To assess the value of microalbuminuria as an indicator of increased cardiovascular risk in a non-diabetic population. Methods and Results 7579 non-diabetic subjects were studied with ages ranging from 28 to 75 years selected from a population based cohort. Using computerized Minnesota coding, i

  14. Disentangling the effects of climate, density dependence, and harvest on an iconic large herbivore's population dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koons, David; Colchero, Fernando; Hersey, Kent

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the relative effects of climate, harvest, and density dependence on population dynamics is critical for guiding sound population management, especially for ungulates in arid and semi-arid environments experiencing climate change. To address these issues for bison in southern Utah, we...... spring temperature could have a greater ‘relative effect’ on equilibrium abundance than either harvest or the strength of density dependence. Our findings highlight the utility of incorporating elasticity analyses into state-space population models, and the need to include climatic processes in wildlife...... applied a Bayesian state-space model to a 72-year time series of abundance counts. While accounting for known harvest (as well as live removal) from the population, we found that the bison population in southern Utah exhibited strong potential to grow from low density (β0 = 0.26; Bayesian credible...

  15. Disentangling the effects of climate, density dependence, and harvest on an iconic large herbivore's population dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koons, David; Colchero, Fernando; Hersey, Kent

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the relative effects of climate, harvest, and density dependence on population dynamics is critical for guiding sound population management, especially for ungulates in arid and semi-arid environments experiencing climate change. To address these issues for bison in southern Utah, we...... applied a Bayesian state-space model to a 72-year time series of abundance counts. While accounting for known harvest (as well as live removal) from the population, we found that the bison population in southern Utah exhibited strong potential to grow from low density (β0 = 0.26; Bayesian credible...... interval based on 95% of the highest posterior density: BCI = 0.19 to 0.33), and weak but statistically significant density dependence (β1 = -0.02, BCI = -0.04 to -0.004). Early spring temperatures also had strong positive effects on population growth (βfebaprtemp1 = 0.09, BCI = 0.04 to 0.14), much more so...

  16. Patient and provider population dynamics analysis in a large dental organization: a tool for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Charles W

    2010-12-01

    Health care managers are faced with difficult decisions on a daily basis. Some of those issues involve productivity. Statistical analyses of patient and provider population dynamics offer an important tool with which to base decisions. In this study, two representative clinics out of seven were selected. The patient and provider populations were subjected to the means square successive difference test and a linear regression test. The results differed from management perceptions. Provider decision processes in clinic A were more efficient than those in clinic B. There was no relationship between provider presence and the patient population in both clinics. The patient populations in both clinics displayed random arrivals. Specific recommendations to management from the results of this study include: billeting decisions, appointing process decisions, emergency policies, and the need for a focused marketing plan. There are many useful tools with which to study population dynamics. This is one example.

  17. Surprising Sensitivities in Simulations of Radiative Convective Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drotos, Gabor; Becker, Tobias; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Stevens, Bjorn

    2017-04-01

    The climate and climate-sensitivity of a global model run in radiative equilibrium is explored. Results from simulations with ECHAM6.3 coupled to a slab ocean and run in a wide range of configurations are presented. Simulations both with and without a parameterised representation of deep convection are conducted for CO2 concentrations ranging from one eighth of present day values to thirty-two times the present day, and for variations in the solar constant of more than a factor of two. Very long simulations, in some case more than a thousand years, are performed to adequately sample the attractor of the different climate states of the model, and provide robust estimates of the system's climate sensitivity parameter. For the standard configuration of the model the climate sensitivity progressively decreases from very large values (6-7K) for the coldest climates to well below 1 K for the warmest climates. For very high CO2 levels (16 and 32 times the present value) fluctuations of globally averaged temperature as large as 10 K arise on decadal time-scales. These fluctuations manifest as quasi-period coolings, driven by large and persistent global scale decks of stratiform low clouds, so that for a period of several years global temperatures drop to levels below the lowest temperatures of the climate with present day values of CO2. The same configuration of the model has more modest sensitivities when the insolation is reduced, but runaway warming results for small (10%) increases. Simulations without parameterised convection have colder (by roughly 10K) climates and smaller (1K) sensitivities, allowing a stable climate with earth-like temperatures even for insolation much (50%) larger than the present day. Such values of insolation are possible because over a large range of the insolation the climate sensitivity parameter is very near zero. The surprising sensitivities of the system, and the limit-cycle like behaviour of the very CO2 rich climates, can be traced to

  18. Modeling population exposure to community noise and air pollution in a large metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wen Qi; McLean, Kathleen; Brauer, Michael; Chiarello, Sarah A; Davies, Hugh W

    2012-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that both air pollution and community noise are associated with cardiovascular disease mortality. Because road traffic is a major contributor to these environmental pollutants in metropolitan areas, it is plausible that the observed associations may be confounded by coexistent pollutants. As part of a large population-based cohort study to address this concern, we used a noise prediction model to assess annual average community noise levels from transportation sources in metropolitan Vancouver, Canada. The modeled annual average noise level was 64 (inter quartile range 60-68) dB(A) for the region. This model was evaluated by comparing modeled annual daytime A-weighted equivalent continuous noise levels (L(day)) with measured 5-min daytime A-weighted equivalent continuous noise levels (L(eq,day,5 min)) at 103 selected roadside sites in the study region. On average, L(day) was 6.2 (95% CI, 6.0-7.9) dB(A) higher than, but highly correlated (r=0.62; 95% CI, 0.48-0.72) with, L(eq,day,5 min). These results suggest that our model-based noise exposure assessment could approximately reflect actual noise exposure in the study region. Overall, modeled noise levels were not strongly correlated with land use regression estimates of traffic-related air pollutants including black carbon, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM(2.5)), NO(2) and NO; the highest correlation was with black carbon (r=0.48), whereas the lowest correlation was with PM(2.5) (r=0.18). There was no consistent effect of traffic proximity on the correlations between community noise levels and traffic-related air pollutant concentrations. These results, consistent with previous studies, suggest that it is possible to assess potential adverse cardiovascular effects from long-term exposures to community noise and traffic-related air pollution in prospective epidemiologic studies. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Population III Star Formation In Large Cosmological Simulations I. Halo Temporal and Physical Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Crosby, Brian D; Smith, Britton D; Turk, Matthew J; Hahn, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    We present a semi-analytic, computationally inexpensive model to identify halos capable of forming a Population III star in cosmological simulations across a wide range of times and environments. This allows for a much more complete and representative set of Population III star forming halos to be constructed, which will lead to Population III star formation simulations that more accurately reflect the diversity of Population III stars, both in time and halo mass. This model shows that Population III and chemically enriched stars coexist beyond the formation of the first generation of stars in a cosmological simulation until at least z~10, and likely beyond, though Population III stars form at rates that are 4-6 orders of magnitude lower than chemically enriched stars by z=10. A catalog of more than 40,000 candidate Population III forming halos were identified, with formation times temporally ranging from z=30 to z=10, and ranging in mass from 2.3x10^5 M_sun to 1.2x10^10 M_sun. At early times, the environment...

  20. A Large Plasmodium vivax Reservoir and Little Population Structure in the South Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Koepfli

    Full Text Available The importance of Plasmodium vivax in malaria elimination is increasingly being recognized, yet little is known about its population size and population genetic structure in the South Pacific, an area that is the focus of intensified malaria control.We have genotyped 13 microsatellite markers in 295 P. vivax isolates from four geographically distinct sites in Papua New Guinea (PNG and one site from Solomon Islands, representing different transmission intensities.Diversity was very high with expected heterozygosity values ranging from 0.62 to 0.98 for the different markers. Effective population size was high (12'872 to 19'533 per site. In PNG population structuring was limited with moderate levels of genetic differentiation. F ST values (adjusted for high diversity of markers were 0.14-0.15. Slightly higher levels were observed between PNG populations and Solomon Islands (F ST = 0.16.Low levels of population structure despite geographical barriers to transmission are in sharp contrast to results from regions of low P. vivax endemicity. Prior to intensification of malaria control programs in the study area, parasite diversity and effective population size remained high.

  1. Large population sizes mitigate negative effects of variable weather conditions on fruit set in two spring woodland orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemyn, Hans; Brys, Rein; Honnay, Olivier

    2009-08-23

    Global circulation models predict increased climatic variability, which could increase variability in demographic rates and affect long-term population viability. In animal-pollinated species, pollination services, and thus fruit and seed set, may be highly variable among years and sites, and depend on both local environmental conditions and climatic variables. Orchid species may be particularly vulnerable to disruption of their pollination services, as most species depend on pollinators for successful fruit set and because seed germination and seedling recruitment are to some extent dependent on the amount of fruits and seeds produced. Better insights into the factors determining fruit and seed set are therefore indispensable for a better understanding of population dynamics and viability of orchid populations under changing climatic conditions. However, very few studies have investigated spatio-temporal variation in fruit set in orchids. Here, we quantified fruit production in eight populations of the orchid Orchis purpurea that does not reward pollinators and 13 populations of the rewarding Neottia (Listera) ovata during five consecutive years (2002-2006). Fruit production in large populations showed much higher stability than that in small populations and was less affected by extreme weather conditions. Our results highlight the potential vulnerability of small orchid populations to an increasingly variable climate through highly unpredictable fruit-set patterns.

  2. Confirmation of association of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor gene with systemic sclerosis in a large European population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossini-Castillo, L.; Simeon, C.P.; Beretta, L.; Vonk, M.C.; Callejas-Rubio, J.L.; Espinosa, G.; Carreira, P.; Camps, M.T.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, L.; Rodriguez-Carballeira, M.; Garcia-Hernandez, F.J.; Lopez-Longo, F.J.; Hernandez-Hernandez, V.; Saez-Comet, L.; Egurbide, M.V.; Hesselstrand, R.; Nordin, A.; Hoffmann-Vold, A.M.; Vanthuyne, M.; Smith, V.; Langhe, E. De; Kreuter, A.; Riemekasten, G.; Witte, T.J.M. de; Hunzelmann, N.; Voskuyl, A.E.; Schuerwegh, A.J.; Lunardi, C.; Airo, P.; Scorza, R.; Shiels, P.; Laar, J.M. van; Fonseca, C.; Denton, C.; Herrick, A.; Worthington, J.; Koeleman, B.P.; Rueda, B.; Radstake, T.R.D.J.; Martin, J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to confirm the implication of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) gene in SSc susceptibility or clinical phenotypes in a large European population. Methods. A total of 3800 SSc patients and 4282 healthy controls of white Caucasian ancestry from eight

  3. Mural thrombus and the progression of abdominal aortic aneurysms: a large population-based prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behr-Rasmussen, Carsten; Grøndal, Nikolaj Fibiger; Thomsen, Marie Dahl

    2014-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the relative size of intraluminal thrombus (ILT) in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) is associated with AAA growth. METHODS: This large observational study was based on a randomised population-based screening trial. Six hundred and fifteen AAAs were...

  4. Two Test Items to Explore High School Students' Beliefs of Sample Size When Sampling from Large Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, Anthony; Henderson, Sally; Penman, John

    2010-01-01

    Two test items that examined high school students' beliefs of sample size for large populations using the context of opinion polls conducted prior to national and state elections were developed. A trial of the two items with 21 male and 33 female Year 9 students examined their naive understanding of sample size: over half of students chose a…

  5. Identification of genetic variants associated with maize flowering time using an extremely large multi-genetic background population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowering time is one of the major adaptive traits in domestication of maize and an important selection criterion in breeding. To detect more maize flowering time variants we evaluated flowering time traits using an extremely large multi- genetic background population that contained more than 8000 l...

  6. NASA Orbital Debris Large-Object Baseline Population in ORDEM 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisco, Paula H.; Vavrin, A. B.; Anz-Meador, P. D.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) has created and validated high fidelity populations of the debris environment for the latest Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM 3.0). Though the model includes fluxes of objects 10 um and larger, this paper considers particle fluxes for 1 cm and larger debris objects from low Earth orbit (LEO) through Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). These are validated by several reliable radar observations through the Space Surveillance Network (SSN), Haystack, and HAX radars. ORDEM 3.0 populations were designed for the purpose of assisting, debris researchers and sensor developers in planning and testing. This environment includes a background derived from the LEO-to-GEO ENvironment Debris evolutionary model (LEGEND) with a Bayesian rescaling as well as specific events such as the FY-1C anti-satellite test, the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 accidental collision, and the Soviet/Russian Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite (RORSAT) sodium-potassium droplet releases. The environment described in this paper is the most realistic orbital debris population larger than 1 cm, to date. We describe derivations of the background population and added specific populations. We present sample validation charts of our 1 cm and larger LEO population against Space Surveillance Network (SSN), Haystack, and HAX radar measurements.

  7. Study of large and highly stratified population datasets by combining iterative pruning principal component analysis and structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piriyapongsa Jittima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ever increasing sizes of population genetic datasets pose great challenges for population structure analysis. The Tracy-Widom (TW statistical test is widely used for detecting structure. However, it has not been adequately investigated whether the TW statistic is susceptible to type I error, especially in large, complex datasets. Non-parametric, Principal Component Analysis (PCA based methods for resolving structure have been developed which rely on the TW test. Although PCA-based methods can resolve structure, they cannot infer ancestry. Model-based methods are still needed for ancestry analysis, but they are not suitable for large datasets. We propose a new structure analysis framework for large datasets. This includes a new heuristic for detecting structure and incorporation of the structure patterns inferred by a PCA method to complement STRUCTURE analysis. Results A new heuristic called EigenDev for detecting population structure is presented. When tested on simulated data, this heuristic is robust to sample size. In contrast, the TW statistic was found to be susceptible to type I error, especially for large population samples. EigenDev is thus better-suited for analysis of large datasets containing many individuals, in which spurious patterns are likely to exist and could be incorrectly interpreted as population stratification. EigenDev was applied to the iterative pruning PCA (ipPCA method, which resolves the underlying subpopulations. This subpopulation information was used to supervise STRUCTURE analysis to infer patterns of ancestry at an unprecedented level of resolution. To validate the new approach, a bovine and a large human genetic dataset (3945 individuals were analyzed. We found new ancestry patterns consistent with the subpopulations resolved by ipPCA. Conclusions The EigenDev heuristic is robust to sampling and is thus superior for detecting structure in large datasets. The application of EigenDev to

  8. Large-scale structure of brown rat (Rattus norvegicus populations in England: effects on rodenticide resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Z.H. Haniza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The brown rat (Rattus norvegicus is a relatively recent (<300 years addition to the British fauna, but by association with negative impacts on public health, animal health and agriculture, it is regarded as one of the most important vertebrate pest species. Anticoagulant rodenticides were introduced for brown rat control in the 1950s and are widely used for rat control in the UK, but long-standing resistance has been linked to control failures in some regions. One thus far ignored aspect of resistance biology is the population structure of the brown rat. This paper investigates the role population structure has on the development of anticoagulant resistance. Using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA, we examined 186 individuals (from 15 counties in England and one location in Wales near the Wales–England border to investigate the population structure of rural brown rat populations. We also examined individual rats for variations of the VKORC1 gene previously associated with resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides. We show that the populations were structured to some degree, but that this was only apparent in the microsatellite data and not the mtDNA data. We discuss various reasons why this is the case. We show that the population as a whole appears not to be at equilibrium. The relative lack of diversity in the mtDNA sequences examined can be explained by founder effects and a subsequent spatial expansion of a species introduced to the UK relatively recently. We found there was a geographical distribution of resistance mutations, and relatively low rate of gene flow between populations, which has implications for the development and management of anticoagulant resistance.

  9. Polymorphism analysis of 15 STR loci in a large sample of Guangdong (Southern China) Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Lu, Huijie; Qiu, Pingming; Yang, Xingyi; Liu, Chao

    2015-11-01

    AmpFℓSTR Sinofiler PCR Amplification Kit is specially developed for Chinese forensic laboratories, but there are little population-genetic data about this kit for Southern China. This kit contains 15 STR loci: D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, D18S51, D6S1043, D12S391, D5S818 and FGA. We have conducted genotyping experiments on the 15 STR loci in 5234 unrelated individuals from Guangdong (Southern China). We observed a total of 243 alleles in the group with the allelic frequency values ranging from less than 0.0001 to 0.3686. Our statistic analysis indicates that the 15 STR loci conform to the Hardy-Weinberg's equilibrium (p>0.05). The highest polymorphism was found at D6S1043 locus and the lowest was found at D3S1358. The combined power of discrimination reached 0.99999999999999999977431 and the combined probability of paternity exclusion reached 0.999999721 for 15 STR loci. Guangdong Han population had significant differences compared with Shaanxi, Shandong and Henan province of Northern China. A Neighbor-joining tree indicates that the Guangdong Han has a close genetic relationship with the Yunnan population. Significant differences were found between Guangdong Han population and other reported populations (Japanese, Philippine, African American, Caucasian, Hispanic and Western Romanian) at 2-11 STR loci. The results may provide useful information for forensic sciences and population genetics studies. The present findings indicate that all the 15 STR loci are highly genetically polymorphic in the Han population of Guangdong.

  10. Shell productivity of the large benthic foraminifer Baculogypsina sphaerulata, based on the population dynamics in a tropical reef environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Kazuhiko; Otomaru, Maki; Lopati, Paeniu; Hosono, Takashi; Kayanne, Hajime

    2016-03-01

    Carbonate production by large benthic foraminifers is sometimes comparable to that of corals and coralline algae, and contributes to sedimentation on reef islands and beaches in the tropical Pacific. Population dynamic data, such as population density and size structure (size-frequency distribution), are vital for an accurate estimation of shell production of foraminifers. However, previous production estimates in tropical environments were based on a limited sampling period with no consideration of seasonality. In addition, no comparisons were made of various estimation methods to determine more accurate estimates. Here we present the annual gross shell production rate of Baculogypsina sphaerulata, estimated based on population dynamics studied over a 2-yr period on an ocean reef flat of Funafuti Atoll (Tuvalu, tropical South Pacific). The population density of B. sphaerulata increased from January to March, when northwest winds predominated and the study site was on the leeward side of reef islands, compared to other seasons when southeast trade winds predominated and the study site was on the windward side. This result suggested that wind-driven flows controlled the population density at the study site. The B. sphaerulata population had a relatively stationary size-frequency distribution throughout the study period, indicating no definite intensive reproductive period in the tropical population. Four methods were applied to estimate the annual gross shell production rates of B. sphaerulata. The production rates estimated by three of the four methods (using monthly biomass, life tables and growth increment rates) were in the order of hundreds of g CaCO3 m-2 yr-1 or cm-3 m-2 yr-1, and the simple method using turnover rates overestimated the values. This study suggests that seasonal surveys should be undertaken of population density and size structure as these can produce more accurate estimates of shell productivity of large benthic foraminifers.

  11. No evidence for a large difference in ALS frequency in populations of African and European origin: a population based study in inner city London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Garcia, Ricardo; Scott, Kirsten M; Roche, Jose Carlos; Scotton, William; Martin, Naomi; Janssen, Anna; Goldstein, Laura H; Leigh, P Nigel; Ellis, Cathy M; Shaw, Christopher E; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have suggested a lower incidence of ALS in people of African origin. We used a population based register in an urban setting from inner city London postcodes where there is a large population of people of African ancestry to compare the frequency of ALS in people of European and African origin. Population statistics stratified by age, gender and ethnicity were obtained from the 2001 census. Incidence and prevalence were calculated in each ethnic group. Results showed that in a population of 683,194, of which 22% were of African ancestry, 88 individuals with ALS were identified over a seven-year period, including 14 people with African ancestry. The adjusted incidence in people of African ancestry was 1.35 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 0.72-2.3) and in those of European ancestry 1.97 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 1.55-2.48). In conclusion, in this small population based study we could not detect a difference in rates of ALS between people of African ancestry and those of European ancestry.

  12. Masters Swimmers Use More Dietary Supplements Than a Large National Comparison Population in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Sally K; Erickson, Steven R

    2016-04-01

    The use of dietary supplements was compared between a cohort of committed exercisers, U.S. Masters Swimming (USMS) members (n = 1,042), and the general U.S. population, exemplified by respondents to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2009 to 2010 (n = 6,209). USMS swimmers were significantly more likely to take dietary supplements (62%) than the general U.S. adult population, as represented by the NHANES population (37%). Those taking dietary supplements were older, more likely to be female and Caucasian, and more highly educated and affluent than those not taking supplements (p swimmers were still more likely (p swimmers were significantly more likely (p creatine or dehydroepiandrosterone or testosterone than those in the NHANES cohort.

  13. Thermal specialization across large geographical scales predicts the resilience of mangrove crab populations to global warming

    KAUST Repository

    Fusi, Marco

    2014-11-18

    The broad prediction that ectotherms will be more vulnerable to climate change in the tropics than in temperate regions includes assumptions about centre/edge population effects that can only be tested by within-species comparisons across wide latitudinal gradients. Here, we investigated the thermal vulnerability of two mangrove crab species, comparing populations at the centre (Kenya) and edge (South Africa) of their distributions. At the same time, we investigated the role of respiratory mode (water- versus air-breathing) in determining the thermal tolerance in amphibious organisms. To do this, we compared the vulnerability to acute temperature fluctuations of two sympatric species with two different lifestyle adaptations: the free living Perisesarma guttatum and the burrowing Uca urvillei, both pivotal to the ecosystem functioning of mangroves. The results revealed the air-breathing U. urvillei to be a thermal generalist with much higher thermal tolerances than P. guttatum. Importantly, however, we found that, while U. urvillei showed little difference between edge and centre populations, P. guttatum showed adaptation to local conditions. Equatorial populations had elevated tolerances to acute heat stress and mechanisms of partial thermoregulation, which make them less vulnerable to global warming than temperate conspecifics. The results reveal both the importance of respiratory mode to thermal tolerance and the unexpected potential for low latitude populations/species to endure a warming climate. The results also contribute to a conceptual model on the latitudinal thermal tolerance of these key species. This highlights the need for an integrated population-level approach to predict the consequences of climate change. © 2014 The Authors.

  14. Heritability and demographic analyses in the large isolated population of Val Borbera suggest advantages in mapping complex traits genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Traglia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Isolated populations are a useful resource for mapping complex traits due to shared stable environment, reduced genetic complexity and extended Linkage Disequilibrium (LD compared to the general population. Here we describe a large genetic isolate from the North West Apennines, the mountain range that runs through Italy from the North West Alps to the South. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study involved 1,803 people living in 7 villages of the upper Borbera Valley. For this large population cohort, data from genealogy reconstruction, medical questionnaires, blood, anthropometric and bone status QUS parameters were evaluated. Demographic and epidemiological analyses indicated a substantial genetic component contributing to each trait variation as well as overlapping genetic determinants and family clustering for some traits. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data provide evidence for significant heritability of medical relevant traits that will be important in mapping quantitative traits. We suggest that this population isolate is suitable to identify rare variants associated with complex phenotypes that may be difficult to study in larger but more heterogeneous populations.

  15. Large mainland populations of South Island robins retain greater genetic diversity than offshore island refuges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boessenkool, Sanne; Taylor, Sabrina S.; Tepolt, Carolyn K.; Komdeur, Jan; Jamieson, Ian G.

    2007-01-01

    For conservation purposes islands are considered safe refuges for many species, particularly in regions where introduced predators form a major threat to the native fauna, but island populations are also known to possess low levels of genetic diversity. The New Zealand archipelago provides an ideal

  16. Language Shift and the Inclusion of Indigenous Populations in Large-Scale Assessment Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Backhoff, Eduardo; Contreras-Niño, Luis A.; Vázquez-Muñoz, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Indicators of academic achievement for bilingual students can be inaccurate due to linguistic heterogeneity. For indigenous populations, language shift (the gradual replacement of one language by another) is a factor that can increase this heterogeneity and poses an additional challenge for valid testing. We investigated whether and how indigenous…

  17. A cytogenetic study in a large population of intellectually disabled Indonesians.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mundhofir, F.E.P.; Winarni, T.I.; Bon, B.W.M. van; Aminah, S.; Nillesen, W.M.; Merkx, G.F.M.; Smeets, D.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Faradz, S.M.H.; Yntema, H.G.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic factors play a significant role in the etiology of intellectual disability (ID). The goal of this study was to identify microscopically visible chromosomal abnormalities in an Indonesian ID population and to determine their frequency, pattern, and clinical features. A total of 527 intellectu

  18. Autosomal STR allele frequencies for the CODIS system from a large random population sample in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Ismael A; Villouta, Pamela; Herrera, Sandra; Melo, Francisco

    2012-05-01

    The thirteen autosomal STR loci of the CODIS system were typed from DNA of 732 unrelated male individuals sampled from different locations in Chile. This is the first report of allele frequencies for the thirteen STRs loci defined in the CODIS system from the Chilean population.

  19. Language Shift and the Inclusion of Indigenous Populations in Large-Scale Assessment Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Backhoff, Eduardo; Contreras-Niño, Luis A.; Vázquez-Muñoz, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Indicators of academic achievement for bilingual students can be inaccurate due to linguistic heterogeneity. For indigenous populations, language shift (the gradual replacement of one language by another) is a factor that can increase this heterogeneity and poses an additional challenge for valid testing. We investigated whether and how indigenous…

  20. Large subclonal variation in Phytophthora infestans populations associated with Ecuadorian potato landraces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delgado, R.A.; Monteros-Altamiro, A.R.; Li, Y.; Visser, R.G.F.; Lee, van der T.A.J.; Vosman, B.

    2013-01-01

    The population of Phytophthora infestans on potato landraces in three provinces (Carchi, Chimborazo and Loja) of Ecuador was analysed. All isolates (n = 66) were of the A1 mating type. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) were used to assess the genetic diversity of the isolates. The P. infestans isolates

  1. Rapid volatile metabolomics and genomics in large strawberry populations segregating for aroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in strawberry (Fragaria spp.) represent a large portion of the fruit secondary metabolome, and contribute significantly to aroma, flavor, disease resistance, pest resistance and overall fruit quality. Understanding the basis for volatile compound biosynthesis and it...

  2. Large-Scale Modelling of the Environmentally-Driven Population Dynamics of Temperate Aedes albopictus (Skuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Erguler

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a highly invasive vector species. It is a proven vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses, with the potential to host a further 24 arboviruses. It has recently expanded its geographical range, threatening many countries in the Middle East, Mediterranean, Europe and North America. Here, we investigate the theoretical limitations of its range expansion by developing an environmentally-driven mathematical model of its population dynamics. We focus on the temperate strain of Ae. albopictus and compile a comprehensive literature-based database of physiological parameters. As a novel approach, we link its population dynamics to globally-available environmental datasets by performing inference on all parameters. We adopt a Bayesian approach using experimental data as prior knowledge and the surveillance dataset of Emilia-Romagna, Italy, as evidence. The model accounts for temperature, precipitation, human population density and photoperiod as the main environmental drivers, and, in addition, incorporates the mechanism of diapause and a simple breeding site model. The model demonstrates high predictive skill over the reference region and beyond, confirming most of the current reports of vector presence in Europe. One of the main hypotheses derived from the model is the survival of Ae. albopictus populations through harsh winter conditions. The model, constrained by the environmental datasets, requires that either diapausing eggs or adult vectors have increased cold resistance. The model also suggests that temperature and photoperiod control diapause initiation and termination differentially. We demonstrate that it is possible to account for unobserved properties and constraints, such as differences between laboratory and field conditions, to derive reliable inferences on the environmental dependence of Ae. albopictus populations.

  3. Fast and reliable methods for extracting functional connectivity in large populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roudi, Yasser; Tyrcha, Joanna; Hertz, John

    2009-01-01

    in a balanced state of asynchronous firing with a mean rate of ~10 Hz for excitatory neurons. Employing a bin size of 10 ms, we performed Boltzmann learning to fit Ising models for populations of size N up to 200 excitatory neurons chosen randomly from the 800 in the simulated network.  We studied the following...... methods:  A) a naive mean-field approximation, for which J is equal to minus the inverse of the covariance matrix. B) an independent-pair approximation, C) a low rate, small-population approximation (the low-rate limit of (B), which is valid generally in the limit of small Nrt, where r is the average rate...

  4. Big Data: Large-Scale Historical Infrastructure from the Minnesota Population Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, Matthew; Cleveland, Lara; Flood, Sarah; Hall, Patricia Kelly; King, Miriam L; Ruggles, Steven; Schroeder, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The Minnesota Population Center (MPC) provides aggregate data and microdata that have been integrated and harmonized to maximize crosstemporal and cross-spatial comparability. All MPC data products are distributed free of charge through an interactive Web interface that enables users to limit the data and metadata being analyzed to samples and variables of interest to their research. In this article, the authors describe the integrated databases available from the MPC, report on recent additions and enhancements to these data sets, and summarize new online tools and resources that help users to analyze the data over time. They conclude with a description of the MPC's newest and largest infrastructure project to date: a global population and environment data network.

  5. Incidence of X and Y Chromosomal Aneuploidy in a Large Child Bearing Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kırkızlar, Eser; Hall, Megan P.; Demko, Zachary; Zneimer, Susan M.; Curnow, Kirsten J.; Gross, Susan; Gropman, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background X&Y chromosomal aneuploidies are among the most common human whole-chromosomal copy number changes, but the population-based incidence and prevalence in the child-bearing population is unclear. Methods This retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data leveraged a routine non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) using parental genotyping to estimate the population-based incidence of X&Y chromosome variations in this population referred for NIPT (generally due to advanced maternal age). Results From 141,916 women and 29,336 men, 119 X&Y chromosomal abnormalities (prevalence: 1 in 1,439) were identified. Maternal findings include: 43 cases of 45,X (40 mosaic); 30 cases of 47,XXX (12 mosaic); 3 cases of 46,XX uniparental disomy; 2 cases of 46,XY/46,XX; 23 cases of mosaicism of unknown type; 2 cases of 47,XX,i(X)(q10). Paternal findings include: 2 cases of 47,XXY (1 mosaic); 10 cases of 47,XYY (1 mosaic); 4 partial Y deletions. Conclusions Single chromosome aneuploidy was present in one of every 1,439 individuals considered in this study, showing 47,XXX; 47,XX,i(X)(q10); 47,XYY; 47,XXY, partial Y deletions, and a high level of mosaicism for 45,X. This expands significantly our understanding of X&Y chromosomal variations and fertility issues, and is critical for families and adults affected by these disorders. This current and extensive information on fertility will be beneficial for genetic counseling on prenatal diagnoses as well as for newly diagnosed postnatal cases. PMID:27512996

  6. Prevalence of common MEFV mutations and carrier frequencies in a large cohort of Iranian populations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MARYAM BEHESHTIAN; NASIM IZADI; GERNOT KRIEGSHAUSER; KIMIA KAHRIZI; ELHAM PARSI MEHR; MARYAM ROSTAM; MASOUMEH HOSSEINI; MARYAM AZAD; MONA MONTAJABINIAT; ARIANA KARIMINEJAD; STEFAN NEMETH; CHRISTIAN OBERKANINS; HOSSEIN NAJMABADI

    2016-09-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a hereditary autoinflammatory disorder caused by mutations in the MEFV gene. The disease is especially common among Armenian, Turkish, Jewish and Middle East Arab populations. To identify the frequency and the spectrum of common MEFV mutations in different Iranian populations, we investigated a cohort of 208 unselected asymptomatic individuals and 743 FMF patients. Nine hundred and fifty-one samples were analysed for the presence of 12 MEFV mutations by PCR and reverse-hybridization (FMF StripAssay, ViennaLab, Vienna, Austria). Confirmatory dideoxy sequencing of allMEFV gene exons was performed for 39 patients. Fifty-seven (27.4%) healthy individual carried mutant MEFV alleles. Three hundred and ninety-one (52.6%) FMF patients were found positive for either one (172/743; 23.1%), two or threeMEFV mutations. Using dideoxy sequencing, three novel variants, A66P, R202W and H300Q, could be identified. Our analysis revealed an allele frequency and carrier rate of 15.6 and 27.4%, respectively, among healthy Iranians. Stillmoderate compared to neighbouring Armenia, but higher than in Turkey or Iraq, these data suggest that FMF is remarkably common among Iranian populations. E148Q was most frequent in the group of healthy individuals, whereas M694V wasthe most common mutation among FMF patients, thereby corroborating previous studies on MEFV mutational spectra in the Middle East. Accordingly,MEFV mutations are frequent in healthy Iranian individuals across different ethnic groups. Based on this finding, the awareness for FMF and the implementation of augmented carrier screening programmes considering the multiethnic nature of the Iranian population should be promoted.

  7. Please weight: when confronted by a large Indian statistic, divide by population

    OpenAIRE

    Ghatak, Maitreesh; Ray, Debraj

    2014-01-01

    The latest wealth index by New World Wealth that looks at multimillionaires has ranked India eighth in the global rich list. But Maitreesh Ghatak and Debraj Ray contend that looking at absolute numbers can be misleading. Accounting for population and economic differences across countries, it shows that while India does not stand out in terms of income going to the top 1%, it does in terms of income going to the top 0.1%.

  8. Geocoding large population-level administrative datasets at highly resolved spatial scales

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Sharon E.; Strauss, Benjamin; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Using geographic information systems to link administrative databases with demographic, social, and environmental data allows researchers to use spatial approaches to explore relationships between exposures and health. Traditionally, spatial analysis in public health has focused on the county, zip code, or tract level because of limitations to geocoding at highly resolved scales. Using 2005 birth and death data from North Carolina, we examine our ability to geocode population-level datasets a...

  9. Disentangling the cause of a catastrophic population decline in a large marine mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Alastair M M; Orben, Rachael A; Arnould, John P Y; Christiansen, Fredrik; Hays, Graeme C; Staniland, Iain J

    2015-10-01

    Considerable uncertainties often surround the causes of long-term changes in population abundance. One striking example is the precipitous decline of southern sea lions (SSL; Otariaflavescens) at the Falkland Islands, from 80 555 pups in the mid 1930s to just 5506 pups in 1965. Despite an increase in SSL abundance over the past two decades, the population has not recovered, with the number of pups born in 2014 (minimum 4443 pups) less than 6% of the 1930s estimate. The order-of-magnitude decline is primarily attributed to commercial sealing in Argentina. Here, we test this established paradigm and alternative hypotheses by assessing (1) commercial sealing at the Falkland Islands, (2) winter migration of SSL from the Falkland Islands to Argentina, (3) whether the number of SSL in Argentina could have sustained the reported level of exploitation, and (4) environmental change. The most parsimonious hypothesis explaining the SSL population decline was environmental change. Specifically, analysis of 160 years of winter sea surface temperatures revealed marked changes, including a period of warming between 1930 and 1950 that was consistent with the period of SSL decline. Sea surface temperature changes likely influenced the distribution or availability of SSL prey and impacted its population dynamics. We suggest that historical harvesting may not always be the "smoking gun" as is often purported. Rather, our conclusions support the growing evidence for bottom-up forcing on the abundance of species at lower trophic levels (e.g., plankton and fish) and resulting impacts on higher trophic levels across a broad range of ecosystems.

  10. Large-scale mitogenomics enables insights into Schizophora (Diptera) radiation and population diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Ana Carolina M; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L; Paulo, Daniel F; Marinho, Marco Antonio T; Tomsho, Lynn P; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I; Purbojati, Rikky W; Ratan, Aakrosh; Schuster, Stephan C

    2016-02-25

    True flies are insects of the order Diptera and encompass one of the most diverse groups of animals on Earth. Within dipterans, Schizophora represents a recent radiation of insects that was used as a model to develop a pipeline for generating complete mitogenomes using various sequencing platforms and strategies. 91 mitogenomes from 32 different species were sequenced and assembled with high fidelity, using amplicon, whole genome shotgun or single molecule sequencing approaches. Based on the novel mitogenomes, we estimate the origin of Schizophora within the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary, about 68.3 Ma. Detailed analyses of the blowfly family (Calliphoridae) place its origin at 22 Ma, concomitant with the radiation of grazing mammals. The emergence of ectoparasitism within calliphorids was dated 6.95 Ma for the screwworm fly and 2.3 Ma for the Australian sheep blowfly. Varying population histories were observed for the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala and the housefly Musca domestica samples in our dataset. Whereas blowflies (n = 50) appear to have undergone selective sweeps and/or severe bottlenecks in the New World, houseflies (n = 14) display variation among populations from different zoogeographical zones and low levels of gene flow. The reported high-throughput mitogenomics approach for insects enables new insights into schizophoran diversity and population history of flies.

  11. Geocoding large population-level administrative datasets at highly resolved spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sharon E; Strauss, Benjamin; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2014-08-01

    Using geographic information systems to link administrative databases with demographic, social, and environmental data allows researchers to use spatial approaches to explore relationships between exposures and health. Traditionally, spatial analysis in public health has focused on the county, zip code, or tract level because of limitations to geocoding at highly resolved scales. Using 2005 birth and death data from North Carolina, we examine our ability to geocode population-level datasets at three spatial resolutions - zip code, street, and parcel. We achieve high geocoding rates at all three resolutions, with statewide street geocoding rates of 88.0% for births and 93.2% for deaths. We observe differences in geocoding rates across demographics and health outcomes, with lower geocoding rates in disadvantaged populations and the most dramatic differences occurring across the urban-rural spectrum. Our results suggest highly resolved spatial data architectures for population-level datasets are viable through geocoding individual street addresses. We recommend routinely geocoding administrative datasets to the highest spatial resolution feasible, allowing public health researchers to choose the spatial resolution used in analysis based on an understanding of the spatial dimensions of the health outcomes and exposures being investigated. Such research, however, must acknowledge how disparate geocoding success across subpopulations may affect findings.

  12. Large-scale mitogenomics enables insights into Schizophora (Diptera) radiation and population diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Ana Carolina M.; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L.; Paulo, Daniel F.; Marinho, Marco Antonio T.; Tomsho, Lynn P.; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I.; Purbojati, Rikky W.; Ratan, Aakrosh; Schuster, Stephan C.

    2016-01-01

    True flies are insects of the order Diptera and encompass one of the most diverse groups of animals on Earth. Within dipterans, Schizophora represents a recent radiation of insects that was used as a model to develop a pipeline for generating complete mitogenomes using various sequencing platforms and strategies. 91 mitogenomes from 32 different species were sequenced and assembled with high fidelity, using amplicon, whole genome shotgun or single molecule sequencing approaches. Based on the novel mitogenomes, we estimate the origin of Schizophora within the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary, about 68.3 Ma. Detailed analyses of the blowfly family (Calliphoridae) place its origin at 22 Ma, concomitant with the radiation of grazing mammals. The emergence of ectoparasitism within calliphorids was dated 6.95 Ma for the screwworm fly and 2.3 Ma for the Australian sheep blowfly. Varying population histories were observed for the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala and the housefly Musca domestica samples in our dataset. Whereas blowflies (n = 50) appear to have undergone selective sweeps and/or severe bottlenecks in the New World, houseflies (n = 14) display variation among populations from different zoogeographical zones and low levels of gene flow. The reported high-throughput mitogenomics approach for insects enables new insights into schizophoran diversity and population history of flies. PMID:26912394

  13. Accuracy of genomic selection models in a large population of open-pollinated families in white spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, J; Doerksen, T; Clément, S; MacKay, J; Bousquet, J

    2014-10-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is of interest in breeding because of its potential for predicting the genetic value of individuals and increasing genetic gains per unit of time. To date, very few studies have reported empirical results of GS potential in the context of large population sizes and long breeding cycles such as for boreal trees. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of marker-aided selection in an undomesticated white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) population of large effective size using a GS approach. A discovery population of 1694 trees representative of 214 open-pollinated families from 43 natural populations was phenotyped for 12 wood and growth traits and genotyped for 6385 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mined in 2660 gene sequences. GS models were built to predict estimated breeding values using all the available SNPs or SNP subsets of the largest absolute effects, and they were validated using various cross-validation schemes. The accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) varied from 0.327 to 0.435 when the training and the validation data sets shared half-sibs that were on average 90% of the accuracies achieved through traditionally estimated breeding values. The trend was also the same for validation across sites. As expected, the accuracy of GEBVs obtained after cross-validation with individuals of unknown relatedness was lower with about half of the accuracy achieved when half-sibs were present. We showed that with the marker densities used in the current study, predictions with low to moderate accuracy could be obtained within a large undomesticated population of related individuals, potentially resulting in larger gains per unit of time with GS than with the traditional approach.

  14. Scaling Solution in the Large Population Limit of the General Asymmetric Stochastic Luria-Delbrück Evolution Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, David A.; Levine, Herbert

    2015-02-01

    One of the most popular models for quantitatively understanding the emergence of drug resistance both in bacterial colonies and in malignant tumors was introduced long ago by Luria and Delbrück. Here, individual resistant mutants emerge randomly during the birth events of an exponentially growing sensitive population. A most interesting limit of this process occurs when the population size is large and mutation rates are low, but not necessarily small compared to . Here we provide a scaling solution valid in this limit, making contact with the theory of Levy -stable distributions, in particular one discussed long ago by Landau. One consequence of this association is that moments of the distribution are highly misleading as far as characterizing typical behavior. A key insight that enables our solution is that working in the fixed population size ensemble is not the same as working in a fixed time ensemble. Some of our results have been presented previously in abbreviated form [12].

  15. Avoiding surprises when implementing a single quality system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donawa, Maria

    2009-01-01

    European medical device manufacturers are sometimes surprised to learn that operating ISO 13485 alone is not sufficient to meet United States (US) quality system requirements. This article discusses important considerations for meeting US and European requirements when operating under a single quality system.

  16. Reconsiderations: Donald Murray and the Pedagogy of Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Toward the end of his life, Donald Murray felt that his approach to writing instruction was no longer appreciated by journals in his field. Nevertheless, his emphasis on encouraging students to surprise themselves through informal writing still has considerable value. (Contains 1 note.)

  17. Reconsiderations: Donald Murray and the Pedagogy of Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Toward the end of his life, Donald Murray felt that his approach to writing instruction was no longer appreciated by journals in his field. Nevertheless, his emphasis on encouraging students to surprise themselves through informal writing still has considerable value. (Contains 1 note.)

  18. Errors and surprise in patients with focal brain lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ullsperger, M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent theories of performance monitoring suggest that not only errors and negative action outcomes but also valence-free expectancy violations can trigger cognitive and behavioral adaptations. EEG and fMRI evidence suggests that monitoring of both errors and surprising but valence-free action

  19. Prevalence and Characteristics of Painful Diabetic Neuropathy in a Large Community-Based Diabetic Population in the U.K.

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, Caroline A; Malik, Rayaz A; van Ross, Ernest R.E.; Kulkarni, Jai; Boulton, Andrew J.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess, in the general diabetic population, 1) the prevalence of painful neuropathic symptoms; 2) the relationship between symptoms and clinical severity of neuropathy; and 3) the role of diabetes type, sex, and ethnicity in painful neuropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Observational study of a large cohort of diabetic patients receiving community-based health care in northwest England (n = 15,692). Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) was assessed using neuropathy symptom score (...

  20. Populating the Large-Wavevector Realm: Bloch Volume Plasmon Polaritons in Hyperbolic and Extremely Anisotropic Metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Babicheva, Viktoriia; Orlov, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Optics of hyperbolic metamaterials is revisited in terms of large-wavevector waves, evanescent in isotropic media but propagating in presence of extreme anisotropy. Identifying the physical nature of these waves as Bloch volume plasmon polaritons, we derive their existence conditions and outline...... the strategy for tailoring their properties in multiscale metamaterials....

  1. Behavioural determinants of gene flow in malaria vector populations: Anopheles gambiae males select large females as mates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan G

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium-refractory mosquitoes are being rapidly developed for malaria control but will only succeed if they can successfully compete for mates when released into the wild. Pre-copulatory behavioural traits maintain genetic population structure in wild mosquito populations and mating barriers have foiled previous attempts to control malaria vectors through sterile male release. Methods Varying numbers of virgin male and female Anopheles gambiae Giles, from two strains of different innate sizes, were allowed to mate under standardized conditions in laboratory cages, following which, the insemination status, oviposition success and egg batch size of each female was assessed. The influence of male and female numbers, strain combination and female size were determined using logistic regression, correlation analysis and a simple mechanistic model of male competition for females. Results Male An. gambiae select females on the basis of size because of much greater fecundity among large females. Even under conditions where large numbers of males must compete for a smaller number of females, the largest females are more likely to become inseminated, to successfully oviposit and to produce large egg batches. Conclusions Sexual selection, on the basis of size, could either promote or limit the spread of malaria-refractory genes into wild populations and needs to be considered in the continued development and eventual release of transgenic vectors. Fundamental studies of behavioural ecology in malaria vectors such as An. gambiae can have important implications for malaria control and should be prioritised for more extensive investigation in the future.

  2. The large scale view of the young stellar populations in the Orion OB1 Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceno, Cesar; Calvet, Nuria

    2016-06-01

    The Orion OB1 association, at ~400 pc and with a wide range of ages (~1-10 Myr) and environmental conditions, is an ideal place to look at how stars form, first evolve and disperse among the general population of field stars. Also to study disk dispersal and the duration of the planet formation phase.However, despite spanning nearly 200 deg2 on the sky, almost all we know about Orion comes from studies of a limited fraction of the entire region, mostly of the youngest objects (~B molecular clouds and the ~3 Myr old sigma Ori cluster.We will present here the results of our 180 sq deg photometric multi-epoch survey across the Orion OB1 association, using the known variability of T Tauri stars to pick them among the general field population, and following with spectroscopy to confirm members and characterize them.The ~2000 newly identified young low-mass stars are mostly located away from the molecular clouds, across tens of sq. deg. in the Orion OB1a and OB1b sub-associations, with ages in the range ~4-10 Myr. But within this general population we identify a significant fraction concentrated in distinct overdensities, most notably the ~7 Myr old 25 Orionis cluster. These stellar aggregates point to a previously unknown degree of substructure that has survived the dissipation of the parent molecular clouds. We also find that the Orion Nebula Cluster is surrounded by a few sq.deg. halo of young stars, as has been suggested by recent sudies.

  3. Large Scale Impact of the Cosmological Population of Expanding Radio Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Barai, Paramita

    2008-01-01

    We seek to compute the fraction of the volume of the Universe filled by expanding cocoons of the cosmological population of radio galaxies over the Hubble time as well as the magnetic field infused by them, in order to assess their importance in the cosmic evolution of the Universe. Using N-body $\\Lambda$CDM simulations, radio galaxies distributed according to the observed radio luminosity function are allowed to evolve in a cosmological volume as using well defined prescriptions for their expansion. We find that the radio galaxies permeate $10 - 30%$ of the total volume with $\\sim 10^{-8}$ G magnetic field by the present epoch.

  4. The association between aortic augmentation index and cardiovascular risk factors in a large unselected population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janner, Julie Hjortsø; Godtfredsen, N S; Ladelund, S

    2011-01-01

    . Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examine the association's consistency at different ages and to see if the associations are the same in men and women. This study is based on 3432 subjects from The Copenhagen City Heart Study, a prospective epidemiological survey of a representative population......, height and systolic blood pressure in both age groups with few gender differences. Associations between AIx and cardiovascular risk factors further differed by age: In young subjects AIx was associated with cholesterol, high-sensitive C-reactive protein, current smoking, low weight, poor education...

  5. Bounding The Rate of Adaptation In A Large Asexually Reproducing Population With Fast Mutation Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We consider a model of asexually reproducing individuals. The birth and death rates of the individuals are affected by a fitness parameter. The rate of mutations that cause the fitnesses to change is proportional to the population size, $N$. The mutations may be either beneficial or deleterious. In a paper by Yu, Etheridge and Cuthbertson (2009) it was shown that the average rate at which the mean fitness increases in this model is bounded below by $\\log^{1-\\delta} N$ for any $\\delta > 0$. We achieve an upper bound on the average rate at which the mean fitness increases of $O(\\log N/\\log \\log N)$.

  6. Awareness of osteoporosis and its relationship with calcaneus quantitative ultrasound in a large Chinese community population

    OpenAIRE

    Xu J; Sun M; Wang Z.; Fu Q; Cao M; Zhu Z; Meng C; Yan Y; Mao J; Tao H; Huang X.; Lin Z; Yang T; He W.

    2013-01-01

    Jingjing Xu,1,* Min Sun,1,* Zhixiao Wang,1,* Qi Fu,1 Mengdei Cao,1 Zhenxin Zhu,1 Chuchen Meng,1 Yan Yan,1 Jia Mao,1 Hua Tao,1 Xiaoping Huang,1 Zheng Lin,2 Tao Yang,1 Wei He1 1Department of Endocrinology, 2Department of Nursing, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The People’s Republic of China has the largest population affected by osteoporosis in the wor...

  7. Improved survival prediction from lung function data in a large population sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, M.R.; Pedersen, O.F.; Lange, P.

    2008-01-01

    mortality in the Copenhagen City Heart Study data. Cox regression models were derived for survival over 25 years in 13,900 subjects. Age on entry, sex, smoking status, body mass index, previous myocardial infarction and diabetes were putative predictors together with FEV1 either as raw data, standardised....... In univariate predictions of all cause mortality the HR for FEV1/ht(2) categories was 2-4 times higher than those for FEV1PP and 3-10 times higher for airway related tung disease mortality. We conclude that FEV1/ht(2) is superior to FEV1PP for predicting survival. in a general population and this method...

  8. Environments and populations of supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, You-Hua; Kennicutt, Robert C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The stellar and interstellar environments of the 32 known SNRs in the LMC have been examined to determine the relative numbers of population I and II progenitors. At least 2/3 of the LMC SNRs are associated with pop I environments. The data suggest that the existing SNR surveys are biased against the detection of SNRs located in evolved star-forming regions, such as supershells produced by OB asociations, and in the cores of luminous H II regions. Therefore, the fraction of SNRs in pop I environments may be even higher. The results are compared to previous studies of SN statistics in late-type galaxies.

  9. Large impact of Eurasian lynx predation on roe deer population dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Andrén

    Full Text Available The effects of predation on ungulate populations depend on several factors. One of the most important factors is the proportion of predation that is additive or compensatory respectively to other mortality in the prey, i.e., the relative effect of top-down and bottom-up processes. We estimated Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx kill rate on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus using radio-collared lynx. Kill rate was strongly affected by lynx social status. For males it was 4.85 ± 1.30 S.E. roe deer per 30 days, for females with kittens 6.23 ± 0.83 S.E. and for solitary females 2.71 ± 0.47 S.E. We found very weak support for effects of prey density (both for Type I (linear and Type II (non-linear functional responses and of season (winter, summer on lynx kill rate. Additionally, we analysed the growth rate in a roe deer population from 1985 to 2005 in an area, which lynx naturally re-colonized in 1996. The annual roe deer growth rate was lower after lynx re-colonized the study area, but it was also negatively influenced by roe deer density. Before lynx colonized the area roe deer growth rate was λ = 1.079 (± 0.061 S.E., while after lynx re-colonization it was λ = 0.94 (± 0.051 S.E.. Thus, the growth rate in the roe deer population decreased by Δλ = 0.14 (± 0.080 S.E. after lynx re-colonized the study area, which corresponded to the estimated lynx predation rate on roe deer (0.11 ± 0.042 S.E., suggesting that lynx predation was mainly additive to other mortality in roe deer. To conclude, this study suggests that lynx predation together with density dependent factors both influence the roe deer population dynamics. Thus, both top-down and bottom-up processes operated at the same time in this predator-prey system.

  10. Latin America: how a region surprised the experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sherbinin, A

    1993-02-01

    In 1960-1970, family planning specialists and demographers worried that poverty, limited education, Latin machismo, and strong catholic ideals would obstruct family planning efforts to reduce high fertility in Latin America. It had the highest annual population growth rate in the world (2.8%), which would increase the population 2-fold in 25 years. Yet, the UN's 1992 population projection for Latin America and the Caribbean in the year 2000 was about 20% lower than its 1963 projection (just over 500 vs. 638 million). Since life expectancy increased simultaneously from 57 to 68 years, this reduced projection was caused directly by a large decline in fertility from 5.9 to 3. A regression analysis of 11 Latin American and Caribbean countries revealed that differences in the contraceptive prevalence rates accounted for 90% of the variation in the total fertility rate between countries. Thus, contraception played a key role in the fertility decline. The second most significant determinant of fertility decline was an increase in the average age at first marriage from about 20 to 23 years. Induced abortion and breast feeding did not contribute significantly to fertility decline. The major socioeconomic factors responsible for the decline included economic development and urbanization, resulting in improvements in health care, reduced infant and child mortality, and increases in female literacy, education, and labor force participation. Public and private family planning programs also contributed significantly to the decline. They expanded from cities to remote rural areas, thereby increasing access to contraception. By the early 1990s, Brazil, Mexico, and Colombia had among the lowest levels of unmet need (13-24%) in developing countries. Other key factors of fertility decline were political commitment, strong communication efforts, and stress on quality services. Latin America provides hope to other regions where religion and culture promote a large family size.

  11. Comorbidity of gout and rheumatoid arthritis in a large population database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdler-Rabinowicz, Rona; Tiosano, Shmuel; Comaneshter, Doron; Cohen, Arnon D; Amital, Howard

    2017-03-01

    Coexistence of rheumatoid arthritis and gout is considered to be unusual. The current study was designed as a population-based cross-sectional study, utilizing the medical database of Clalit Health Services, the largest healthcare provider organization in Israel. Data of adult patients who were previously diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis was retrieved. For each patient, five age- and sex-matched control patients were randomly selected. Different parameters including BMI, socioeconomic status, and existence of gout as well as smoking and hypertension were examined for both groups. The study included 11,540 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 56,763 controls. The proportion of gout in the study group was high compared to controls (1.61 vs. 0.92%, P rheumatoid arthritis was associated with gout (OR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.45-2.05, P = 0.00). The proportion of gout in rheumatoid arthritis patients is not lower than in the general population.

  12. Population-based laboratory surveillance of Hafnia alvei isolates in a large Canadian health region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laupland Kevin B

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital-based series have characterized Hafnia alvei primarily as an infrequent agent of polymicrobial nosocomial infections in males with underlying illness. Methods We conducted population-based laboratory surveillance in the Calgary Health Region during 2000–2005 to define the incidence, demographic risk factors for acquisition, and anti-microbial susceptibilities of Hafnia alvei isolates. Results A total of 138 patients with Hafnia alvei isolates were identified (2.1/100,000/year and two-thirds were of community onset. Older age and female gender were important risk factors for acquisition. The most common focus of isolation was urine in 112 (81%, followed by lower respiratory tract in 10 (7%, and soft tissue in 5 (4%, and the majority (94; 68% were mono-microbial. Most isolates were resistant to ampicillin (111;80%, cephalothin (106; 77%, amoxicillin/clavulanate (98; 71%, and cefazolin (95; 69% but none to imipenem or ciprofloxacin. Conclusion Hafnia alvei was most commonly isolated as a mono-microbial etiology from the urinary tract in women from the community. This study highlights the importance of population-based studies in accurately defining the epidemiology of an infectious disease.

  13. Quantifying penetrance in a dominant disease gene using large population control cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minikel, Eric Vallabh; Vallabh, Sonia M.; Lek, Monkol; Estrada, Karol; Samocha, Kaitlin E.; Sathirapongsasuti, J. Fah; McLean, Cory Y.; Tung, Joyce Y.; Yu, Linda P.C.; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Blevins, Janis; Zhang, Shulin; Cohen, Yvonne; Chen, Wei; Yamada, Masahito; Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Sanjo, Nobuo; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Collins, Steven J.; Boyd, Alison; Will, Robert G.; Knight, Richard; Ponto, Claudia; Zerr, Inga; Kraus, Theo F.J.; Eigenbrod, Sabina; Giese, Armin; Calero, Miguel; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús; Haïk, Stéphane; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Bouaziz-Amar, Elodie; Brandel, Jean-Philippe; Capellari, Sabina; Parchi, Piero; Poleggi, Anna; Ladogana, Anna; O'Donnell-Luria, Anne H.; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Marshall, Jamie L.; Boehnke, Michael; Laakso, Markku; Mohlke, Karen L.; Kähler, Anna; Chambert, Kimberly; McCarroll, Steven; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Hultman, Christina M.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Sklar, Pamela; van der Lee, Sven J.; Rozemuller, Annemieke; Jansen, Casper; Hofman, Albert; Kraaij, Robert; van Rooij, Jeroen G.J.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Uitterlinden, André G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Daly, Mark J.; MacArthur, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    More than 100,000 genetic variants are reported to cause Mendelian disease in humans, but the penetrance - the probability that a carrier of the purported disease-causing genotype will indeed develop the disease - is generally unknown. Here we assess the impact of variants in the prion protein gene (PRNP) on the risk of prion disease by analyzing 16,025 prion disease cases, 60,706 population control exomes, and 531,575 individuals genotyped by 23andMe, Inc. We show that missense variants in PRNP previously reported to be pathogenic are at least 30× more common in the population than expected based on genetic prion disease prevalence. While some of this excess can be attributed to benign variants falsely assigned as pathogenic, other variants have genuine effects on disease susceptibility but confer lifetime risks ranging from <0.1% to ~100%. We also show that truncating variants in PRNP have position-dependent effects, with true loss-of-function alleles found in healthy older individuals, supporting the safety of therapeutic suppression of prion protein expression. PMID:26791950

  14. Large-scale recent expansion of European patrilineages shown by population resequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batini, Chiara; Hallast, Pille; Zadik, Daniel; Delser, Pierpaolo Maisano; Benazzo, Andrea; Ghirotto, Silvia; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; de Knijff, Peter; Dupuy, Berit Myhre; Eriksen, Heidi A; King, Turi E; López de Munain, Adolfo; López-Parra, Ana M; Loutradis, Aphrodite; Milasin, Jelena; Novelletto, Andrea; Pamjav, Horolma; Sajantila, Antti; Tolun, Aslıhan; Winney, Bruce; Jobling, Mark A

    2015-05-19

    The proportion of Europeans descending from Neolithic farmers ∼ 10 thousand years ago (KYA) or Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers has been much debated. The male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) has been widely applied to this question, but unbiased estimates of diversity and time depth have been lacking. Here we show that European patrilineages underwent a recent continent-wide expansion. Resequencing of 3.7 Mb of MSY DNA in 334 males, comprising 17 European and Middle Eastern populations, defines a phylogeny containing 5,996 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Dating indicates that three major lineages (I1, R1a and R1b), accounting for 64% of our sample, have very recent coalescent times, ranging between 3.5 and 7.3 KYA. A continuous swathe of 13/17 populations share similar histories featuring a demographic expansion starting ∼ 2.1-4.2 KYA. Our results are compatible with ancient MSY DNA data, and contrast with data on mitochondrial DNA, indicating a widespread male-specific phenomenon that focuses interest on the social structure of Bronze Age Europe.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors of sleep disturbances in a large HIV-infected adult population

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep disturbances are frequently reported in HIV-infected patients but there is a lack of large studies on prevalence and risk factors, particularly in the context of current improved immuno-clinical status and use of the newest antiretrovirals (ARV). Method: Cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with sleep disturbance in adult HIV-infected patients in six French centres of the region “Pays de la Loire”. Patients filled a se...

  16. Effectiveness of Acupuncture Therapy on Stress in a Large Urban College Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Stefanie; Burnis, James; Denton, Antony; Krasnow, Aaron; Raghu, T S; Mathis, Kimberly

    2017-06-01

    This study is a randomized controlled clinical trial to study the effectiveness of acupuncture on the perception of stress in patients who study or work on a large, urban college campus. The hypothesis was that verum acupuncture would demonstrate a significant positive impact on perceived stress as compared to sham acupuncture. This study included 111 participants with high self-reported stress levels who either studied or worked at a large, urban public university in the southwestern United States. However, only 62 participants completed the study. The participants were randomized into a verum acupuncture or sham acupuncture group. Both the groups received treatment once a week for 12 weeks. The Cohen's global measure of perceived stress scale (PSS-14) was completed by each participant prior to treatment, at 6 weeks, at 12 weeks, and 6 weeks and 12 weeks post-treatment completion. While participants of both the groups showed a substantial initial decrease in perceived stress scores, at 12 weeks post treatment, the verum acupuncture group showed a significantly greater treatment effect than the sham acupuncture group. This study indicates that acupuncture may be successful in decreasing the perception of stress in students and staff at a large urban university, and this effect persists for at least 3 months after the completion of treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Inferring Population Size History from Large Samples of Genome-Wide Molecular Data - An Approximate Bayesian Computation Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Boitard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Inferring the ancestral dynamics of effective population size is a long-standing question in population genetics, which can now be tackled much more accurately thanks to the massive genomic data available in many species. Several promising methods that take advantage of whole-genome sequences have been recently developed in this context. However, they can only be applied to rather small samples, which limits their ability to estimate recent population size history. Besides, they can be very sensitive to sequencing or phasing errors. Here we introduce a new approximate Bayesian computation approach named PopSizeABC that allows estimating the evolution of the effective population size through time, using a large sample of complete genomes. This sample is summarized using the folded allele frequency spectrum and the average zygotic linkage disequilibrium at different bins of physical distance, two classes of statistics that are widely used in population genetics and can be easily computed from unphased and unpolarized SNP data. Our approach provides accurate estimations of past population sizes, from the very first generations before present back to the expected time to the most recent common ancestor of the sample, as shown by simulations under a wide range of demographic scenarios. When applied to samples of 15 or 25 complete genomes in four cattle breeds (Angus, Fleckvieh, Holstein and Jersey, PopSizeABC revealed a series of population declines, related to historical events such as domestication or modern breed creation. We further highlight that our approach is robust to sequencing errors, provided summary statistics are computed from SNPs with common alleles.

  18. HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DRB1 allele distribution in a large Armenian population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matevosyan, L; Chattopadhyay, S; Madelian, V; Avagyan, S; Nazaretyan, M; Hyussian, A; Vardapetyan, E; Arutunyan, R; Jordan, F

    2011-07-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DRB1 gene frequencies were investigated in 4279 unrelated Armenian bone marrow donors. HLA alleles were defined by using PCR amplification with sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP) high- and low-resolution kits. The aim of this study was to examine the HLA diversity at the high-resolution level in a large Armenian population sample, and to compare HLA allele group distribution in Armenian subpopulations. The most frequently observed alleles in the HLA class I were HLA-A*0201, A*0101, A*2402, A*0301, HLA-B*5101, HLA-B*3501, and B*4901. Among DRB1 alleles, high frequencies of DRB1*1104 and DRB1*1501 were observed, followed by DRB1*1101 and DRB1*1401. The most common three-locus haplotype found in the Armenian population was A*33-B*14-DRB1*01, followed by A*03-B*35-DRB1*01. Our results show a similar distribution of alleles in Armenian subpopulations from different countries, and from different regions of the Republics of Armenia and Karabagh. The low level of genetic distances between subpopulations indicates a high level of population homogeneity, and the genetic distances between Armenians and other populations show Armenians as a distinct ethnic group relative to others, reflecting the fact that Armenians have been an 'isolated population' throughout centuries. This study is the first comprehensive investigation of HLA-allele group distribution in a subset of Armenian populations, and the first to provide HLA-allele and haplotype frequencies at a high-resolution level. It is a valuable reference for organ transplantation and for future studies of HLA-associated diseases in Armenian populations.

  19. Large sequence divergence of mitochondrial DNA genotypes of the control region within populations of the African antelope, kob (Kobus kob)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birungi, J.; Arctander, Peter

    2000-01-01

    conservation genetics, control region, Kobus kob, mitochondrial DNA, population expansion, population structure......conservation genetics, control region, Kobus kob, mitochondrial DNA, population expansion, population structure...

  20. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cognitive impairment in the Chinese elderly population: a large national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin P

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Peng Yin,1,* Qingfeng Ma,2,* Limin Wang,1 Peng Lin,3 Mei Zhang,1 Shige Qi,1 Zhihui Wang1 1National Center for Chronic and Noncommunicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, 3Department of Health Education, Qingdao Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Qingdao, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Previous studies suggested an association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and cognitive impairment, mostly in developed countries. There is no evidence available on the association between these two common chronic disorders in the elderly people in People’s Republic of China where the population is aging rapidly.Methods: The study population was randomly selected from a nationally representative Disease Surveillance Point System in People’s Republic of China. A standardized questionnaire was administered by trained interviewers during a face-to-face interview in the field survey conducted in 2010–2011. Cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination. COPD was measured by self-report and the Medical Research Council respiratory questionnaire was used to assess respiratory symptoms. A multivariate logistic regression model was applied to examine the association between COPD and cognitive impairment with adjustment for potential confounding factors.Results: A total of 16,629 subjects aged over 60 years were included in the study. The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 9.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.7, 11.1. Chronic phlegm was associated with significantly higher prevalence of cognitive impairment in models adjusted for age, sex, marital status, geographic region, urban/rural, education, smoking status, alcohol drinking, and indoor air pollution (odds ratio [OR] 1.46, 95% CI 1.11, 1.93. Chronic

  1. Nuchal translucency distributions for different chromosomal anomalies in a large unselected population cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Marianne; Ekelund, Charlotte K; Petersen, Olav Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    and compared with the normal/no karyotype group. RESULTS: A total of 215 223 singleton pregnancies were included in the cohort; 10548 had a normal karyotype and 1286 had an aberration. Plots of the NT measurements showed that like trisomy 21, 18 and 13 and monosomy X, the distribution for the unbalanced...... translocations was shifted towards larger NTs. The distributions for the balanced translocations, the uncommon trisomies and the triploidies more closely resembled that of the normal/no karyotype population. CONCLUSION: Fetuses with aneuploidies have NT distributions visually different from normal fetuses......, with the exception of triploidies and uncommon autosomal trisomies. The distributions differ in shape according to type of chromosomal anomaly. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  2. Cultural barriers associated with large gene frequency differences among Italian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbujani, G; Vian, P; Fabbris, L

    1992-08-01

    Analysis of geographic variation for eight red cell markers in Italy shows significant spatial structure for most alleles. Effective population sizes estimated from FST values at these loci are much smaller than those predicted from data on consanguineous marriage, suggesting the presence of factors (presumably barriers) that have reduced gene flow and enhanced the evolutionary weight of genetic drift. Most regions of sharp gene frequency change correspond to geographic and linguistic barriers. Two allele frequencies are significantly correlated with measures of linguistic differentiation but not with indexes describing broad religious and social attitudes. The similarity between patterns of genetic and linguistic variation in Italy, also observed in a previous study, suggests that in specific areas linguistic diversity has acted as a biological barrier constraining mating, dispersal, or both. There is no evidence for a similar role of other extent cultural barriers.

  3. Enrichment of diluted cell populations from large sample volumes using 3D carbon-electrode dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Monsur; Natu, Rucha; Larraga-Martinez, Maria Fernanda; Martinez-Duarte, Rodrigo

    2016-05-01

    Here, we report on an enrichment protocol using carbon electrode dielectrophoresis to isolate and purify a targeted cell population from sample volumes up to 4 ml. We aim at trapping, washing, and recovering an enriched cell fraction that will facilitate downstream analysis. We used an increasingly diluted sample of yeast, 10(6)-10(2) cells/ml, to demonstrate the isolation and enrichment of few cells at increasing flow rates. A maximum average enrichment of 154.2 ± 23.7 times was achieved when the sample flow rate was 10 μl/min and yeast cells were suspended in low electrically conductive media that maximizes dielectrophoresis trapping. A COMSOL Multiphysics model allowed for the comparison between experimental and simulation results. Discussion is conducted on the discrepancies between such results and how the model can be further improved.

  4. Blood Pressure, Proteinuria, and Renal Function Decline: Associations in a Large Community-Based Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Atsushi; Konta, Tsuneo; Kamei, Keita; Suzuki, Kazuko; Ichikawa, Kazunobu; Fujimoto, Shouichi; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Moriyama, Toshiki; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Kimura, Kenjiro; Narita, Ichiei; Kondo, Masahide; Asahi, Koichi; Kurahashi, Issei; Ohashi, Yasuo; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2015-09-01

    Hypertension and proteinuria are risk factors for adverse renal outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease. This study investigated the associations of blood pressure and proteinuria on renal function in a community-based population. We analyzed data from a nationwide database of 141,514 subjects who participated in the annual "Specific Health Check and Guidance in Japan" checkup in 2008 and 2010. The study subjects were aged between 29 and 74 years, and the cohort comprised 40% men. We examined relationships between blood pressure levels, proteinuria at baseline, and the 2-year change in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), which was determined using the Japanese equation. After adjusting for possible confounders, the change in the eGFR was inversely correlated with systolic blood pressure (SBP), but not diastolic blood pressure (DBP), at baseline, irrespective of the presence of proteinuria. Compared with the lowest SBP sixtile (≤118mm Hg), eGFRs declined significantly at SBPs ≥ 134mm Hg in subjects with proteinuria, while eGFRs declined significantly at SBPs ≥ 141mm Hg in those without proteinuria. At the same SBPs, renal function decline was faster and the risk for incident renal insufficiency was higher in subjects with proteinuria compared with those without proteinuria. This study showed that a difference in SBP, but not DBP, is independently associated with a rapid eGFR decline in the general Japanese population, and that the association of SBP on the decline of renal function was greater in subjects with proteinuria compared with those without proteinuria. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Selective exploitation of large pike Esox lucius-Effects on mercury concentrations in fish populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Chhatra Mani [Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 As (Norway)], E-mail: chhatra.sharma@gmail.com; Borgstrom, Reidar [Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 As (Norway)], E-mail: reidar.borgstrom@umb.no; Huitfeldt, Jorgen Sinkaberg [Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 As (Norway)], E-mail: jhu@wang.no; Rosseland, Bjorn Olav [Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 As (Norway)], E-mail: bjorn.rosseland@umb.no

    2008-07-25

    The present study outlines two main trends of mercury transfer patterns through the fish community: 1) the Hg concentrations increase with increase in the trophic level, with top predators having the highest concentrations, and 2) a fast growth rate may dilute the concentrations of Hg in fish muscle tissue (growth biodilution). In 2004, an extensive reduction in number of large pike (Esox lucius L.), was initiated by selective gillnet fishing in Lake Arungen, Norway, in order to increase the pike recruitment due to an expected reduction in cannibalism. In this connection, total mercury (THg) concentrations in the fish community were studied both before (2003) and after (2005) the removal of large pike. The {delta}{sup 15}N signatures and stomach content analyses indicated that pike and perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) occupied the highest trophic position, while roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)) was at the lower level, and rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus L.) at the lowest. The piscivores, pike and perch, had the highest concentrations of THg. The biomagnification rate of THg through the food web in the fish community was 0.163 ( per mille{delta}{sup 15}N), with the highest uptake rate (0.232) in perch. A significant decrease in THg concentrations was found in all fish species in 2005 compared to 2003. Removal of the top predators in an Hg contaminated lake might thus be an important management tool for reducing Hg levels in fish, thereby reducing health risk to humans.

  6. Selective exploitation of large pike Esox lucius--effects on mercury concentrations in fish populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chhatra Mani; Borgstrøm, Reidar; Huitfeldt, Jørgen Sinkaberg; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav

    2008-07-25

    The present study outlines two main trends of mercury transfer patterns through the fish community: 1) the Hg concentrations increase with increase in the trophic level, with top predators having the highest concentrations, and 2) a fast growth rate may dilute the concentrations of Hg in fish muscle tissue (growth biodilution). In 2004, an extensive reduction in number of large pike (Esox lucius L.), was initiated by selective gillnet fishing in Lake Arungen, Norway, in order to increase the pike recruitment due to an expected reduction in cannibalism. In this connection, total mercury (THg) concentrations in the fish community were studied both before (2003) and after (2005) the removal of large pike. The delta(15)N signatures and stomach content analyses indicated that pike and perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) occupied the highest trophic position, while roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)) was at the lower level, and rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus L.) at the lowest. The piscivores, pike and perch, had the highest concentrations of THg. The biomagnification rate of THg through the food web in the fish community was 0.163 (per thousand delta(15)N), with the highest uptake rate (0.232) in perch. A significant decrease in THg concentrations was found in all fish species in 2005 compared to 2003. Removal of the top predators in an Hg contaminated lake might thus be an important management tool for reducing Hg levels in fish, thereby reducing health risk to humans.

  7. The population impact of a large school-based influenza vaccination campaign.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G Grijalva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The optimal vaccination strategy to mitigate the impact of influenza epidemics is unclear. In 2005, a countywide school-based influenza vaccination campaign was launched in Knox County, Tennessee (population 385,899. Approximately 41% and 48% of eligible county children aged 5-17 years were immunized with live attenuated influenza vaccine before the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 influenza seasons, respectively. We sought to determine the population impact of this campaign. METHODS: Laboratory-confirmed influenza data defined influenza seasons. We calculated the incidence of medically attended acute respiratory illness attributable to influenza in Knox and Knox-surrounding counties (concurrent controls during consecutive seasons (5 precampaign and 2 campaign seasons using negative binomial regression and rate difference methods. Age-stratified analyses compared the incidence of emergency department (ED visits and hospitalizations attributable to influenza. RESULTS: During precampaign seasons, estimated ED visit rates attributable to influenza were 12.39 (95% CI: 10.34-14.44 per 1000 Knox children aged 5-17 years and similar in Knox-surrounding counties. During the campaign seasons, annual Knox influenza-associated ED visit rates declined relative to rates in Knox-surrounding counties: rate ratios 0.55 (95% CI: 0.27-0.83 and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.56-0.84 for the first and second campaign seasons, respectively. Overall, there were about 35% or 4.86 per 1000 fewer influenza-associated ED visits among Knox County children aged 5-17 years attributable to the campaign. No significant declines in Knox compared to surrounding counties were detected for influenza associated ED visits in children aged <5 years, all adults combined or selected adult age subgroups, although power for these analyses was limited. Alternate rate-difference analyses yielded consistent results. CONCLUSION: Vaccination of approximately 45% of Knox school-aged children with

  8. Red blood cell size is inversely associated with leukocyte telomere length in a large multi-ethnic population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kozlitina

    Full Text Available Although mutations in the genes encoding either the protein or RNA component of telomerase have been found in patients with various blood disorders, the impact of telomere length on hematopoiesis is less well understood for subjects from the general population. Here we have measured telomere lengths of genomic DNA isolated from circulating leukocytes of 3157 subjects, ranging from 18 to 85 years of age, enrolled in a large multiethnic population based study, the Dallas Heart Study 2. Shorter telomere lengths are marginally associated with lower red blood cell counts in this cohort, but are significantly associated with larger mean red blood cell size (as measured by the MCV, increased red blood cell distribution width (RDW, higher hemoglobin levels and lower platelet counts, even after correction for age, gender and ethnicity (p-values of 50 years vs. p = 0.0006 for <50 years of age. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association between telomere length and red cell size in a large urban US population and suggests a biologic mechanism for macrocytosis of aging.

  9. Sleeping beauties in theoretical physics 26 surprising insights

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Thanu

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses a fascinating set of questions in theoretical physics which will both entertain and enlighten all students, teachers and researchers and other physics aficionados. These range from Newtonian mechanics to quantum field theory and cover several puzzling issues that do not appear in standard textbooks. Some topics cover conceptual conundrums, the solutions to which lead to surprising insights; some correct popular misconceptions in the textbook discussion of certain topics; others illustrate deep connections between apparently unconnected domains of theoretical physics; and a few provide remarkably simple derivations of results which are not often appreciated. The connoisseur of theoretical physics will enjoy a feast of pleasant surprises skilfully prepared by an internationally acclaimed theoretical physicist. Each topic is introduced with proper background discussion and special effort is taken to make the discussion self-contained, clear and comprehensible to anyone with an undergraduate e...

  10. Diabetes among non-obese Filipino Americans: Findings from a large population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Roy, Adity; Chan, Keith Tsz-Kit; Kobayashi, Karen M

    2017-04-20

    Filipino Americans form the second-largest Asian American and Pacific Islanders subgroup. Growing evidence suggests that Filipino Americans have higher rates of diabetes than non-Hispanic whites. The key objectives of this study are 1) to determine the prevalence of diabetes in non-obese Filipino Americans compared to non-obese non-Hispanic whites, and 2) to identify risk factors for diabetes in non-obese Filipino men and women. Secondary analysis of population-based data from combined waves (2007, 2009 and 2011) of the adult California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). The study sample was restricted to non-obese Filipino Americans (n = 1629) and non-Hispanic whites (n = 72 072). Non-obese Filipino Americans had more than twice the odds of diabetes compared to non-Hispanic whites, even after correcting for several known risk factors (OR = 2.80, p < 0.001). For non-obese Filipino men, older age, poverty, cigarette smoking, and being overweight are associated with increased odds for diabetes, while older age was the only factor associated with diabetes among Filipina women. Diabetes prevention approaches need to be targeted towards non-obese Filipino Americans, due to their high risk of diabetes.

  11. Shape and spin distributions of large object populations from random projection areas

    CERN Document Server

    Nortunen, Hari

    2016-01-01

    We model the shape and spin characteristics of an object population when there are not enough data to model its single members. The data are random projection areas of the members. We construct a mapping $f(x)\\rightarrow C(y)$, $x\\in\\mathbb{R}^2$, $y\\in\\mathbb{R}$, where $f(x)$ is the distribution function of the shape elongation and spin vector obliquity, and $C(y)$ is the cumulative distribution function of an observable $y$ describing the variation of the observed projection areas of one member, and show that the mapping is invertible. Using the projected area of an ellipsoid as our model, we obtain analytical basis functions for a function series of $C(y)$ and prove uniqueness and stability properties of the inverse problem. Even though the model error is considerably larger than the measurement noise for realistic cases of arbitrary shapes (such as asteroids), the main characteristics of $f(x)$ (such as the locations of peaks) are robustly recovered from the data.

  12. Validation of the Rasch-based Depression Screening in a large scale German general population sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norra Christine

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aimed at presenting normative data for both parallel forms of the "Rasch-based Depression Screening (DESC", to examine its Rasch model conformity and convergent and divergent validity based on a representative sample of the German general population. Methods The sample was selected with the assistance of a demographic consulting company applying a face to face interview (N = 2509; mean age = 49.4, SD = 18.2; 55.8% women. Adherence to Rasch model assumptions was determined with analysis of Rasch model fit (infit and outfit, unidimensionality, local independence (principal component factor analysis of the residuals, PCFAR and differential item functioning (DIF with regard to participants' age and gender. Norm values were calculated. Convergent and divergent validity was determined through intercorrelations with the depression and anxiety subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D and HADS-A. Results Fit statistics were below critical values (rDESC-I = .61 and rDESC-II = .60, whereas correlations with HADS-A were rDESC-I = .62 and rDESC-II = .60. Conclusions This study provided further support for the psychometric quality of the DESC. Both forms of the DESC adhered to Rasch model assumptions and showed intercorrelations with HADS subscales that are in line with the literature. The presented normative data offer important advancements for the interpretation of the questionnaire scores and enhance its usefulness for clinical and research applications.

  13. Thyroid dysfunction and anaemia in a large population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Rabet-Bensalah, Khadija; Aubert, Carole E; Coslovsky, Michael; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Baumgartner, Christine; den Elzen, Wendy P J; Luben, Robert; Angelillo-Scherrer, Anne; Aujesky, Drahomir; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Anaemia and thyroid dysfunction are common and often co-occur. Current guidelines recommend the assessment of thyroid function in the work-up of anaemia, although evidence on this association is scarce. In the 'European Prospective Investigation of Cancer' (EPIC)-Norfolk population-based cohort, we aimed to examine the prevalence and type of anaemia (defined as haemoglobin anaemia in 517 (5·9%) participants. After excluding 121 participants with three most common causes of anaemia (chronic kidney disease, inflammation, iron deficiency), anaemia was found in 4·7% of euthyroid participants. Compared with the euthyroid group, the prevalence of anaemia was significantly higher in overt hyperthyroidism (14·6%, P Anaemia associated with thyroid dysfunction was mainly normocytic (94·0%), and rarely macrocytic (6·0%). The prevalence of anaemia was higher in overt hyperthyroidism, but not increased in subclinical thyroid dysfunction. Systematic measurement of thyroid-stimulating hormone in anaemic patients is likely to be useful only after excluding common causes of anaemia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A comprehensive clinical and genetic study of a large Mexican population with spinocerebellar ataxia type 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Pérez, L; Cerecedo-Zapata, C M; Hernández-Hernández, O; Martínez-Cruz, E; Tapia-Guerrero, Y S; González-Piña, R; Salas-Vargas, J; Rodríguez-Labrada, R; Gurrola-Betancourth, R; Leyva-García, N; Cisneros, B; Magaña, J J

    2015-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia associated with macular degeneration. We recently described one of the largest series of patients with SCA7 that originated from a founder effect in a Mexican population, which allowed us to perform herein the first comprehensive clinical, neurophysiological, and genetic characterization of Mexican patients with SCA7. In this study, 50 patients, categorized into adult or early phenotype, were clinically assessed using standard neurological exams and genotyped using fluorescent PCR and capillary electrophoresis. Patients with SCA7 exhibited the classical phenotype of the disease characterized by cerebellar ataxia and visual loss; however, we reported, for the first time, frontal-executive disorders and altered sensory-motor peripheral neuropathy in these patients. Semiquantitative analysis of ataxia-associated symptoms was performed using Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) and the Brief Ataxia Rating Scale (BARS) scores, while extracerebellar features were measured employing the Inventory of Non-ataxia Symptoms (INAS) scale. Ataxia rating scales confirmed the critical role size of cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat size on age at onset and disease severity, while analysis of CAG repeat instability showed that paternal rather than maternal transmission led to greater instability.

  15. Wireless Smartphone ECG Enables Large-Scale Screening in Diverse Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Zachary C; Jahn, Ryan T; Bose, Rupan; Tun, Han; Shinbane, Jerold S; Doshi, Rahul N; Chang, Philip M; Saxon, Leslie A

    2015-05-01

    The ubiquitous presence of internet-connected phones and tablets presents a new opportunity for cost-effective and efficient electrocardiogram (ECG) screening and on-demand diagnosis. Wireless, single-lead real-time ECG monitoring supported by iOS and android devices can be obtained quickly and on-demand. ECGs can be immediately downloaded and reviewed using any internet browser. We compared the standard 12-lead ECG to the smartphone ECG in healthy young adults, elite athletes, and cardiology clinic patients. Accuracy for determining baseline ECG intervals and rate and rhythm was assessed. In 381 participants, 30-second lead I ECG waveforms were obtained using an iPhone case or iPad. Standard 12-lead ECGs were acquired immediately after the smartphone tracing was obtained. De-identified ECGs were interpreted by automated algorithms and adjudicated by two board-certified electrophysiologists. Both smartphone and standard ECGs detected atrial rate and rhythm, AV block, and QRS delay with equal accuracy. Sensitivities ranged from 72% (QRS delay) to 94% (atrial fibrillation). Specificities were all above 94% for both modalities. Smartphone ECG accurately detects baseline intervals, atrial rate, and rhythm and enables screening in diverse populations. Efficient ECG analysis using automated discrimination and an enhanced smartphone application with notification capabilities are features that can be easily incorporated into the acquisition process. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Testing Stellar Population Models with Star Clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Beasley, M A; Sharples, R M; Beasley, Michael A.; Hoyle, Fiona; Sharples, Ray M.

    2002-01-01

    We present high S/N integrated spectra of 24 star clusters in the LMC obtained using the FLAIR spectrograph at the UK Schmidt. The spectra have been placed onto the Lick/IDS system in order to test the calibration of Simple Stellar Population (SSP) models. We have compared the SSP-predicted metallicities of the clusters with literature Ca-Triplet values, and find that there is good agreement in the range --2.10 0. We present metallicities for 11 clusters with no previous measurements. Comparison of the SSP ages of the clusters (from Balmer lines) with the literature data shows good agreement for the majority. This includes six old globular clusters in our sample, which have ages consistent with their HST CMD turn-offs. However, two clusters, NGC 1754 and NGC 2005, have Hbeta line-strengths which lead to ages which are too young (~8 and ~6 Gyr respectively at 3 sigma) for their HST CMDs. Comparison between the horizontal branch (HB) morphology and Balmer lines of these clusters suggests that blue HBs have inc...

  17. A population of gamma-ray millisecond pulsars seen with the Fermi Large Area Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Atwood, W B; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Baring, M G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Bignami, G F; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Camilo, F; Caraveo, P A; Carlson, P; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cognard, I; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Corbet, R; Cutini, S; Dermer, C D; Desvignes, G; de Angelis, A; de Luca, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Dormody, M; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Edmonds, Y; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Frailis, M; Freire, P C C; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M H; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hobbs, G; Hughes, R E; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, R P; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Johnston, S; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Kramer, M; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Manchester, R N; Marelli, M; Mazziotta, M N; McConville, W; McEnery, J E; McLaughlin, M A; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Ransom, S M; Ray, P S; Razzano, M; Rea, N; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Romani, R W; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F W; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Scargle, J D; Schalk, T L; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Stappers, B W; Starck, J L; Striani, E; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Theureau, G; Thompson, D J; Thorsett, S E; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Van Etten, A; Vasileiou, V; Venter, C; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wallace, E; Wang, P; Watters, K; Webb, N; Weltevrede, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

    2009-08-14

    Pulsars are born with subsecond spin periods and slow by electromagnetic braking for several tens of millions of years, when detectable radiation ceases. A second life can occur for neutron stars in binary systems. They can acquire mass and angular momentum from their companions, to be spun up to millisecond periods and begin radiating again. We searched Fermi Large Area Telescope data for pulsations from all known millisecond pulsars (MSPs) outside of globular clusters, using rotation parameters from radio telescopes. Strong gamma-ray pulsations were detected for eight MSPs. The gamma-ray pulse profiles and spectral properties resemble those of young gamma-ray pulsars. The basic emission mechanism seems to be the same for MSPs and young pulsars, with the emission originating in regions far from the neutron star surface.

  18. Variability in mutational fitness effects prevents full lethal transitions in large quasispecies populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardanyés, Josep; Simó, Carles; Martínez, Regina; Solé, Ricard V.; Elena, Santiago F.

    2014-04-01

    The distribution of mutational fitness effects (DMFE) is crucial to the evolutionary fate of quasispecies. In this article we analyze the effect of the DMFE on the dynamics of a large quasispecies by means of a phenotypic version of the classic Eigen's model that incorporates beneficial, neutral, deleterious, and lethal mutations. By parameterizing the model with available experimental data on the DMFE of Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Tobacco etch virus (TEV), we found that increasing mutation does not totally push the entire viral quasispecies towards deleterious or lethal regions of the phenotypic sequence space. The probability of finding regions in the parameter space of the general model that results in a quasispecies only composed by lethal phenotypes is extremely small at equilibrium and in transient times. The implications of our findings can be extended to other scenarios, such as lethal mutagenesis or genomically unstable cancer, where increased mutagenesis has been suggested as a potential therapy.

  19. The real population of star clusters in the bar of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatti, Andrés E.

    2017-09-01

    We report results on star clusters located in the south-eastern half of the Large Magellanic (LMC) bar from Washington CT1 photometry. Using appropriate kernel density estimators, we detected 73 star cluster candidates, three of which do not show any detectable trace of star cluster sequences in their colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). We did not detect the other 38 previously catalogued clusters, which could not be recognized when visually inspecting the C and T1 images either; the distribution of stars in their respective fields do not resemble that of a stellar aggregate. They represent 33 per cent of all catalogued objects located within the analysed LMC bar field. From matching theoretical isochrones to the cluster CMDs cleaned from field star contamination, we derived ages in the range 7.2 http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/606/A21

  20. The June surprises: balls, strikes, and the fog of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Charles

    2013-04-01

    At first, few constitutional experts took seriously the argument that the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act exceeded Congress's power under the commerce clause. The highly political opinions of two federal district judges - carefully chosen by challenging plaintiffs - of no particular distinction did not shake that confidence that the act was constitutional. This disdain for the challengers' arguments was only confirmed when the act was upheld by two highly respected conservative court of appeals judges in two separate circuits. But after the hostile, even mocking questioning of the government's advocate in the Supreme Court by the five Republican-appointed justices, the expectation was that the act would indeed be struck down on that ground. So it came as no surprise when the five opined the act did indeed exceed Congress's commerce clause power. But it came as a great surprise when Chief Justice John Roberts, joined by the four Democrat-appointed justices, ruled that the act could be sustained as an exercise of Congress's taxing power - a ground urged by the government almost as an afterthought. It was further surprising, even shocking, that Justices Antonin Scalia, Anthony Kennedy, Clarence Thomas, and Samuel Alito not only wrote a joint opinion on the commerce clause virtually identical to that of their chief, but that in writing it they did not refer to or even acknowledge his opinion. Finally surprising was the fact that Justices Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Stephen Breyer joined the chief in holding that aspects of the act's Medicaid expansion were unconstitutional. This essay ponders and tries to unravel some of these puzzles.

  1. Are seismic hazard assessment errors and earthquake surprises unavoidable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Why earthquake occurrences bring us so many surprises? The answer seems evident if we review the relationships that are commonly used to assess seismic hazard. The time-span of physically reliable Seismic History is yet a small portion of a rupture recurrence cycle at an earthquake-prone site, which makes premature any kind of reliable probabilistic statements about narrowly localized seismic hazard. Moreover, seismic evidences accumulated to-date demonstrate clearly that most of the empirical relations commonly accepted in the early history of instrumental seismology can be proved erroneous when testing statistical significance is applied. Seismic events, including mega-earthquakes, cluster displaying behaviors that are far from independent or periodic. Their distribution in space is possibly fractal, definitely, far from uniform even in a single segment of a fault zone. Such a situation contradicts generally accepted assumptions used for analytically tractable or computer simulations and complicates design of reliable methodologies for realistic earthquake hazard assessment, as well as search and definition of precursory behaviors to be used for forecast/prediction purposes. As a result, the conclusions drawn from such simulations and analyses can MISLEAD TO SCIENTIFICALLY GROUNDLESS APPLICATION, which is unwise and extremely dangerous in assessing expected societal risks and losses. For example, a systematic comparison of the GSHAP peak ground acceleration estimates with those related to actual strong earthquakes, unfortunately, discloses gross inadequacy of this "probabilistic" product, which appears UNACCEPTABLE FOR ANY KIND OF RESPONSIBLE SEISMIC RISK EVALUATION AND KNOWLEDGEABLE DISASTER PREVENTION. The self-evident shortcomings and failures of GSHAP appeals to all earthquake scientists and engineers for an urgent revision of the global seismic hazard maps from the first principles including background methodologies involved, such that there becomes: (a) a

  2. The Feasibility of Using Large-Scale Text Mining to Detect Adverse Childhood Experiences in a VA-Treated Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Kenric W; Ben-Ari, Alon Y; Laundry, Ryan J; Boyko, Edward J; Samore, Matthew H

    2015-12-01

    Free text in electronic health records resists large-scale analysis. Text records facts of interest not found in encoded data, and text mining enables their retrieval and quantification. The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) clinical data repository affords an opportunity to apply text-mining methodology to study clinical questions in large populations. To assess the feasibility of text mining, investigation of the relationship between exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and recorded diagnoses was conducted among all VA-treated Gulf war veterans, utilizing all progress notes recorded from 2000-2011. Text processing extracted ACE exposures recorded among 44.7 million clinical notes belonging to 243,973 veterans. The relationship of ACE exposure to adult illnesses was analyzed using logistic regression. Bias considerations were assessed. ACE score was strongly associated with suicide attempts and serious mental disorders (ORs = 1.84 to 1.97), and less so with behaviorally mediated and somatic conditions (ORs = 1.02 to 1.36) per unit. Bias adjustments did not remove persistent associations between ACE score and most illnesses. Text mining to detect ACE exposure in a large population was feasible. Analysis of the relationship between ACE score and adult health conditions yielded patterns of association consistent with prior research.

  3. Stars Form Surprisingly Close to Milky Way's Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    million low mass, sun-like stars in and around the ring, whereas in the disk model, the number of low mass stars could be much less. Nayakshin and his coauthor, Rashid Sunyaev of the Max Plank Institute for Physics in Garching, Germany, used Chandra observations to compare the X-ray glow from the region around Sgr A* to the X-ray emission from thousands of young stars in the Orion Nebula star cluster. They found that the Sgr A* star cluster contains only about 10,000 low mass stars, thereby ruling out the migration model. "We can now say that the stars around Sgr A* were not deposited there by some passing star cluster, rather they were born there," said Sunyaev . "There have been theories that this was possible, but this is the first real evidence. Many scientists are going to be very surprised by these results." Because the Galactic Center is shrouded in dust and gas, it has not been possible to look for the low-mass stars in optical observations. In contrast, X-ray data have allowed astronomers to penetrate the veil of gas and dust and look for these low mass stars. Scenario Dismissed by Chandra Results Scenario Dismissed by Chandra Results "In one of the most inhospitable places in our Galaxy, stars have prevailed," said Nayakshin. "It appears that star formation is much more tenacious than we previously believed." The results suggest that the "rules" of star formation change when stars form in the disk of a giant black hole. Because this environment is very different from typical star formation regions, there is a change in the proportion of stars that form. For example, there is a much higher percentage of massive stars in the disks around black holes. And, when these massive stars explode as supernovae, they will "fertilize" the region with heavy elements such as oxygen. This may explain the large amounts of such elements observed in the disks of young supermassive black holes. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for

  4. Obesity is a risk factor for thyroid cancer in a large, ultrasonographically screened population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji Min; Kim, Tae Yong; Jeon, Min Ji; Yim, Ji Hye; Kim, Won Gu; Song, Dong Eun; Hong, Suck Joon; Bae, Sung Jin; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Shin, Myung-Hee; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae

    2013-06-01

    Obesity is a well-known risk factor for many cancers, including those of the esophagus, colon, kidney, breast, and skin. However, there are few reports on the relationship between obesity and thyroid cancer. We conducted this study to determine whether obesity is a risk factor for thyroid cancer by systematically screening a selected population by ultrasonography. We obtained data from 15,068 subjects that underwent a routine health checkup from 2007 to 2008 at the Health Screening and Promotion Center of Asan Medical Center. Thyroid ultrasonography was included in the checkup, and suspicious nodules were examined by ultrasonography-guided aspiration. Those with a history of thyroid disease or family history of thyroid cancer were excluded from this study. In total, 15,068 subjects, 8491 men and 6577 women, were screened by thyroid ultrasonography. Fine-needle aspiration cytology was performed in 1427 of these patients based on the predefined criteria and thyroid cancer was diagnosed in 267 patients. The prevalence of thyroid cancer in women was associated with a high BMI (per 5 kg/m(2) increase) (odds ratios (OR)=1.63, 95% CI 1.24-2.10, Pcancer in men and a high BMI (OR=1.16, 95% CI 0.85-1.57, P=0.336). There was no association between age, fasting serum insulin, or basal TSH levels and thyroid cancer in either gender. Obesity was associated with a higher prevalence of thyroid cancer in women when evaluated in a routine health checkup setting. This association between risk factor and disease was unrelated to serum insulin and TSH levels. Additional studies are needed to understand the mechanism(s) behind the association of obesity with thyroid cancer risk.

  5. On Reverse Stackelberg Game and Optimal Mean Field Control for a Large Population of Thermostatically Controlled Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Sen; Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2016-07-08

    This paper studies a multi-stage pricing problem for a large population of thermostatically controlled loads. The problem is formulated as a reverse Stackelberg game that involves a mean field game in the hierarchy of decision making. In particular, in the higher level, a coordinator needs to design a pricing function to motivate individual agents to maximize the social welfare. In the lower level, the individual utility maximization problem of each agent forms a mean field game coupled through the pricing function that depends on the average of the population control/state. We derive the solution to the reverse Stackelberg game by connecting it to a team problem and the competitive equilibrium, and we show that this solution corresponds to the optimal mean field control that maximizes the social welfare. Realistic simulations are presented to validate the proposed methods.

  6. Statistics of Stellar Populations of Star Clusters and Surrounding Fields in the Outer Disk of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, J F C; Claria, J J; Bica, E; Geisler, D; Dottori, H

    1999-01-01

    A comparative analysis of Washington color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) for 14 star clusters and respective surrounding fields in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) outer disk is presented. Each CCD frame including field and respective cluster covers an area of 185 arcmin^2. The stellar population sampled is of intermediate age and metallicity. CMD radial analysis involving star count ratios, morphology and integrated light properties are carried out. Luminosity functions (LFs) are also presented. Two main results are: (i) Within the range 4populations, as inferred from red giant clump star counts.

  7. Feasibility of MR-Based Body Composition Analysis in Large Scale Population Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Janne; Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof; Romu, Thobias; Collins, Rory; Garratt, Steve; Bell, Jimmy D.; Borga, Magnus; Thomas, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Quantitative and accurate measurements of fat and muscle in the body are important for prevention and diagnosis of diseases related to obesity and muscle degeneration. Manually segmenting muscle and fat compartments in MR body-images is laborious and time-consuming, hindering implementation in large cohorts. In the present study, the feasibility and success-rate of a Dixon-based MR scan followed by an intensity-normalised, non-rigid, multi-atlas based segmentation was investigated in a cohort of 3,000 subjects. Materials and Methods 3,000 participants in the in-depth phenotyping arm of the UK Biobank imaging study underwent a comprehensive MR examination. All subjects were scanned using a 1.5 T MR-scanner with the dual-echo Dixon Vibe protocol, covering neck to knees. Subjects were scanned with six slabs in supine position, without localizer. Automated body composition analysis was performed using the AMRA Profiler™ system, to segment and quantify visceral adipose tissue (VAT), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT) and thigh muscles. Technical quality assurance was performed and a standard set of acceptance/rejection criteria was established. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all volume measurements and quality assurance metrics. Results Of the 3,000 subjects, 2,995 (99.83%) were analysable for body fat, 2,828 (94.27%) were analysable when body fat and one thigh was included, and 2,775 (92.50%) were fully analysable for body fat and both thigh muscles. Reasons for not being able to analyse datasets were mainly due to missing slabs in the acquisition, or patient positioned so that large parts of the volume was outside of the field-of-view. Discussion and Conclusions In conclusion, this study showed that the rapid UK Biobank MR-protocol was well tolerated by most subjects and sufficiently robust to achieve very high success-rate for body composition analysis. This research has been conducted using the UK Biobank Resource. PMID:27662190

  8. Large Scale Population Assessment of Physical Activity Using Wrist Worn Accelerometers: The UK Biobank Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dan; Hammerla, Nils; Granat, Malcolm H.; van Hees, Vincent T.; Trenell, Michael I.; Owen, Christoper G.; Preece, Stephen J.; Peakman, Tim; Brage, Soren

    2017-01-01

    Background Physical activity has not been objectively measured in prospective cohorts with sufficiently large numbers to reliably detect associations with multiple health outcomes. Technological advances now make this possible. We describe the methods used to collect and analyse accelerometer measured physical activity in over 100,000 participants of the UK Biobank study, and report variation by age, sex, day, time of day, and season. Methods Participants were approached by email to wear a wrist-worn accelerometer for seven days that was posted to them. Physical activity information was extracted from 100Hz raw triaxial acceleration data after calibration, removal of gravity and sensor noise, and identification of wear / non-wear episodes. We report age- and sex-specific wear-time compliance and accelerometer measured physical activity, overall and by hour-of-day, week-weekend day and season. Results 103,712 datasets were received (44.8% response), with a median wear-time of 6.9 days (IQR:6.5–7.0). 96,600 participants (93.3%) provided valid data for physical activity analyses. Vector magnitude, a proxy for overall physical activity, was 7.5% (2.35mg) lower per decade of age (Cohen’s d = 0.9). Women had a higher vector magnitude than men, apart from those aged 45-54yrs. There were major differences in vector magnitude by time of day (d = 0.66). Vector magnitude differences between week and weekend days (d = 0.12 for men, d = 0.09 for women) and between seasons (d = 0.27 for men, d = 0.15 for women) were small. Conclusions It is feasible to collect and analyse objective physical activity data in large studies. The summary measure of overall physical activity is lower in older participants and age-related differences in activity are most prominent in the afternoon and evening. This work lays the foundation for studies of physical activity and its health consequences. Our summary variables are part of the UK Biobank dataset and can be used by researchers as

  9. Surprising electronic structure of the BeH- dimer: a full-configuration-interaction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdicchio, Marco; Bendazzoli, Gian Luigi; Evangelisti, Stefano; Leininger, Thierry

    2013-01-10

    The electronic structure of the beryllium hydride anion, BeH(-), was investigated at valence full-configuration-interaction (FCI) level, using large cc-pV6Z basis sets. It appears that there is a deep change of the wave function nature as a function of the internuclear distance: the ion structure goes from a weakly bonded Be···H(-) complex, at long distance, to a rather strongly bonded system (more than 2 eV) at short distance, having a (:Be-H)(-) Lewis structure. In this case, it is the beryllium atom that formally bears the negative charge, a surprising result in view of the fact that it is the hydrogen atom that has a larger electronegativity. Even more surprisingly, at very short distances the average position of the total electronic charge is close to the beryllium atom but on the opposite side with respect to the hydrogen position.

  10. Genotype-phenotype correlation in a large population of muscular dystrophy patients with LAMA2 mutations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Geranmayeh, Fatemeh

    2010-04-01

    Merosin deficient congenital muscular dystrophy 1A (MDC1A) results from mutations in the LAMA2 gene. We report 51 patients with MDC1A and examine the relationship between degree of merosin expression, genotype and clinical features. Thirty-three patients had absence of merosin and 13 showed some residual merosin. Compared to the residual merosin group, patients with absent merosin had an earlier presentation (<7days) (P=0.0073), were more likely to lack independent ambulation (P=0.0215), or require enteral feeding (P=0.0099) and ventilatory support (P=0.0354). We identified 33 novel LAMA2 mutations; these were distributed throughout the gene in patients with absent merosin, with minor clusters in exon 27, 14, 25 and 26 (55% of mutations). Patients with residual merosin often carried at least one splice site mutation and less frequently frameshift mutations. This large study identified novel LAMA2 mutations and highlights the role of immunohistochemical studies for merosin status in predicting clinical severity of MDC1A.

  11. Rapid impact testing for quantitative assessment of large populations of bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun; Prader, John; DeVitis, John; Deal, Adrienne; Zhang, Jian; Moon, Franklin; Aktan, A. Emin

    2011-04-01

    Although the widely acknowledged shortcomings of visual inspection have fueled significant advances in the areas of non-destructive evaluation and structural health monitoring (SHM) over the last several decades, the actual practice of bridge assessment has remained largely unchanged. The authors believe the lack of adoption, especially of SHM technologies, is related to the 'single structure' scenarios that drive most research. To overcome this, the authors have developed a concept for a rapid single-input, multiple-output (SIMO) impact testing device that will be capable of capturing modal parameters and estimating flexibility/deflection basins of common highway bridges during routine inspections. The device is composed of a trailer-mounted impact source (capable of delivering a 50 kip impact) and retractable sensor arms, and will be controlled by an automated data acquisition, processing and modal parameter estimation software. The research presented in this paper covers (a) the theoretical basis for SISO, SIMO and MIMO impact testing to estimate flexibility, (b) proof of concept numerical studies using a finite element model, and (c) a pilot implementation on an operating highway bridge. Results indicate that the proposed approach can estimate modal flexibility within a few percent of static flexibility; however, the estimated modal flexibility matrix is only reliable for the substructures associated with the various SIMO tests. To overcome this shortcoming, a modal 'stitching' approach for substructure integration to estimate the full Eigen vector matrix is developed, and preliminary results of these methods are also presented.

  12. The Magellanic Mopra Assessment (MAGMA). I. The Molecular Cloud Population of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Tony; Ott, Jürgen; Muller, Erik; Pineda, Jorge L; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Chu, You-Hua; Fukui, Yasuo; Gruendl, Robert A; Henkel, Christian; Kawamura, Akiko; Klein, Ulrich; Looney, Leslie W; Maddison, Sarah; Mizuno, Yoji; Paradis, Deborah; Seale, Jonathan; Welty, Daniel E

    2011-01-01

    We present the properties of an extensive sample of molecular clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) mapped at 11 pc resolution in the CO(1-0) line. We identify clouds as regions of connected CO emission, and find that the distributions of cloud sizes, fluxes and masses are sensitive to the choice of decomposition parameters. In all cases, however, the luminosity function of CO clouds is steeper than dN/dL \\propto L^{-2}, suggesting that a substantial fraction of mass is in low-mass clouds. A correlation between size and linewidth, while apparent for the largest emission structures, breaks down when those structures are decomposed into smaller structures. We argue that the correlation between virial mass and CO luminosity is the result of comparing two covariant quantities, with the correlation appearing tighter on larger scales where a size-linewidth relation holds. The virial parameter (the ratio of a cloud's kinetic to self-gravitational energy) shows a wide range of values and exhibits no clear trends...

  13. Assessing variability of literature based methane indicator traits in a large dairy cow population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandel, PB.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Dairy production is identified as a major source of methane (CH4 emissions. Selective breeding represents one method for mitigating CH4 emissions but practical and cheap ways to measure this trait are not currently available. In the present study, four CH4 indicator traits based on milk fatty acid (FA contents were referenced from the literature. Objectives. The aim of the study was to use these literature CH4 indicators for assessing the variability of methane emissions emitted by dairy cows. Method. Literature CH4 indicator traits were originally defined based on the measurements of FA content by gas chromatography. However, these measurements were not available for all the available cows in our studied population. A sample of 602 gas chromatographic analyses was therefore used to develop a calibration equation for predicting the literature CH4 indicators based on milk mid-infrared (MIR spectra. This spectral information was available for all the studied cows. Then, in a second step, in order to predict the literature CH4 indicator traits, the developed MIR prediction equations were applied to the 604,028 recorded spectral data collected between 2007 and 2011 for 70,872 cows in their first three lactations. Genetic parameters for these traits were then estimated using single trait test-day random regression animal models. Results. The predicted MIR literature CH4 estimates were in the expected range from 350 ± 40 to 449 ± 65 g per day. The averaged predicted MIR CH4 emission (g per day increased from the beginning of lactation, reached the highest level at the peak of lactation and then decreased towards the end of lactation. The average daily heritability values were 0.29-.35, 0.26-.40, and 0.22-.37 for the different studied CH4 indicators for the first three lactations, respectively. The largest differences between the estimated breeding values of sires that had daughters in production eructing the highest and

  14. THE MAGELLANIC MOPRA ASSESSMENT (MAGMA). I. THE MOLECULAR CLOUD POPULATION OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Tony; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert A.; Looney, Leslie W.; Seale, Jonathan; Welty, Daniel E. [Astronomy Department, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Hughes, Annie; Maddison, Sarah [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Ott, Juergen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Muller, Erik; Fukui, Yasuo; Kawamura, Akiko; Mizuno, Yoji [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Pineda, Jorge L. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States); Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Paradis, Deborah [CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Henkel, Christian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Klein, Ulrich, E-mail: wongt@astro.illinois.edu [Argelander Institut fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2011-12-01

    We present the properties of an extensive sample of molecular clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) mapped at 11 pc resolution in the CO(1-0) line. Targets were chosen based on a limiting CO flux and peak brightness as measured by the NANTEN survey. The observations were conducted with the ATNF Mopra Telescope as part of the Magellanic Mopra Assessment. We identify clouds as regions of connected CO emission and find that the distributions of cloud sizes, fluxes, and masses are sensitive to the choice of decomposition parameters. In all cases, however, the luminosity function of CO clouds is steeper than dN/dL{proportional_to}L{sup -2}, suggesting that a substantial fraction of mass is in low-mass clouds. A correlation between size and linewidth, while apparent for the largest emission structures, breaks down when those structures are decomposed into smaller structures. We argue that the correlation between virial mass and CO luminosity is the result of comparing two covariant quantities, with the correlation appearing tighter on larger scales where a size-linewidth relation holds. The virial parameter (the ratio of a cloud's kinetic to self-gravitational energy) shows a wide range of values and exhibits no clear trends with the CO luminosity or the likelihood of hosting young stellar object (YSO) candidates, casting further doubt on the assumption of virialization for molecular clouds in the LMC. Higher CO luminosity increases the likelihood of a cloud harboring a YSO candidate, and more luminous YSOs are more likely to be coincident with detectable CO emission, confirming the close link between giant molecular clouds and massive star formation.

  15. Effects of selective logging on large mammal populations in a remote indigenous territory in the northern Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Mayor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of selective timber logging carried out by local indigenous people in remote areas within indigenous territories on the mammal populations of the Yavari-Mirin River basin on the Peru-Brazil border. Recent findings show that habitat change in the study area is minimal, and any effect of logging activities on large mammal populations is highly likely to be the result of hunting associated with logging operations. We used hunting registers to estimate the monthly and yearly biomass extracted during timber operations and to calculate the catch per unit effort (CPUE in subsistence hunting in the community of Esperanza 2 to 5 years before logging activities started and 4 to 7 years after logging began. We also used line transects and the distance method to estimate animal densities before and after logging. We found that 1389 hunted animals and 27,459 kg of mammal biomass were extracted per year from logging concessions. CPUE for ungulates declined; however, it increased for other mammal orders, such as rodents and primates, indicating a shift to alternative prey items. Although collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu and tapirs (Tapirus terrestris may also have declined in numbers, this shift may have been caused by a possibly natural population crash in white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari that coincided with the logging periods. We found no evidence that populations of primates were reduced by the logging activities. Because primates are sensitive to hunting, and their populations were of principal concern as logging commenced, this indicates that these forests remain of high conservation value. The unusual socioeconomic situation of these remote territories may mean that they are compatible with wildlife conservation in the Yavari-Mirin basin.

  16. Young stars in old galaxies - surprising discovery with the world's leading telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    similar to the way a palaeontologist uses the skeletons of dinosaurs to deduce information about the era in which they lived. A surprising discovery The team combined images of a number of galaxies from Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 with infrared images obtained from the multi-mode ISAAC instrument on the 8.2m VLT Antu telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). To their great surprise, they discovered that many of the globular clusters in one of these galaxies, NGC 4365, a member of the large Virgo cluster of galaxies, were only a few thousand million years old, much younger than most of the other stars in this galaxy (roughly 12 thousand million years old). The astronomers were able to identify three major groups of stellar clusters. There is an old population of clusters of metal-poor stars, some clusters of old but metal-rich stars and now, seen for the first time, a population of clusters with young and metal-rich stars. These results have been fully confirmed by spectroscopic observations made with another of the world's giant telescopes, the 10-metre Keck on Hawaii. "It is a great pleasure to see two projects wholly or partly funded by Europe - VLT and Hubble - work in concert to produce such an important scientific result", says Piero Benvenuti, ESA Hubble Project Scientist. "The synergy between the most advanced ground and space telescopes continues to prove its effectiveness, paving the way to impressive new discoveries that would not otherwise be possible." The discovery of young globular clusters within old galaxies is surprising since the stars in the giant elliptical galaxies were until now believed to have formed during a single period early in the history of the Universe. It is now clear that some of the galaxies may be hiding their true nature and have indeed experienced much more recent periods of major star formation. Notes for editors This press release is issued in coordination between ESA and ESO. The Hubble Space Telescope project

  17. Mean Field Analysis of Large-Scale Interacting Populations of Stochastic Conductance-Based Spiking Neurons Using the Klimontovich Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfo, Daniel; Rodriguez, Roger; Tuckwell, Henry C.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of large-scale interacting neural populations, composed of conductance based, spiking model neurons with modifiable synaptic connection strengths, which are possibly also subjected to external noisy currents. The network dynamics is controlled by a set of neural population probability distributions (PPD) which are constructed along the same lines as in the Klimontovich approach to the kinetic theory of plasmas. An exact non-closed, nonlinear, system of integro-partial differential equations is derived for the PPDs. As is customary, a closing procedure leads to a mean field limit. The equations we have obtained are of the same type as those which have been recently derived using rigorous techniques of probability theory. The numerical solutions of these so called McKean-Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations, which are only valid in the limit of infinite size networks, actually shows that the statistical measures as obtained from PPDs are in good agreement with those obtained through direct integration of the stochastic dynamical system for large but finite size networks. Although numerical solutions have been obtained for networks of Fitzhugh-Nagumo model neurons, which are often used to approximate Hodgkin-Huxley model neurons, the theory can be readily applied to networks of general conductance-based model neurons of arbitrary dimension.

  18. A genome-wide association study in large white and landrace pig populations for number piglets born alive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfelder-Drüing, Sarah; Grosse-Brinkhaus, Christine; Lind, Bianca; Erbe, Malena; Schellander, Karl; Simianer, Henner; Tholen, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    The number of piglets born alive (NBA) per litter is one of the most important traits in pig breeding due to its influence on production efficiency. It is difficult to improve NBA because the heritability of the trait is low and it is governed by a high number of loci with low to moderate effects. To clarify the biological and genetic background of NBA, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were performed using 4,012 Large White and Landrace pigs from herdbook and commercial breeding companies in Germany (3), Austria (1) and Switzerland (1). The animals were genotyped with the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. Because of population stratifications within and between breeds, clusters were formed using the genetic distances between the populations. Five clusters for each breed were formed and analysed by GWAS approaches. In total, 17 different significant markers affecting NBA were found in regions with known effects on female reproduction. No overlapping significant chromosome areas or QTL between Large White and Landrace breed were detected.

  19. A genome-wide association study in large white and landrace pig populations for number piglets born alive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bergfelder-Drüing

    Full Text Available The number of piglets born alive (NBA per litter is one of the most important traits in pig breeding due to its influence on production efficiency. It is difficult to improve NBA because the heritability of the trait is low and it is governed by a high number of loci with low to moderate effects. To clarify the biological and genetic background of NBA, genome-wide association studies (GWAS were performed using 4,012 Large White and Landrace pigs from herdbook and commercial breeding companies in Germany (3, Austria (1 and Switzerland (1. The animals were genotyped with the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. Because of population stratifications within and between breeds, clusters were formed using the genetic distances between the populations. Five clusters for each breed were formed and analysed by GWAS approaches. In total, 17 different significant markers affecting NBA were found in regions with known effects on female reproduction. No overlapping significant chromosome areas or QTL between Large White and Landrace breed were detected.

  20. Mean Field Analysis of Large-Scale Interacting Populations of Stochastic Conductance-Based Spiking Neurons Using the Klimontovich Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfo, Daniel; Rodriguez, Roger; Tuckwell, Henry C.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the dynamics of large-scale interacting neural populations, composed of conductance based, spiking model neurons with modifiable synaptic connection strengths, which are possibly also subjected to external noisy currents. The network dynamics is controlled by a set of neural population probability distributions (PPD) which are constructed along the same lines as in the Klimontovich approach to the kinetic theory of plasmas. An exact non-closed, nonlinear, system of integro-partial differential equations is derived for the PPDs. As is customary, a closing procedure leads to a mean field limit. The equations we have obtained are of the same type as those which have been recently derived using rigorous techniques of probability theory. The numerical solutions of these so called McKean-Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations, which are only valid in the limit of infinite size networks, actually shows that the statistical measures as obtained from PPDs are in good agreement with those obtained through direct integration of the stochastic dynamical system for large but finite size networks. Although numerical solutions have been obtained for networks of Fitzhugh-Nagumo model neurons, which are often used to approximate Hodgkin-Huxley model neurons, the theory can be readily applied to networks of general conductance-based model neurons of arbitrary dimension.

  1. Detection of a Large Population of Ultradiffuse Galaxies in Massive Galaxy Clusters: Abell S1063 and Abell 2744

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Gyoon; Kang, Jisu; Lee, Jeong Hwan; Jang, In Sung

    2017-08-01

    We present the detection of a large population of ultradiffuse galaxies (UDGs) in two massive galaxy clusters, Abell S1063 at z = 0.348 and Abell 2744 at z = 0.308, based on F814W and F105W images in the Hubble Frontier Fields Program. We find 47 and 40 UDGs in Abell S1063 and Abell 2744, respectively. Color-magnitude diagrams of the UDGs show that they are mostly located at the faint end of the red sequence. From the comparison with simple stellar population models, we estimate their stellar mass to range from 108 to 109 M ⊙. Radial number density profiles of the UDGs show a turnover or a flattening in the central region at r 1013 M ⊙ with a power law, N(UDG) = {M}2001.05+/- 0.09. These results suggest that a majority of the UDGs have a dwarf galaxy origin, while only a small number of the UDGs are massive L* galaxies that failed to form a normal population of stars.

  2. Direct observational evidence for a large transient galaxy population in groups at 0.85

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, Michael L; Wilman, David J; Finoguenov, Alexis; Parker, Laura C; Connelly, Jennifer L; Mulchaey, John S; Bower, Richard G; Tanaka, Masayuki; Giodini, Stefania

    2010-01-01

    (abridged) We introduce our survey of galaxy groups at 0.8515 members. The dynamical mass estimates are in good agreement with the masses estimated from the X-ray luminosity, with most of the groups having 131E10.1 Msun, and for blue galaxies we sample masses as low as Mstar=1E8.8 Msun. Like lower-redshift groups, these systems are dominated by red galaxies, at all stellar masses Mstar>1E10.1 Msun. Few group galaxies inhabit the ``blue cloud'' that dominates the surrounding field; instead, we find a large and possibly distinct population of galaxies with intermediate colours. The ``green valley'' that exists at low redshift is instead well-populated in these groups, containing ~30 per cent of galaxies. These do not appear to be exceptionally dusty galaxies, and about half show prominent Balmer-absorption lines. Furthermore, their HST morphologies appear to be intermediate between those of red-sequence and blue-cloud galaxies of the same stellar mass. We postulate that these are a transi ent population, migrat...

  3. Large indoor cage study of the suppression of stable Aedes aegypti populations by the release of thiotepa-sterilised males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Gato

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The sterile insect technique (SIT is a promising pest control method in terms of efficacy and environmental compatibility. In this study, we determined the efficacy of thiotepa-sterilised males in reducing the target Aedes aegypti populations. Treated male pupae were released weekly into large laboratory cages at a constant ratio of either 5:1 or 2:1 sterile-to-fertile males. A two-to-one release ratio reduced the hatch rate of eggs laid in the cage by approximately a third and reduced the adult catch rate by approximately a quarter, but a 5:1 release drove the population to elimination after 15 weeks of release. These results indicate that thiotepa exposure is an effective means of sterilising Ae. aegypti and males thus treated are able to reduce the reproductive capacity of a stable population under laboratory conditions. Further testing of the method in semi-field enclosures is required to evaluate the mating competitiveness of sterile males when exposed to natural environmental conditions. If proven effective, SIT using thiotepa-sterilised males may be incorporated into an integrated programme of vector control to combat dengue in Cuba.

  4. The disruptive effects of pain on n-back task performance in a large general population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attridge, Nina; Noonan, Donna; Eccleston, Christopher; Keogh, Edmund

    2015-10-01

    Pain captures attention, displaces current concerns, and prioritises escape and repair. This attentional capture can be measured by its effects on general cognition. Studies on induced pain, naturally occurring acute pain, and chronic pain all demonstrate a detrimental effect on specific tasks of attention, especially those that involve working memory. However, studies to date have relied on relatively small samples and/or one type of pain, thus restricting our ability to generalise to wider populations. We investigated the effect of pain on an n-back task in a large heterogeneous sample of 1318 adults. Participants were recruited from the general population and tested through the internet. Despite the heterogeneity of pain conditions, participant characteristics, and testing environments, we found a performance decrement on the n-back task for those with pain, compared with those without pain; there were significantly more false alarms on nontarget trials. Furthermore, we also found an effect of pain intensity; performance was poorer in participants with higher intensity compared with that in those with lower intensity pain. We suggest that the effects of pain on attention found in the laboratory occur in more naturalistic settings. Pain is common in the general population, and such interruption may have important, as yet uninvestigated, consequences for tasks of everyday cognition that involve working memory, such as concentration, reasoning, motor planning, and prospective memory.

  5. The Association of Hot Red Chili Pepper Consumption and Mortality: A Large Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopan, Mustafa; Littenberg, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    The evidence base for the health effects of spice consumption is insufficient, with only one large population-based study and no reports from Europe or North America. Our objective was to analyze the association between consumption of hot red chili peppers and mortality, using a population-based prospective cohort from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) III, a representative sample of US noninstitutionalized adults, in which participants were surveyed from 1988 to 1994. The frequency of hot red chili pepper consumption was measured in 16,179 participants at least 18 years of age. Total and cause-specific mortality were the main outcome measures. During 273,877 person-years of follow-up (median 18.9 years), a total of 4,946 deaths were observed. Total mortality for participants who consumed hot red chili peppers was 21.6% compared to 33.6% for those who did not (absolute risk reduction of 12%; relative risk of 0.64). Adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and clinical characteristics, the hazard ratio was 0.87 (P = 0.01; 95% Confidence Interval 0.77, 0.97). Consumption of hot red chili peppers was associated with a 13% reduction in the instantaneous hazard of death. Similar, but statistically nonsignificant trends were seen for deaths from vascular disease, but not from other causes. In this large population-based prospective study, the consumption of hot red chili pepper was associated with reduced mortality. Hot red chili peppers may be a beneficial component of the diet.

  6. The impact of anxiety and depression on patients within a large type 1 diabetes insulin pump population. An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, P; Dworakowska, D; DeZoysa, N; Barnes, D

    2013-10-01

    Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is generally successful for patients with type 1 diabetes in improving glycaemic control, alleviating the burden of hypoglycaemia and improving the quality of life. There is however, a cohort of patients who fail to thrive on pump therapy and psychological factors or "brittleness" have been posited as a cause for this. We aimed to assess the extent and spectrum of psychological illness in a population of pump patients. We analysed the patient data and records of 350 patients with type 1 diabetes who formed the insulin pump patient population from a large teaching hospital and compared them with an age and sex matched reference population of patients with type 1 diabetes. We quantified the prevalence of anxiety and depression before and after the initiation of pump therapy and looked to see whether this had implications for changes in glycaemic control and hypoglycaemia reduction. Mental health problems amongst patients selected for CSII occur significantly more frequently than in a matched population with type 1 diabetes (51% vs 40%, Pinsulin pump therapy, the incidence is again greater. We have shown that in those with psychological illness, they tend to do less well in terms of improving their overall diabetes control. These results suggest that CSII may not be a suitable route of therapy alone for all of those who would fulfill the traditional criteria and suggest that psychological assessment, therapy and intervention may be an altogether more appropriate or alternative or adjunctive course of action in supporting their diabetes self management. The wider implication is that all the patients with diabetes should be regularly assessed for psychological problems and that there needs to be greater psychology/psychiatric support available to intensive diabetes clinics, especially as part of a pre-pump pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Hepatitis C virus infection in the general population: A large community-based study in Mianyang, West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Li, Hong; Ji, Yulin; Ma, Yuanji; Hou, Fengsu; Yuan, Ping

    2015-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains a major public health problem. The objective of the current study was to reveal the seroepidemiology of HCV in the general population in Mianyang City. This study collected 438,575 blood samples from participants who had enrolled in the National Science and Technology Development Project and their demographic information, and then evaluated HCV antibody and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. The overall anti-HCV positive rate was 0.80% (3,491/438,575) in the Mianyang general population, and it was 1.19% in rural population and 0.20% in urban. Anti-HCV positive rate increased with age, peaked at 45-54 years (2.01%), and then decreased. Anti-HCV prevalence was higher in males (0.89%) than that in females (0.73%). The prevalence of anti-HCV in participants with a history of blood transfusion, surgery, or with a previous diagnosis of hypertension was higher. The abnormal ALT levels (> 40 IU/L) were observed in 50.11% and 7.74% of anti-HCV positive and negative groups, respectively. In anti-HCV positive groups, the rate of abnormal ALT levels was higher in 55-64 age groups, male, and rural population. Though Mianyang was a low endemic area for HCV infection, the alarming fact was the large number of abnormal ALT levels in patients related to hepatitis C. This revealed delayed diagnosis and treatment of HCV infections. It is a necessity to promote early diagnosis and timely treatment of HCV infections.

  8. Automated Atmospheric Composition Dataset Level Metadata Discovery. Difficulties and Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strub, R. F.; Falke, S. R.; Kempler, S.; Fialkowski, E.; Goussev, O.; Lynnes, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Composition Portal (ACP) is an aggregator and curator of information related to remotely sensed atmospheric composition data and analysis. It uses existing tools and technologies and, where needed, enhances those capabilities to provide interoperable access, tools, and contextual guidance for scientists and value-adding organizations using remotely sensed atmospheric composition data. The initial focus is on Essential Climate Variables identified by the Global Climate Observing System - CH4, CO, CO2, NO2, O3, SO2 and aerosols. This poster addresses our efforts in building the ACP Data Table, an interface to help discover and understand remotely sensed data that are related to atmospheric composition science and applications. We harvested GCMD, CWIC, GEOSS metadata catalogs using machine to machine technologies - OpenSearch, Web Services. We also manually investigated the plethora of CEOS data providers portals and other catalogs where that data might be aggregated. This poster is our experience of the excellence, variety, and challenges we encountered.Conclusions:1.The significant benefits that the major catalogs provide are their machine to machine tools like OpenSearch and Web Services rather than any GUI usability improvements due to the large amount of data in their catalog.2.There is a trend at the large catalogs towards simulating small data provider portals through advanced services. 3.Populating metadata catalogs using ISO19115 is too complex for users to do in a consistent way, difficult to parse visually or with XML libraries, and too complex for Java XML binders like CASTOR.4.The ability to search for Ids first and then for data (GCMD and ECHO) is better for machine to machine operations rather than the timeouts experienced when returning the entire metadata entry at once. 5.Metadata harvest and export activities between the major catalogs has led to a significant amount of duplication. (This is currently being addressed) 6.Most (if not

  9. Estimations of expectedness and potential surprise in possibility theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prade, Henri; Yager, Ronald R.

    1992-01-01

    This note investigates how various ideas of 'expectedness' can be captured in the framework of possibility theory. Particularly, we are interested in trying to introduce estimates of the kind of lack of surprise expressed by people when saying 'I would not be surprised that...' before an event takes place, or by saying 'I knew it' after its realization. In possibility theory, a possibility distribution is supposed to model the relative levels of mutually exclusive alternatives in a set, or equivalently, the alternatives are assumed to be rank-ordered according to their level of possibility to take place. Four basic set-functions associated with a possibility distribution, including standard possibility and necessity measures, are discussed from the point of view of what they estimate when applied to potential events. Extensions of these estimates based on the notions of Q-projection or OWA operators are proposed when only significant parts of the possibility distribution are retained in the evaluation. The case of partially-known possibility distributions is also considered. Some potential applications are outlined.

  10. Surprise and Uncertainty—Framing Regional Geohazards in the Theory of Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate M. W. Ratter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the concepts of uncertainty and surprise as key variables of a socio-ecological system’s behavior in the context of the theory of complexity. Experiences from the past have shown that living with uncertainty is part of our daily life and surprises are only surprising because our perspective of system trajectories is basically linear and non-dynamic. The future of humanity is dependent on the understanding of the system’s behavior and needs a change in perspective of linearity to non-linearity and from the planning imperative to a management hedging uncertainty and surprise. In the context of humanity’s future, the theory of complexity offers a new perspective on system trajectories and their understanding of surprises and uncertainty. There is a need for a Gestaltwechsel—a change in perception—which helps to see things differently and fosters the search for new answers to emerging questions at the human-nature interface. Drawing on the case study of hazard management the paper will explain the necessity of analysis system’s behavior and the taking into account of multi-agent behavior on the micro level which led to emergent behavior on the macro-level of the system. Regional geohazards are explained as the regional impact of an uncontrolled risk based on a state of a natural feature that has a direct impact on a regional population being affected by the appearance of a hazard and its development into damage. By acting in space, time and connectivity, people construct hazardscapes and change risk into regional geohazards. This concept shows relevance for future mitigation and adaptation measures. The theory of complexity can help in engendering the necessary shift in perspective. What is non-linear dynamic thinking as suggested by the theory of complexity? Why is the consideration of the system’s behavior crucial and not just the number of system’s elements? What is the role of agents in these systems? In

  11. Supermagnetic Neutron Star Surprises Scientists, Forces Revision of Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    magnetars because their magnetic fields are 100-1,000 times stronger than those of typical pulsars. It is the decay of those incredibly strong fields that powers their strange X-ray emission. "The magnetic field from a magnetar would make an aircraft carrier spin around and point north quicker than a compass needle moves on Earth," said David Helfand, of Columbia University. A magnetar's field is 1,000 trillion times stronger than Earth's, Helfand pointed out. The new object -- named XTE J1810-197 -- was first discovered by NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer when it emitted a strong burst of X-rays in 2003. While the X-rays were fading in 2004, Jules Halpern of Columbia University and collaborators identified the magnetar as a radio-wave emitter using the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in New Mexico. Any radio emission is highly unusual for a magnetar. Because magnetars had not been seen to regularly emit radio waves, the scientists presumed that the radio emission was caused by a cloud of particles thrown off the neutron star at the time of its X-ray outburst, an idea they soon would realize was wrong. With knowledge that the magnetar emitted some form of radio waves, Camilo and his colleagues observed it with the Parkes radio telescope in Australia in March and immediately detected astonishingly strong radio pulsations every 5.5 seconds, corresponding to the previously-determined rotation rate of the neutron star. As they continued to observe XTE J1810-197, the scientists got more surprises. Whereas most pulsars become weaker at higher radio frequencies, XTE J1810-197 does not, remaining a strong emitter at frequencies up to 140 GHz, the highest frequency ever detected from a radio pulsar. In addition, unlike normal pulsars, the object's radio emission fluctuates in strength from day to day, and the shape of the pulsations changes as well. These variations likely indicate that the magnetic fields around the pulsar are changing

  12. The x ray population in globular clusters and three crab-like SNR in the large Magellanic cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfand, David J.

    1993-01-01

    This document is to serve as the requisite Final Technical Report on grant NAG5-1557 which was awarded under the NASA ROSAT Guest Investigator Program to Columbia University. In response to the NASA Research Anouncement describing the first round of Guest Investigations to be carried out under the U.S.-German ROSAT Program (AO-1), the PI submitted several proposals, three of which were accepted in part: (1) the x-ray population of globular clusters; (2) three crab-like SNR in the Large Magellanic Cloud; and (3) x rays from nearby radio pulsars. The status of these three programs as of 31 May 1993, the termination date of the grant, is reported.

  13. A large population-based association study between HLA and KIR genotypes and measles vaccine antibody responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Schaid, Daniel J; Larrabee, Beth R; Haralambieva, Iana H; Kennedy, Richard B; Poland, Gregory A

    2017-01-01

    Human antibody response to measles vaccine is highly variable in the population. Host genes contribute to inter-individual antibody response variation. The killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) are recognized to interact with HLA molecules and possibly influence humoral immune response to viral antigens. To expand on and improve our previous work with HLA genes, and to explore the genetic contribution of KIR genes to the inter-individual variability in measles vaccine-induced antibody responses, we performed a large population-based study in 2,506 healthy immunized subjects (ages 11 to 41 years) to identify HLA and KIR associations with measles vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies. After correcting for the large number of statistical tests of allele effects on measles-specific neutralizing antibody titers, no statistically significant associations were found for either HLA or KIR loci. However, suggestive associations worthy of follow-up in other cohorts include B*57:01, DQB1*06:02, and DRB1*15:05 alleles. Specifically, the B*57:01 allele (1,040 mIU/mL; p = 0.0002) was suggestive of an association with lower measles antibody titer. In contrast, the DQB1*06:02 (1,349 mIU/mL; p = 0.0004) and DRB1*15:05 (2,547 mIU/mL; p = 0.0004) alleles were suggestive of an association with higher measles antibodies. Notably, the associations with KIR genotypes were strongly nonsignificant, suggesting that KIR loci in terms of copy number and haplotypes are not likely to play a major role in antibody response to measles vaccination. These findings refine our knowledge of the role of HLA and KIR alleles in measles vaccine-induced immunity.

  14. A large population-based association study between HLA and KIR genotypes and measles vaccine antibody responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Schaid, Daniel J.; Larrabee, Beth R.; Haralambieva, Iana H.; Kennedy, Richard B.; Poland, Gregory A.

    2017-01-01

    Human antibody response to measles vaccine is highly variable in the population. Host genes contribute to inter-individual antibody response variation. The killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) are recognized to interact with HLA molecules and possibly influence humoral immune response to viral antigens. To expand on and improve our previous work with HLA genes, and to explore the genetic contribution of KIR genes to the inter-individual variability in measles vaccine-induced antibody responses, we performed a large population-based study in 2,506 healthy immunized subjects (ages 11 to 41 years) to identify HLA and KIR associations with measles vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies. After correcting for the large number of statistical tests of allele effects on measles-specific neutralizing antibody titers, no statistically significant associations were found for either HLA or KIR loci. However, suggestive associations worthy of follow-up in other cohorts include B*57:01, DQB1*06:02, and DRB1*15:05 alleles. Specifically, the B*57:01 allele (1,040 mIU/mL; p = 0.0002) was suggestive of an association with lower measles antibody titer. In contrast, the DQB1*06:02 (1,349 mIU/mL; p = 0.0004) and DRB1*15:05 (2,547 mIU/mL; p = 0.0004) alleles were suggestive of an association with higher measles antibodies. Notably, the associations with KIR genotypes were strongly nonsignificant, suggesting that KIR loci in terms of copy number and haplotypes are not likely to play a major role in antibody response to measles vaccination. These findings refine our knowledge of the role of HLA and KIR alleles in measles vaccine-induced immunity. PMID:28158231

  15. CONSTRAINTS ON THE GALACTIC POPULATION OF TeV PULSAR WIND NEBULAE USING FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acero, F.; Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ackermann, M. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Buehler, R. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Baldini, L. [Universita di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D.; Buson, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bonamente, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Brigida, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' M. Merlin' ' dell' Universita e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bruel, P., E-mail: funk@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: joshualande@gmail.com, E-mail: lemoine@cenbg.in2p3.fr, E-mail: rousseau@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); and others

    2013-08-10

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) have been established as the most populous class of TeV {gamma}-ray emitters. Since launch, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has identified five high-energy (100 MeV < E < 100 GeV) {gamma}-ray sources as PWNe and detected a large number of PWN candidates, all powered by young and energetic pulsars. The wealth of multi-wavelength data available and the new results provided by Fermi-LAT give us an opportunity to find new PWNe and to explore the radiative processes taking place in known ones. The TeV {gamma}-ray unidentified (UNID) sources are the best candidates for finding new PWNe. Using 45 months of Fermi-LAT data for energies above 10 GeV, an analysis was performed near the position of 58 TeV PWNe and UNIDs within 5 Degree-Sign of the Galactic plane to establish new constraints on PWN properties and find new clues on the nature of UNIDs. Of the 58 sources, 30 were detected, and this work provides their {gamma}-ray fluxes for energies above 10 GeV. The spectral energy distributions and upper limits, in the multi-wavelength context, also provide new information on the source nature and can help distinguish between emission scenarios, i.e., between classification as a pulsar candidate or as a PWN candidate. Six new GeV PWN candidates are described in detail and compared with existing models. A population study of GeV PWN candidates as a function of the pulsar/PWN system characteristics is presented.

  16. Investigation and functional characterization of rare genetic variants in the adipose triglyceride lipase in a large healthy working population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Coassin

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrated a strong influence of rare genetic variants on several lipid-related traits. However, their impact on free fatty acid (FFA plasma concentrations, as well as the role of rare variants in a general population, has not yet been thoroughly addressed. The adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL is encoded by the PNPLA2 gene and catalyzes the rate-limiting step of lipolysis. It represents a prominent candidate gene affecting FFA concentrations. We therefore screened the full genomic region of ATGL for mutations in 1,473 randomly selected individuals from the SAPHIR (Salzburg Atherosclerosis Prevention program in subjects at High Individual Risk Study using a combined Ecotilling and sequencing approach and functionally investigated all detected protein variants by in-vitro studies. We observed 55 novel mostly rare genetic variants in this general population sample. Biochemical evaluation of all non-synonymous variants demonstrated the presence of several mutated but mostly still functional ATGL alleles with largely varying residual lipolytic activity. About one-quarter (3 out of 13 of the investigated variants presented a marked decrease or total loss of catalytic function. Genetic association studies using both continuous and dichotomous approaches showed a shift towards lower plasma FFA concentrations for rare variant carriers and an accumulation of variants in the lower 10%-quantile of the FFA distribution. However, the generally rather small effects suggest either only a secondary role of rare ATGL variants on the FFA levels in the SAPHIR population or a recessive action of ATGL variants. In contrast to these rather small effects, we describe here also the first patient with "neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy" (NLSDM with a point mutation in the catalytic dyad, but otherwise intact protein.

  17. Investigation and functional characterization of rare genetic variants in the adipose triglyceride lipase in a large healthy working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coassin, Stefan; Schweiger, Martina; Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Lamina, Claudia; Haun, Margot; Erhart, Gertraud; Paulweber, Bernhard; Rahman, Yusof; Olpin, Simon; Wolinski, Heimo; Cornaciu, Irina; Zechner, Rudolf; Zimmermann, Robert; Kronenberg, Florian

    2010-12-09

    Recent studies demonstrated a strong influence of rare genetic variants on several lipid-related traits. However, their impact on free fatty acid (FFA) plasma concentrations, as well as the role of rare variants in a general population, has not yet been thoroughly addressed. The adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is encoded by the PNPLA2 gene and catalyzes the rate-limiting step of lipolysis. It represents a prominent candidate gene affecting FFA concentrations. We therefore screened the full genomic region of ATGL for mutations in 1,473 randomly selected individuals from the SAPHIR (Salzburg Atherosclerosis Prevention program in subjects at High Individual Risk) Study using a combined Ecotilling and sequencing approach and functionally investigated all detected protein variants by in-vitro studies. We observed 55 novel mostly rare genetic variants in this general population sample. Biochemical evaluation of all non-synonymous variants demonstrated the presence of several mutated but mostly still functional ATGL alleles with largely varying residual lipolytic activity. About one-quarter (3 out of 13) of the investigated variants presented a marked decrease or total loss of catalytic function. Genetic association studies using both continuous and dichotomous approaches showed a shift towards lower plasma FFA concentrations for rare variant carriers and an accumulation of variants in the lower 10%-quantile of the FFA distribution. However, the generally rather small effects suggest either only a secondary role of rare ATGL variants on the FFA levels in the SAPHIR population or a recessive action of ATGL variants. In contrast to these rather small effects, we describe here also the first patient with "neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy" (NLSDM) with a point mutation in the catalytic dyad, but otherwise intact protein.

  18. Use of a refined drug tracer algorithm to estimate prevalence and incidence of Parkinson's disease in a large israeli population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chillag-Talmor, Orly; Giladi, Nir; Linn, Shai; Gurevich, Tanya; El-Ad, Baruch; Silverman, Barbara; Friedman, Nurit; Peretz, Chava

    2011-01-01

    Estimating rates of Parkinson's disease (PD) is essential for health services planning and studies of disease determinants. However, few PD registries exist. We aimed to estimate annual prevalence and incidence of PD in a large Israeli population over the past decade using computerized drug purchase data. Based on profiles of anti-parkinsonian drugs, age at first purchase, purchase density, and follow-up time, we developed a refined algorithm for PD assessment (definite, probable or possible) and validated it against clinical diagnoses. We used the prescription database of the second largest Health Maintenance Organization in Israel (covers ~25% of population), for the years 1998-2008. PD rates by age, gender and year were calculated and compared using Poisson models. The algorithm was found to be highly sensitive (96%) for detecting PD cases. We identified 7,134 prevalent cases (67% definite/probable), and 5,288 incident cases (65% definite/probable), with mean age at first purchase 69 ± 13 years. Over the years 2000-2007, PD incidence rate of 33/100,000 was stable, and the prevalence rate increased from 170/100,000 to 256/100,000. For ages 50+, 60+, 70+, median prevalence rates were 1%, 2%, 3%, respectively. Incidence rates also increased with age (RR = 1.76, 95%CI 1.75-1.77, ages 50+, 5-year interval). For ages 50+, rates were higher among men for both prevalence (RR = 1.38, 95%CI 1.37-1.39) and incidence (RR = 1.45, 95%CI 1.42-1.48). In conclusion, our refined algorithm for PD assessment, based on computerized drug purchases data, may be a reliable tool for population-based studies. The findings indicate a burden of PD in Israel higher than previously assumed.

  19. Passive Smoke Exposure as a Risk Factor for Oral Clefts-A Large International Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummet, Colleen M; Moreno, Lina M; Wilcox, Allen J; Romitti, Paul A; DeRoo, Lisa A; Munger, Ronald G; Lie, Rolv T; Wehby, George L

    2016-05-01

    Maternal cigarette smoking is a well-established risk factor for oral clefts. Evidence is less clear for passive (secondhand) smoke exposure. We combined individual-level data from 4 population-based studies (the Norway Facial Clefts Study, 1996-2001; the Utah Child and Family Health Study, 1995-2004; the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, 1999-2009; and the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (United States), 1999-2007) to obtain 4,508 cleft cases and 9,626 controls. We categorized first-trimester passive and active smoke exposure. Multivariable logistic models adjusted for possible confounders (maternal alcohol consumption, use of folic acid supplements, age, body size, education, and employment, plus study fixed effects). Children whose mothers actively smoked had an increased risk of oral clefts (odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11, 1.46). Children of passively exposed nonsmoking mothers also had an increased risk (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.27). Cleft risk was further elevated among babies of smoking mothers who were exposed to passive smoke (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.35, 1.70). Using a large pooled data set, we found a modest association between first-trimester passive smoking and oral clefts that was consistent across populations, diverse study designs, and cleft subtypes. While this association may reflect subtle confounding or bias, we cannot rule out the possibility that passive smoke exposure during pregnancy is teratogenic.

  20. Depletion of trophy large-sized sharks populations of the Argentinean coast, south-western Atlantic: insights from fishers' knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejo Irigoyen

    Full Text Available Abstract Globally, sharks are impacted by a wide range of human activities, resulting in many populations being depleted. Trophy large-sized sharks of the Argentinean coast, the sand-tiger Carcharias taurus , the copper Carcharhinus brachyurus and the sevengill shark Notorynchus cepedianus are under intense sport and artisanal fishing since the 50's decade. However, the current and historical information for the assessment of its populations status is scarce. The aim of this work was to analyze the status of conservation of these species through the gathering of expert fishermen knowledge (FK on semi-structured interviews. Abundance variation perception between the beginning and the end of fishermen careers revealed a critical status for the species study (means variation between -77 and -90 %. Furthermore, a best day's catch analysis reinforce this result in the case of the sand tiger shark. The school shark Galeorhinus galeus was included on this work with the objective of contrast FK with formal information available of catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE time series. Both sources of information, despite are not comparable, shows declines ~ - 80%. The critical conservation situation of study species needs urgent management action, particularly for the san tiger shark which could became regionally extinct before the reaction of stakeholders occurs.

  1. Comparative detection of a large population of grapevine viruses by TaqMan(®) RT-qPCR and ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruisson, Sébastien; Lebel, Sylvain; Walter, Bernard; Prevotat, Laurent; Seddas, Sam; Schellenbaum, Paul

    2017-02-01

    Grapevine (Vitis spp.) can be infected by numerous viruses that are often widespread and of great economic importance. Reliable detection methods are necessary for sanitary selection which is the only way to partly control grapevine virus diseases. Biological indexing and ELISA are currently the standard methods for screening propagation material, and PCR-methods are becoming increasingly popular. Due to the diversity of virus isolates, it is essential to verify that the tests allow the detection of the largest possible virus populations. We developed three quadruplex TaqMan(®) RT-qPCR assays for detecting nine different viruses that cause considerable damage in many vineyards world-wide. Each assay is designed to detect three viruses and the grapevine Actin as an internal control. A large population of grapevines from diverse cultivars and geographic location was tested for the presence of nine viruses: Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV), Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), Grapevine leafroll-associated viruses (GLRaV-1, -2, -3), Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus (GRSPaV), Grapevine virus A (GVA), and Grapevine virus B (GVB). In general, identical results were obtained with multiplex TaqMan(®) RT-qPCR and ELISA although, in some cases, viruses could be detected by only one of the two techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. SU Lyncis, a Hard X-Ray Bright M Giant: Clues Point to a Large Hidden Population of Symbiotic Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, K.; Luna, G. J. M.; Cusumano, G.; Segreto, A.; Munari, U.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Lucy, A. B.; Nelson, T.; Nunez, N. E.

    2016-01-01

    Symbiotic star surveys have traditionally relied almost exclusively on low resolution optical spectroscopy. However, we can obtain amore reliable estimate of their total Galactic population by using all available signatures of the symbiotic phenomenon. Here we report the discovery of a hard X-ray source, 4PBC J0642.9+5528, in the Swift hard X-ray all-sky survey, and identify it with a poorly studied red giant, SU Lyn, using pointed Swift observations and ground-based optical spectroscopy. The X-ray spectrum, the optical to UV spectrum, and the rapid UV variability of SU Lyn are all consistent with our interpretation that it is a symbiotic star containing an accreting white dwarf. The symbiotic nature of SU Lyn went unnoticed until now, because it does not exhibit emission lines strong enough to be obvious in low resolution spectra. We argue that symbiotic stars without shell-burning have weak emission lines, and that the current lists of symbiotic stars are biased in favour of shell-burning systems. We conclude that the true population of symbiotic stars has been underestimated, potentially by a large factor.

  3. Measured Zero Net Energy Performance: Results, Lessons, and Surprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Carrie; LaRue, Anna; Pigman, Margaret; Roberts, Jon; Kaneda, David; Connelly, Dylan; Elliott, John; Pless, Shanti; Pande, Abhijeet; Dean, Edward; Anbarlilar, Can

    2016-08-26

    As more and more zero net energy (ZNE) buildings are built and monitored, we can learn from both careful case studies of individual projects as well as a broader perspective of trends over time. In a forum sponsored by Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E), eight expert speakers discussed: results and lessons from monitoring occupied ZNE buildings; best practices for setting performance targets and getting actionable performance information, and; things that have surprised them about monitored ZNE buildings. This paper distills the content of the forum by laying out the most common hurdles that are encountered in setting up monitoring projects, frequent performance issues that the monitoring uncovers, and lessons learned that can be applied to future projects.

  4. Surprising hair analysis results following acute carbofuran intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulaurent, S; Gaulier, J M; Zouaoui, K; Moesch, C; François, B; Lachâtre, G

    2011-10-10

    We present two non fatal cases of intoxication with carbofuran (CBF) documented by hair analysis. Carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran (OHCBF, its main metabolite) hair concentrations were determined using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The obtained results were surprising if we consider several hair analyses previously published and based on a theory of the presence of xenobiotic in the only segment that comprised its intake. Among the two intoxication cases, we noticed the presence of CBF and OHCBF in hair segments corresponding to 45 days before, and more than 100 days after, the day of intoxication. Additionally, repeated hair samplings and subsequent analysis revealed a decrease of the carbofuran's concentration during the hair life.

  5. Physics Nobel prize 2004: Surprising theory wins physics Nobel

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    From left to right: David Politzer, David Gross and Frank Wilczek. For their understanding of counter-intuitive aspects of the strong force, which governs quarks inside protons and neutrons, on 5 October three American physicists were awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics. David J. Gross (Kavli Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara), H. David Politzer (California Institute of Technology), and Frank Wilczek (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) made a key theoretical discovery with a surprising result: the closer quarks are together, the weaker the force - opposite to what is seen with electromagnetism and gravity. Rather, the strong force is analogous to a rubber band stretching, where the force increases as the quarks get farther apart. These physicists discovered this property of quarks, known as asymptotic freedom, in 1976. It later became a key part of the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the Standard Model, the current best theory to describe the interac...

  6. Probability and Surprisal in Auditory Comprehension of Morphologically Complex Words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Baayen, R. Harald

    2012-01-01

    Two auditory lexical decision experiments document for morphologically complex words two points at which the probability of a target word given the evidence shifts dramatically. The first point is reached when morphologically unrelated competitors are no longer compatible with the evidence....... Adapting terminology from Marslen-Wilson (1984), we refer to this as the word’s initial uniqueness point (UP1). The second point is the complex uniqueness point (CUP) introduced by Balling and Baayen (2008), at which morphologically related competitors become incompatible with the input. Later initial...... in the course of the word co-determines response latencies. The presence of effects of surprisal, both at the initial uniqueness point of complex words, and cumulatively throughout the word, challenges the Shortlist B model of Norris and McQueen (2008), and suggests that a Bayesian approach to auditory...

  7. 2014 Presidential elections in Romania – surprising result or strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Mihalache

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The presidential elections in Romania which took place in November 2014 were won by Klaus Iohannis, who clearly defeated the incumbent prime-minister Victor Ponta by 10%. The result was considered by many a surprise, as none of the opinion polls were able to predict it. This article reveals a part of the strategy of Klaus Iohannis’s campaign and it offers a few clues about how this is result was possible, without having the aim to explain it fully. As the authors were accountable for strategy and political message in the electoral campaign for Klaus Iohannis, the scientific approach is combined with the inside view, to provide the reader a better understanding of the November 2014 events.

  8. Prevalence of hypertension in overweight and obese children from a large school-based population in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ongoing rise in the prevalence of hypertension in children and adolescents is considered to be accompanied with the epidemic of childhood overweight and obesity. In this study, we established a large scale cross-sectional study in Shanghai, China, which presented a new evidence for the correlation of hypertension prevalence with overweight and obesity stages in Chinese children and adolescents. Methods A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during February to December 2009 in Shanghai, China, including total 78,114 children and adolescents. Body weight, height, waist circumference (WC and blood pressure (BP were measured. Overweight and obesity were defined according to sex- and age- specific Chinese reference data. Results Both SBP and DBP were very significantly increased in overweight (OW and obese (OB groups. With age and sex controlled, BMI and WC were independently positively correlated with SBP and DBP. The prevalence of high SBP, DBP and hypertension were markedly higher among OW and OB children than normal weight (NW group. Odds ratios (ORs for high SBP, high DBP and high BP were significantly greater in OW and OB children than NW group, and showed a trend increase correlating with obesity stages (all P Conclusions In this study on a large school-based population in Shanghai, China, BMI and WC are positively correlated with SBP and DBP. Being overweight or obese greatly increased the risk of hypertension in Chinese children and adolescents, in which WC is considered as a more sensitive indicator than BMI.

  9. A large set of 26 new reference transcriptomes dedicated to comparative population genomics in crops and wild relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah, Gautier; Homa, Felix; Pointet, Stéphanie; Contreras, Sandy; Sabot, François; Nabholz, Benoit; Santoni, Sylvain; Sauné, Laure; Ardisson, Morgane; Chantret, Nathalie; Sauvage, Christopher; Tregear, James; Jourda, Cyril; Pot, David; Vigouroux, Yves; Chair, Hana; Scarcelli, Nora; Billot, Claire; Yahiaoui, Nabila; Bacilieri, Roberto; Khadari, Bouchaib; Boccara, Michel; Barnaud, Adéline; Péros, Jean-Pierre; Labouisse, Jean-Pierre; Pham, Jean-Louis; David, Jacques; Glémin, Sylvain; Ruiz, Manuel

    2016-08-04

    We produced a unique large data set of reference transcriptomes to obtain new knowledge about the evolution of plant genomes and crop domestication. For this purpose, we validated a RNA-Seq data assembly protocol to perform comparative population genomics. For the validation, we assessed and compared the quality of de novo Illumina short-read assemblies using data from two crops for which an annotated reference genome was available, namely grapevine and sorghum. We used the same protocol for the release of 26 new transcriptomes of crop plants and wild relatives, including still understudied crops such as yam, pearl millet and fonio. The species list has a wide taxonomic representation with the inclusion of 15 monocots and 11 eudicots. All contigs were annotated using BLAST, prot4EST and Blast2GO. A strong originality of the data set is that each crop is associated with close relative species, which will permit whole-genome comparative evolutionary studies between crops and their wild-related species. This large resource will thus serve research communities working on both crops and model organisms. All the data are available at http://arcad-bioinformatics.southgreen.fr/.

  10. Effect of fragmentation and lack of precise homing on population structure in European grayling (Thymallus thymallus) within a large Norwegian river system

    OpenAIRE

    Dalen, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Fragmentation of habitats is one of the major threats to biodiversity. Fragmentations will reduce connectivity and consequently affect the genetic population structure particularly in rivers. In the current study the genetic population structure of grayling Thymallus thymallus in a large Norwegian river system with both unobstructed and fragmented sections was investegated. Further, it was assessed whether grayling exhibited homing and thereby were genetically structured within the large unob...

  11. Exploring the concept of climate surprises. A review of the literature on the concept of surprise and how it is related to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, M.H.; Moore, C.M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Streets, D.G.; Bhatti, N.; Rosa, C.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Stewart, T.R. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report examines the concept of climate surprise and its implications for environmental policymaking. Although most integrated assessment models of climate change deal with average values of change, it is usually the extreme events or surprises that cause the most damage to human health and property. Current models do not help the policymaker decide how to deal with climate surprises. This report examines the literature of surprise in many aspects of human society: psychology, military, health care, humor, agriculture, etc. It draws together various ways to consider the concept of surprise and examines different taxonomies of surprise that have been proposed. In many ways, surprise is revealed to be a subjective concept, triggered by such factors as prior experience, belief system, and level of education. How policymakers have reacted to specific instances of climate change or climate surprise in the past is considered, particularly with regard to the choices they made between proactive and reactive measures. Finally, the report discusses techniques used in the current generation of assessment models and makes suggestions as to how climate surprises might be included in future models. The report concludes that some kinds of surprises are simply unpredictable, but there are several types that could in some way be anticipated and assessed, and their negative effects forestalled.

  12. Genetic diversity and population structure assessed by SSR and SNP markers in a large germplasm collection of grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The economic importance of grapevine has driven significant efforts in genomics to accelerate the exploitation of Vitis resources for development of new cultivars. However, although a large number of clonally propagated accessions are maintained in grape germplasm collections worldwide, their use for crop improvement is limited by the scarcity of information on genetic diversity, population structure and proper phenotypic assessment. The identification of representative and manageable subset of accessions would facilitate access to the diversity available in large collections. A genome-wide germplasm characterization using molecular markers can offer reliable tools for adjusting the quality and representativeness of such core samples. Results We investigated patterns of molecular diversity at 22 common microsatellite loci and 384 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2273 accessions of domesticated grapevine V. vinifera ssp. sativa, its wild relative V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris, interspecific hybrid cultivars and rootstocks. Despite the large number of putative duplicates and extensive clonal relationships among the accessions, we observed high level of genetic variation. In the total germplasm collection the average genetic diversity, as quantified by the expected heterozygosity, was higher for SSR loci (0.81) than for SNPs (0.34). The analysis of the genetic structure in the grape germplasm collection revealed several levels of stratification. The primary division was between accessions of V. vinifera and non-vinifera, followed by the distinction between wild and domesticated grapevine. Intra-specific subgroups were detected within cultivated grapevine representing different eco-geographic groups. The comparison of a phenological core collection and genetic core collections showed that the latter retained more genetic diversity, while maintaining a similar phenotypic variability. Conclusions The comprehensive molecular characterization of our grape

  13. Characterizing abnormal behavior in a large population of zoo-housed chimpanzees: prevalence and potential influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Sarah L; Ross, Stephen R; Bloomsmith, Mollie A

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal behaviors in captive animals are generally defined as behaviors that are atypical for the species and are often considered to be indicators of poor welfare. Although some abnormal behaviors have been empirically linked to conditions related to elevated stress and compromised welfare in primates, others have little or no evidence on which to base such a relationship. The objective of this study was to investigate a recent claim that abnormal behavior is endemic in the captive population by surveying a broad sample of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), while also considering factors associated with the origins of these behaviors. We surveyed animal care staff from 26 accredited zoos to assess the prevalence of abnormal behavior in a large sample of chimpanzees in the United States for which we had information on origin and rearing history. Our results demonstrated that 64% of this sample was reported to engage in some form of abnormal behavior in the past two years and 48% of chimpanzees engaged in abnormal behavior other than coprophagy. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the historical variables that best predicted the occurrence of all abnormal behavior, any abnormal behavior that was not coprophagy, and coprophagy. Rearing had opposing effects on the occurrence of coprophagy and the other abnormal behaviors such that mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform coprophagy, whereas non-mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform other abnormal behaviors. These results support the assertion that coprophagy may be classified separately when assessing abnormal behavior and the welfare of captive chimpanzees. This robust evaluation of the prevalence of abnormal behavior in our sample from the U.S. zoo population also demonstrates the importance of considering the contribution of historical variables to present behavior, in order to better understand the causes of these behaviors and any potential relationship to psychological

  14. Characterizing abnormal behavior in a large population of zoo-housed chimpanzees: prevalence and potential influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Jacobson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal behaviors in captive animals are generally defined as behaviors that are atypical for the species and are often considered to be indicators of poor welfare. Although some abnormal behaviors have been empirically linked to conditions related to elevated stress and compromised welfare in primates, others have little or no evidence on which to base such a relationship. The objective of this study was to investigate a recent claim that abnormal behavior is endemic in the captive population by surveying a broad sample of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, while also considering factors associated with the origins of these behaviors. We surveyed animal care staff from 26 accredited zoos to assess the prevalence of abnormal behavior in a large sample of chimpanzees in the United States for which we had information on origin and rearing history. Our results demonstrated that 64% of this sample was reported to engage in some form of abnormal behavior in the past two years and 48% of chimpanzees engaged in abnormal behavior other than coprophagy. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the historical variables that best predicted the occurrence of all abnormal behavior, any abnormal behavior that was not coprophagy, and coprophagy. Rearing had opposing effects on the occurrence of coprophagy and the other abnormal behaviors such that mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform coprophagy, whereas non-mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform other abnormal behaviors. These results support the assertion that coprophagy may be classified separately when assessing abnormal behavior and the welfare of captive chimpanzees. This robust evaluation of the prevalence of abnormal behavior in our sample from the U.S. zoo population also demonstrates the importance of considering the contribution of historical variables to present behavior, in order to better understand the causes of these behaviors and any potential relationship to

  15. Exon-Enriched Libraries Reveal Large Genic Differences Between Aedes aegypti from Senegal, West Africa, and Populations Outside Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Laura B; Campbell, Corey L; Juneja, Punita; Jiggins, Francis M; Sylla, Massamba; Black, William C

    2017-02-09

    Aedes aegypti is one of the most studied mosquito species, and the principal vector of several arboviruses pathogenic to humans. Recently failure to oviposit, low fecundity, and poor egg-to-adult survival were observed when Ae. aegypti from Senegal (SenAae) West Africa were crossed with Ae. aegypti (Aaa) from outside of Africa, and in SenAae intercrosses. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses indicated rearrangements on chromosome 1, and pericentric inversions on chromosomes 2 and 3. Herein, high throughput sequencing (HTS) of exon-enriched libraries was used to compare chromosome-wide genetic diversity among Aaa collections from rural Thailand and Mexico, a sylvatic collection from southeastern Senegal (PK10), and an urban collection from western Senegal (Kaolack). Sex-specific polymorphisms were analyzed in Thailand and PK10 to assess genetic differences between sexes. Expected heterozygosity was greatest in SenAae FST distributions of 15,735 genes among all six pairwise comparisons of the four collections indicated that Mexican and Thailand collections are genetically similar, while FST distributions between PK10 and Kaolack were distinct. All four comparisons of SenAae with Aaa indicated extreme differentiation. FST was uniform between sexes across all chromosomes in Thailand, but were different, especially on the sex autosome 1, in PK10. These patterns correlate with the reproductive isolation noted earlier. We hypothesize that cryptic Ae. aegypti taxa may exist in West Africa, and the large genic differences between Aaa and SenAae detected in the present study have accumulated over a long period following the evolution of chromosome rearrangements in allopatric populations that subsequently cause reproductive isolation when these populations became sympatric.

  16. Arterial waveform parameters in a large, population-based sample of adults: relationships with ethnicity and lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluyter, J D; Hughes, A D; Thom, S A McG; Lowe, A; Camargo, C A; Hametner, B; Wassertheurer, S; Parker, K H; Scragg, R K R

    2016-12-22

    Little is known about how aortic waveform parameters vary with ethnicity and lifestyle factors. We investigated these issues in a large, population-based sample. We carried out a cross-sectional analysis of 4798 men and women, aged 50-84 years from Auckland, New Zealand. Participants were 3961 European, 321 Pacific, 266 Maori and 250 South Asian people. We assessed modifiable lifestyle factors via questionnaires, and measured body mass index (BMI) and brachial blood pressure (BP). Suprasystolic oscillometry was used to derive aortic pressure, from which several haemodynamic parameters were calculated. Heavy alcohol consumption and BMI were positively related to most waveform parameters. Current smokers had higher levels of aortic augmentation index than non-smokers (difference=3.7%, Pwaveform parameters, controlling for demographics, antihypertensives, diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD), were higher in non-Europeans than in Europeans. Further adjustment for brachial BP or lifestyle factors (particularly BMI) reduced many differences but several remained. Despite even further adjustment for mean arterial pressure, pulse rate, height and total:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, compared with Europeans, South Asians had higher levels of all measured aortic waveform parameters (for example, for backward pressure amplitude: β=1.5 mm Hg; Pwaveform parameters varied with ethnicity in line with the greater prevalence of CVD among non-white populations. Generally, this was true even after accounting for brachial BP, suggesting that waveform parameters may have increased usefulness in capturing ethnic variations in cardiovascular risk. Heavy alcohol consumption, smoking and especially BMI may partially contribute to elevated levels of these parameters.Journal of Human Hypertension advance online publication, 22 December 2016; doi:10.1038/jhh.2016.78.

  17. Emergency department utilization rates and modalities among immigrant population. A 5-year survey in a large Italian urban emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Zinelli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The rates and modalities of healthcare services utilization for migrant population may differ from natives, since the health needs of the former are influenced by some factors such as health status, self-perceived needs, healthseeking behavior, language barriers and cultural differences. Only scarce and often conflicting data have been published so far on migrants’ utilization of healthcare services in Europe, and even less data are available on emergency departments (EDs. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare utilization rates and modalities of presentation to the large urban ED of the University Hospital of Parma, Italy (averaging 85,000 visits per year, by Italian native and foreign-born populations during 2008-2012. Throughout the study period 424,466 ED visits were recorded, 64,435 (15.4% of which by foreign-born patients. A significant difference between utilization rates was observed for all the triage-codes, with higher rates for foreign-born low-acuity codes (green plus white codes: 87.5 vs 73.9, P<0.0001 and lower rates for high-acuity codes (yellow plus red codes: 12.5 vs 26.1%, P<0.0001. The utilization rate was 253.9 visits per 1000 inhabitants for the Italian-native group and 309.7 per 1000 for the foreign-born group (odds ratio 1.23; 95% CI: 1.01-1.48; P=0.034. Different modalities of presentation were also observed, with a high rate of selfreferrals (82.3 vs 71.4%, P<0.001. The results of this study suggest that a better knowledge of available Italian healthcare services among immigrants is advisable and should be encouraged.

  18. Assessing Spatial and Attribute Errors of Input Data in Large National Datasets for use in Population Distribution Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Lauren A [ORNL; Urban, Marie L [ORNL; Myers, Aaron T [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; Bright, Eddie A [ORNL; Coleman, Phil R [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Geospatial technologies and digital data have developed and disseminated rapidly in conjunction with increasing computing performance and internet availability. The ability to store and transmit large datasets has encouraged the development of national datasets in geospatial format. National datasets are used by numerous agencies for analysis and modeling purposes because these datasets are standardized, and are considered to be of acceptable accuracy. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a national population model incorporating multiple ancillary variables was developed and one of the inputs required is a school database. This paper examines inaccuracies present within two national school datasets, TeleAtlas North America (TANA) and National Center of Education Statistics (NCES). Schools are an important component of the population model, because they serve as locations containing dense clusters of vulnerable populations. It is therefore essential to validate the quality of the school input data, which was made possible by increasing national coverage of high resolution imagery. Schools were also chosen since a 'real-world' representation of K-12 schools for the Philadelphia School District was produced; thereby enabling 'ground-truthing' of the national datasets. Analyses found the national datasets not standardized and incomplete, containing 76 to 90% of existing schools. The temporal accuracy of enrollment values of updating national datasets resulted in 89% inaccuracy to match 2003 data. Spatial rectification was required for 87% of the NCES points, of which 58% of the errors were attributed to the geocoding process. Lastly, it was found that by combining the two national datasets together, the resultant dataset provided a more useful and accurate solution. Acknowledgment Prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6285, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC for the U. S. Department of Energy undercontract no

  19. Global phylogeography of the dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus): the influence of large effective population size and recent dispersal on the divergence of a marine pelagic cosmopolitan species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Jaimes, P; Uribe-Alcocer, M; Rocha-Olivares, A; García-de-León, F J; Nortmoon, P; Durand, J D

    2010-12-01

    Pelagic fish that are distributed circumtropically are characterised by a low population structure level as a result of a high capacity for dispersion and large population sizes. Nevertheless, historical and contemporary processes, including past demographic and/or range expansions, secondary contact, dispersal, gene flow, and the achievement of large effective population sizes, may play a part in the detection of divergence signals, especially in the case of tropical pelagic species, whose distribution range depends strongly on the sea surface temperature. The connectivity and historical demography of Atlantic, Indian, Pacific and Mediterranean populations of dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) was studied using partial sequences of the mitochondrial DNA NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1). AMOVA analyses revealed significant inter-oceanic divergence with three phylogroups located in the Indo-Pacific, Eastern Atlantic, and Mediterranean Sea, the last one being the most divergent. However, it was not possible to clearly observe any genetic differentiation between the Indo-Pacific and Atlantic populations, as has been reported for most tropical pelagic species of tuna and billfishes. This supports the assumption of recent dispersal among basins facilitated by the actual continuous distribution of dolphinfish populations. Moreover, the lack of a divergence signal for populations separated by the Panamanian Isthmus reveals that genetic drift does not exert a strong influence on tropical pelagic species with large effective population sizes.

  20. Chocolate consumption and risk of stroke among men and women: A large population-based, prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jia-Yi; Iso, Hiroyasu; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-05-01

    Chocolate consumption may have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular health, but evidence from prospective cohort studies is still limited. We aimed to examine the prospective associations between chocolate consumption and risk of stroke among men and women in a large population-based cohort. A total of 38,182 men and 46,415 women aged 44-76 years, and free of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer at baseline in 1995 and 1998, were followed up until the end of 2009 and 2010, respectively. We obtained data on chocolate consumption for each participant using a self-administrated food frequency questionnaire that included 138 food and beverage items. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of stroke in relation to chocolate consumption. During a median follow-up of 12.9 years, we identified 3558 incident strokes cases (2146 cerebral infarctions and 1396 hemorrhagic strokes). After adjustment for age, body mass index, life styles, dietary intakes, and other risk factors, chocolate consumption was associated with a significant lower risk of stroke in women (HR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.71-0.99). However, the association in men was not significant (HR = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.80-1.10). In addition, the association did not vary by stroke subtypes in either men or women. Findings from this large Japanese cohort supported a significant inverse association between chocolate consumption and risk of developing stroke in women. However, residual confounding could not be excluded as an alternative explanation for our findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cerebral microbleeds-prevalence, distribution and risk factors in northeast population without preceding large-area stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Peng-fei; CUI Ying-zhe; NA Jing; GAO Pei-yi

    2010-01-01

    Background Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) occur frequently in patients suspected of cerebrovascular disease and they are the principle radiographic findings in patients with sub-clinical neurological impairment. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence, distribution, severity and associated clinical features of CMBs in a prospective hospital patient based cohort undergoing brain MRI for suspected cerebrovascular disease, excluding cases with known intracranial hemorrhage or prior large-area stroke.Methods The study population consisted of 447 patients who were evaluated with T2~*-gradient echo sequences to detect the CMBs lesion number, location, and their association with white matter hyperintensities and clinical parameters, including blood pressure.Results CMB lesions were presented in 95 of the 447 patients (21.3%). The distribution of CMBs was 43.95% cortical, 19.77% thalamic, 14.41% in the brainstem, 11.58% cerebellar, 6.21% periventricular white matter, 5.64% involving the basal ganglia regions, and 0.28% involving the hippocampus. There was a statistically significant association between the presence of CMBs and advancing age (adjusted OR 2.082, P <0.01), the severity of hypertension (adjusted OR 2.208, P <0.01). Also there was a statistically significant (P <0.01) correlation between the presence of CMBs and the severity of hypertension and white matter lesions.Conclusions CMBs occur frequently in patients with no prior large-area stroke who were referred for brain MRI for suspected cerebrovascular disease. The severity of CMBs correlates with the severity of hypertension and the presence of cerebral white matter changes detected by MRI.

  2. A large population of small chloroplasts in tobacco leaf cells allows more effective chloroplast movement than a few enlarged chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Won Joong; Park, Youn-Il; Suh, KyeHong; Raven, John A; Yoo, Ook Joon; Liu, Jang Ryol

    2002-05-01

    We generated transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi) plants that contained only one to three enlarged chloroplasts per leaf mesophyll cell by introducing NtFtsZ1-2, a cDNA for plastid division. These plants were used to investigate the advantages of having a large population of small chloroplasts rather than a few enlarged chloroplasts in a leaf mesophyll cell. Despite the similarities in photosynthetic components and ultrastructure of photosynthetic machinery between wild-type and transgenic plants, the overall growth of transgenic plants under low- and high-light conditions was retarded. In wild-type plants, the chloroplasts moved toward the face position under low light and toward the profile position under high-light conditions. However, chloroplast rearrangement in transgenic plants in response to light conditions was not evident. In addition, transgenic plant leaves showed greatly diminished changes in leaf transmittance values under both light conditions, indicating that chloroplast rearrangement was severely retarded. Therefore, under low-light conditions the incomplete face position of the enlarged chloroplasts results in decreased absorbance of light energy. This, in turn, reduces plant growth. Under high-light conditions, the amount of absorbed light exceeds the photosynthetic utilization capacity due to the incomplete profile position of the enlarged chloroplasts, resulting in photodamage to the photosynthetic machinery, and decreased growth. The presence of a large number of small and/or rapidly moving chloroplasts in the cells of higher land plants permits more effective chloroplast phototaxis and, hence, allows more efficient utilization of low-incident photon flux densities. The photosynthetic apparatus is, consequently, protected from damage under high-incident photon flux densities.

  3. Atom Surprise: Using Theatre in Primary Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Ran; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet

    2011-10-01

    Early exposure to science may have a lifelong effect on children's attitudes towards science and their motivation to learn science in later life. Out-of-class environments can play a significant role in creating favourable attitudes, while contributing to conceptual learning. Educational science theatre is one form of an out-of-class environment, which has received little research attention. This study aims to describe affective and cognitive learning outcomes of watching such a play and to point to connections between theatrical elements and specific outcomes. "Atom Surprise" is a play portraying several concepts on the topic of matter. A mixed methods approach was adopted to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of children (grades 1-6) from two different school settings who watched the play. Data were gathered using questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Analysis suggested that in both schools children's knowledge on the topic of matter increased after the play with younger children gaining more conceptual knowledge than their older peers. In the public school girls showed greater gains in conceptual knowledge than boys. No significant changes in students' general attitudes towards science were found, however, students demonstrated positive changes towards science learning. Theatrical elements that seemed to be important in children's recollection of the play were the narrative, props and stage effects, and characters. In the children's memory, science was intertwined with the theatrical elements. Nonetheless, children could distinguish well between scientific facts and the fictive narrative.

  4. Novelty biases attention and gaze in a surprise trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, Gernot; Herwig, Arvid

    2016-01-01

    While the classical distinction between task-driven and stimulus-driven biasing of attention appears to be a dichotomy at first sight, there seems to be a third category that depends on the contrast or discrepancy between active representations and the upcoming stimulus, and may be termed novelty, surprise, or prediction failure. For previous demonstrations of the discrepancy-attention link, stimulus-driven components (saliency) may have played a decisive role. The present study was conducted to evaluate the discrepancy-attention link in a display where novel and familiar stimuli are equated for saliency. Eye tracking was used to determine fixations on novel and familiar stimuli as a proxy for attention. Results show a prioritization of attention by the novel color, and a de-prioritization of the familiar color, which is clearly present at the second fixation, and spans over the next couple of fixations. Saliency, on the other hand, did not prioritize items in the display. The results thus reinforce the notion that novelty captures and binds attention.

  5. A Well-Known But Still Surprising Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2014-12-01

    The bicycle generator is often mentioned as an example of a method to produce electric energy. It is cheap and easily accessible, so it is a natural example to use in teaching. There are different types, but I prefer the old side-wall dynamo. The most common explanation of its working principle seems to be something like the illustration in Fig. 1. The illustration is taken from a popular textbook in the Norwegian junior high school.1 Typically it is explained as a system of a moving magnet or coils that directly results in a varying magnetic field through the coils. According to Faraday's law a voltage is induced in the coils. Simple and easy! A few times I have had a chance to glimpse into a bicycle generator, and I was somewhat surprised to sense that the magnet rotated parallel to the turns of the coil. How could the flux through the coil change and induce a voltage when the magnet rotated parallel to the turns of the coil? When teaching electromagnetic induction I have showed the students a dismantled generator and asked them how this could work. They naturally found that this was more difficult to understand than the principle illustrated in Fig. 1. Other authors in this journal have discussed even more challenging questions concerning electric generators.2,3

  6. Infants’ Looking to Surprising Events: When Eye-Tracking Reveals More than Looking Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, H. Henny; Denison, Stephanie; Johnson, Scott P.

    2016-01-01

    Research on infants’ reasoning abilities often rely on looking times, which are longer to surprising and unexpected visual scenes compared to unsurprising and expected ones. Few researchers have examined more precise visual scanning patterns in these scenes, and so, here, we recorded 8- to 11-month-olds’ gaze with an eye tracker as we presented a sampling event whose outcome was either surprising, neutral, or unsurprising: A red (or yellow) ball was drawn from one of three visible containers populated 0%, 50%, or 100% with identically colored balls. When measuring looking time to the whole scene, infants were insensitive to the likelihood of the sampling event, replicating failures in similar paradigms. Nevertheless, a new analysis of visual scanning showed that infants did spend more time fixating specific areas-of-interest as a function of the event likelihood. The drawn ball and its associated container attracted more looking than the other containers in the 0% condition, but this pattern was weaker in the 50% condition, and even less strong in the 100% condition. Results suggest that measuring where infants look may be more sensitive than simply how much looking there is to the whole scene. The advantages of eye tracking measures over traditional looking measures are discussed. PMID:27926920

  7. Risk Factors for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in a Large Population of Women Living in Spain: Implications for Preventative Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Ramos-Leví

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to establish a risk appraisal model for GDM by identifying modifiable factors that can help predict the risk of GDM in a large population of 2194 women living in Spain. They were recruited between 2009-2010 when screening for GDM was performed. Participants completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic, anthropomorphic and behavioral characteristics, and reproductive and medical history. A total of 213 (9.7% women were diagnosed as having GDM. Age, pregestational body weight (BW and body mass index (BMI, and number of events of medical, obstetric and family history were significantly associated with GDM. After logistic regression model, biscuits and pastries intake 30 minutes/day, and 30 minutes/day of sports at least 2 days/week, compared with opposite consumption, was associated with less GDM risk. Our study identified several pregestational modifiable lifestyle risk factors associated with an increase in the risk of developing GDM. This may represent a promising approach for the prevention of GDM and subsequent complications. Further intervention studies are needed to evaluate if this appraisal model of risk calculation can be useful for prevention and treatment of GDM.

  8. A large, population-based study of age-related associations between vaginal pH and human papillomavirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarke Megan A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaginal pH is related to genital tract inflammation and changes in the bacterial flora, both suggested cofactors for persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV infection. To evaluate the relationship between vaginal pH and HPV, we analyzed data from our large population-based study in Guanacaste, Costa Rica. We examined vaginal pH and the risk of HPV infection, cytological abnormalities, and C. trachomatis infection. Methods Our study included 9,165 women aged 18-97 at enrollment with a total of 28,915 visits (mean length of follow-up = 3.4 years. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the relationship between vaginal pH and HPV infection (both overall and single versus multiple types and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, the cytomorphic manifestation of HPV infection. The relationship between enrollment vaginal pH and C. trachomatis infection was assessed by logistic regression. Results were stratified by age at visit. Results Detection of HPV was positively associated with vaginal pH, mainly in women C. trachomatis DNA was associated with increased vaginal pH in women Conclusions Our findings suggest a possible association of the cervical microenvironment as a modifier of HPV natural history in the development of cervical precancer and cancer. Future research should include studies of vaginal pH in a more complex assessment of hormonal changes and the cervicovaginal microbiome as they relate to the natural history of cervical neoplasia.

  9. Chemical tagging with APOGEE: Discovery of a large population of N-rich stars in the inner Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Schiavon, Ricardo P; Carrera, Ricardo; Lucatello, Sara; Robin, A C; Ness, Melissa; Martell, Sarah L; Smith, Verne V; Hernandez, D A Garcia; Manchado, Arturo; Schoenrich, Ralph; Bastian, Nate; Chiappini, Cristina; Shetrone, Matthew; Mackereth, J Ted; Williams, Rob A; Meszaros, Szabolcs; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Anders, Friedrich; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Beers, Timothy C; Chojnowski, S Drew; Cunha, Katia; Epstein, Courtney; Frinchaboy, Peter M; Perez, Ana E Garcia; Hearty, Fred R; Holtzman, Jon A; Johnson, Jennifer A; Kinemuchi, Karen; Majewski, Steven R; Muna, Demitri; Nidever, David L; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; O'Connell, Robert W; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Pinsonneault, Marc; Schneider, Donald P; Schultheis, Matthias; Simmons, Audrey; Skrutskie, Michael F; Sobeck, Jennifer; Wilson, John C; Zasowski, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Formation of globular clusters (GCs), the Galactic bulge, or galaxy bulges in general, are important unsolved problems in Galactic astronomy. Homogeneous infrared observations of large samples of stars belonging to GCs and the Galactic bulge field are one of the best ways to study these problems. We report the discovery by APOGEE of a population of field stars in the inner Galaxy with abundances of N, C, and Al that are typically found in GC stars. The newly discovered stars have high [N/Fe], which is correlated with [Al/Fe] and anti-correlated with [C/Fe]. They are homogeneously distributed across, and kinematically indistinguishable from, other field stars in the same volume. Their metallicity distribution is seemingly unimodal, peaking at [Fe/H]~-1, thus being in disagreement with that of the Galactic GC system. Our results can be understood in terms of different scenarios. N-rich stars could be former members of dissolved GCs, in which case the mass in destroyed GCs exceeds that of the surviving GC system...

  10. Efficacy of selective arterial embolisation for the treatment of life-threatening post-partum haemorrhage in a large population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Touboul

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess efficacy and determine the optimal indication of selective arterial embolisation (SAE in patients with life-threatening post-partum haemorrhage (PPH. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred and two patients with PPH underwent SAE and were included from January 1998 to January 2002 in our university care center. Embolisation was considered effective when no other surgical procedure was required. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis were performed. SAE was effective for 73 patients (71.5%, while 29 required surgical procedures. SAE was effective in 88.6% of women with uterine atony that was associated with positive outcome (OR 4.13, 1.35-12.60, whereas caesarean deliveries (OR 0.16, 0.04-0.5 and haemodynamic shock (OR 0.21, 0.07-0.60 were associated with high failure rates, 47.6% and 39.1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Success rate for SAE observed in a large population is lower than previously reported. It is most likely to succeed for uterine atony but not recommended in case of haemodynamic shock or after caesarean section.

  11. Replication of the association between CHRNA4 rs1044396 and harm avoidance in a large population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bey, Katharina; Lennertz, Leonhard; Markett, Sebastian; Petrovsky, Nadine; Gallinat, Jürgen; Gründer, Gerhard; Spreckelmeyer, Katja N; Wienker, Thomas F; Mobascher, Arian; Dahmen, Norbert; Thuerauf, Norbert; Kornhuber, Johannes; Kiefer, Falk; Toliat, Mohammad R; Nürnberg, Peter; Winterer, Georg; Wagner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Harm avoidance is a personality trait characterized by excessive worrying and fear of uncertainty, which has repeatedly been related to anxiety disorders. Converging lines of research in rodents and humans point towards an involvement of the nicotinic cholinergic system in the modulation of anxiety. Most notably, the rs1044396 polymorphism in the CHRNA4 gene, which codes for the α4 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, has been linked to negative emotionality traits including harm avoidance in a recent study. Against this background, we investigated the association between harm avoidance and the rs1044396 polymorphism using data from N=1673 healthy subjects, which were collected in the context of the German multi-centre study ׳Genetics of Nicotine Dependence and Neurobiological Phenotypes׳. Homozygous carriers of the C-allele showed significantly higher levels of harm avoidance than homozygous T-allele carriers, with heterozygous subjects exhibiting intermediate scores. The effect was neither modulated by age or gender nor by smoking status. By replicating previous findings in a large population-based sample for the first time, the present study adds to the growing evidence suggesting an involvement of nicotinic cholinergic mechanism in anxiety and negative emotionality, which may pose an effective target for medical treatment.

  12. Health impacts of large releases of radionuclides. Interactions with human nutrition and other indices of population health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigna, A A

    1997-01-01

    The consumption of food is an important pathway involved in the internal contamination of humans. The site-related critical foodstuffs can be grouped into three main categories: dairy products; aquatic animals, such as fish, molluscs and crustaceans; and other typical foods. The concentration factor plays a more important role than the amount of a certain food consumed. Semi-natural and natural ecosystems are of special interest in this context because they can provide critical pathways for radionuclide transfer to humans, and they can also act as temporary sinks or long-term sources for radionuclides deposited from the atmosphere. From the viewpoint of population health, another important role is played by the countermeasures. The reference values commonly adopted in radiation protection are conservative and they have been established for planning practices that could provide future sources of irradiation. After a large release of radionuclides, the evaluation of the problem must be as realistic as possible, otherwise the countermeasures will imply consequences worse than those produced by the accident itself (without any further intervention). This criterion was clearly stated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection but it was frequently neglected after the Chernobyl accident. The results of a survey on the number of induced abortions following this incident are reported. These suggest that moral and ethical problems are involved above and beyond any economical implications.

  13. Surprise disrupts cognition via a fronto-basal ganglia suppressive mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Jan R; Jenkinson, Ned; Brittain, John-Stuart; Voets, Sarah H E M; Aziz, Tipu Z; Aron, Adam R

    2016-04-18

    Surprising events markedly affect behaviour and cognition, yet the underlying mechanism is unclear. Surprise recruits a brain mechanism that globally suppresses motor activity, ostensibly via the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia. Here, we tested whether this suppressive mechanism extends beyond skeletomotor suppression and also affects cognition (here, verbal working memory, WM). We recorded scalp-EEG (electrophysiology) in healthy participants and STN local field potentials in Parkinson's patients during a task in which surprise disrupted WM. For scalp-EEG, surprising events engage the same independent neural signal component that indexes action stopping in a stop-signal task. Importantly, the degree of this recruitment mediates surprise-related WM decrements. Intracranially, STN activity is also increased post surprise, especially when WM is interrupted. These results suggest that surprise interrupts cognition via the same fronto-basal ganglia mechanism that interrupts action. This motivates a new neural theory of how cognition is interrupted, and how distraction arises after surprising events.

  14. Properties and Surprises of Solar Activity XXIII Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishkov, V. N.

    2010-12-01

    The main properties of the 23rd cycle match almost completely those of average-magnitude solar cycles, and some of the features of the cycle may indicate a change in the generation mode of magnetic fields in the solar convection zone. If this is the case, the Sun enters a period of intermediate and weak cycles of solar activity (SA) in terms of the Wolf number, which may last for 3 to 6 solar cycles. The main development stages of solar cycle 23 are the following: minimum of solar cycle 22: April 1996 (W* = 8.0); maximum of the smoothed relative sunspot number: April 2000; global polarity reversal of the general solar magnetic field: July to December 2000; secondary maximum of the relative sunspot number: November 2001; maximum of the 10.7-cm radio flux: February 2002; phase of the cycle maximum: October 1999 to June 2002; beginning of the decrease phase: July 2002; the point of minimum of the current SA cycle: December 2008. Solar cycle 23 has presented two powerful flare-active sunspot groups, in September 2005 and December 2006 (+5.5 and +6.6 years from the maximum) which by flare potential occupy 4th and 20th place among the most flare-active regions for the last four solar cycles. The unprecedented duration of the relative sunspot numbers fall that has led to already record duration of the last solar cycle among authentic cycles (since 1849) became the next surprise of development of solar activity during the last cycle. The phase of the minimum began in May 2005 and lasted for 4.5 years. Thus, the new solar cycle 24 has begun in January 2009.

  15. Dracunculiasis eradication - Finishing the job before surprises arise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin Jelle Visser

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dracunculiasis(Guinea worm disease) is a preventable waterborne parasitic disease that affects the poorest people living in remote rural areas in sub-SaharanAfrican countries, who do not have access to safe drinking water.The Guinea Worm Eradication Program, a25-year old campaign to rid the world ofGuineaWorm disease has now reached its final stage accelerating to zero cases in all endemic countries.During the19th and20th centuries, dracunculiasis was common in much ofSouthernAsia and theAfrican continent.The overall number of cases has been reduced tremendously by≥99%, from the3.32 million cases estimated to have occurred in1986 inAfrica to only1797 cases reported in2010 reported in only five countries(Sudan,Mali,Ethiopia,Chad andGhana) andAsia free of the disease.This achievement is unique in its kind - the only previously eradicated disease is smallpox, a viral infection for which vaccination was possible - and it has been achieved through primary community-based prevention and health education programs.Most efforts need to be taken in two countries,SouthSudan(comprising94% or1698 out of1797 of the cases reported world-wide in2010) andMali because of frequent movements of nomads in a vast area inside and outsideMali’s borders.All factors favourable to dracunculiasis eradication are available including adequate financial resources, community and political support and high levels of advocacy.Thus there is no reason that this disabling parasitic disease cannot be eradicated soon before surprises arise such as new civil conflicts in currently endemic countries.

  16. The effects of season, daylight saving and time of sunrise on serum cortisol in a large population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlow, Narelle C; Brown, Suzanne; Wardrop, Robert; Henley, David

    2014-03-01

    Cortisol is critical for maintenance of health and homeostasis and factors affecting cortisol levels are of clinical importance. There is conflicting information about the effects of season on morning cortisol and little information on the effects of sunlight on population cortisol assessment. The aim of this study was to assess whether changes in median serum cortisol occurred in a population in conjunction with changing seasons, daylight saving time (DST) or time of sunrise. We analysed serum cortisol results (n = 27,569) from a single large laboratory over a 13-year period. Subjects with confounding medications or medical conditions were excluded and data analysed in 15-minute intervals. We assessed the influence of traditional seasons, seasons determined by equinox/solstice, DST and time of sunrise on median cortisol. The median time of cortisol collection did not vary significantly between seasons. Using traditional seasons, median cortisol was lowest in summer (386 nmol/L) and spring (384 nmol/L) with higher cortisol in autumn (406 nmol/L) and winter (414 nmol/L). Median cortisol was lowest in the summer solstice quarter with significant comparative increases in the spring equinox quarter (3.1%), the autumn equinox quarter (4.5%) and the winter solstice quarter (8.6%). When cortisol was modelled against time, with adjustment for actual sunrise time on day of collection, for each hour delay in sunrise there was a 4.8% increase in median cortisol (95% CI: 3.9-5.7%). In modelling to explain the variation in cortisol over the morning, sunrise time was better than season in explaining seasonal effects. A subtle cyclic pattern in median cortisol also occurred throughout the months of the year. A 3-year trial of DST allowed comparison of cortisol in DST and non DST periods, when clock time differed by one hour. There was modest evidence of a difference in acrophase between DST and non DST cortisol (p = 0.038), with DST peak cortisol estimated to

  17. Williams syndrome: a surprising deficit in oromotor praxis in a population with proficient language production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Saloni; Bergström, Lina; Alcock, Katherine J; Dick, Frederic; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Williams Syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder of known genetic origin, characterized by serious delays in language onset yet relatively verbose, intelligible and fluent speech in late childhood and adulthood. How do motor abilities relate to language in this group? We investigated planning and co-ordination of the movement of the speech articulators (oromotor praxis) in 28 fluent-speaking individuals with WS, aged between 12 and 30 years. Results indicate that, despite their fluent language, oromotor praxis was impaired in WS relative to two groups of typically-developing children, matched on either vocabulary or visuospatial ability. These findings suggest that the ability to plan, co-ordinate and execute complex sensorimotor movements contribute to an explanation of the delay in expressive language early in development in this neurodevelopmental disorder. In the discussion, we turn to more general issues of how individual variation in oromotor praxis may account for differences in speech/language production abilities across developmental language disorders.

  18. The Association of Perceived Memory Loss with Osteoarthritis and Related Joint Pain in a Large Appalachian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Kim E; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2017-05-19

    Previous studies have documented memory impairment in several chronic pain syndromes. However, the potential link between memory loss and osteoarthritis (OA), the second most common cause of chronic pain, remains little explored. In this cross-sectional study, we examine the association of perceived memory loss to OA and assess the potential mediating influence of sleep and mood disturbance in a large Appalachian population.  Cross-sectional.  US Ohio Valley.  A total of 21,982 Appalachian adults age 40 years or older drawn from the C8 Health Project (N = 19,004 adults without and 2,478 adults with OA). All participants completed a comprehensive health survey between 2005 and 2006. Medical history, including physician diagnosis of OA, lifestyle factors, short- and long-term memory loss, sleep quality, and mood were assessed via self-report.  After adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, health-related, and other factors, participants with OA were almost three times as likely to report frequent memory loss (adjusted odds ratios [ORs] for short- and long-term memory loss, respectively = 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.2-3.3, and 2.6, 95% CI = 2.0-3.3). The magnitude of these associations increased significantly with rising frequency of reported joint pain (adjusted OR for OA with frequent joint pain vs no OA = 3.3, 95% CI = 2.6-4.1, P trend  memory loss = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.6-2.4, and 2.1, 95% CI = 1.7-2.8, adjusted for sleep and mood impairment, respectively; OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.4-2.2, adjusted for both factors).  In this large cross-sectional study, OA and related joint pain were strongly associated with perceived memory loss; these associations may be partially mediated by sleep and mood disturbance.

  19. The genealogical population dynamics of HIV-1 in a large transmission chain: bridging within and among host evolutionary rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancken, Bram; Rambaut, Andrew; Suchard, Marc A; Drummond, Alexei; Baele, Guy; Derdelinckx, Inge; Van Wijngaerden, Eric; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Van Laethem, Kristel; Lemey, Philippe

    2014-04-01

    Transmission lies at the interface of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) evolution within and among hosts and separates distinct selective pressures that impose differences in both the mode of diversification and the tempo of evolution. In the absence of comprehensive direct comparative analyses of the evolutionary processes at different biological scales, our understanding of how fast within-host HIV-1 evolutionary rates translate to lower rates at the between host level remains incomplete. Here, we address this by analyzing pol and env data from a large HIV-1 subtype C transmission chain for which both the timing and the direction is known for most transmission events. To this purpose, we develop a new transmission model in a Bayesian genealogical inference framework and demonstrate how to constrain the viral evolutionary history to be compatible with the transmission history while simultaneously inferring the within-host evolutionary and population dynamics. We show that accommodating a transmission bottleneck affords the best fit our data, but the sparse within-host HIV-1 sampling prevents accurate quantification of the concomitant loss in genetic diversity. We draw inference under the transmission model to estimate HIV-1 evolutionary rates among epidemiologically-related patients and demonstrate that they lie in between fast intra-host rates and lower rates among epidemiologically unrelated individuals infected with HIV subtype C. Using a new molecular clock approach, we quantify and find support for a lower evolutionary rate along branches that accommodate a transmission event or branches that represent the entire backbone of transmitted lineages in our transmission history. Finally, we recover the rate differences at the different biological scales for both synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates, which is only compatible with the 'store and retrieve' hypothesis positing that viruses stored early in latently infected cells preferentially

  20. Q fever and pneumonia in an area with a high livestock density: a large population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidwien A M Smit

    Full Text Available Concerns about public health risks of intensive animal production in The Netherlands continue to rise, in particular related to outbreaks of infectious diseases. The aim was to investigate associations between the presence of farm animals around the home address and Q fever and pneumonia.Electronic medical record data for the year 2009 of all patients of 27 general practitioners (GPs in a region with a high density of animal farms were used. Density of farm animals around the home address was calculated using a Geographic Information System. During the study period, a large Q fever outbreak occurred in this region. Associations between farm exposure variables and pneumonia or 'other infectious disease', the diagnosis code used by GPs for registration of Q fever, were analyzed in 22,406 children (0-17 y and 70,142 adults (18-70 y, and adjusted for age and sex. In adults, clear exposure-response relationships between the number of goats within 5 km of the home address and pneumonia and 'other infectious disease' were observed. The association with 'other infectious disease' was particularly strong, with an OR [95%CI] of 12.03 [8.79-16.46] for the fourth quartile (>17,190 goats compared with the first quartile (<2,251 goats. The presence of poultry within 1 km was associated with an increased incidence of pneumonia among adults (OR [95%CI] 1.25 [1.06-1.47].A high density of goats in a densely populated region was associated with human Q fever. The use of GP records combined with individual exposure estimates using a Geographic Information System is a powerful approach to assess environmental health risks.

  1. Chemical tagging with APOGEE: discovery of a large population of N-rich stars in the inner Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Zamora, Olga; Carrera, Ricardo; Lucatello, Sara; Robin, A. C.; Ness, Melissa; Martell, Sarah L.; Smith, Verne V.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Manchado, Arturo; Schönrich, Ralph; Bastian, Nate; Chiappini, Cristina; Shetrone, Matthew; Mackereth, J. Ted; Williams, Rob A.; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Anders, Friedrich; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Beers, Timothy C.; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Cunha, Katia; Epstein, Courtney; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; García Pérez, Ana E.; Hearty, Fred R.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Kinemuchi, Karen; Majewski, Steven R.; Muna, Demitri; Nidever, David L.; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; O'Connell, Robert W.; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Pinsonneault, Marc; Schneider, Donald P.; Schultheis, Matthias; Simmons, Audrey; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Sobeck, Jennifer; Wilson, John C.; Zasowski, Gail

    2017-02-01

    Formation of globular clusters (GCs), the Galactic bulge, or galaxy bulges in general is an important unsolved problem in Galactic astronomy. Homogeneous infrared observations of large samples of stars belonging to GCs and the Galactic bulge field are one of the best ways to study these problems. We report the discovery by APOGEE (Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment) of a population of field stars in the inner Galaxy with abundances of N, C, and Al that are typically found in GC stars. The newly discovered stars have high [N/Fe], which is correlated with [Al/Fe] and anticorrelated with [C/Fe]. They are homogeneously distributed across, and kinematically indistinguishable from, other field stars within the same volume. Their metallicity distribution is seemingly unimodal, peaking at [Fe/H] ˜ -1, thus being in disagreement with that of the Galactic GC system. Our results can be understood in terms of different scenarios. N-rich stars could be former members of dissolved GCs, in which case the mass in destroyed GCs exceeds that of the surviving GC system by a factor of ˜8. In that scenario, the total mass contained in so-called `first-generation' stars cannot be larger than that in `second-generation' stars by more than a factor of ˜9 and was certainly smaller. Conversely, our results may imply the absence of a mandatory genetic link between `second-generation' stars and GCs. Last, but not least, N-rich stars could be the oldest stars in the Galaxy, the by-products of chemical enrichment by the first stellar generations formed in the heart of the Galaxy.

  2. The genealogical population dynamics of HIV-1 in a large transmission chain: bridging within and among host evolutionary rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Vrancken

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Transmission lies at the interface of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 evolution within and among hosts and separates distinct selective pressures that impose differences in both the mode of diversification and the tempo of evolution. In the absence of comprehensive direct comparative analyses of the evolutionary processes at different biological scales, our understanding of how fast within-host HIV-1 evolutionary rates translate to lower rates at the between host level remains incomplete. Here, we address this by analyzing pol and env data from a large HIV-1 subtype C transmission chain for which both the timing and the direction is known for most transmission events. To this purpose, we develop a new transmission model in a Bayesian genealogical inference framework and demonstrate how to constrain the viral evolutionary history to be compatible with the transmission history while simultaneously inferring the within-host evolutionary and population dynamics. We show that accommodating a transmission bottleneck affords the best fit our data, but the sparse within-host HIV-1 sampling prevents accurate quantification of the concomitant loss in genetic diversity. We draw inference under the transmission model to estimate HIV-1 evolutionary rates among epidemiologically-related patients and demonstrate that they lie in between fast intra-host rates and lower rates among epidemiologically unrelated individuals infected with HIV subtype C. Using a new molecular clock approach, we quantify and find support for a lower evolutionary rate along branches that accommodate a transmission event or branches that represent the entire backbone of transmitted lineages in our transmission history. Finally, we recover the rate differences at the different biological scales for both synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates, which is only compatible with the 'store and retrieve' hypothesis positing that viruses stored early in latently infected

  3. RNAseq versus genome-predicted transcriptomes: a large population of novel transcripts identified in an Illumina-454 Hydra transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Yvan; Galliot, Brigitte

    2013-03-25

    Evolutionary studies benefit from deep sequencing technologies that generate genomic and transcriptomic sequences from a variety of organisms. Genome sequencing and RNAseq have complementary strengths. In this study, we present the assembly of the most complete Hydra transcriptome to date along with a comparative analysis of the specific features of RNAseq and genome-predicted transcriptomes currently available in the freshwater hydrozoan Hydra vulgaris. To produce an accurate and extensive Hydra transcriptome, we combined Illumina and 454 Titanium reads, giving the primacy to Illumina over 454 reads to correct homopolymer errors. This strategy yielded an RNAseq transcriptome that contains 48'909 unique sequences including splice variants, representing approximately 24'450 distinct genes. Comparative analysis to the available genome-predicted transcriptomes identified 10'597 novel Hydra transcripts that encode 529 evolutionarily-conserved proteins. The annotation of 170 human orthologs points to critical functions in protein biosynthesis, FGF and TOR signaling, vesicle transport, immunity, cell cycle regulation, cell death, mitochondrial metabolism, transcription and chromatin regulation. However, a majority of these novel transcripts encodes short ORFs, at least 767 of them corresponding to pseudogenes. This RNAseq transcriptome also lacks 11'270 predicted transcripts that correspond either to silent genes or to genes expressed below the detection level of this study. We established a simple and powerful strategy to combine Illumina and 454 reads and we produced, with genome assistance, an extensive and accurate Hydra transcriptome. The comparative analysis of the RNAseq transcriptome with genome-predicted transcriptomes lead to the identification of large populations of novel as well as missing transcripts that might reflect Hydra-specific evolutionary events.

  4. Geomagnetic storms can trigger stroke: evidence from 6 large population-based studies in Europe and Australasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigin, Valery L; Parmar, Priya G; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Bennett, Derrick A; Anderson, Craig S; Thrift, Amanda G; Stegmayr, Birgitta; Rothwell, Peter M; Giroud, Maurice; Bejot, Yannick; Carvil, Phillip; Krishnamurthi, Rita; Kasabov, Nikola

    2014-06-01

    Although the research linking cardiovascular disorders to geomagnetic activity is accumulating, robust evidence for the impact of geomagnetic activity on stroke occurrence is limited and controversial. We used a time-stratified case-crossover study design to analyze individual participant and daily geomagnetic activity (as measured by Ap Index) data from several large population-based stroke incidence studies (with information on 11 453 patients with stroke collected during 16 031 764 person-years of observation) in New Zealand, Australia, United Kingdom, France, and Sweden conducted between 1981 and 2004. Hazard ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Overall, geomagnetic storms (Ap Index 60+) were associated with 19% increase in the risk of stroke occurrence (95% CI, 11%-27%). The triggering effect of geomagnetic storms was most evident across the combined group of all strokes in those aged 50%: moderate geomagnetic storms (60-99 Ap Index) were associated with a 27% (95% CI, 8%-48%) increased risk of stroke occurrence, strong geomagnetic storms (100-149 Ap Index) with a 52% (95% CI, 19%-92%) increased risk, and severe/extreme geomagnetic storms (Ap Index 150+) with a 52% (95% CI, 19%-94%) increased risk (test for trend, Pstorms are associated with increased risk of stroke and should be considered along with other established risk factors. Our findings provide a framework to advance stroke prevention through future investigation of the contribution of geomagnetic factors to the risk of stroke occurrence and pathogenesis. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Successive sheep grazing reduces population density of Brandt's voles in steppe grassland by altering food resources: a large manipulative experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoliang; Yin, Baofa; Wan, Xinrong; Wei, Wanhong; Wang, Guiming; Krebs, Charles J; Zhang, Zhibin

    2016-01-01

    Livestock grazing has shaped grassland ecosystems around the world. Previous studies indicated grazing showed various impacts on small rodents; however, most studies were conducted over 1-2 years without controlling for confounding factors such as immigration/emigration and predation in rodents. Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii) are generally recognized as pests because of food overlap with domestic herbivores, but are also important for biodiversity conservation because they provide nests or food to many birds. Fully understanding the ecological relationship between domestic herbivores and small mammals is essential to making ecosystem management decisions. To address these needs, we carried out a field experiment during the period 2010-2013 to assess the effects of sheep grazing on vegetation and the population density of Brandt's voles along a gradient of three grazing intensities by using 12 large-scale enclosures. Responses of Brandt's voles to livestock grazing varied with grazing intensity and year. As compared to the control group, sheep grazing had no effect on vole abundance in the first year but an overall negative effect on vole abundance in the following 3 years. Successive grazing caused decreases in survival and male body mass of voles, but had no significant effect on fecundity. Negative effects of grazing were associated with a grazing-induced deterioration in both food quantity (reflected by biomass and cover of less-preferred plants), and food quality (measured by tannin and total phenol content). Our findings highlight the urgent need for more flexible management of yearly rotational grazing to optimize livestock production while maintaining species diversity and ecosystem health.

  6. The French Connection: The First Large Population-Based Contact Survey in France Relevant for the Spread of Infectious Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Béraud

    Full Text Available Empirical social contact patterns are essential to understand the spread of infectious diseases. To date, no such data existed for France. Although infectious diseases are frequently seasonal, the temporal variation of contact patterns has not been documented hitherto.COMES-F is the first French large-scale population survey, carried out over 3 different periods (February-March, April, April-May with some participants common to the first and the last period. Participants described their contacts for 2 consecutive days, and reported separately on professional contacts when typically over 20 per day.2033 participants reported 38 881 contacts (weighted median [first quartile-third quartile]: 8[5-14] per day, and 54 378 contacts with supplementary professional contacts (9[5-17]. Contrary to age, gender, household size, holidays, weekend and occupation, period of the year had little influence on the number of contacts or the mixing patterns. Contact patterns were highly assortative with age, irrespective of the location of the contact, and gender, with women having 8% more contacts than men. Although most contacts occurred at home and at school, the inclusion of professional contacts modified the structure of the mixing patterns. Holidays and weekends reduced dramatically the number of contacts, and as proxies for school closure, reduced R0 by 33% and 28%, respectively. Thus, school closures could have an important impact on the spread of close contact infections in France.Despite no clear evidence for temporal variation, trends suggest that more studies are needed. Age and gender were found important determinants of the mixing patterns. Gender differences in mixing patterns might help explain gender differences in the epidemiology of infectious diseases.

  7. Malignancy rates in a large cohort of patients with systemically treated psoriasis in a managed care population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Maryam M; Ray, G Thomas; Geier, Jamie L; Quesenberry, Charles P

    2017-04-01

    Moderate to severe psoriasis often requires treatment with systemic agents, many of which have immunosuppressive properties and could increase cancer risk, including nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). We sought to estimate the overall malignancy rate (excluding NMSC) and NMSC rate among 5889 patients with systemically treated psoriasis. We identified a cohort of adult Kaiser Permanente Northern California health plan members with psoriasis diagnosed from 1998 to 2011 and treated with at least 1 systemic antipsoriatic agent and categorized them into ever-biologic or nonbiologic users. Malignancy rates were calculated per 1000 person-years of follow-up with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Crude and confounder-adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) were calculated using Cox regression. Most biologic-exposed members were treated with TNF-alfa inhibitors (n = 2214, 97%). Overall incident cancer rates were comparable between ever-biologic as compared to nonbiologic users (aHR 0.86, 95% CI 0.66-1.13). NMSC rates were 42% higher among individuals ever exposed to a biologic (aHR 1.42, 95% CI 1.12-1.80), largely driven by increased cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma risk (aHR 1.81, 95% CI 1.23-2.67). No information was available on disease severity. We found increased incidence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma among patients with systemically treated psoriasis who were ever exposed to biologics, the majority of which were TNF-alfa inhibitors. Increased skin cancer surveillance in this population may be warranted. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Bayesian threshold analysis of direct and maternal genetic parameters for piglet mortality at farrowing in Large White, Landrace, and Pietrain populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Escriche, N; Varona, L; Casellas, J; Quintanilla, R; Noguera, J L

    2009-01-01

    A Bayesian threshold model was fitted to analyze the genetic parameters for farrowing mortality at the piglet level in Large White, Landrace, and Pietrain populations. Field data were collected between 1999 and 2006. They were provided by 3 pig selection nucleus farms of a commercial breeding company registered in the Spanish Pig Data Bank (BDporc). Analyses were performed on 3 data sets of Large White (60,535 piglets born from 4,551 litters), Landrace (57,987 piglets from 5,008 litters), and Pietrain (42,707 piglets from 4,328 litters) populations. In the analysis, farrowing mortality was considered as a binary trait at the piglet level and scored as 1 (alive piglet) or 0 (dead piglet) at farrowing or within the first 12 h of life. Each breed was analyzed separately, and operational models included systematic effects (year-season, sex, litter size, and order of parity), direct and maternal additive genetic effects, and common litter effects. Analyses were performed by Bayesian methods using Gibbs sampling. The posterior means of direct heritability were 0.02, 0.06, and 0.10, and the posterior means of maternal heritability were 0.05, 0.13, and 0.06 for Large White, Landrace, and Pietrain populations, respectively. The posterior means of genetic correlation between the direct and maternal genetic effects for Landrace and Pietrain populations were -0.56 and -0.53, and the highest posterior intervals at 95% did not include zero. In contrast, the posterior mean of the genetic correlation between direct and maternal effects was 0.15 in the Large White population, with the null correlation included in the highest posterior interval at 95%. These results suggest that the genetic model of evaluation for the Landrace and Pietrain populations should include direct and maternal genetic effects, whereas farrowing mortality could be considered as a sow trait in the Large White population.

  9. Investigating the association between tinnitus severity and symptoms of depression and anxiety, while controlling for neuroticism, in a large middle-aged UK population

    OpenAIRE

    McCormack, Abby; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; Fortnum, Heather; Dawes, Piers D; Middleton, Hugh; Kevin J. Munro; Moore, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Clinical studies indicate increased risk for depression and anxiety among tinnitus patients. However population data are scarce, and no studies have controlled for neuroticism. We examined associations between tinnitus and symptoms of depression and anxiety in a large UK population, controlling for neuroticism, to explore whether neuroticism, as previously reported, fully explains the association between symptoms of depression and anxiety, and tinnitus. Design: We used the...

  10. Blue Horizons IV: Deterrence in the Age of Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    T43, and AC -130H. Op- erationally, he served as a planner for Operation Eldorado Canyon, flew combat missions over Bosnia-Herzegovina, and commanded...n.d., ac - cessed 17 November 2011, http://www.isc.org/solutions/survey/history.) The rapidly changing nature of technology suggests that the world and...World Population Clocks,” accessed 12 May 2012, http://www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html. 18. Matt Ridley, “Humans: Why They Triumphed ,” Wall

  11. Ethnic differences in antenatal care use in a large multi-ethnic urban population in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chote, Anushka A.; de Groot, Christianne J. M.; Bruijnzeels, Marc A.; Redekop, Ken; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Foets, Marleen

    Objective: to determine differences in antenatal care use between the native population and different ethnic minority groups in the Netherlands. Design: the Generation R Study is a multi-ethnic population-based prospective cohort study. Setting: seven midwife practices participating in the

  12. Large effective population size and temporal genetic stability in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Swain, Douglas P.

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, many commercial fish stocks have experienced dramatic declines due to overfishing. Such fisheries-induced population reductions could potentially erode the genetic diversity of marine fish populations. Based on analyses of DNA extracted from archived and contemporary samples, this paper...

  13. Large effective population size and temporal genetic stability in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Swain, Douglas P.

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, many commercial fish stocks have experienced dramatic declines due to overfishing. Such fisheries-induced population reductions could potentially erode the genetic diversity of marine fish populations. Based on analyses of DNA extracted from archived and contemporary samples, this paper...

  14. Carbon Dioxide: Surprising Effects on Decision Making and Neurocognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2013-01-01

    The occupants of modern submarines and the International Space Station (ISS) have much in common as far as their air quality is concerned. Air is polluted by materials offgassing, use of utility compounds, leaks of systems chemicals, and anthropogenic sources. The primary anthropogenic compound of concern to submariners and astronauts has been carbon dioxide (CO2). NASA and the US Navy rely on the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRC-COT) to help formulate exposure levels to CO2 that are thought to be safe for exposures of 3-6 months. NASA calls its limits Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs). Years of experience aboard the ISS and a recent publication on deficits in decision making in ground-based subjects exposed briefly to 0.25% CO2 suggest that exposure levels that have been presumed acceptable to preserve health and performance need to be reevaluated. The current CO2 exposure limits for 3-6 months set by NASA and the UK Navy are 0.7%, and the limit for US submariners is 0.5%, although the NRC-COT recommended a 90-day level of 0.8% as safe a few years ago. NASA has set a 1000-day SMAC at 0.5% for exploration-class missions. Anecdotal experience with ISS operations approaching the current 180-day SMAC of 0.7% suggest that this limit is too high. Temporarily, NASA has limited exposures to 0.5% until further peer-reviewed data become available. In the meantime, a study published last year in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives (Satish U, et al. 2012) demonstrated that complexdecision- making performance is somewhat affected at 0.1% CO2 and becomes "dysfunctional" for at least half of the 9 indices of performance at concentrations approaching 0.25% CO2. The investigators used the Strategic Management Simulation (SMS) method of testing for decisionmaking ability, and the results were so surprising to the investigators that they declared that their findings need to be independently confirmed. NASA has responded to the

  15. Segmentation, diarization and speech transcription : surprise data unraveled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, Marijn Anthonius Henricus

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, research on large vocabulary continuous speech recognition for unknown audio conditions is presented. For automatic speech recognition systems based on statistical methods, it is important that the conditions of the audio used for training the statistical models match the conditions

  16. Segmentation, Diarization and Speech Transcription: Surprise Data Unraveled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, M.A.H.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, research on large vocabulary continuous speech recognition for unknown audio conditions is presented. For automatic speech recognition systems based on statistical methods, it is important that the conditions of the audio used for training the statistical models match the conditions

  17. A large-scale study of the Trichinella genus in the golden jackal (Canis aureus) population in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćirović, Duško; Teodorović, Vlado; Vasilev, Dragan; Marković, Marija; Ćosić, Nada; Dimitrijević, Mirjana; Klun, Ivana; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2015-09-15

    Over the last decades the golden jackal (Canis aureus) has significantly expanded its range throughout Southeast and Central Europe, and the Balkan Peninsula is considered to be a core area of the species distribution in this part of the range. Due to its increasing number, ability of long distance movement through a wide range of landscapes and opportunistic feeding habits, the golden jackal may represent an important reservoir and transmitter of a variety of zoonotic agents, including parasites. The Balkans, Serbia included, remain an endemic area for various zoonotic parasites including Trichinella spp. Trichinella has recently been recorded in jackals in Serbia, which prompted us to carry out a large-scale survey of its prevalence, distribution and species identification in this host. In cooperation with local hunters, carcasses of a total of 738 legally hunted golden jackals were collected at 24 localities over an 11-year period (2003-2013). Analysis of tongue base tissue revealed Trichinella larvae in 122, indicating a prevalence of infection of 16.5%. No difference in the prevalence of infection was found between genders [16.2% in males and 16.9% in females (χ(2)=0.05, p=0.821)], or among the study years (G=7.22, p=0.705). Trichinella larvae were found in 13 out of the 24 examined localities. Molecular identification was performed for 90 isolates, and 64 (71.1%) larvae were identified as Trichinella spiralis and 25 (27.9%) as Trichinella britovi. Mixed infection (T. spiralis and T. britovi) was recorded in a single case. Although T. spiralis was more prevalent, T. britovi had a wider distribution, and was the only recorded species in jackal populations from the mountainous region of eastern Serbia. On the other hand, T. spiralis was dominant in jackals in the lowlands of central and northern Serbia, where domestic pigs are mostly reared. These results show that the golden jackal is involved in both the domestic and sylvatic cycle, and that it has emerged as

  18. [Large-scale population-based genetic screening and prenatal diagnosis for thalassemias in Zhuhai City of Guangdong Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu-qiu; Shang, Xuan; Yin, Bao-min; Xiong, Fu; Xiao, Qi-zhi; Zhou, Wan-jun; Zhang, Yong-liang; Xu, Xiang-min

    2012-02-01

    were voluntarily terminated. In Zhuhai City, the average annual birth rate of fetuses with severe thalassemia was declined by 32.9% (49/149). This study has reduced effectively birth rate of perinatal infants with severe thalassemias in Zhuhai City by genetic screening and prenatal diagnosis of thalassemia in the large population of 13 years. Our summary comes out of technical proposals for prenatal screening and diagnosis, which could be take example by preventative control of thalassemia in other regions of China where are prevalent.

  19. Travel-related venous thrombosis: results from a large population-based case control study (MEGA study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne C Cannegieter

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have indicated an increased risk of venous thrombosis after air travel. Nevertheless, questions on the magnitude of risk, the underlying mechanism, and modifying factors remain unanswered. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied the effect of various modes and duration of travel on the risk of venous thrombosis in a large ongoing case-control study on risk factors for venous thrombosis in an unselected population (MEGA study. We also assessed the combined effect of travel and prothrombotic mutations, body mass index, height, and oral contraceptive use. Since March 1999, consecutive patients younger than 70 y with a first venous thrombosis have been invited to participate in the study, with their partners serving as matched control individuals. Information has been collected on acquired and genetic risk factors for venous thrombosis. Of 1,906 patients, 233 had traveled for more than 4 h in the 8 wk preceding the event. Traveling in general was found to increase the risk of venous thrombosis 2-fold (odds ratio [OR] 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-3.0. The risk of flying was similar to the risks of traveling by car, bus, or train. The risk was highest in the first week after traveling. Travel by car, bus, or train led to a high relative risk of thrombosis in individuals with factor V Leiden (OR 8.1; 95% CI 2.7-24.7, in those who had a body mass index of more than 30 kg/m(2 (OR 9.9; 95% CI 3.6-27.6, in those who were more than 1.90 m tall (OR 4.7; 95% CI 1.4-15.4, and in those who used oral contraceptives (estimated OR > 20. For air travel these synergistic findings were more apparent, while people shorter than 1.60 m had an increased risk of thrombosis after air travel (OR 4.9; 95% CI 0.9-25.6 as well. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of venous thrombosis after travel is moderately increased for all modes of travel. Subgroups exist in which the risk is highly increased.

  20. The influence of hydrology and waterway distance on population structure of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in a large river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, J B; Beacham, T D; Wetklo, M; Seeb, L W; Smith, C T; Flannery, B G; Wenburg, J K

    2010-04-01

    Adult Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha navigate in river systems using olfactory cues that may be influenced by hydrologic factors such as flow and the number, size and spatial distribution of tributaries. Thus, river hydrology may influence both homing success and the level of straying (gene flow), which in turn influences population structure. In this study, two methods of multivariate analysis were used to examine the extent to which four indicators of hydrology and waterway distance explained population structure of O. tshawytscha in the Yukon River. A partial Mantel test showed that the indicators of hydrology were positively associated with broad-scale (Yukon basin) population structure, when controlling for the influence of waterway distance. Multivariate multiple regression showed that waterway distance, supplemented with the number and flow of major drainage basins, explained more variation in broad-scale population structure than any single indicator. At an intermediate spatial scale, indicators of hydrology did not appear to influence population structure after accounting for waterway distance. These results suggest that habitat changes in the Yukon River, which alter hydrology, may influence the basin-wide pattern of population structure in O. tshawytscha. Further research is warranted on the role of hydrology in concert with waterway distance in influencing population structure in Pacific salmon.

  1. Levels of prolactin in relation to coagulation factors and risk of venous thrombosis. Results of a large population-based case-control study (MEGA-study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuijver, D.J.; Debeij, J.; Zaane, B. van; Dekkers, O.M.; Smit, J.W.A.; Buller, H.R.; Rosendaal, F.R.; Gerdes, V.E.; Cannegieter, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The pituitary hormone prolactin is thought to influence coagulation. We aimed to study the relation between prolactin levels, coagulation factors and risk of venous thrombosis (VT). We used data from a large population based case-control study into aetiology of first VT (MEGA-study). Prolactin level

  2. On the ecology of the fauna of stones in the current in a South African river supporting a very large simulium (Diptera) population

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chutter, FM

    1968-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a large population of Simulium chutteri lewis in the Vaal river at and below the village of Warrenton in the north-east of the Cape Province, South Africa. The female of this species attacks man, cattle and horses and had become a pest when...

  3. Using large-scale data analysis to assess life history and behavioural traits: the case of the reintroduced White stork Ciconia ciconia population in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doligez, B.; Thomson, D.L.; Van Noordwijk, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    The White stork Ciconia ciconia has been the object of several successful reintroduction programmes in the last decades. As a consequence, populations have been monitored over large spatial scales. Despite these intense efforts, very few reliable estimates of life history traits are available for th

  4. Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and fibrosis in a large population cohort in the north of the Netherlands: A lifelines cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Berg, E.H.; Amini, M.; Schreuder, T.C.M.A.; Dullaart, R.P.F.; Faber, K.N.; Alizadeh, B.Z.; Blokzijl, H.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasing health issue, being part of the worldwide epidemic of obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of NAFLD and fibrosis and analyze biochemical characteristics in a large population-based cohort stud

  5. A large-scale population-based study of the association of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms with bone mineral density.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.L.A. van Dalen; C.M. van Duijn (Cock); J.C. Birkenhäger (Jan); J.P.T.M. van Leeuwen (Hans); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractConflicting results have been reported on the association between restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) at the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene locus (i.e., for BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI) and bone mineral density (BMD). We analyzed this association in a large population-based sample

  6. The surprising diversity of clostridial hydrogenases: a comparative genomic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Calusinska, Magdalena; Happe, Thomas; Joris, Bernard; Wilmotte, Annick

    2010-01-01

    Among the large variety of micro-organisms capable of fermentative hydrogen production, strict anaerobes such as members of the genus Clostridium are the most widely studied. They can produce hydrogen by a reversible reduction of protons accumulated during fermentation to dihydrogen, a reaction which is catalysed by hydrogenases. Sequenced genomes provide completely new insights into the diversity of clostridial hydrogenases. Building on previous reports, we found that [FeFe] hydrogenases are...

  7. Syncope with Surprise: An Unexpected Finding of Huge Gastric Diverticulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Podda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A gastric diverticulum is a pouch protruding from the gastric wall. The vague long clinical history ranging between dyspepsia, postprandial fullness, and upper gastrointestinal bleeding makes this condition a diagnostic challenge. We present a case of large gastric diverticulum that has been diagnosed during clinical investigations for suspected cardiovascular issues in a patient admitted at the medical ward for syncope. A 51-year-old man presented to the medical department due to a syncopal episode occurring while he was resting on the beach after having his lunch, with concomitant vague epimesogastric gravative pain without any other symptom. A diagnosis of neuromediated syncopal episode was made by the cardiologist. Due to the referred epimesogastric pain, an abdominal ultrasound scan was carried out, showing perisplenic fluid. A CT scan of the abdomen was performed to exclude splenic lesions. The CT scan revealed a large diverticulum protruding from the gastric fundus. The upper gastrointestinal endoscopy visualized a large diverticular neck situated in the posterior wall of the gastric fundus, partially filled by undigested food. The patient underwent surgery, with an uneventful postoperative course. Histologic examination showed a full-thickness stomach specimen, indicative of a congenital diverticulum. At the 2nd month of follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic.

  8. Post-hoc principal component analysis on a largely illiterate elderly population from North-west India to identify important elements of mini-mental state examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Raina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mini-mental state examination (MMSE scale measures cognition using specific elements that can be isolated, defined, and subsequently measured. This study was conducted with the aim to analyze the factorial structure of MMSE in a largely, illiterate, elderly population in India and to reduce the number of variables to a few meaningful and interpretable combinations. Methodology: Principal component analysis (PCA was performed post-hoc on the data generated by a research project conducted to estimate the prevalence of dementia in four geographically defined habitations in Himachal Pradesh state of India. Results: Questions on orientation and registration account for high percentage of cumulative variance in comparison to other questions. Discussion: The PCA conducted on the data derived from a largely, illiterate population reveals that the most important components to consider for the estimation of cognitive impairment in illiterate Indian population are temporal orientation, spatial orientation, and immediate memory.

  9. Migration, distribution and population (stock) structure of shallow-water hake (Merluccius capensis) in the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem inferred using a geostatistical population model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Kristensen, Kasper; Kainge, Paulus Inekela

    2016-01-01

    /nursery areas, through the juvenile phase and the adults' migration to the spawning areas outside/upstream of the nursery areas. This revealed some previously unknown migration patterns and indicated natal homing and the existence of three primary population components in the region, namely the Walvis (central...... (stock) structure. We combined data from multiple demersal trawl surveys from the entire distribution area to estimate growth rate, mortality and spatial and temporal patterns of M. capensis. Analyses were conducted using the geostatistical model GeoPop. The complexity of the model and the amount of data...

  10. Explaining spatial heterogeneity in population dynamics and genetics from spatial variation in resources for a large herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contasti, Adrienne L; Tissier, Emily J; Johnstone, Jill F; McLoughlin, Philip D

    2012-01-01

    Fine-scale spatial variation in genetic relatedness and inbreeding occur across continuous distributions of several populations of vertebrates; however, the basis of observed variation is often left untested. Here we test the hypothesis that prior observations of spatial patterns in genetics for an island population of feral horses (Sable Island, Canada) were the result of spatial variation in population dynamics, itself based in spatial heterogeneity in underlying habitat quality. In order to assess how genetic and population structuring related to habitat, we used hierarchical cluster analysis of water sources and an indicator analysis of the availability of important forage species to identify a longitudinal gradient in habitat quality along the length of Sable Island. We quantify a west-east gradient in access to fresh water and availability of two important food species to horses: sandwort, Honckenya peploides, and beach pea, Lathyrus japonicas. Accordingly, the population clusters into three groups that occupy different island segments (west, central, and east) that vary markedly in their local dynamics. Density, body condition, and survival and reproduction of adult females were highest in the west, followed by central and east areas. These results mirror a previous analysis of genetics, which showed that inbreeding levels are highest in the west (with outbreeding in the east), and that there are significant differences in fixation indices among groups of horses along the length of Sable Island. Our results suggest that inbreeding depression is not an important limiting factor to the horse population. We conclude that where habitat gradients exist, we can anticipate fine-scale heterogeneity in population dynamics and hence genetics.

  11. New surprises in the largest magnetosphere of our solar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupp, Norbert

    2007-10-12

    En route to its ultimate rendezvous with Pluto, the New Horizons spacecraft passed through the magnetic and plasma environment of Jupiter in February 2007. Onboard instruments collected high-resolution images, spectroscopic data, and information about charged particles. The results have revealed unusual structure and variation in Jupiter's plasma and large plasmoids that travel down the magnetotail. Data on Jupiter's aurora provide details of the interaction with the solar wind, and a major volcanic eruption from the moon Io was observed during the encounter.

  12. Trait Anxiety Is Associated with Negative Interpretations When Resolving Valence Ambiguity of Surprised Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gewnhi; Vasey, Michael W; Kim, Grace; Hu, Dixie D; Thayer, Julian F

    2016-01-01

    The current research examines whether trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretation bias when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces. To further isolate the neuro-cognitive mechanism, we presented angry, happy, and surprised faces at broad spatial frequency (BSF), high spatial frequency (HSF), and low spatial frequency (LSF) and asked participants to determine the valence of each face. High trait anxiety was associated with more negative interpretations of BSF (i.e., intact) surprised faces. However, the modulation of trait anxiety on the negative interpretation of surprised faces disappeared at HSF and LSF. The current study provides evidence that trait anxiety modulates negative interpretations of BSF surprised faces. However, the negative interpretation of LSF surprised faces appears to be a robust default response that occurs regardless of individual differences in trait anxiety.

  13. Trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretations when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gewnhi Park

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The current research examines whether trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretation bias when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces. To further isolate the neuro-cognitive mechanism, we presented angry, happy, and surprised faces at broad, high, and low spatial frequency and asked participants to determine the valence of each face. High trait anxiety was associated with more negative interpretations of broad spatial frequency (i.e., intact surprised faces. However, the modulation of trait anxiety on the negative interpretation of surprised faces disappeared at high and low spatial frequencies. The current study provides evidence that trait anxiety modulates negative interpretations of broad spatial frequency surprised faces. However, the negative interpretation of low spatial frequency surprised faces appears to be a robust default response that occurs regardless of individual differences in trait anxiety.

  14. Effects of Surprisal and Locality on Danish Sentence Processing: An Eye-Tracking Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Kizach, Johannes

    2017-03-22

    An eye-tracking experiment in Danish investigates two dominant accounts of sentence processing: locality-based theories that predict a processing advantage for sentences where the distance between the major syntactic heads is minimized, and the surprisal theory which predicts that processing time increases with big changes in the relative entropy of possible parses, sometimes leading to anti-locality effects. We consider both lexicalised surprisal, expressed in conditional trigram probabilities, and syntactic surprisal expressed in the manipulation of the expectedness of the second NP in Danish constructions with two postverbal NP-objects. An eye-tracking experiment showed a clear advantage for local syntactic relations, with only a marginal effect of lexicalised surprisal and no effect of syntactic surprisal. We conclude that surprisal has a relatively marginal effect, which may be clearest for verbs in verb-final languages, while locality is a robust predictor of sentence processing.

  15. Marine Protected Areas, Multiple-Agency Management, and Monumental Surprise in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. Kittinger

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Large, regional-scale marine protected areas (MPAs and MPA networks face different challenges in governance systems than locally managed or community-based MPAs. An emerging theme in large-scale MPA management is the prevalence of governance structures that rely on institutional collaboration, presenting new challenges as agencies with differing mandates and cultures work together to implement ecosystem-based management. We analyzed qualitative interview data to investigate multi-level social interactions and institutional responses to the surprise establishment of the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (monument in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI. The governance arrangement for the monument represents a new model in US MPA management, requiring two federal agencies and the State of Hawai‘i to collaboratively manage the NWHI. We elucidate the principal barriers to institutional cotrusteeship, characterize institutional transformations that have occurred among the partner agencies in the transition to collaborative management, and evaluate the governance arrangement for the monument as a model for MPAs. The lessons learned from the NWHI governance arrangement are critical as large-scale MPAs requiring multiple-agency management become a prevalent feature on the global seascape.

  16. Quantification of population sizes of large herbivores and their long-term functional role in ecosystems using dung fungal spores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, Ambroise G.; Cornelissen, Perry; Bhagwat, Shonil A.; Vera, Fransciscus W M; Willis, Katherine J.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between large herbivore numbers and landscape cover over time is poorly understood. There are two schools of thought: one views large herbivores as relatively passive elements upon the landscape and the other as ecosystem engineers driving vegetation succession. The latter relations

  17. Interactions between demography, genetics, and landscape connectivity increase extinction probability for a small population of large carnivores in a major metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, John F; Mahoney, Peter J; Sikich, Jeff A; Serieys, Laurel E K; Pollinger, John P; Ernest, Holly B; Riley, Seth P D

    2016-08-31

    The extinction vortex is a theoretical model describing the process by which extinction risk is elevated in small, isolated populations owing to interactions between environmental, demographic, and genetic factors. However, empirical demonstrations of these interactions have been elusive. We modelled the dynamics of a small mountain lion population isolated by anthropogenic barriers in greater Los Angeles, California, to evaluate the influence of demographic, genetic, and landscape factors on extinction probability. The population exhibited strong survival and reproduction, and the model predicted stable median population growth and a 15% probability of extinction over 50 years in the absence of inbreeding depression. However, our model also predicted the population will lose 40-57% of its heterozygosity in 50 years. When we reduced demographic parameters proportional to reductions documented in another wild population of mountain lions that experienced inbreeding depression, extinction probability rose to 99.7%. Simulating greater landscape connectivity by increasing immigration to greater than or equal to one migrant per generation appears sufficient to largely maintain genetic diversity and reduce extinction probability. We provide empirical support for the central tenet of the extinction vortex as interactions between genetics and demography greatly increased extinction probability relative to the risk from demographic and environmental stochasticity alone. Our modelling approach realistically integrates demographic and genetic data to provide a comprehensive assessment of factors threatening small populations. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Trait Anxiety Is Associated with Negative Interpretations When Resolving Valence Ambiguity of Surprised Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Gewnhi Park; Vasey, Michael W.; Grace Kim; Dixie D Hu; Thayer, Julian F

    2016-01-01

    The current research examines whether trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretation bias when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces. To further isolate the neuro-cognitive mechanism, we presented angry, happy, and surprised faces at broad, high, and low spatial frequency and asked participants to determine the valence of each face. High trait anxiety was associated with more negative interpretations of broad spatial frequency (i.e., intact) surprised faces. However, the mo...

  19. A Neural Mechanism for Surprise-related Interruptions of Visuospatial Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Jan R

    2016-11-30

    Surprising perceptual events recruit a fronto-basal ganglia mechanism for inhibition, which suppresses motor activity following surprise. A recent study found that this inhibitory mechanism also disrupts the maintenance of verbal working memory (WM) after surprising tones. However, it is unclear whether this same mechanism also relates to surprise-related interruptions of non-verbal WM. We tested this hypothesis using a change-detection task, in which surprising tones impaired visuospatial WM. Participants also performed a stop-signal task (SST). We used independent component analysis and single-trial scalp-electroencephalogram to test whether the same inhibitory mechanism that reflects motor inhibition in the SST relates to surprise-related visuospatial WM decrements, as was the case for verbal WM. As expected, surprising tones elicited activity of the inhibitory mechanism, and this activity correlated strongly with the trial-by-trial level of surprise. However, unlike for verbal WM, the activity of this mechanism was unrelated to visuospatial WM accuracy. Instead, inhibition-independent activity that immediately succeeded the inhibitory mechanism was increased when visuospatial WM was disrupted. This shows that surprise-related interruptions of visuospatial WM are not effected by the same inhibitory mechanism that interrupts verbal WM, and instead provides evidence for a 2-stage model of distraction.

  20. Reconstructing eight decades of genetic variation in an isolated Danish population of the large blue butterfly Maculinea arion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugelvig, Line V; Nielsen, Per S; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Fragmentation of terrestrial ecosystems has had detrimental effects on metapopulations of habitat specialists. Maculinea butterflies have been particularly affected because of their specialized lifecycles, requiring both specific food-plants and host-ants. However, the interaction...... between dispersal, effective population size, and long-term genetic erosion of these endangered butterflies remains unknown. Using non-destructive sampling, we investigated the genetic diversity of the last extant population of M. arion in Denmark, which experienced critically low numbers in the 1980s...

  1. Effects of Large-Scale Releases on the Genetic Structure of Red Sea Bream (Pagrus major, Temminck et Schlegel Populations in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Blanco Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Large-scale hatchery releases are carried out for many marine fish species worldwide; nevertheless, the long-term effects of this practice on the genetic structure of natural populations remains unclear. The lack of knowledge is especially evident when independent stock enhancement programs are conducted simultaneously on the same species at different geographical locations, as occurs with red sea bream (Pagrus major, Temminck et Schlegel in Japan. In this study, we examined the putative effects of intensive offspring releases on the genetic structure of red sea bream populations along the Japanese archipelago by genotyping 848 fish at fifteen microsatellite loci. Our results suggests weak but consistent patterns of genetic divergence (F(ST = 0.002, p < 0.001. Red sea bream in Japan appeared spatially structured with several patches of distinct allelic composition, which corresponded to areas receiving an important influx of fish of hatchery origin, either released intentionally or from unintentional escapees from aquaculture operations. In addition to impacts upon local populations inhabiting semi-enclosed embayments, large-scale releases (either intentionally or from unintentional escapes appeared also to have perturbed genetic structure in open areas. Hence, results of the present study suggest that independent large-scale marine stock enhancement programs conducted simultaneously on one species at different geographical locations may compromise native genetic structure and lead to patchy patterns in population genetic structure.

  2. Population signatures of large-scale, long-term disjunction and small-scale, short-term habitat fragmentation in an Afromontane forest bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, J C; Mulwa, R K; Gassert, F; Rödder, D; Ulrich, W; Borghesio, L; Husemann, M; Lens, L

    2014-09-01

    The Eastern Afromontane cloud forests occur as geographically distinct mountain exclaves. The conditions of these forests range from large to small and from fairly intact to strongly degraded. For this study, we sampled individuals of the forest bird species, the Montane White-eye Zosterops poliogaster from 16 sites and four mountain archipelagos. We analysed 12 polymorphic microsatellites and three phenotypic traits, and calculated Species Distribution Models (SDMs) to project past distributions and predict potential future range shifts under a scenario of climate warming. We found well-supported genetic and morphologic clusters corresponding to the mountain ranges where populations were sampled, with 43% of all alleles being restricted to single mountains. Our data suggest that large-scale and long-term geographic isolation on mountain islands caused genetically and morphologically distinct population clusters in Z. poliogaster. However, major genetic and biometric splits were not correlated to the geographic distances among populations. This heterogeneous pattern can be explained by past climatic shifts, as highlighted by our SDM projections. Anthropogenically fragmented populations showed lower genetic diversity and a lower mean body mass, possibly in response to suboptimal habitat conditions. On the basis of these findings and the results from our SDM analysis we predict further loss of genotypic and phenotypic uniqueness in the wake of climate change, due to the contraction of the species' climatic niche and subsequent decline in population size.

  3. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T genotype and the risk of obesity in three large population-based cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sarah J; Lawlor, Debbie A; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Ebrahim, Shah; Zacho, Jeppe; Ness, Andy; Leary, Sam; Smith, George Davey

    2008-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that low folate levels are associated with a high body mass index (BMI). These findings have potentially important health implications and warrant further investigation to determine whether a causal relationship exists and the direction of this relationship. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T TT genotype is associated with reduced folate availability and may be a surrogate for measuring folate levels. We sought to determine whether MTHFR C677T genotype was associated with obesity. We carried out our study on four populations from three longitudinal studies based in the UK and Denmark in which DNA for genotyping was obtained along with measures of obesity. Our subjects were taken from the British Women's Heart and Health Study (BWHHS), the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (two populations: mothers and children) and the Copenhagen City Heart Study. We performed analyses separately by population, and then carried out a meta-analysis, combining similar populations. Initial findings in the BWHHS suggested that the TT genotype may be associated with an increased risk of obesity BMI > or =30, however, no association was found with BMI or central adiposity in this cohort. This genotype was not associated with obesity in our other cohorts. Our results suggest that the initial positive finding with obesity in the BWHHS was a chance finding. Our findings do not support a causal effect of low folate on obesity.

  4. No evidence for association between the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and otosclerosis in a large Belgian-Dutch population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrauwen, I.; Thys, M.; Straeten, K. van der; Fransen, E.; Ealy, M.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Dhooge, I.J.; Heyning, P. van de; Offeciers, E.E.; Smith, R.J.; Camp, G. van

    2009-01-01

    HYPOTHESIS/BACKGROUND: Otosclerosis is a frequent cause of hearing impairment in the Caucasian population and is characterized by abnormal bone remodeling of the otic capsule. Associations with several genes have been reported, and recently, an association between the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone

  5. Why cognitive performance in ADHD may not reveal true potential : Findings from a large population-based sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntsi, Jonna; Wood, Alexis C.; van der Meere, Jaap; Asherson, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Focusing on symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a sample obtained from the general population, we aimed to investigate the effects of incentives and event rate on reaction time (RT) performance and response inhibition. We assessed 1156 children. at a mean age of 8 years, o

  6. Estimates of the population prevalence of injection drug users among hispanic residents of large US metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouget, Enrique R; Friedman, Samuel R; Cleland, Charles M; Tempalski, Barbara; Cooper, Hannah L F

    2012-06-01

    Little information exists on the population prevalence or geographic distribution of injection drug users (IDUs) who are Hispanic in the USA. Here, we present yearly estimates of IDU population prevalence among Hispanic residents of the 96 most populated US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) for 1992-2002. First, yearly estimates of the proportion of IDUs who were Hispanic in each MSA were created by combining data on (1) IDUs receiving drug treatment services in Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)'s Treatment Entry Data System, (2) IDUs being tested in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) HIV-Counseling and Testing System, and (3) incident AIDS diagnoses among IDUs, supplemented by (4) data on IDUs who were living with AIDS. Then, the resulting proportions were multiplied by published yearly estimates of the number of IDUs of all racial/ethnic groups in each MSA to produce Hispanic IDU population estimates. These were divided by Hispanic population data to produce population prevalence rates. Time trends were tested using mixed-effects regression models. Hispanic IDU prevalence declined significantly on average (1992 mean = 192, median = 133; 2002 mean = 144, median = 93; units are per 10,000 Hispanics aged 15-64). The highest prevalence rates across time tended to be in smaller northeastern MSAs. Comparing the last three study years to the first three, prevalence decreased in 82% of MSAs and increased in 18%. Comparisons with data on drug-related mortality and hepatitis C mortality supported the validity of the estimates. Generally, estimates of Hispanic IDU population prevalence were higher than published estimates for non-Hispanic White residents and lower than published estimates for non-Hispanic Black residents. Further analysis indicated that the proportion of IDUs that was Hispanic decreased in 52% and increased in 48% of MSAs between 2002 and 2007. The estimates resulting from this study can

  7. Fire severity, sagebrush types, and soil regimes within large wildfires in greater sage-grouse population areas, 1984-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This table summarizes areas of burn severity, sagebrush biophysical types, and soil temperature/moisture regimes within large wildfires from 1984 to 2013 occuring...

  8. Predicting spatio-temporal recolonization of large carnivore populations and livestock depredation risk: wolves in the Italian Alps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    F. Marucco; E. J. B. Mclntire

    2010-01-01

    1. Wolves Canis lupus recently recolonized the Western Alps through dispersal from the Italian Apennines, representing one of several worldwide examples of large carnivores increasing in highly human-dominated landscapes...

  9. The episode of genetic drift defining the migration of humans out of Africa is derived from a large east African population size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Elhassan

    Full Text Available Human genetic variation particularly in Africa is still poorly understood. This is despite a consensus on the large African effective population size compared to populations from other continents. Based on sequencing of the mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase subunit II (MT-CO2, and genome wide microsatellite data we observe evidence suggesting the effective size (Ne of humans to be larger than the current estimates, with a foci of increased genetic diversity in east Africa, and a population size of east Africans being at least 2-6 fold larger than other populations. Both phylogenetic and network analysis indicate that east Africans possess more ancestral lineages in comparison to various continental populations placing them at the root of the human evolutionary tree. Our results also affirm east Africa as the likely spot from which migration towards Asia has taken place. The study reflects the spectacular level of sequence variation within east Africans in comparison to the global sample, and appeals for further studies that may contribute towards filling the existing gaps in the database. The implication of these data to current genomic research, as well as the need to carry out defined studies of human genetic variation that includes more African populations; particularly east Africans is paramount.

  10. Surprising structures hiding in Penrose’s future null infinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Ezra T.

    2017-07-01

    Since the late1950s, almost all discussions of asymptotically flat (Einstein-Maxwell) space-times have taken place in the context of Penrose’s null infinity, I+. In addition, almost all calculations have used the Bondi coordinate and tetrad systems. Beginning with a known asymptotically flat solution to the Einstein-Maxwell equations, we show first, that there are other natural coordinate systems, near I+, (analogous to light-cones in flat-space) that are based on (asymptotically) shear-free null geodesic congruences (analogous to the flat-space case). Using these new coordinates and their associated tetrad, we define the complex dipole moment, (the mass dipole plus i times angular momentum), from the l  =  1 harmonic coefficient of a component of the asymptotic Weyl tensor. Second, from this definition, from the Bianchi identities and from the Bondi-Sachs mass and linear momentum, we show that there exists a large number of results—identifications and dynamics—identical to those of classical mechanics and electrodynamics. They include, among many others, {P}=M{v}+..., {L}= {r} × {P} , spin, Newton’s second law with the rocket force term (\\dotM v) and radiation reaction, angular momentum conservation and others. All these relations take place in the rather mysterious H-space rather than in space-time. This leads to the enigma: ‘why do these well known relations of classical mechanics take place in H-space?’ and ‘What is the physical meaning of H-space?’

  11. Virome Assembly and Annotation: A Surprise in the Namib Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Uljana; van Heusden, Peter; Kirby, Bronwyn M.; Olonade, Israel; van Zyl, Leonardo J.; Trindade, Marla

    2017-01-01

    Sequencing, assembly, and annotation of environmental virome samples is challenging. Methodological biases and differences in species abundance result in fragmentary read coverage; sequence reconstruction is further complicated by the mosaic nature of viral genomes. In this paper, we focus on biocomputational aspects of virome analysis, emphasizing latent pitfalls in sequence annotation. Using simulated viromes that mimic environmental data challenges we assessed the performance of five assemblers (CLC-Workbench, IDBA-UD, SPAdes, RayMeta, ABySS). Individual analyses of relevant scaffold length fractions revealed shortcomings of some programs in reconstruction of viral genomes with excessive read coverage (IDBA-UD, RayMeta), and in accurate assembly of scaffolds ≥50 kb (SPAdes, RayMeta, ABySS). The CLC-Workbench assembler performed best in terms of genome recovery (including highly covered genomes) and correct reconstruction of large scaffolds; and was used to assemble a virome from a copper rich site in the Namib Desert. We found that scaffold network analysis and cluster-specific read reassembly improved reconstruction of sequences with excessive read coverage, and that strict data filtering for non-viral sequences prior to downstream analyses was essential. In this study we describe novel viral genomes identified in the Namib Desert copper site virome. Taxonomic affiliations of diverse proteins in the dataset and phylogenetic analyses of circovirus-like proteins indicated links to the marine habitat. Considering additional evidence from this dataset we hypothesize that viruses may have been carried from the Atlantic Ocean into the Namib Desert by fog and wind, highlighting the impact of the extended environment on an investigated niche in metagenome studies. PMID:28167933

  12. Virome Assembly and Annotation: A Surprise in the Namib Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Uljana; van Heusden, Peter; Kirby, Bronwyn M; Olonade, Israel; van Zyl, Leonardo J; Trindade, Marla

    2017-01-01

    Sequencing, assembly, and annotation of environmental virome samples is challenging. Methodological biases and differences in species abundance result in fragmentary read coverage; sequence reconstruction is further complicated by the mosaic nature of viral genomes. In this paper, we focus on biocomputational aspects of virome analysis, emphasizing latent pitfalls in sequence annotation. Using simulated viromes that mimic environmental data challenges we assessed the performance of five assemblers (CLC-Workbench, IDBA-UD, SPAdes, RayMeta, ABySS). Individual analyses of relevant scaffold length fractions revealed shortcomings of some programs in reconstruction of viral genomes with excessive read coverage (IDBA-UD, RayMeta), and in accurate assembly of scaffolds ≥50 kb (SPAdes, RayMeta, ABySS). The CLC-Workbench assembler performed best in terms of genome recovery (including highly covered genomes) and correct reconstruction of large scaffolds; and was used to assemble a virome from a copper rich site in the Namib Desert. We found that scaffold network analysis and cluster-specific read reassembly improved reconstruction of sequences with excessive read coverage, and that strict data filtering for non-viral sequences prior to downstream analyses was essential. In this study we describe novel viral genomes identified in the Namib Desert copper site virome. Taxonomic affiliations of diverse proteins in the dataset and phylogenetic analyses of circovirus-like proteins indicated links to the marine habitat. Considering additional evidence from this dataset we hypothesize that viruses may have been carried from the Atlantic Ocean into the Namib Desert by fog and wind, highlighting the impact of the extended environment on an investigated niche in metagenome studies.

  13. Determining causes of genetic isolation in a large carnivore (Ursus americanus) population to direct contemporary conservation measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obbard, Martyn E.; Harnden, Matthew; McConnell, Sabine; Howe, Eric J.; Burrows, Frank G.; White, Bradley N.; Kyle, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    The processes leading to genetic isolation influence a population’s local extinction risk, and should thus be identified before conservation actions are implemented. Natural or human-induced circumstances can result in historical or contemporary barriers to gene flow and/or demographic bottlenecks. Distinguishing between these hypotheses can be achieved by comparing genetic diversity and differentiation in isolated vs. continuous neighboring populations. In Ontario, American black bears (Ursus americanus) are continuously distributed, genetically diverse, and exhibit an isolation-by-distance structuring pattern, except on the Bruce Peninsula (BP). To identify the processes that led to the genetic isolation of BP black bears, we modelled various levels of historical and contemporary migration and population size reductions using forward simulations. We compared simulation results with empirical genetic indices from Ontario black bear populations under different levels of geographic isolation, and conducted additional simulations to determine if translocations could help achieve genetic restoration. From a genetic standpoint, conservation concerns for BP black bears are warranted because our results show that: i) a recent demographic bottleneck associated with recently reduced migration best explains the low genetic diversity on the BP; and ii) under sustained isolation, BP black bears could lose between 70% and 80% of their rare alleles within 100 years. Although restoring migration corridors would be the most effective method to enhance long-term genetic diversity and prevent inbreeding, it is unrealistic to expect connectivity to be re-established. Current levels of genetic diversity could be maintained by successfully translocating 10 bears onto the peninsula every 5 years. Such regular translocations may be more practical than landscape restoration, because areas connecting the peninsula to nearby mainland black bear populations have been irreversibly modified

  14. Large-scale, multidirectional larval connectivity among coral reef fish populations in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park

    KAUST Repository

    Williamson, David H.

    2016-11-15

    Larval dispersal is the key process by which populations of most marine fishes and invertebrates are connected and replenished. Advances in larval tagging and genetics have enhanced our capacity to track larval dispersal, assess scales of population connectivity, and quantify larval exchange among no-take marine reserves and fished areas. Recent studies have found that reserves can be a significant source of recruits for populations up to 40 km away, but the scale and direction of larval connectivity across larger seascapes remain unknown. Here, we apply genetic parentage analysis to investigate larval dispersal patterns for two exploited coral reef groupers (Plectropomus maculatus and Plectropomus leopardus) within and among three clusters of reefs separated by 60–220 km within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia. A total of 69 juvenile P. maculatus and 17 juvenile P. leopardus (representing 6% and 9% of the total juveniles sampled, respectively) were genetically assigned to parent individuals on reefs within the study area. We identified both short-distance larval dispersal within regions (200 m to 50 km) and long-distance, multidirectional dispersal of up to ~250 km among regions. Dispersal strength declined significantly with distance, with best-fit dispersal kernels estimating median dispersal distances of ~110 km for P. maculatus and ~190 km for P. leopardus. Larval exchange among reefs demonstrates that established reserves form a highly connected network and contribute larvae for the replenishment of fished reefs at multiple spatial scales. Our findings highlight the potential for long-distance dispersal in an important group of reef fishes, and provide further evidence that effectively protected reserves can yield recruitment and sustainability benefits for exploited fish populations.

  15. The association between socio-demographic characteristics and adherence to breast and colorectal cancer screening: Analysis of large sub populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vainer Anna

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Populations having lower socioeconomic status, as well as ethnic minorities, have demonstrated lower utilization of preventive screening, including tests for early detection of breast and colorectal cancer. The objective To explore socio-demographic disparities in adherence to screening recommendations for early detection of cancer. Methods The study was conducted by Maccabi Healthcare Services, an Israeli HMO (health plan providing healthcare services to 1.9 million members. Utilization of breast cancer (BC and colorectal cancer (CC screening were analyzed by socio-economic ranks (SERs, ethnicity (Arab vs non-Arab, immigration status and ownership of voluntarily supplemental health insurance (VSHI. Results Data on 157,928 and 303,330 adults, eligible for BC and CC screening, respectively, were analyzed. Those having lower SER, Arabs, immigrants from Former Soviet Union countries and non-owners of VSHI performed fewer cancer screening examinations compared with those having higher SER, non-Arabs, veterans and owners of VSHI (p Conclusion Patients from low socio-economic backgrounds, Arabs, immigrants and those who do not own supplemental insurance do fewer tests for early detection of cancer. These sub-populations should be considered priority populations for targeted intervention programs and improved resource allocation.

  16. Genetic structure of the tree peony (Paeonia rockii and the Qinling Mountains as a geographic barrier driving the fragmentation of a large population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-hui Yuan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tree peonies are great ornamental plants associated with a rich ethnobotanical history in Chinese culture and have recently been used as an evolutionary model. The Qinling Mountains represent a significant geographic barrier in Asia, dividing mainland China into northern (temperate and southern (semi-tropical regions; however, their flora has not been well analyzed. In this study, the genetic differentiation and genetic structure of Paeonia rockii and the role of the Qinling Mountains as a barrier that has driven intraspecific fragmentation were evaluated using 14 microsatellite markers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twenty wild populations were sampled from the distributional range of P. rockii. Significant population differentiation was suggested (F(ST value of 0.302. Moderate genetic diversity at the population level (H(S of 0.516 and high population diversity at the species level (H(T of 0.749 were detected. Significant excess homozygosity (F(IS of 0.076 and recent population bottlenecks were detected in three populations. Bayesian clusters, population genetic trees and principal coordinate analysis all classified the P. rockii populations into three genetic groups and one admixed Wenxian population. An isolation-by-distance model for P. rockii was suggested by Mantel tests (r = 0.6074, P<0.001 and supported by AMOVA (P<0.001, revealing a significant molecular variance among the groups (11.32% and their populations (21.22%. These data support the five geographic boundaries surrounding the Qinling Mountains and adjacent areas that were detected with Monmonier's maximum-difference algorithm. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that the current genetic structure of P. rockii has resulted from the fragmentation of a formerly continuously distributed large population following the restriction of gene flow between populations of this species by the Qinling Mountains. This study provides a fundamental genetic profile for

  17. Surprisal-based comparison between a symbolic and a connectionist model of sentence processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, S.L.; Taatgen, N.; van Rijn, H.

    2009-01-01

    The 'unlexicalized surprisal' of a word in sentence context is defined as the negative logarithm of the probability of the word's part-of-speech given the sequence of previous parts-of-speech of the sentence. Unlexicalized surprisal is known to correlate with word reading time. Here, it is shown

  18. The role of surprising events in a math game on proportional reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, P.; Oostendorp, van H.; Vrugte, ter J.; Jong, de T.; Vandercruysse, S.; Elen, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether surprising events can be used to stimulate students’ playful learning in a GBL environment in the domain of proportional reasoning. The assumed effect of surprise is that unexpected events interrupt an expectation and therefore triggers the player to evaluate the new situ

  19. Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; LaBar, Kevin S; Adcock, R Alison

    2016-10-01

    Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal representations of the environment, and surprising events are indications for encoding new representations of the environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system, including the hippocampus and surrounding cortex, encodes surprising events and is influenced by motivational state. Because behavior reflects the goals of an individual, we investigated whether motivational valence (i.e., pursuing rewards versus avoiding punishments) also impacts neural and mnemonic encoding of surprising events. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants encountered perceptually unexpected events either during the pursuit of rewards or avoidance of punishments. Despite similar levels of motivation across groups, reward and punishment facilitated the processing of surprising events in different medial temporal lobe regions. Whereas during reward motivation, perceptual surprises enhanced activation in the hippocampus, during punishment motivation surprises instead enhanced activation in parahippocampal cortex. Further, we found that reward motivation facilitated hippocampal coupling with ventromedial PFC, whereas punishment motivation facilitated parahippocampal cortical coupling with orbitofrontal cortex. Behaviorally, post-scan testing revealed that reward, but not punishment, motivation resulted in greater memory selectivity for surprising events encountered during goal pursuit. Together these findings demonstrate that neuromodulatory systems engaged by anticipation of reward and punishment target separate components of the medial temporal lobe, modulating medial temporal lobe sensitivity and connectivity. Thus, reward and punishment motivation yield distinct neural contexts for learning, with distinct consequences for how surprises are incorporated into predictive mnemonic models of the environment.

  20. A population approach to disease management: hepatitis C direct-acting antiviral use in a large health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belperio, Pamela S; Backus, Lisa I; Ross, David; Neuhauser, Melinda M; Mole, Larry A

    2014-06-01

    The introduction of the first direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV), telaprevir and boceprevir, marked a unique event in which 2 disease-changing therapies received FDA approval at the same time. Comparative safety and effectiveness data in real-world populations upon which to make formulary decisions did not exist. To describe the implementation, measurement, and outcomes of an enduring population-based approach of surveillance of medication management for HCV. The foundation of the population approach to HCV medication management used by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) relied upon a basic framework of (a) providing data for effective regional and local management, (b) education and training, (c) real-time oversight and feedback from a higher organization level, and (d) prompt outcome sharing. These population-based processes spanned across the continuum of the direct-acting antiviral oversight process. We used the VA's HCV Clinical Case Registry-which includes pharmacy, laboratory, and diagnosis information for all HCV-infected veterans from all VA facilities-to assess DAA treatment eligibility, DAA uptake and timing, appropriate use of DAAs including HCV RNA monitoring and medication possession ratios (MPR), nonconcordance with guidance for adjunct erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) use, hematologic adverse effects, discontinuation rates, and early and sustained virologic responses. Training impact was assessed via survey and change in pharmacist scope of practice. One year after FDA approval, DAAs had been prescribed at 120 of 130 VA facilities. Over 680 VA providers participated in live educational training programs including 380 pharmacists, and pharmacists with a scope of practice for HCV increased from 59 to 110 pharmacists (86%). HCV RNA futility testing improved such that only 1%-3% of veterans did not have appropriate testing compared with 15%-17% 6

  1. Geographical distribution, socioeconomic status and health- related physical fitness in adolescents from a large population-based sample from Bogotá, Colombia: the ser study

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues-Bezerra, Diogo

    2016-01-01

    Background: The negative gradient between socio-economic status and prevalence of non-communicable disease in adulthood has prompted investigation of potential foundations based in childhood. The objective of the present study is to examine the influence of socio-geographical variations and socioeconomic status on health-related physical fitness in adolescents from a large population-based sample of Colombian ninth graders. Methods: During the 2014–2015 school years, we examined a cross-secti...

  2. Social capital in relation to depression, musculoskeletal pain, and psychosomatic symptoms: a cross-sectional study of a large population-based cohort of Swedish adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Starrin Bengt; Åslund Cecilia; Nilsson Kent W

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Social capital has lately received much attention in health research. The present study investigated whether two measures of subjective social capital were related to psychosomatic symptoms, musculoskeletal pain, and depression in a large population of Swedish adolescents. Methods A total of 7757 13-18 year old students anonymously completed the Survey of Adolescent Life in Vestmanland 2008 which included questions on sociodemographic background, neighbourhood social capit...

  3. Patterns and predictors of sitting time over ten years in a large population-based Canadian sample: Findings from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos)

    OpenAIRE

    Gebel, Klaus; Pont, Sarah; Ding, Ding, W.; Bauman, Adrian E.; Chau, Josephine Y; Berger, Claudie; Prior, Jerilynn C; ,

    2017-01-01

    Our objective was to describe patterns and predictors of sedentary behavior (sitting time) over 10 years among a large Canadian cohort. Data are from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study, a prospective study of women and men randomly selected from the general population. Respondents reported socio-demographics, lifestyle behaviors and health outcomes in interviewer-administered questionnaires; weight and height were measured. Baseline data were collected between 1995 and 1997 (n = 9418...

  4. A Very Large Population of Likely Buried Impact Basins in the Northern Lowlands of Mars Revealed by MOLA Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H. V.; Shockey, K. M.; Frey, E. L.; Roark, J. H.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.

    2001-01-01

    High resolution Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data have revealed a large number of subdued quasi-circular depressions (QCDs) >50 km diameter in the northern lowlands of Mars which are generally not visible in Viking imagery and which may be buried ancient impact basins. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. A sequencing-based survey of functional APAF1 alleles in a large sample of individuals with affective illness and population controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Zenab; Kanarek, Katarzyna; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Walderhaug, Espen; Ilomäki, Risto; Blumberg, Hilary; Price, Lawrence H; Bhagwagar, Zubin; Carpenter, Linda L; Tyrka, Audrey R; Magnusson, Andres; Landrø, Nils Inge; Zvartau, Edwin; Gelernter, Joel; Epperson, C Neill; Räsänen, Pirkko; Siironen, Jari; Lappalainen, Jaakko

    2010-01-05

    Rare apoptosis-promoting functional variants in the apoptosis protease activating factor 1 (APAF1) gene were recently reported to co-segregate with major depression in male members of families from Utah. In order to estimate the impact of these variants on risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) in the general population, we surveyed the frequency of the APAF1 putative MDD risk alleles using re-sequencing in a large sample of northern European and European-American subjects, including a large number of males with MDD. The E777K and N782T APAF1 variants previously described by Harlan et al. [Harlan et al. (2006) Mol Psychiatry 11(1):76-85] were found at low frequencies in affected individuals and population controls. The C450W and Q465R variants were not detected in any of the 632 subjects sequenced. These results show that the APAF1 variants associated with risk for MDD in the Utah pedigrees are very rare in Northern European and European-American populations. In addition, the E777K and N782T variants were found at low frequencies both in patients and population controls, suggesting that these variants have limited impact on risk for MDD.

  6. The Nucleus of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: Lots of Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Paul R.; Rosetta Science Working Team

    2016-10-01

    ESA's Rosetta mission has made many new and unexpected discoveries since its arrival at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in August 2014. The first of these was the unusual shape of the cometary nucleus. Although bilobate nuclei had been seen before, the extreme concavities on 67P were unexpected. Evidence gathered during the mission suggests that two independent bodies came together to form 67P, rather than the nucleus being a single body that was sculpted by sublimation and/or other processes. Although not a surprise, early observations showed that the nucleus rotation period had decreased by ~22 minutes since the previous aphelion passage. A similar rotation period decrease was seen post-perihelion during the encounter. These changes likely arise from asymmetric jetting forces from the irregular nucleus. Initially, Rosetta's instruments found little evidence for water ice on the surface; the presence of surface water ice increased substantially as the nucleus approached perihelion. The nucleus bulk density, 533 ± 6 kg/m3, was measured with Radio Science and OSIRIS imaging of the nucleus volume. This confirmed previous estimates based on indirect methods that the bulk density of cometary nuclei was on the order of 500-600 kg/m3 and on measurement of the density of 9P/Tempel 1's nucleus by Deep Impact. Nucleus topography proved to be highly varied, from smooth dust-covered plains to shallow circular basins, to the very rough terrain where the Philae lander came to rest. Evidence of thermal cracking is everywhere. The discovery of cylindrical pits on the surface, typically 100-200m in diameter with similar depths was a major surprise and has been interpreted as sinkholes. "Goose-bump" terrain consisting of apparently random piles of boulders 2-3 m in diameter was another unexpected discovery. Apparent layering with scales of meters to many tens of meters was seen but there was little or no evidence for impact features. Radar tomography of the interior of the "head

  7. Prevalence of depression in a large urban South Indian population--the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES-70.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramani Poongothai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In India there are very few population based data on prevalence of depression. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of depression in an urban south Indian population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Subjects were recruited from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES, involving 26,001 subjects randomly recruited from 46 of the 155 corporation wards of Chennai (formerly Madras city in South India. 25,455 subjects participated in this study (response rate 97.9%. Depression was assessed using a self-reported and previously validated instrument, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ - 12. Age adjustment was made according to the 2001 census of India. The overall prevalence of depression was 15.1% (age-adjusted, 15.9% and was higher in females (females 16.3% vs. males 13.9%, p<0.0001. The odds ratio (OR for depression in female subjects was 1.20 [Confidence Intervals (CI: 1.12-1.28, p<0.001] compared to male subjects. Depressed mood was the most common symptom (30.8%, followed by tiredness (30.0% while more severe symptoms such as suicidal thoughts (12.4% and speech and motor retardation (12.4% were less common. There was an increasing trend in the prevalence of depression with age among both female (p<0.001 and male subjects (p<0.001. The prevalence of depression was higher in the low income group (19.3% compared to the higher income group (5.9%, p<0.001. Prevalence of depression was also higher among divorced (26.5% and widowed (20% compared to currently married subjects (15.4%, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest population-based study from India to report on prevalence of depression and shows that among urban south Indians, the prevalence of depression was 15.1%. Age, female gender and lower socio-economic status are some of the factors associated with depression in this population.

  8. Early invasion population structure of quagga mussel and associated benthic invertebrate community composition on soft sediment in a large reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marion E.; Chandra, Sudeep; Caires, Andrea; Denton, Marianne; Rosen, Michael R.; Wong, Wai Hing; Teitjen, Todd; Turner, Kent; Roefer, Peggy; Holdren, G. Chris

    2010-01-01

    In 2007 an invasive dreissenid mussel species, Dreissena bugensis (quagga mussel), was discovered in Lake Mead reservoir (AZ–NV). Within 2 years, adult populations have spread throughout the lake and are not only colonizing hard substrates, but also establishing in soft sediments at depths ranging from 1 to >100 m. Dreissena bugensis size class and population density distribution differs between basins; cluster analysis revealed 5 adult cohorts within Boulder Basin and Overton Arm but low densities and low cohort survival in the Las Vegas Basin. Regression analysis suggests depth and temperature are not primary controllers of D. bugensis density in Lake Mead, indicating other factors such as sediment type, food availability or other resource competition may be important. Monthly veliger tows showed at least 2 major spawning events per year, with continuous presence of veligers in the water column. Adult mussels have been found in spawn or post-spawn condition in soft sediments in shallow to deep waters (>80 m) indicating the potential for reproduction at multiple depths. Comparisons to a 1986 benthic survey suggest there have been shifts in nondreissenid macroinvertebrate composition; however, it is unclear if this is due to D. bugensis presence. Current distribution of nondreissenid macroinvertebrates is heterogeneous in all 3 basins, and their biodiversity decreased when D. bugensis density was 2500/m2 or greater.

  9. Measurements of beam halo diffusion and population density in the Tevatron and in the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stancari, Giulio [Fermilab

    2015-03-01

    Halo dynamics influences global accelerator performance: beam lifetimes, emittance growth, dynamic aperture, and collimation efficiency. Halo monitoring and control are also critical for the operation of high-power machines. For instance, in the high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC, the energy stored in the beam tails may reach several megajoules. Fast losses can result in superconducting magnet quenches, magnet damage, or even collimator deformation. The need arises to measure the beam halo and to remove it at controllable rates. In the Tevatron and in the LHC, halo population densities and diffusivities were measured with collimator scans by observing the time evolution of losses following small inward or outward collimator steps, under different experimental conditions: with single beams and in collision, and, in the case of the Tevatron, with a hollow electron lens acting on a subset of bunches. After the LHC resumes operations, it is planned to compare measured diffusivities with the known strength of transverse damper excitations. New proposals for nondestructive halo population density measurements are also briefly discussed.

  10. a Surprise from the Pulsar in the Crab Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-01

    before the discovery of pulsars, as the possible central remnant of the Crab Nebula [3]. This was fully confirmed when its pulsed radio emission was detected in 1968. At this optical brightness, about 10,000 times fainter than the faintest stars that can be perceived with the unaided eye, the Crab Pulsar is still by far the brightest of the few known neutron stars whose optical light has been detected. It is in fact more than 1,000 times brighter than the next brightest pulsar, PSR 0540-69 in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy to the Milky Way system in which we live. Observations of the Crab Pulsar Spectrum Thus it was possible for American astronomer J. Beverley Oke (Caltech) to perform the first optical measurements of the Crab Pulsar spectrum already in 1969. Although this was quite an observational feat at the time, the information content of that measurement is not very high by modern standards; the spectral resolution was only about 200 A (20 nm). Oke's spectrum of the Crab Pulsar qualitatively confirmed the theoretical expectations by being flat and featureless and no isolated spectral features were seen at this low resolution. It appears that since 1969, nobody has obtained spectrum of the Crab pulsar with a better spectral resolution than Oke. This seems amazing, but may at least partly be explained by the fact that this object is deeply embedded in the much brighter Crab Nebula of expanding gas. Any spectrum of the pulsar is therefore necessarily strongly contaminated by that of the surrounding nebula, making it difficult to obtain a `pure' spectrum of the pulsar. Now, however, the group of Italian astronomers has performed a much improved spectral measurement of the Crab Pulsar with the EMMI multi-mode instrument at the ESO NTT. The resulting spectrum has a resolution of 2 A (0.2 nm), i.e. dramatically better than the one achieved in 1969, and reflecting the incredible evolution of astronomical instrumentation during the intervening quarter of a

  11. Controls on the entrainment of juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha into large water diversions and estimates of population-level loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C Zeug

    Full Text Available Diversion of freshwater can cause significant changes in hydrologic dynamics and this can have negative consequences for fish populations. Additionally, fishes can be directly entrained into diversion infrastructure (e.g. canals, reservoirs, pumps where they may become lost to the population. However, the effect of diversion losses on fish population dynamics remains unclear. We used 15 years of release and recovery data from coded-wire-tagged juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to model the physical, hydrological and biological predictors of salvage at two large water diversions in the San Francisco Estuary. Additionally, entrainment rates were combined with estimates of mortality during migration to quantify the proportion of total mortality that could be attributed to diversions. Statistical modeling revealed a strong positive relationship between diversion rate and fish entrainment at both diversions and all release locations. Other significant relationships were specific to the rivers where the fish were released, and the specific diversion facility. Although significant relationships were identified in statistical models, entrainment loss and the mean contribution of entrainment to total migration mortality were low. The greatest entrainment mortality occurred for fish released along routes that passed closest to the diversions and certain runs of Chinook Salmon released in the Sacramento River suffered greater mortality but only at the highest diversion rates observed during the study. These results suggest losses at diversions should be put into a population context in order to best inform effective management of Chinook Salmon populations.

  12. Population-specific prognostic models are needed to stratify outcomes for African-Americans with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiushi; Ayer, Turgay; Nastoupil, Loretta J; Koff, Jean L; Staton, Ashley D; Chhatwal, Jagpreet; Flowers, Christopher R

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) demonstrates significant racial differences in age of onset, stage, and survival. To examine whether population-specific models improve prediction of outcomes for African-American (AA) patients with DLBCL, we utilized Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data and compared stratification by the international prognostic index (IPI) in general and AA populations. We also constructed and compared prognostic models for general and AA populations using multivariable logistic regression (LR) and artificial neural network approaches. While the IPI adequately stratified outcomes for the general population, it failed to separate AA DLBCL patients into distinct risk groups. Our AA LR model identified age ≥ 55 (odds ratio 0.45, [95% CI: 0.36, 0.56], male sex (0.75, [0.60, 0.93]), and stage III/IV disease (0.43, [0.34, 0.54]) as adverse predictors of 5-year survival for AA patients. In addition, general-population prognostic models were poorly calibrated for AAs with DLBCL, indicating a need for validated AA-specific prognostic models.

  13. A post-genomic surprise. The molecular reinscription of race in science, law and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duster, Troy

    2015-03-01

    The completion of the first draft of the Human Genome Map in 2000 was widely heralded as the promise and future of genetics-based medicines and therapies - so much so that pundits began referring to the new century as 'The Century of Genetics'. Moreover, definitive assertions about the overwhelming similarities of all humans' DNA (99.9 per cent) by the leaders of the Human Genome Project were trumpeted as the end of racial thinking about racial taxonomies of human genetic differences. But the first decade of the new century brought unwelcomed surprises. First, gene therapies turned out to be far more complicated than any had anticipated - and instead the pharmaceutical industry turned to a focus on drugs that might be 'related' to population differences based upon genetic markers. While the language of 'personalized medicine' dominated this frame, research on racially and ethnically designated populations differential responsiveness to drugs dominated the empirical work in the field. Ancestry testing and 'admixture research' would play an important role in a new kind of molecular reification of racial categories. Moreover, the capacity of the super-computer to map differences reverberated into personal identification that would affect both the criminal justice system and forensic science, and generate new levels of concern about personal privacy. Social scientists in general, and sociologists in particular, have been caught short by these developments - relying mainly on assertions that racial categories are socially constructed, regionally and historically contingent, and politically arbitrary. While these assertions are true, the imprimatur of scientific legitimacy has shifted the burden, since now 'admixture research' can claim that its results get at the 'reality' of human differentiation, not the admittedly flawed social constructions of racial categories. Yet what was missing from this framing of the problem: 'admixture research' is itself based upon socially

  14. Prevalence and determinants of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in lifelines: A large Dutch population cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Tim C. M. A.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Faber, Klaas Nico; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Blokzijl, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Background & aims Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is an increasing health issue that develops rather unnoticed with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. We investigated prevalence, determinants and associated metabolic abnormalities of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the largest population-based cohort to date. Methods Biochemical characteristics, type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome were determined in the Lifelines Cohort Study (N = 167,729), a population-based cohort in the North of the Netherlands. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was defined as Fatty Liver Index (FLI)≥60. Exclusion criteria were age obese, had higher levels of hemoglobinA1c, fasting glucose, liver enzymes, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, c-reactive protein and leucocytes and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (all P<0.0001). Participants with a FLI≥60 showed higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (9.3% vs. 1.4%), metabolic syndrome (54.2% vs. 6.2%), impaired renal function (20.1% vs. 8.7%) and cardiovascular disease (4.6% vs. 1.6%) (all P<0.0001). Multivariable logistic analysis showed that smoking, hemoglobin, leucocytes, c-reactive protein, platelets, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, impaired renal function (OR 1.27, 95%CI 1.15–1.41), metabolic syndrome (OR 11.89, 95%CI 11.03–12.82) and its individual components hyperglycemia (OR 2.53, 95%CI 2.34–2.72), hypertension (OR 1.89, 95%CI 1.77–2.01) and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 3.44, 95%CI 3.22–3.68) were independently associated with suspected non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (all P<0.0001). Conclusion Twenty-two percent (22.0%) of the population in the North of the Netherlands is suspected to suffer from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, coinciding with a significant increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and impaired renal function. PMID

  15. Prevalence of Coronary Artery Intramyocardial Course in a Large Population of Clinical Patients Detected by Multislice Computed Tomography Coronary Angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Rosa, R.; Sacco, M.; Tedeschi, C.; Pepe, R.; Capogrosso, P.; Montemarano, E.; Rotondo, A.; Runza, G.; Midiri, M.; Cademartiri, F. (UO di Radiologia, Ospedale San Gennaro, Napoli (Italy))

    2008-10-15

    Background: Intramyocardial course, an inborn coronary anomaly, is defined as a segment of a major epicardial coronary artery that runs intramurally through the myocardium; in particular, we distinguish myocardial bridging, in which the vessel returns to an epicardial position after the muscle bridge, and intramyocardial course, which is described as a vessel running and ending in the myocardium. Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence of myocardial bridging and intramyocardial course of coronary arteries as defined by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography. Material and Methods: The study population consisted of 242 consecutive patients (211 men, 31 women; mean age 59+-6 years) with atypical chest pain admitted to our hospital between December 2004 and September 2006. All MDCT examinations were performed using a 16-detector-row scanner (Aquilion 16 CFX; Toshiba Medical System, Tokyo, Japan). Patients with heart rate above 65 bpm received 50 mg atenolol orally for 3 days prior to the MDCT scan, or they increased their usual therapy with beta-blockers, in order to obtain a prescan heart rate <60 bpm. Curved multiplanar and 3D volume reconstructions were performed to explore coronary anatomy. Results: In 235 patients, the CT scan was successful and images were appropriate for evaluation. The prevalence of myocardial bridging and intramyocardial course of coronary arteries was 18.7% (47 cases) in our patient population. In 30 segments (63.8%), the vessels ran and ended in the myocardium. In the remaining 17 segments (36.2%), the vessels returned to an epicardial position after the muscle bridge. We found no difference in the prevalence of this inborn coronary anomaly when comparing different clinical characteristics of the study population (sex, age, body-mass index [BMI], etc.). The mean length of the subepicardial artery was 7 mm (range 5-12 mm), and the mean depth in the diastolic phase was 1.9 mm (range 1.2-2.3 mm). There was no significant difference of

  16. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): Trends in galaxy colours, morphology, and stellar populations with large scale structure, group, and pair environments

    CERN Document Server

    Alpaslan, Mehmet; Robotham, Aaron S G; Obreschkow, Danail; Andrae, Ellen; Cluver, Michelle; Kelvin, Lee S; Lange, Rebecca; Owers, Matt; Taylor, Edward N; Andrews, Stephen K; Bamford, Steven; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brough, Sarah; Brown, Michael J I; Colless, Matthew; Davies, Luke J M; Eardley, Elizabeth; Grootes, Meiert W; Hopkins, Andrew M; Kennedy, Rebecca; Liske, Jochen; Lara-Lopez, Maritza A; Lopez-Sanchez, Angel R; Loveday, Jon; Madore, Barry F; Mahajan, Smriti; Meyer, Martin; Moffett, Amanda; Norberg, Peder; Penny, Samantha; Pimbblet, Kevin A; Popescu, Cristina C; Seibert, Mark; Tuffs, Richard

    2015-01-01

    We explore trends in galaxy properties with Mpc-scale structures using catalogues of environment and large scale structure from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. Existing GAMA catalogues of large scale structure, group and pair membership allow us to construct galaxy stellar mass functions for different environmental types. To avoid simply extracting the known underlying correlations between galaxy properties and stellar mass, we create a mass matched sample of galaxies with stellar masses between $9.5 \\leq \\log{M_*/h^{-2} M_{\\odot}} \\leq 11$ for each environmental population. Using these samples, we show that mass normalised galaxies in different large scale environments have similar energy outputs, $u-r$ colours, luminosities, and morphologies. Extending our analysis to group and pair environments, we show galaxies that are not in groups or pairs exhibit similar characteristics to each other regardless of broader environment. For our mass controlled sample, we fail to see a strong dependence of S\\...

  17. Hierarchical Structure of the Eysenck Personality Inventory in a Large Population Sample: Goldberg's Trait-Tier Mapping Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin P; Weiss, Alexander; Barrett, Paul; Duberstein, Paul

    2013-03-01

    The structure of the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) is poorly understood, and applications have mostly been confined to the broad Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Lie scales. Using a hierarchical factoring procedure, we mapped the sequential differentiation of EPI scales from broad, molar factors to more specific, molecular factors, in a UK population sample of over 6500 persons. Replicable facets at the lowest tier of Neuroticism included emotional fragility, mood lability, nervous tension, and rumination. The lowest order set of replicable Extraversion facets consisted of social dynamism, sociotropy, decisiveness, jocularity, social information seeking, and impulsivity. The Lie scale consisted of an interpersonal virtue and a behavioral diligence facet. Users of the EPI may be well served in some circumstances by considering its broad Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Lie scales as multifactorial, a feature that was explicitly incorporated into subsequent Eysenck inventories and is consistent with other hierarchical trait structures.

  18. Measurements of beam halo diffusion and population density in the Tevatron and in the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Stancari, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    Halo dynamics influences global accelerator performance: beam lifetimes, emittance growth, dynamic aperture, and collimation efficiency. Halo monitoring and control are also critical for the operation of high-power machines. For instance, in the high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC, the energy stored in the beam tails may reach several megajoules. Fast losses can result in superconducting magnet quenches, magnet damage, or even collimator deformation. The need arises to measure the beam halo and to remove it at controllable rates. In the Tevatron and in the LHC, halo population densities and diffusivities were measured with collimator scans by observing the time evolution of losses following small inward or outward collimator steps, under different experimental conditions: with single beams and in collision, and, in the case of the Tevatron, with a hollow electron lens acting on a subset of bunches. After the LHC resumes operations, it is planned to compare measured diffusivities with the known strength of tran...

  19. What can providers learn from childhood body mass index trajectories: a study of a large, safety-net clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Emily V; Dickinson, L Miriam; Haemer, Matthew A; Knierim, Shanna D; Hambidge, Simon J; Davidson, Arthur J

    2014-01-01

    To describe childhood weight gain using body mass index (BMI) z-score trajectories in a low-income urban safety-net population and identify among gender- and race/ethnicity-specific groups any trends for increased risk. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 2- to 12-year-old patients (2006-2013) visiting a safety-net provider. BMI z-score trajectories were calculated overall, for gender- and race/ethnicity-specific groups, and for peak BMI percentile subgroups to describe weight gain longitudinally. From 2006 to 2013, a total of 26,234 eligible children were followed for an average of 3.7 years. At baseline (mean age, 4.2 years), 74% of patients were at a normal weight compared to 65% at most recent observation (mean age, 7.8 years). All gender and race/ethnicity subgroups showed increasing average BMI z-scores during childhood. Children consistently under the 50th percentile and those of white race had the most stable BMI z-score trajectories. BMI z-score increased with increasing age in all subgroups. Hispanic boys and black girls had the most significant increase in BMI z-score during this observation period. Children observed in early childhood and whose BMI exceeded the 95th percentile at any time were often already overweight (20%) or obese (36%) by 3 years of age. The entire population demonstrated an upward trend in BMI z-score trajectory. This trend was most notable among black girls and Hispanic boys. Many obese children were already overweight by age 3, and persistence of obesity after 3 years of age was high, suggesting that intervention before age 3 may be essential to curbing unhealthy weight trajectories. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Previously seen and expected stimuli elicit surprise in the context of visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retell, James D; Becker, Stefanie I; Remington, Roger W

    2016-04-01

    In the context of visual search, surprise is the phenomenon by which a previously unseen and unexpected stimulus exogenously attracts spatial attention. Capture by such a stimulus occurs, by definition, independent of task goals and is thought to be dependent on the extent to which the stimulus deviates from expectations. However, the relative contributions of prior-exposure and explicit knowledge of an unexpected event to the surprise response have not yet been systematically investigated. Here observers searched for a specific color while ignoring irrelevant cues of different colors presented prior to the target display. After a brief familiarization period, we presented an irrelevant motion cue to elicit surprise. Across conditions we varied prior exposure to the motion stimulus - seen versus unseen - and top-down expectations of occurrence - expected versus unexpected - to assess the extent to which each of these factors contributes to surprise. We found no attenuation of the surprise response when observers were pre-exposed to the motion cue and or had explicit knowledge of its occurrence. Our results show that it is neither sufficient nor necessary that a stimulus be new and unannounced to elicit surprise and suggest that the expectations that determine the surprise response are highly context specific.

  1. A Statistical Analysis of the Relationship between Harmonic Surprise and Preference in Popular Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Scott A; Rosen, David S; Grzywacz, Norberto M

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that some musical pieces may preferentially activate reward centers in the brain. Less is known, however, about the structural aspects of music that are associated with this activation. Based on the music cognition literature, we propose two hypotheses for why some musical pieces are preferred over others. The first, the Absolute-Surprise Hypothesis, states that unexpected events in music directly lead to pleasure. The second, the Contrastive-Surprise Hypothesis, proposes that the juxtaposition of unexpected events and subsequent expected events leads to an overall rewarding response. We tested these hypotheses within the framework of information theory, using the measure of "surprise." This information-theoretic variable mathematically describes how improbable an event is given a known distribution. We performed a statistical investigation of surprise in the harmonic structure of songs within a representative corpus of Western popular music, namely, the McGill Billboard Project corpus. We found that chords of songs in the top quartile of the Billboard chart showed greater average surprise than those in the bottom quartile. We also found that the different sections within top-quartile songs varied more in their average surprise than the sections within bottom-quartile songs. The results of this study are consistent with both the Absolute- and Contrastive-Surprise Hypotheses. Although these hypotheses seem contradictory to one another, we cannot yet discard the possibility that both absolute and contrastive types of surprise play roles in the enjoyment of popular music. We call this possibility the Hybrid-Surprise Hypothesis. The results of this statistical investigation have implications for both music cognition and the human neural mechanisms of esthetic judgments.

  2. Patterns of variation at Ustilago maydis virulence clusters 2A and 19A largely reflect the demographic history of its populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Ronny; Hanschke, Christian; Begerow, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of an intimate interaction between plant-biotrophic fungi and their hosts over evolutionary times involves strong selection and adaptative evolution of virulence-related genes. The highly specialised maize pathogen Ustilago maydis is assigned with a high evolutionary capability to overcome host resistances due to its high rates of sexual recombination, large population sizes and long distance dispersal. Unlike most studied fungus-plant interactions, the U. maydis - Zea mays pathosystem lacks a typical gene-for-gene interaction. It exerts a large set of secreted fungal virulence factors that are mostly organised in gene clusters. Their contribution to virulence has been experimentally demonstrated but their genetic diversity within U. maydis remains poorly understood. Here, we report on the intraspecific diversity of 34 potential virulence factor genes of U. maydis. We analysed their sequence polymorphisms in 17 isolates of U. maydis from Europe, North and Latin America. We focused on gene cluster 2A, associated with virulence attenuation, cluster 19A that is crucial for virulence, and the cluster-independent effector gene pep1. Although higher compared to four house-keeping genes, the overall levels of intraspecific genetic variation of virulence clusters 2A and 19A, and pep1 are remarkably low and commensurate to the levels of 14 studied non-virulence genes. In addition, each gene is present in all studied isolates and synteny in cluster 2A is conserved. Furthermore, 7 out of 34 virulence genes contain either no polymorphisms or only synonymous substitutions among all isolates. However, genetic variation of clusters 2A and 19A each resolve the large scale population structure of U. maydis indicating subpopulations with decreased gene flow. Hence, the genetic diversity of these virulence-related genes largely reflect the demographic history of U. maydis populations.

  3. Patterns of variation at Ustilago maydis virulence clusters 2A and 19A largely reflect the demographic history of its populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Kellner

    Full Text Available The maintenance of an intimate interaction between plant-biotrophic fungi and their hosts over evolutionary times involves strong selection and adaptative evolution of virulence-related genes. The highly specialised maize pathogen Ustilago maydis is assigned with a high evolutionary capability to overcome host resistances due to its high rates of sexual recombination, large population sizes and long distance dispersal. Unlike most studied fungus-plant interactions, the U. maydis - Zea mays pathosystem lacks a typical gene-for-gene interaction. It exerts a large set of secreted fungal virulence factors that are mostly organised in gene clusters. Their contribution to virulence has been experimentally demonstrated but their genetic diversity within U. maydis remains poorly understood. Here, we report on the intraspecific diversity of 34 potential virulence factor genes of U. maydis. We analysed their sequence polymorphisms in 17 isolates of U. maydis from Europe, North and Latin America. We focused on gene cluster 2A, associated with virulence attenuation, cluster 19A that is crucial for virulence, and the cluster-independent effector gene pep1. Although higher compared to four house-keeping genes, the overall levels of intraspecific genetic variation of virulence clusters 2A and 19A, and pep1 are remarkably low and commensurate to the levels of 14 studied non-virulence genes. In addition, each gene is present in all studied isolates and synteny in cluster 2A is conserved. Furthermore, 7 out of 34 virulence genes contain either no polymorphisms or only synonymous substitutions among all isolates. However, genetic variation of clusters 2A and 19A each resolve the large scale population structure of U. maydis indicating subpopulations with decreased gene flow. Hence, the genetic diversity of these virulence-related genes largely reflect the demographic history of U. maydis populations.

  4. Pooling designs with surprisingly high degree of error correction in a finite vector space

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Pooling designs are standard experimental tools in many biotechnical applications. It is well-known that all famous pooling designs are constructed from mathematical structures by the "containment matrix" method. In particular, Macula's designs (resp. Ngo and Du's designs) are constructed by the containment relation of subsets (resp. subspaces) in a finite set (resp. vector space). Recently, we generalized Macula's designs and obtained a family of pooling designs with more high degree of error correction by subsets in a finite set. In this paper, as a generalization of Ngo and Du's designs, we study the corresponding problems in a finite vector space and obtain a family of pooling designs with surprisingly high degree of error correction. Our designs and Ngo and Du's designs have the same number of items and pools, respectively, but the error-tolerant property is much better than that of Ngo and Du's designs, which was given by D'yachkov et al. \\cite{DF}, when the dimension of the space is large enough.

  5. You'll Never Guess Who Wrote That: 78 Surprising Authors of Psychological Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2016-07-01

    One can find psychological authors in the most unexpected places. We present a capsule summary of scholarly publications of psychological interest authored or coauthored by 78 surprising individuals, most of whom are celebrities or relatives of celebrities, historical figures, or people who have otherwise achieved visibility in academic circles, politics, religion, art, and diverse realms of popular culture. Still other publications are authored by individuals who are far better known for their contributions to popular than to academic psychology. The publications, stretching across more than two centuries, encompass a wide swath of domains of psychological inquiry and highlight the intersection of psychology with fields that fall outside its traditional borders, including public health, economics, law, neurosurgery, and even magic. Many of these scholarly contributions have enriched psychology and its allied disciplines, such as psychiatry, in largely unappreciated ways, and they illustrate the penetration of psychological knowledge into multiple scientific disciplines and everyday life. At the same time, our author list demonstrates that remarkable intellectual accomplishments in one scientific domain, such as physics, do not necessarily translate into success in psychology and underscores the distinction between intelligence, on the one hand, and critical thinking and wisdom, on the other.

  6. October Surprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Ushered in with the rampage of Hurricane Matthew, later days brightened in this month that has often been harbinger of both good and bad news for Cuba and the world. Hurricane Matthew ripped through Eastern Cuba, devastating the historic town of Baracoa (Cuba's first capital, founded in 1511) and the village of Maisí, where the morning sun first rises over Cuban territory. Wind and flood leveled hundreds of homes, brought down the power grid and destroyed crops. Yet there was no loss of human life, unlike in neighboring Haiti and other countries in Matthew's path, and unlike in Cuba in 1963, when Hurricane Flora caused more than 1200 deaths. In Haiti, efforts of health workers-including hundreds of Haitian graduates from Cuba's Latin American Medical School and 600 Cuban health professionals already there-were bolstered by dozens of specially trained Cuban disaster medical personnel in the wake of the storm.

  7. Surprising Resists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Stephie

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses an art adventure with her third, fourth, and fifth grade enrichment kids to the Fort Collins Museum of Contemporary Art in Colorado. The author demonstrates and teaches her students how to use the art tissue paper and oil pastel complementing the creative spirit of the Jaune Quick-to-See Smith work presented…

  8. Endothelial progenitor cells, cardiovascular risk factors, cytokine levels and atherosclerosis--results from a large population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhong Xiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: EPC number and functionality are assumed to reflect the endogenous vascular repair capacity with the EPC pool declining in higher ages and being exhausted by unfavorable life-style and risk factors. This intriguing and clinically highly relevant concept, however, has so far been derived from small case-control studies and patient series. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: In the population-based Bruneck Study EPC number and EPC-colony forming units (EPC-CFU were assessed as part of the fourth follow-up evaluation (2005 in 571 and 542 subjects, respectively. EPC number declined with age (p = 0.013, was significantly lower in women (p = 0.006 and higher in subjects on statin, hormone replacement or ACE inhibitor/angiotensin-receptor blockers, and correlated positively with moderate alcohol consumption. Unexpectedly, a positive relation between EPC number and several vascular risk factors emerged. In a step forward multivariate linear regression analysis EPC number was independently related with SDF1alpha, MMP-9, triglycerides, alcohol consumption, and Hba1c. EPC-CFU in turn was related to SDF1alpha and diastolic blood pressure. Moreover, EPC number showed a significant positive association with the Framingham risk score (P = 0.001. Finally, there was an inverse association between EPC number and common carotid artery intima-media thickness (p = 0.02 and the carotid artery atherosclerosis score (p = 0.059. CONCLUSIONS: Our population-based data confirm the decline of EPC number with advancing age and lend first epidemiological support to a role of SDF-1alpha and MMP9 in EPC differentiation, mobilization and homing, but are conflict with the view that EPC number is unfavorably affected by cardiovascular risk factors. EPC number increases with the cardiovascular risk estimated by the Framingham risk score (FRS, which in the absence of similar changes for EPC-CFU. Finally, we demonstrate a significant inverse association between EPC

  9. Understanding uncertainties in non-linear population trajectories: a Bayesian semi-parametric hierarchical approach to large-scale surveys of coral cover.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Vercelloni

    Full Text Available Recently, attempts to improve decision making in species management have focussed on uncertainties associated with modelling temporal fluctuations in populations. Reducing model uncertainty is challenging; while larger samples improve estimation of species trajectories and reduce statistical errors, they typically amplify variability in observed trajectories. In particular, traditional modelling approaches aimed at estimating population trajectories usually do not account well for nonlinearities and uncertainties associated with multi-scale observations characteristic of large spatio-temporal surveys. We present a Bayesian semi-parametric hierarchical model for simultaneously quantifying uncertainties associated with model structure and parameters, and scale-specific variability over time. We estimate uncertainty across a four-tiered spatial hierarchy of coral cover from the Great Barrier Reef. Coral variability is well described; however, our results show that, in the absence of additional model specifications, conclusions regarding coral trajectories become highly uncertain when considering multiple reefs, suggesting that management should focus more at the scale of individual reefs. The approach presented facilitates the description and estimation of population trajectories and associated uncertainties when variability cannot be attributed to specific causes and origins. We argue that our model can unlock value contained in large-scale datasets, provide guidance for understanding sources of uncertainty, and support better informed decision making.

  10. A study of the health and economic effects of influenza-like illness on the working population under different working environments of a large corporation in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kenneth K C; Li, Shu Chuen; Kwong, Kai Sun; Chan, Thomas Y K; Lee, Vivian W Y; Lau, Joseph T F

    2008-01-01

    The incidence, health and economic impacts of influenza-like illness (ILI) among the working population in Hong Kong had never been studied. Due to the nature of the disease, ILIs can have a significant impact on the operation of a corporation in terms of loss of productivity and reduced work performance. The present study was undertaken to determine the health and economic impacts of ILIs under different environmental conditions on the working population of a large corporation. Over 2,000 employees of a large corporation in the travelling and tourism industry were studied with three different types of working environment (confined, typical office and well ventilated) by two structured questionnaires. The most affected group in terms of productivity and health was the group working in a confined area, whilst those working in a well-ventilated area were least affected. However, symptoms of the confined area group seemed to disappear faster. The infection rate appeared to vary according to work environment for the studied population. Policies on preventive measures and early treatment are important for a corporation to reduce loss in productivity due to ILIs.

  11. Understanding uncertainties in non-linear population trajectories: a Bayesian semi-parametric hierarchical approach to large-scale surveys of coral cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercelloni, Julie; Caley, M Julian; Kayal, Mohsen; Low-Choy, Samantha; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2014-01-01

    Recently, attempts to improve decision making in species management have focussed on uncertainties associated with modelling temporal fluctuations in populations. Reducing model uncertainty is challenging; while larger samples improve estimation of species trajectories and reduce statistical errors, they typically amplify variability in observed trajectories. In particular, traditional modelling approaches aimed at estimating population trajectories usually do not account well for nonlinearities and uncertainties associated with multi-scale observations characteristic of large spatio-temporal surveys. We present a Bayesian semi-parametric hierarchical model for simultaneously quantifying uncertainties associated with model structure and parameters, and scale-specific variability over time. We estimate uncertainty across a four-tiered spatial hierarchy of coral cover from the Great Barrier Reef. Coral variability is well described; however, our results show that, in the absence of additional model specifications, conclusions regarding coral trajectories become highly uncertain when considering multiple reefs, suggesting that management should focus more at the scale of individual reefs. The approach presented facilitates the description and estimation of population trajectories and associated uncertainties when variability cannot be attributed to specific causes and origins. We argue that our model can unlock value contained in large-scale datasets, provide guidance for understanding sources of uncertainty, and support better informed decision making.

  12. Imputation of the rare HOXB13 G84E mutation and cancer risk in a large population-based cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Hoffmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient approach to characterizing the disease burden of rare genetic variants is to impute them into large well-phenotyped cohorts with existing genome-wide genotype data using large sequenced referenced panels. The success of this approach hinges on the accuracy of rare variant imputation, which remains controversial. For example, a recent study suggested that one cannot adequately impute the HOXB13 G84E mutation associated with prostate cancer risk (carrier frequency of 0.0034 in European ancestry participants in the 1000 Genomes Project. We show that by utilizing the 1000 Genomes Project data plus an enriched reference panel of mutation carriers we were able to accurately impute the G84E mutation into a large cohort of 83,285 non-Hispanic White participants from the Kaiser Permanente Research Program on Genes, Environment and Health Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging cohort. Imputation authenticity was confirmed via a novel classification and regression tree method, and then empirically validated analyzing a subset of these subjects plus an additional 1,789 men from Kaiser specifically genotyped for the G84E mutation (r2 = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.37–0.77. We then show the value of this approach by using the imputed data to investigate the impact of the G84E mutation on age-specific prostate cancer risk and on risk of fourteen other cancers in the cohort. The age-specific risk of prostate cancer among G84E mutation carriers was higher than among non-carriers. Risk estimates from Kaplan-Meier curves were 36.7% versus 13.6% by age 72, and 64.2% versus 24.2% by age 80, for G84E mutation carriers and non-carriers, respectively (p = 3.4x10-12. The G84E mutation was also associated with an increase in risk for the fourteen other most common cancers considered collectively (p = 5.8x10-4 and more so in cases diagnosed with multiple cancer types, both those including and not including prostate cancer, strongly suggesting

  13. Imputation of the Rare HOXB13 G84E Mutation and Cancer Risk in a Large Population-Based Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Sakoda, Lori C.; Shen, Ling; Jorgenson, Eric; Habel, Laurel A.; Liu, Jinghua; Kvale, Mark N.; Asgari, Maryam M.; Banda, Yambazi; Corley, Douglas; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Schaefer, Catherine; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Risch, Neil; Witte, John S.

    2015-01-01

    An efficient approach to characterizing the disease burden of rare genetic variants is to impute them into large well-phenotyped cohorts with existing genome-wide genotype data using large sequenced referenced panels. The success of this approach hinges on the accuracy of rare variant imputation, which remains controversial. For example, a recent study suggested that one cannot adequately impute the HOXB13 G84E mutation associated with prostate cancer risk (carrier frequency of 0.0034 in European ancestry participants in the 1000 Genomes Project). We show that by utilizing the 1000 Genomes Project data plus an enriched reference panel of mutation carriers we were able to accurately impute the G84E mutation into a large cohort of 83,285 non-Hispanic White participants from the Kaiser Permanente Research Program on Genes, Environment and Health Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging cohort. Imputation authenticity was confirmed via a novel classification and regression tree method, and then empirically validated analyzing a subset of these subjects plus an additional 1,789 men from Kaiser specifically genotyped for the G84E mutation (r2 = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.37−0.77). We then show the value of this approach by using the imputed data to investigate the impact of the G84E mutation on age-specific prostate cancer risk and on risk of fourteen other cancers in the cohort. The age-specific risk of prostate cancer among G84E mutation carriers was higher than among non-carriers. Risk estimates from Kaplan-Meier curves were 36.7% versus 13.6% by age 72, and 64.2% versus 24.2% by age 80, for G84E mutation carriers and non-carriers, respectively (p = 3.4×10−12). The G84E mutation was also associated with an increase in risk for the fourteen other most common cancers considered collectively (p = 5.8×10−4) and more so in cases diagnosed with multiple cancer types, both those including and not including prostate cancer, strongly suggesting pleiotropic effects

  14. Health-economic evaluation of home telemonitoring for COPD in Germany: evidence from a large population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achelrod, Dmitrij; Schreyögg, Jonas; Stargardt, Tom

    2017-09-01

    Telemonitoring for COPD has gained much attention thanks to its potential of reducing morbidity and mortality, healthcare utilisation and costs. However, its benefit with regard to clinical and economic outcomes remains to be clearly demonstrated. To analyse the effect of Europe's largest COPD telemonitoring pilot project on direct medical costs, health resource utilisation and mortality at 12 months. We evaluated a population-based cohort using administrative data. Difference-in-difference estimators were calculated to account for time-invariant unobservable heterogeneity after removing dissimilarities in observable characteristics between the telemonitoring and control group with a reweighting algorithm. The analysis comprised 651 telemonitoring participants and 7047 individuals in the standard care group. The mortality hazards ratio was lower in the intervention arm (HR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.30-0.86). Telemonitoring cut total costs by 895 € (p Telemonitoring enrolees used healthcare (all-cause and COPD-related) less intensely with shorter hospital stays, fewer inpatient stays and smaller proportions of people with emergency department visits and hospitalisations (all p telemonitoring for COPD is a viable strategy to reduce mortality, healthcare costs and utilisation at 12 months. Contrary to widespread fear, reducing the intensity of care does not seem to impact unfavourably on health outcomes. The evidence offers strong support for introducing telemonitoring as a component of case management.

  15. Psychopathological mechanisms linking childhood traumatic experiences to risk of psychotic symptoms: analysis of a large, representative population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nierop, Martine; Lataster, Tineke; Smeets, Feikje; Gunther, Nicole; van Zelst, Catherine; de Graaf, Ron; ten Have, Margreet; van Dorsselaer, Saskia; Bak, Maarten; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; van Os, Jim; van Winkel, Ruud

    2014-03-01

    Different psychological models of trauma-induced psychosis have been postulated, often based on the observation of "specific" associations between particular types of childhood trauma (CT) and particular psychotic symptoms or the co-occurrence of delusions and hallucinations. However, the actual specificity of these associations remains to be tested. In 2 population-based studies with comparable methodology (Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-1 [NEMESIS-1] and NEMESIS-2, N = 13 722), trained interviewers assessed CT, psychotic symptoms, and other psychopathology. Specificity of associations was assessed with mixed-effects regression models with multiple outcomes, a statistical method suitable to examine specificity of associations in case of multiple correlated outcomes. Associations with CT were strong and significant across the entire range of psychotic symptoms, without evidence for specificity in the relationship between particular trauma variables and particular psychotic experiences (PEs). Abuse and neglect were both associated with PEs (OR abuse: 2.12, P effect size. Intention-to-harm experiences showed stronger associations with psychosis than CT without intent (χ(2) = 58.62, P childhood traumatic experiences to psychosis, most likely characterized by co-occurrence of hallucinations and delusions, indicating buildup of psychotic intensification, rather than specific psychotic symptoms in isolation. No evidence was found to support psychological theories regarding specific associations between particular types of CT and particular psychotic symptoms.

  16. Distinct variants of extreme psychopathic individuals in society at large: evidence from a population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drislane, Laura E; Patrick, Christopher J; Sourander, Andre; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Aggen, Steven H; Elonheimo, Henrik; Parkkola, Kai; Multimäki, Petteri; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2014-04-01

    This study used model-based cluster analysis to identify subtypes of men who scored high in overall psychopathy (i.e., ≥ 95th percentile on the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure; n = 193) from a larger sample evaluated for service in the Finnish military (N = 4043). Cluster variates consisted of scores on distinct facets of psychopathy together with a measure of negative affectivity. The best-fitting model specified 2 clusters, representing "primary" (n = 110) and "secondary" psychopathy (n = 83) groups. Compared to a low-psychopathy comparison group (n = 1878), both psychopathy subgroups showed markedly elevated levels of externalizing symptoms and criminal behavior. Secondary psychopathic participants also reported high levels of internalizing problems including anxiousness, depression, and somatization, and scored higher on the disinhibition facet of psychopathy relative to the primary group. By contrast, primary psychopathic individuals reported fewer internalizing problems than either the secondary psychopathy or comparison groups and scored higher on the boldness facet of psychopathy. Primary psychopathic participants also had higher rates of violent crimes than the secondary psychopaths. Implications for conceptualizing and studying psychopathy in nonforensic populations are discussed.

  17. SU Lyncis, a hard X-ray bright M giant: Clues point to a large hidden population of symbiotic stars

    CERN Document Server

    Mukai, K; Cusumano, G; Segreto, A; Munari, U; Sokoloski, J L; Lucy, A B; Nelson, T; Nunez, N E

    2016-01-01

    Symbiotic star surveys have traditionally relied almost exclusively on low resolution optical spectroscopy. However, we can obtain a more reliable estimate of their total Galactic population by using all available signatures of the symbiotic phenomenon. Here we report the discovery of a hard X-ray source, 4PBC J0642.9+5528, in the Swift hard X-ray all-sky survey, and identify it with a poorly studied red giant, SU Lyn, using pointed Swift observations and ground-based optical spectroscopy. The X-ray spectrum, the optical to UV spectrum, and the rapid UV variability of SU Lyn are all consistent with our interpretation that it is a symbiotic star containing an accreting white dwarf. The symbiotic nature of SU Lyn went unnoticed until now, because it does not exhibit emission lines strong enough to be obvious in low resolution spectra. We argue that symbiotic stars without shell-burning have weak emission lines, and that the current lists of symbiotic stars are biased in favor of shell-burning systems. We conclu...

  18. Enterobius vermicularis infection in schoolchildren: a large-scale survey 6 years after a population-based control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L-C; Hwang, K-P; Chen, E-R

    2010-01-01

    Pinworm infection remains prevalent in children in many parts of the world. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of this infection in schoolchildren in Taiwan after the termination of the 15-year population-based control project in 2001. Our results showed that 2.4% of 118 190 children in 385 primary schools were found to have enterobiasis by two-consecutive-day adhesive cellophane perianal swabs. The prevalences were significantly different in the 25 counties/cities surveyed (0.6-6.6%). A significantly higher prevalence was found in boys (2.6%) than in girls (2.2%) and the prevalence decreased by grade from 3.8% in grade 1 to 1.0% in grade 6. In the primary schools, 9.1% had positive rates 10%. In addition, pinworm infection was found to be significantly associated with the socioeconomic status, personal hygiene and sanitary conditions of the children. The results indicate that the overall prevalence of enterobiasis remains at a low level after the control programme was transferred to the local governments.

  19. Studies on rice seed quality through analysis of a large-scale T-DNA insertion population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang-Fang Fu; Rui Ye; Shu-Ping Xu; Hong-Wei Xue

    2009-01-01

    A rice (Oryza satIva) T-DNA insertion population, which included more than 63 000 independent transgenic lines and 8 840 identified flanking sequence tags (FSTs) that were mapped onto the rice genome, was developed to systemi-cally study the rice seed quality control. Genome-wide analysis of the FST distribution showed that T-DNA insertions were positively correlated with expressed genes, but negatively with transposable elements and small RNAs. In addi-tion, the recovered T-DNAs were preferentially located at the untranslated region of the expressed genes. More than 11000 putative homozygous fines were obtained through multi-generations of planting and resistance screening, and measurement of seed quality of around half of them, including the contents of starch, amylose, protein and fat, with a nondestructive near-infrared spectroscopy method, identified 551 mutants with unique or multiple altered param-eters of seed quality. Analysis of the corresponding FSTs showed that genes participating in diverse functions, include-ing metabolic processes and transcriptional regulation, were involved, indicating that seed quality is regulated by a complex network.

  20. Life-history diversity and its importance to population stability and persistence of a migratory fish: steelhead in two large North American watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jonathan W; Yeakel, Justin D; Peard, Dean; Lough, Jeff; Beere, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Life-history strategies can buffer individuals and populations from environmental variability. For instance, it is possible that asynchronous dynamics among different life histories can stabilize populations through portfolio effects. Here, we examine life-history diversity and its importance to stability for an iconic migratory fish species. In particular, we examined steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), an anadromous and iteroparous salmonid, in two large, relatively pristine, watersheds, the Skeena and Nass, in north-western British Columbia, Canada. We synthesized life-history information derived from scales collected from adult steelhead (N = 7227) in these watersheds across a decade. These migratory fishes expressed 36 different manifestations of the anadromous life-history strategy, with 16 different combinations of freshwater and marine ages, 7·6% of fish performing multiple spawning migrations, and up to a maximum of four spawning migrations per lifetime. Furthermore, in the Nass watershed, various life histories were differently prevalent through time - three different life histories were the most prevalent in a given year, and no life history ever represented more than 45% of the population. These asynchronous dynamics among life histories decreased the variability of numerical abundance and biomass of the aggregated population so that it was > 20% more stable than the stability of the weighted average of specific life histories: evidence of a substantial portfolio effect. Year of ocean entry was a key driver of dynamics; the median correlation coefficient of abundance of life histories that entered the ocean the same year was 2·5 times higher than the median pairwise coefficient of life histories that entered the ocean at different times. Simulations illustrated how different elements of life-history diversity contribute to stability and persistence of populations. This study provides evidence that life-history diversity can dampen fluctuations in

  1. Egg trait variation in a large hawk-cuckoo (Hierococcyx sparverioides) host population of Chinese babax (Babax lanceolatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Canchao; Liu, Yang; Liang, Wei

    2015-05-01

    Mutual interaction between brood parasites and their hosts is a well-known model system for studying host-parasite coevolution. Both parties have acted reciprocally, resembling an evolutionary arms race, in which adaptations and counter-adaptations have evolved as a result of host-parasite dynamics, such as the classical cuckoo-host system. Discrimination among parasite and cuckoo eggs and rejection of foreign eggs is regarded as an important anti-parasitism strategy. The Chinese babax (Babax lanceolatus) is a large hawk-cuckoo (Hierococcyx sparverioides) host distributed in southwest China. A previous study shows that the babax is an intermediate egg rejector, and most cuckoo eggs are accepted by the Chinese babax, although a small proportion of hosts reject cuckoo eggs. Interestingly, the large hawk-cuckoo lays non-mimetic eggs in contrast to the uniform blue eggs of babaxes. Because egg coloration is a critical cue used by host species in favor of the recognition of parasitic eggs by hosts, we used a spectrometer to quantify egg color variation to understand the differentiation in discrimination ability between the egg rejectors and acceptors. We found that the chroma of intra-clutch variation of babax eggs was more consistent in egg rejectors than in acceptors. However, no statistical significance was found in inter-clutch variation between these two types of hosts. Our results suggest that hosts lay eggs with a low level of intra-clutch variation without the necessity of a high level of inter-clutch variation simultaneously as predicted by the egg signature hypothesis. This study may further indicate that selection pressures from evolutionarily recent parasites can drive individual-based differences in an anti-parasitism strategy.

  2. Integration of silicon-based neural probes and micro-drive arrays for chronic recording of large populations of neurons in behaving animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michon, Frédéric; Aarts, Arno; Holzhammer, Tobias; Ruther, Patrick; Borghs, Gustaaf; McNaughton, Bruce; Kloosterman, Fabian

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Understanding how neuronal assemblies underlie cognitive function is a fundamental question in system neuroscience. It poses the technical challenge to monitor the activity of populations of neurons, potentially widely separated, in relation to behaviour. In this paper, we present a new system which aims at simultaneously recording from a large population of neurons from multiple separated brain regions in freely behaving animals. Approach. The concept of the new device is to combine the benefits of two existing electrophysiological techniques, i.e. the flexibility and modularity of micro-drive arrays and the high sampling ability of electrode-dense silicon probes. Main results. Newly engineered long bendable silicon probes were integrated into a micro-drive array. The resulting device can carry up to 16 independently movable silicon probes, each carrying 16 recording sites. Populations of neurons were recorded simultaneously in multiple cortical and/or hippocampal sites in two freely behaving implanted rats. Significance. Current approaches to monitor neuronal activity either allow to flexibly record from multiple widely separated brain regions (micro-drive arrays) but with a limited sampling density or to provide denser sampling at the expense of a flexible placement in multiple brain regions (neural probes). By combining these two approaches and their benefits, we present an alternative solution for flexible and simultaneous recordings from widely distributed populations of neurons in freely behaving rats.

  3. A high fraction of Be stars in young massive clusters: evidence for a large population of near-critically rotating stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, N.; Cabrera-Ziri, I.; Niederhofer, F.; de Mink, S.; Georgy, C.; Baade, D.; Correnti, M.; Usher, C.; Romaniello, M.

    2017-03-01

    Recent photometric analyses of the colour-magnitude diagrams of young massive clusters (YMCs) have found evidence for splitting in the main sequence and extended main-sequence turn-offs, both of which have been suggested to be caused by stellar rotation. Comparison of the observed main-sequence splitting with models has led various authors to suggest a rather extreme stellar rotation distribution, with a minority (10-30 per cent) of stars with low rotational velocities and the remainder (70-90 per cent) of stars rotating near the critical rotation (i.e. near break-up). We test this hypothesis by searching for Be stars within two YMCs in the Large Magellanic Cloud (NGC 1850 and NGC 1856), which are thought to be critically rotating stars with decretion discs that are (partially) ionized by their host stars. In both clusters, we detect large populations of Be stars at the main-sequence turn-off (∼30-60 per cent of stars), which supports previous suggestions of large populations of rapidly rotating stars within massive clusters.

  4. Physical mobility, physical activity, and obesity among elderly: findings from a large population-based Swedish survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asp, M; Simonsson, B; Larm, P; Molarius, A

    2017-06-01

    To examine how physical activity and physical mobility are related to obesity in the elderly. A cross-sectional study of 2558 men and women aged 65 years and older who participated in a population survey in 2012 was conducted in mid-Sweden with an overall response rate of 67%. Obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2)) was based on self-reported weight and height, and physical activity and physical mobility on questionnaire data. Chi-squared test and multiple logistic regressions were used as statistical analyses. The overall prevalence of obesity was 19% in women and 15% in men and decreased after the age of 75 years. A strong association between both physical activity and obesity, and physical mobility and obesity was found. The odds for obesity were higher for impaired physical mobility (odds ratio [OR] 2.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.14-3.75) than for physical inactivity (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.28-2.08) when adjusted for gender, age, socio-economic status and fruit and vegetable intake. However, physical activity was associated with obesity only among elderly with physical mobility but not among those with impaired physical mobility. It is important to focus on making it easier for elderly with physical mobility to become or stay physically active, whereas elderly with impaired physical mobility have a higher prevalence of obesity irrespective of physical activity. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. What Potential Donors in Research Biobanking Want to Know: A Large Population Study of the Italian Twin Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toccaceli, Virgilia; Brescianini, Sonia; Fagnani, Corrado; Gigantesco, Antonella; D'Abramo, Flavio; Stazi, Maria Antonietta

    2016-12-01

    highlights the social value of population biobanks. Furthermore, the results call for greater efforts in the promotion of research biobanking.

  6. Somatic Complaints Are Significantly Associated with Chronic Uninvestigated Dyspepsia and Its Symptoms: A Large Cross-sectional Population Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Zahra; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Feizi, Awat; Afshar, Hamid; Adibi, Payman

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Somatization may influence persistence and severity of symptoms in gastrointestinal diseases. Some studies suggest that somatization is associated with chronic uninvestigated dyspepsia (CUD); however, the association is unclear. We aimed to determine the association between the profiles of somatic complaints with CUD and its symptoms. Methods In a cross-sectional study conducted on 4763 Iranian adults, somatic complaints were assessed using a comprehensive 31-items questionnaire. Patients with CUD were identified by the Rome III diagnostic criteria. Profiles of somatic complaints were derived from factor analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between extracted profiles with CUD and its symptoms. Results CUD, bothersome postprandial fullness, early satiation, and epigastric pain or burning was identified in 723 (15.2%), 384 (8.1%), 302 (6.3%), and 371 (7.8%) of the study population. The frequency of all 31 somatic complaints was significantly higher in patients with CUD compared with controls (P < 0.001), and the most frequent was severe fatigue (45.1%). The profiles of somatic complaints were extracted in 4 domains, including “psychological”, “gastrointestinal”, “neuro-skeletal”, and “pharyngeal-respiratory”. The psychological (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.44–1.54), gastrointestinal (OR, 2.22; 95% CI, 2.09–2.37), neuro-skeletal (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.44–1.59), and pharyngeal-respiratory (OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.94–2.25) profiles were significantly associated with greater odds of CUD. Conclusions CUD and its symptoms are strongly associated with higher levels of somatic complaints and their related extracted profiles. This perhaps explains that why it can be difficult to treat, however further prospective investigations are required to confirm these associations. PMID:27503912

  7. Clinical and biomechanical behavior of a platinum-chromium stent platform in a large all-comer single-center population: insights from the Novara-PROMETEUS registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Alessandro; Porto, Italo; Rognoni, Andrea; Lazzero, Maurizio; Fattori, Rossella; Parisi, Rosario; De Maria, Giovanni Luigi; Bongo, Angelo Sante; Sheiban, Imad; Bolognese, Leonardo; Agostoni, Pierfrancesco; Secco, Gioel Gabrio

    2014-07-01

    Longitudinal deformation has been described as a new complication affecting new-generation thin-strut coronary stents. Benchmark tests have suggested that the platinum-chromium (PtCr) Element coronary stent platform (Boston Scientific) might present increased susceptibility to this complication. Our study assessed the incidence of longitudinal stent deformation in a large single-center study population. A total of 337 consecutive Promus Element PtCr stents deployed in an all-comer population underwent quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) analysis. Postdeployment QCA measured/nominal stent length ratio (SLR) was considered as a surrogate estimate of longitudinal stent deformation and averaged 0.95 ± 0.04 in the entire population. This small postdeployment reduction of stent length had no clinical relevance, leading to 3 cases (0.9%) of trivial geographical miss, which did not require further interventions. Plaque prolapse through the stent struts was observed in 19 cases (5.6%). Only 1 case of typical "concertina" effect (0.3%) complicated an ostial stenosis treatment requiring deployment of a second stent, while in 3 cases (0.9%), stent struts adapted to severely tortuous and calcified vessels mimicked longitudinal stent deformation, without further complications. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between need for predilation and lower SLR values, while postdilation independently predicted higher SLR. Systematic QCA analysis of a large single-center all-comers PCI population treated with PtCr stents failed to detect any clinically relevant longitudinal stent deformation. Complex lesions needing predilation were associated with a reduced SLR; conversely, postdilation was associated with QCA stent measures close to nominal. Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT01759719.

  8. Validation of the Omron MIT Elite blood pressure device in a pregnant population with large arm circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lauren; Nzelu, Diane; Hay, Anna; Shennan, Andrew; Kametas, Nikos A

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the Omron MIT Elite automated device in pregnant women with an arm circumference of or above 32 cm, using the British Hypertension Society validation protocol. Blood pressure was measured sequentially in 46 women of any gestation requiring the use of a large cuff (arm circumference ≥32 cm) alternating between the mercury sphygmomanometer and the Omron MIT Elite device. The Omron MIT Elite achieved an overall D/D grade with a mean of the device-observer difference being 7.17±6.67 and 9.31±6.59 for systolic and diastolic blood pressure respectively. Interobserver accuracy was 94.6% for systolic and 95% for diastolic readings within 5 mmHg. The Omron MIT Elite overestimates blood pressure and has failed the British Hypertension Society protocol requirements. Therefore, it cannot be recommended for use in pregnant women with an arm circumference of or above 32 cm.

  9. An Analysis of the Population of Extended Main Sequence Turn-off Clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Piatti, Andrés E

    2016-01-01

    We combine a number of recent studies of the extended main sequence turn-off (eMSTO) phenomenon in intermediate age stellar ($1-2$ Gyr) clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) in order to investigate its origin. By employing the largest sample of eMSTO LMC clusters so far used, we show that cluster core radii, masses, and dynamical state are not related to the genesis of eMSTOs. Indeed, clusters in our sample have core radii, masses and age-relaxation time ratios in the range $\\approx$ 2--6 pc, 3.35- 5.50 (log($M_{cls}$/$M_\\odot$) and 0.2-8.0, respectively. These results imply that the eMSTO phenomenon is not caused by actual age spreads within the clusters. Furthermore, we confirm from a larger cluster sample recent results including young eMSTO LMC clusters, that the FWHM at the MSTOs correlates most strongly with cluster age, suggesting that a stellar evolutionary effect is the underlying cause.

  10. An Analysis of the Population of Extended Main Sequence Turn-off Clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatti, Andrés E.; Bastian, Nate

    2016-08-01

    We combine a number of recent studies of the extended main sequence turn-off (eMSTO) phenomenon in intermediate age stellar (1 - 2 Gyr) clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) in order to investigate its origin. By employing the largest sample of eMSTO LMC clusters so far used, we show that cluster core radii, masses, and dynamical state are not related to the genesis of eMSTOs. Indeed, clusters in our sample have core radii, masses and age-relaxation time ratios in the range ≈ 2-6 pc, 3.35- 5.50 (log(Mcls/M⊙) and 0.2-8.0, respectively. These results imply that the eMSTO phenomenon is not caused by actual age spreads within the clusters. Furthermore, we confirm from a larger cluster sample recent results including young eMSTO LMC clusters, that the FWHM at the MSTOs correlates most strongly with cluster age, suggesting that a stellar evolutionary effect is the underlying cause.

  11. POLYMORPHISM OF PROLACTIN RECEPTOR GENE (PRLR IN THE POLISH LANDRACE AND POLISH LARGE WHITE SWINE POPULATION AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGATA ZIÓŁKOWSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolactin receptor gene was found in pig chromosome 16, and it is one of the genes with a significant effect on reproduction traits in sows. The objective of the research was to determine polymorphism of the prolactin receptor gene in pigs of two maternal breeds: Polish Landrace and Polish Large White, as well as analyse relations between particular allelomorphic variants, and reproduction traits of examined sows. Two PRLR gene alleles, A and B, were isolated, they were obtained after AluI restriction gene digestion of the PCR product with the length of 163 bp; furthermore, three genotypes were identified: PRLRAA – 85, 59, 19 bp; PRLRAB – 104, 85, 59, 19 bp; PRLRBB – 104, 59 bp. We assessed 122 sows, in terms of their age at the first farrowing, as well as the sizes of the two subsequent litters. No statistically significant differences were found in the examined reproduction traits in sows with different allelomorphic relations, both within each breed and between breeds. Obtained results indicate that it is necessary to conduct further research on a larger animal group.

  12. Sleep and use of alcohol and drug in adolescence. A large population-based study of Norwegian adolescents aged 16 to 19 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivertsen, Børge; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Jakobsen, Reidar; Hysing, Mari

    2015-04-01

    Changes in sleep patterns and increased substance involvement are common in adolescence, but our knowledge of the nature of their association remains limited. The aim of this study was to examine the association between several sleep problems and sleep behaviours, and use and misuse of alcohol and illicit drugs using data from a large population-based sample. A large population-based study from Norway conducted in 2012, the youth@hordaland study, surveyed 9328 adolescents aged 16-19 years (54% girls). Self-reported sleep measures provided information on sleep duration, sleep deficit, weekday bedtime and bedtime difference and insomnia. The main dependent variables were frequency and amount of alcohol consumption and illicit drug use, in addition to the presence of alcohol and drug problems as measured by CRAFFT. The results showed that all sleep parameters were associated with substance involvement in a dose-response manner. Short sleep duration, sleep deficit, large bedtime differences and insomnia were all significantly associated with higher odds of all alcohol and drug use/misuse measures. The associations were only partly attenuated by sociodemographics factors and co-existing symptoms of depression and ADHD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first population-based study to examine the association between sleep, and alcohol and drug use, by employing detailed measures of sleep behaviour and problems, as well as validated measures on consumption of alcohol and illicit drug use. The findings call for increased awareness of the link between sleep problems and alcohol and drugs use/misuse as a major public health issue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of loudness in detection of surprising events in music recordings

    OpenAIRE

    Holonowicz, Piotr; Herrera, Perfecto; Purwins, Hendrik

    2009-01-01

    The abrupt change of loudness is a salient event that is not always expected by a music listener. Therefore loudness is an important cue when seeking for events in a music stream that could violate human expectations. The concept of expectation and surprise in music has become recently the subject of extensive research, however mostly using symbolic data. The aim of this work is to investigate the circumstances when a change of sound intensity could be surprising for a listener. Then, using t...

  14. The Effect of Functional Hearing and Hearing Aid Usage on Verbal Reasoning in a Large Community-Dwelling Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidser, Gitte; Rudner, Mary; Seeto, Mark; Hygge, Staffan; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-01-01

    controlling for executive function eliminated the effect. However, when computer usage was controlled for, the eliminating effect of executive function was weakened. Poor functional hearing was associated with poor verbal reasoning in a 40- to 70-year-old community-dwelling population after controlling for age, gender, and education. The effect of functional hearing on verbal reasoning was significantly reduced among hearing aid users and completely overcome by good executive function skills, which may be enhanced by playing computer games.

  15. Computational surprisal analysis speeds-up genomic characterization of cancer processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko-Balasha, Nataly; Simon, Simcha; Levine, R D; Remacle, F; Exman, Iaakov

    2014-01-01

    Surprisal analysis is increasingly being applied for the examination of transcription levels in cellular processes, towards revealing inner network structures and predicting response. But to achieve its full potential, surprisal analysis should be integrated into a wider range computational tool. The purposes of this paper are to combine surprisal analysis with other important computation procedures, such as easy manipulation of the analysis results--e.g. to choose desirable result sub-sets for further inspection--, retrieval and comparison with relevant datasets from public databases, and flexible graphical displays for heuristic thinking. The whole set of computation procedures integrated into a single practical tool is what we call Computational Surprisal Analysis. This combined kind of analysis should facilitate significantly quantitative understanding of different cellular processes for researchers, including applications in proteomics and metabolomics. Beyond that, our vision is that Computational Surprisal Analysis has the potential to reach the status of a routine method of analysis for practitioners. The resolving power of Computational Surprisal Analysis is here demonstrated by its application to a variety of cellular cancer process transcription datasets, ours and from the literature. The results provide a compact biological picture of the thermodynamic significance of the leading gene expression phenotypes in every stage of the disease. For each transcript we characterize both its inherent steady state weight, its correlation with the other transcripts and its variation due to the disease. We present a dedicated website to facilitate the analysis for researchers and practitioners.

  16. Computational surprisal analysis speeds-up genomic characterization of cancer processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly Kravchenko-Balasha

    Full Text Available Surprisal analysis is increasingly being applied for the examination of transcription levels in cellular processes, towards revealing inner network structures and predicting response. But to achieve its full potential, surprisal analysis should be integrated into a wider range computational tool. The purposes of this paper are to combine surprisal analysis with other important computation procedures, such as easy manipulation of the analysis results--e.g. to choose desirable result sub-sets for further inspection--, retrieval and comparison with relevant datasets from public databases, and flexible graphical displays for heuristic thinking. The whole set of computation procedures integrated into a single practical tool is what we call Computational Surprisal Analysis. This combined kind of analysis should facilitate significantly quantitative understanding of different cellular processes for researchers, including applications in proteomics and metabolomics. Beyond that, our vision is that Computational Surprisal Analysis has the potential to reach the status of a routine method of analysis for practitioners. The resolving power of Computational Surprisal Analysis is here demonstrated by its application to a variety of cellular cancer process transcription datasets, ours and from the literature. The results provide a compact biological picture of the thermodynamic significance of the leading gene expression phenotypes in every stage of the disease. For each transcript we characterize both its inherent steady state weight, its correlation with the other transcripts and its variation due to the disease. We present a dedicated website to facilitate the analysis for researchers and practitioners.

  17. The Burden of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Papua New Guinea: Results of a Large Population-Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Aia

    Full Text Available Reliable estimates of the burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB are crucial for effective control and prevention of tuberculosis (TB. Papua New Guinea (PNG is a high TB burden country with limited information on the magnitude of the MDR-TB problem.A cross-sectional study was conducted in four PNG provinces: Madang, Morobe, National Capital District and Western Province. Patient sputum samples were tested for rifampicin resistance by the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and those showing the presence of resistance underwent phenotypic susceptibility testing to first- and second-line anti-TB drugs including streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, ofloxacin, amikacin, kanamycin and capreomycin.Among 1,182 TB patients enrolled in the study, MDR-TB was detected in 20 new (2.7%; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.1-4.3% and 24 previously treated (19.1%; 95%CI: 8.5-29.8% TB cases. No case of extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB was detected. Thirty percent (6/20 of new and 33.3% (8/24 of previously treated cases with MDR-TB were detected in a single cluster in Western Province.In PNG the proportion of MDR-TB in new cases is slightly lower than the regional average of 4.4% (95%CI: 2.6-6.3%. A large proportion of MDR-TB cases were identified from a single hospital in Western Province, suggesting that the prevalence of MDR-TB across the country is heterogeneous. Future surveys should further explore this finding. The survey also helped strengthening the use of smear microscopy and Xpert MTB/RIF testing as diagnostic tools for TB in the country.

  18. Genome-wide association studies identify the loci for 5 exterior traits in a Large White × Minzhu pig population.

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    Ligang Wang

    Full Text Available As one of the main breeding selection criteria, external appearance has special economic importance in the hog industry. In this study, an Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip was used to conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS in 605 pigs of the F2 generation derived from a Large White × Minzhu intercross. Traits under study were abdominal circumference (AC, body height (BH, body length (BL, cannon bone circumference (CBC, chest depth (CD, chest width (CW, rump circumference (RC, rump width (RW, scapula width (SW, and waist width (WW. A total of 138 SNPs (the most significant being MARC0033464 on chromosome 7 were found to be associated with BH, BL, CBC, and RC (P-value= 4.15E-6. One SNP on chromosome 1 was found to be associated with CD at genome-wide significance levels. The percentage phenotypic variance of these significant SNPs ranged from 0.1-25.48%. Moreover, a conditional analysis revealed that the significant SNPs were derived from a single quantitative trait locus (QTL and indicated additional chromosome-wide significant association for 25 SNPs on SSC4 (BL, CBC and 9 SNPs on SSC7 (RC. Linkage analysis revealed two complete linkage disequilibrium haplotype blocks that contained seven and four SNPs, respectively. In block 1, the most significant SNP, MARC0033464, was present. Annotations from pig reference genome suggested six genes (GRM4, HMGA1, NUDT3, RPS10, SPDEF and PACSIN1 in block 1 (495 kb, and one gene (SCUBE3 in block 3 (124 kb. Functional analysis indicated that HMGA1 and SCUBE3 genes are the potential genes controlling BH, BL, and RC in pigs, with an application in breeding programs. We screened several candidate intervals and genes based on SNP location and gene function, and predicted their function using bioinformatics analyses.

  19. Structural validity of the tonic immobility scale in a population exposed to trauma: evidence from two large Brazilian samples.

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    Michael Reichenheim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tonic Immobility is a temporary state of motor inhibition in situations involving extreme fear. The first scale developed for its assessment was the 10-item Tonic Immobility Scale (TIS. However, there are still few studies on its structural (dimensional validity. The objective of this study was to reassess the factor structure of the TIS applied to representative samples exposed to general trauma of two Brazilian mega-cities. METHODS: The sample comprised 3,223 participants reporting at least one traumatic experience. In São Paulo (n = 2,148, a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA first tested the originally proposed two-dimensional structure. This was followed by sequential Exploratory Structural Equation Models to identify the best fitting model, and subsequently tested in Rio de Janeiro (n = 1,075 via CFA. Alternative reduced versions were further explored using the aggregate sample. Model-based Item Response Theory (IRT location parameters were also investigated. RESULTS: An absence of factor-based convergent and discriminant validity rejected the original proposition. However, the one-dimensional structure still held several residual correlations. Further exploration indicated the sustainability of reduced versions with seven (alternative A and six (alternative B items. Both presented excellent fit and no relevant residual item correlation. According to the IRT location parameters, items in alternative B covered a wider range of the latent trait. The Loevinger's H scalability coefficients underscored this pattern. CONCLUSIONS: The original model did not hold. A one-factor solution was the most tenable in both large samples, but with significant item residual correlations, indicating that content redundancies persisted. Further reduced and simplified versions of the TIS proved promising. Although studies are yet to be carried out in other settings, it is the authors' impression that the restricted versions of the TIS are

  20. Implementation of two high through-put techniques in a novel application: detecting point mutations in large EMS mutated plant populations

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    van Loo Eibertus N

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The establishment of mutant populations together with the strategies for targeted mutation detection has been applied successfully to a large number of organisms including many species in the plant kingdom. Considerable efforts have been invested into research on tomato as a model for berry-fruit plants. With the progress of the tomato sequencing project, reverse genetics becomes an obvious and achievable goal. Results Here we describe the treatment of Solanum lycopersicum seeds with 1% EMS and the development of a new mutated tomato population. To increase targeted mutant detection throughput an automated seed DNA extraction has been combined with novel mutation detection platforms for TILLING in plants. We have adapted two techniques used in human genetic diagnostics: Conformation Sensitive Capillary Electrophoresis (CSCE and High Resolution DNA Melting Analysis (HRM to mutation screening in DNA pools. Classical TILLING involves critical and time consuming steps such as endonuclease digestion reactions and gel electrophoresis runs. Using CSCE or HRM, the only step required is a simple PCR before either capillary electrophoresis or DNA melting curve analysis. Here we describe the development of a mutant tomato population, the setting up of two polymorphism detection platforms for plants and the results of the first screens as mutation density in the populations and estimation of the false-positives rate when using HRM to screen DNA pools. Conclusion These results demonstrate that CSCE and HRM are fast, affordable and sensitive techniques for mutation detection in DNA pools and therefore allow the rapid identification of new allelic variants in a mutant population. Results from the first screens indicate that the mutagen treatment has been effective with an average mutation detection rate per diploid genome of 1.36 mutation/kb/1000 lines.

  1. A population-based incidence of M2 strokes indicates potential expansion of large vessel occlusions amenable to endovascular therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Ansaar T; Domico, Jennifer R; Buseman, Chelsea; Tarabishy, Abdul R; Fulks, Daniel; Lucke-Wold, Noelle; Boo, SoHyun; Carpenter, Jeffrey S

    2017-09-28

    M2 occlusions may result in poor outcomes and potentially benefit from endovascular therapy. Data on the rate of M2 strokes is lacking. Patients with acute ischemic stroke discharged over a period of 3 years from a tertiary level hospital in the 'stroke belt' were evaluated for M2 occlusions on baseline vascular imaging. Regional and national incidence was calculated from discharge and multicounty data. There were 2739 ICD-9 based AIS discharges. M2 occlusions in 116 (4%, 95% CI 3.5% to 5%) patients constituted the second most common occlusion site. The median National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score was 12 (IQR 5-18). Good outcomes were observed in 43% (95% CI 34% to 53%), poor outcomes in 57% (95% CI 47% to 66%), and death occurred in 27% (95% CI 19% to 37%) of patients. Receiver operating characteristics curves showed the NIHSS to be predictive of outcomes (area under the curve 0.829, 95% CI 0.745 to 0.913, p<0.0001). An NIHSS score ≥9 was the optimal cut-off point for predicting poor outcomes (sensitivity 85.7%, specificity 67.4%). 71 (61%) patients had an NIHSS score ≥9 and 45 (39%) an NIHSS score <9. The rate of good-outcome was 22.6% for NIHSS score ≥9 versus 78.4% for NIHSSscore <9 (OR=0.08, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.21, p<0.0001). Mortality was 42% for NIHSS score ≥9versus 2.7% for NIHSS score <9 (OR=26, 95% CI 3.3 to 202, p<0.0001). Infarct volume was 57 (±55.7) cm(3) for NIHSS score ≥9 versus 30 (±34)cm(3) for NIHSS score <9 (p=0.003). IV recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) administered in 28 (24%) patients did not affect outcomes. The rate of M2 occlusions was 7 (95% CI 5 to 9)/100 000 people/year (3%, 95% CI 2% to 4%), giving an incidence of 21 176 (95% CI 15 282 to 29 247)/year. Combined with M1, internal carotid artery terminus and basilar artery, this yields a 'large vessel occlusion (LVO)+M2' rate of 31 (95% CI 26 to 35)/100 000 people/year and a national incidence of 99 227 (95% CI 84 004 to 112

  2. Genetic drift of HIV populations in culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yegor Voronin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Populations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1 undergo a surprisingly large amount of genetic drift in infected patients despite very large population sizes, which are predicted to be mostly deterministic. Several models have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, but all of them implicitly assume that the process of virus replication itself does not contribute to genetic drift. We developed an assay to measure the amount of genetic drift for HIV populations replicating in cell culture. The assay relies on creation of HIV populations of known size and measurements of variation in frequency of a neutral allele. Using this assay, we show that HIV undergoes approximately ten times more genetic drift than would be expected from its population size, which we defined as the number of infected cells in the culture. We showed that a large portion of the increase in genetic drift is due to non-synchronous infection of target cells. When infections are synchronized, genetic drift for the virus is only 3-fold higher than expected from its population size. Thus, the stochastic nature of biological processes involved in viral replication contributes to increased genetic drift in HIV populations. We propose that appreciation of these effects will allow better understanding of the evolutionary forces acting on HIV in infected patients.

  3. Reference values for the cervical length measurement in the second trimester of pregnancy using the transvaginal ultrasound in a large Brazilian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Alberto Borges; da Cunha Caldas, Taciana Mara Rodrigues; Alamy, Ana Helena Bittencourt; Martins, Wellington P.; Bruns, Rafael Frederico

    2016-01-01

    To establish reference values for the cervical length (CL) measurement by transvaginal ultrasound between 20 and 24+6 weeks of gestation in a large Brazilian population. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed with 996 singleton pregnancies. The CL measurement (mm) using the transvaginal ultrasound was obtained in a sagittal view and the calipers positioned to measure the linear distance between the triangular area of echodensity at the external os and the internal os. The median±standard deviation and ranges for the CL measurement (mm) was 37.0±10.7 (range, 8 to 51). CL measurement did not modify significantly with gestational age. The observed percentiles for the CL measurement (mm) considering all number case were the following: 5th, 28 mm; 50th, 37 mm; and 95th, 45 mm. Reference values for the CL measurement by transvaginal ultrasound between 20 and 24+6 weeks of gestation in a large heterogeneous Brazilian population were established. PMID:27462597

  4. A multi-stage approach to maximizing geocoding success in a large population-based cohort study through automated and interactive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonderman, Jennifer S; Mumma, Michael T; Cohen, Sarah S; Cope, Elizabeth L; Blot, William J; Signorello, Lisa B

    2012-05-01

    To enable spatial analyses within a large, prospective cohort study of nearly 86,000 adults enrolled in a 12-state area in the southeastern United States of America from 2002-2009, a multi-stage geocoding protocol was developed to efficiently maximize the proportion of participants assigned an address level geographic coordinate. Addresses were parsed, cleaned and standardized before applying a combination of automated and interactive geocoding tools. Our full protocol increased the non-Post Office (PO) Box match rate from 74.5% to 97.6%. Overall, we geocoded 99.96% of participant addresses, with only 5.2% at the ZIP code centroid level (2.8% PO Box and 2.3% non-PO Box addresses). One key to reducing the need for interactive geocoding was the use of multiple base maps. Still, addresses in areas with population density geocoding than those in areas with >920 persons/km2 (odds ratio (OR) = 5.24; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.23, 6.49), as were addresses collected from participants during in-person interviews compared with mailed questionnaires (OR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.59, 2.11). This study demonstrates that population density and address ascertainment method can influence automated geocoding results and that high success in address level geocoding is achievable for large-scale studies covering wide geographical areas.

  5. A multi-stage approach to maximizing geocoding success in a large population-based cohort study through automated and interactive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Sonderman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To enable spatial analyses within a large, prospective cohort study of nearly 86,000 adults enrolled in a 12-state area in the southeastern United States of America from 2002-2009, a multi-stage geocoding protocol was developed to efficiently maximize the proportion of participants assigned an address level geographic coordinate. Addresses were parsed, cleaned and standardized before applying a combination of automated and interactive geocoding tools. Our full protocol increased the non-Post Office (PO Box match rate from 74.5% to 97.6%. Overall, we geocoded 99.96% of participant addresses, with only 5.2% at the ZIP code centroid level (2.8% PO Box and 2.3% non-PO Box addresses. One key to reducing the need for interactive geocoding was the use of multiple base maps. Still, addresses in areas with population density 920 persons/km2 (odds ratio (OR = 5.24; 95% confidence interval (CI = 4.23, 6.49, as were addresses collected from participants during in-person interviews compared with mailed questionnaires (OR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.59, 2.11. This study demonstrates that population density and address ascertainment method can influence automated geocoding results and that high success in address level geocoding is achievable for large-scale studies covering wide geographical areas.

  6. A high fraction of Be stars in young massive clusters: evidence for a large population of near-critically rotating stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bastian, N; Niederhofer, F; de Mink, S; Georgy, C; Baade, D; Correnti, M; Usher, C; Romaniello, M

    2016-01-01

    Recent photometric analysis of the colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of young massive clusters (YMCs) have found evidence for splitting in the main sequence and extended main sequence turn-offs, both of which have been suggested to be caused by stellar rotation. Comparison of the observed main sequence splitting with models has led various authors to suggest a rather extreme stellar rotation distribution, with a minority ($10-30$\\%) of stars with low rotational velocities and the remainder ($70-90$\\%) of stars rotating near the critical rotation (i.e., near break-up). We test this hypothesis by searching for Be stars within two YMCs in the LMC (NGC 1850 and NGC 1856), which are thought to be critically rotating stars with decretion disks that are (partially) ionised by their host stars. In both clusters we detect large populations of Be stars at the main sequence turn-off ($\\sim30-60$\\% of stars), which supports previous suggestions of large populations of rapidly rotating stars within massive clusters.

  7. Quiescent Galaxies in the 3D-HST Survey: Spectroscopic Confirmation of a Large Number of Galaxies With Relatively Old Stellar Populations at z Approx. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tease, Katherine Whitaker; vanDokkum, Pieter G.; Brammer, Gabriel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Skelton, Rosalind; Franx, Marijin; Kriek, Mariska; Labbe, Ivo; Fumagalli, Mattia; Lundgren, Britt F.; Nelson, Erica J.; Patel, Shannon G.; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2013-01-01

    Quiescent galaxies at z approx. 2 have been identified in large numbers based on rest-frame colors, but only a small number of these galaxies have been spectroscopically confirmed to show that their rest-frame optical spectra show either strong Balmer or metal absorption lines. Here, we median stack the rest-frame optical spectra for 171 photometrically quiescent galaxies at 1.4 populations already existed when the universe was approx. 3 Gyr old, and that rest-frame color selection techniques can efficiently select them. We find an average age of 1.3+0.10.3 Gyr when fitting a simple stellar population to the entire stack. We confirm our previous result from medium-band photometry that the stellar age varies with the colors of quiescent galaxies: the reddest 80 of galaxies are dominated by metal lines and have a relatively old mean age of 1.6+0.50.4 Gyr, whereas the bluest (and brightest) galaxies have strong Balmer lines and a spectroscopic age of 0.9+0.20.1 Gyr. Although the spectrum is dominated by an evolved stellar population, we also find [O iii] and H emission. Interestingly, this emission is more centrally concentrated than the continuum with LOiii = 1.7+/- 0.3 x 10(exp 40) erg/s, indicating residual central star formation or nuclear activity.

  8. Pooled Resequencing of 122 Ulcerative Colitis Genes in a Large Dutch Cohort Suggests Population-Specific Associations of Rare Variants in MUC2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visschedijk, Marijn C.; Alberts, Rudi; Mucha, Soren; Deelen, Patrick; de Jong, Dirk J.; Pierik, Marieke; Spekhorst, Lieke M.; Imhann, Floris; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E.; van der Woude, C. Janneke; van Bodegraven, Adriaan A.; Oldenburg, Bas; Löwenberg, Mark; Dijkstra, Gerard; Ellinghaus, David; Schreiber, Stefan; Wijmenga, Cisca; Rivas, Manuel A.; Franke, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have revealed several common genetic risk variants for ulcerative colitis (UC). However, little is known about the contribution of rare, large effect genetic variants to UC susceptibility. In this study, we performed a deep targeted re-sequencing of 122 genes in Dutch UC patients in order to investigate the contribution of rare variants to the genetic susceptibility to UC. The selection of genes consists of 111 established human UC susceptibility genes and 11 genes that lead to spontaneous colitis when knocked-out in mice. In addition, we sequenced the promoter regions of 45 genes where known variants exert cis-eQTL-effects. Targeted pooled re-sequencing was performed on DNA of 790 Dutch UC cases. The Genome of the Netherlands project provided sequence data of 500 healthy controls. After quality control and prioritization based on allele frequency and pathogenicity probability, follow-up genotyping of 171 rare variants was performed on 1021 Dutch UC cases and 1166 Dutch controls. Single-variant association and gene-based analyses identified an association of rare variants in the MUC2 gene with UC. The associated variants in the Dutch population could not be replicated in a German replication cohort (1026 UC cases, 3532 controls). In conclusion, this study has identified a putative role for MUC2 on UC susceptibility in the Dutch population and suggests a population-specific contribution of rare variants to UC. PMID:27490946

  9. Occupational self-coding and automatic recording (OSCAR): a novel web-based tool to collect and code lifetime job histories in large population-based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Matteis, Sara; Jarvis, Deborah; Young, Heather; Young, Alan; Allen, Naomi; Potts, James; Darnton, Andrew; Rushton, Lesley; Cullinan, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Objectives The standard approach to the assessment of occupational exposures is through the manual collection and coding of job histories. This method is time-consuming and costly and makes it potentially unfeasible to perform high quality analyses on occupational exposures in large population-based studies. Our aim was to develop a novel, efficient web-based tool to collect and code lifetime job histories in the UK Biobank, a population-based cohort of over 500 000 participants. Methods We developed OSCAR (occupations self-coding automatic recording) based on the hierarchical structure of the UK Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) 2000, which allows individuals to collect and automatically code their lifetime job histories via a simple decision-tree model. Participants were asked to find each of their jobs by selecting appropriate job categories until they identified their job title, which was linked to a hidden 4-digit SOC code. For each occupation a job title in free text was also collected to estimate Cohen's kappa (κ) inter-rater agreement between SOC codes assigned by OSCAR and an expert manual coder. Results OSCAR was administered to 324 653 UK Biobank participants with an existing email address between June and September 2015. Complete 4-digit SOC-coded lifetime job histories were collected for 108 784 participants (response rate: 34%). Agreement between the 4-digit SOC codes assigned by OSCAR and the manual coder for a random sample of 400 job titles was moderately good [κ=0.45, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.42-0.49], and improved when broader job categories were considered (κ=0.64, 95% CI 0.61-0.69 at a 1-digit SOC-code level). Conclusions OSCAR is a novel, efficient, and reasonably reliable web-based tool for collecting and automatically coding lifetime job histories in large population-based studies. Further application in other research projects for external validation purposes is warranted.

  10. Population response to the risk of vector-borne diseases: lessons learned from socio-behavioural research during large-scale outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setbon, M; Raude, J

    2009-01-01

    Vector-borne infectious diseases, such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, and West Nile fevers are increasingly identified as major global human health threats in developing and developed countries. The success or failure of vector control rests mainly on the nature and scale of the behavioural response of exposed populations. Large-scale adoption of recommended protective behaviour represents a critical challenge that cannot be addressed without a better understanding of how individuals perceive and react to the risk of infection. Recently, French overseas territories faced large-scale outbreaks: an epidemic of chikungunya fever in La Re' union and Mayotte (2005-2006) and four successive outbreaks of dengue fever in one Caribbean island, Martinique (1995-2007). To assess how these populations perceived and responded to the risk, and how the nature and scale of protection affected their clinical status, socio-epidemiological surveys were conducted on each island during the outbreaks. These surveys address three crucial and interconnected questions relevant to the period after persons infected by the virus were identified: which factors shape the risk of acquiring disease? Which socio- demographic characteristics and living conditions induce a higher likelihood of infection? What is the impact of risk perception on protective behaviours adopted against mosquito bites? Grounded on the results of these surveys, a general framework is proposed to help draw out the knowledge needed to reveal the factors associated with higher probability of infection as an outbreak emerges. The lessons learnt can inform health authorities' efforts to improve risk communication programmes, both in terms of the target and content of messages, so as to explore new strategies for ensuring sustainable protective behaviour. The authors compare three epidemics of vector-borne diseases to elucidate psychosocial factors that determine how populations perceive and respond to the risk of infectious

  11. The analysis of eight transcriptomes from all poriferan classes reveals surprising genetic complexity in sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesgo, Ana; Farrar, Nathan; Windsor, Pamela J; Giribet, Gonzalo; Leys, Sally P

    2014-05-01

    Sponges (Porifera) are among the earliest evolving metazoans. Their filter-feeding body plan based on choanocyte chambers organized into a complex aquiferous system is so unique among metazoans that it either reflects an early divergence from other animals prior to the evolution of features such as muscles and nerves, or that sponges lost these characters. Analyses of the Amphimedon and Oscarella genomes support this view of uniqueness-many key metazoan genes are absent in these sponges-but whether this is generally true of other sponges remains unknown. We studied the transcriptomes of eight sponge species in four classes (Hexactinellida, Demospongiae, Homoscleromorpha, and Calcarea) specifically seeking genes and pathways considered to be involved in animal complexity. For reference, we also sought these genes in transcriptomes and genomes of three unicellular opisthokonts, two sponges (A. queenslandica and O. carmela), and two bilaterian taxa. Our analyses showed that all sponge classes share an unexpectedly large complement of genes with other metazoans. Interestingly, hexactinellid, calcareous, and homoscleromorph sponges share more genes with bilaterians than with nonbilaterian metazoans. We were surprised to find representatives of most molecules involved in cell-cell communication, signaling, complex epithelia, immune recognition, and germ-lineage/sex, with only a few, but potentially key, absences. A noteworthy finding was that some important genes were absent from all demosponges (transcriptomes and the Amphimedon genome), which might reflect divergence from main-stem lineages including hexactinellids, calcareous sponges, and homoscleromorphs. Our results suggest that genetic complexity arose early in evolution as shown by the presence of these genes in most of the animal lineages, which suggests sponges either possess cryptic physiological and morphological complexity and/or have lost ancestral cell types or physiological processes.

  12. [Effect of data missing on population based viral load survey in HIV infected men who have sex with men sampled in 16 large cities, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z; Dou, Z; Yan, Z H; Song, W L; Chen, Y; Ren, X L; Chen, J; Cao, W; Xu, J; Wu, Z Y

    2017-09-10

    Objective: To analyze the effect of missing data in population based viral load (PVL) survey in HIV infected men who have sex with men (MSM) sampled in 16 cities in China. Methods: The database of 3 virus load sampling survey conducted consecutively in HIV infected MSM population in 16 large cities (Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Wuhan, Chongqing, Kunming, Xi'an, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Nanning, Urumuqi, Harbin, Changchun, Chengdu and Tianjin) during 2013-2015 was used. SPSS 17.0 software was used to describe distribution of the missing data and analyze associated factors. Results: A total of 12 150 HIV infected MSM were randomly selected for the surveys, in whom, 9 141 (75.2%) received virus load tests, while 3 009 (24.8%) received no virus load tests, whose virus load data missed. The virus load data missing rates in MSM with or without access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) were 11.5% (765/6 675) and 39.4% (2 060/5 223) respectively, and the virus load data missing rates were 21.9% (1 866/8 523) and 28.4% (959/3 374), respectively, in local residents and non-local residents (migrants). Conclusions: The analysis indicated that the data missing occurred in the virus load survey in HIV infected MSM population. ART status and census registering status were the main influencing factors. Data missing could influence the accurate evaluation of community viral load (CVL) and population viral load(PVL) levels in HIV infected MSM in China.

  13. Efficient reduction of complex noise in passive millimeter-wavelength video utilizing Bayesian surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundhenk, T. Nathan; Baron, Josh; Matic, Roy M.

    2011-06-01

    Passive millimeter wavelength (PMMW) video holds great promise given its ability to see targets and obstacles through fog, smoke and rain. However, current imagers produce undesirable complex noise. This can come as a mixture of fast shot (snow like) noise and a slower forming circular fixed pattern. Shot noise can be removed by a simple gain style filter. However, this can produce blurring of objects in the scene. To alleviate this, we measure the amount of Bayesian surprise in videos. Bayesian surprise is feature change in time which is abrupt, but cannot be accounted for as shot noise. Surprise is used to attenuate the shot noise filter in locations of high surprise. Since high Bayesian surprise in videos is very salient to observers, this reduces blurring particularly in places where people visually attend. Fixed pattern noise is removed after the shot noise using a combination of Non-uniformity correction (NUC) and Eigen Image Wavelet Transformation. The combination allows for online removal of time varying fixed pattern noise even when background motion may be absent. It also allows for online adaptation to differing intensities of fixed pattern noise. The fixed pattern and shot noise filters are all efficient allowing for real time video processing of PMMW video. We show several examples of PMMW video with complex noise that is much cleaner as a result of the noise removal. Processed video clearly shows cars, houses, trees and utility poles at 20 frames per second.

  14. Detection of quantitative trait loci for reproduction and production traits in Large White and French Landrace pig populations (Open Access publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidanel Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A genome-wide scan was performed in Large White and French Landrace pig populations in order to identify QTL affecting reproduction and production traits. The experiment was based on a granddaughter design, including five Large White and three French Landrace half-sib families identified in the French porcine national database. A total of 239 animals (166 sons and 73 daughters of the eight male founders distributed in eight families were genotyped for 144 microsatellite markers. The design included 51 262 animals recorded for production traits, and 53 205 litter size records were considered. Three production and three reproduction traits were analysed: average backfat thickness (US_M and live weight (LWGT at the end of the on-farm test, age of candidates adjusted at 100 kg live weight, total number of piglets born per litter, and numbers of stillborn (STILLp and born alive (LIVp piglets per litter. Ten QTL with medium to large effects were detected at a chromosome-wide significance level of 5% affecting traits US_M (on SSC2, SSC3 and SSC17, LWGT (on SSC4, STILLp (on SSC6, SSC11 and SSC14 and LIVp (on SSC7, SSC16 and SSC18. The number of heterozygous male founders varied from 1 to 3 depending on the QTL.

  15. Revisiting the Middle Molecule Hypothesis of Uremic Toxicity: A Systematic Review of Beta 2 Microglobulin Population Kinetics and Large Scale Modeling of Hemodialysis Trials In Silico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumelioti, Maria Eleni; Nolin, Thomas; Unruh, Mark L; Argyropoulos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Beta-2 Microglobulin (β2M) is a prototypical "middle molecule" uremic toxin that has been associated with a higher risk of death in hemodialysis patients. A quantitative description of the relative importance of factors determining β2M concentrations among patients with impaired kidney function is currently lacking. Herein we undertook a systematic review of existing studies reporting patient level data concerning generation, elimination and distribution of β2M in order to develop a population model of β2M kinetics. We used this model and previously determined relationships between predialysis β2M concentration and survival, to simulate the population distribution of predialysis β2M and the associated relative risk (RR) of death in patients receiving conventional thrice-weekly hemodialysis with low flux (LF) and high flux (HF) dialyzers, short (SD) and long daily (LD) HF hemodialysis sessions and on-line hemodiafiltration at different levels of residual renal function (RRF). We identified 9 studies of 106 individuals and 156 evaluations of or more compartmental kinetic parameters of β2M. These studies used a variety of experimental methods to determine β2M kinetics ranging from isotopic dilution to profiling of intra/inter dialytic concentration changes. Most of the patients (74/106) were on dialysis with minimal RRF, thus facilitating the estimation of non-renal elimination kinetics of β2M. In large scale (N = 10,000) simulations of individuals drawn from the population of β2M kinetic parameters, we found that, higher dialytic removal materially affects β2M exposures only when RRF (renal clearance of β2M) was below 2 ml/min. In patients initiating conventional HF hemodialysis, total loss of RRF was predicted to be associated with a RR of death of more than 20%. Hemodiafiltration and daily dialysis may decrease the high risk of death of anuric patients by 10% relative to conventional, thrice weekly HF dialysis. Only daily long sessions of hemodialysis

  16. Conference of “Uncertainty and Surprise: Questions on Working with the Unexpected and Unknowable”

    CERN Document Server

    McDaniel, Reuben R; Uncertainty and Surprise in Complex Systems : Questions on Working with the Unexpected

    2005-01-01

    Complexity science has been a source of new insight in physical and social systems and has demonstrated that unpredictability and surprise are fundamental aspects of the world around us. This book is the outcome of a discussion meeting of leading scholars and critical thinkers with expertise in complex systems sciences and leaders from a variety of organizations sponsored by the Prigogine Center at The University of Texas at Austin and the Plexus Institute to explore strategies for understanding uncertainty and surprise. Besides distributions to the conference it includes a key digest by the editors as well as a commentary by the late nobel laureat Ilya Prigogine, "Surprises in half of a century". The book is intended for researchers and scientists in complexity science as well as for a broad interdisciplinary audience of both practitioners and scholars. It will well serve those interested in the research issues and in the application of complexity science to physical and social systems.

  17. What is a surprise earthquake? The example of the 2002, San Giuliano (Italy event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mucciarelli

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Both in scientific literature and in the mass media, some earthquakes are defined as «surprise earthquakes». Based on his own judgment, probably any geologist, seismologist or engineer may have his own list of past «surprise earthquakes». This paper tries to quantify the underlying individual perception that may lead a scientist to apply such a definition to a seismic event. The meaning is different, depending on the disciplinary approach. For geologists, the Italian database of seismogenic sources is still too incomplete to allow for a quantitative estimate of the subjective degree of belief. For seismologists, quantification is possible defining the distance between an earthquake and its closest previous neighbor. Finally, for engineers, the San Giuliano quake could not be considered a surprise, since probabilistic site hazard estimates reveal that the change before and after the earthquake is just 4%.

  18. Towards a Population Dynamics Theory for Evolutionary Computing: Learning from Biological Population Dynamics in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhanshan (Sam)

    In evolutionary computing (EC), population size is one of the critical parameters that a researcher has to deal with. Hence, it was no surprise that the pioneers of EC, such as De Jong (1975) and Holland (1975), had already studied the population sizing from the very beginning of EC. What is perhaps surprising is that more than three decades later, we still largely depend on the experience or ad-hoc trial-and-error approach to set the population size. For example, in a recent monograph, Eiben and Smith (2003) indicated: "In almost all EC applications, the population size is constant and does not change during the evolutionary search." Despite enormous research on this issue in recent years, we still lack a well accepted theory for population sizing. In this paper, I propose to develop a population dynamics theory forEC with the inspiration from the population dynamics theory of biological populations in nature. Essentially, the EC population is considered as a dynamic system over time (generations) and space (search space or fitness landscape), similar to the spatial and temporal dynamics of biological populations in nature. With this conceptual mapping, I propose to 'transplant' the biological population dynamics theory to EC via three steps: (i) experimentally test the feasibility—whether or not emulating natural population dynamics improves the EC performance; (ii) comparatively study the underlying mechanisms—why there are improvements, primarily via statistical modeling analysis; (iii) conduct theoretical analysis with theoretical models such as percolation theory and extended evolutionary game theory that are generally applicable to both EC and natural populations. This article is a summary of a series of studies we have performed to achieve the general goal [27][30]-[32]. In the following, I start with an extremely brief introduction on the theory and models of natural population dynamics (Sections 1 & 2). In Sections 4 to 6, I briefly discuss three

  19. Surprise and Opportunity for Learning in Grand Canyon: the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, T. S.; Walters, C. J.; Korman, J.

    2013-12-01

    With a focus on resources of the Colorado River ecosystem downstream of Glen Canyon Dam in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area (GCNRA) and Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) of northern Arizona, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program has evaluated experimental flow and nonflow policy tests since 1990. Flow experiments have consisted of a variety of water releases from the dam within pre-existing annual downstream delivery agreements. The daily experimental dam operation, termed the Modified Low Fluctuating Flow (MLFF), implemented in 1996 to increase daily low flows and decrease daily peaks were intended to limit daily flow range to conserve tributary sand inputs and improve navigation among other objectives, including hydropower energy. Other flow tests have included controlled floods with some larger releases bypassing the dam's hydropower plant to rebuild and maintain eroded sandbars in GCNP. Experimental daily hydropeaking tests beyond MLFF have also been evaluated for managing the exotic recreational rainbow trout fishery in the dam's GCNRA tailwater. Experimental nonflow policies, such as physical removal of exotic fish below the tailwater, and experimental translocation of endangered native humpback chub from spawning habitats in the Little Colorado River (the largest natal origin site for chub in the basin) to other tributaries within GCNP have also been monitored. None of these large-scale field experiments has yet produced unambiguous results in terms of management prescriptions, owing to inadequate monitoring programs and confounding of treatment effects with effects of ongoing natural changes; most notably, a persistent warming of the river resulting from reduced storage in the dam's reservoir after 2003. But there have been several surprising results relative to predictions from models developed to identify monitoring needs and evaluate experimental design options at the start of the adaptive ecosystem assessment and management program in 1997

  20. Salience and Attention in Surprisal-Based Accounts of Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarcone, Alessandra; van Schijndel, Marten; Vogels, Jorrig; Demberg, Vera

    2016-01-01

    The notion of salience has been singled out as the explanatory factor for a diverse range of linguistic phenomena. In particular, perceptual salience (e.g., visual salience of objects in the world, acoustic prominence of linguistic sounds) and semantic-pragmatic salience (e.g., prominence of recently mentioned or topical referents) have been shown to influence language comprehension and production. A different line of research has sought to account for behavioral correlates of cognitive load during comprehension as well as for certain patterns in language usage using information-theoretic notions, such as surprisal. Surprisal and salience both affect language processing at different levels, but the relationship between the two has not been adequately elucidated, and the question of whether salience can be reduced to surprisal / predictability is still open. Our review identifies two main challenges in addressing this question: terminological inconsistency and lack of integration between high and low levels of representations in salience-based accounts and surprisal-based accounts. We capitalize upon work in visual cognition in order to orient ourselves in surveying the different facets of the notion of salience in linguistics and their relation with models of surprisal. We find that work on salience highlights aspects of linguistic communication that models of surprisal tend to overlook, namely the role of attention and relevance to current goals, and we argue that the Predictive Coding framework provides a unified view which can account for the role played by attention and predictability at different levels of processing and which can clarify the interplay between low and high levels of processes and between predictability-driven expectation and attention-driven focus. PMID:27375525

  1. Salience and attention in surprisal-based accounts of language processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eZarcone

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The notion of salience has been singled out as the explanatory factor for a diverse range oflinguistic phenomena. In particular, perceptual salience (e.g. visual salience of objects in the world,acoustic prominence of linguistic sounds and semantic-pragmatic salience (e.g. prominence ofrecently mentioned or topical referents have been shown to influence language comprehensionand production. A different line of research has sought to account for behavioral correlates ofcognitive load during comprehension as well as for certain patterns in language usage usinginformation-theoretic notions, such as surprisal. Surprisal and salience both affect languageprocessing at different levels, but the relationship between the two has not been adequatelyelucidated, and the question of whether salience can be reduced to surprisal / predictability isstill open. Our review identifies two main challenges in addressing this question: terminologicalinconsistency and lack of integration between high and low levels of representations in salience-based accounts and surprisal-based accounts. We capitalise upon work in visual cognition inorder to orient ourselves in surveying the different facets of the notion of salience in linguisticsand their relation with models of surprisal. We find that work on salience highlights aspects oflinguistic communication that models of surprisal tend to overlook, namely the role of attentionand relevance to current goals, and we argue that the Predictive Coding framework provides aunified view which can account for the role played by attention and predictability at different levelsof processing and which can clarify the interplay between low and high levels of processes andbetween predictability-driven expectation and attention-driven focus.

  2. One In Five Inpatient Emergency Department Cases May Lead To Surprise Bills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmon, Christopher; Chartock, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    A surprise medical bill is a bill from an out-of-network provider that was not expected by the patient or that came from an out-of-network provider not chosen by the patient. In 2014, 20 percent of hospital inpatient admissions that originated in the emergency department (ED), 14 percent of outpatient visits to the ED, and 9 percent of elective inpatient admissions likely led to a surprise medical bill. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  3. Risk, surprises and black swans fundamental ideas and concepts in risk assessment and risk management

    CERN Document Server

    Aven, Terje

    2014-01-01

    Risk, Surprises and Black Swans provides an in depth analysis of the risk concept with a focus on the critical link to knowledge; and the lack of knowledge, that risk and probability judgements are based on.Based on technical scientific research, this book presents a new perspective to help you understand how to assess and manage surprising, extreme events, known as 'Black Swans'. This approach looks beyond the traditional probability-based principles to offer a broader insight into the important aspects of uncertain events and in doing so explores the ways to manage them.

  4. Screening for Impaired Cognitive Domains in a Large Parkinson's Disease Population and Its Application to the Diagnostic Procedure for Parkinson's Disease Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouichi Ohta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dementia is a new focus of research on improved treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD. In 2007, a screening tool for PD dementia (PD-D was developed by the Movement Disorder Society (Level I testing, which still requires verification by a large population study. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional and multicenter study including 13 institutions administering the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA to 304 PD patients (mean age: 70.6 ± 8.3 years; mean Hoehn and Yahr stage: 2.7 ± 0.7. Results: In all, 34.5% of the patients had MMSE scores Conclusions: Level I testing with administration of the MMSE and MoCA is a practical and efficient screening tool for PD-D. However, the phonemic fluency and pentagon copying tests should be replaced by more specific/sensitive ones when screening for PD-D.

  5. The relationship between the Five-Factor Model personality traits and peptic ulcer disease in a large population-based adult sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realo, Anu; Teras, Andero; Kööts-Ausmees, Liisi; Esko, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres; Allik, Jüri

    2015-12-01

    The current study examined the relationship between the Five-Factor Model personality traits and physician-confirmed peptic ulcer disease (PUD) diagnosis in a large population-based adult sample, controlling for the relevant behavioral and sociodemographic factors. Personality traits were assessed by participants themselves and by knowledgeable informants using the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO PI-3). When controlling for age, sex, education, and cigarette smoking, only one of the five NEO PI-3 domain scales - higher Neuroticism - and two facet scales - lower A1: Trust and higher C1: Competence - made a small, yet significant contribution (p personality traits that are associated with the diagnosis of PUD at a particular point in time. Further prospective studies with a longitudinal design and multiple assessments would be needed to fully understand if the FFM personality traits serve as risk factors for the development of PUD.

  6. Population Parameters of Intermediate-Age Star Clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud. II. New Insights from Extended Main Sequence Turnoffs in 7 Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Goudfrooij, Paul; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera; Chandar, Rupali

    2011-01-01

    We discuss new photometry from high-resolution images of 7 intermediate-age (1-2 Gyr) star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We fit color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with several different sets of theoretical isochrones, and determine systematic uncertainties for population parameters when derived using any one set of isochrones. The cluster CMDs show several interesting features, including extended main sequence turnoff (MSTO) regions, narrow red giant branches, and clear sequences of unresolved binary stars. We show that the extended MSTOs are not caused by photometric uncertainties, contamination by field stars, or the presence of binary stars. Enhanced helium abundances in a fraction of cluster stars are also ruled out as the reason for the extended MSTOs. Quantitative comparisons with simulations indicate that the MSTO regions are better described by a spread in ages than by a bimodal age distribution, although we can not ...

  7. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: clinical implications of extranodal versus nodal presentation--a population-based study of 1575 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael B; Pedersen, Niels T; Christensen, Bjarne E

    2004-01-01

    Differences in genetic origin between nodal and extranodal diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) exist. Using popul