#### Sample records for surprisingly large fraction

1. Large deviations for fractional Poisson processes

CERN Document Server

Beghin, Luisa

2012-01-01

We present large deviation results for two versions of fractional Poisson processes: the main version which is a renewal process, and the alternative version where all the random variables are weighted Poisson distributed. We also present a sample path large deviation result for suitably normalized counting processes; finally we show how this result can be applied to the two versions of fractional Poisson processes considered in this paper.

2. Comparison of fractionation schedules in the large heterogeneity limit

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Guerrero, M. [Department of Radiation Therapy, Department Of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 50 Irving Street NW, Washington, DC 20422 (United States)

2009-04-15

The author develops an analytical formula that relates total doses in different fractionation schemes using the linear-quadratic (LQ) model in the limit when the interpatient variation in radiosensitivity is large. We use published formulas for tumor control probability and parameter dependence developed for the large heterogeneity limit. We consider the isoeffect equation and uses simple algebraic manipulation to obtain the new fractionation formula valid for the large heterogeneity limit. We study the case of going from a dose per fraction of 1.8 Gy to a dose per fraction of 3 Gy, which is relevant for current hypofractionation schemes for prostate and breast cancer. We find that the total dose for the new fractionation depends not only on the {alpha}/{beta} ratio r but also on the ratio of the corresponding standard deviations {sigma}{sub {alpha}}/{sigma}{sub {beta}} and on the ratio between the original dose D{sub 1} and D{sub 50}. In some special cases, notably when D{sub 1}=D{sub 50(1)}, the standard LQ model is recovered. In general, when the relative widths of the distributions for {alpha} and {beta} are equal or similar, the deviation from the standard LQ model is small, mostly within 5% for D{sub 1}/D{sub 50(1)} from 0.4 up to 1.6. When the width of the distribution for {alpha} is much larger than the one for {beta}, larger deviations from the standard LQ model are found for small values of r but they fall within 10% for r larger than 4 Gy and within 5% for r larger than 10 Gy. The most unforgiving case is when the width of the distribution for {alpha} is much smaller than the one for {beta}, where the largest differences with the standard LQ model are found. While, in general, the formula can give a significantly different result than the standard LQ model equation, we find a range of parameters for which the difference is surprisingly small.

3. Reconstructing parton densities at large fractional momenta

CERN Document Server

Bacchetta, Alessandro; Pasquini, Barbara; Xiong, Xiaonu

2016-01-01

Parton distribution functions (PDFs) are nonperturbative objects defined by nonlocal light-cone correlations. They cannot be computed directly from Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). Using a standard lattice QCD approach, it is possible to compute moments of PDFs, which are matrix elements of local operators. Recently, an alternative approach has been proposed, based on the introduction of quasi-parton distribution functions (quasi-PDFs), which are matrix elements of equal-time spatial correlations and hence calculable on lattice. Quasi-PDFs approach standard PDFs in the limit of very large longitudinal proton momenta $P^z$. This limit is not attainable in lattice simulations, and quasi-PDFs fail to reproduce PDFs at high fractional longitudinal momenta. In this paper, we propose a method to improve the reconstruction of PDFs by combining information from quasi-PDFs and from the Mellin moments of regular PDFs. We test our method using the diquark spectator model for up and down valence distributions of both unpola...

4. Surprising Existence of Massive and Large Molecular Gas Reservoirs in A Distant Protocluster

Science.gov (United States)

Dannerbauer, Helmut

2017-07-01

We know that environment has a critical impact on galaxy growth and evolution. What we do not know is when it starts to have an impact and how it does it. I present results of our on-going survey of low surface brightness emission of cold molecular gas in protoclusters galaxies and their halos with the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). These findings alter our view of the important topics of the development and gas phase distribution of the "proto-intracluster medium": how ram pressure stripping may operate in protoclusters, how the galaxies may contribute to the proto-intracluster medium and how their star formation may be limited by dynamics. Finally, I present our new ATCA Large Program, COALAS (CO ATCA Legacy Archive of Star-Forming Galaxies), which will extend significantly our study of environmental effects on cluster and field galaxies.

5. Ontological Surprises

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Leahu, Lucian

2016-01-01

This paper investigates how we might rethink design as the technological crafting of human-machine relations in the context of a machine learning technique called neural networks. It analyzes Google’s Inceptionism project, which uses neural networks for image recognition. The surprising output of...... a hybrid approach where machine learning algorithms are used to identify objects as well as connections between them; finally, it argues for remaining open to ontological surprises in machine learning as they may enable the crafting of different relations with and through technologies....

6. Surprise Trips

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Korn, Matthias; Kawash, Raghid; Andersen, Lisbet Møller

We report on a platform that augments the natural experience of exploration in diverse indoor and outdoor environments. The system builds on the theme of surprises in terms of user expectations and finding points of interest. It utilizes physical icons as representations of users' interests and a...

7. Charming surprise

CERN Multimedia

Antonella Del Rosso

2011-01-01

The CP violation in charm quarks has always been thought to be extremely small. So, looking at particle decays involving matter and antimatter, the LHCb experiment has recently been surprised to observe that things might be different. Theorists are on the case.   The study of the physics of the charm quark was not in the initial plans of the LHCb experiment, whose letter “b” stands for “beauty quark”. However, already one year ago, the Collaboration decided to look into a wider spectrum of processes that involve charm quarks among other things. The LHCb trigger allows a lot of these processes to be selected, and, among them, one has recently shown interesting features. Other experiments at b-factories have already performed the same measurement but this is the first time that it has been possible to achieve such high precision, thanks to the huge amount of data provided by the very high luminosity of the LHC. “We have observed the decay modes of t...

8. Charming surprise

CERN Multimedia

Antonella Del Rosso

2011-01-01

The CP violation in charm quarks has always been thought to be extremely small. So, looking at particle decays involving matter and antimatter, the LHCb experiment has recently been surprised to observe that things might be different. Theorists are on the case. The study of the physics of the charm quark was not in the initial plans of the LHCb experiment, whose letter “b” stands for “beauty quark”. However, already one year ago, the Collaboration decided to look into a wider spectrum of processes that involve charm quarks among other things. The LHCb trigger allows a lot of these processes to be selected, and, among them, one has recently shown interesting features. Other experiments at b-factories have already performed the same measurement but this is the first time that it has been possible to achieve such high precision, thanks to the huge amount of data provided by the very high luminosity of the LHC. “We have observed the decay modes of the D0, a pa...

9. Glioblastoma multiforme: treatment by large dose fraction irradiation and metronidazole

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kapp, D.S.; Wagner, F.C.; Lawrence, R.

1982-03-01

In an attempt to overcome the possible radioresistance of glioblastoma multiforme related to the large shoulder on the in vitro survival curves and to sensitize hypoxic tumor cells, a treatment protocol was instituted at Yale University Medical Center and affiliated hospitals, using large dose fraction irradiation therapy in conjunction with the hypoxic cell sensitizer metronidazole. Nineteen patients with biopsy-confirmed, previously untreated, cerebral grade IV glioblastoma multiforme were, following surgery, irradiated once a week at 600 rad per fraction, 3.5 to 4 hours after ingestion of metronidazole, 6 gm/m/sup 2/. A total of 7 treatments were employed, with all patients maintained on antiseizure medications and corticosteroids. Metronidazole levels were determined prior to each treatment and patients were followed closely clinically and with serial computerized tomography (CT) scans. The treatment was well tolerated, in general, with no untoward side effects related to the high dose fraction irradiation. The majority of the patients experienced varying degrees of gastrointestinal upset lasting up to several hours following metronidazole administration. Three patients died of pulmonary emboli. One patient experienced moderately severe ototoxicity. A median survival of 9.4 months was obtained for all 19 patients, suggestive of a prolongation of survival compared to historical controls treated with conventionally fractionated radiation or with unconventional radiation fractionation schemes and metronidazole or misonidazole.

10. Large fraction of crystal directions leads to ion channeling

Science.gov (United States)

Nordlund, K.; Djurabekova, F.; Hobler, G.

2016-12-01

It is well established that when energetic ions are moving in crystals, they may penetrate much deeper if they happen to be directed in some specific crystal directions. This channeling' effect is utilized for instance in certain ion beam analysis methods and has been described by analytical theories and atomistic computer simulations. However, there have been very few systematic studies of channeling in directions other than the principal low-index ones. We present here a molecular dynamics-based approach to calculate ion channeling systematically over all crystal directions, providing ion channeling maps' that easily show in which directions channeling is expected. The results show that channeling effects can be quite significant even at energies below 1 keV, and that in many cases, significant planar channeling occurs also in a wide range of crystal directions between the low-index principal ones. In all of the cases studied, a large fraction (˜20 -60 % ) of all crystal directions show channeling. A practical implication of this is that modern experiments on randomly oriented nanostructures will have a large probability of channeling. It also means that when ion irradiations are carried out on polycrystalline samples, channeling effects on the results cannot a priori be assumed to be negligible. The maps allow for easy selection of good nonchanneling' directions in experiments or alternatively finding wide channels for beneficial uses of channeling. We implement channeling theory to also give the fraction of channeling directions in a manner directly comparable to the simulations. The comparison shows good qualitative agreement. In particular, channeling theory is very good at predicting which channels are active at a given energy. This is true down to sub-keV energies, provided the penetration depth is not too small.

11. Large sulfur isotope fractionations in Martian sediments at Gale crater

Science.gov (United States)

Franz, H. B.; McAdam, A. C.; Ming, D. W.; Freissinet, C.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Eldridge, D. L.; Fischer, W. W.; Grotzinger, J. P.; House, C. H.; Hurowitz, J. A.; McLennan, S. M.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Vaniman, D. T.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Atreya, S. K.; Conrad, P. G.; Dottin, J. W., III; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Farley, K. A.; Glavin, D. P.; Johnson, S. S.; Knudson, C. A.; Morris, R. V.; Navarro-González, R.; Pavlov, A. A.; Plummer, R.; Rampe, E. B.; Stern, J. C.; Steele, A.; Summons, R. E.; Sutter, B.

2017-09-01

Variability in the sulfur isotopic composition in sediments can reflect atmospheric, geologic and biological processes. Evidence for ancient fluvio-lacustrine environments at Gale crater on Mars and a lack of efficient crustal recycling mechanisms on the planet suggests a surface environment that was once warm enough to allow the presence of liquid water, at least for discrete periods of time, and implies a greenhouse effect that may have been influenced by sulfur-bearing volcanic gases. Here we report in situ analyses of the sulfur isotopic compositions of SO2 volatilized from ten sediment samples acquired by NASA’s Curiosity rover along a 13 km traverse of Gale crater. We find large variations in sulfur isotopic composition that exceed those measured for Martian meteorites and show both depletion and enrichment in 34S. Measured values of δ34S range from -47 +/- 14‰ to 28 +/- 7‰, similar to the range typical of terrestrial environments. Although limited geochronological constraints on the stratigraphy traversed by Curiosity are available, we propose that the observed sulfur isotopic signatures at Gale crater can be explained by equilibrium fractionation between sulfate and sulfide in an impact-driven hydrothermal system and atmospheric processing of sulfur-bearing gases during transient warm periods.

12. Large bulk matter search for fractional charge particles

CERN Document Server

Lee, I

2002-01-01

We have carried out the largest search for stable particles with fractional electric charge, based on an oil drop method that incorporates a horizontal electric field and upward air flow. No evidence for such particles was found, giving a 95% C.L. upper limit of $1.15\\times 10^{-22}$ particles per nucleon on the abundance of fractional charge particles in silicone oil for $0.18 e \\le |Q_{residual}| \\le 0.82 e$.

13. Accurate reaction barrier heights of pericyclic reactions: Surprisingly large deviations for the CBS-QB3 composite method and their consequences in DFT benchmark studies.

Science.gov (United States)

Karton, Amir; Goerigk, Lars

2015-04-05

Accurate barrier heights are obtained for the 26 pericyclic reactions in the BHPERI dataset by means of the high-level Wn-F12 thermochemical protocols. Very often, the complete basis set (CBS)-type composite methods are used in similar situations, but herein it is shown that they in fact result in surprisingly large errors with root mean square deviations (RMSDs) of about 2.5 kcal mol(-1). In comparison, other composite methods, particularly G4-type and estimated coupled cluster with singles, doubles, and quasiperturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)/CBS] approaches, show deviations well below the chemical-accuracy threshold of 1 kcal mol(-1). With the exception of SCS-MP2 and the herein newly introduced MP3.5 approach, all other tested Møller-Plesset perturbative procedures give poor performance with RMSDs of up to 8.0 kcal mol(-1). The finding that CBS-type methods fail for barrier heights of these reactions is unexpected and it is particularly troublesome given that they are often used to obtain reference values for benchmark studies. Significant differences are identified in the interpretation and final ranking of density functional theory (DFT) methods when using the original CBS-QB3 rather than the new Wn-F12 reference values for BHPERI. In particular, it is observed that the more accurate Wn-F12 benchmark results in lower statistical errors for those methods that are generally considered to be robust and accurate. Two examples are the PW6B95-D3(BJ) hybrid-meta-general-gradient approximation and the PWPB95-D3(BJ) double-hybrid functionals, which result in the lowest RMSDs of the entire DFT study (1.3 and 1.0 kcal mol(-1), respectively). These results indicate that CBS-QB3 should be applied with caution in computational modeling and benchmark studies involving related systems.

14. More Supernova Surprises

Science.gov (United States)

2010-09-24

SEP 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE More Supernova Surprises 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...PERSPECTIVES More Supernova Surprises ASTRONOMY J. Martin Laming Spectroscopic observations of the supernova SN1987A are providing a new window into high...a core-collapse supernova ) have stretched and motivated research that has expanded our knowledge of astrophysics. The brightest such event in

15. Large Sulfur Isotope Fractionation Does Not Require Disproportionation

Science.gov (United States)

Sim, Min Sub; Bosak, Tanja; Ono, Shuhei

2011-07-01

The composition of sulfur isotopes in sedimentary sulfides and sulfates traces the sulfur cycle throughout Earth’s history. In particular, depletions of sulfur-34 (34S) in sulfide relative to sulfate exceeding 47 per mil (‰) often serve as a proxy for the disproportionation of intermediate sulfur species in addition to sulfate reduction. Here, we demonstrate that a pure, actively growing culture of a marine sulfate-reducing bacterium can deplete 34S by up to 66‰ during sulfate reduction alone and in the absence of an extracellular oxidative sulfur cycle. Therefore, similar magnitudes of sulfur isotope fractionation in sedimentary rocks do not unambiguously record the presence of other sulfur-based metabolisms or the stepwise oxygenation of Earth’s surface environment during the Proterozoic.

16. Large sulfur isotope fractionation does not require disproportionation.

Science.gov (United States)

Sim, Min Sub; Bosak, Tanja; Ono, Shuhei

2011-07-01

The composition of sulfur isotopes in sedimentary sulfides and sulfates traces the sulfur cycle throughout Earth's history. In particular, depletions of sulfur-34 ((34)S) in sulfide relative to sulfate exceeding 47 per mil (‰) often serve as a proxy for the disproportionation of intermediate sulfur species in addition to sulfate reduction. Here, we demonstrate that a pure, actively growing culture of a marine sulfate-reducing bacterium can deplete (34)S by up to 66‰ during sulfate reduction alone and in the absence of an extracellular oxidative sulfur cycle. Therefore, similar magnitudes of sulfur isotope fractionation in sedimentary rocks do not unambiguously record the presence of other sulfur-based metabolisms or the stepwise oxygenation of Earth's surface environment during the Proterozoic.

17. The binary fraction of the young cluster NGC 1818 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

CERN Document Server

Hu, Yi; deGrijs, Richard; Goodwin, Simon P; Liu, Qiang

2008-01-01

We use high-resolution {\\sl Hubble Space Telescope} imaging observations of the young ($\\sim 15-25$ Myr) star cluster NGC 1818 in the Large Magellanic Cloud to derive an estimate for the binary fraction of F stars ($1.3 0.4$, the binary fraction is $\\sim 0.35$. This suggests a total binary fraction for F stars of 0.6 to unity depending on assumptions about the form of the mass ratio distribution at low $q$.

18. What is the mechanism of Ketamine's rapid-onset antidepressant effect? A concise overview of the surprisingly large number of possibilities.

Science.gov (United States)

Strasburger, S E; Bhimani, P M; Kaabe, J H; Krysiak, J T; Nanchanatt, D L; Nguyen, T N; Pough, K A; Prince, T A; Ramsey, N S; Savsani, K H; Scandlen, L; Cavaretta, M J; Raffa, R B

2017-04-01

Abundant clinical data now confirm that ketamine produces a remarkable rapid-onset antidepressant effect - hours or days - in contrast to the delayed onset (typically weeks) of current antidepressant drugs. This surprising and revolutionary finding may lead to the development of life-saving pharmacotherapy for depressive illness by reducing the high suicide risk associated with the delayed onset of effect of current drugs. As ketamine has serious self-limiting drawbacks that restrict its widespread use for this purpose, a safer alternative is needed. Our objective is to review the proposed mechanism(s) of ketamine's rapid-onset antidepressant action for new insights into the physiological basis of depressive illness that may lead to new and novel targets for antidepressant drug discovery. A search was conducted on published literature (e.g. PubMed) and Internet sources to identify information relevant to ketamine's rapid-acting antidepressant action and, specifically, to the possible mechanism(s) of this action. Key search words included 'ketamine', 'antidepressant', 'mechanism of action', 'depression' and 'rapid acting', either individually or in combination. Information was sought that would include less well-known, as well as well-known, basic pharmacologic properties of ketamine and that identified and evaluated the several hypotheses about ketamine's mechanism of antidepressant action. Whether the mechanistic explanation for ketamine's rapid-onset antidepressant action is related to its well-known antagonism of the NMDA (N-Methyl-d-aspartate) subtype of glutamate receptor or to something else has not yet been fully elucidated. The evidence from pharmacologic, medicinal chemistry, animal model and drug-discovery sources reveals a wide variety of postulated mechanisms. The surprising discovery of ketamine's rapid-onset antidepressant effect is a game-changer for the understanding and treatment of depressive illness. There is some convergence on NMDA receptor

19. Surprises with Nonrelativistic Naturalness

CERN Document Server

Horava, Petr

2016-01-01

We explore the landscape of technical naturalness for nonrelativistic systems, finding surprises which challenge and enrich our relativistic intuition already in the simplest case of a single scalar field. While the immediate applications are expected in condensed matter and perhaps in cosmology, the study is motivated by the leading puzzles of fundamental physics involving gravity: The cosmological constant problem and the Higgs mass hierarchy problem.

20. Evaluative Appraisals of Environmental Mystery and Surprise

Science.gov (United States)

Nasar, Jack L.; Cubukcu, Ebru

2011-01-01

This study used a desktop virtual environment (VE) of 15 large-scale residential streets to test the effects of environmental mystery and surprise on response. In theory, mystery and surprise should increase interest and visual appeal. For each VE, participants walked through an approach street and turned right onto a post-turn street. We designed…

1. Evaluative Appraisals of Environmental Mystery and Surprise

Science.gov (United States)

Nasar, Jack L.; Cubukcu, Ebru

2011-01-01

This study used a desktop virtual environment (VE) of 15 large-scale residential streets to test the effects of environmental mystery and surprise on response. In theory, mystery and surprise should increase interest and visual appeal. For each VE, participants walked through an approach street and turned right onto a post-turn street. We designed…

2. What does large randomized trials tell us about the fractionation sensitivity of prostate cancer?

Science.gov (United States)

Høyer, M.

2017-01-01

Seven randomized clinical trials have tested the use of moderate hypofractionation (2.1-3.5 Gy per fraction) compared to conventional fractionation (1.8-2.0 Gy per fraction) in radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. The trails find that moderate hypofractionation results in acceptable PSA-control and morbidities that are comparable to conventional fractionation schedules. Extrapolation of the results from the earliest randomized trials indicated a low α/β- values for prostate cancer, but the more recent – and large – studies suggest that the value is moderately or considerably higher. Moderate hypofractionation schedules (ie. 20 x 3 Gy) are now being implemented in routine practice. They are cost-effective and convinient, but they are not consistantly concordant with fractionation sensitivity parameters extrapolated from clinical trials on moderate hypofractionation of prostate cancer.

3. Surprises in astrophysical gasdynamics

CERN Document Server

Balbus, Steven A

2016-01-01

Much of astrophysics consists of the study of ionised gas under the influence of gravitational and magnetic fields. Thus, it is not possible to understand the astrophysical universe without a detailed knowledge of the dynamics of magnetised fluids. Fluid dynamics is, however, a notoriously tricky subject, in which it is all too easy for one's a priori intuition to go astray. In this review, we seek to guide the reader through a series of illuminating yet deceptive problems, all with an enlightening twist. We cover a broad range of topics including the instabilities acting in accretion discs, the hydrodynamics governing the convective zone of the Sun, the magnetic shielding of a cooling galaxy cluster, and the behaviour of thermal instabilities and evaporating clouds. The aim of this review is to surprise and intrigue even veteran astrophysical theorists with an idiosynchratic choice of problems and counterintuitive results. At the same time, we endeavour to bring forth the fundamental ideas, to set out import...

4. Surprises in astrophysical gasdynamics

Science.gov (United States)

Balbus, Steven A.; Potter, William J.

2016-06-01

Much of astrophysics consists of the study of ionized gas under the influence of gravitational and magnetic fields. Thus, it is not possible to understand the astrophysical universe without a detailed knowledge of the dynamics of magnetized fluids. Fluid dynamics is, however, a notoriously tricky subject, in which it is all too easy for one’s a priori intuition to go astray. In this review, we seek to guide the reader through a series of illuminating yet deceptive problems, all with an enlightening twist. We cover a broad range of topics including the instabilities acting in accretion discs, the hydrodynamics governing the convective zone of the Sun, the magnetic shielding of a cooling galaxy cluster, and the behaviour of thermal instabilities and evaporating clouds. The aim of this review is to surprise and intrigue even veteran astrophysical theorists with an idiosyncratic choice of problems and counterintuitive results. At the same time, we endeavour to bring forth the fundamental ideas, to set out important assumptions, and to describe carefully whatever novel techniques may be appropriate to the problem at hand. By beginning at the beginning, and analysing a wide variety of astrophysical settings, we seek not only to make this review suitable for fluid dynamic veterans, but to engage novice recruits as well with what we hope will be an unusual and instructive introduction to the subject.

5. Surprises in astrophysical gasdynamics.

Science.gov (United States)

Balbus, Steven A; Potter, William J

2016-06-01

Much of astrophysics consists of the study of ionized gas under the influence of gravitational and magnetic fields. Thus, it is not possible to understand the astrophysical universe without a detailed knowledge of the dynamics of magnetized fluids. Fluid dynamics is, however, a notoriously tricky subject, in which it is all too easy for one's a priori intuition to go astray. In this review, we seek to guide the reader through a series of illuminating yet deceptive problems, all with an enlightening twist. We cover a broad range of topics including the instabilities acting in accretion discs, the hydrodynamics governing the convective zone of the Sun, the magnetic shielding of a cooling galaxy cluster, and the behaviour of thermal instabilities and evaporating clouds. The aim of this review is to surprise and intrigue even veteran astrophysical theorists with an idiosyncratic choice of problems and counterintuitive results. At the same time, we endeavour to bring forth the fundamental ideas, to set out important assumptions, and to describe carefully whatever novel techniques may be appropriate to the problem at hand. By beginning at the beginning, and analysing a wide variety of astrophysical settings, we seek not only to make this review suitable for fluid dynamic veterans, but to engage novice recruits as well with what we hope will be an unusual and instructive introduction to the subject.

6. Beam Attenuators and the Risk of Unrecognized Large-Fraction Irradiation of Critical Tissues

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Luka, S.; Marks, J.E.

2015-01-15

The use of radiation beam attenuators led to radiation injury of the spinal cord in one patient and of the peripheral nerve in another due to unsuspected large-fraction irradiation. The anatomic distribution of radiation dose was reconstructed in the sagittal plane for the patient who developed radiation myelopathy and in the axial plane for the patient who developed peripheral neuropathy. The actual dose delivered to the injured structure in each patient was taken from the dose distribution and recorded along with the time, number of fractions, and dose per fraction. The patient who developed radiation myelopathy received a total of 46.5 Gy in twenty-three 2.1 Gy fractions in 31 days to the upper cervical spinal cord where the thickness of the neck was less than the central axis thickness due to cervical lordosis and absence of a posterior compensating filter. The patient who developed peripheral neuropathy received 55 Gy in twenty-five 2.2 Gy fractions in 50 days to the femoral nerve using bolus over the groins and an anterior one-half value layer Cerrobend pelvic block to bias the dose anteriorly. Compensating filters and other beam attenuators should be used with caution because they may result in unsuspected large-fraction irradiation and total doses of radiation that exceed the tolerance of critical structures.

7. Fractional Modeling of the AC Large-Signal Frequency Response in Magnetoresistive Current Sensors

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Sergio Iván Ravelo Arias

2013-12-01

Full Text Available Fractional calculus is considered when derivatives and integrals of non-integer order are applied over a specific function. In the electrical and electronic domain, the transfer function dependence of a fractional filter not only by the filter order n, but additionally, of the fractional order α is an example of a great number of systems where its input-output behavior could be more exactly modeled by a fractional behavior. Following this aim, the present work shows the experimental ac large-signal frequency response of a family of electrical current sensors based in different spintronic conduction mechanisms. Using an ac characterization set-up the sensor transimpedance function  is obtained considering it as the relationship between sensor output voltage and input sensing current,[PLEASE CHECK FORMULA IN THE PDF]. The study has been extended to various magnetoresistance sensors based in different technologies like anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR, giant magnetoresistance (GMR, spin-valve (GMR-SV and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR. The resulting modeling shows two predominant behaviors, the low-pass and the inverse low-pass with fractional index different from the classical integer response. The TMR technology with internal magnetization offers the best dynamic and sensitivity properties opening the way to develop actual industrial applications.

8. Inelastic dark matter with spin-dependent couplings to protons and large modulation fractions in DAMA

CERN Document Server

Scopel, Stefano

2015-01-01

We discuss a scenario where the DAMA modulation effect is explained by a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) which upscatters inelastically to a heavier state and predominantly couples to the spin of protons. In this scenario constraints from xenon and germanium targets are evaded dynamically, due to the suppression of the WIMP coupling to neutrons, while those from fluorine targets are evaded kinematically, because the minimal WIMP incoming speed required to trigger upscatters off fluorine exceeds the maximal WIMP velocity in the Galaxy, or is very close to it. In this scenario WIMP scatterings off sodium are usually sensitive to the large-speed tail of the WIMP velocity distribution and modulated fractions of the signal close to unity arise in a natural way. On the other hand, a halo-independent analysis with more conservative assumptions about the WIMP velocity distribution allows to extend the viable parameter space to configurations where large modulated fractions are not strictly necessary. We di...

9. Inelastic dark matter with spin-dependent couplings to protons and large modulation fractions in DAMA

Science.gov (United States)

Scopel, Stefano; Yoon, Kook-Hyun

2016-02-01

We discuss a scenario where the DAMA modulation effect is explained by a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) which upscatters inelastically to a heavier state and predominantly couples to the spin of protons. In this scenario constraints from xenon and germanium targets are evaded dynamically, due to the suppression of the WIMP coupling to neutrons, while those from fluorine targets are evaded kinematically, because the minimal WIMP incoming speed required to trigger upscatters off fluorine exceeds the maximal WIMP velocity in the Galaxy, or is very close to it. In this scenario WIMP scatterings off sodium are usually sensitive to the large-speed tail of the WIMP velocity distribution and modulated fractions of the signal close to unity arise in a natural way. On the other hand, a halo-independent analysis with more conservative assumptions about the WIMP velocity distribution allows to extend the viable parameter space to configurations where large modulated fractions are not strictly necessary. We discuss large modulated fractions in the Maxwellian case showing that they imply a departure from the usual cosine time dependence of the expected signal in DAMA. However we explicitly show that the DAMA data is not sensitive to this distortion, both in time and frequency space, even in the extreme case of a 100 % modulated fraction. Moreover the same scenario provides an explanation of the maximum in the energy spectrum of the modulation amplitude detected by DAMA in terms of WIMPs whose minimal incoming speed matches the kinematic threshold for inelastic upscatters. For the elastic case the detection of such maximum suggests an inversion of the modulation phase below the present DAMA energy threshold, while this is not expected for inelastic scattering. This may allow to discriminate between the two scenarios in a future low-threshold analysis of the DAMA data.

10. Active polysomes are present in the large presynaptic endings of the synaptosomal fraction from squid brain.

Science.gov (United States)

Crispino, M; Kaplan, B B; Martin, R; Alvarez, J; Chun, J T; Benech, J C; Giuditta, A

1997-10-15

Previous data have suggested that the large nerve terminals present in the synaptosomal fraction from squid optic lobe are capable of protein synthesis (Crispino et al., 1993a,b). We have further examined this issue by comparing the translation products of synaptosomal and microsomal polysomes. Both preparations programmed an active process of translation, which was completely abolished by their previous treatment with EDTA. After immunoabsorption of the newly synthesized neurofilament (NF) proteins, the labeling ratio of the 60 and 70 kDa NF proteins was found to differ, in agreement with comparable differences obtained with intact synaptosomes. These observations indicate that the set of mRNAs translated by synaptosomes differs from that translated by nerve cell bodies. Hence, because NF proteins are neuron-specific, they support the view that the active synaptosomal polysomes are mostly localized in the large nerve terminals that represent the most abundant neuronal component of the fraction. This hypothesis was confirmed (1) by electron spectroscopic data demonstrating the presence of ribosomes and polysomes within the large nerve endings of the synaptosomal fraction, as well as in the carrot-like nerve endings of the retinal photoreceptors that constitute the only large terminals in the optic lobe, and (2) by light and high resolution autoradiography of synaptosomal samples incubated with [3H]leucine, showing that most labeled proteins are associated with the large nerve endings. This response was abolished by cycloheximide. Taken together, the data provide the first unequivocal demonstration that presynaptic nerve terminals are capable of protein synthesis.

11. Surprise... Surprise..., An Empirical Investigation on How Surprise is Connected to Customer Satisfaction

NARCIS (Netherlands)

J. Vanhamme (Joëlle)

2003-01-01

textabstractThis research investigates the specific influence of the emotion of surprise on customer transaction-specific satisfaction. Four empirical studies-two field studies (a diary study and a cross section survey) and two experiments-were conducted. The results show that surprise positively

12. Surprise... Surprise..., An Empirical Investigation on How Surprise is Connected to Customer Satisfaction

NARCIS (Netherlands)

J. Vanhamme (Joëlle)

2003-01-01

textabstractThis research investigates the specific influence of the emotion of surprise on customer transaction-specific satisfaction. Four empirical studies-two field studies (a diary study and a cross section survey) and two experiments-were conducted. The results show that surprise positively [n

13. Control-Oriented Model of Molar Scavenge Oxygen Fraction for Exhaust Recirculation in Large Diesel Engines

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Nielsen, Kræn Vodder; Blanke, Mogens; Eriksson, Lars

2016-01-01

therefore focus on deriving and validating a mean-value model of a large two-stroke crosshead diesel engines with EGR. The model introduces a number of amendments and extensions to previous, complex models and shows in theory and practice that a simplified nonlinear model captures all essential dynamics...... the behavior of the scavenge oxygen fraction well over the entire envelope of load and blower speed range that are relevant for EGR. The simplicity of the new model makes it suitable for observer and control design, which are essential steps to meet the emission requirements for marine diesel engines that take......Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems have been introduced to large marine engines in order to reduce NOx formation. Adequate modelling for control design is one of the bottlenecks to design EGR control that also meets emission requirements during transient loading conditions. This paper...

14. Outpatient management of patients with large multinodular goitres treated with fractionated radioiodine

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Howarth, D.M.; Thomas, P.A.; Allen, L.W.; Akerman, R.; Lan, L. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Epstein, M.T. [Department of Endocrinology, John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, NSW (Australia)

1997-12-01

The efficacy of fractionated out-patient radioiodine therapy in 38 patients with compressive symptoms due to long-standing large multinodular goitres was assessed. The diagnosis was established by clinical assessment in addition to technetium-99m pertechnetate thyroid scan or computed tomography scan of the thyroid and mediastinum. Oral iodine-131 therapy was administered as a 2.22 GBq (60 mCi) cumulative dose over 4 months (555 MBq per month). All patients were monitored with serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine ({+-} free tri-iodothyronine) assays before the treatment and after each dose fraction. Clinical and biochemical follow-up was performed on all patients and ranged from 6 to 45 months after therapy. The patients consisted of 35 female and three male patients with a median age of 59 years (range 37-87 years). Prior to treatment 20 patients were biochemically hyperthyroid and 18 were euthyroid. Overall, 71% of patients reported a subjective improvement in compressive symptoms and 29% reported no change. Clinically assessed reduction in goitre size occurred in 92% of patients while there was no change in 8%. At 3 months of follow-up, 31% of patients had become hypothyroid and at 18 months 66% were hypothyroid. Seven hyperthyroid patients (35%) became euthyroid and 13 hyperthyroid patients (65%) became hypothyroid. Three patients who became hypothyroid experienced neck soreness (transient in one patient, persistent in two patients). There were no differences in outcome between patients who were hyperthyroid and those who were euthyroid prior to treatment. Fractionated out-patient radioiodine therapy showed excellent short- and medium-term safety, was very well tolerated and offered a satisfactory alternative treatment to surgery. (orig.) With 1 fig., 3 tabs., 23 refs.

15. A large neutral fraction of cosmic hydrogen a billion years after the Big Bang.

Science.gov (United States)

Wyithe, J Stuart B; Loeb, Abraham

2004-02-26

The fraction of ionized hydrogen left over from the Big Bang provides evidence for the time of formation of the first stars and quasar black holes in the early Universe; such objects provide the high-energy photons necessary to ionize hydrogen. Spectra of the two most distant known quasars show nearly complete absorption of photons with wavelengths shorter than the Lyman alpha transition of neutral hydrogen, indicating that hydrogen in the intergalactic medium (IGM) had not been completely ionized at a redshift of z approximately 6.3, about one billion years after the Big Bang. Here we show that the IGM surrounding these quasars had a neutral hydrogen fraction of tens of per cent before the quasar activity started, much higher than the previous lower limits of approximately 0.1 per cent. Our results, when combined with the recent inference of a large cumulative optical depth to electron scattering after cosmological recombination therefore suggest the presence of a second peak in the mean ionization history of the Universe.

16. Surprise as a design strategy

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Ludden, G.D.S.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

2008-01-01

Imagine yourself queuing for the cashier’s desk in a supermarket. Naturally, you have picked the wrong line, the one that does not seem to move at all. Soon, you get tired of waiting. Now, how would you feel if the cashier suddenly started to sing? Many of us would be surprised and, regardless of

17. Surprise as a design strategy

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Ludden, G.D.S.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

2008-01-01

Imagine yourself queuing for the cashier’s desk in a supermarket. Naturally, you have picked the wrong line, the one that does not seem to move at all. Soon, you get tired of waiting. Now, how would you feel if the cashier suddenly started to sing? Many of us would be surprised and, regardless of th

18. Interaction chromatography for characterization and large-scale fractionation of chemically heterogeneous copolymers

Science.gov (United States)

Han, Junwon

The remarkable development of polymer synthesis techniques to make complex polymers with controlled chain architectures has inevitably demanded the advancement of polymer characterization tools to analyze the molecular dispersity in polymeric materials beyond size exclusion chromatography (SEC). In particular, man-made synthetic copolymers that consist of more than one monomer type are disperse mixtures of polymer chains that have distributions in terms of both chemical heterogeneity and chain length (molar mass). While the molecular weight distribution has been quite reliably estimated by the SEC, it is still challenging to properly characterize the chemical composition distribution in the copolymers. Here, I have developed and applied adsorption-based interaction chromatography (IC) techniques as a promising tool to characterize and fractionate polystyrene-based block, random and branched copolymers in terms of their chemical heterogeneity. The first part of this thesis is focused on the adsorption-desorption based purification of PS-b-PMMA diblock copolymers using nanoporous silica. The liquid chromatography analysis and large scale purification are discussed for the PS-b-PMMA block copolymers that have been synthesized by sequential anionic polymerization. SEC and IC are compared to critically analyze the contents of PS homopolymers in the as-synthesized block copolymers. In addition, I have developed an IC technique to provide faster and more reliable information on the chemical heterogeneity in the as-synthesized block copolymers. Finally, a large scale (multi-gram) separation technique is developed to obtain "homopolymer-free" block copolymers via a simple chromatographic filtration technique. By taking advantage of the large specific surface area of nanoporous silica (≈300m 2/g), large scale purification of neat PS-b-PMMA has successfully been achieved by controlling adsorption and desorption of the block copolymers on the silica gel surface using a

19. Large deviations for local times and intersection local times of fractional Brownian motions and Riemann-Liouville processes

CERN Document Server

Chen, Xia; Rosinski, Jan; Shao, Qi-Man

2009-01-01

In this paper we prove exact forms of large deviations for local times and intersection local times of fractional Brownian motions and Riemann-Liouville processes. We also show that a fractional Brownian motion and the related Riemann-Liouville process behave like constant multiples of each other with regard to large deviations for their local and intersection local times. As a consequence of our large deviation estimates, we derive laws of iterated logarithm for the corresponding local times. The key points of our methods: (1) logarithmic superadditivity of a normalized sequence of moments of exponentially randomized local time of a fractional Brownian motion; (2) logarithmic subadditivity of a normalized sequence of moments of exponentially randomized intersection local time of Riemann-Liouville processes; (3) comparison of local and intersection local times based on embedding of a part of a fractional Brownian motion into the reproducing kernel Hilbert space of the Riemann-Liouville process.

20. Large fractionations of C and H isotopes related to methane oxidation in Arctic lakes

Science.gov (United States)

Cadieux, Sarah B.; White, Jeffrey R.; Sauer, Peter E.; Peng, Yongbo; Goldman, Amy E.; Pratt, Lisa M.

2016-08-01

Microbial oxidation of methane (CH4) plays a central role in carbon cycling in Arctic lakes, reducing potential CH4 emissions associated with warming. Isotopic signatures of CH4 (δ13C and δ2H) are indicators of microbial oxidation, wherein the process strongly enriches 13C and 2H in residual CH4. We present δ13C and δ2H measurements obtained from sampling the water column and sediment for dissolved CH4 from three, small Arctic lakes in western Greenland under both open-water and ice-covered conditions from 2013 to 2014. Despite substantial variations in aquatic chemistry among the lakes, δ13C and δ2H of CH4 suggested that CH4 was produced predominantly by acetoclastic methanogenesis in the littoral sediments and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis in the profundal sediments in all of the lakes. Surprisingly large variations for both δ13C and δ2H of CH4 were observed, with δ13C extending from -72‰ to +7.4‰ and δ2H from -390‰ to +250‰. The CH4 isotopic values reported here were significantly more enriched (p < 0.0001) in both 13C and 2H than values reported from other Arctic freshwater environments. As is characteristic of methanotrophy, the enrichment in 13C and 2H was associated with low CH4 concentrations. We suggest that the CH4 most enriched in 13C and 2H may reflect unusually efficient methanotrophic communities in Arctic ice-margin lakes. This study provides the first measurement of δ2H for CH4 in an Arctic freshwater environment at concentrations <10 μM. The extreme enrichment of 13C and 2H of CH4 from Arctic methanotrophy has significant implications for interpreting sources and sinks of CH4. Without knowledge of local geology, stable isotope values of CH4 higher than -30‰ for δ13C and -150‰ for δ2H could be misinterpreted as thermogenic, geothermal, or abiogenic origins. Given crystalline bedrock and the strong positive correlation between δ13C and δ2H throughout the water columns in three Arctic lakes confirms that CH4 heavily

1. Inorganic ion composition in Tardigrada: cryptobionts contain a large fraction of unidentified organic solutes.

Science.gov (United States)

Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Larsen, Kristine Wulff; Jørgensen, Aslak; Ramløv, Hans; Møbjerg, Nadja

2013-04-01

2. Brazilian rescue plan sparks surprise

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

2011-01-01

According to Financial Times,when Guido Mantega,Brazil's finance minister,suddenly proposed a “Bric” rescue package for the eurozone this week,he caught not only other world leaders by surprise but also many of his fellow countrymen.Even as officials from other members of the so-called Bric grouping,Russia,India and China,said it was the first they heard of the idea,many ordinary Brazilians expressed shock at the notion of bailing out the world's richest trading bloc.

3. Comment on "Abiotic pyrite formation produces a large Fe isotope fractionation".

Science.gov (United States)

Czaja, Andrew D; Johnson, Clark M; Yamaguchi, Kosei E; Beard, Brian L

2012-02-01

Guilbaud et al. (Reports, 24 June 2011, p. 1548) suggest that the geologic record of Fe isotope fractionation can be explained by abiological precipitation of pyrite. We argue that a detailed understanding of the depositional setting, mineralogy, and geologic history of Precambrian sedimentary rocks indicates that the Fe isotope record dominantly reflects biological fractionations and Fe redox processes.

4. Wet spinning of PVA composite fibers with a large fraction of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Dengpan Lai

2015-10-01

Full Text Available PVA composites fibers with a large fraction of multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified by both covalent and non-covalent functionalization were produced by a wet-spinning process. Model XQ-1 tensile tester, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and wide-angle X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the properties of PVA/MWNT composite fibers. The TGA results suggested that MWNTs content in composite fibers were ranged from 5.3 wt% to 27.6 wt%. The mechanical properties of PVA/MWNT composite fibers were obviously superior to pure PVA fiber. The Young׳s modulus of composite fibers enhanced with increasing the content of MWNTs, and it rised gradually from 6.7 GPa for the pure PVA fiber to 12.8 GPa for the composite fibers with 27.6 wt% MWNTs. Meanwhile, the tensile strength increased gradually from 0.39 GPa for the pure PVA fiber to 0.74 GPa for the composite fibers with 14.4 wt% MWNTs. Nevertheless, the tensile strength of the composite fibers decreased as the MWNTs content up to 27.6 wt%. SEM results indicated that the MWNTs homogeneously dispersed in the composite fibers, however some agglomerates also existed when the content of MWNTs reached 27.6 wt%. DSC results proved strong interfacial interaction between MWNTs and PVA chain, which benefited composite fibers in the efficient stress-transfer. WXAD characterization showed that the orientation of PVA molecules declined from 94.1% to 90.9% with the increasing of MWNTs content. The good dispersibility of MWNTs throughout PVA matrix and efficient stress-transfer between MWNTs and PVA matrix may contributed to significant enhancement in the mechanical properties.

5. Some Surprises in Relativistic Gravity

CERN Document Server

Santos, N O

2016-01-01

General Relativity has had tremendous success both on the theoretical and the experimental fronts for over a century now. However, the contents of the theory are far from exhausted. Only very recently, with the detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes, we have started probing the behavior of gravity in the strongly non-linear regime. Even today, the studies of black holes keep revealing more and more paradoxes and bizarre results. In this paper, inspired by David Hilbert's startling observation, we show that, contrary to the conventional wisdom, a freely falling test particle feels gravitational repulsion by a black hole as seen by the asymptotic observer. We dig deeper into this surprising behavior of relativistic gravity and offer some explanations.

6. Influence of bone volume fraction and architecture on computed large-deformation failure mechanisms in human trabecular bone.

Science.gov (United States)

Bevill, Grant; Eswaran, Senthil K; Gupta, Atul; Papadopoulos, Panayiotis; Keaveny, Tony M

2006-12-01

Large-deformation bending and buckling have long been proposed as failure mechanisms by which the strength of trabecular bone can be affected disproportionately to changes in bone density, and thus may represent an important aspect of bone quality. We sought here to quantify the contribution of large-deformation failure mechanisms on strength, to determine the dependence of these effects on bone volume fraction and architecture, and to confirm that the inclusion of large-deformation effects in high-resolution finite element models improves predictions of strength versus experiment. Micro-CT-based finite element models having uniform hard tissue material properties were created from 54 cores of human trabecular bone taken from four anatomic sites (age = 70+/-11; 24 male, 27 female donors), which were subsequently biomechanically tested to failure. Strength predictions were made from the models first including, then excluding, large-deformation failure mechanisms, both for compressive and tensile load cases. As expected, strength predictions versus experimental data for the large-deformation finite element models were significantly improved (p deformation models in both tension and compression. Below a volume fraction of about 0.20, large-deformation failure mechanisms decreased trabecular strength from 5-80% for compressive loading, while effects were negligible above this volume fraction. Step-wise nonlinear multiple regression revealed that structure model index (SMI) and volume fraction (BV/TV) were significant predictors of these reductions in strength (R2 = 0.83, p deformation failure mechanisms on trabecular bone strength is highly heterogeneous and is not well explained by standard architectural metrics.

7. Some Surprising Introductory Physics Facts and Numbers

Science.gov (United States)

Mallmann, A. James

2016-01-01

In the entertainment world, people usually like, and find memorable, novels, short stories, and movies with surprise endings. This suggests that classroom teachers might want to present to their students examples of surprising facts associated with principles of physics. Possible benefits of finding surprising facts about principles of physics are…

8. The Cytotoxic Effect of Small and Large Molecules of PMF Fraction Extracted from Camel Urine on Cancer Cells

KAUST Repository

Khorshid, Faten

2015-01-10

Aim of the work: Animal urine, including that of camels, has long been used for the therapeutic management of human ailments. In this study, we sought to characterize the cytotoxic properties of newly derived purified fractions from previously described camel urine extract (PMF) on various cancer cell lines. Methodology: Two new size dissimilar fractions of PMF (large and small) were obtained by fractionalizing PMF using 3kD and 50kD membrane filters. A SRB cytotoxicity assay of the PMF fractions was performed on cancer cell lines (A549, HCT116, HepG2, MCF-7, U251 and Hela) as well as normal cell lines (human fibroblast cell line and Vero). Results: This study showed that the newly derived and more purified fraction of PMF (new PMF) possesses effective and selective anti-cancer properties against several types of cancer cell lines. Conclusion: This study, as well as previous ones, suggests that camel urine extracts (old and new PMF) may provide newer therapeutic alternatives to clinically manage cancer patients. However, further studies are needed to verify these positive preliminary results.

9. COMPARISON OF THE FRACTIONS OF COD IN RAW WASTEWATER INFLUENT FOR SMALL AND LARGE SEWAGE TREATMENT

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Joanna Smyk

2016-06-01

Full Text Available The article presents a comparison of the share fraction of COD in raw wastewater in treatment plants which flow in a small amount of wastewater and the sewage treatment with high flow. Compared the constructed wetlands with an average capacity of 4 dm3/m,, the treatment plant with biological deposits with an average capacity of 8 dm3/m, and a sewage treatment plant with activated sludge in Bialystok with a capacity of about 70 000 dm3/m. The lowest percentages of dissolved fraction of soluble organic non-biodegradable substances SI was reported in raw sewage in small sewage treatment plants. Based on the available data wasn’t found significant correlation between the factions XI, SS, XS in raw sewage and the amount of wastewater.

10. Void fraction and flow regime in adiabatic upward two-phase flow in large diameter vertical pipes

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Schlegel, J.P.; Sawant, P.; Paranjape, S.; Ozar, B.; Hibiki, T. [Purdue University, School of Nuclear Engineering, 400 Central Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907-2017 (United States); Ishii, M., E-mail: ishii@purdue.ed [Purdue University, School of Nuclear Engineering, 400 Central Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907-2017 (United States)

2009-12-15

In pipes with very large diameters, slug bubbles cannot exist. For this reason, the characteristics of two-phase flow in large pipes are much different than those in small pipes. Knowledge of these characteristics is essential for the prediction of the flow in new nuclear reactor designs which include a large chimney to promote natural circulation. Two of the key parameters in the prediction of the flow are the void fraction and flow regime. Void fraction measurements were made in a vertical tube with diameter of 0.15 m and length of 4.4 m. Superficial gas and liquid velocities ranged from 0.1 to 5.1 m/s and from 0.01 to 2.0 m/s, respectively. The measured void fractions ranged from 0.02 to 0.83. Electrical impedance void meters at four axial locations were used to measure the void fraction. This data was verified through comparison with previous data sets and models. The temporal variation in the void fraction signal was used to characterize the flow regime through use of the Cumulative Probability Density Function (CPDF). The CPDF of the signal was used with a Kohonen Self-Organized Map (SOM) to classify the flow regimes at each measurement port. The three flow regimes used were termed bubbly, cap-bubbly, and churn flow. The resulting flow regime maps matched well with the maps developed previously through other methods. Further, the flow regime maps matched well with the criteria which were proposed based on criteria.

11. Study of Pulse Laser Assisted Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of InGaN with Large Indium Mole Fraction

Science.gov (United States)

Kangawa, Yoshihiro; Kawaguchi, Norihito; Hida, Ken-nosuke; Kumagai, Yoshinao; Koukitu, Akinori

2004-08-01

The indium composition of the InGaN film increases with decreasing growth temperature; however, the crystalline quality of the film is poor when it is grown at low temperatures. To form a high-quality InGaN film with a large indium mole fraction, Nd: YAG pulse laser assisted metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) was carried out at low temperatures. The results suggest that film quality can be improved by pulse laser irradiation on the surface of the film.

12. Young Galaxy's Magnetism Surprises Astronomers

Science.gov (United States)

2008-10-01

Astronomers have made the first direct measurement of the magnetic field in a young, distant galaxy, and the result is a big surprise. Looking at a faraway protogalaxy seen as it was 6.5 billion years ago, the scientists measured a magnetic field at least 10 times stronger than that of our own Milky Way. They had expected just the opposite. The GBT Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF The scientists made the discovery using the National Science Foundation's ultra-sensitive Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. "This new measurement indicates that magnetic fields may play a more important role in the formation and evolution of galaxies than we have realized," said Arthur Wolfe, of the University of California-San Diego (UCSD). At its great distance, the protogalaxy is seen as it was when the Universe was about half its current age. According to the leading theory, cosmic magnetic fields are generated by the dynamos of rotating galaxies -- a process that would produce stronger fields with the passage of time. In this scenario, the magnetic fields should be weaker in the earlier Universe, not stronger. The new, direct magnetic-field measurement comes on the heels of a July report by Swiss and American astronomers who made indirect measurements that also implied strong magnetic fields in the early Universe. "Our results present a challenge to the dynamo model, but they do not rule it out," Wolfe said. There are other possible explanations for the strong magnetic field seen in the one protogalaxy Wolfe's team studied. "We may be seeing the field close to the central region of a massive galaxy, and we know such fields are stronger toward the centers of nearby galaxies. Also, the field we see may have been amplified by a shock wave caused by the collision of two galaxies," he said. The protogalaxy studied with the GBT, called DLA-3C286, consists of gas with little or no star formation occurring in it. The astronomers suspect that

13. Education in Japan: Surprising Lessons.

Science.gov (United States)

Deasy, Richard J.

1986-01-01

Reports on an indepth probe of the Japanese educational system by American educators. This study shows that the United States cannot expect to achieve economic growth by copying the Japanese system, which has been shaped largely by its geography and culture and society. (MD)

14. Temporal cloak with large fractional hiding window at telecommunication data rate

Science.gov (United States)

Zhou, Feng; Dong, Jianji; Yan, Siqi; Yang, Ting

2017-04-01

We design and experimentally investigate a temporal cloak scheme using ultrashort pulse compression and time-domain Fraunhofer diffraction. An input continuous-wave probe beam is compressed to ultrashort pulse train based on self-phase modulation effect and chirp compensation using single mode fiber. Accordingly, wide temporal gaps appear to act as the cloaking windows. The train of ultrashort pulses can be converted to continuous wave after experiencing enough dispersion, indicating that the temporal gaps are closed. Thus, any time events will be hidden in the temporal gaps from observers. In our study, we demonstrated a temporal cloak system, which is able to hide 88% of the whole time period and cloak pseudorandom digital data at a bitrate of 10 Gbit/s. The relationships of cloaking window fraction versus pump power and the condition of cloaking off are also investigated. These results present a new feasible way towards obtaining a high-fractional cloaking window at telecommunication data rate and hiding real-world messages.

15. Ancient planetary systems are orbiting a large fraction of white dwarf stars

CERN Document Server

Zuckerman, B; Klein, B; Koester, D; Jura, M

2010-01-01

Infrared studies have revealed debris likely related to planet formation in orbit around ~30% of youthful, intermediate mass, main sequence stars. We present evidence, based on atmospheric pollution by various elements heavier than helium, that a comparable fraction of the white dwarf descendants of such main sequence stars are orbited by planetary systems. These systems have survived, at least in part, through all stages of stellar evolution that precede the white dwarf. During the time interval (~200 million years) that a typical polluted white dwarf in our sample has been cooling it has accreted from its planetary system the mass of one of the largest asteroids in our solar system (e.g., Vesta or Ceres). Usually, this accreted mass will be only a fraction of the total mass of rocky material that orbits these white dwarfs; for plausible planetary system configurations we estimate that this total mass is likely to be at least equal to that of the Sun's asteroid belt, and perhaps much larger. We report abunda...

16. The binary fractions in the massive young Large Magellanic Cloud star clusters NGC 1805 and NGC 1818

CERN Document Server

Li, Chengyuan; Deng, Licai

2013-01-01

Using high-resolution data sets obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, we investigate the radial distributions of the F-type main-sequence binary fractions in the massive young Large Magellanic Cloud star clusters NGC 1805 and NGC 1818. We apply both an isochrone-fitting approach and chi^2 minimization using Monte Carlo simulations, for different mass-ratio cut-offs, q, and present a detailed comparison of the methods' performance. Both methods yield the same radial binary fraction profile for the same cluster, which therefore supports the robustness and applicability of either method to young star clusters which are as yet unaffected by the presence of multiple stellar populations. The binary fractions in these two clusters are characterized by opposite trends in their radial profiles. NGC 1805 exhibits a decreasing trend with increasing radius in the central region, followed by a slow increase to the field's binary-fraction level, while NGC 1818 shows a monotonically increasing trend. This may indicate d...

17. Coherent Optical Memory with High Storage Efficiency and Large Fractional Delay

CERN Document Server

Chen, Yi-Hsin; Wang, I-Chung; Du, Shengwang; Chen, Yong-Fan; Chen, Ying-Cheng; Yu, Ite A

2012-01-01

A high-storage efficiency and long-live quantum memory for photons is an essential component in long-distance quantum communication and optical quantum computation. Here, we report a 78% storage efficiency of light pulses in a cold atomic medium based on the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). At 50% storage efficiency, we obtain a fractional delay of 74, which is the best up-to-date record. The classical fidelity of the recalled pulse is better than 90% and nearly independent of the storage time, as confirmed by the direct measurement of phase evolution of the output light pulse with a beat-note interferometer. Such excellent phase coherence between the stored and recalled light pulses suggests that the current result can be readily applied to single photon wave packets. Our work significantly advances the technology of EIT-based optical memory and may find practical applications in long-distance quantum communication and optical quantum computation.

18. Control-Oriented Model of Molar Scavenge Oxygen Fraction for Exhaust Recirculation in Large Diesel Engines

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Nielsen, Kræn Vodder; Blanke, Mogens; Eriksson, Lars;

2016-01-01

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems have been introduced to large marine engines in order to reduce NOx formation. Adequate modelling for control design is one of the bottlenecks to design EGR control that also meets emission requirements during transient loading conditions. This paper...

19. Extremely large fractionation of Li isotopes in a chromitite-bearing mantle sequence

Science.gov (United States)

Su, Ben-Xun; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Robinson, Paul T.

2016-01-01

We report Li isotopic compositions of olivine from the mantle sequence of the Luobusa ophiolite, southern Tibet. The olivine in the Luobusa ophiolite has Li concentrations from ~0.1 to 0.9 ppm and a broad range of δ7Li (+14 to −20‰). An inverse correlation of Li concentration and δ7Li in olivine from harzburgite suggests recent diffusive ingress of Li into the rock. Olivine from dunite enveloping podiform chromitites shows positive δ7Li values higher than those of MORB, whereas olivine from the chromitite has negative δ7Li values. Such variations are difficult to reconcile by diffusive fractionation and are thought to record the nature of the magma sources. Our results clearly indicate that the Luobusa chromitites formed from magmas with light Li isotopic compositions and that the dunites are products of melt-rock interaction. The isotopically light magmas originated by partial melting of a subducted slab after high degrees of dehydration and then penetrated the overlying mantle wedge. This study provides evidence for Li isotope heterogeneity in the mantle that resulted from subduction of a recycled oceanic component. PMID:26927333

20. Heat Load Measurements on a Large Superconducting Magnet An Application of a Void Fraction Meter

CERN Document Server

Pengo, R; Junker, S; Passardi, Giorgio; ten Kate, H H J

2004-01-01

ATLAS is one of the two major experiments of the LHC project at CERN using cryogenics. The superconducting magnet system of ATLAS is composed of the Barrel Toroid (BT), two End Caps Toroids and the Central Solenoid. The BT is formed of 8 race-track superconducting dipoles, each one 25 m long and 5 m wide. A reduced scale prototype (named B0) of one of the 8 dipoles, about one third of the length, has been constructed and tested in a dedicated cryogenic facility at CERN. To simulate the final thermal and hydraulic operating conditions, the B0 was cooled by a forced flow of 4.5 K saturated liquid helium provided by a centrifugal pump of 80 g/s nominal capacity. Both static and dynamic heat loads, generated by the induced currents on the B0 casing during a slow dump or a ramp up, have been measured to verify the expected thermal budget of the entire BT. The instrument used for the heat load measurements was a Void Fraction Meter (VFM) installed on the magnet return line. The instrument constructed at CERN was ca...

1. Analyst Information Precision and Small Earnings Surprises

NARCIS (Netherlands)

S. Bissessur; D. Veenman

2014-01-01

Prior research attributes zero and small positive earnings surprises to managers’ incentives for earnings management. In contrast, this study introduces and empirically tests an explanation for zero and small positive earnings surprises based on predictable variation in analyst forecast errors. We a

2. Cognitive and Social Perspectives on Surprise

Science.gov (United States)

2007-01-01

Meanings of "surprise" are wide and include uplifting and engaging facets like wonder and amazement on the one hand as well as ones that may be of the opposite nature like interruption and disrupt on the other. Pedagogically, educators who use surprise in class activities are focusing on students being "taken aback" by a situation, hopefully…

3. The large-scale disk fraction of brown dwarfs in the Taurus cloud as measured with Spitzer

CERN Document Server

Monin, J -L; Pinte, C; Rebull, L; Goldsmith, P; Fukagawa, M; Ménard, F; Padgett, D; Stappelfeld, K; McCabe, C; Carey, S; Noriega-Crespo, A; Brooke, T; Huard, T; Terebey, S; Hillenbrand, L; Guedel, M

2010-01-01

Aims. The brown dwarf (BD) formation process has not yet been completely understood. To shed more light on the differences and similarities between star and BD formation processes, we study and compare the disk fraction among both kinds of objects over a large angular region in the Taurus cloud. In addition, we examine the spatial distribution of stars and BD relative to the underlying molecular gas Methods. In this paper, we present new and updated photometry data from the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope on 43 BDs in the Taurus cloud, and recalculate of the BD disk fraction in this region. We also useed recently available CO mm data to study the spatial distribution of stars and BDs relative to the cloud's molecular gas. Results. We find that the disk fraction among BDs in the Taurus cloud is 41 \\pm 12%, a value statistically consistent with the one among TTS (58 \\pm 9%). We find that BDs in transition from a state where they have a disk to a diskless state are rare, and we st...

4. Modeling deuterium fractionation in cold and warm molecular environments with large chemical networks

CERN Document Server

Albertsson, T; Henning, Th

2013-01-01

Observations of deuterated species have long proven essential to probe properties and thermal history of various astrophysical environments. We present an elaborated chemical model that includes tens of thousands of reactions with multi-deuterated species, both gas-phase and surface, in which the most recent information on deuterium chemistry is implemented. A detailed study of the chemical evolution under wide range of temperatures and densities typical of cold molecular cores, warm protostellar envelopes, and hot cores/corinos is performed. We consider two cases of initial abundances, with 1) mainly atomic composition and all deuterium locked in HD, and 2) molecular abundances accumulated at 1 Myr of the evolution of a cold prestellar core. We indicate deuterated species that are particularly sensitive to temperature gradients and initial chemical composition. Many multiply-deuterated species produced at 10 K by exothermic ion-molecule chemistry retain large abundances even when temperature rises above 100 ...

5. A toolkit for detecting technical surprise.

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Trahan, Michael Wayne; Foehse, Mark C.

2010-10-01

The detection of a scientific or technological surprise within a secretive country or institute is very difficult. The ability to detect such surprises would allow analysts to identify the capabilities that could be a military or economic threat to national security. Sandia's current approach utilizing ThreatView has been successful in revealing potential technological surprises. However, as data sets become larger, it becomes critical to use algorithms as filters along with the visualization environments. Our two-year LDRD had two primary goals. First, we developed a tool, a Self-Organizing Map (SOM), to extend ThreatView and improve our understanding of the issues involved in working with textual data sets. Second, we developed a toolkit for detecting indicators of technical surprise in textual data sets. Our toolkit has been successfully used to perform technology assessments for the Science & Technology Intelligence (S&TI) program.

6. Deciphering network community structure by surprise

National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

Aldecoa, Rodrigo; Marín, Ignacio

2011-01-01

.... A fundamental, unsolved problem is how to characterize the community structure of a network. Here, using both standard and novel benchmarks, we show that maximization of a simple global parameter, which we call Surprise...

7. A Surprising Culprit Behind Celiac Disease?

Science.gov (United States)

... news/fullstory_164503.html A Surprising Culprit Behind Celiac Disease? Study suggests harmless viruses may set stage ... typically harmless type of virus might sometimes trigger celiac disease, a new study suggests. Celiac disease is ...

8. On large increments of a two-parameter fractional Wiener process

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

ZHANG; Lixin

2001-01-01

［1］Kristian, J. , Sandage, A. R. , Westphal, J., The extension of the Hubble diagram: Ⅱ. New redshifts and photometry of very distant galaxy clusters, Astrophys. J., 1978, 221: 383.［2］Sandage, A., The redshift-distant relation V. Galaxy co lors as functions of galactic latitude and redshift, Astrophys, J.,1973, 183: 711.［3］Qu, Q. Y., Qin, Z. H., Han, C. S. et al., A relation between magnitudes and redshifts of QSOs with strong interplanetary scientillation, Chinese Astron., 1979, 4: 97.［4］Tinsley, B. M. , The Galaxy counts, color-redshift relation, and related quantities as probes of cosmology and galactic evolu-tion, Astrophys. J., 1977, 211: 621.［5］Spinrad, H., Djorgovski, S., The status of the Hubble diagram in 1986 (eds. Hewitt, A. Burbidge, G. Fang, L. Z. ),Proc. IAU Symp 124 on Observational Cosmology, New York: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1986, 129.［6］Fang, L. Z., Zhou, Y. Y., Cheng F. Z. et al., Evolution of quasars with resolved components and determination of decel-eration parameter q0, Scientia Sinica, 1979, 22: 1292.［7］Cheng, K. S., Fan, J. H., Li, Y. et al., Do γ-ray burst associated with metal-rich quasars (ed. Cheng, K. S., Singh,H. P.), Proc. of The Pacific Rim Conference on Stellar Astrophysics, August 13-16, 1997, Houg Kong, 1997.［8］Davis, M., Geller, M. J., Huchra, J., The local mean mass density of the universe: new methods for studying galaxy clus-tering, Astrophys. J., 1978, 221: 1.［9］Gott, J. R., Turner, E. L., The mean luminosity and mass densities in the universe, Astrophys. J., 1976, 209: 1.［10］Shapiro, S. L., The density of matter in the form of galaxies, Astron. J., 1971, 76: 291.［11］Fang, L. Z., Hu, F. X., The large-scale inhomogeneities in the universe (eds. Yang, J., Zhu, C. S. ), Proceeding of A-cademia Sinica--Max-Plank Socity Workshop on High Energy Astrophyics Held in Nanjing, China, April 9-17, 1982,New York: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers S.A. 1982, 425［12］Baldwin, J. A

9. Large-scale isolation, fractionation, and purification of soluble starch-synthesizing enzymes: starch synthase and branching enzyme from potato tubers.

Science.gov (United States)

Mukerjea, Rupendra; Falconer, Daniel J; Yoon, Seung-Heon; Robyt, John F

2010-07-19

Soluble starch-synthesizing enzymes, starch synthase (SSS) and starch-branching enzyme (SBE), were isolated, fractionated, and purified from white potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum) on a large scale. Five steps were used: potato tuber extract from 2 kg of peeled potatoes, two acetone precipitations, and two fractionations on a large ultrafiltration polysulfone hollow fiber 100 kDa cartridge. Three kinds of fractions were obtained: (1) mixtures of SSS and SBE; (2) SSS, free of SBE; and (3) SBE, free of SSS. Contaminating enzymes (amylase, phosphorylase, and disproportionating enzyme) and carbohydrates were absent from the 2nd acetone precipitate and from the column fractions, as judged by the Molisch test and starch triiodide test. Activity yields of 122% (300,000-400,000 units) of SSS fractions and 187% (40,000-50,000 units) of SBE fractions were routinely obtained from the cartridge. Addition of 0.04% (w/v) polyvinyl alcohol 50K and 1 mM dithiothreitol to the glycine buffer (pH 8.4) gave long-term stability and higher yields of SSS and SBE, due to activation of inactive enzymes. Several SSS and SBE fractions from the two fractionations had very high specific activities, indicating high degrees of purification. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of selected SSS and SBE fractions gave two to five SSS and/or SBE activity bands, corresponding to the one to five protein bands present in the 2nd acetone precipitate.

10. Fractional thermoelasticity

CERN Document Server

Povstenko, Yuriy

2015-01-01

This book is devoted to fractional thermoelasticity, i.e. thermoelasticity based on the heat conduction equation with differential operators of fractional order. Readers will discover how time-fractional differential operators describe memory effects and space-fractional differential operators deal with the long-range interaction. Fractional calculus, generalized Fourier law, axisymmetric and central symmetric problems and many relevant equations are featured in the book. The latest developments in the field are included and the reader is brought up to date with current research.  The book contains a large number of figures, to show the characteristic features of temperature and stress distributions and to represent the whole spectrum of order of fractional operators.  This work presents a picture of the state-of-the-art of fractional thermoelasticity and is suitable for specialists in applied mathematics, physics, geophysics, elasticity, thermoelasticity and engineering sciences. Corresponding sections of ...

11. Surprises in numerical expressions of physical constants

CERN Document Server

2016-01-01

In science, as in life, surprises' can be adequately appreciated only in the presence of a null model, what we expect a priori. In physics, theories sometimes express the values of dimensionless physical constants as combinations of mathematical constants like pi or e. The inverse problem also arises, whereby the measured value of a physical constant admits a surprisingly' simple approximation in terms of well-known mathematical constants. Can we estimate the probability for this to be a mere coincidence, rather than an inkling of some theory? We answer the question in the most naive form.

12. Advanced fractional crystallisation and homogenization of large-volume rhyolite before the Oraefajokull 1362 AD plinian eruption, SE Iceland

Science.gov (United States)

Selbekk, R. S.; Tronnes, R. G.

2007-12-01

In the 50 km wide Icelandic rift zones rhyolite magma is generated by partial melting of hydrated metabasaltic crust, subsiding under the weight of the growing volcanic pile. This mechanism of silicic melt formation is indicated by the basalt-rhyolite bimodality and rhyolite O-isotope composition. The low 18/16O-isotope ratios of rift zone rhyolites trace the high-latitude meteoric water component of the subsiding hydrated basalts [1]. The rhyolites of the volcanic flank zones (VFZ), however, have generally as heavy oxygen as the associated alkaline to transitional basalts and intermediate volcanics [2,3]. The minor volcanic loading of the older, thicker and stronger VFZ crust is insufficient for significant subsidence, and less pronounced basalt-rhyolite bimodality combined with other geochemical features support silicic melt generation by fractional crystallization. An extreme case in Icelandic, as well as global, perspective is the rhyolite magma of the plinian eruption from the large VFZ-volcano, Oraefajokull, in 1362 AD [4]. Glass, mineral and bulk tephra analyses show no chemical variation exceeding the analytical precision for the entire erupted volume of 2 km3 DRE. This applies even to the glass shards from distant locations in Greenland, Norway and Ireland. The total phenocryst content is 0.5-1 wt percent, with oligoclase (An14 Ab81 Or5.5), fayalite (Fa99.7 Fo0.3) and hedenbergite (Wo44.7 En2.6 Fs52.7) constituting 50- 80, 10-25 and 10-25 percent of the total phenocrysts, respectively. The extreme mineral compositions (especially pure fayalite and hedenbergite) resemble those of the granophyres in the Skaergaard and Bushveld complexes and differ from all other investigated rhyolites. The advanced fractionation and homogenisation to form the erupted 2 km3 DRE rhyolite is petrogenetically challenging, and a parental magma chamber of 20-40 km3 seems like a conservative estimate. The time-scale of the historic magma chamber evolution under Oraefajokull is

13. Surprising Connections between Partitions and Divisors

Science.gov (United States)

Osler, Thomas J.; Hassen, Abdulkadir; Chandrupatla, Tirupathi R.

2007-01-01

The sum of the divisors of a positive integer is one of the most interesting concepts in multiplicative number theory, while the number of ways of expressing a number as a sum is a primary topic in additive number theory. In this article, we describe some of the surprising connections between and similarities of these two concepts.

14. Surprises from extragalactic propagation of UHECRs

CERN Document Server

Boncioli, Denise; Grillo, Aurelio

2015-01-01

Ultra-high energy cosmic ray experimental data are now of very good statistical significance even in the region of the expected GZK feature. The identification of their sources requires sophisticate analysis of their propagation in the extragalactic space. When looking at the details of this propagation some unforeseen features emerge. We will discuss some of these "surprises".

15. A Shocking Surprise in Stephan's Quintet

Science.gov (United States)

2006-01-01

This false-color composite image of the Stephan's Quintet galaxy cluster clearly shows one of the largest shock waves ever seen (green arc). The wave was produced by one galaxy falling toward another at speeds of more than one million miles per hour. The image is made up of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and a ground-based telescope in Spain. Four of the five galaxies in this picture are involved in a violent collision, which has already stripped most of the hydrogen gas from the interiors of the galaxies. The centers of the galaxies appear as bright yellow-pink knots inside a blue haze of stars, and the galaxy producing all the turmoil, NGC7318b, is the left of two small bright regions in the middle right of the image. One galaxy, the large spiral at the bottom left of the image, is a foreground object and is not associated with the cluster. The titanic shock wave, larger than our own Milky Way galaxy, was detected by the ground-based telescope using visible-light wavelengths. It consists of hot hydrogen gas. As NGC7318b collides with gas spread throughout the cluster, atoms of hydrogen are heated in the shock wave, producing the green glow. Spitzer pointed its infrared spectrograph at the peak of this shock wave (middle of green glow) to learn more about its inner workings. This instrument breaks light apart into its basic components. Data from the instrument are referred to as spectra and are displayed as curving lines that indicate the amount of light coming at each specific wavelength. The Spitzer spectrum showed a strong infrared signature for incredibly turbulent gas made up of hydrogen molecules. This gas is caused when atoms of hydrogen rapidly pair-up to form molecules in the wake of the shock wave. Molecular hydrogen, unlike atomic hydrogen, gives off most of its energy through vibrations that emit in the infrared. This highly disturbed gas is the most turbulent molecular hydrogen ever seen. Astronomers were surprised not only by the turbulence

16. Radar Design to Protect Against Surprise

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

2015-02-01

Technological and doctrinal surprise is about rendering preparations for conflict as irrelevant or ineffective . For a sensor, this means essentially rendering the sensor as irrelevant or ineffective in its ability to help determine truth. Recovery from this sort of surprise is facilitated by flexibility in our own technology and doctrine. For a sensor, this mean s flexibility in its architecture, design, tactics, and the designing organizations ' processes. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory manage d and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000.

17. Surprise Leads to Noisier Perceptual Decisions

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Marta I Garrido

2011-02-01

Full Text Available Surprising events in the environment can impair task performance. This might be due to complete distraction, leading to lapses during which performance is reduced to guessing. Alternatively, unpredictability might cause a graded withdrawal of perceptual resources from the task at hand and thereby reduce sensitivity. Here we attempt to distinguish between these two mechanisms. Listeners performed a novel auditory pitch—duration discrimination, where stimulus loudness changed occasionally and incidentally to the task. Responses were slower and less accurate in the surprising condition, where loudness changed unpredictably, than in the predictable condition, where the loudness was held constant. By explicitly modelling both lapses and changes in sensitivity, we found that unpredictable changes diminished sensitivity but did not increase the rate of lapses. These findings suggest that background environmental uncertainty can disrupt goal-directed behaviour. This graded processing strategy might be adaptive in potentially threatening contexts, and reflect a flexible system for automatic allocation of perceptual resources.

18. Radar Design to Protect Against Surprise.

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Doerry, Armin W.

2015-02-01

Technological and doctrinal surprise is about rendering preparations for conflict as irrelevant or ineffective . For a sensor, this means essentially rendering the sensor as irrelevant or ineffective in its ability to help determine truth. Recovery from this sort of surprise is facilitated by flexibility in our own technology and doctrine. For a sensor, this mean s flexibility in its architecture, design, tactics, and the designing organizations ' processes. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory manage d and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000.

19. Surprise-Based Learning for Autonomous Systems

Science.gov (United States)

2009-02-28

for scientific theories containing recursive theoretical terms". British Journal of Philosophy of Science, 44. 641-652, 1993. Piaget J.. "The Origins...paradigm stems from Piaget’s theory of Developmental Psychology [5], Herben Simon’s theory on dual-space search for knowledge and problem solving [6...34, Twenty-First Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, Edinburgh, Scotland, July 2005. [34] Itti L., Baldi P., "A Surprising Theory of

20. Re-fraction: a machine learning approach for deterministic identification of protein homologues and splice variants in large-scale MS-based proteomics.

Science.gov (United States)

Yang, Pengyi; Humphrey, Sean J; Fazakerley, Daniel J; Prior, Matthew J; Yang, Guang; James, David E; Yang, Jean Yee-Hwa

2012-05-04

A key step in the analysis of mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics data is the inference of proteins from identified peptide sequences. Here we describe Re-Fraction, a novel machine learning algorithm that enhances deterministic protein identification. Re-Fraction utilizes several protein physical properties to assign proteins to expected protein fractions that comprise large-scale MS-based proteomics data. This information is then used to appropriately assign peptides to specific proteins. This approach is sensitive, highly specific, and computationally efficient. We provide algorithms and source code for the current version of Re-Fraction, which accepts output tables from the MaxQuant environment. Nevertheless, the principles behind Re-Fraction can be applied to other protein identification pipelines where data are generated from samples fractionated at the protein level. We demonstrate the utility of this approach through reanalysis of data from a previously published study and generate lists of proteins deterministically identified by Re-Fraction that were previously only identified as members of a protein group. We find that this approach is particularly useful in resolving protein groups composed of splice variants and homologues, which are frequently expressed in a cell- or tissue-specific manner and may have important biological consequences.

1. Dose fractionated gamma knife radiosurgery for large arteriovenous malformations on daily or alternate day schedule outside the linear quadratic model: Proof of concept and early results. A substitute to volume fractionation.

Science.gov (United States)

Mukherjee, Kanchan Kumar; Kumar, Narendra; Tripathi, Manjul; Oinam, Arun S; Ahuja, Chirag K; Dhandapani, Sivashanmugam; Kapoor, Rakesh; Ghoshal, Sushmita; Kaur, Rupinder; Bhatt, Sandeep

2017-01-01

2. Pupil size tracks perceptual content and surprise.

Science.gov (United States)

Kloosterman, Niels A; Meindertsma, Thomas; van Loon, Anouk M; Lamme, Victor A F; Bonneh, Yoram S; Donner, Tobias H

2015-04-01

Changes in pupil size at constant light levels reflect the activity of neuromodulatory brainstem centers that control global brain state. These endogenously driven pupil dynamics can be synchronized with cognitive acts. For example, the pupil dilates during the spontaneous switches of perception of a constant sensory input in bistable perceptual illusions. It is unknown whether this pupil dilation only indicates the occurrence of perceptual switches, or also their content. Here, we measured pupil diameter in human subjects reporting the subjective disappearance and re-appearance of a physically constant visual target surrounded by a moving pattern ('motion-induced blindness' illusion). We show that the pupil dilates during the perceptual switches in the illusion and a stimulus-evoked 'replay' of that illusion. Critically, the switch-related pupil dilation encodes perceptual content, with larger amplitude for disappearance than re-appearance. This difference in pupil response amplitude enables prediction of the type of report (disappearance vs. re-appearance) on individual switches (receiver-operating characteristic: 61%). The amplitude difference is independent of the relative durations of target-visible and target-invisible intervals and subjects' overt behavioral report of the perceptual switches. Further, we show that pupil dilation during the replay also scales with the level of surprise about the timing of switches, but there is no evidence for an interaction between the effects of surprise and perceptual content on the pupil response. Taken together, our results suggest that pupil-linked brain systems track both the content of, and surprise about, perceptual events.

3. Some surprising facts about (the problem of) surprising facts (from the Dusseldorf Conference, February 2011).

Science.gov (United States)

Mayo, D

2014-03-01

A common intuition about evidence is that if data x have been used to construct a hypothesis H, then x should not be used again in support of H. It is no surprise that x fits H, if H was deliberately constructed to accord with x. The question of when and why we should avoid such "double-counting" continues to be debated in philosophy and statistics. It arises as a prohibition against data mining, hunting for significance, tuning on the signal, and ad hoc hypotheses, and as a preference for predesignated hypotheses and "surprising" predictions. I have argued that it is the severity or probativeness of the test--or lack of it--that should determine whether a double-use of data is admissible. I examine a number of surprising ambiguities and unexpected facts that continue to bedevil this debate.

4. Stroke Recovery: Surprising Influences and Residual Consequences

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Argye E. Hillis

2014-01-01

Full Text Available There is startling individual variability in the degree to which people recover from stroke and the duration of time over which recovery of some symptoms occurs. There are a variety of mechanisms of recovery from stroke which take place at distinct time points after stroke and are influenced by different variables. We review recent studies from our laboratory that unveil some surprising findings, such as the role of education in chronic recovery. We also report data showing that the consequences that most plague survivors of stroke and their caregivers are loss of high level cortical functions, such as empathy or written language. These results have implications for rehabilitation and management of stroke.

5. Surprises and mysteries in urban soils

Science.gov (United States)

Groffman, P. M.

2015-12-01

In the Baltimore Ecosystem Study, one of two urban long-term ecological research (LTER) projects funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, we are using "the watershed approach" to integrate ecological, physical and social sciences. Urban and suburban watershed input/output budgets for nitrogen have shown surprisingly high retention which has led to detailed analysis of sources and sinks in soils these watersheds. Home lawns, thought to be major sources of reactive nitrogen in suburban watersheds, have more complex coupled carbon and nitrogen dynamics than previously thought, and are likely the site of much nitrogen retention. Riparian zones, thought to be an important sink for reactive nitrogen in many watersheds, have turned out be nitrogen sources in urban watersheds due to hydrologic changes that disconnect streams from their surrounding landscape. Urban effects on atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and nitrogen deposition have strong effects on soil nitrogen cycling processes and soil:atmosphere fluxes of nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane. Efforts to manage urban soils and watersheds through geomorphic stream restoration, creation of stormwater management features and changes in lawn and forest management can have significant effects on watershed carbon and nitrogen dynamics. Urban soils present a basic and applied science frontier that challenges our understanding of biological, physical, chemical and social science processes. The watershed approach provides an effective platform for integrating these disciplines and for articulating critical questions that arise from surprising results. This approach can help us to meet the challenge of urban soils, which is critical to achieving sustainability goals in cities across the world.

6. 河南灵宝市西坡遗址发现一座仰韶文化中期特大房址%A Surprisingly Large House of the Middle Yangshao Period Discovered on the Xipo Site in Lingbao, Henan

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

中国社会科学院考古研究所河南一队; 河南省文物考古研究所; 三门峡市文物考古研究所; 灵宝市文物保护管理所; 荆山黄帝陵管理所

2005-01-01

After the discovery of House F105. which is 204 sq m in floor area, another surprisingly large semi-subterranean House F106 was exposed at tile Xipo site, Lingbao. Henan, in 2004. The house, about 240 sq m in floor area. ix rectangular in shape. In the middle of its north wall ix a doorway with an azimuth of 24°. The walls of its subterrarlearl part are buih of rammed earth, pasted with fine clay and painted in red Oll the surface.The floor, with a total thickness of 25.5 era. eonsists of seven sub-layers of fine clay and rammed earth and is also painted red oil the surface. 45 postholes were found —— 41 in the walls and four in the middle of the floor. Some traces indicate the existence of rammed earth outer walls in the periphery of the subterranean part. The discoveryof F106 is very important to a better understanding of alehiteetural teehniques during the middle Yangshao period(ea. 6000 BC - ea. 5500 BC).

7. The conceptualization model problem—surprise

Science.gov (United States)

Bredehoeft, John

2005-03-01

The foundation of model analysis is the conceptual model. Surprise is defined as new data that renders the prevailing conceptual model invalid; as defined here it represents a paradigm shift. Limited empirical data indicate that surprises occur in 20-30% of model analyses. These data suggest that groundwater analysts have difficulty selecting the appropriate conceptual model. There is no ready remedy to the conceptual model problem other than (1) to collect as much data as is feasible, using all applicable methods—a complementary data collection methodology can lead to new information that changes the prevailing conceptual model, and (2) for the analyst to remain open to the fact that the conceptual model can change dramatically as more information is collected. In the final analysis, the hydrogeologist makes a subjective decision on the appropriate conceptual model. The conceptualization problem does not render models unusable. The problem introduces an uncertainty that often is not widely recognized. Conceptual model uncertainty is exacerbated in making long-term predictions of system performance. C'est le modèle conceptuel qui se trouve à base d'une analyse sur un modèle. On considère comme une surprise lorsque le modèle est invalidé par des données nouvelles; dans les termes définis ici la surprise est équivalente à un change de paradigme. Des données empiriques limitées indiquent que les surprises apparaissent dans 20 à 30% des analyses effectuées sur les modèles. Ces données suggèrent que l'analyse des eaux souterraines présente des difficultés lorsqu'il s'agit de choisir le modèle conceptuel approprié. Il n'existe pas un autre remède au problème du modèle conceptuel que: (1) rassembler autant des données que possible en utilisant toutes les méthodes applicables—la méthode des données complémentaires peut conduire aux nouvelles informations qui vont changer le modèle conceptuel, et (2) l'analyste doit rester ouvert au fait

8. Design and performance of large-pixel-size high-fill-fraction TES arrays for future X-ray astrophysics missions

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Figueroa-Feliciano, E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)]. E-mail: enectali@mit.edu; Bandler, S.R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Chervenak, J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Finkbeiner, F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Iyomoto, N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kelley, R.L. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kilbourne, C.A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Porter, F.S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Saab, T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sadleir, J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); White, J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2006-04-15

We have designed, modeled, fabricated and tested a 600{mu}m high-fill-fraction microcalorimeter array that will be a good match to the requirements of future X-ray missions. Our devices use transition-edge sensors coupled to overhanging bismuth/copper absorbers to produce arrays with 97% or higher fill fraction. An extensive modeling effort was undertaken in order to accommodate large pixel sizes (500-1000{mu}m) and maintain the best energy resolution possible. The finite thermalization time of the large absorber and the associated position dependence of the pulse shape on absorption position constrain the time constants of the system given a desired energy-resolution performance. We show the results of our analysis and our new pixel design, consisting of a novel TES-on-the-side architecture which creates a controllable TES-absorber conductance.

9. Surprising characteristics of visual systems of invertebrates.

Science.gov (United States)

González-Martín-Moro, J; Hernández-Verdejo, J L; Jiménez-Gahete, A E

2017-01-01

To communicate relevant and striking aspects about the visual system of some close invertebrates. Review of the related literature. The capacity of snails to regenerate a complete eye, the benefit of the oval shape of the compound eye of many flying insects as a way of stabilising the image during flight, the potential advantages related to the extreme refractive error that characterises the ocelli of many insects, as well as the ability to detect polarised light as a navigation system, are some of the surprising capabilities present in the small invertebrate eyes that are described in this work. The invertebrate eyes have capabilities and sensorial modalities that are not present in the human eye. The study of the eyes of these animals can help us to improve our understanding of our visual system, and inspire the development of optical devices. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

10. Surprises from Saturn: Implications for Other Environments

Science.gov (United States)

Coates, A. J.

2014-05-01

The exploration of Saturn by Cassini has provided many surprises regarding: Saturn's rapidly rotating magnetosphere, interactions with its diverse moons, and interactions with the solar wind. Enceladus, orbiting at 4 Saturn radii (RS), was found to have plumes of water vapour and ice which are the dominant source for the inner magnetosphere. Charged water clusters, charged dust and photoelectrons provide key populations in the 'dusty plasma' observed. Direct pickup is seen near Enceladus and field-aligned currents create a spot in Saturn's aurora. At Titan, orbiting at 20 RS, unexpected heavy negative and positive ions are seen in the ionosphere, which provide the source for Titan's haze. Ionospheric plasma is seen in Titan's tail, enabling ion escape to be estimated at 7 tonnes per day. Saturn's ring ionosphere was seen early in the mission and a return will be made in 2017. In addition, highly accelerated electrons are seen at Saturn's high Mach number (MA˜100) quasi-parallel bow shock. Here we review some of these key new results, and discuss the implications for other solar system objects.

11. Determining organic carbon distributions in soil particle size fractions as a precondition of lateral carbon transport modeling at large scales

Science.gov (United States)

Schindewolf, Marcus; Seher, Wiebke; Pfeffer, Eduard; Schultze, Nico; Amorim, Ricardo S. S.; Schmidt, Jürgen

2016-04-01

The erosional transport of organic carbon has an effect on the global carbon budget, however, it is uncertain, whether erosion is a sink or a source for carbon in the atmosphere. Continuous erosion leads to a massive loss of top soils including the loss of organic carbon historically accumulated in the soil humus fraction. The colluvial organic carbon could be protected from further degradation depending on the depth of the colluvial cover and local decomposing conditions. Another part of eroded soils and organic carbon will enter surface water bodies and might be transported over long distances. The selective nature of soil erosion results in a preferential transport of fine particles while less carbonic larger particles remain on site. Consequently organic carbon is enriched in the eroded sediment compared to the origin soil. As a precondition of process based lateral carbon flux modeling, carbon distribution on soil particle size fractions has to be known. In this regard the present study refers to the determination of organic carbon contents on soil particle size separates by a combined sieve-sedimentation method for different tropical and temperate soils Our results suggest high influences of parent material and climatic conditions on carbon distribution on soil particle separates. By applying these results in erosion modeling a test slope was simulated with the EROSION 2D simulation software covering certain land use and soil management scenarios referring to different rainfall events. These simulations allow first insights on carbon loss and depletion on sediment delivery areas as well as carbon gains and enrichments on deposition areas on the landscape scale and could be used as a step forward in landscape scaled carbon redistribution modeling.

12. Void fraction development in gas-liquid flow after a U-bend in a vertically upwards serpentine-configuration large-diameter pipe

Science.gov (United States)

Almabrok, Almabrok A.; Aliyu, Aliyu M.; Baba, Yahaya D.; Lao, Liyun; Yeung, Hoi

2017-08-01

We investigate the effect of a return U-bend on flow behaviour in the vertical upward section of a large-diameter pipe. A wire mesh sensor was employed to study the void fraction distributions at axial distances of 5, 28 and 47 pipe diameters after the upstream bottom bend. The study found that, the bottom bend has considerable impacts on up-flow behaviour. In all conditions, centrifugal action causes appreciable misdistribution in the adjacent straight section. Plots from WMS measurements show that flow asymmetry significantly reduces along the axis at L/D = 47. Regime maps generated from three axial locations showed that, in addition to bubbly, intermittent and annular flows, oscillatory flow occurred particularly when gas and liquid flow rates were relatively low. At this position, mean void fractions were in agreement with those from other large-pipe studies, and comparisons were made with existing void fraction correlations. Among the correlations surveyed, drift flux-type correlations were found to give the best predictive results.

13. Large volume TENAX {sup registered} extraction of the bioaccessible fraction of sediment-associated organic compounds for a subsequent effect-directed analysis

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Schwab, K.; Brack, W. [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre or Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Effect-Directed Analysis

2007-06-15

Background, Aim and Scope: Effect-directed analysis (EDA) is a powerful tool for the identification of key toxicants in complex environmental samples. In most cases, EDA is based on total extraction of organic contaminants leading to an erroneous prioritization with regard to hazard and risk. Bioaccessibility-directed extraction aims to discriminate between contaminants that take part in partitioning between sediment and biota in a relevant time frame and those that are enclosed in structures, that do not allow rapid desorption. Standard protocols of targeted extraction of rapidly desorbing, and thus bioaccessible fraction using TENAX {sup registered} are based only on small amounts of sediment. In order to get sufficient amounts of extracts for subsequent biotesting, fractionation, and structure elucidation a large volume extraction technique needs to be developed applying one selected extraction time and excluding toxic procedural blanks. Materials and Methods: Desorption behaviour of sediment contaminants was determined by a consecutive solid-solid extraction of sediment using TENAX {sup registered} fitting a tri-compartment model on experimental data. Time needed to remove the rapidly desorbing fraction trap was calculated to select a fixed extraction time for single extraction procedures. Up-scaling by about a factor of 100 provided a large volume extraction technique for EDA. Reproducibility and comparability to small volume approach were proved. Blanks of respective TENAX {sup registered} mass were investigated using Scenedesmus vacuolatus and Artemia salina as test organisms. Results: Desorption kinetics showed that 12 to 30 % of sediment associated pollutants are available for rapid desorption. t{sub r}ap is compound dependent and covers a range of 2 to 18 h. On that basis a fixed extraction time of 24 h was selected. Validation of large volume approach was done by the means of comparison to small method and reproducibility. The large volume showed a good

14. The surprising inefficiency of dwarf satellite quenching

CERN Document Server

Wheeler, Coral; Cooper, Michael C; Boylan-Kolchin, Mike; Bullock, James S

2014-01-01

We study dwarf satellite galaxy quenching using observations from the Geha et al. (2012) NSA/SDSS catalog together with LCDM cosmological simulations to facilitate selection and interpretation. We show that fewer than 30% of dwarfs (M* ~ 10^8.5-10^9.5 Msun) identified as satellites within massive host halos (Mhost ~ 10^12.5-10^14 Msun) are quenched, in spite of the expectation from simulations that half of them should have been accreted more than 6 Gyr ago. We conclude that whatever the action triggering environmental quenching of dwarf satellites, the process must be highly inefficient. We investigate a series of simple, one-parameter quenching models in order understand what is required to explain the low quenched fraction and conclude that either the quenching timescale is very long (> 9.5 Gyr, a "slow starvation" scenario) or that the environmental trigger is not well matched to accretion within the virial volume. We discuss these results in light of the fact that most of the low mass dwarf satellites in ...

15. The Influence of Negative Surprise on Hedonic Adaptation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ana Paula Kieling

2016-01-01

Full Text Available After some time using a product or service, the consumer tends to feel less pleasure with consumption. This reduction of pleasure is known as hedonic adaptation. One of the emotions that interfere in this process is surprise. Based on two experiments, we suggest that negative surprise – differently to positive – influences with the level of pleasure foreseen and experienced by the consumer. Study 1 analyzes the influence of negative (vs. positive surprise on the consumer’s post-purchase hedonic adaptation expectation. Results showed that negative surprise influences the intensity of adaptation, augmenting its strength. Study 2 verifies the influence of negative (vs positive surprise over hedonic adaptation. The findings suggested that negative surprise makes adaptation happen more intensively and faster as time goes by, which brings consequences to companies and consumers in the post-purchase process, such as satisfaction and loyalty.

16. Effects of Surprisal and Locality on Danish Sentence Processing

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Balling, Laura Winther; Kizach, Johannes

2017-01-01

An eye-tracking experiment in Danish investigates two dominant accounts of sentence processing: locality-based theories that predict a processing advantage for sentences where the distance between the major syntactic heads is minimized, and the surprisal theory which predicts that processing time...... constructions with two postverbal NP-objects. An eye-tracking experiment showed a clear advantage for local syntactic relations, with only a marginal effect of lexicalised surprisal and no effect of syntactic surprisal. We conclude that surprisal has a relatively marginal effect, which may be clearest for verbs...

17. Mesocosms Reveal Ecological Surprises from Climate Change.

Science.gov (United States)

Fordham, Damien A

2015-12-01

Understanding, predicting, and mitigating the impacts of climate change on biodiversity poses one of the most crucial challenges this century. Currently, we know more about how future climates are likely to shift across the globe than about how species will respond to these changes. Two recent studies show how mesocosm experiments can hasten understanding of the ecological consequences of climate change on species' extinction risk, community structure, and ecosystem functions. Using a large-scale terrestrial warming experiment, Bestion et al. provide the first direct evidence that future global warming can increase extinction risk for temperate ectotherms. Using aquatic mesocosms, Yvon-Durocher et al. show that human-induced climate change could, in some cases, actually enhance the diversity of local communities, increasing productivity. Blending these theoretical and empirical results with computational models will improve forecasts of biodiversity loss and altered ecosystem processes due to climate change.

18. Mesocosms Reveal Ecological Surprises from Climate Change.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Damien A Fordham

2015-12-01

Full Text Available Understanding, predicting, and mitigating the impacts of climate change on biodiversity poses one of the most crucial challenges this century. Currently, we know more about how future climates are likely to shift across the globe than about how species will respond to these changes. Two recent studies show how mesocosm experiments can hasten understanding of the ecological consequences of climate change on species' extinction risk, community structure, and ecosystem functions. Using a large-scale terrestrial warming experiment, Bestion et al. provide the first direct evidence that future global warming can increase extinction risk for temperate ectotherms. Using aquatic mesocosms, Yvon-Durocher et al. show that human-induced climate change could, in some cases, actually enhance the diversity of local communities, increasing productivity. Blending these theoretical and empirical results with computational models will improve forecasts of biodiversity loss and altered ecosystem processes due to climate change.

19. The Energetic Universe: a Nobel Surprise

Science.gov (United States)

Kirshner, Robert P.

2015-01-01

he history of cosmic expansion can be accurately traced using Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) as standard candles. Over the past 40 years, this effort has improved its precision and extended its reach in redshift. Recently, the distances to SN Ia have been measured to a precision of ~5% using luminosity information that is encoded in the shape of the supernova's rest frame optical light curve. By combining observations of supernova distances as measured from their light curves and redshifts measured from spectra, we can detect changes in the cosmic expansion rate. This empirical approach was successfully exploited by the High-Z Supernova Team and by the Supernova Cosmology Project to detect cosmic expansion and to infer the presence of dark energy. The 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Perlmutter, Schmidt and Riess for this discovery. The world's sample of well-observed SN Ia light curves at high redshift and low, approaching 1000 objects, is now large enough to make statistical errors due to sample size a thing of the past. Systematic errors are now the challenge. To learn the properties of dark energy and determine, for example, whether it has an equation-of-state that is different from the cosmological constant demands higher precision and better accuracy. The largest systematic uncertainties come from light curve fitters, photometric calibration errors, and from uncertain knowledge of the scattering properties of dust along the line of sight. Efforts to use SN Ia spectra as luminosity indicators have had some success, but have not yet produced a big step forward. Fortunately, observations of SN Ia in the near infrared (NIR), from 1 to 2 microns, offer a very promising path to better knowledge of the Hubble constant and to improved constraints on dark energy. In the NIR, SN Ia are better standard candles and the effects of dust absorption are smaller. We have begun an HST program dubbed RAISIN (SN IA in the IR) to tighten our grip on dark energy properties

20. The Orion Nebula: Still Full of Surprises

Science.gov (United States)

2011-01-01

shows the glowing hydrogen gas, were coloured red. Light in the yellow-green part of the spectrum is coloured green, blue light is coloured blue and light that passed through an ultraviolet filter has been coloured purple. The exposure times were about 52 minutes through each filter. This image was processed by ESO using the observational data found by Igor Chekalin (Russia) [1], who participated in ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition [2], organised by ESO in October-November 2010, for everyone who enjoys making beautiful images of the night sky using real astronomical data. Notes [1] Igor searched through ESO's archive and identified datasets that he used to compose his image of Messier 42, which was the seventh highest ranked entry in the competition, out of almost 100 entries. His original work can be seen here. Igor Chekalin was awarded the first prize of the competition for his composition of Messier 78, and he also submitted an image of NGC3169, NGC3166 and SN 2003cg, which was ranked second highest. [2] ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 competition gave amateur astronomers the opportunity to search through ESO's vast archives of astronomical data, hoping to find a well-hidden gem that needed polishing by the entrants. Participants submitted nearly 100 entries and ten skilled people were awarded some extremely attractive prizes, including an all expenses paid trip for the overall winner to ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) on Cerro Paranal, in Chile, the world's most advanced optical telescope. The ten winners submitted a total of 20 images that were ranked as the highest entries in the competition out of the near 100 images. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 15 countries: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal

1. Large fractions of CO2-fixing microorganisms in pristine limestone aquifers appear to be involved in the oxidation of reduced sulfur and nitrogen compounds

Science.gov (United States)

Herrmann, Martina; Rusznyák, Anna; Akob, Denise M.; Schulze, Isabel; Opitz, Sebastian; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Küsel, Kirsten

2015-01-01

The traditional view of the dependency of subsurface environments on surface-derived allochthonous carbon inputs is challenged by increasing evidence for the role of lithoautotrophy in aquifer carbon flow. We linked information on autotrophy (Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle) with that from total microbial community analysis in groundwater at two superimposed—upper and lower—limestone groundwater reservoirs (aquifers). Quantitative PCR revealed that up to 17% of the microbial population had the genetic potential to fix CO2 via the Calvin cycle, with abundances of cbbM and cbbL genes, encoding RubisCO (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) forms I and II, ranging from 1.14 × 103 to 6 × 106 genes liter−1 over a 2-year period. The structure of the active microbial communities based on 16S rRNA transcripts differed between the two aquifers, with a larger fraction of heterotrophic, facultative anaerobic, soil-related groups in the oxygen-deficient upper aquifer. Most identified CO2-assimilating phylogenetic groups appeared to be involved in the oxidation of sulfur or nitrogen compounds and harbored both RubisCO forms I and II, allowing efficient CO2 fixation in environments with strong oxygen and CO2 fluctuations. The genera Sulfuricellaand Nitrosomonas were represented by read fractions of up to 78 and 33%, respectively, within the cbbM and cbbL transcript pool and accounted for 5.6 and 3.8% of 16S rRNA sequence reads, respectively, in the lower aquifer. Our results indicate that a large fraction of bacteria in pristine limestone aquifers has the genetic potential for autotrophic CO2 fixation, with energy most likely provided by the oxidation of reduced sulfur and nitrogen compounds.

2. Large Fractions of CO2-Fixing Microorganisms in Pristine Limestone Aquifers Appear To Be Involved in the Oxidation of Reduced Sulfur and Nitrogen Compounds

Science.gov (United States)

Herrmann, Martina; Rusznyák, Anna; Akob, Denise M.; Schulze, Isabel; Opitz, Sebastian; Totsche, Kai Uwe

2015-01-01

The traditional view of the dependency of subsurface environments on surface-derived allochthonous carbon inputs is challenged by increasing evidence for the role of lithoautotrophy in aquifer carbon flow. We linked information on autotrophy (Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle) with that from total microbial community analysis in groundwater at two superimposed—upper and lower—limestone groundwater reservoirs (aquifers). Quantitative PCR revealed that up to 17% of the microbial population had the genetic potential to fix CO2 via the Calvin cycle, with abundances of cbbM and cbbL genes, encoding RubisCO (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) forms I and II, ranging from 1.14 × 103 to 6 × 106 genes liter−1 over a 2-year period. The structure of the active microbial communities based on 16S rRNA transcripts differed between the two aquifers, with a larger fraction of heterotrophic, facultative anaerobic, soil-related groups in the oxygen-deficient upper aquifer. Most identified CO2-assimilating phylogenetic groups appeared to be involved in the oxidation of sulfur or nitrogen compounds and harbored both RubisCO forms I and II, allowing efficient CO2 fixation in environments with strong oxygen and CO2 fluctuations. The genera Sulfuricella and Nitrosomonas were represented by read fractions of up to 78 and 33%, respectively, within the cbbM and cbbL transcript pool and accounted for 5.6 and 3.8% of 16S rRNA sequence reads, respectively, in the lower aquifer. Our results indicate that a large fraction of bacteria in pristine limestone aquifers has the genetic potential for autotrophic CO2 fixation, with energy most likely provided by the oxidation of reduced sulfur and nitrogen compounds. PMID:25616797

3. Surprise and Sense Making: Undergraduate Placement Experiences in SMEs

Science.gov (United States)

Walmsley, Andreas; Thomas, Rhodri; Jameson, Stephanie

2006-01-01

Purpose: This paper seeks to explore undergraduate placement experiences in tourism and hospitality SMEs, focusing on the notions of surprise and sense making. It aims to argue that surprises and sense making are important elements not only of the adjustment process when entering new work environments, but also of the learning experience that…

4. Neural Responses to Rapid Facial Expressions of Fear and Surprise

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ke Zhao

2017-05-01

Full Text Available Facial expression recognition is mediated by a distributed neural system in humans that involves multiple, bilateral regions. There are six basic facial expressions that may be recognized in humans (fear, sadness, surprise, happiness, anger, and disgust; however, fearful faces and surprised faces are easily confused in rapid presentation. The functional organization of the facial expression recognition system embodies a distinction between these two emotions, which is investigated in the present study. A core system that includes the right parahippocampal gyrus (BA 30, fusiform gyrus, and amygdala mediates the visual recognition of fear and surprise. We found that fearful faces evoked greater activity in the left precuneus, middle temporal gyrus (MTG, middle frontal gyrus, and right lingual gyrus, whereas surprised faces were associated with greater activity in the right postcentral gyrus and left posterior insula. These findings indicate the importance of common and separate mechanisms of the neural activation that underlies the recognition of fearful and surprised faces.

5. Co-elution effects can influence molar mass determination of large macromolecules with asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation coupled to multiangle light scattering.

Science.gov (United States)

Perez-Rea, Daysi; Zielke, Claudia; Nilsson, Lars

2017-07-14

Starch and hence, amylopectin is an important biomacromolecule in both the human diet as well as in technical applications. Therefore, accurate and reliable analytical methods for its characterization are needed. A suitable method for analyzing macromolecules with ultra-high molar mass, branched structure and high polydispersity is asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) in combination with multiangle light scattering (MALS) detection. In this paper we illustrate how co-elution of low quantities of very large analytes in AF4 may cause disturbances in the MALS data which, in turn, causes an overestimation of the size. Furthermore, it is shown how pre-injection filtering of the sample can improve the results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

6. Large-scale three-dimensional phase-field simulations for phase coarsening at ultrahigh volume fraction on high-performance architectures

Science.gov (United States)

Yan, Hui; Wang, K. G.; Jones, Jim E.

2016-06-01

A parallel algorithm for large-scale three-dimensional phase-field simulations of phase coarsening is developed and implemented on high-performance architectures. From the large-scale simulations, a new kinetics in phase coarsening in the region of ultrahigh volume fraction is found. The parallel implementation is capable of harnessing the greater computer power available from high-performance architectures. The parallelized code enables increase in three-dimensional simulation system size up to a 5123 grid cube. Through the parallelized code, practical runtime can be achieved for three-dimensional large-scale simulations, and the statistical significance of the results from these high resolution parallel simulations are greatly improved over those obtainable from serial simulations. A detailed performance analysis on speed-up and scalability is presented, showing good scalability which improves with increasing problem size. In addition, a model for prediction of runtime is developed, which shows a good agreement with actual run time from numerical tests.

7. Surprise Gift” Purchases of Small Electric Appliances: A Pilot Study

NARCIS (Netherlands)

J. Vanhamme (Joëlle); C.J.P.M. de Bont (Cees)

2005-01-01

textabstractUnderstanding decision-making processes for gifts is of strategic importance for companies selling small electrical appliances as gifts account for a large part of their sales. Among all gifts, the ones that are surprising are the most valued by recipients. However, research about

8. The surprising diversity of clostridial hydrogenases: a comparative genomic perspective.

Science.gov (United States)

Calusinska, Magdalena; Happe, Thomas; Joris, Bernard; Wilmotte, Annick

2010-06-01

Among the large variety of micro-organisms capable of fermentative hydrogen production, strict anaerobes such as members of the genus Clostridium are the most widely studied. They can produce hydrogen by a reversible reduction of protons accumulated during fermentation to dihydrogen, a reaction which is catalysed by hydrogenases. Sequenced genomes provide completely new insights into the diversity of clostridial hydrogenases. Building on previous reports, we found that [FeFe] hydrogenases are not a homogeneous group of enzymes, but exist in multiple forms with different modular structures and are especially abundant in members of the genus Clostridium. This unusual diversity seems to support the central role of hydrogenases in cell metabolism. In particular, the presence of multiple putative operons encoding multisubunit [FeFe] hydrogenases highlights the fact that hydrogen metabolism is very complex in this genus. In contrast with [FeFe] hydrogenases, their [NiFe] hydrogenase counterparts, widely represented in other bacteria and archaea, are found in only a few clostridial species. Surprisingly, a heteromultimeric Ech hydrogenase, known to be an energy-converting [NiFe] hydrogenase and previously described only in methanogenic archaea and some sulfur-reducing bacteria, was found to be encoded by the genomes of four cellulolytic strains: Clostridum cellulolyticum, Clostridum papyrosolvens, Clostridum thermocellum and Clostridum phytofermentans.

9. Defense Science Board (DSB) Summer Study Report on Strategic Surprise

Science.gov (United States)

2015-07-01

DSB Summer Study Report on Strategic Surprise July 2015 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden...SUBTITLE DSB Summer Study Report on Strategic Surprise 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Defense Science Board ( DSB ),The Pentagon ,OUSD(AT&L

10. Surprising Sensitivities in Simulations of Radiative Convective Equilibrium

Science.gov (United States)

Drotos, Gabor; Becker, Tobias; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Stevens, Bjorn

2017-04-01

The climate and climate-sensitivity of a global model run in radiative equilibrium is explored. Results from simulations with ECHAM6.3 coupled to a slab ocean and run in a wide range of configurations are presented. Simulations both with and without a parameterised representation of deep convection are conducted for CO2 concentrations ranging from one eighth of present day values to thirty-two times the present day, and for variations in the solar constant of more than a factor of two. Very long simulations, in some case more than a thousand years, are performed to adequately sample the attractor of the different climate states of the model, and provide robust estimates of the system's climate sensitivity parameter. For the standard configuration of the model the climate sensitivity progressively decreases from very large values (6-7K) for the coldest climates to well below 1 K for the warmest climates. For very high CO2 levels (16 and 32 times the present value) fluctuations of globally averaged temperature as large as 10 K arise on decadal time-scales. These fluctuations manifest as quasi-period coolings, driven by large and persistent global scale decks of stratiform low clouds, so that for a period of several years global temperatures drop to levels below the lowest temperatures of the climate with present day values of CO2. The same configuration of the model has more modest sensitivities when the insolation is reduced, but runaway warming results for small (10%) increases. Simulations without parameterised convection have colder (by roughly 10K) climates and smaller (1K) sensitivities, allowing a stable climate with earth-like temperatures even for insolation much (50%) larger than the present day. Such values of insolation are possible because over a large range of the insolation the climate sensitivity parameter is very near zero. The surprising sensitivities of the system, and the limit-cycle like behaviour of the very CO2 rich climates, can be traced to

11. Fractional calculus in bioengineering.

Science.gov (United States)

Magin, Richard L

2004-01-01

Fractional calculus (integral and differential operations of noninteger order) is not often used to model biological systems. Although the basic mathematical ideas were developed long ago by the mathematicians Leibniz (1695), Liouville (1834), Riemann (1892), and others and brought to the attention of the engineering world by Oliver Heaviside in the 1890s, it was not until 1974 that the first book on the topic was published by Oldham and Spanier. Recent monographs and symposia proceedings have highlighted the application of fractional calculus in physics, continuum mechanics, signal processing, and electromagnetics, but with few examples of applications in bioengineering. This is surprising because the methods of fractional calculus, when defined as a Laplace or Fourier convolution product, are suitable for solving many problems in biomedical research. For example, early studies by Cole (1933) and Hodgkin (1946) of the electrical properties of nerve cell membranes and the propagation of electrical signals are well characterized by differential equations of fractional order. The solution involves a generalization of the exponential function to the Mittag-Leffler function, which provides a better fit to the observed cell membrane data. A parallel application of fractional derivatives to viscoelastic materials establishes, in a natural way, hereditary integrals and the power law (Nutting/Scott Blair) stress-strain relationship for modeling biomaterials. In this review, I will introduce the idea of fractional operations by following the original approach of Heaviside, demonstrate the basic operations of fractional calculus on well-behaved functions (step, ramp, pulse, sinusoid) of engineering interest, and give specific examples from electrochemistry, physics, bioengineering, and biophysics. The fractional derivative accurately describes natural phenomena that occur in such common engineering problems as heat transfer, electrode/electrolyte behavior, and sub

12. Fractions Instruction: Linking Concepts and Procedures

Science.gov (United States)

Pitsolantis, Nicole; Osana, Helena P.

2013-01-01

It is not surprising, as research has shown, that fractions are one of the most difficult of the elementary school math topics to teach and learn in ways that are meaningful. The authors reference a work by James Hiebert, "Mathematical, Cognitive, and Instructional Analyses of Decimal Fractions" (1992), that mathematical concepts should…

13. Chemical Characterization and Source Apportionment of Size Fractionated Atmospheric Aerosols, and, Evaluating Student Attitudes and Learning in Large Lecture General Chemistry Classes

Science.gov (United States)

Allen, Gregory Harold

Chemical speciation and source apportionment of size fractionated atmospheric aerosols were investigated using laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LD TOF-MS) and source apportionment was carried out using carbon-14 accelerator mass spectrometry (14C AMS). Sample collection was carried out using the Davis Rotating-drum Unit for Monitoring impact analyzer in Davis, Colfax, and Yosemite, CA. Ambient atmospheric aerosols collected during the winter of 2010/11 and 2011/12 showed a significant difference in the types of compounds found in the small and large sized particles. The difference was due to the increase number of oxidized carbon species that were found in the small particles size ranges, but not in the large particles size ranges. Overall, the ambient atmospheric aerosols collected during the winter in Davis, CA had and average fraction modern of F14C = 0.753 +/- 0.006, indicating that the majority of the size fractionated particles originated from biogenic sources. Samples collected during the King Fire in Colfax, CA were used to determine the contribution of biomass burning (wildfire) aerosols. Factor analysis was used to reduce the ions found in the LD TOF-MS analysis of the King Fire samples. The final factor analysis generated a total of four factors that explained an overall 83% of the variance in the data set. Two of the factors correlated heavily with increased smoke events during the sample period. The increased smoke events produced a large number of highly oxidized organic aerosols (OOA2) and aromatic compounds that are indicative of biomass burning organic aerosols (WBOA). The signal intensities of the factors generated in the King Fire data were investigated in samples collected in Yosemite and Davis, CA to look at the impact of biomass burning on ambient atmospheric aerosols. In both comparison sample collections the OOA2 and WBOA factors both increased during biomass burning events located near the sampling sites. The correlation

14. Fractional Echoes

CERN Document Server

Karras, G; Billard, F; Lavorel, B; Siour, G; Hartmann, J -M; Faucher, O; Gershnabel, Erez; Prior, Yehiam; Averbukh, Ilya Sh

2016-01-01

We report the observation of fractional echoes in a double-pulse excited nonlinear system. Unlike standard echoes which appear periodically at delays which are integer multiple of the delay between the two exciting pulses, the fractional echoes appear at rational fractions of this delay. We discuss the mechanism leading to this phenomenon, and provide the first experimental demonstration of fractional echoes by measuring third harmonic generation in a thermal gas of CO2 molecules excited by a pair of femtosecond laser pulses.

15. FRACTIONAL BANKING

OpenAIRE

Maria Klimikova

2010-01-01

Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.

16. FRACTIONAL BANKING

OpenAIRE

Maria Klimikova

2010-01-01

Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.

17. Fractional randomness

Science.gov (United States)

Tapiero, Charles S.; Vallois, Pierre

2016-11-01

The premise of this paper is that a fractional probability distribution is based on fractional operators and the fractional (Hurst) index used that alters the classical setting of random variables. For example, a random variable defined by its density function might not have a fractional density function defined in its conventional sense. Practically, it implies that a distribution's granularity defined by a fractional kernel may have properties that differ due to the fractional index used and the fractional calculus applied to define it. The purpose of this paper is to consider an application of fractional calculus to define the fractional density function of a random variable. In addition, we provide and prove a number of results, defining the functional forms of these distributions as well as their existence. In particular, we define fractional probability distributions for increasing and decreasing functions that are right continuous. Examples are used to motivate the usefulness of a statistical approach to fractional calculus and its application to economic and financial problems. In conclusion, this paper is a preliminary attempt to construct statistical fractional models. Due to the breadth and the extent of such problems, this paper may be considered as an initial attempt to do so.

18. Starch and fiber fractions in selected food and feed ingredients affect their small intestinal digestibility and fermentability and their large bowel fermentability in vitro in a canine model.

Science.gov (United States)

Bednar, G E; Patil, A R; Murray, S M; Grieshop, C M; Merchen, N R; Fahey, G C

2001-02-01

The digestion of legumes, cereal grains, cereal and potato flours and grain-based foods in dogs was studied using two in vitro model systems. The first simulated the stomach and small intestine through the additions of acid and enzymes and large bowel fermentation through use of fecal inocula from dogs, and the second simulated small intestinal fermentation using canine ileal chyme as the bacterial source. All substrates were analyzed for total dietary fiber (TDF) including insoluble and soluble components, and starch fractions: rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch, resistant starch (RS) and total starch. Legumes had high TDF and RS concentrations (mean 36.5 and 24.7%, respectively), resulting in lower ileal digestible starch and total digestible starch concentrations (mean 21 and 31%, respectively). Seventy-four percent of the TS in the cereal grains group was rapidly digestible starch plus slowly digestible starch compared with the flour group, where the corresponding value was 95%. This related to the processing of cereals to flours, in which TDF and RS concentrations were reduced markedly. This increased ileal digestible starch concentrations in the flour group (65%) versus the cereal grains group (60%). Ileal digestion of starch in grain-based food products like macaroni and spaghetti was high (96 and 92%, expressed as a percentage of TS, respectively). Fermentation of substrates with ileal microflora was influenced by substrate chemical composition, with the flour group exhibiting the highest organic matter disappearance values. The legume group had a high total short-chain fatty acid concentration (7.8 mmol/g organic matter fermented), perhaps as a result of fermentation of TDF as well as starch components. A database such as this one provides information about utilization of foods and feeds in the dog and potentially in humans.

19. Avoiding surprises when implementing a single quality system.

Science.gov (United States)

Donawa, Maria

2009-01-01

European medical device manufacturers are sometimes surprised to learn that operating ISO 13485 alone is not sufficient to meet United States (US) quality system requirements. This article discusses important considerations for meeting US and European requirements when operating under a single quality system.

20. Reconsiderations: Donald Murray and the Pedagogy of Surprise

Science.gov (United States)

Ballenger, Bruce

2008-01-01

Toward the end of his life, Donald Murray felt that his approach to writing instruction was no longer appreciated by journals in his field. Nevertheless, his emphasis on encouraging students to surprise themselves through informal writing still has considerable value. (Contains 1 note.)

1. Reconsiderations: Donald Murray and the Pedagogy of Surprise

Science.gov (United States)

Ballenger, Bruce

2008-01-01

Toward the end of his life, Donald Murray felt that his approach to writing instruction was no longer appreciated by journals in his field. Nevertheless, his emphasis on encouraging students to surprise themselves through informal writing still has considerable value. (Contains 1 note.)

2. Errors and surprise in patients with focal brain lesions

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Ullsperger, M.

2016-01-01

Recent theories of performance monitoring suggest that not only errors and negative action outcomes but also valence-free expectancy violations can trigger cognitive and behavioral adaptations. EEG and fMRI evidence suggests that monitoring of both errors and surprising but valence-free action

3. Sleeping beauties in theoretical physics 26 surprising insights

CERN Document Server

2015-01-01

This book addresses a fascinating set of questions in theoretical physics which will both entertain and enlighten all students, teachers and researchers and other physics aficionados. These range from Newtonian mechanics to quantum field theory and cover several puzzling issues that do not appear in standard textbooks. Some topics cover conceptual conundrums, the solutions to which lead to surprising insights; some correct popular misconceptions in the textbook discussion of certain topics; others illustrate deep connections between apparently unconnected domains of theoretical physics; and a few provide remarkably simple derivations of results which are not often appreciated. The connoisseur of theoretical physics will enjoy a feast of pleasant surprises skilfully prepared by an internationally acclaimed theoretical physicist. Each topic is introduced with proper background discussion and special effort is taken to make the discussion self-contained, clear and comprehensible to anyone with an undergraduate e...

4. The June surprises: balls, strikes, and the fog of war.

Science.gov (United States)

Fried, Charles

2013-04-01

At first, few constitutional experts took seriously the argument that the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act exceeded Congress's power under the commerce clause. The highly political opinions of two federal district judges - carefully chosen by challenging plaintiffs - of no particular distinction did not shake that confidence that the act was constitutional. This disdain for the challengers' arguments was only confirmed when the act was upheld by two highly respected conservative court of appeals judges in two separate circuits. But after the hostile, even mocking questioning of the government's advocate in the Supreme Court by the five Republican-appointed justices, the expectation was that the act would indeed be struck down on that ground. So it came as no surprise when the five opined the act did indeed exceed Congress's commerce clause power. But it came as a great surprise when Chief Justice John Roberts, joined by the four Democrat-appointed justices, ruled that the act could be sustained as an exercise of Congress's taxing power - a ground urged by the government almost as an afterthought. It was further surprising, even shocking, that Justices Antonin Scalia, Anthony Kennedy, Clarence Thomas, and Samuel Alito not only wrote a joint opinion on the commerce clause virtually identical to that of their chief, but that in writing it they did not refer to or even acknowledge his opinion. Finally surprising was the fact that Justices Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Stephen Breyer joined the chief in holding that aspects of the act's Medicaid expansion were unconstitutional. This essay ponders and tries to unravel some of these puzzles.

5. Stars Form Surprisingly Close to Milky Way's Black Hole

Science.gov (United States)

2005-10-01

million low mass, sun-like stars in and around the ring, whereas in the disk model, the number of low mass stars could be much less. Nayakshin and his coauthor, Rashid Sunyaev of the Max Plank Institute for Physics in Garching, Germany, used Chandra observations to compare the X-ray glow from the region around Sgr A* to the X-ray emission from thousands of young stars in the Orion Nebula star cluster. They found that the Sgr A* star cluster contains only about 10,000 low mass stars, thereby ruling out the migration model. "We can now say that the stars around Sgr A* were not deposited there by some passing star cluster, rather they were born there," said Sunyaev . "There have been theories that this was possible, but this is the first real evidence. Many scientists are going to be very surprised by these results." Because the Galactic Center is shrouded in dust and gas, it has not been possible to look for the low-mass stars in optical observations. In contrast, X-ray data have allowed astronomers to penetrate the veil of gas and dust and look for these low mass stars. Scenario Dismissed by Chandra Results Scenario Dismissed by Chandra Results "In one of the most inhospitable places in our Galaxy, stars have prevailed," said Nayakshin. "It appears that star formation is much more tenacious than we previously believed." The results suggest that the "rules" of star formation change when stars form in the disk of a giant black hole. Because this environment is very different from typical star formation regions, there is a change in the proportion of stars that form. For example, there is a much higher percentage of massive stars in the disks around black holes. And, when these massive stars explode as supernovae, they will "fertilize" the region with heavy elements such as oxygen. This may explain the large amounts of such elements observed in the disks of young supermassive black holes. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for

6. Surprising electronic structure of the BeH- dimer: a full-configuration-interaction study.

Science.gov (United States)

Verdicchio, Marco; Bendazzoli, Gian Luigi; Evangelisti, Stefano; Leininger, Thierry

2013-01-10

The electronic structure of the beryllium hydride anion, BeH(-), was investigated at valence full-configuration-interaction (FCI) level, using large cc-pV6Z basis sets. It appears that there is a deep change of the wave function nature as a function of the internuclear distance: the ion structure goes from a weakly bonded Be···H(-) complex, at long distance, to a rather strongly bonded system (more than 2 eV) at short distance, having a (:Be-H)(-) Lewis structure. In this case, it is the beryllium atom that formally bears the negative charge, a surprising result in view of the fact that it is the hydrogen atom that has a larger electronegativity. Even more surprisingly, at very short distances the average position of the total electronic charge is close to the beryllium atom but on the opposite side with respect to the hydrogen position.

7. The molecular mechanism of Mo isotope fractionation during adsorption to birnessite

Science.gov (United States)

Wasylenki, L.E.; Weeks, C.L.; Bargar, J.R.; Spiro, T.G.; Hein, J.R.; Anbar, A.D.

2011-01-01

Fractionation of Mo isotopes during adsorption to manganese oxides is a primary control on the global ocean Mo isotope budget. Previous attempts to explain what drives the surprisingly large isotope effect ??97/95Modissolved-??97/95Moadsorbed=1.8??? have not successfully resolved the fractionation mechanism. New evidence from extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis and density functional theory suggests that Mo forms a polymolybdate complex on the surfaces of experimental and natural samples. Mo in this polynuclear structure is in distorted octahedral coordination, while Mo remaining in solution is predominantly in tetrahedral coordination as MoO42- Our results indicate that the difference in coordination environment between dissolved Mo and adsorbed Mo is the cause of isotope fractionation. The molecular mechanism of metal isotope fractionation in this system should enable us to explain and possibly predict metal isotope effects in other systems where transition metals adsorb to mineral surfaces. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

8. Fractional motions

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eliazar, Iddo I., E-mail: eliazar@post.tau.ac.il [Holon Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 305, Holon 58102 (Israel); Shlesinger, Michael F., E-mail: mike.shlesinger@navy.mil [Office of Naval Research, Code 30, 875 N. Randolph St., Arlington, VA 22203 (United States)

2013-06-10

Brownian motion is the archetypal model for random transport processes in science and engineering. Brownian motion displays neither wild fluctuations (the “Noah effect”), nor long-range correlations (the “Joseph effect”). The quintessential model for processes displaying the Noah effect is Lévy motion, the quintessential model for processes displaying the Joseph effect is fractional Brownian motion, and the prototypical model for processes displaying both the Noah and Joseph effects is fractional Lévy motion. In this paper we review these four random-motion models–henceforth termed “fractional motions” –via a unified physical setting that is based on Langevin’s equation, the Einstein–Smoluchowski paradigm, and stochastic scaling limits. The unified setting explains the universal macroscopic emergence of fractional motions, and predicts–according to microscopic-level details–which of the four fractional motions will emerge on the macroscopic level. The statistical properties of fractional motions are classified and parametrized by two exponents—a “Noah exponent” governing their fluctuations, and a “Joseph exponent” governing their dispersions and correlations. This self-contained review provides a concise and cohesive introduction to fractional motions.

9. Virome Assembly and Annotation: A Surprise in the Namib Desert

Science.gov (United States)

Hesse, Uljana; van Heusden, Peter; Kirby, Bronwyn M.; Olonade, Israel; van Zyl, Leonardo J.; Trindade, Marla

2017-01-01

Sequencing, assembly, and annotation of environmental virome samples is challenging. Methodological biases and differences in species abundance result in fragmentary read coverage; sequence reconstruction is further complicated by the mosaic nature of viral genomes. In this paper, we focus on biocomputational aspects of virome analysis, emphasizing latent pitfalls in sequence annotation. Using simulated viromes that mimic environmental data challenges we assessed the performance of five assemblers (CLC-Workbench, IDBA-UD, SPAdes, RayMeta, ABySS). Individual analyses of relevant scaffold length fractions revealed shortcomings of some programs in reconstruction of viral genomes with excessive read coverage (IDBA-UD, RayMeta), and in accurate assembly of scaffolds ≥50 kb (SPAdes, RayMeta, ABySS). The CLC-Workbench assembler performed best in terms of genome recovery (including highly covered genomes) and correct reconstruction of large scaffolds; and was used to assemble a virome from a copper rich site in the Namib Desert. We found that scaffold network analysis and cluster-specific read reassembly improved reconstruction of sequences with excessive read coverage, and that strict data filtering for non-viral sequences prior to downstream analyses was essential. In this study we describe novel viral genomes identified in the Namib Desert copper site virome. Taxonomic affiliations of diverse proteins in the dataset and phylogenetic analyses of circovirus-like proteins indicated links to the marine habitat. Considering additional evidence from this dataset we hypothesize that viruses may have been carried from the Atlantic Ocean into the Namib Desert by fog and wind, highlighting the impact of the extended environment on an investigated niche in metagenome studies. PMID:28167933

10. Virome Assembly and Annotation: A Surprise in the Namib Desert.

Science.gov (United States)

Hesse, Uljana; van Heusden, Peter; Kirby, Bronwyn M; Olonade, Israel; van Zyl, Leonardo J; Trindade, Marla

2017-01-01

Sequencing, assembly, and annotation of environmental virome samples is challenging. Methodological biases and differences in species abundance result in fragmentary read coverage; sequence reconstruction is further complicated by the mosaic nature of viral genomes. In this paper, we focus on biocomputational aspects of virome analysis, emphasizing latent pitfalls in sequence annotation. Using simulated viromes that mimic environmental data challenges we assessed the performance of five assemblers (CLC-Workbench, IDBA-UD, SPAdes, RayMeta, ABySS). Individual analyses of relevant scaffold length fractions revealed shortcomings of some programs in reconstruction of viral genomes with excessive read coverage (IDBA-UD, RayMeta), and in accurate assembly of scaffolds ≥50 kb (SPAdes, RayMeta, ABySS). The CLC-Workbench assembler performed best in terms of genome recovery (including highly covered genomes) and correct reconstruction of large scaffolds; and was used to assemble a virome from a copper rich site in the Namib Desert. We found that scaffold network analysis and cluster-specific read reassembly improved reconstruction of sequences with excessive read coverage, and that strict data filtering for non-viral sequences prior to downstream analyses was essential. In this study we describe novel viral genomes identified in the Namib Desert copper site virome. Taxonomic affiliations of diverse proteins in the dataset and phylogenetic analyses of circovirus-like proteins indicated links to the marine habitat. Considering additional evidence from this dataset we hypothesize that viruses may have been carried from the Atlantic Ocean into the Namib Desert by fog and wind, highlighting the impact of the extended environment on an investigated niche in metagenome studies.

11. Palliation of advanced pelvic malignant disease with large fraction pelvic radiation and misonidazole: final report of RTOG phase I/II study

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spanos, W.J. Jr.; Wasserman, T.; Meoz, R.; Sala, J.; Kong, J.; Stetz, J.

1987-10-01

12. Measurement of the Relative Branching Fractions for B- -> D/D*/D**(D(*)pi) l- anti-nu with a Large Sample of Tagged B Mesons

CERN Document Server

2006-01-01

We present a study of B semileptonic decays into charm final states based on 211.7 fb^{-1} of data collected at the \\Upsilon(4S) resonance with the babar detector at the pep2 e^+e^- storage ring. Using a novel technique based on the simultaneous fit of a set of variables reconstructed on the recoil of a B tagged in an hadronic decay mode, we measure the relative branching fractions \\Gamma(B^- \\to D^0\\ell^- \\bar{\

13. Polymer fractionation

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

1985-04-09

Soluble polymers are fractionated according to molecular weight by cryogenically comminuting the polymer and introducing the polymer particles, while still in the active state induced by cryogenic grinding, into a liquid having a solvent power selected to produce a coacervate fraction containing high molecular weight polymer species and a dilute polymer solution containing lower molecular weight polymer species. The coacervate may be physically separated from the solution and finds use in the production of antimisting jet fuels and the like.

14. Fractional random walk lattice dynamics

CERN Document Server

Michelitsch, Thomas; Riascos, Alejandro Perez; Nowakowski, Andrzeij; Nicolleau, Franck

2016-01-01

We analyze time-discrete and continuous fractional' random walks on undirected regular networks with special focus on cubic periodic lattices in $n=1,2,3,..$ dimensions.The fractional random walk dynamics is governed by a master equation involving {\\it fractional powers of Laplacian matrices $L^{\\frac{\\alpha}{2}}$}where $\\alpha=2$ recovers the normal walk.First we demonstrate thatthe interval $0\\textless{}\\alpha\\leq 2$ is admissible for the fractional random walk. We derive analytical expressions for fractional transition matrix and closely related the average return probabilities. We further obtain thefundamental matrix $Z^{(\\alpha)}$, and the mean relaxation time (Kemeny constant) for the fractional random walk.The representation for the fundamental matrix $Z^{(\\alpha)}$ relates fractional random walks with normal random walks.We show that the fractional transition matrix elements exihibit for large cubic $n$-dimensional lattices a power law decay of an $n$-dimensional infinite spaceRiesz fractional deriva...

15. Understanding Multiplication of Fractions.

Science.gov (United States)

Sweetland, Robert D.

1984-01-01

Discussed the use of Cuisenaire rods in teaching the multiplication of fractions. Considers whole number times proper fraction, proper fraction multiplied by proper fraction, mixed number times proper fraction, and mixed fraction multiplied by mixed fractions. (JN)

16. Estimations of expectedness and potential surprise in possibility theory

Science.gov (United States)

1992-01-01

This note investigates how various ideas of 'expectedness' can be captured in the framework of possibility theory. Particularly, we are interested in trying to introduce estimates of the kind of lack of surprise expressed by people when saying 'I would not be surprised that...' before an event takes place, or by saying 'I knew it' after its realization. In possibility theory, a possibility distribution is supposed to model the relative levels of mutually exclusive alternatives in a set, or equivalently, the alternatives are assumed to be rank-ordered according to their level of possibility to take place. Four basic set-functions associated with a possibility distribution, including standard possibility and necessity measures, are discussed from the point of view of what they estimate when applied to potential events. Extensions of these estimates based on the notions of Q-projection or OWA operators are proposed when only significant parts of the possibility distribution are retained in the evaluation. The case of partially-known possibility distributions is also considered. Some potential applications are outlined.

17. 10 years of surprises at Saturn: CAPS and INMS highlights

Science.gov (United States)

Coates, A. J.; Waite, J. H.

2014-04-01

The Cassini mission at Saturn has provided many surprises on Saturn's rapidly rotating magnetosphere and its interaction with the diverse moons, as well as its interaction with the solar wind. One of the early discoveries was the water-rich composition of the magnetosphere. Its structure and dynamics indicate remarkable injections, periodicities and interchange events. Enceladus, orbiting at 4 RS, was found to have plumes of water vapour and ice which are the dominant source for the inner magnetosphere. Charged water clusters, charged dust and photoelectrons provide key populations in the 'dusty plasma' seen here, as well as chemical complexity in the plume material. Direct pickup is seen near Enceladus and field aligned currents create a spot in Saturn's aurora. At Titan, orbiting at 20 RS, heavy negative and positive ions are seen in the ionosphere, as well as neutrals, all of which have surprising chemical complexity. These provide the source for Titan's haze. Ionospheric plasma is seen in Titan's tail, enabling ion escape to be estimated at 7 tonnes per day. Saturn's ring ionosphere was seen early in the mission, which was oxygen rich and produced photoelectrons; a return will be made in 2017. At Rhea, pickup positive and negative ions indicated weak atmospheres sustained by energetic particle impact, seen in the neutrals also. A weak atmosphere was also seen at Dione. The exosphere production process operates at Jupiter's moons also. Here we review some of the key new results, and discuss the implications for other solar system contexts.

18. The mass fraction of AGN and the Fundamental Plane of black hole activity from a large X-ray selected sample of LINERs

CERN Document Server

Nisbet, D M

2015-01-01

A sample of 576 X-ray selected LINERs was constructed by combining data from the 3XMM-DR4 and SDSS-DR7 catalogues. The sample was used to investigate the fraction of galaxies hosting a LINER, finding that the fraction is a strong function of both stellar mass and black hole mass (scaling to the power of 1.6 +/- 0.2 and 0.6 +/- 0.1 respectively) and that it rises close to unity at the highest black hole masses and lowest X-ray luminosities. After obtaining radio flux densities from the FIRST survey, the sample was also used to investigate the Fundamental Plane of black hole activity - a scale-invariant relationship between black hole mass, X-ray luminosity and radio luminosity that is believed to hold across at least nine orders of magnitude of mass. There are key advantages in using only LINERs for the derivation as these are the counterparts of the "low-hard" X-ray binaries for which the relationship is tightest. The Fundamental Plane was found to be log (L_R / erg/s) = (0.65 +/- 0.07) log (L_X / 10^42 erg/s...

19. Supermagnetic Neutron Star Surprises Scientists, Forces Revision of Theories

Science.gov (United States)

2006-08-01

20. Chandra Finds Surprising Black Hole Activity In Galaxy Cluster

Science.gov (United States)

2002-09-01

Scientists at the Carnegie Observatories in Pasadena, California, have uncovered six times the expected number of active, supermassive black holes in a single viewing of a cluster of galaxies, a finding that has profound implications for theories as to how old galaxies fuel the growth of their central black holes. The finding suggests that voracious, central black holes might be as common in old, red galaxies as they are in younger, blue galaxies, a surprise to many astronomers. The team made this discovery with NASA'S Chandra X-ray Observatory. They also used Carnegie's 6.5-meter Walter Baade Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile for follow-up optical observations. "This changes our view of galaxy clusters as the retirement homes for old and quiet black holes," said Dr. Paul Martini, lead author on a paper describing the results that appears in the September 10 issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters. "The question now is, how do these black holes produce bright X-ray sources, similar to what we see from much younger galaxies?" Typical of the black hole phenomenon, the cores of these active galaxies are luminous in X-ray radiation. Yet, they are obscured, and thus essentially undetectable in the radio, infrared and optical wavebands. "X rays can penetrate obscuring gas and dust as easily as they penetrate the soft tissue of the human body to look for broken bones," said co-author Dr. Dan Kelson. "So, with Chandra, we can peer through the dust and we have found that even ancient galaxies with 10-billion-year-old stars can have central black holes still actively pulling in copious amounts of interstellar gas. This activity has simply been hidden from us all this time. This means these galaxies aren't over the hill after all and our theories need to be revised." Scientists say that supermassive black holes -- having the mass of millions to billions of suns squeezed into a region about the size of our Solar System -- are the engines in the cores of

1. Measured Zero Net Energy Performance: Results, Lessons, and Surprises

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Brown, Carrie; LaRue, Anna; Pigman, Margaret; Roberts, Jon; Kaneda, David; Connelly, Dylan; Elliott, John; Pless, Shanti; Pande, Abhijeet; Dean, Edward; Anbarlilar, Can

2016-08-26

As more and more zero net energy (ZNE) buildings are built and monitored, we can learn from both careful case studies of individual projects as well as a broader perspective of trends over time. In a forum sponsored by Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E), eight expert speakers discussed: results and lessons from monitoring occupied ZNE buildings; best practices for setting performance targets and getting actionable performance information, and; things that have surprised them about monitored ZNE buildings. This paper distills the content of the forum by laying out the most common hurdles that are encountered in setting up monitoring projects, frequent performance issues that the monitoring uncovers, and lessons learned that can be applied to future projects.

2. Surprising hair analysis results following acute carbofuran intoxication.

Science.gov (United States)

Dulaurent, S; Gaulier, J M; Zouaoui, K; Moesch, C; François, B; Lachâtre, G

2011-10-10

We present two non fatal cases of intoxication with carbofuran (CBF) documented by hair analysis. Carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran (OHCBF, its main metabolite) hair concentrations were determined using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The obtained results were surprising if we consider several hair analyses previously published and based on a theory of the presence of xenobiotic in the only segment that comprised its intake. Among the two intoxication cases, we noticed the presence of CBF and OHCBF in hair segments corresponding to 45 days before, and more than 100 days after, the day of intoxication. Additionally, repeated hair samplings and subsequent analysis revealed a decrease of the carbofuran's concentration during the hair life.

3. Physics Nobel prize 2004: Surprising theory wins physics Nobel

CERN Multimedia

2004-01-01

From left to right: David Politzer, David Gross and Frank Wilczek. For their understanding of counter-intuitive aspects of the strong force, which governs quarks inside protons and neutrons, on 5 October three American physicists were awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics. David J. Gross (Kavli Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara), H. David Politzer (California Institute of Technology), and Frank Wilczek (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) made a key theoretical discovery with a surprising result: the closer quarks are together, the weaker the force - opposite to what is seen with electromagnetism and gravity. Rather, the strong force is analogous to a rubber band stretching, where the force increases as the quarks get farther apart. These physicists discovered this property of quarks, known as asymptotic freedom, in 1976. It later became a key part of the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the Standard Model, the current best theory to describe the interac...

4. Probability and Surprisal in Auditory Comprehension of Morphologically Complex Words

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Balling, Laura Winther; Baayen, R. Harald

2012-01-01

Two auditory lexical decision experiments document for morphologically complex words two points at which the probability of a target word given the evidence shifts dramatically. The first point is reached when morphologically unrelated competitors are no longer compatible with the evidence....... Adapting terminology from Marslen-Wilson (1984), we refer to this as the word’s initial uniqueness point (UP1). The second point is the complex uniqueness point (CUP) introduced by Balling and Baayen (2008), at which morphologically related competitors become incompatible with the input. Later initial...... in the course of the word co-determines response latencies. The presence of effects of surprisal, both at the initial uniqueness point of complex words, and cumulatively throughout the word, challenges the Shortlist B model of Norris and McQueen (2008), and suggests that a Bayesian approach to auditory...

5. 2014 Presidential elections in Romania – surprising result or strategy

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Dan Mihalache

2015-03-01

Full Text Available The presidential elections in Romania which took place in November 2014 were won by Klaus Iohannis, who clearly defeated the incumbent prime-minister Victor Ponta by 10%. The result was considered by many a surprise, as none of the opinion polls were able to predict it. This article reveals a part of the strategy of Klaus Iohannis’s campaign and it offers a few clues about how this is result was possible, without having the aim to explain it fully. As the authors were accountable for strategy and political message in the electoral campaign for Klaus Iohannis, the scientific approach is combined with the inside view, to provide the reader a better understanding of the November 2014 events.

6. Mystery Fractions

Science.gov (United States)

Bhattacharyya, Sonalee; Namakshi, Nama; Zunker, Christina; Warshauer, Hiroko K.; Warshauer, Max

2016-01-01

Making math more engaging for students is a challenge that every teacher faces on a daily basis. These authors write that they are constantly searching for rich problem-solving tasks that cover the necessary content, develop critical-thinking skills, and engage student interest. The Mystery Fraction activity provided here focuses on a key number…

7. Mystery Fractions

Science.gov (United States)

Bhattacharyya, Sonalee; Namakshi, Nama; Zunker, Christina; Warshauer, Hiroko K.; Warshauer, Max

2016-01-01

Making math more engaging for students is a challenge that every teacher faces on a daily basis. These authors write that they are constantly searching for rich problem-solving tasks that cover the necessary content, develop critical-thinking skills, and engage student interest. The Mystery Fraction activity provided here focuses on a key number…

8. Very high rate programming in primary prevention patients with reduced ejection fraction implanted with a defibrillator: Results from a large multicenter controlled study.

Science.gov (United States)

Clementy, Nicolas; Challal, Farid; Marijon, Eloi; Boveda, Serge; Defaye, Pascal; Leclercq, Christophe; Deharo, Jean-Claude; Sadoul, Nicolas; Klug, Didier; Piot, Olivier; Gras, Daniel; Bordachar, Pierre; Algalarrondo, Vincent; Fauchier, Laurent; Babuty, Dominique

2017-02-01

Programming implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) with a high-rate therapy strategy has proven to be effective in reducing shocks and is associated with a reduced mortality. We sought to determine the impact of a very high rate cutoff programming strategy on outcomes in patients with a primary indication for an ICD due to reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Using data from the multicenter French DAI-PP registry, this cohort-controlled study compared outcomes in 500 patients programmed with a very high rate cutoff (VH-RATE group: monitor zone 170-219 beats/min; ventricular fibrillation zone ≥220 beats/min with 13 ± 4 detection intervals) with 1500 matched control patients programmed with 1 or 2 therapy zone. All ICDs were implanted for primary prevention in patients with systolic dysfunction. Risks of events were compared after propensity score matching of sex, age, ejection fraction, New York Heart Association class, cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation, and type of device. After a mean follow-up of 3.6 ± 2.3 years, VH-RATE programming was associated with a reduction of appropriate therapy risk (hazard ratio [HR] 0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.31-0.51; P programmed with 2 therapy zones. There was no significant difference in overall survival between the groups. In patients implanted with an ICD in primary prevention with left ventricular dysfunction, very high rate cutoff programming (single therapy zone ≥220 beats/min) was associated with a 60% reduction of appropriate therapies as well as inappropriate shocks, without affecting mortality. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

9. Exploring the concept of climate surprises. A review of the literature on the concept of surprise and how it is related to climate change

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Glantz, M.H.; Moore, C.M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Streets, D.G.; Bhatti, N.; Rosa, C.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Stewart, T.R. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)

1998-01-01

This report examines the concept of climate surprise and its implications for environmental policymaking. Although most integrated assessment models of climate change deal with average values of change, it is usually the extreme events or surprises that cause the most damage to human health and property. Current models do not help the policymaker decide how to deal with climate surprises. This report examines the literature of surprise in many aspects of human society: psychology, military, health care, humor, agriculture, etc. It draws together various ways to consider the concept of surprise and examines different taxonomies of surprise that have been proposed. In many ways, surprise is revealed to be a subjective concept, triggered by such factors as prior experience, belief system, and level of education. How policymakers have reacted to specific instances of climate change or climate surprise in the past is considered, particularly with regard to the choices they made between proactive and reactive measures. Finally, the report discusses techniques used in the current generation of assessment models and makes suggestions as to how climate surprises might be included in future models. The report concludes that some kinds of surprises are simply unpredictable, but there are several types that could in some way be anticipated and assessed, and their negative effects forestalled.

10. Estimation of dependence between mean of fractionation of photons and neutrons dose and intensity of post-irradiation reaction of mouse large intestine; Ocena zaleznosci pomiedzy sposobem frakcjonowania dawki fotonow i neutronow a nasileniem popromiennego odczynu jelita grubego myszy

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gasinska, A. [Oncology Center, Cracow (Poland)

1995-12-31

11. Fraction Reduction through Continued Fractions

Science.gov (United States)

Carley, Holly

2011-01-01

This article presents a method of reducing fractions without factoring. The ideas presented may be useful as a project for motivated students in an undergraduate number theory course. The discussion is related to the Euclidean Algorithm and its variations may lead to projects or early examples involving efficiency of an algorithm.

12. Comparison of the Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide Levels in Adolescents at Three Schools Located Three Different Distances from a Large Steel Mill

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Murat Acat

2017-01-01

Full Text Available Objectives. Exposure to ambient metals and air pollutants in urban environments has been associated with impaired lung health and inflammation in the lungs. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO is a reliable marker of airway inflammation. In this study, we aimed to compare the FeNO levels of three schools that have different distances from iron and steel industry zone for assessing the effects of heavy metals and air pollution on their respiratory health. Methods. Pulmonary function test and FeNO measurements were evaluated in 387 adolescents in three schools which have different distance from plant. Results. FeNO levels were significantly higher in School I (n=142; 18.89±12.3 ppb and School II (n=131; 17.68±7.7 ppb than School III (n=114; 4.28±3.9 ppb. Increased FeNO concentration was related to the distance of iron and steel industry zone in young adults. Conclusion. The FeNO concentrations in school children were inversely proportional to the distance from the steel mill. There are needed some studies that can evaluate the safe distance and legislation must consider these findings.

13. Comparison of the Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide Levels in Adolescents at Three Schools Located Three Different Distances from a Large Steel Mill

Science.gov (United States)

Acat, Murat; Yazıcı, Onur; Turğut, Mahmut; Çakar, Murat; Yaşar, Zehra; Deniz, Sami; Çetinkaya, Erdoğan

2017-01-01

Objectives. Exposure to ambient metals and air pollutants in urban environments has been associated with impaired lung health and inflammation in the lungs. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a reliable marker of airway inflammation. In this study, we aimed to compare the FeNO levels of three schools that have different distances from iron and steel industry zone for assessing the effects of heavy metals and air pollution on their respiratory health. Methods. Pulmonary function test and FeNO measurements were evaluated in 387 adolescents in three schools which have different distance from plant. Results. FeNO levels were significantly higher in School I (n = 142; 18.89 ± 12.3 ppb) and School II (n = 131; 17.68 ± 7.7 ppb) than School III (n = 114; 4.28 ± 3.9 ppb). Increased FeNO concentration was related to the distance of iron and steel industry zone in young adults. Conclusion. The FeNO concentrations in school children were inversely proportional to the distance from the steel mill. There are needed some studies that can evaluate the safe distance and legislation must consider these findings.

14. Atom Surprise: Using Theatre in Primary Science Education

Science.gov (United States)

Peleg, Ran; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet

2011-10-01

Early exposure to science may have a lifelong effect on children's attitudes towards science and their motivation to learn science in later life. Out-of-class environments can play a significant role in creating favourable attitudes, while contributing to conceptual learning. Educational science theatre is one form of an out-of-class environment, which has received little research attention. This study aims to describe affective and cognitive learning outcomes of watching such a play and to point to connections between theatrical elements and specific outcomes. "Atom Surprise" is a play portraying several concepts on the topic of matter. A mixed methods approach was adopted to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of children (grades 1-6) from two different school settings who watched the play. Data were gathered using questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Analysis suggested that in both schools children's knowledge on the topic of matter increased after the play with younger children gaining more conceptual knowledge than their older peers. In the public school girls showed greater gains in conceptual knowledge than boys. No significant changes in students' general attitudes towards science were found, however, students demonstrated positive changes towards science learning. Theatrical elements that seemed to be important in children's recollection of the play were the narrative, props and stage effects, and characters. In the children's memory, science was intertwined with the theatrical elements. Nonetheless, children could distinguish well between scientific facts and the fictive narrative.

15. Novelty biases attention and gaze in a surprise trial.

Science.gov (United States)

Horstmann, Gernot; Herwig, Arvid

2016-01-01

While the classical distinction between task-driven and stimulus-driven biasing of attention appears to be a dichotomy at first sight, there seems to be a third category that depends on the contrast or discrepancy between active representations and the upcoming stimulus, and may be termed novelty, surprise, or prediction failure. For previous demonstrations of the discrepancy-attention link, stimulus-driven components (saliency) may have played a decisive role. The present study was conducted to evaluate the discrepancy-attention link in a display where novel and familiar stimuli are equated for saliency. Eye tracking was used to determine fixations on novel and familiar stimuli as a proxy for attention. Results show a prioritization of attention by the novel color, and a de-prioritization of the familiar color, which is clearly present at the second fixation, and spans over the next couple of fixations. Saliency, on the other hand, did not prioritize items in the display. The results thus reinforce the notion that novelty captures and binds attention.

16. A Well-Known But Still Surprising Generator

Science.gov (United States)

Haugland, Ole Anton

2014-12-01

The bicycle generator is often mentioned as an example of a method to produce electric energy. It is cheap and easily accessible, so it is a natural example to use in teaching. There are different types, but I prefer the old side-wall dynamo. The most common explanation of its working principle seems to be something like the illustration in Fig. 1. The illustration is taken from a popular textbook in the Norwegian junior high school.1 Typically it is explained as a system of a moving magnet or coils that directly results in a varying magnetic field through the coils. According to Faraday's law a voltage is induced in the coils. Simple and easy! A few times I have had a chance to glimpse into a bicycle generator, and I was somewhat surprised to sense that the magnet rotated parallel to the turns of the coil. How could the flux through the coil change and induce a voltage when the magnet rotated parallel to the turns of the coil? When teaching electromagnetic induction I have showed the students a dismantled generator and asked them how this could work. They naturally found that this was more difficult to understand than the principle illustrated in Fig. 1. Other authors in this journal have discussed even more challenging questions concerning electric generators.2,3

17. Atorvastatin and fenofibrate combination induces the predominance of the large HDL subclasses and increased apo AI fractional catabolic rates in New Zealand white rabbits with exogenous hypercholesterolemia.

Science.gov (United States)

Flores-Castillo, Cristobal; Zamora-Pérez, Juan Á; Carreón-Torres, Elizabeth; Arzola-Paniagua, Angélica; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; López-Olmos, Victoria; Fragoso, José M; Luna-Luna, María; Rodríguez-Pérez, José M; Franco, Martha; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Pérez-Méndez, Óscar

2015-08-01

The anti-atherogenic properties of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) may be related to their structure and metabolism. The HDL physicochemical characteristics that determine their plasma clearance during treatment with statins and fibrates are not well understood. In this study, we analyzed HDL-apo AI fractional catabolic rates (FCRs), size distributions, and the lipid composition of the HDL subclasses in New Zealand white rabbits with exogenous dyslipidemia that received low doses of atorvastatin and fenofibrate. Hypercholesterolemia decreased only partially with the combination of both drugs. HDL size distribution shifted toward larger particles among the groups of rabbits that received atorvastatin, fenofibrate, or their combination, compared with both the control group and the dyslipidemic group. The HDL subclasses were significantly rich in cholesterol in each of the groups compared with controls. The structural changes noted in the HDL subclasses were not associated with impaired plasma paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity. The groups receiving monotherapy and the drug combination group were all associated with a higher apo AI FCR value compared with both the dyslipidemic rabbits and the control group. In conclusion, the combination of atorvastatin and fenofibrate induced a more favorable HDL subclass profile than did the individual use of these drugs. Similarly, the apo AI FCR values were augmented in every group receiving drug treatment (either monotherapy or combination therapy) in the setting of hypercholesterolemia. The anti-atherogenic properties of HDLs, excluding their capacity to bind PON1, may be enhanced by the structural and metabolic modifications induced by the combination of atorvastatin and fenofibrate. © 2015 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

18. A high fraction of Be stars in young massive clusters: evidence for a large population of near-critically rotating stars

Science.gov (United States)

Bastian, N.; Cabrera-Ziri, I.; Niederhofer, F.; de Mink, S.; Georgy, C.; Baade, D.; Correnti, M.; Usher, C.; Romaniello, M.

2017-03-01

Recent photometric analyses of the colour-magnitude diagrams of young massive clusters (YMCs) have found evidence for splitting in the main sequence and extended main-sequence turn-offs, both of which have been suggested to be caused by stellar rotation. Comparison of the observed main-sequence splitting with models has led various authors to suggest a rather extreme stellar rotation distribution, with a minority (10-30 per cent) of stars with low rotational velocities and the remainder (70-90 per cent) of stars rotating near the critical rotation (i.e. near break-up). We test this hypothesis by searching for Be stars within two YMCs in the Large Magellanic Cloud (NGC 1850 and NGC 1856), which are thought to be critically rotating stars with decretion discs that are (partially) ionized by their host stars. In both clusters, we detect large populations of Be stars at the main-sequence turn-off (∼30-60 per cent of stars), which supports previous suggestions of large populations of rapidly rotating stars within massive clusters.

19. About increase of the large transvere momentum processes fraction in hA interactions at energies 5.10(14) - 10(16) eV according to the data on E.A.S. hadrons

Science.gov (United States)

Danilova, T. V.; Dubovy, A. G.; Erlykin, A. D.; Nesterova, N. M.; Chubenko, A. P.

1985-01-01

The lateral distributions of extensive air showers (EAS) hadrons obtained at Tien-Shan array are compared with the simulations. The simulation data have been treated in the same way as experimental data, including the recording method. The comparison shows that the experimental hadron lateral distributions are wider than simulated ones. On the base of this result the conclusion is drawn that the fraction of processes with large p (perpendicular) increases in hadron-air interactions at energies 5 x 10 to the 14 to 10 to the 16 eV compared with accelerator data in p-p interactions at lower energies.

20. Surprise disrupts cognition via a fronto-basal ganglia suppressive mechanism.

Science.gov (United States)

Wessel, Jan R; Jenkinson, Ned; Brittain, John-Stuart; Voets, Sarah H E M; Aziz, Tipu Z; Aron, Adam R

2016-04-18

Surprising events markedly affect behaviour and cognition, yet the underlying mechanism is unclear. Surprise recruits a brain mechanism that globally suppresses motor activity, ostensibly via the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia. Here, we tested whether this suppressive mechanism extends beyond skeletomotor suppression and also affects cognition (here, verbal working memory, WM). We recorded scalp-EEG (electrophysiology) in healthy participants and STN local field potentials in Parkinson's patients during a task in which surprise disrupted WM. For scalp-EEG, surprising events engage the same independent neural signal component that indexes action stopping in a stop-signal task. Importantly, the degree of this recruitment mediates surprise-related WM decrements. Intracranially, STN activity is also increased post surprise, especially when WM is interrupted. These results suggest that surprise interrupts cognition via the same fronto-basal ganglia mechanism that interrupts action. This motivates a new neural theory of how cognition is interrupted, and how distraction arises after surprising events.

1. Results of volume-staged fractionated Gamma Knife radiosurgery for large complex arteriovenous malformations: obliteration rates and clinical outcomes of an evolving treatment paradigm.

Science.gov (United States)

Franzin, Alberto; Panni, Pietro; Spatola, Giorgio; Vecchio, Antonella Del; Gallotti, Alberto L; Gigliotti, Carmen R; Cavalli, Andrea; Donofrio, Carmine A; Mortini, Pietro

2016-12-01

OBJECTIVE There are few reported series regarding volume-staged Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for the treatment of large, complex, cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The object of this study was to report the results of using volume-staged Gamma Knife radiosurgery for patients affected by large and complex AVMs. METHODS Data from 20 patients with large AVMs were prospectively included in the authors' AVM database between 2004 and 2012. A staging strategy was used when treating lesion volumes larger than 10 cm(3). Hemorrhage and seizures were the presenting clinical feature for 6 (30%) and 8 (40%) patients, respectively. The median AVM volume was 15.9 cm(3) (range 10.1-34.3 cm(3)). The mean interval between stages (± standard deviation) was 15 months (± 9 months). The median margin dose for each stage was 20 Gy (range 18-25 Gy). RESULTS Obliteration was confirmed in 8 (42%) patients after a mean follow-up of 45 months (range 19-87 months). A significant reduction (> 75%) of the original nidal volume was achieved in 4 (20%) patients. Engel Class I-II seizure status was reported by 75% of patients presenting with seizures (50% Engel Class I and 25% Engel Class II) after radiosurgery. After radiosurgery, 71.5% (5/7) of patients who had presented with a worsening neurological deficit reported a complete resolution or amelioration. None of the patients who presented acutely because of hemorrhage experienced a new bleeding episode during follow-up. One (5%) patient developed radionecrosis that caused sensorimotor hemisyndrome. Two (10%) patients sustained a bleeding episode after GKRS, although only 1 (5%) was symptomatic. High nidal flow rate and a time interval between stages of less than 11.7 months were factors significantly associated with AVM obliteration (p = 0.021 and p = 0.041, respectively). Patient age younger than 44 years was significantly associated with a greater than 75% reduction in AVM volume but not with AVM obliteration (p = 0

2. A high fraction of Be stars in young massive clusters: evidence for a large population of near-critically rotating stars

CERN Document Server

Bastian, N; Niederhofer, F; de Mink, S; Georgy, C; Baade, D; Correnti, M; Usher, C; Romaniello, M

2016-01-01

Recent photometric analysis of the colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of young massive clusters (YMCs) have found evidence for splitting in the main sequence and extended main sequence turn-offs, both of which have been suggested to be caused by stellar rotation. Comparison of the observed main sequence splitting with models has led various authors to suggest a rather extreme stellar rotation distribution, with a minority ($10-30$\\%) of stars with low rotational velocities and the remainder ($70-90$\\%) of stars rotating near the critical rotation (i.e., near break-up). We test this hypothesis by searching for Be stars within two YMCs in the LMC (NGC 1850 and NGC 1856), which are thought to be critically rotating stars with decretion disks that are (partially) ionised by their host stars. In both clusters we detect large populations of Be stars at the main sequence turn-off ($\\sim30-60$\\% of stars), which supports previous suggestions of large populations of rapidly rotating stars within massive clusters.

3. Properties and Surprises of Solar Activity XXIII Cycle

Science.gov (United States)

Ishkov, V. N.

2010-12-01

The main properties of the 23rd cycle match almost completely those of average-magnitude solar cycles, and some of the features of the cycle may indicate a change in the generation mode of magnetic fields in the solar convection zone. If this is the case, the Sun enters a period of intermediate and weak cycles of solar activity (SA) in terms of the Wolf number, which may last for 3 to 6 solar cycles. The main development stages of solar cycle 23 are the following: minimum of solar cycle 22: April 1996 (W* = 8.0); maximum of the smoothed relative sunspot number: April 2000; global polarity reversal of the general solar magnetic field: July to December 2000; secondary maximum of the relative sunspot number: November 2001; maximum of the 10.7-cm radio flux: February 2002; phase of the cycle maximum: October 1999 to June 2002; beginning of the decrease phase: July 2002; the point of minimum of the current SA cycle: December 2008. Solar cycle 23 has presented two powerful flare-active sunspot groups, in September 2005 and December 2006 (+5.5 and +6.6 years from the maximum) which by flare potential occupy 4th and 20th place among the most flare-active regions for the last four solar cycles. The unprecedented duration of the relative sunspot numbers fall that has led to already record duration of the last solar cycle among authentic cycles (since 1849) became the next surprise of development of solar activity during the last cycle. The phase of the minimum began in May 2005 and lasted for 4.5 years. Thus, the new solar cycle 24 has begun in January 2009.

4. Dracunculiasis eradication - Finishing the job before surprises arise

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

Benjamin Jelle Visser

2012-01-01

ABSTRACT Dracunculiasis(Guinea worm disease) is a preventable waterborne parasitic disease that affects the poorest people living in remote rural areas in sub-SaharanAfrican countries, who do not have access to safe drinking water.The Guinea Worm Eradication Program, a25-year old campaign to rid the world ofGuineaWorm disease has now reached its final stage accelerating to zero cases in all endemic countries.During the19th and20th centuries, dracunculiasis was common in much ofSouthernAsia and theAfrican continent.The overall number of cases has been reduced tremendously by≥99%, from the3.32 million cases estimated to have occurred in1986 inAfrica to only1797 cases reported in2010 reported in only five countries(Sudan,Mali,Ethiopia,Chad andGhana) andAsia free of the disease.This achievement is unique in its kind - the only previously eradicated disease is smallpox, a viral infection for which vaccination was possible - and it has been achieved through primary community-based prevention and health education programs.Most efforts need to be taken in two countries,SouthSudan(comprising94% or1698 out of1797 of the cases reported world-wide in2010) andMali because of frequent movements of nomads in a vast area inside and outsideMali’s borders.All factors favourable to dracunculiasis eradication are available including adequate financial resources, community and political support and high levels of advocacy.Thus there is no reason that this disabling parasitic disease cannot be eradicated soon before surprises arise such as new civil conflicts in currently endemic countries.

5. Continuous utility factor in segregation models: a few surprises

CERN Document Server

Roy, Parna

2015-01-01

We consider the constrained Schelling model of social segregation which allows non-local jumps of the agents. In the present study, the utility factor u is defined in a way such that it can take continuous values and depends on the tolerance threshold as well as fraction of unlike neighbours. Two models are proposed: in model A the jump probability is determined by the sign of u only which makes it equivalent to the discrete model. In model B the actual values of u are considered. Model A and model B are shown to differ drastically as far as segregation behaviour and phase transitions are concerned. The constrained model B turns out to be as efficient as the unconstrained discrete model, if not more. In addition, we also consider a few other dynamical aspects which have not been studied in segregation models earlier.

6. Cancer-specific mortality, cure fraction, and noncancer causes of death among diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients in the immunochemotherapy era.

Science.gov (United States)

Howlader, Nadia; Mariotto, Angela B; Besson, Caroline; Suneja, Gita; Robien, Kim; Younes, Naji; Engels, Eric A

2017-09-01

Survival after the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has been increasing since 2002 because of improved therapies; however, long-term outcomes for these patients in the modern treatment era are still unknown. Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data, this study first assessed factors associated with DLBCL-specific mortality during 2002-2012. An epidemiologic risk profile, based on clinical and demographic characteristics, was used to stratify DLBCL cases into low-, medium-, and high-risk groups. The proportions of DLBCL cases that might be considered cured in these 3 risk groups was estimated. Risks of death due to various noncancer causes among DLBCL cases versus the general population were also calculated with standardized mortality ratios (SMRs). Overall, 8274 deaths were recorded among 18,047 DLBCL cases; 76% of the total deaths were attributed to DLBCL, and 24% were attributed to noncancer causes. The 10-year survival rates for the low-, medium-, and high-risk groups were 80%, 60%, and 36%, respectively. The estimated cure proportions for the low-, medium-, and high-risk groups were 73%, 49%, and 27%, respectively; however, these cure estimates were uncertain because of the need to extrapolate the survival curves beyond the follow-up time. Mortality risks calculated with SMRs were elevated for conditions including vascular diseases (SMR, 1.3), infections (SMR, 3.1), gastrointestinal diseases (SMR, 2.5), and blood diseases (SMR, 4.6). These mortality risks were especially high within the initial 5 years after the diagnosis and declined after 5 years. Some DLBCL patients may be cured of their cancer, but they continue to experience excess mortality from lymphoma and other noncancer causes. Cancer 2017;123:3326-34. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

7. Fractional complex transforms for fractional differential equations

National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

Ibrahim, Rabha W

2012-01-01

The fractional complex transform is employed to convert fractional differential equations analytically in the sense of the Srivastava-Owa fractional operator and its generalization in the unit disk...

8. The surprising external upturn of the Blue Straggler radial distribution in M55

CERN Document Server

Lanzoni, B; Perina, S; Ferraro, F R; Rood, R T; Sollima, A

2007-01-01

By combining high-resolution HST and wide-field ground based observations, in ultraviolet and optical bands, we study the Blue Straggler Star (BSS) population of the low density galactic globular cluster M55 (NGC 6809) over its entire radial extent. The BSS projected radial distribution is found to be bimodal, with a central peak, a broad minimum at intermediate radii, and an upturn at large radii. Similar bimodal distributions have been found in other globular clusters (M3, 47 Tucanae, NGC 6752, M5), but the external upturn in M55 is the largest found to date. This might indicate a large fraction of primordial binaries in the outer regions of M55, which seems somehow in contrast with the relatively low (\\sim 10%) binary fraction recently measured in the core of this cluster.

9. Carbon Dioxide: Surprising Effects on Decision Making and Neurocognitive Performance

Science.gov (United States)

James, John T.

2013-01-01

The occupants of modern submarines and the International Space Station (ISS) have much in common as far as their air quality is concerned. Air is polluted by materials offgassing, use of utility compounds, leaks of systems chemicals, and anthropogenic sources. The primary anthropogenic compound of concern to submariners and astronauts has been carbon dioxide (CO2). NASA and the US Navy rely on the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRC-COT) to help formulate exposure levels to CO2 that are thought to be safe for exposures of 3-6 months. NASA calls its limits Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs). Years of experience aboard the ISS and a recent publication on deficits in decision making in ground-based subjects exposed briefly to 0.25% CO2 suggest that exposure levels that have been presumed acceptable to preserve health and performance need to be reevaluated. The current CO2 exposure limits for 3-6 months set by NASA and the UK Navy are 0.7%, and the limit for US submariners is 0.5%, although the NRC-COT recommended a 90-day level of 0.8% as safe a few years ago. NASA has set a 1000-day SMAC at 0.5% for exploration-class missions. Anecdotal experience with ISS operations approaching the current 180-day SMAC of 0.7% suggest that this limit is too high. Temporarily, NASA has limited exposures to 0.5% until further peer-reviewed data become available. In the meantime, a study published last year in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives (Satish U, et al. 2012) demonstrated that complexdecision- making performance is somewhat affected at 0.1% CO2 and becomes "dysfunctional" for at least half of the 9 indices of performance at concentrations approaching 0.25% CO2. The investigators used the Strategic Management Simulation (SMS) method of testing for decisionmaking ability, and the results were so surprising to the investigators that they declared that their findings need to be independently confirmed. NASA has responded to the

10. Are seismic hazard assessment errors and earthquake surprises unavoidable?

Science.gov (United States)

2013-04-01

Why earthquake occurrences bring us so many surprises? The answer seems evident if we review the relationships that are commonly used to assess seismic hazard. The time-span of physically reliable Seismic History is yet a small portion of a rupture recurrence cycle at an earthquake-prone site, which makes premature any kind of reliable probabilistic statements about narrowly localized seismic hazard. Moreover, seismic evidences accumulated to-date demonstrate clearly that most of the empirical relations commonly accepted in the early history of instrumental seismology can be proved erroneous when testing statistical significance is applied. Seismic events, including mega-earthquakes, cluster displaying behaviors that are far from independent or periodic. Their distribution in space is possibly fractal, definitely, far from uniform even in a single segment of a fault zone. Such a situation contradicts generally accepted assumptions used for analytically tractable or computer simulations and complicates design of reliable methodologies for realistic earthquake hazard assessment, as well as search and definition of precursory behaviors to be used for forecast/prediction purposes. As a result, the conclusions drawn from such simulations and analyses can MISLEAD TO SCIENTIFICALLY GROUNDLESS APPLICATION, which is unwise and extremely dangerous in assessing expected societal risks and losses. For example, a systematic comparison of the GSHAP peak ground acceleration estimates with those related to actual strong earthquakes, unfortunately, discloses gross inadequacy of this "probabilistic" product, which appears UNACCEPTABLE FOR ANY KIND OF RESPONSIBLE SEISMIC RISK EVALUATION AND KNOWLEDGEABLE DISASTER PREVENTION. The self-evident shortcomings and failures of GSHAP appeals to all earthquake scientists and engineers for an urgent revision of the global seismic hazard maps from the first principles including background methodologies involved, such that there becomes: (a) a

11. The Surprising Composition of the Salivary Proteome of Preterm Human Newborn

Science.gov (United States)

Castagnola, Massimo; Inzitari, Rosanna; Fanali, Chiara; Iavarone, Federica; Vitali, Alberto; Desiderio, Claudia; Vento, Giovanni; Tirone, Chiara; Romagnoli, Costantino; Cabras, Tiziana; Manconi, Barbara; Teresa Sanna, Maria; Boi, Roberto; Pisano, Elisabetta; Olianas, Alessandra; Pellegrini, Mariagiuseppina; Nemolato, Sonia; Wilhelm Heizmann, Claus; Faa, Gavino; Messana, Irene

2011-01-01

Saliva is a body fluid of a unique composition devoted to protect the mouth cavity and the digestive tract. Our high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-electrospray ionization-MS analysis of the acidic soluble fraction of saliva from preterm human newborn surprisingly revealed more than 40 protein masses often undetected in adult saliva. We were able to identify the following proteins: stefin A and stefin B, S100A7 (two isoforms), S100A8, S100A9 (four isoforms), S100A11, S100A12, small proline-rich protein 3 (two isoforms), lysozyme C, thymosins β4 and β10, antileukoproteinase, histone H1c, and α and γ globins. The average mass value reported in international data banks was often incongruent with our experimental results mostly because of post-translational modifications of the proteins, e.g. acetylation of the N-terminal residue. A quantitative label-free MS analysis showed protein levels altered in relation to the postconceptional age and suggested coordinate and hierarchical functions for these proteins during development. In summary, this study shows for the first time that analysis of these proteins in saliva of preterm newborns might represent a noninvasive way to obtain precious information of the molecular mechanisms of development of human fetal oral structures. PMID:20943598

12. Segmentation, diarization and speech transcription : surprise data unraveled

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Huijbregts, Marijn Anthonius Henricus

2008-01-01

In this thesis, research on large vocabulary continuous speech recognition for unknown audio conditions is presented. For automatic speech recognition systems based on statistical methods, it is important that the conditions of the audio used for training the statistical models match the conditions

13. Segmentation, Diarization and Speech Transcription: Surprise Data Unraveled

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Huijbregts, M.A.H.

2008-01-01

In this thesis, research on large vocabulary continuous speech recognition for unknown audio conditions is presented. For automatic speech recognition systems based on statistical methods, it is important that the conditions of the audio used for training the statistical models match the conditions

14. Fractional complex transform for fractional differential equations

National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

Lİ, Zheng Biao; HE, Ji Huan

2010-01-01

Fractional complex transform is proposed to convert fractional differential equations into ordinary differential equations, so that all analytical methods devoted to advanced calculus can be easily...

15. The surprising diversity of clostridial hydrogenases: a comparative genomic perspective

OpenAIRE

Calusinska, Magdalena; Happe, Thomas; Joris, Bernard; Wilmotte, Annick

2010-01-01

Among the large variety of micro-organisms capable of fermentative hydrogen production, strict anaerobes such as members of the genus Clostridium are the most widely studied. They can produce hydrogen by a reversible reduction of protons accumulated during fermentation to dihydrogen, a reaction which is catalysed by hydrogenases. Sequenced genomes provide completely new insights into the diversity of clostridial hydrogenases. Building on previous reports, we found that [FeFe] hydrogenases are...

16. Syncope with Surprise: An Unexpected Finding of Huge Gastric Diverticulum

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mauro Podda

2016-01-01

Full Text Available A gastric diverticulum is a pouch protruding from the gastric wall. The vague long clinical history ranging between dyspepsia, postprandial fullness, and upper gastrointestinal bleeding makes this condition a diagnostic challenge. We present a case of large gastric diverticulum that has been diagnosed during clinical investigations for suspected cardiovascular issues in a patient admitted at the medical ward for syncope. A 51-year-old man presented to the medical department due to a syncopal episode occurring while he was resting on the beach after having his lunch, with concomitant vague epimesogastric gravative pain without any other symptom. A diagnosis of neuromediated syncopal episode was made by the cardiologist. Due to the referred epimesogastric pain, an abdominal ultrasound scan was carried out, showing perisplenic fluid. A CT scan of the abdomen was performed to exclude splenic lesions. The CT scan revealed a large diverticulum protruding from the gastric fundus. The upper gastrointestinal endoscopy visualized a large diverticular neck situated in the posterior wall of the gastric fundus, partially filled by undigested food. The patient underwent surgery, with an uneventful postoperative course. Histologic examination showed a full-thickness stomach specimen, indicative of a congenital diverticulum. At the 2nd month of follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic.

17. On the fractional minimal length Heisenberg-Weyl uncertainty relation from fractional Riccati generalized momentum operator

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rami, El-Nabulsi Ahmad [Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering, Cheju National University, Ara-dong 1, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: nabulsiahmadrami@yahoo.fr

2009-10-15

It was showed that the minimal length Heisenberg-Weyl uncertainty relation may be obtained if the ordinary momentum differentiation operator is extended to its fractional counterpart, namely the generalized fractional Riccati momentum operator of order 0 < {beta} {<=} 1. Some interesting consequences are exposed in concordance with the UV/IR correspondence obtained within the framework of non-commutative C-space geometry, string theory, Rovelli loop quantum gravity, Amelino-Camelia doubly special relativity, Nottale scale relativity and El-Naschie Cantorian fractal spacetime. The fractional theory integrates an absolute minimal length and surprisingly a non-commutative position space.

18. New surprises in the largest magnetosphere of our solar system.

Science.gov (United States)

Krupp, Norbert

2007-10-12

En route to its ultimate rendezvous with Pluto, the New Horizons spacecraft passed through the magnetic and plasma environment of Jupiter in February 2007. Onboard instruments collected high-resolution images, spectroscopic data, and information about charged particles. The results have revealed unusual structure and variation in Jupiter's plasma and large plasmoids that travel down the magnetotail. Data on Jupiter's aurora provide details of the interaction with the solar wind, and a major volcanic eruption from the moon Io was observed during the encounter.

19. Trait Anxiety Is Associated with Negative Interpretations When Resolving Valence Ambiguity of Surprised Faces.

Science.gov (United States)

Park, Gewnhi; Vasey, Michael W; Kim, Grace; Hu, Dixie D; Thayer, Julian F

2016-01-01

The current research examines whether trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretation bias when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces. To further isolate the neuro-cognitive mechanism, we presented angry, happy, and surprised faces at broad spatial frequency (BSF), high spatial frequency (HSF), and low spatial frequency (LSF) and asked participants to determine the valence of each face. High trait anxiety was associated with more negative interpretations of BSF (i.e., intact) surprised faces. However, the modulation of trait anxiety on the negative interpretation of surprised faces disappeared at HSF and LSF. The current study provides evidence that trait anxiety modulates negative interpretations of BSF surprised faces. However, the negative interpretation of LSF surprised faces appears to be a robust default response that occurs regardless of individual differences in trait anxiety.

20. Trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretations when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Gewnhi Park

2016-08-01

Full Text Available The current research examines whether trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretation bias when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces. To further isolate the neuro-cognitive mechanism, we presented angry, happy, and surprised faces at broad, high, and low spatial frequency and asked participants to determine the valence of each face. High trait anxiety was associated with more negative interpretations of broad spatial frequency (i.e., intact surprised faces. However, the modulation of trait anxiety on the negative interpretation of surprised faces disappeared at high and low spatial frequencies. The current study provides evidence that trait anxiety modulates negative interpretations of broad spatial frequency surprised faces. However, the negative interpretation of low spatial frequency surprised faces appears to be a robust default response that occurs regardless of individual differences in trait anxiety.

1. Effects of Surprisal and Locality on Danish Sentence Processing: An Eye-Tracking Investigation.

Science.gov (United States)

Balling, Laura Winther; Kizach, Johannes

2017-03-22

An eye-tracking experiment in Danish investigates two dominant accounts of sentence processing: locality-based theories that predict a processing advantage for sentences where the distance between the major syntactic heads is minimized, and the surprisal theory which predicts that processing time increases with big changes in the relative entropy of possible parses, sometimes leading to anti-locality effects. We consider both lexicalised surprisal, expressed in conditional trigram probabilities, and syntactic surprisal expressed in the manipulation of the expectedness of the second NP in Danish constructions with two postverbal NP-objects. An eye-tracking experiment showed a clear advantage for local syntactic relations, with only a marginal effect of lexicalised surprisal and no effect of syntactic surprisal. We conclude that surprisal has a relatively marginal effect, which may be clearest for verbs in verb-final languages, while locality is a robust predictor of sentence processing.

2. Marine Protected Areas, Multiple-Agency Management, and Monumental Surprise in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

John N. Kittinger

2011-01-01

Full Text Available Large, regional-scale marine protected areas (MPAs and MPA networks face different challenges in governance systems than locally managed or community-based MPAs. An emerging theme in large-scale MPA management is the prevalence of governance structures that rely on institutional collaboration, presenting new challenges as agencies with differing mandates and cultures work together to implement ecosystem-based management. We analyzed qualitative interview data to investigate multi-level social interactions and institutional responses to the surprise establishment of the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (monument in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI. The governance arrangement for the monument represents a new model in US MPA management, requiring two federal agencies and the State of Hawai‘i to collaboratively manage the NWHI. We elucidate the principal barriers to institutional cotrusteeship, characterize institutional transformations that have occurred among the partner agencies in the transition to collaborative management, and evaluate the governance arrangement for the monument as a model for MPAs. The lessons learned from the NWHI governance arrangement are critical as large-scale MPAs requiring multiple-agency management become a prevalent feature on the global seascape.

3. Momentum fractionation on superstrata

Science.gov (United States)

Bena, Iosif; Martinec, Emil; Turton, David; Warner, Nicholas P.

2016-05-01

Superstrata are bound states in string theory that carry D1, D5, and momentum charges, and whose supergravity descriptions are parameterized by arbitrary functions of (at least) two variables. In the D1-D5 CFT, typical three-charge states reside in high-degree twisted sectors, and their momentum charge is carried by modes that individually have fractional momentum. Understanding this momentum fractionation holographically is crucial for understanding typical black-hole microstates in this system. We use solution-generating techniques to add momentum to a multi-wound supertube and thereby construct the first examples of asymptotically-flat superstrata. The resulting supergravity solutions are horizonless and smooth up to well-understood orbifold singularities. Upon taking the AdS3 decoupling limit, our solutions are dual to CFT states with momentum fractionation. We give a precise proposal for these dual CFT states. Our construction establishes the very nontrivial fact that large classes of CFT states with momentum fractionation can be realized in the bulk as smooth horizonless supergravity solutions.

4. Trait Anxiety Is Associated with Negative Interpretations When Resolving Valence Ambiguity of Surprised Faces

OpenAIRE

Gewnhi Park; Vasey, Michael W.; Grace Kim; Dixie D Hu; Thayer, Julian F

2016-01-01

The current research examines whether trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretation bias when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces. To further isolate the neuro-cognitive mechanism, we presented angry, happy, and surprised faces at broad, high, and low spatial frequency and asked participants to determine the valence of each face. High trait anxiety was associated with more negative interpretations of broad spatial frequency (i.e., intact) surprised faces. However, the mo...

5. A Neural Mechanism for Surprise-related Interruptions of Visuospatial Working Memory.

Science.gov (United States)

Wessel, Jan R

2016-11-30

Surprising perceptual events recruit a fronto-basal ganglia mechanism for inhibition, which suppresses motor activity following surprise. A recent study found that this inhibitory mechanism also disrupts the maintenance of verbal working memory (WM) after surprising tones. However, it is unclear whether this same mechanism also relates to surprise-related interruptions of non-verbal WM. We tested this hypothesis using a change-detection task, in which surprising tones impaired visuospatial WM. Participants also performed a stop-signal task (SST). We used independent component analysis and single-trial scalp-electroencephalogram to test whether the same inhibitory mechanism that reflects motor inhibition in the SST relates to surprise-related visuospatial WM decrements, as was the case for verbal WM. As expected, surprising tones elicited activity of the inhibitory mechanism, and this activity correlated strongly with the trial-by-trial level of surprise. However, unlike for verbal WM, the activity of this mechanism was unrelated to visuospatial WM accuracy. Instead, inhibition-independent activity that immediately succeeded the inhibitory mechanism was increased when visuospatial WM was disrupted. This shows that surprise-related interruptions of visuospatial WM are not effected by the same inhibitory mechanism that interrupts verbal WM, and instead provides evidence for a 2-stage model of distraction.

6. Latin America: how a region surprised the experts.

Science.gov (United States)

De Sherbinin, A

1993-02-01

In 1960-1970, family planning specialists and demographers worried that poverty, limited education, Latin machismo, and strong catholic ideals would obstruct family planning efforts to reduce high fertility in Latin America. It had the highest annual population growth rate in the world (2.8%), which would increase the population 2-fold in 25 years. Yet, the UN's 1992 population projection for Latin America and the Caribbean in the year 2000 was about 20% lower than its 1963 projection (just over 500 vs. 638 million). Since life expectancy increased simultaneously from 57 to 68 years, this reduced projection was caused directly by a large decline in fertility from 5.9 to 3. A regression analysis of 11 Latin American and Caribbean countries revealed that differences in the contraceptive prevalence rates accounted for 90% of the variation in the total fertility rate between countries. Thus, contraception played a key role in the fertility decline. The second most significant determinant of fertility decline was an increase in the average age at first marriage from about 20 to 23 years. Induced abortion and breast feeding did not contribute significantly to fertility decline. The major socioeconomic factors responsible for the decline included economic development and urbanization, resulting in improvements in health care, reduced infant and child mortality, and increases in female literacy, education, and labor force participation. Public and private family planning programs also contributed significantly to the decline. They expanded from cities to remote rural areas, thereby increasing access to contraception. By the early 1990s, Brazil, Mexico, and Colombia had among the lowest levels of unmet need (13-24%) in developing countries. Other key factors of fertility decline were political commitment, strong communication efforts, and stress on quality services. Latin America provides hope to other regions where religion and culture promote a large family size.

7. Automated Atmospheric Composition Dataset Level Metadata Discovery. Difficulties and Surprises

Science.gov (United States)

Strub, R. F.; Falke, S. R.; Kempler, S.; Fialkowski, E.; Goussev, O.; Lynnes, C.

2015-12-01

The Atmospheric Composition Portal (ACP) is an aggregator and curator of information related to remotely sensed atmospheric composition data and analysis. It uses existing tools and technologies and, where needed, enhances those capabilities to provide interoperable access, tools, and contextual guidance for scientists and value-adding organizations using remotely sensed atmospheric composition data. The initial focus is on Essential Climate Variables identified by the Global Climate Observing System - CH4, CO, CO2, NO2, O3, SO2 and aerosols. This poster addresses our efforts in building the ACP Data Table, an interface to help discover and understand remotely sensed data that are related to atmospheric composition science and applications. We harvested GCMD, CWIC, GEOSS metadata catalogs using machine to machine technologies - OpenSearch, Web Services. We also manually investigated the plethora of CEOS data providers portals and other catalogs where that data might be aggregated. This poster is our experience of the excellence, variety, and challenges we encountered.Conclusions:1.The significant benefits that the major catalogs provide are their machine to machine tools like OpenSearch and Web Services rather than any GUI usability improvements due to the large amount of data in their catalog.2.There is a trend at the large catalogs towards simulating small data provider portals through advanced services. 3.Populating metadata catalogs using ISO19115 is too complex for users to do in a consistent way, difficult to parse visually or with XML libraries, and too complex for Java XML binders like CASTOR.4.The ability to search for Ids first and then for data (GCMD and ECHO) is better for machine to machine operations rather than the timeouts experienced when returning the entire metadata entry at once. 5.Metadata harvest and export activities between the major catalogs has led to a significant amount of duplication. (This is currently being addressed) 6.Most (if not

OpenAIRE

Bergstra, Jan A.

2015-01-01

In the context of an involutive meadow a precise definition of fractions is formulated and on that basis formal definitions of various classes of fractions are given. The definitions follow the fractions as terms paradigm. That paradigm is compared with two competing paradigms for storytelling on fractions: fractions as values and fractions as pairs.

9. Theoretical prediction for several important equilibrium Ge isotope fractionation factors

Science.gov (United States)

Tang, M.; Li, X.; Liu, Y.

2008-12-01

As a newly emerging field, the stable isotope geochemistry of germanium (Ge) needs basic equilibrium fractionation factors to explore its unknown world. In this study, the Ge isotope fractionations between systems including the aqueous Ge(OH)4 and GeO(OH)3- which are the dominant Ge species in seawater, the Ge-bearing organic complexes (e.g. Ge-catechol, Ge-oxalic acid and Ge-citric acid), the quartz- (or opal- ), albite-, K-feldspar- and olivine- like mineral structures are studied. It is the first time that some geologically important equilibrium Ge isotope fractionation factors are reported. Surprisingly, up to 5 per mil large isotopic fractionations between these Ge isotope systems are found at 25 degree. These results suggest a potentially broad application for the Ge isotope geochemistry. Our theoretical calculations are based on the Urey model (or Bigeleisen-Mayer equation) and high level quantum chemistry calculations. The B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level quantum chemistry method and the explicit solvent model ("water droplet" method) are used. Many different conformers are also used for the aqueous complexes in order to reduce the possible errors coming from the differences of configurations in solution. The accuracy of our calculation of the Ge isotopic fractionations is estimated about 0.2 per mil. Our results show quartz-like or opal-like structure can enrich most heavy Ge isotopes. Relative to quartz (or opal), some Ge isotopic fractionations are (at 25 C): quartz-organic Ge = 4-5,quartz-Ge(OH)4 =0.9,quartz-GeO(OH)3- =1.5,quartz-albite=0.6,quartz-K-feldspar=0.4 and quartz-olivine=3.9 per mil. The large fractionations between inorganic Ge complexes and organic Ge ones could be used to distinguish the possible bio-involving processes. Our results suggest a good explanation to the experimental observations of Siebert et al. (2006) and Rouxel et al. (2006) and provide important constraints to the study of Ge cycle in ocean.

10. Surprising structures hiding in Penrose’s future null infinity

Science.gov (United States)

Newman, Ezra T.

2017-07-01

Since the late1950s, almost all discussions of asymptotically flat (Einstein-Maxwell) space-times have taken place in the context of Penrose’s null infinity, I+. In addition, almost all calculations have used the Bondi coordinate and tetrad systems. Beginning with a known asymptotically flat solution to the Einstein-Maxwell equations, we show first, that there are other natural coordinate systems, near I+, (analogous to light-cones in flat-space) that are based on (asymptotically) shear-free null geodesic congruences (analogous to the flat-space case). Using these new coordinates and their associated tetrad, we define the complex dipole moment, (the mass dipole plus i times angular momentum), from the l  =  1 harmonic coefficient of a component of the asymptotic Weyl tensor. Second, from this definition, from the Bianchi identities and from the Bondi-Sachs mass and linear momentum, we show that there exists a large number of results—identifications and dynamics—identical to those of classical mechanics and electrodynamics. They include, among many others, {P}=M{v}+..., {L}= {r} × {P} , spin, Newton’s second law with the rocket force term (\\dotM v) and radiation reaction, angular momentum conservation and others. All these relations take place in the rather mysterious H-space rather than in space-time. This leads to the enigma: ‘why do these well known relations of classical mechanics take place in H-space?’ and ‘What is the physical meaning of H-space?’

11. Surprisal-based comparison between a symbolic and a connectionist model of sentence processing

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Frank, S.L.; Taatgen, N.; van Rijn, H.

2009-01-01

The 'unlexicalized surprisal' of a word in sentence context is defined as the negative logarithm of the probability of the word's part-of-speech given the sequence of previous parts-of-speech of the sentence. Unlexicalized surprisal is known to correlate with word reading time. Here, it is shown

12. The role of surprising events in a math game on proportional reasoning

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Wouters, P.; Oostendorp, van H.; Vrugte, ter J.; Jong, de T.; Vandercruysse, S.; Elen, J.

2015-01-01

This study examines whether surprising events can be used to stimulate students’ playful learning in a GBL environment in the domain of proportional reasoning. The assumed effect of surprise is that unexpected events interrupt an expectation and therefore triggers the player to evaluate the new situ

13. Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment.

Science.gov (United States)

Murty, Vishnu P; LaBar, Kevin S; Adcock, R Alison

2016-10-01

Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal representations of the environment, and surprising events are indications for encoding new representations of the environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system, including the hippocampus and surrounding cortex, encodes surprising events and is influenced by motivational state. Because behavior reflects the goals of an individual, we investigated whether motivational valence (i.e., pursuing rewards versus avoiding punishments) also impacts neural and mnemonic encoding of surprising events. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants encountered perceptually unexpected events either during the pursuit of rewards or avoidance of punishments. Despite similar levels of motivation across groups, reward and punishment facilitated the processing of surprising events in different medial temporal lobe regions. Whereas during reward motivation, perceptual surprises enhanced activation in the hippocampus, during punishment motivation surprises instead enhanced activation in parahippocampal cortex. Further, we found that reward motivation facilitated hippocampal coupling with ventromedial PFC, whereas punishment motivation facilitated parahippocampal cortical coupling with orbitofrontal cortex. Behaviorally, post-scan testing revealed that reward, but not punishment, motivation resulted in greater memory selectivity for surprising events encountered during goal pursuit. Together these findings demonstrate that neuromodulatory systems engaged by anticipation of reward and punishment target separate components of the medial temporal lobe, modulating medial temporal lobe sensitivity and connectivity. Thus, reward and punishment motivation yield distinct neural contexts for learning, with distinct consequences for how surprises are incorporated into predictive mnemonic models of the environment.

14. Fractional Action Cosmology with Variable Order Parameter

Science.gov (United States)

2017-04-01

Fractional action cosmology with variable order parameter was constructed in this paper. Starting from a fractional weighted action which generalizes the fractional actionlike variational approach, a large number of cosmological dynamical equations are obtained depending on the mathematical type of the fractional order parameter. Through this paper, we selected two independent types which result on a number of cosmological scenarios and we discussed their dynamical consequences. It was observed that the present fractional cosmological formalism holds a large family of solutions and offers new features not found in the standard formalism and in many fundamental research papers.

15. Fractional Action Cosmology with Variable Order Parameter

Science.gov (United States)

2017-01-01

Fractional action cosmology with variable order parameter was constructed in this paper. Starting from a fractional weighted action which generalizes the fractional actionlike variational approach, a large number of cosmological dynamical equations are obtained depending on the mathematical type of the fractional order parameter. Through this paper, we selected two independent types which result on a number of cosmological scenarios and we discussed their dynamical consequences. It was observed that the present fractional cosmological formalism holds a large family of solutions and offers new features not found in the standard formalism and in many fundamental research papers.

16. The Nucleus of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: Lots of Surprises

Science.gov (United States)

Weissman, Paul R.; Rosetta Science Working Team

2016-10-01

ESA's Rosetta mission has made many new and unexpected discoveries since its arrival at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in August 2014. The first of these was the unusual shape of the cometary nucleus. Although bilobate nuclei had been seen before, the extreme concavities on 67P were unexpected. Evidence gathered during the mission suggests that two independent bodies came together to form 67P, rather than the nucleus being a single body that was sculpted by sublimation and/or other processes. Although not a surprise, early observations showed that the nucleus rotation period had decreased by ~22 minutes since the previous aphelion passage. A similar rotation period decrease was seen post-perihelion during the encounter. These changes likely arise from asymmetric jetting forces from the irregular nucleus. Initially, Rosetta's instruments found little evidence for water ice on the surface; the presence of surface water ice increased substantially as the nucleus approached perihelion. The nucleus bulk density, 533 ± 6 kg/m3, was measured with Radio Science and OSIRIS imaging of the nucleus volume. This confirmed previous estimates based on indirect methods that the bulk density of cometary nuclei was on the order of 500-600 kg/m3 and on measurement of the density of 9P/Tempel 1's nucleus by Deep Impact. Nucleus topography proved to be highly varied, from smooth dust-covered plains to shallow circular basins, to the very rough terrain where the Philae lander came to rest. Evidence of thermal cracking is everywhere. The discovery of cylindrical pits on the surface, typically 100-200m in diameter with similar depths was a major surprise and has been interpreted as sinkholes. "Goose-bump" terrain consisting of apparently random piles of boulders 2-3 m in diameter was another unexpected discovery. Apparent layering with scales of meters to many tens of meters was seen but there was little or no evidence for impact features. Radar tomography of the interior of the "head

17. Xenon fractionation in porous planetesimals.

Science.gov (United States)

Zahnle, K; Pollack, J B; Kasting, J F

1990-01-01

The distinctively fractionated Xe on Mars and Earth may have its root in a common source from which both planets accreted. We begin with Ozima and Nakazawa's hypothesis that terrestrial Xe fractionation was caused by gravitational separation of adsorbed solar nebular gases inside large porous planetesimals. We point out that Xe would have been trapped as the planetesimal grew and pores were squeezed shut by lithostatic pressure. We show that enough fractionated Xe to supply the Earth could have been trapped this way. The degree of fractionation is controlled by the lithostatic pressure at the pore-closing front and so would have been roughly the same for all large planetesimals. The predicted degree of fractionation agrees well with that preserved in terrestrial and martian Xe. Relative to Xe, this source is strongly depleted in other noble gases. In contrast to the original Ozima and Nakazawa hypothesis, our hypothesis predicts the observed fractionation, and it allows planetary accretion to occur after the dissipation of the solar nebula. The required planetesimals are large, representing a class of object now extinct in the solar system.

18. Momentum Fractionation on Superstrata

CERN Document Server

Bena, Iosif; Turton, David; Warner, Nicholas P

2016-01-01

Superstrata are bound states in string theory that carry D1, D5, and momentum charges, and whose supergravity descriptions are parameterized by arbitrary functions of (at least) two variables. In the D1-D5 CFT, typical three-charge states reside in high-degree twisted sectors, and their momentum charge is carried by modes that individually have fractional momentum. Understanding this momentum fractionation holographically is crucial for understanding typical black-hole microstates in this system. We use solution-generating techniques to add momentum to a multi-wound supertube and thereby construct the first examples of asymptotically-flat superstrata. The resulting supergravity solutions are horizonless and smooth up to well-understood orbifold singularities. Upon taking the AdS3 decoupling limit, our solutions are dual to CFT states with momentum fractionation. We give a precise proposal for these dual CFT states. Our construction establishes the very nontrivial fact that large classes of CFT states with mom...

19. a Surprise from the Pulsar in the Crab Nebula

Science.gov (United States)

1995-11-01

before the discovery of pulsars, as the possible central remnant of the Crab Nebula [3]. This was fully confirmed when its pulsed radio emission was detected in 1968. At this optical brightness, about 10,000 times fainter than the faintest stars that can be perceived with the unaided eye, the Crab Pulsar is still by far the brightest of the few known neutron stars whose optical light has been detected. It is in fact more than 1,000 times brighter than the next brightest pulsar, PSR 0540-69 in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy to the Milky Way system in which we live. Observations of the Crab Pulsar Spectrum Thus it was possible for American astronomer J. Beverley Oke (Caltech) to perform the first optical measurements of the Crab Pulsar spectrum already in 1969. Although this was quite an observational feat at the time, the information content of that measurement is not very high by modern standards; the spectral resolution was only about 200 A (20 nm). Oke's spectrum of the Crab Pulsar qualitatively confirmed the theoretical expectations by being flat and featureless and no isolated spectral features were seen at this low resolution. It appears that since 1969, nobody has obtained spectrum of the Crab pulsar with a better spectral resolution than Oke. This seems amazing, but may at least partly be explained by the fact that this object is deeply embedded in the much brighter Crab Nebula of expanding gas. Any spectrum of the pulsar is therefore necessarily strongly contaminated by that of the surrounding nebula, making it difficult to obtain a pure' spectrum of the pulsar. Now, however, the group of Italian astronomers has performed a much improved spectral measurement of the Crab Pulsar with the EMMI multi-mode instrument at the ESO NTT. The resulting spectrum has a resolution of 2 A (0.2 nm), i.e. dramatically better than the one achieved in 1969, and reflecting the incredible evolution of astronomical instrumentation during the intervening quarter of a

20. Effect of a Semi-Purified Oligosaccharide-Enriched Fraction from Caprine Milk on Barrier Integrity and Mucin Production of Co-Culture Models of the Small and Large Intestinal Epithelium

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Alicia M. Barnett

2016-05-01

Full Text Available Caprine milk contains the highest amount of oligosaccharides among domestic animals, which are structurally similar to human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs. This suggests caprine milk oligosaccharides may offer similar protective and developmental effects to that of HMOs. However, to date, studies using oligosaccharides from caprine milk have been limited. Thus, this study aimed to examine the impact of a caprine milk oligosaccharide-enriched fraction (CMOF on barrier function of epithelial cell co-cultures of absorptive enterocytes (Caco-2 cells and mucus-secreting goblet cells (HT29-MTX cells, that more closely simulate the cell proportions found in the small (90:10 and large intestine (75:25. Treatment of epithelial co-cultures with 0.4, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/mL of CMOF was shown to have no effect on metabolic activity but did enhance cell epithelial barrier integrity as measured by trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER, in a dose-dependent manner. The CMOF at the maximum concentration tested (4.0 mg/mL enhanced TEER, mucin gene expression and mucin protein abundance of epithelial co-cultures, all of which are essential components of intestinal barrier function.

1. Previously seen and expected stimuli elicit surprise in the context of visual search.

Science.gov (United States)

Retell, James D; Becker, Stefanie I; Remington, Roger W

2016-04-01

In the context of visual search, surprise is the phenomenon by which a previously unseen and unexpected stimulus exogenously attracts spatial attention. Capture by such a stimulus occurs, by definition, independent of task goals and is thought to be dependent on the extent to which the stimulus deviates from expectations. However, the relative contributions of prior-exposure and explicit knowledge of an unexpected event to the surprise response have not yet been systematically investigated. Here observers searched for a specific color while ignoring irrelevant cues of different colors presented prior to the target display. After a brief familiarization period, we presented an irrelevant motion cue to elicit surprise. Across conditions we varied prior exposure to the motion stimulus - seen versus unseen - and top-down expectations of occurrence - expected versus unexpected - to assess the extent to which each of these factors contributes to surprise. We found no attenuation of the surprise response when observers were pre-exposed to the motion cue and or had explicit knowledge of its occurrence. Our results show that it is neither sufficient nor necessary that a stimulus be new and unannounced to elicit surprise and suggest that the expectations that determine the surprise response are highly context specific.

2. A Statistical Analysis of the Relationship between Harmonic Surprise and Preference in Popular Music.

Science.gov (United States)

Miles, Scott A; Rosen, David S; Grzywacz, Norberto M

2017-01-01

Studies have shown that some musical pieces may preferentially activate reward centers in the brain. Less is known, however, about the structural aspects of music that are associated with this activation. Based on the music cognition literature, we propose two hypotheses for why some musical pieces are preferred over others. The first, the Absolute-Surprise Hypothesis, states that unexpected events in music directly lead to pleasure. The second, the Contrastive-Surprise Hypothesis, proposes that the juxtaposition of unexpected events and subsequent expected events leads to an overall rewarding response. We tested these hypotheses within the framework of information theory, using the measure of "surprise." This information-theoretic variable mathematically describes how improbable an event is given a known distribution. We performed a statistical investigation of surprise in the harmonic structure of songs within a representative corpus of Western popular music, namely, the McGill Billboard Project corpus. We found that chords of songs in the top quartile of the Billboard chart showed greater average surprise than those in the bottom quartile. We also found that the different sections within top-quartile songs varied more in their average surprise than the sections within bottom-quartile songs. The results of this study are consistent with both the Absolute- and Contrastive-Surprise Hypotheses. Although these hypotheses seem contradictory to one another, we cannot yet discard the possibility that both absolute and contrastive types of surprise play roles in the enjoyment of popular music. We call this possibility the Hybrid-Surprise Hypothesis. The results of this statistical investigation have implications for both music cognition and the human neural mechanisms of esthetic judgments.

3. Pooling designs with surprisingly high degree of error correction in a finite vector space

CERN Document Server

Guo, Jun

2011-01-01

Pooling designs are standard experimental tools in many biotechnical applications. It is well-known that all famous pooling designs are constructed from mathematical structures by the "containment matrix" method. In particular, Macula's designs (resp. Ngo and Du's designs) are constructed by the containment relation of subsets (resp. subspaces) in a finite set (resp. vector space). Recently, we generalized Macula's designs and obtained a family of pooling designs with more high degree of error correction by subsets in a finite set. In this paper, as a generalization of Ngo and Du's designs, we study the corresponding problems in a finite vector space and obtain a family of pooling designs with surprisingly high degree of error correction. Our designs and Ngo and Du's designs have the same number of items and pools, respectively, but the error-tolerant property is much better than that of Ngo and Du's designs, which was given by D'yachkov et al. \\cite{DF}, when the dimension of the space is large enough.

4. You'll Never Guess Who Wrote That: 78 Surprising Authors of Psychological Publications.

Science.gov (United States)

Lilienfeld, Scott O; Lynn, Steven Jay

2016-07-01

One can find psychological authors in the most unexpected places. We present a capsule summary of scholarly publications of psychological interest authored or coauthored by 78 surprising individuals, most of whom are celebrities or relatives of celebrities, historical figures, or people who have otherwise achieved visibility in academic circles, politics, religion, art, and diverse realms of popular culture. Still other publications are authored by individuals who are far better known for their contributions to popular than to academic psychology. The publications, stretching across more than two centuries, encompass a wide swath of domains of psychological inquiry and highlight the intersection of psychology with fields that fall outside its traditional borders, including public health, economics, law, neurosurgery, and even magic. Many of these scholarly contributions have enriched psychology and its allied disciplines, such as psychiatry, in largely unappreciated ways, and they illustrate the penetration of psychological knowledge into multiple scientific disciplines and everyday life. At the same time, our author list demonstrates that remarkable intellectual accomplishments in one scientific domain, such as physics, do not necessarily translate into success in psychology and underscores the distinction between intelligence, on the one hand, and critical thinking and wisdom, on the other.

5. Matrix fractional systems

Science.gov (United States)

2015-08-01

This paper addresses the matrix representation of dynamical systems in the perspective of fractional calculus. Fractional elements and fractional systems are interpreted under the light of the classical Cole-Cole, Davidson-Cole, and Havriliak-Negami heuristic models. Numerical simulations for an electrical circuit enlighten the results for matrix based models and high fractional orders. The conclusions clarify the distinction between fractional elements and fractional systems.

6. An inverse Sturm–Liouville problem with a fractional derivative

KAUST Repository

Jin, Bangti

2012-05-01

In this paper, we numerically investigate an inverse problem of recovering the potential term in a fractional Sturm-Liouville problem from one spectrum. The qualitative behaviors of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are discussed, and numerical reconstructions of the potential with a Newton method from finite spectral data are presented. Surprisingly, it allows very satisfactory reconstructions for both smooth and discontinuous potentials, provided that the order . α∈. (1,. 2) of fractional derivative is sufficiently away from 2. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

7. October Surprises.

Science.gov (United States)

2016-10-01

Ushered in with the rampage of Hurricane Matthew, later days brightened in this month that has often been harbinger of both good and bad news for Cuba and the world. Hurricane Matthew ripped through Eastern Cuba, devastating the historic town of Baracoa (Cuba's first capital, founded in 1511) and the village of Maisí, where the morning sun first rises over Cuban territory. Wind and flood leveled hundreds of homes, brought down the power grid and destroyed crops. Yet there was no loss of human life, unlike in neighboring Haiti and other countries in Matthew's path, and unlike in Cuba in 1963, when Hurricane Flora caused more than 1200 deaths. In Haiti, efforts of health workers-including hundreds of Haitian graduates from Cuba's Latin American Medical School and 600 Cuban health professionals already there-were bolstered by dozens of specially trained Cuban disaster medical personnel in the wake of the storm.

8. Surprising Resists

Science.gov (United States)

Morton, Stephie

2007-01-01

In this article, the author discusses an art adventure with her third, fourth, and fifth grade enrichment kids to the Fort Collins Museum of Contemporary Art in Colorado. The author demonstrates and teaches her students how to use the art tissue paper and oil pastel complementing the creative spirit of the Jaune Quick-to-See Smith work presented…

9. Ant navigation: fractional use of the home vector.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Allen Cheung

Full Text Available Home is a special location for many animals, offering shelter from the elements, protection from predation, and a common place for gathering of the same species. Not surprisingly, many species have evolved efficient, robust homing strategies, which are used as part of each and every foraging journey. A basic strategy used by most animals is to take the shortest possible route home by accruing the net distances and directions travelled during foraging, a strategy well known as path integration. This strategy is part of the navigation toolbox of ants occupying different landscapes. However, when there is a visual discrepancy between test and training conditions, the distance travelled by animals relying on the path integrator varies dramatically between species: from 90% of the home vector to an absolute distance of only 50 cm. We here ask what the theoretically optimal balance between PI-driven and landmark-driven navigation should be. In combination with well-established results from optimal search theory, we show analytically that this fractional use of the home vector is an optimal homing strategy under a variety of circumstances. Assuming there is a familiar route that an ant recognizes, theoretically optimal search should always begin at some fraction of the home vector, depending on the region of familiarity. These results are shown to be largely independent of the search algorithm used. Ant species from different habitats appear to have optimized their navigation strategy based on the availability and nature of navigational information content in their environment.

10. The role of loudness in detection of surprising events in music recordings

OpenAIRE

Holonowicz, Piotr; Herrera, Perfecto; Purwins, Hendrik

2009-01-01

The abrupt change of loudness is a salient event that is not always expected by a music listener. Therefore loudness is an important cue when seeking for events in a music stream that could violate human expectations. The concept of expectation and surprise in music has become recently the subject of extensive research, however mostly using symbolic data. The aim of this work is to investigate the circumstances when a change of sound intensity could be surprising for a listener. Then, using t...

11. Computational surprisal analysis speeds-up genomic characterization of cancer processes.

Science.gov (United States)

Kravchenko-Balasha, Nataly; Simon, Simcha; Levine, R D; Remacle, F; Exman, Iaakov

2014-01-01

Surprisal analysis is increasingly being applied for the examination of transcription levels in cellular processes, towards revealing inner network structures and predicting response. But to achieve its full potential, surprisal analysis should be integrated into a wider range computational tool. The purposes of this paper are to combine surprisal analysis with other important computation procedures, such as easy manipulation of the analysis results--e.g. to choose desirable result sub-sets for further inspection--, retrieval and comparison with relevant datasets from public databases, and flexible graphical displays for heuristic thinking. The whole set of computation procedures integrated into a single practical tool is what we call Computational Surprisal Analysis. This combined kind of analysis should facilitate significantly quantitative understanding of different cellular processes for researchers, including applications in proteomics and metabolomics. Beyond that, our vision is that Computational Surprisal Analysis has the potential to reach the status of a routine method of analysis for practitioners. The resolving power of Computational Surprisal Analysis is here demonstrated by its application to a variety of cellular cancer process transcription datasets, ours and from the literature. The results provide a compact biological picture of the thermodynamic significance of the leading gene expression phenotypes in every stage of the disease. For each transcript we characterize both its inherent steady state weight, its correlation with the other transcripts and its variation due to the disease. We present a dedicated website to facilitate the analysis for researchers and practitioners.

12. Computational surprisal analysis speeds-up genomic characterization of cancer processes.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Nataly Kravchenko-Balasha

Full Text Available Surprisal analysis is increasingly being applied for the examination of transcription levels in cellular processes, towards revealing inner network structures and predicting response. But to achieve its full potential, surprisal analysis should be integrated into a wider range computational tool. The purposes of this paper are to combine surprisal analysis with other important computation procedures, such as easy manipulation of the analysis results--e.g. to choose desirable result sub-sets for further inspection--, retrieval and comparison with relevant datasets from public databases, and flexible graphical displays for heuristic thinking. The whole set of computation procedures integrated into a single practical tool is what we call Computational Surprisal Analysis. This combined kind of analysis should facilitate significantly quantitative understanding of different cellular processes for researchers, including applications in proteomics and metabolomics. Beyond that, our vision is that Computational Surprisal Analysis has the potential to reach the status of a routine method of analysis for practitioners. The resolving power of Computational Surprisal Analysis is here demonstrated by its application to a variety of cellular cancer process transcription datasets, ours and from the literature. The results provide a compact biological picture of the thermodynamic significance of the leading gene expression phenotypes in every stage of the disease. For each transcript we characterize both its inherent steady state weight, its correlation with the other transcripts and its variation due to the disease. We present a dedicated website to facilitate the analysis for researchers and practitioners.

13. Initialized Fractional Calculus

Science.gov (United States)

Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

2000-01-01

This paper demonstrates the need for a nonconstant initialization for the fractional calculus and establishes a basic definition set for the initialized fractional differintegral. This definition set allows the formalization of an initialized fractional calculus. Two basis calculi are considered; the Riemann-Liouville and the Grunwald fractional calculi. Two forms of initialization, terminal and side are developed.

14. Continued fractions and heavy sequences

CERN Document Server

Boshernitzan, Michael

2009-01-01

We initiate the study of the sets $H(c)$, $0=x-[x]$ stands for the fractional part of $x\\in \\mathbb R$. We prove that, for rational $c$, the sets $H(c)$ are of positive Hausdorff dimension and, in particular, are uncountable. For integers $m\\geq1$, we obtain a surprising characterization of the numbers $\\alpha\\in H_m= H(\\frac1m)$ in terms of their continued fraction expansions: The odd entries (partial quotients) of these expansions are divisible by $m$. The characterization implies that $x\\in H_m$ if and only if $\\frac 1{mx} \\in H_m$, for $x>0$. We are unaware of a direct proof of this equivalence, without making a use of the mentioned characterization of the sets $H_m$. We also introduce the dual sets $\\hat H_m$ of reals $y$ for which the sequence of integers $\\big([ky]\\big)_{k\\geq1}$ consistently hits the set $m\\mathbb Z$ with the at least expected frequency $\\frac1m$ and establish the connection with the sets $H_m$: {2mm} If $xy=m$ for $x,y>0$, then $x\\in H_m$ if and only if $y\\in \\hat H_m$. The motivatio...

15. Nonhomogeneous fractional Poisson processes

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wang Xiaotian [School of Management, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)]. E-mail: swa001@126.com; Zhang Shiying [School of Management, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Fan Shen [Computer and Information School, Zhejiang Wanli University, Ningbo 315100 (China)

2007-01-15

In this paper, we propose a class of non-Gaussian stationary increment processes, named nonhomogeneous fractional Poisson processes W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t), which permit the study of the effects of long-range dependance in a large number of fields including quantum physics and finance. The processes W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t) are self-similar in a wide sense, exhibit more fatter tail than Gaussian processes, and converge to the Gaussian processes in distribution in some cases. In addition, we also show that the intensity function {lambda}(t) strongly influences the existence of the highest finite moment of W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t) and the behaviour of the tail probability of W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t)

16. The analysis of eight transcriptomes from all poriferan classes reveals surprising genetic complexity in sponges.

Science.gov (United States)

Riesgo, Ana; Farrar, Nathan; Windsor, Pamela J; Giribet, Gonzalo; Leys, Sally P

2014-05-01

Sponges (Porifera) are among the earliest evolving metazoans. Their filter-feeding body plan based on choanocyte chambers organized into a complex aquiferous system is so unique among metazoans that it either reflects an early divergence from other animals prior to the evolution of features such as muscles and nerves, or that sponges lost these characters. Analyses of the Amphimedon and Oscarella genomes support this view of uniqueness-many key metazoan genes are absent in these sponges-but whether this is generally true of other sponges remains unknown. We studied the transcriptomes of eight sponge species in four classes (Hexactinellida, Demospongiae, Homoscleromorpha, and Calcarea) specifically seeking genes and pathways considered to be involved in animal complexity. For reference, we also sought these genes in transcriptomes and genomes of three unicellular opisthokonts, two sponges (A. queenslandica and O. carmela), and two bilaterian taxa. Our analyses showed that all sponge classes share an unexpectedly large complement of genes with other metazoans. Interestingly, hexactinellid, calcareous, and homoscleromorph sponges share more genes with bilaterians than with nonbilaterian metazoans. We were surprised to find representatives of most molecules involved in cell-cell communication, signaling, complex epithelia, immune recognition, and germ-lineage/sex, with only a few, but potentially key, absences. A noteworthy finding was that some important genes were absent from all demosponges (transcriptomes and the Amphimedon genome), which might reflect divergence from main-stem lineages including hexactinellids, calcareous sponges, and homoscleromorphs. Our results suggest that genetic complexity arose early in evolution as shown by the presence of these genes in most of the animal lineages, which suggests sponges either possess cryptic physiological and morphological complexity and/or have lost ancestral cell types or physiological processes.

17. Fraction Sense: Foundational Understandings.

Science.gov (United States)

Fennell, Francis Skip; Karp, Karen

2016-08-09

The intent of this commentary is to identify elements of fraction sense and note how the research studies provided in this special issue, in related but somewhat different ways, validate the importance of such understandings. Proficiency with fractions serves as a prerequisite for student success in higher level mathematics, as well as serving as a gateway to many occupations and varied contexts beyond the mathematics classroom. Fraction sense is developed through instructional opportunities involving fraction equivalence and magnitude, comparing and ordering fractions, using fraction benchmarks, and computational estimation. Such foundations are then extended to operations involving fractions and decimals and applications involving proportional reasoning. These components of fraction sense are all addressed in the studies provided in this issue, with particular consideration devoted to the significant importance of the use of the number line as a central representational tool for conceptually understanding fraction magnitude.

18. Young stars in old galaxies - surprising discovery with the world's leading telescopes

Science.gov (United States)

2002-06-01

similar to the way a palaeontologist uses the skeletons of dinosaurs to deduce information about the era in which they lived. A surprising discovery The team combined images of a number of galaxies from Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 with infrared images obtained from the multi-mode ISAAC instrument on the 8.2m VLT Antu telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). To their great surprise, they discovered that many of the globular clusters in one of these galaxies, NGC 4365, a member of the large Virgo cluster of galaxies, were only a few thousand million years old, much younger than most of the other stars in this galaxy (roughly 12 thousand million years old). The astronomers were able to identify three major groups of stellar clusters. There is an old population of clusters of metal-poor stars, some clusters of old but metal-rich stars and now, seen for the first time, a population of clusters with young and metal-rich stars. These results have been fully confirmed by spectroscopic observations made with another of the world's giant telescopes, the 10-metre Keck on Hawaii. "It is a great pleasure to see two projects wholly or partly funded by Europe - VLT and Hubble - work in concert to produce such an important scientific result", says Piero Benvenuti, ESA Hubble Project Scientist. "The synergy between the most advanced ground and space telescopes continues to prove its effectiveness, paving the way to impressive new discoveries that would not otherwise be possible." The discovery of young globular clusters within old galaxies is surprising since the stars in the giant elliptical galaxies were until now believed to have formed during a single period early in the history of the Universe. It is now clear that some of the galaxies may be hiding their true nature and have indeed experienced much more recent periods of major star formation. Notes for editors This press release is issued in coordination between ESA and ESO. The Hubble Space Telescope project

19. Efficient reduction of complex noise in passive millimeter-wavelength video utilizing Bayesian surprise

Science.gov (United States)

Mundhenk, T. Nathan; Baron, Josh; Matic, Roy M.

2011-06-01

Passive millimeter wavelength (PMMW) video holds great promise given its ability to see targets and obstacles through fog, smoke and rain. However, current imagers produce undesirable complex noise. This can come as a mixture of fast shot (snow like) noise and a slower forming circular fixed pattern. Shot noise can be removed by a simple gain style filter. However, this can produce blurring of objects in the scene. To alleviate this, we measure the amount of Bayesian surprise in videos. Bayesian surprise is feature change in time which is abrupt, but cannot be accounted for as shot noise. Surprise is used to attenuate the shot noise filter in locations of high surprise. Since high Bayesian surprise in videos is very salient to observers, this reduces blurring particularly in places where people visually attend. Fixed pattern noise is removed after the shot noise using a combination of Non-uniformity correction (NUC) and Eigen Image Wavelet Transformation. The combination allows for online removal of time varying fixed pattern noise even when background motion may be absent. It also allows for online adaptation to differing intensities of fixed pattern noise. The fixed pattern and shot noise filters are all efficient allowing for real time video processing of PMMW video. We show several examples of PMMW video with complex noise that is much cleaner as a result of the noise removal. Processed video clearly shows cars, houses, trees and utility poles at 20 frames per second.

20. Fractional Authorship in Nuclear Physics

CERN Document Server

Pritychenko, B

2015-01-01

Large, multi-institutional groups or collaborations of scientists are engaged in nuclear physics research projects, and the number of research facilities is dwindling. These collaborations have their own authorship rules, and they produce a large number of highly-cited papers. Multiple authorship of nuclear physics publications creates a problem with the assessment of an individual author's productivity relative to his/her colleagues and renders ineffective a performance metrics solely based on annual publication and citation counts. Many institutions are increasingly relying on the total number of first-author papers; however, this approach becomes counterproductive for large research collaborations with an alphabetical order of authors. A concept of fractional authorship (the claiming of credit for authorship by more than one individual) helps to clarify this issue by providing a more complete picture of research activities. In the present work, nuclear physics fractional and total authorships have been inv...

1. Conference of “Uncertainty and Surprise: Questions on Working with the Unexpected and Unknowable”

CERN Document Server

McDaniel, Reuben R; Uncertainty and Surprise in Complex Systems : Questions on Working with the Unexpected

2005-01-01

Complexity science has been a source of new insight in physical and social systems and has demonstrated that unpredictability and surprise are fundamental aspects of the world around us. This book is the outcome of a discussion meeting of leading scholars and critical thinkers with expertise in complex systems sciences and leaders from a variety of organizations sponsored by the Prigogine Center at The University of Texas at Austin and the Plexus Institute to explore strategies for understanding uncertainty and surprise. Besides distributions to the conference it includes a key digest by the editors as well as a commentary by the late nobel laureat Ilya Prigogine, "Surprises in half of a century". The book is intended for researchers and scientists in complexity science as well as for a broad interdisciplinary audience of both practitioners and scholars. It will well serve those interested in the research issues and in the application of complexity science to physical and social systems.

2. What is a surprise earthquake? The example of the 2002, San Giuliano (Italy event

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

M. Mucciarelli

2005-06-01

Full Text Available Both in scientific literature and in the mass media, some earthquakes are defined as «surprise earthquakes». Based on his own judgment, probably any geologist, seismologist or engineer may have his own list of past «surprise earthquakes». This paper tries to quantify the underlying individual perception that may lead a scientist to apply such a definition to a seismic event. The meaning is different, depending on the disciplinary approach. For geologists, the Italian database of seismogenic sources is still too incomplete to allow for a quantitative estimate of the subjective degree of belief. For seismologists, quantification is possible defining the distance between an earthquake and its closest previous neighbor. Finally, for engineers, the San Giuliano quake could not be considered a surprise, since probabilistic site hazard estimates reveal that the change before and after the earthquake is just 4%.

3. Meaning of Fractions

Science.gov (United States)

Dewi, D. A. K.; Suryadi, D.; Suratno, T.; Mulyana, E.; Kurniawan, H.

2017-02-01

Introducing fractions is identical to divide an object. Suppose we divide the apple into two parts. One divided into two parts, the question arises whether one part can be called a half or not. Based on this activity, how can students give meaning to fractions. This study aims at designing a different fractions lesson by applying Didactical Design Research. In doing so, we undertook several research phases: 1) thinking what is fractions and why students should learn this concept; 2) designing didactical situation based on identified learning obstacles; and 3) reflecting retrospectively on the lesson design and its implementation as to redesign the fractions lesson. Our analysis revealed that most students held epistemological obstacles in giving meaning of fractions because they only know fractions as numbers that have numerator and denominator. By positioning ourselves as students, we discuss the ideal design to help students in constructing the meaning of fractions.

4. Fractional Dynamical Systems

CERN Document Server

Edelman, Mark

2014-01-01

In this paper the author presents the results of the preliminary investigation of fractional dynamical systems based on the results of numerical simulations of fractional maps. Fractional maps are equivalent to fractional differential equations describing systems experiencing periodic kicks. Their properties depend on the value of two parameters: the non-linearity parameter, which arises from the corresponding regular dynamical systems; and the memory parameter which is the order of the fractional derivative in the corresponding non-linear fractional differential equations. The examples of the fractional Standard and Logistic maps demonstrate that phase space of non-linear fractional dynamical systems may contain periodic sinks, attracting slow diverging trajectories, attracting accelerator mode trajectories, chaotic attractors, and cascade of bifurcations type trajectories whose properties are different from properties of attractors in regular dynamical systems. The author argues that discovered properties s...

5. Surprise and Opportunity for Learning in Grand Canyon: the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program

Science.gov (United States)

Melis, T. S.; Walters, C. J.; Korman, J.

2013-12-01

With a focus on resources of the Colorado River ecosystem downstream of Glen Canyon Dam in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area (GCNRA) and Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) of northern Arizona, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program has evaluated experimental flow and nonflow policy tests since 1990. Flow experiments have consisted of a variety of water releases from the dam within pre-existing annual downstream delivery agreements. The daily experimental dam operation, termed the Modified Low Fluctuating Flow (MLFF), implemented in 1996 to increase daily low flows and decrease daily peaks were intended to limit daily flow range to conserve tributary sand inputs and improve navigation among other objectives, including hydropower energy. Other flow tests have included controlled floods with some larger releases bypassing the dam's hydropower plant to rebuild and maintain eroded sandbars in GCNP. Experimental daily hydropeaking tests beyond MLFF have also been evaluated for managing the exotic recreational rainbow trout fishery in the dam's GCNRA tailwater. Experimental nonflow policies, such as physical removal of exotic fish below the tailwater, and experimental translocation of endangered native humpback chub from spawning habitats in the Little Colorado River (the largest natal origin site for chub in the basin) to other tributaries within GCNP have also been monitored. None of these large-scale field experiments has yet produced unambiguous results in terms of management prescriptions, owing to inadequate monitoring programs and confounding of treatment effects with effects of ongoing natural changes; most notably, a persistent warming of the river resulting from reduced storage in the dam's reservoir after 2003. But there have been several surprising results relative to predictions from models developed to identify monitoring needs and evaluate experimental design options at the start of the adaptive ecosystem assessment and management program in 1997

6. Salience and Attention in Surprisal-Based Accounts of Language Processing

Science.gov (United States)

Zarcone, Alessandra; van Schijndel, Marten; Vogels, Jorrig; Demberg, Vera

2016-01-01

The notion of salience has been singled out as the explanatory factor for a diverse range of linguistic phenomena. In particular, perceptual salience (e.g., visual salience of objects in the world, acoustic prominence of linguistic sounds) and semantic-pragmatic salience (e.g., prominence of recently mentioned or topical referents) have been shown to influence language comprehension and production. A different line of research has sought to account for behavioral correlates of cognitive load during comprehension as well as for certain patterns in language usage using information-theoretic notions, such as surprisal. Surprisal and salience both affect language processing at different levels, but the relationship between the two has not been adequately elucidated, and the question of whether salience can be reduced to surprisal / predictability is still open. Our review identifies two main challenges in addressing this question: terminological inconsistency and lack of integration between high and low levels of representations in salience-based accounts and surprisal-based accounts. We capitalize upon work in visual cognition in order to orient ourselves in surveying the different facets of the notion of salience in linguistics and their relation with models of surprisal. We find that work on salience highlights aspects of linguistic communication that models of surprisal tend to overlook, namely the role of attention and relevance to current goals, and we argue that the Predictive Coding framework provides a unified view which can account for the role played by attention and predictability at different levels of processing and which can clarify the interplay between low and high levels of processes and between predictability-driven expectation and attention-driven focus. PMID:27375525

7. Salience and attention in surprisal-based accounts of language processing

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Alessandra eZarcone

2016-06-01

Full Text Available The notion of salience has been singled out as the explanatory factor for a diverse range oflinguistic phenomena. In particular, perceptual salience (e.g. visual salience of objects in the world,acoustic prominence of linguistic sounds and semantic-pragmatic salience (e.g. prominence ofrecently mentioned or topical referents have been shown to influence language comprehensionand production. A different line of research has sought to account for behavioral correlates ofcognitive load during comprehension as well as for certain patterns in language usage usinginformation-theoretic notions, such as surprisal. Surprisal and salience both affect languageprocessing at different levels, but the relationship between the two has not been adequatelyelucidated, and the question of whether salience can be reduced to surprisal / predictability isstill open. Our review identifies two main challenges in addressing this question: terminologicalinconsistency and lack of integration between high and low levels of representations in salience-based accounts and surprisal-based accounts. We capitalise upon work in visual cognition inorder to orient ourselves in surveying the different facets of the notion of salience in linguisticsand their relation with models of surprisal. We find that work on salience highlights aspects oflinguistic communication that models of surprisal tend to overlook, namely the role of attentionand relevance to current goals, and we argue that the Predictive Coding framework provides aunified view which can account for the role played by attention and predictability at different levelsof processing and which can clarify the interplay between low and high levels of processes andbetween predictability-driven expectation and attention-driven focus.

8. One In Five Inpatient Emergency Department Cases May Lead To Surprise Bills.

Science.gov (United States)

Garmon, Christopher; Chartock, Benjamin

2017-01-01

A surprise medical bill is a bill from an out-of-network provider that was not expected by the patient or that came from an out-of-network provider not chosen by the patient. In 2014, 20 percent of hospital inpatient admissions that originated in the emergency department (ED), 14 percent of outpatient visits to the ED, and 9 percent of elective inpatient admissions likely led to a surprise medical bill. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

9. Risk, surprises and black swans fundamental ideas and concepts in risk assessment and risk management

CERN Document Server

Aven, Terje

2014-01-01

Risk, Surprises and Black Swans provides an in depth analysis of the risk concept with a focus on the critical link to knowledge; and the lack of knowledge, that risk and probability judgements are based on.Based on technical scientific research, this book presents a new perspective to help you understand how to assess and manage surprising, extreme events, known as 'Black Swans'. This approach looks beyond the traditional probability-based principles to offer a broader insight into the important aspects of uncertain events and in doing so explores the ways to manage them.

10. On continued fraction algorithms

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Smeets, Ionica

2010-01-01

Is there a good continued fraction approximation between every two bad ones? What is the entropy of the natural extension for alpha-Rosen fractions? How do you find multi-dimensional continued fractions with a guaranteed quality in polynomial time? These, and many more, questions are answered in thi

11. DIY Fraction Pack.

Science.gov (United States)

Graham, Alan; Graham, Louise

2003-01-01

Describes a very successful attempt to teach fractions to year 5 pupils based on pupils making their own fraction pack. Children decided for themselves how to make the fractional slices used in the activity using colored cardboard sheets and templates of a paper circle consisting of 24 equal slices. (Author/NB)

12. On continued fraction algorithms

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Smeets, Ionica

2010-01-01

Is there a good continued fraction approximation between every two bad ones? What is the entropy of the natural extension for alpha-Rosen fractions? How do you find multi-dimensional continued fractions with a guaranteed quality in polynomial time? These, and many more, questions are answered in thi

13. Fractional calculus in bioengineering, part 3.

Science.gov (United States)

Magin, Richard L

2004-01-01

Fractional calculus (integral and differential operations of noninteger order) is not often used to model biological systems. Although the basic mathematical ideas were developed long ago by the mathematicians Leibniz (1695), Liouville (1834), Riemann (1892), and others and brought to the attention of the engineering world by Oliver Heaviside in the 1890s, it was not until 1974 that the first book on the topic was published by Oldham and Spanier. Recent monographs and symposia proceedings have highlighted the application of fractional calculus in physics, continuum mechanics, signal processing, and electromagnetics, but with few examples of applications in bioengineering. This is surprising because the methods of fractional calculus, when defined as a Laplace or Fourier convolution product, are suitable for solving many problems in biomedical research. For example, early studies by Cole (1933) and Hodgkin (1946) of the electrical properties of nerve cell membranes and the propagation of electrical signals are well characterized by differential equations of fractional order. The solution involves a generalization of the exponential function to the Mittag-Leffler function, which provides a better fit to the observed cell membrane data. A parallel application of fractional derivatives to viscoelastic materials establishes, in a natural way, hereditary integrals and the power law (Nutting/Scott Blair) stress-strain relationship for modeling biomaterials. In this review, I will introduce the idea of fractional operations by following the original approach of Heaviside, demonstrate the basic operations of fractional calculus on well-behaved functions (step, ramp, pulse, sinusoid) of engineering interest, and give specific examples from electrochemistry, physics, bioengineering, and biophysics. The fractional derivative accurately describes natural phenomena that occur in such common engineering problems as heat transfer, electrode/electrolyte behavior, and sub

14. Fractional Differential Equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jianping Zhao

2012-01-01

Full Text Available An extended fractional subequation method is proposed for solving fractional differential equations by introducing a new general ansätz and Bäcklund transformation of the fractional Riccati equation with known solutions. Being concise and straightforward, this method is applied to the space-time fractional coupled Burgers’ equations and coupled MKdV equations. As a result, many exact solutions are obtained. It is shown that the considered method provides a very effective, convenient, and powerful mathematical tool for solving fractional differential equations.

15. Fractional smith chart theory

KAUST Repository

Shamim, Atif

2011-03-01

For the first time, a generalized Smith chart is introduced here to represent fractional order circuit elements. It is shown that the standard Smith chart is a special case of the generalized fractional order Smith chart. With illustrations drawn for both the conventional integer based lumped elements and the fractional elements, a graphical technique supported by the analytical method is presented to plot impedances on the fractional Smith chart. The concept is then applied towards impedance matching networks, where the fractional approach proves to be much more versatile and results in a single element matching network for a complex load as compared to the two elements in the conventional approach. © 2010 IEEE.

16. The Most Distant Mature Galaxy Cluster - Young, but surprisingly grown-up

Science.gov (United States)

2011-03-01

Astronomers have used an armada of telescopes on the ground and in space, including the Very Large Telescope at ESO's Paranal Observatory in Chile to discover and measure the distance to the most remote mature cluster of galaxies yet found. Although this cluster is seen when the Universe was less than one quarter of its current age it looks surprisingly similar to galaxy clusters in the current Universe. "We have measured the distance to the most distant mature cluster of galaxies ever found", says the lead author of the study in which the observations from ESO's VLT have been used, Raphael Gobat (CEA, Paris). "The surprising thing is that when we look closely at this galaxy cluster it doesn't look young - many of the galaxies have settled down and don't resemble the usual star-forming galaxies seen in the early Universe." Clusters of galaxies are the largest structures in the Universe that are held together by gravity. Astronomers expect these clusters to grow through time and hence that massive clusters would be rare in the early Universe. Although even more distant clusters have been seen, they appear to be young clusters in the process of formation and are not settled mature systems. The international team of astronomers used the powerful VIMOS and FORS2 instruments on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) to measure the distances to some of the blobs in a curious patch of very faint red objects first observed with the Spitzer space telescope. This grouping, named CL J1449+0856 [1], had all the hallmarks of being a very remote cluster of galaxies [2]. The results showed that we are indeed seeing a galaxy cluster as it was when the Universe was about three billion years old - less than one quarter of its current age [3]. Once the team knew the distance to this very rare object they looked carefully at the component galaxies using both the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based telescopes, including the VLT. They found evidence suggesting that most of the

17. Fractional Dynamics and Control

CERN Document Server

2012-01-01

Fractional Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive overview of recent advances in the areas of nonlinear dynamics, vibration and control with analytical, numerical, and experimental results. This book provides an overview of recent discoveries in fractional control, delves into fractional variational principles and differential equations, and applies advanced techniques in fractional calculus to solving complicated mathematical and physical problems.Finally, this book also discusses the role that fractional order modeling can play in complex systems for engineering and science. Discusses how fractional dynamics and control can be used to solve nonlinear science and complexity issues Shows how fractional differential equations and models can be used to solve turbulence and wave equations in mechanics and gravity theories and Schrodinger’s equation  Presents factional relaxation modeling of dielectric materials and wave equations for dielectrics  Develops new methods for control and synchronization of...

18. Fractional factorial plans

CERN Document Server

Dey, Aloke

2009-01-01

A one-stop reference to fractional factorials and related orthogonal arrays.Presenting one of the most dynamic areas of statistical research, this book offers a systematic, rigorous, and up-to-date treatment of fractional factorial designs and related combinatorial mathematics. Leading statisticians Aloke Dey and Rahul Mukerjee consolidate vast amounts of material from the professional literature--expertly weaving fractional replication, orthogonal arrays, and optimality aspects. They develop the basic theory of fractional factorials using the calculus of factorial arrangements, thereby providing a unified approach to the study of fractional factorial plans. An indispensable guide for statisticians in research and industry as well as for graduate students, Fractional Factorial Plans features: * Construction procedures of symmetric and asymmetric orthogonal arrays. * Many up-to-date research results on nonexistence. * A chapter on optimal fractional factorials not based on orthogonal arrays. * Trend-free plans...

19. Did the FED Surprise the Markets in 2001? A Case Study for Vars with Sign Restrictions

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.

2001-01-01

In 2001, the Fed has lowered interest rates in a series of cuts, starting from 6.5 % at the end of 2000 to 2.0 % by early November.This paper asks, whether the Federal Reserve Bank has been surprising the markets, taking as given the conventional view about the effect of monetary policy shocks.New

20. Surprising convergence of the Monte Carlo renormalization group for the three-dimensional Ising model.

Science.gov (United States)

Ron, Dorit; Brandt, Achi; Swendsen, Robert H

2017-05-01

We present a surprisingly simple approach to high-accuracy calculations of the critical properties of the three-dimensional Ising model. The method uses a modified block-spin transformation with a tunable parameter to improve convergence in the Monte Carlo renormalization group. The block-spin parameter must be tuned differently for different exponents to produce optimal convergence.

1. Bagpipes and Artichokes: Surprise as a Stimulus to Learning in the Elementary Music Classroom

Science.gov (United States)

Jacobi, Bonnie Schaffhauser

2016-01-01

Incorporating surprise into music instruction can stimulate student attention, curiosity, and interest. Novelty focuses attention in the reticular activating system, increasing the potential for brain memory storage. Elementary ages are ideal for introducing novel instruments, pieces, composers, or styles of music. Young children have fewer…

2. The Educational Philosophies of Mordecai Kaplan and Michael Rosenak: Surprising Similarities and Illuminating Differences

Science.gov (United States)

Schein, Jeffrey; Caplan, Eric

2014-01-01

The thoughts of Mordecai Kaplan and Michael Rosenak present surprising commonalities as well as illuminating differences. Similarities include the perception that Judaism and Jewish education are in crisis, the belief that Jewish peoplehood must include commitment to meaningful content, the need for teachers to teach from a position of…

3. Surprise, Memory, and Retrospective Judgment Making: Testing Cognitive Reconstruction Theories of the Hindsight Bias Effect

Science.gov (United States)

Ash, Ivan K.

2009-01-01

Hindsight bias has been shown to be a pervasive and potentially harmful decision-making bias. A review of 4 competing cognitive reconstruction theories of hindsight bias revealed conflicting predictions about the role and effect of expectation or surprise in retrospective judgment formation. Two experiments tested these predictions examining the…

4. Did the FED Surprise the Markets in 2001? A Case Study for Vars with Sign Restrictions

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.

2001-01-01

In 2001, the Fed has lowered interest rates in a series of cuts, starting from 6.5 % at the end of 2000 to 2.0 % by early November.This paper asks, whether the Federal Reserve Bank has been surprising the markets, taking as given the conventional view about the effect of monetary policy shocks.New e

5. Mesoscopic Fractional Quantum in Soft Matter

CERN Document Server

Chen, W

2005-01-01

Soft matter (e.g., biomaterials, polymers, sediments, oil, emulsions) has become an important bridge between physics and diverse disciplines. Its fundamental physical mechanism, however, is largely obscure. This study made the first attempt to connect fractional Schrodinger equation and soft matter physics under a consistent framework from empirical power scaling to phenomenological kinetics and macromechanics to mesoscopic quantum mechanics. The original contributions are the fractional quantum relationships, which show Levy statistics and fractional Brownian motion are essentially related to momentum and energy, respectively. The fractional quantum underlies fractal mesostructures and many-body interactions of macromolecules in soft matter and is experimentally testable.

6. Fractional calculus in bioengineering, part 2.

Science.gov (United States)

Magin, Richard L

2004-01-01

Fractional calculus (integral and differential operations of noninteger order) is not often used to model biological systems. Although the basic mathematical ideas were developed long ago by the mathematicians Leibniz (1695), Liouville (1834), Riemann (1892), and others and brought to the attention of the engineering world by Oliver Heaviside in the 1890s, it was not until 1974 that the first book on the topic was published by Oldham and Spanier. Recent monographs and symposia proceedings have highlighted the application of fractional calculus in physics, continuum mechanics, signal processing, and electromagnetics, but with few examples of applications in bioengineering. This is surprising because the methods of fractional calculus, when defined as a Laplace or Fourier convolution product, are suitable for solving many problems in biomedical research. For example, early studies by Cole (1933) and Hodgkin (1946) of the electrical properties of nerve cell membranes and the propagation of electrical signals are well characterized by differential equations of fractional order. The solution involves a generalization of the exponential function to the Mittag-Leffler function, which provides a better fit to the observed cell membrane data. A parallel application of fractional derivatives to viscoelastic materials establishes, in a natural way, hereditary integrals and the power law (Nutting/Scott Blair) stress-strain relationship for modeling biomaterials. In this review, I will introduce the idea of fractional operations by following the original approach of Heaviside, demonstrate the basic operations of fractional calculus on well-behaved functions (step, ramp, pulse, sinusoid) of engineering interest, and give specific examples from electrochemistry, physics, bioengineering, and biophysics. The fractional derivative accurately describes natural phenomena that occur in such common engineering problems as heat transfer, electrode/electrolyte behavior, and sub

7. Dividing Fractions: A Pedagogical Technique

Science.gov (United States)

Lewis, Robert

2016-01-01

When dividing one fraction by a second fraction, invert, that is, flip the second fraction, then multiply it by the first fraction. To multiply fractions, simply multiply across the denominators, and multiply across the numerators to get the resultant fraction. So by inverting the division of fractions it is turned into an easy multiplication of…

8. Fractional Pure Birth Processes

CERN Document Server

Orsingher, Enzo; 10.3150/09-BEJ235

2010-01-01

We consider a fractional version of the classical non-linear birth process of which the Yule-Furry model is a particular case. Fractionality is obtained by replacing the first-order time derivative in the difference-differential equations which govern the probability law of the process, with the Dzherbashyan-Caputo fractional derivative. We derive the probability distribution of the number $\\mathcal{N}_\ 9. Fractional vortex Hilbert's Hotel CERN Document Server Gbur, Greg 2015-01-01 We demonstrate how the unusual mathematics of transfinite numbers, in particular a nearly perfect realization of Hilbert's famous hotel paradox, manifests in the propagation of light through fractional vortex plates. It is shown how a fractional vortex plate can be used, in principle, to create any number of "open rooms," i.e. topological charges, simultaneously. Fractional vortex plates are therefore demonstrated to create a singularity of topological charge, in which the vortex state is completely undefined and in fact arbitrary. 10. Fractional Electromagnetic Waves CERN Document Server Gómez, J F; Bernal, J J; Tkach, V I; Guía, M 2011-01-01 In the present work we consider the electromagnetic wave equation in terms of the fractional derivative of the Caputo type. The order of the derivative being considered is 0 <\\gamma<1. A new parameter \\sigma, is introduced which characterizes the existence of the fractional components in the system. We analyze the fractional derivative with respect to time and space, for \\gamma = 1 and \\gamma = 1/2 cases. 11. Herschel-ATLAS: The Surprising Diversity of Dust-Selected Galaxies in the Local Submillimetre Universe CERN Document Server Clark, Christopher J R; Gomez, Haley L; Maddox, Steven; De Vis, Pieter; Smith, Matthew W L; Eales, Steven A; Baes, Maarten; Bendo, George J; Bourne, Nathan; Driver, Simon P; Dye, Simon; Furlanetto, Christina; Ivison, Rob J; Schofield, Simon P; Robotham, Aaron S G; Rowlands, Kate; Vlahakis, Catherine; van der Werf, Paul; Wright, Angus; de Zotti, Gianfranco 2015-01-01 We present the properties of the first 250um blind sample of nearby galaxies (15 < D < 46 Mpc), from the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). Herschel's sensitivity allows us to probe the faint end of the dust luminosity function for the first time, spanning a range of stellar mass (7.4 < log$_{10}$M$_{\\star}$< 11.3 M$_{\\odot}$), star formation activity (-11.8 < log$_{10}$SSFR < -8.9 yr$^{-1}$), and gas fraction (3-96 per cent). Our representative sample of the local dusty Universe reveals great diversity, with 0.6 < FUV-Ks < 7.0 and representation across the Hubble Sequence. The median cold dust temperature is 14.6 K, colder than that in the HRS (18.5 K) and Planck ERCSC (17.7 K). The mean dust-to-stellar mass ratio (Md/M$_{\\star}$) in our sample is higher than in these surveys by a factor of 3.7 and 1.8 respectively. Counter-intuitively, we find that the more dust rich a galaxy (defined by Md/M$_{\\star}), the lower its UV attenuation. Dust selection also ... 12. Chemical fractionation method for characterization of biomass-based bottom and fly ash fractions from large-sized power plant of an integrated pulp and paper mill complex%化学分离法分析大型纸浆发电厂废渣中生物质底灰和飞灰成分 Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) Risto PÖYKIÖ; Hannu NURMESNIEMI; Olli DAHL; Mikko MÄKELÄ 2014-01-01 The aim of this study was to extract the biomass-based bottom and fly ash fractions by a three-stage fractionation method for water-soluble (H2O), ammonium-acetate (CH3COONH4) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) fractions in order to access the leaching behaviour of these residues. Except for Mo, S, Na and elements whose concentrations were lower than the detection limits, the extractable element concentrations in both ash fractions followed the order H2O 13. The radiosurgery fractionation quandary: single fraction or hypofractionation? Science.gov (United States) Kirkpatrick, John P; Soltys, Scott G; Lo, Simon S; Beal, Kathryn; Shrieve, Dennis C; Brown, Paul D 2017-04-01 Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), typically administered in a single session, is widely employed to safely, efficiently, and effectively treat small intracranial lesions. However, for large lesions or those in close proximity to critical structures, it can be difficult to obtain an acceptable balance of tumor control while avoiding damage to normal tissue when single-fraction SRS is utilized. Treating a lesion in 2 to 5 fractions of SRS (termed "hypofractionated SRS" [HF-SRS]) potentially provides the ability to treat a lesion with a total dose of radiation that provides both adequate tumor control and acceptable toxicity. Indeed, studies of HF-SRS in large brain metastases, vestibular schwannomas, meningiomas, and gliomas suggest that a superior balance of tumor control and toxicity is observed compared with single-fraction SRS. Nonetheless, a great deal of effort remains to understand radiobiologic mechanisms for HF-SRS driving the dose-volume response relationship for tumors and normal tissues and to utilize this fundamental knowledge and the results of clinic studies to optimize HF-SRS. In particular, the application of HF-SRS in the setting of immunomodulatory cancer therapies offers special challenges and opportunities. 14. Investigating locality effects and surprisal in written English syntactic choice phenomena. Science.gov (United States) Rajkumar, Rajakrishnan; van Schijndel, Marten; White, Michael; Schuler, William 2016-10-01 We investigate the extent to which syntactic choice in written English is influenced by processing considerations as predicted by Gibson's (2000) Dependency Locality Theory (DLT) and Surprisal Theory (Hale, 2001; Levy, 2008). A long line of previous work attests that languages display a tendency for shorter dependencies, and in a previous corpus study, Temperley (2007) provided evidence that this tendency exerts a strong influence on constituent ordering choices. However, Temperley's study included no frequency-based controls, and subsequent work on sentence comprehension with broad-coverage eye-tracking corpora found weak or negative effects of DLT-based measures when frequency effects were statistically controlled for (Demberg & Keller, 2008; van Schijndel, Nguyen, & Schuler 2013; van Schijndel & Schuler, 2013), calling into question the actual impact of dependency locality on syntactic choice phenomena. Going beyond Temperley's work, we show that DLT integration costs are indeed a significant predictor of syntactic choice in written English even in the presence of competing frequency-based and cognitively motivated control factors, including n-gram probability and PCFG surprisal as well as embedding depth (Wu, Bachrach, Cardenas, & Schuler, 2010; Yngve, 1960). Our study also shows that the predictions of dependency length and surprisal are only moderately correlated, a finding which mirrors Dember & Keller's (2008) results for sentence comprehension. Further, we demonstrate that the efficacy of dependency length in predicting the corpus choice increases with increasing head-dependent distances. At the same time, we find that the tendency towards dependency locality is not always observed, and with pre-verbal adjuncts in particular, non-locality cases are found more often than not. In contrast, surprisal is effective in these cases, and the embedding depth measures further increase prediction accuracy. We discuss the implications of our findings for theories of 15. Surprise and sense making: what newcomers experience in entering unfamiliar organizational settings. Science.gov (United States) Louis, M R 1980-06-01 Growing disillusionment among new members of organizations has been traced to inadequacies in approaches to organizational entry. Current directions of research on organizational entry and their limitations are described, and a new perspective is proposed. The new perspective identifies key features of newcomers' entry experiences, including surprise, contrast, and change, and describes the sense-making processes by which individuals cope with their entry experiences. Implications for research and practice on organizational entry are drawn. 16. Each individual is a surprise: a conversation with Marianne Horney Eckardt. Science.gov (United States) Rubin, Jeffrey B 2014-06-01 "Each Individual is a Surprise" is a brief account of a dialogue between Marianne Horney Eckardt and myself about the state of psychoanalysis and the psychoanalytic process, the danger of idolatry, the damaging impact of psychoanalytic schools when they create a standardized and pathologizing approach to people, the value of curiosity and humility and retaining one's clinical creativity. The role of Rank, Horney, Sullivan, and Fromm in Dr. Eckardt's long life and rich work is touched upon. 17. Surprise and Opportunity for Learning in Grand Canyon: the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Theodore S. Melis 2015-09-01 Full Text Available With a focus on resources of the Colorado River ecosystem below Glen Canyon Dam, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program has included a variety of experimental policy tests, ranging from manipulation of water releases from the dam to removal of non-native fish within Grand Canyon National Park. None of these field-scale experiments has yet produced unambiguous results in terms of management prescriptions. But there has been adaptive learning, mostly from unanticipated or surprising resource responses relative to predictions from ecosystem modeling. Surprise learning opportunities may often be viewed with dismay by some stakeholders who might not be clear about the purpose of science and modeling in adaptive management. However, the experimental results from the Glen Canyon Dam program actually represent scientific successes in terms of revealing new opportunities for developing better river management policies. A new long-term experimental management planning process for Glen Canyon Dam operations, started in 2011 by the U.S. Department of the Interior, provides an opportunity to refocus management objectives, identify and evaluate key uncertainties about the influence of dam releases, and refine monitoring for learning over the next several decades. Adaptive learning since 1995 is critical input to this long-term planning effort. Embracing uncertainty and surprise outcomes revealed by monitoring and ecosystem modeling will likely continue the advancement of resource objectives below the dam, and may also promote efficient learning in other complex programs. 18. Fractional and noncommutative spacetimes NARCIS (Netherlands) Arzano, M.; Calcagni, M.; Oriti, D.; Scalisi, M. 2011-01-01 We establish a mapping between fractional and noncommutative spacetimes in configuration space. Depending on the scale at which the relation is considered, there arise two possibilities. For a fractional spacetime with log-oscillatory measure, the effective measure near the fundamental scale determi 19. Can Kindergartners Do Fractions? Science.gov (United States) Cwikla, Julie 2014-01-01 Mathematics professor Julie Cwikla decided that she needed to investigate young children's understandings and see what precurricular partitioning notions young minds bring to the fraction table. Cwikla realized that only a handful of studies have examined how preschool-age and early elementary school-age students solve fraction problems (Empson… 20. Can Kindergartners Do Fractions? Science.gov (United States) Cwikla, Julie 2014-01-01 Mathematics professor Julie Cwikla decided that she needed to investigate young children's understandings and see what precurricular partitioning notions young minds bring to the fraction table. Cwikla realized that only a handful of studies have examined how preschool-age and early elementary school-age students solve fraction problems (Empson… 1. An Appetite for Fractions Science.gov (United States) Wilkerson, Trena L.; Bryan, Tommy; Curry, Jane 2012-01-01 This article describes how using candy bars as models gives sixth-grade students a taste for learning to represent fractions whose denominators are factors of twelve. Using paper models of the candy bars, students explored and compared fractions. They noticed fewer different representations for one-third than for one-half. The authors conclude… 2. Categories of Fractions Revisited OpenAIRE Fritz, Tobias 2008-01-01 The theory of categories of fractions as originally developed by Gabriel and Zisman is reviewed in a pedagogical manner giving detailed proofs of all statements. A weakening of the category of fractions axioms used by Higson is discussed and shown to be equivalent to the original axioms. 3. On fractional programming Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Bajona-Xandri, C.; Martinez-Legaz, J.E. 1994-12-31 This paper studies the minimax fractional programming problem, assuming quasiconvexity of the objective function, under the lower subdifferentiability viewpoint. Necessary and sufficient optimality conditions and dual properties are found. We present applications of this theory to find the Pareto efficient solutions of a multiobjective fractional problem and to solve several economic models. 4. Surprise and Uncertainty—Framing Regional Geohazards in the Theory of Complexity Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Beate M. W. Ratter 2013-01-01 Full Text Available The paper analyzes the concepts of uncertainty and surprise as key variables of a socio-ecological system’s behavior in the context of the theory of complexity. Experiences from the past have shown that living with uncertainty is part of our daily life and surprises are only surprising because our perspective of system trajectories is basically linear and non-dynamic. The future of humanity is dependent on the understanding of the system’s behavior and needs a change in perspective of linearity to non-linearity and from the planning imperative to a management hedging uncertainty and surprise. In the context of humanity’s future, the theory of complexity offers a new perspective on system trajectories and their understanding of surprises and uncertainty. There is a need for a Gestaltwechsel—a change in perception—which helps to see things differently and fosters the search for new answers to emerging questions at the human-nature interface. Drawing on the case study of hazard management the paper will explain the necessity of analysis system’s behavior and the taking into account of multi-agent behavior on the micro level which led to emergent behavior on the macro-level of the system. Regional geohazards are explained as the regional impact of an uncontrolled risk based on a state of a natural feature that has a direct impact on a regional population being affected by the appearance of a hazard and its development into damage. By acting in space, time and connectivity, people construct hazardscapes and change risk into regional geohazards. This concept shows relevance for future mitigation and adaptation measures. The theory of complexity can help in engendering the necessary shift in perspective. What is non-linear dynamic thinking as suggested by the theory of complexity? Why is the consideration of the system’s behavior crucial and not just the number of system’s elements? What is the role of agents in these systems? In 5. Nitrogen fractionation in Titan's aerosols Science.gov (United States) Carrasco, Nathalie; Kuga, Maia; Marty, Bernard; Fleury, Benjamin; Marrocchi, Yves 2016-06-01 A strong nitrogen fractionation is found by Cassini in Titan's atmosphere with the detection of 15N-rich HCN relative to N2. Photodissociation of N2 associated or not to self-shielding might involve 15N-rich radicals prone to incorporation into forming organics. However the isotopic composition is only available for very simple gaseous N-bearing compounds, and the propagation and conservation of such a large N-isotopic fractionation upon polymerization is actually out of reach with the instruments onboard Cassini. We will therefore present a first laboratory investigation of the possible enrichment in the solid organic aerosols. We will also discuss the space instrumention required in the future to answer this pending issue on Titan. 6. Social Trust and Fractionalization: DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Bjørnskov, Christian 2008-01-01 This paper takes a closer look at the importance of fractionalization for the creation of social trust. It first argues that the determinants of trust can be divided into two categories: those affecting individuals' trust radii and those affecting social polarization. A series of estimates using...... a much larger country sample than in previous literature confirms that fractionalization in the form of income inequality and political diversity adversely affects social trust while ethnic diversity does not. However, these effects differ systematically across countries, questioning standard...... interpretations of the influence of fractionalization on trust.... 7. Benford's law predicted digit distribution of aggregated income taxes: the surprising conformity of Italian cities and regions Science.gov (United States) Mir, Tariq Ahmad; Ausloos, Marcel; Cerqueti, Roy 2014-11-01 The yearly aggregated tax income data of all, more than 8000, Italian municipalities are analyzed for a period of five years, from 2007 to 2011, to search for conformity or not with Benford's law, a counter-intuitive phenomenon observed in large tabulated data where the occurrence of numbers having smaller initial digits is more favored than those with larger digits. This is done in anticipation that large deviations from Benford's law will be found in view of tax evasion supposedly being widespread across Italy. Contrary to expectations, we show that the overall tax income data for all these years is in excellent agreement with Benford's law. Furthermore, we also analyze the data of Calabria, Campania and Sicily, the three Italian regions known for strong presence of mafia, to see if there are any marked deviations from Benford's law. Again, we find that all yearly data sets for Calabria and Sicily agree with Benford's law whereas only the 2007 and 2008 yearly data show departures from the law for Campania. These results are again surprising in view of underground and illegal nature of economic activities of mafia which significantly contribute to tax evasion. Some hypothesis for the found conformity is presented. 8. Discrete fractional calculus CERN Document Server Goodrich, Christopher 2015-01-01 This text provides the first comprehensive treatment of the discrete fractional calculus. Experienced researchers will find the text useful as a reference for discrete fractional calculus and topics of current interest. Students who are interested in learning about discrete fractional calculus will find this text to provide a useful starting point. Several exercises are offered at the end of each chapter and select answers have been provided at the end of the book. The presentation of the content is designed to give ample flexibility for potential use in a myriad of courses and for independent study. The novel approach taken by the authors includes a simultaneous treatment of the fractional- and integer-order difference calculus (on a variety of time scales, including both the usual forward and backwards difference operators). The reader will acquire a solid foundation in the classical topics of the discrete calculus while being introduced to exciting recent developments, bringing them to the frontiers of the... 9. Fractional Derivative Cosmology CERN Document Server Roberts, Mark D 2009-01-01 The degree by which a function can be differentiated need not be restricted to integer values. Usually most of the field equations of physics are taken to be second order, curiosity asks what happens if this is only approximately the case and the field equations are nearly second order. For Robertson-Walker cosmology there is a simple fractional modification of the Friedman and conservation equations. In general fractional gravitational equations similar to Einstein's are hard to define as this requires fractional derivative geometry. What fractional derivative geometry might entail is briefly looked at and it turns out that even asking very simple questions in two dimensions leads to ambiguous or intractable results. A two dimensional line element which depends on the Gamma-function is looked at. 10. Intracellular Cadmium Isotope Fractionation Science.gov (United States) Horner, T. J.; Lee, R. B.; Henderson, G. M.; Rickaby, R. E. 2011-12-01 Recent stable isotope studies into the biological utilization of transition metals (e.g. Cu, Fe, Zn, Cd) suggest several stepwise cellular processes can fractionate isotopes in both culture and nature. However, the determination of fractionation factors is often unsatisfactory, as significant variability can exist - even between different organisms with the same cellular functions. Thus, it has not been possible to adequately understand the source and mechanisms of metal isotopic fractionation. In order to address this problem, we investigated the biological fractionation of Cd isotopes within genetically-modified bacteria (E. coli). There is currently only one known biological use or requirement of Cd, a Cd/Zn carbonic anhydrase (CdCA, from the marine diatom T. weissfloggii), which we introduce into the E. coli genome. We have also developed a cleaning procedure that allows for the treating of bacteria so as to study the isotopic composition of different cellular components. We find that whole cells always exhibit a preference for uptake of the lighter isotopes of Cd. Notably, whole cells appear to have a similar Cd isotopic composition regardless of the expression of CdCA within the E. coli. However, isotopic fractionation can occur within the genetically modified E. coli during Cd use, such that Cd bound in CdCA can display a distinct isotopic composition compared to the cell as a whole. Thus, the externally observed fractionation is independent of the internal uses of Cd, with the largest Cd isotope fractionation occurring during cross-membrane transport. A general implication of these experiments is that trace metal isotopic fractionation most likely reflects metal transport into biological cells (either actively or passively), rather than relating to expression of specific physiological function and genetic expression of different metalloenzymes. 11. A strange and surprising debate: mountains, original sin and 'science' in seventeenth-century England. Science.gov (United States) Wragge-Morley, Alexander 2009-06-01 It could come as a shock to learn that some seventeenth-century men of science and learning thought that mountains were bad. Even more alarmingly, some thought that God had imposed them on the earth to punish man for his sins. By the end of the seventeenth century, surprisingly many English natural philosophers and theologians were engaged in a debate about whether mountains were 'good' or 'bad', useful or useless. At stake in this debate were not just the careers of its participants, but arguments about the best ways of looking at and reckoning with 'nature' itself. 12. On the Cn/Zm fractional branes Science.gov (United States) Karp, Robert L. 2009-02-01 We construct several geometric representatives for the Cn/Zm fractional branes on either a partially or the completely resolved orbifold. In the process we use large radius and conifold-type monodromies and provide a strong consistency check. In particular, for C3/Z5 we give three different sets of geometric representatives. We also find the explicit Seiberg duality which connects our fractional branes to the ones given by the McKay correspondence. 13. Expectation and surprise determine neural population responses in the ventral visual stream. Science.gov (United States) Egner, Tobias; Monti, Jim M; Summerfield, Christopher 2010-12-08 Visual cortex is traditionally viewed as a hierarchy of neural feature detectors, with neural population responses being driven by bottom-up stimulus features. Conversely, "predictive coding" models propose that each stage of the visual hierarchy harbors two computationally distinct classes of processing unit: representational units that encode the conditional probability of a stimulus and provide predictions to the next lower level; and error units that encode the mismatch between predictions and bottom-up evidence, and forward prediction error to the next higher level. Predictive coding therefore suggests that neural population responses in category-selective visual regions, like the fusiform face area (FFA), reflect a summation of activity related to prediction ("face expectation") and prediction error ("face surprise"), rather than a homogenous feature detection response. We tested the rival hypotheses of the feature detection and predictive coding models by collecting functional magnetic resonance imaging data from the FFA while independently varying both stimulus features (faces vs houses) and subjects' perceptual expectations regarding those features (low vs medium vs high face expectation). The effects of stimulus and expectation factors interacted, whereby FFA activity elicited by face and house stimuli was indistinguishable under high face expectation and maximally differentiated under low face expectation. Using computational modeling, we show that these data can be explained by predictive coding but not by feature detection models, even when the latter are augmented with attentional mechanisms. Thus, population responses in the ventral visual stream appear to be determined by feature expectation and surprise rather than by stimulus features per se. 14. Infants’ Looking to Surprising Events: When Eye-Tracking Reveals More than Looking Time Science.gov (United States) Yeung, H. Henny; Denison, Stephanie; Johnson, Scott P. 2016-01-01 Research on infants’ reasoning abilities often rely on looking times, which are longer to surprising and unexpected visual scenes compared to unsurprising and expected ones. Few researchers have examined more precise visual scanning patterns in these scenes, and so, here, we recorded 8- to 11-month-olds’ gaze with an eye tracker as we presented a sampling event whose outcome was either surprising, neutral, or unsurprising: A red (or yellow) ball was drawn from one of three visible containers populated 0%, 50%, or 100% with identically colored balls. When measuring looking time to the whole scene, infants were insensitive to the likelihood of the sampling event, replicating failures in similar paradigms. Nevertheless, a new analysis of visual scanning showed that infants did spend more time fixating specific areas-of-interest as a function of the event likelihood. The drawn ball and its associated container attracted more looking than the other containers in the 0% condition, but this pattern was weaker in the 50% condition, and even less strong in the 100% condition. Results suggest that measuring where infants look may be more sensitive than simply how much looking there is to the whole scene. The advantages of eye tracking measures over traditional looking measures are discussed. PMID:27926920 15. New Fractional Complex Transform for Conformable Fractional Partial Differential Equations Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Çenesiz Y. 2016-12-01 Full Text Available Conformable fractional complex transform is introduced in this paper for converting fractional partial differential equations to ordinary differential equations. Hence analytical methods in advanced calculus can be used to solve these equations. Conformable fractional complex transform is implemented to fractional partial differential equations such as space fractional advection diffusion equation and space fractional telegraph equation to obtain the exact solutions of these equations. 16. Evaluating fractionated space systems - Status Science.gov (United States) Cornford, S.; Jenkins, S.; Wall, S.; Cole, B.; Bairstow, B.; Rouquette, N.; Dubos, G.; Ryan, T.; Zarifian, P.; Boutwell, J. DARPA has funded a number of teams to further refine its Fractionated Spacecraft vision. Several teams, including this team led by JPL, have been tasked to develop a tool for the evaluation of the Business case for a fractionated system architecture. This evaluation is to understand under what conditions and constraints the fractionated architecture make more sense (in a cost/benefit sense) than the traditional monolithic paradigm. Our approach to this evaluation is to generate and evaluate a variety of trade space options. These options include various sets of stimuli, various degrees of fractionation and various subsystem element properties. The stimuli include many not normally modeled such as technology obsolescence, funding profile changes and changes in mission objectives during the mission itself. The degrees of fractionation enable various traditional subsystem elements to be distributed across different free flyers which then act in concert as needed. This will enable key technologies to be updated as need dictates and availability allows. We have described our approach in a previous IEEE Aerospace conference paper but will briefly summarize here. Our approach to generate the Business Case evaluation is to explicitly model both the implementation and operation phases for the life cycle of a fractionated constellation. A variety of models are integrated into the Phoenix ModelCenter framework and are used to generate various intermediate data which is aggregated into the Present Strategic Value (PSV). The PSV is essentially the value (including the value of the embedded real options) minus the cost. These PSVs are calculated for a variety of configurations and scenarios including variations of various stimuli or uncertainties (e.g. supply chain delays, launch vehicle failures and orbital debris events). There are various decision options (e.g. delay, accelerate, cancel) which can now be exercised for each stimulus. We can compute the PSV for the various comb 17. Fractional Vortices and Lumps CERN Document Server Eto, Minoru; Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Konishi, Kenichi; Nagashima, Takayuki; Nitta, Muneto; Ohashi, Keisuke; Vinci, Walter 2009-01-01 We study what might be called fractional vortices, vortex configurations with the minimum winding from the viewpoint of their topological stability, but which are characterized by various notable substructures in the transverse energy distribution. The fractional vortices occur in diverse Abelian or non-Abelian generalizations of the Higgs model. The global and local features characterizing these are studied, and we identify the two crucial ingredients for their occurrence - the vacuum degeneracy leading to non-trivial vacuum moduli M, and the BPS nature of the vortices. Fractional vortices are further classified into two kinds. The first type of such vortices appear when M has orbifold Z_n singularities; the second type occurs in systems in which the vacuum moduli space M possesses either a deformed geometry or some singularity. These general features are illustrated with several concrete models. 18. Fractional-order devices CERN Document Server Biswas, Karabi; Caponetto, Riccardo; Mendes Lopes, António; Tenreiro Machado, José António 2017-01-01 This book focuses on two specific areas related to fractional order systems – the realization of physical devices characterized by non-integer order impedance, usually called fractional-order elements (FOEs); and the characterization of vegetable tissues via electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) – and provides readers with new tools for designing new types of integrated circuits. The majority of the book addresses FOEs. The interest in these topics is related to the need to produce “analogue” electronic devices characterized by non-integer order impedance, and to the characterization of natural phenomena, which are systems with memory or aftereffects and for which the fractional-order calculus tool is the ideal choice for analysis. FOEs represent the building blocks for designing and realizing analogue integrated electronic circuits, which the authors believe hold the potential for a wealth of mass-market applications. The freedom to choose either an integer- or non-integer-order analogue integrator... 19. Fractional and noncommutative spacetimes Science.gov (United States) Arzano, Michele; Calcagni, Gianluca; Oriti, Daniele; Scalisi, Marco 2011-12-01 We establish a mapping between fractional and noncommutative spacetimes in configuration space. Depending on the scale at which the relation is considered, there arise two possibilities. For a fractional spacetime with log-oscillatory measure, the effective measure near the fundamental scale determining the log-period coincides with the nonrotation-invariant but cyclicity-preserving measure of κ-Minkowski spacetime. At scales larger than the log-period, the fractional measure is averaged and becomes a power law with real exponent. This can be also regarded as the cyclicity-inducing measure in a noncommutative spacetime defined by a certain nonlinear algebra of the coordinates, which interpolates between κ-Minkowski and canonical spacetime. These results are based upon a braiding formula valid for any nonlinear algebra which can be mapped onto the Heisenberg algebra. 20. Fractional and noncommutative spacetimes CERN Document Server Arzano, Michele; Oriti, Daniele; Scalisi, Marco 2011-01-01 We establish a mapping between fractional and noncommutative spacetimes in configuration space. Depending on the scale at which the relation is considered, there arise two possibilities. For a fractional spacetime with log-oscillatory measure, the effective measure near the fundamental scale determining the log-period coincides with the non-rotation-invariant but cyclicity-preserving measure of \\kappa-Minkowski. At scales larger than the log-period, the fractional measure is averaged and becomes a power-law with real exponent. This can be also regarded as the cyclicity-inducing measure in a noncommutative spacetime defined by a certain nonlinear algebra of the coordinates, which interpolates between \\kappa-Minkowski and canonical spacetime. These results are based upon a braiding formula valid for any nonlinear algebra which can be mapped onto the Heisenberg algebra. 1. Dynamic components of linear stable mixtures from fractional low order moments DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Fabricius, Thomas; Kidmose, Preben; Hansen, Lars Kai 2001-01-01 The second moment-based independent component analysis scheme of Molgedey and Schuster (1994) is generalized to fractional low-order moments, relevant for linear mixtures of heavy tail stable processes. The Molgedey-Schuster algorithm stands out by allowing explicitly construction of the independ...... of the independent components. Surprisingly, this turns out to be possible also for decorrelation based on fractional low-order moments.... 2. Fractional standard map Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Edelman, Mark, E-mail: edelman@cims.nyu.ed [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer St., New York, NY 10012 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Stern College at Yeshiva University, 245 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Tarasov, Vasily E. [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer St., New York, NY 10012 (United States)] [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation) 2009-12-28 Properties of the phase space of the standard map with memory are investigated. This map was obtained from a kicked fractional differential equation. Depending on the value of the map parameter and the fractional order of the derivative in the original differential equation, this nonlinear dynamical system demonstrates attractors (fixed points, stable periodic trajectories, slow converging and slow diverging trajectories, ballistic trajectories, and fractal-like structures) and/or chaotic trajectories. At least one type of fractal-like sticky attractors in the chaotic sea was observed. 3. Dean flow fractionation of chromosomes Science.gov (United States) Hockin, Matt; Sant, Himanshu J.; Capecchi, Mario; Gale, Bruce K. 2016-03-01 Efforts to transfer intact mammalian chromosomes between cells have been attempted for more than 50 years with the consistent result being transfer of sub unit length pieces regardless of method. Inertial microfluidics is a new field that has shown much promise in addressing the fractionation of particles in the 2-20 μm size range (with unknown limits) and separations are based upon particles being carried by curving confined flows (within a spiral shaped, often rectangular flow chamber) and migrating to stable "equilibrium" positions of varying distance from a chamber wall depending on the balance of dean and lift forces. We fabricated spiral channels for inertial microfluidic separations using a standard soft lithography process. The concentration of chromosomes, small contaminant DNA and large cell debris in each outlets were evaluated using microscope (60X) and a flow cytometer. Using Dean Flow Fractionation, we were able to focus 4.5 times more chromosomes in outlet 2 compared to outlet 4 where most of the large debris is found. We recover 16% of the chromosomes in outlet #1- 50% in 2, 23% in 3 and 11% in 4. It should be noted that these estimates of recovery do not capture one piece of information- it actually may be that the chromosomes at each outlet are physically different and work needs to be done to verify this potential. 4. Surprises from the resummation of ladders in the ABJ(M) cusp anomalous dimension CERN Document Server Bonini, Marisa; Preti, Michelangelo; Seminara, Domenico 2016-01-01 We study the cusp anomalous dimension in N=6 ABJ(M) theory, identifying a scaling limit in which the ladder diagrams dominate. The resummation is encoded into a Bethe-Salpeter equation that is mapped to a Schroedinger problem, exactly solvable due to the surprising supersymmetry of the effective Hamiltonian. In the ABJ case the solution implies the diagonalization of the U(N) and U(M) building blocks, suggesting the existence of two independent cusp anomalous dimensions and an unexpected exponentiation structure for the related Wilson loops. While consistent with previous perturbative analysis, the strong coupling limit of our result does not agree with the string theory computation, emphasizing a difference with the analogous resummation in the N=4 case. 5. Probing Critical Point Energies of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Surprising Indirect Gap of Single Layer WSe 2 KAUST Repository Zhang, Chendong 2015-09-21 By using a comprehensive form of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have revealed detailed quasi-particle electronic structures in transition metal dichalcogenides, including the quasi-particle gaps, critical point energy locations, and their origins in the Brillouin zones. We show that single layer WSe surprisingly has an indirect quasi-particle gap with the conduction band minimum located at the Q-point (instead of K), albeit the two states are nearly degenerate. We have further observed rich quasi-particle electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of atomic structures and spin-orbit couplings. Such a local probe for detailed electronic structures in conduction and valence bands will be ideal to investigate how electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides are influenced by variations of local environment. 6. OCEAN CIRCULATION. Observing the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation yields a decade of inevitable surprises. Science.gov (United States) Srokosz, M A; Bryden, H L 2015-06-19 The importance of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) heat transport for climate is well acknowledged. Climate models predict that the AMOC will slow down under global warming, with substantial impacts, but measurements of ocean circulation have been inadequate to evaluate these predictions. Observations over the past decade have changed that situation, providing a detailed picture of variations in the AMOC. These observations reveal a surprising degree of AMOC variability in terms of the intraannual range, the amplitude and phase of the seasonal cycle, the interannual changes in strength affecting the ocean heat content, and the decline of the AMOC over the decade, both of the latter two exceeding the variations seen in climate models. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science. 7. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation occurs often in cryptogenic ischaemic stroke. Final results from the SURPRISE study DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Christensen, Louisa; Krieger, D W; Højberg, S; 2014-01-01 BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke fourfold and is associated with a poor clinical outcome. Despite work-up in compliance with guidelines, up to one-third of patients have cryptogenic stroke (CS). The prevalence of asymptomatic paroxysmal atrial...... fibrillation (PAF) in CS remains unknown. The SURPRISE project aimed at determining this rate using long-term cardiac monitoring. METHODS: Patients with CS after protocolled work-up including electrocardiography (ECG) and telemetry were included after informed consent. An implantable loop recorder (ILR...... patients (16.1%). In three patients PAF was detected by other methods before or after monitoring and was undiscovered due to device sensitivity in one case. The first event of PAF was documented at a mean of 109 days (SD ±48) after stroke onset. PAF was asymptomatic in all cases and occurred in episodes... 8. Probing Critical Point Energies of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Surprising Indirect Gap of Single Layer WSe2. Science.gov (United States) Zhang, Chendong; Chen, Yuxuan; Johnson, Amber; Li, Ming-Yang; Li, Lain-Jong; Mende, Patrick C; Feenstra, Randall M; Shih, Chih-Kang 2015-10-14 By using a comprehensive form of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have revealed detailed quasi-particle electronic structures in transition metal dichalcogenides, including the quasi-particle gaps, critical point energy locations, and their origins in the Brillouin zones. We show that single layer WSe2 surprisingly has an indirect quasi-particle gap with the conduction band minimum located at the Q-point (instead of K), albeit the two states are nearly degenerate. We have further observed rich quasi-particle electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of atomic structures and spin-orbit couplings. Such a local probe for detailed electronic structures in conduction and valence bands will be ideal to investigate how electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides are influenced by variations of local environment. 9. Beyond surprise: the puzzle of infants' expressive reactions to expectancy violation. Science.gov (United States) Scherer, Klaus R; Zentner, Marcel R; Stern, Daniel 2004-12-01 The reactions of 58 infants to expectancy violation by digitally filtering the experimenter's voice were studied in a cross-sectional design for ages 5, 7, 9, 11-12, and 14 months. The results show that behavioral freezing and changes in gaze direction, but not facial or vocal expression, are reliable responses to expectancy violation. The pattern suggests that a transition in the infant's capacity for cognitive evaluation of novel and discrepant events may occur around age 9 months. These findings confirm the consistent failure to find prototypical facial surprise reactions in research on novel or impossible situations. Componential theories of emotion, which predict adaptive behavior patterns from appraisal processes, may provide clues for underlying mechanisms and generate hypotheses on age-related changes in emotional expression. copyright (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved. 10. Surprising judgments about robot drivers: Experiments on rising expectations and blaming humans Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Peter Danielson 2015-05-01 Full Text Available N-Reasons is an experimental Internet survey platform designed to enhance public participation in applied ethics and policy. N-Reasons encourages individuals to generate reasons to support their judgments, and groups to converge on a common set of reasons pro and con various issues. In the Robot Ethics Survey some of the reasons contributed surprising judgments about autonomous machines. Presented with a version of the trolley problem with an autonomous train as the agent, participants gave unexpected answers, revealing high expectations for the autonomous machine and shifting blame from the automated device to the humans in the scenario. Further experiments with a standard pair of human-only trolley problems refine these results. While showing the high expectations even when no autonomous machine is involved, human bystanders are only blamed in the machine case. A third experiment explicitly aimed at responsibility for driverless cars confirms our findings about shifting blame in the case of autonomous machine agents. We conclude methodologically that both results point to the power of an experimental survey based approach to public participation to explore surprising assumptions and judgments in applied ethics. However, both results also support using caution when interpreting survey results in ethics, demonstrating the importance of qualitative data to provide further context for evaluating judgments revealed by surveys. On the ethics side, the result about shifting blame to humans interacting with autonomous machines suggests caution about the unintended consequences of intuitive principles requiring human responsibility.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v9i1.1727 11. From Complex Fractional Fourier Transform to Complex Fractional Radon Transform Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) FAN Hong-Yi; JIANG Nian-Quan 2004-01-01 We show that for n-dimensional complex fractional Fourier transform the corresponding complex fractional Radon transform can also be derived, however, it is different from the direct product of two n-dimensional real fractional Radon transforms. The complex fractional Radon transform of two-mode Wigner operator is calculated. 12. Avoidance of Fractions. Science.gov (United States) Hart, Kathleen; Kerslake, Daphne The Concepts in Secondary Mathematics and Science (CSMS) and Strategies and Errors in Secondary Mathematics (SESM) research projects based at Chelsa College, England, have shown the marked reluctance of secondary school students to use fractions when solving mathematical problems, even though they have been taught the topic for a number of years.… 13. Brewing with fractionated barley NARCIS (Netherlands) Donkelaar, van L.H.G. 2016-01-01 Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw 14. Ramping up on Fractions Science.gov (United States) Stephens, Ana C.; Bottge, Brian A.; Rueda, Enrique 2009-01-01 This article describes a technology-based and hands-on instructional intervention designed to advance middle school students' understandings of fractions. This problem-solving experience is based on the principles of Enhanced Anchored Instruction (EAI) and proved instructionally worthwhile and motivating to teachers and students in both inclusive … 15. Sweet Work with Fractions Science.gov (United States) Vinogradova, Natalya; Blaine, Larry 2013-01-01 Almost everyone loves chocolate. However, the same cannot be said about fractions, which are loved by markedly fewer. Middle school students tend to view them with wary respect, but little affection. The authors attempt to sweeten the subject by describing a type of game involving division of chocolate bars. The activity they describe provides a… 16. Fractional statistics and confinement CERN Document Server Gaete, P; Gaete, Patricio; Wotzasek, Clovis 2004-01-01 It is shown that a pointlike composite having charge and magnetic moment displays a confining potential for the static interaction while simultaneously obeying fractional statistics in a pure gauge theory in three dimensions, without a Chern-Simons term. This result is distinct from the Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory that shows a screening nature for the potential. 17. Brewing with fractionated barley NARCIS (Netherlands) Donkelaar, van L.H.G. 2016-01-01 Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw 18. Fractional Differential Equation Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Moustafa El-Shahed 2007-01-01 where 2<α<3 is a real number and D0+α is the standard Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative. Our analysis relies on Krasnoselskiis fixed point theorem of cone preserving operators. An example is also given to illustrate the main results. 19. Edge excitations in fractional Chern insulators Science.gov (United States) Luo, Wei-Wei; Chen, Wen-Chao; Wang, Yi-Fei; Gong, Chang-De 2013-10-01 Recent theoretical papers have demonstrated the realization of fractional quantum anomalous Hall states (also called fractional Chern insulators) in topological flat band lattice models without an external magnetic field. Such newly proposed lattice systems play a vital role in obtaining a large class of fractional topological phases. Here we report the exact numerical studies of edge excitations for such systems in a disk geometry loaded with hard-core bosons, which will serve as a more viable experimental probe for such topologically ordered states. We find convincing numerical evidence of a series of edge excitations characterized by the chiral Luttinger liquid theory for the bosonic fractional Chern insulators in both the honeycomb disk Haldane model and the kagome-lattice disk model. We further verify these current-carrying chiral edge states by inserting a central flux to test their compressibility. 20. Cooking Has Variable Effects on the Fermentability in the Large Intestine of the Fraction of Meats, Grain Legumes, and Insects That Is Resistant to Digestion in the Small Intestine in an in Vitro Model of the Pig's Gastrointestinal Tract. Science.gov (United States) Poelaert, Christine; Despret, Xavier; Sindic, Marianne; Beckers, Yves; Francis, Frédéric; Portetelle, Daniel; Soyeurt, Hélène; Théwis, André; Bindelle, Jérôme 2017-01-18 This study aimed to evaluate the fermentation in the large intestine of indigestible dietary protein sources from animal, insect, and plant origin using an in vitro model of the pig's gastrointestinal tract. Protein sources were used raw and after a cooking treatment. Results showed that the category of the ingredient (meats, insects, or grain legumes) exerts a stronger impact on enzymatic digestibility, fermentation patterns, and bacterial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) than the cooking treatment. The digestibility and the fermentation characteristics of insects were more affected by the cooking procedure than the other categories. Per gram of consumed food, ingredients from animal origin, namely, meats and insects, were associated with fewer fermentation end-products (gas, H2S, SCFA) than ingredients from plant origin, which is related to their higher small intestinal digestibility. 1. Creating, Naming, and Justifying Fractions Science.gov (United States) Siebert, Daniel; Gaskin, Nicole 2006-01-01 For students to develop meaningful conceptions of fractions and fraction operations, they need to think of fractions in terms other than as just whole-number combinations. In this article, we suggest two powerful images for thinking about fractions that move beyond whole-number reasoning. (Contains 5 figures.) 2. -Dimensional Fractional Lagrange's Inversion Theorem Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) F. A. Abd El-Salam 2013-01-01 Full Text Available Using Riemann-Liouville fractional differential operator, a fractional extension of the Lagrange inversion theorem and related formulas are developed. The required basic definitions, lemmas, and theorems in the fractional calculus are presented. A fractional form of Lagrange's expansion for one implicitly defined independent variable is obtained. Then, a fractional version of Lagrange's expansion in more than one unknown function is generalized. For extending the treatment in higher dimensions, some relevant vectors and tensors definitions and notations are presented. A fractional Taylor expansion of a function of -dimensional polyadics is derived. A fractional -dimensional Lagrange inversion theorem is proved. 3. Fractional lattice charge transport Science.gov (United States) Flach, Sergej; Khomeriki, Ramaz 2017-01-01 We consider the dynamics of noninteracting quantum particles on a square lattice in the presence of a magnetic flux α and a dc electric field E oriented along the lattice diagonal. In general, the adiabatic dynamics will be characterized by Bloch oscillations in the electrical field direction and dispersive ballistic transport in the perpendicular direction. For rational values of α and a corresponding discrete set of values of E(α) vanishing gaps in the spectrum induce a fractionalization of the charge in the perpendicular direction - while left movers are still performing dispersive ballistic transport, the complementary fraction of right movers is propagating in a dispersionless relativistic manner in the opposite direction. Generalizations and the possible probing of the effect with atomic Bose-Einstein condensates and photonic networks are discussed. Zak phase of respective band associated with gap closing regime has been computed and it is found converging to π/2 value. PMID:28102302 4. Fractions in elementary education CERN Document Server Quinn, Frank 2013-01-01 This paper is one of a series in which elementary-education practice is analyzed by comparison with the history of mathematics, mathematical structure, modern practice, and (occasionally) cognitive neuroscience. The primary concerns are: Why do so many children find elementary mathematics difficult? And, why are the ones who succeed still so poorly prepared for college material needed for technical careers? The answer provided by conventional wisdom is essentially that mathematics is difficult. Third-graders are not developmentally ready for the subtlety of fractions, for instance, and even high-performing students cannot be expected to develop the skills of experienced users. However we will see that this is far from the whole story and is probably wrong: elementary-education fractions are genuinely harder and less effective than the version employed by experienced users. Experts discard at least 90% of what is taught in schools. Our educational system is actually counterproductive for skill development, and... 5. Testing Fractional Action Cosmology CERN Document Server Shchigolev, V K 2015-01-01 The present work deals with a combined test of the so-called Fractional Action Cosmology (FAC) on the example of a specific model obtained by the author earlier. In this model, the effective cosmological term is proportional to the Hubble parameter squared through the so-called kinematic induction. The reason of studying this cosmological model could be explained by its ability to describe two periods of accelerated expansion, that is in agreement with the recent observations and the cosmological inflation paradigm. First of all, we put our model through the theoretical tests that gives a general conception of the influence of the model parameters on its behavior. Then, we obtain some restrictions on the principal parameters of the model, including the fractional index, by means of the observational data. Finally, the cosmography parameters and the observational data compared to the theoretical predictions are presented both analytically and graphically. 6. Testing fractional action cosmology Science.gov (United States) Shchigolev, V. K. 2016-08-01 The present work deals with a combined test of the so-called Fractional Action Cosmology (FAC) on the example of a specific model obtained by the author earlier. In this model, the effective cosmological term is proportional to the Hubble parameter squared through the so-called kinematic induction. The reason of studying this cosmological model could be explained by its ability to describe two periods of accelerated expansion, that is in agreement with the recent observations and the cosmological inflation paradigm. First of all, we put our model through the theoretical tests, which gives a general conception of the influence of the model parameters on its behavior. Then, we obtain some restrictions on the principal parameters of the model, including the fractional index, by means of the observational data. Finally, the cosmography parameters and the observational data compared to the theoretical predictions are presented both analytically and graphically. 7. Nonlinear fractional relaxation Indian Academy of Sciences (India) A Tofighi 2012-04-01 We deﬁne a nonlinear model for fractional relaxation phenomena. We use -expansion method to analyse this model. By studying the fundamental solutions of this model we ﬁnd that when → 0 the model exhibits a fast decay rate and when → ∞ the model exhibits a power-law decay. By analysing the frequency response we ﬁnd a logarithmic enhancement for the relative ratio of susceptibility. 8. Brewing with fractionated barley OpenAIRE Donkelaar, van, CC René 2016-01-01 Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw barley, however, contains less endogenous enzymes and more undesired components for the use of beer brewing, compared to malted barley. The overall aim of this thesis is to investigate how ba... 9. Investigation of the heat source(s) of the Surprise Valley Geothermal System, Northern California Science.gov (United States) Tanner, N.; Holt, C. D.; Hawkes, S.; McClain, J. S.; Safford, L.; Mink, L. L.; Rose, C.; Zierenberg, R. A. 2016-12-01 Concerns about environmental impacts and energy security have led to an increased interest in sustainable and renewable energy resources, including geothermal systems. It is essential to know the permeability structure and possible heat source(s) of a geothermal area in order to assess the capacity and extent of the potential resource. We have undertaken geophysical surveys at the Surprise Valley Hot Springs in Cedarville, California to characterize essential parameters related to a fault-controlled geothermal system. At present, the heat source(s) for the system are unknown. Igneous bodies in the area are likely too old to have retained enough heat to supply the system, so it is probable that fracture networks provide heat from some deeper or more distributed heat sources. However, the fracture system and permeability structure remain enigmatic. The goal of our research is to identify the pathways for fluid transport within the Surprise Valley geothermal system using a combination of geophysical methods including active seismic surveys and short- and long-period magnetotelluric (MT) surveys. We have collected 14 spreads, consisting of 24 geophones each, of active-source seismic data. We used a "Betsy Gun" source at 8 to 12 locations along each spread and have collected and analyzed about 2800 shot-receiver pairs. Seismic velocities reveal shallow lake sediments, as well as velocities consistent with porous basalts. The latter, with velocities of greater than 3.0 km/s, lie along strike with known hot springs and faulted and tilted basalt outcrops outside our field area. This suggests that basalts may provide a permeable pathway through impermeable lake deposits. We conducted short-period (10Hz-60kHz) MT measurements at 33 stations. Our short-period MT models indicate shallow resistive blocks (>100Ωm) with a thin cover of more conductive sediments ( 10Ωm) at the surface. Hot springs are located in gaps between resistive blocks and are connected to deeper low 10. Particle separation and fractionation by microfiltration NARCIS (Netherlands) Kromkamp, J. 2005-01-01 cum laude graduation (with distinction) For the production of present-day dairy products, raw milk is often considered an entity. However, a large quality improvement could be reached if selected constituents were available. In order to achieve this, milk will have to be fractionated prior to use in 11. Surprising results on phylogenetic tree building methods based on molecular sequences Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Gonnet Gaston H 2012-06-01 Full Text Available Abstract Background We analyze phylogenetic tree building methods from molecular sequences (PTMS. These are methods which base their construction solely on sequences, coding DNA or amino acids. Results Our first result is a statistically significant evaluation of 176 PTMSs done by comparing trees derived from 193138 orthologous groups of proteins using a new measure of quality between trees. This new measure, called the Intra measure, is very consistent between different groups of species and strong in the sense that it separates the methods with high confidence. The second result is the comparison of the trees against trees derived from accepted taxonomies, the Taxon measure. We consider the NCBI taxonomic classification and their derived topologies as the most accepted biological consensus on phylogenies, which are also available in electronic form. The correlation between the two measures is remarkably high, which supports both measures simultaneously. Conclusions The big surprise of the evaluation is that the maximum likelihood methods do not score well, minimal evolution distance methods over MSA-induced alignments score consistently better. This comparison also allows us to rank different components of the tree building methods, like MSAs, substitution matrices, ML tree builders, distance methods, etc. It is also clear that there is a difference between Metazoa and the rest, which points out to evolution leaving different molecular traces. We also think that these measures of quality of trees will motivate the design of new PTMSs as it is now easier to evaluate them with certainty. 12. IP Eri: A surprising long-period binary system hosting a He white dwarf CERN Document Server Merle, T; Masseron, T; Van Eck, S; Siess, L; Van Winckel, H 2014-01-01 We determine the orbital elements for the K0 IV + white dwarf (WD) system IP Eri, which appears to have a surprisingly long period of 1071 d and a significant eccentricity of 0.25. Previous spectroscopic analyses of the WD, based on a distance of 101 pc inferred from its Hipparcos parallax, yielded a mass of only 0.43 M_\\odot$, implying it to be a helium-core WD. The orbital properties of IP Eri are similar to those of the newly discovered long-period subdwarf B star (sdB) binaries, which involve stars with He-burning cores surrounded by extremely thin H envelopes, and are therefore close relatives to He WDs. We performed a spectroscopic analysis of high-resolution spectra from the HERMES/Mercator spectrograph and concluded that the atmospheric parameters of the K0 component are$T_{\\rm eff} = 4960$K,$\\log{g} = 3.3$, [Fe/H] = 0.09 and$\\xi = 1.5$km/s. The detailed abundance analysis focuses on C, N, O abundances, carbon isotopic ratio, light (Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti) and s-process (Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, N... 13. Surprising dissimilarities in a newly formed pair of 'identical twin' stars. Science.gov (United States) Stassun, Keivan G; Mathieu, Robert D; Cargile, Phillip A; Aarnio, Alicia N; Stempels, Eric; Geller, Aaron 2008-06-19 The mass and chemical composition of a star are the primary determinants of its basic physical properties-radius, temperature and luminosity-and how those properties evolve with time. Accordingly, two stars born at the same time, from the same natal material and with the same mass, are 'identical twins,' and as such might be expected to possess identical physical attributes. We have discovered in the Orion nebula a pair of stellar twins in a newborn binary star system. Each star in the binary has a mass of 0.41 +/- 0.01 solar masses, identical to within 2 per cent. Here we report that these twin stars have surface temperatures differing by approximately 300 K ( approximately 10 per cent) and luminosities differing by approximately 50 per cent, both at high confidence level. Preliminary results indicate that the stars' radii also differ, by 5-10 per cent. These surprising dissimilarities suggest that one of the twins may have been delayed by several hundred thousand years in its formation relative to its sibling. Such a delay could only have been detected in a very young, definitively equal-mass binary system. Our findings reveal cosmic limits on the age synchronization of young binary stars, often used as tests for the age calibrations of star-formation models. 14. Surprise responses in the human brain demonstrate statistical learning under high concurrent cognitive demand Science.gov (United States) Garrido, Marta Isabel; Teng, Chee Leong James; Taylor, Jeremy Alexander; Rowe, Elise Genevieve; Mattingley, Jason Brett 2016-06-01 The ability to learn about regularities in the environment and to make predictions about future events is fundamental for adaptive behaviour. We have previously shown that people can implicitly encode statistical regularities and detect violations therein, as reflected in neuronal responses to unpredictable events that carry a unique prediction error signature. In the real world, however, learning about regularities will often occur in the context of competing cognitive demands. Here we asked whether learning of statistical regularities is modulated by concurrent cognitive load. We compared electroencephalographic metrics associated with responses to pure-tone sounds with frequencies sampled from narrow or wide Gaussian distributions. We showed that outliers evoked a larger response than those in the centre of the stimulus distribution (i.e., an effect of surprise) and that this difference was greater for physically identical outliers in the narrow than in the broad distribution. These results demonstrate an early neurophysiological marker of the brain's ability to implicitly encode complex statistical structure in the environment. Moreover, we manipulated concurrent cognitive load by having participants perform a visual working memory task while listening to these streams of sounds. We again observed greater prediction error responses in the narrower distribution under both low and high cognitive load. Furthermore, there was no reliable reduction in prediction error magnitude under high-relative to low-cognitive load. Our findings suggest that statistical learning is not a capacity limited process, and that it proceeds automatically even when cognitive resources are taxed by concurrent demands. 15. A surprisingly simple correlation between the classical and quantum structural networks in liquid water Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Hamm, Peter; Fanourgakis, George S.; Xantheas, Sotiris S. 2017-08-14 Nuclear quantum effects in liquid water have profound implications for several of its macroscopic properties related to structure, dynamics, spectroscopy and transport. Although several of water’s macroscopic properties can be reproduced by classical descriptions of the nuclei using potentials effectively parameterized for a narrow range of its phase diagram, a proper account of the nuclear quantum effects is required in order to ensure that the underlying molecular interactions are transferable across a wide temperature range covering different regions of that diagram. When performing an analysis of the hydrogen bonded structural networks in liquid water resulting from the classical (class.) and quantum (q.m.) descriptions of the nuclei with the transferable, flexible, polarizable TTM3-F interaction potential, we found that the two results can be superimposed over the temperature range of T=270-350 K using a surprisingly simple, linear scaling of the two temperatures according to T(q.m.)=aT(class)- T , where a=1.2 and T=51 K. The linear scaling and constant shift of the temperature scale can be considered as a generalization of the previously reported temperature shifts (corresponding to structural changes and the melting T) induced by quantum effects in liquid water. 16. Polar F-layer model-observation comparisons: a neutral wind surprise Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) J. J. Sojka 2005-01-01 Full Text Available The existence of a month-long continuous database of incoherent scatter radar observations of the ionosphere from the EISCAT Savlbard Radar (ESR at Longyearbyen, Norway, provides an unprecedented opportunity for model/data comparisons. Physics-based ionospheric models, such as the Utah State University Time Dependent Ionospheric Model (TDIM, are usually only compared with observations over restricted one or two day events or against climatological averages. In this study, using the ESR observations, the daily weather, day-to-day variability, and month-long climatology can be simultaneously addressed to identify modeling shortcomings and successes. Since for this study the TDIM is driven by climatological representations of the magnetospheric convection, auroral oval, neutral atmosphere, and neutral winds, whose inputs are solar and geomagnetic indices, it is not surprising that the daily weather cannot be reproduced. What is unexpected is that the horizontal neutral wind has come to the forefront as a decisive model input parameter in matching the diurnal morphology of density structuring seen in the observations. 17. Isotopic fractionation of tritium in biological systems. Science.gov (United States) Le Goff, Pierre; Fromm, Michel; Vichot, Laurent; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Guétat, Philippe 2014-04-01 Isotopic fractionation of tritium is a highly relevant issue in radiation protection and requires certain radioecological considerations. Sound evaluation of this factor is indeed necessary to determine whether environmental compartments are enriched/depleted in tritium or if tritium is, on the contrary, isotopically well-distributed in a given system. The ubiquity of tritium and the standard analytical methods used to assay it may induce biases in both the measurement and the signification that is accorded to the so-called fractionation: based on an exhaustive review of the literature, we show how, sometimes large deviations may appear. It is shown that when comparing the non-exchangeable fraction of organically bound tritium (neOBT) to another fraction of tritium (e.g. tritiated water) the preparation of samples and the measurement of neOBT reported frequently led to underestimation of the ratio of tritium to hydrogen (T/H) in the non-exchangeable compartment by a factor of 5% to 50%. In the present study, corrections are proposed for most of the biological matrices studied so far. Nevertheless, the values of isotopic fractionation reported in the literature remain difficult to compare with each other, especially since the physical quantities and units often vary between authors. Some improvements are proposed to better define what should encompass the concepts of exchangeable and non-exchangeable fractions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 18. Gauge Invariant Fractional Electromagnetic Fields CERN Document Server Lazo, Matheus Jatkoske 2011-01-01 Fractional derivatives and integrations of non-integers orders was introduced more than three centuries ago but only recently gained more attention due to its application on nonlocal phenomenas. In this context, several formulations of fractional electromagnetic fields was proposed, but all these theories suffer from the absence of an effective fractional vector calculus, and in general are non-causal or spatially asymmetric. In order to deal with these difficulties, we propose a spatially symmetric and causal gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic field from a Lagrangian formulation. From our fractional Maxwell's fields arose a definition for the fractional gradient, divergent and curl operators. 19. Fractional Langevin equation and Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative. Science.gov (United States) Sau Fa, Kwok 2007-10-01 In this present work we consider a fractional Langevin equation with Riemann-Liouville fractional time derivative which modifies the classical Newtonian force, nonlocal dissipative force, and long-time correlation. We investigate the first two moments, variances and position and velocity correlation functions of this system. We also compare them with the results obtained from the same fractional Langevin equation which uses the Caputo fractional derivative. 20. Preheating with fractional powers Science.gov (United States) Moghaddam, Hossein Bazrafshan; Brandenberger, Robert 2016-11-01 We consider preheating in models in which the potential for the inflaton is given by a fractional power, as is the case in axion monodromy inflation. We assume a standard coupling between the inflaton field and a scalar matter field. We find that in spite of the fact that the oscillation of the inflaton about the field value which minimizes the potential is anharmonic, there is nevertheless a parametric resonance instability, and we determine the Floquet exponent which describes this instability as a function of the parameters of the inflaton potential. 1. Fractional cointegration rank estimation DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Lasak, Katarzyna; Velasco, Carlos We consider cointegration rank estimation for a p-dimensional Fractional Vector Error Correction Model. We propose a new two-step procedure which allows testing for further long-run equilibrium relations with possibly different persistence levels. The fi…rst step consists in estimating......-likelihood ratio test of no-cointegration on the estimated p - r common trends that are not cointegrated under the null. The cointegration degree is re-estimated in the second step to allow for new cointegration relationships with different memory. We augment the error correction model in the second step... 2. Fractional Reserve Banking OpenAIRE Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas 2012-01-01 Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip... 3. Fractional Reserve Banking OpenAIRE Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas 2012-01-01 Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip... 4. Fractional Integral Inequalities via Hadamard’s Fractional Integral OpenAIRE 2014-01-01 We establish new fractional integral inequalities, via Hadamard’s fractional integral. Several new integral inequalities are obtained, including a Grüss type Hadamard fractional integral inequality, by using Young and weighted AM-GM inequalities. Many special cases are also discussed. 5. Body Fractions: A Physical Approach to Fraction Learning Science.gov (United States) Mills, Judith 2011-01-01 Many students experience great difficulty understanding the meaning of fractions. For many students who have spent their early mathematics lessons focusing on counting (whole) numbers, recognising that there are many numbers between those whole numbers called fractional numbers, is quite revolutionary. The foundation of understanding fractions is… 6. Cosmological Models with Fractional Derivatives and Fractional Action Functional Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) V.K. Shchigolev 2011-01-01 Cosmological models of a scalar field with dynamical equations containing fractional derivatives or derived from the Einstein-Hilbert action of fractional order, are constructed. A number of exact solutions to those equations of fractional cosmological models in both eases is given. 7. Geophysical Investigation of the Lake City Fault Zone, Surprise Valley, California, and Implications for Geothermal Circulation Science.gov (United States) McPhee, D. K.; Glen, J. M.; Egger, A. E.; Chuchel, B. A. 2009-12-01 New audiomagnetotelluric (AMT), gravity, and magnetic data were collected in Surprise Valley, northwestern Basin and Range, in order to investigate the role that the Lake City Fault Zone (LCFZ) may play in controlling geothermal circulation in the area. Surprise Valley hosts an extensional geothermal system currently undergoing exploration for development on several scales. The focus of much of that exploration has been the LCFZ, a set of NW-SE-trending structures that has been suggested on the basis of (1) low-relief scarps in the NW portion of the zone, (2) dissolved mineral-rich groundwater chemistry along its length, and (3) parallelism with a strong regional fabric that includes the Brothers Fault Zone. The LCFZ extends across the valley at a topographic high, intersecting the N-S-trending basin-bounding faults where major hot springs occur. This relationship suggests that the LCFZ may be a zone of permeability for flow of hydrothermal fluids. Previous potential field data indicate that there is no vertical offset along this fault zone, and little signature at all in either the gravity or magnetic data; along with the lack of surface expression along most of its length, the subsurface geometry of the LCFZ and its influence on geothermal fluid circulation remains enigmatic. The LCFZ therefore provides an ideal opportunity to utilize AMT data, which measures subsurface resistivity and therefore - unlike potential field data - is highly sensitive to the presence of saline fluids. AMT data and additional gravity and magnetic data were collected in 2009 along 3 profiles perpendicular to the LCFZ in order to define the subsurface geometry and conductivity of the fault zone down to depths of ~ 500 m. AMT soundings were collected using the Geometrics Stratagem EH4 system, a four channel, natural and controlled-source tensor system recording in the range of 10 to 92,000 Hz. To augment the low signal in the natural field a transmitter of two horizontal-magnetic dipoles 8. Lymphocytic alveolitis: A surprising index of poor prognosis in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome. Science.gov (United States) Dalavanga, Y A; Voulgari, P V; Georgiadis, A N; Leontaridi, C; Katsenos, S; Vassiliou, M; Drosos, A A; Constantopoulos, S H 2006-07-01 Twelve years ago we reported that lymphocytic alveolitis [or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) lymphocytosis] correlates with clinical pulmonary involvement in primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS). Our thesis was based on subtle clinical and functional evidence of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in pSS patients with "high lymphocytic alveolitis" (>15% lymphocytes in BAL). This report is a follow-up study of these patients. Basic clinical and functional re-evaluation of the 22 patients with pSS, studied in 1991, emphasized the differences between those with alveolitis and those without alveolitis. There was no significant functional decline. There were, however, two statistically significant differences between the two groups: (1) only patients with BAL lymphocytosis had to be treated with steroids (5/12 vs. 0/10, P < 0.05) and (2) only patients with BAL lymphocytosis had died in the mean time (6/12 vs. 0/10, P < 0.01). The causes of death were various. On only two occasions were they related to respiratory infections while there were no deaths from respiratory failure secondary to ILD. BAL lymphocytosis appears to be a surprisingly serious index of dismal prognosis in patients with pSS. We offer no unifying pathophysiologic mechanism for it and, therefore, all we propose is that BAL is performed early, in as many patients with pSS as possible. These patients should then be followed up systematically, in order to evaluate if BAL lymphocytosis has any pathophysiologic importance in the development of clinically serious pSS, which is serious enough to lead to death. 9. A post-genomic surprise. The molecular reinscription of race in science, law and medicine. Science.gov (United States) Duster, Troy 2015-03-01 The completion of the first draft of the Human Genome Map in 2000 was widely heralded as the promise and future of genetics-based medicines and therapies - so much so that pundits began referring to the new century as 'The Century of Genetics'. Moreover, definitive assertions about the overwhelming similarities of all humans' DNA (99.9 per cent) by the leaders of the Human Genome Project were trumpeted as the end of racial thinking about racial taxonomies of human genetic differences. But the first decade of the new century brought unwelcomed surprises. First, gene therapies turned out to be far more complicated than any had anticipated - and instead the pharmaceutical industry turned to a focus on drugs that might be 'related' to population differences based upon genetic markers. While the language of 'personalized medicine' dominated this frame, research on racially and ethnically designated populations differential responsiveness to drugs dominated the empirical work in the field. Ancestry testing and 'admixture research' would play an important role in a new kind of molecular reification of racial categories. Moreover, the capacity of the super-computer to map differences reverberated into personal identification that would affect both the criminal justice system and forensic science, and generate new levels of concern about personal privacy. Social scientists in general, and sociologists in particular, have been caught short by these developments - relying mainly on assertions that racial categories are socially constructed, regionally and historically contingent, and politically arbitrary. While these assertions are true, the imprimatur of scientific legitimacy has shifted the burden, since now 'admixture research' can claim that its results get at the 'reality' of human differentiation, not the admittedly flawed social constructions of racial categories. Yet what was missing from this framing of the problem: 'admixture research' is itself based upon socially 10. Explanatory models of health and disease: surprises from within the former Soviet Union Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Tatiana I Andreeva 2013-06-01 Full Text Available Extract The review of anthropological theories as applied to public health by Jennifer J. Carroll (Carroll, 2013 published in this issue of TCPHEE made me recollect my first and most surprising discoveries of how differently same things can be understood in different parts of the world. Probably less unexpectedly, these impressions concern substance abuse and addiction behaviors, similarly to many examples deployed by Jennifer J. Carroll. The first of these events happened soon after the break-up of the Soviet Union when some of the most active people from the West rushed to discover what was going on behind the opening iron curtain. A director of an addiction clinic, who had just come into contact with a Dutch counterpart, invited me to join the collaboration and the innovation process he planned to launch. Being a participant of the exchange program started within this collaboration, I had an opportunity to discover how addictive behaviors were understood and explained in books (English, 1961; Kooyman, 1992; Viorst, 1986 recommended by the colleagues in the Netherlands and, as I could observe with my own eyes, addressed in everyday practice. This was a jaw-dropping contrast to what I learnt at the soviet medical university and some post-graduate courses, where all the diseases related to alcohol, tobacco, or drug abuse were considered predominantly a result of the substance intake. In the Soviet discourse, the intake itself was understood as 'willful and deliberate' or immoral behavior which, in some cases, was to be rectified in prison-like treatment facilities. In the West, quite oppositely, substance abuse was seen rather as a consequence of a constellation of life-course adversities thoroughly considered by developmental psychology. This approach was obviously deeply ingrained in how practitioners diagnosed and treated their patients. 11. The genome of Pelobacter carbinolicus reveals surprising metabolic capabilities and physiological features Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Aklujkar Muktak 2012-12-01 Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterium Pelobacter carbinolicus is able to grow by fermentation, syntrophic hydrogen/formate transfer, or electron transfer to sulfur from short-chain alcohols, hydrogen or formate; it does not oxidize acetate and is not known to ferment any sugars or grow autotrophically. The genome of P. carbinolicus was sequenced in order to understand its metabolic capabilities and physiological features in comparison with its relatives, acetate-oxidizing Geobacter species. Results Pathways were predicted for catabolism of known substrates: 2,3-butanediol, acetoin, glycerol, 1,2-ethanediol, ethanolamine, choline and ethanol. Multiple isozymes of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, ATP synthase and [FeFe]-hydrogenase were differentiated and assigned roles according to their structural properties and genomic contexts. The absence of asparagine synthetase and the presence of a mutant tRNA for asparagine encoded among RNA-active enzymes suggest that P. carbinolicus may make asparaginyl-tRNA in a novel way. Catabolic glutamate dehydrogenases were discovered, implying that the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle can function catabolically. A phosphotransferase system for uptake of sugars was discovered, along with enzymes that function in 2,3-butanediol production. Pyruvate:ferredoxin/flavodoxin oxidoreductase was identified as a potential bottleneck in both the supply of oxaloacetate for oxidation of acetate by the TCA cycle and the connection of glycolysis to production of ethanol. The P. carbinolicus genome was found to encode autotransporters and various appendages, including three proteins with similarity to the geopilin of electroconductive nanowires. Conclusions Several surprising metabolic capabilities and physiological features were predicted from the genome of P. carbinolicus, suggesting that it is more versatile than anticipated. 12. Virtual Volatility, an Elementary New Concept with Surprising Stock Market Consequences Science.gov (United States) Prange, Richard; Silva, A. Christian 2006-03-01 Textbook investors start by predicting the future price distribution, PDF, of a candidate stock (or portfolio) at horizon T, e.g. a year hence. A (log)normal PDF with center (=drift =expected return) μT and width (=volatility) σT is often assumed on Central Limit Theorem grounds, i.e. by a random walk of daily (log)price increments δs. The standard deviation, stdev, of historical (ex post) δs s is usually a fair predictor of the coming year's (ex ante) stdev(δs) = σdaily, but the historical mean E(δs) at best roughly limits the true, to be predicted, drift by μtrueT˜ μhistT ± σhistT. Textbooks take a PDF with σ ˜ σdaily and μ as somehow known, as if accurate predictions of μ were possible. It is elementary and presumably new to argue that an average of PDF's over a range of μ values should be taken, e.g. an average over forecasts by different analysts. We estimate that this leads to a PDF with a `virtual' volatility σ ˜ 1.3σdaily. It is indeed clear that uncertainty in the value of the expected gain parameter increases the risk of investment in that security by most measures, e. g. Sharpe's ratio μT/σT will be 30% smaller because of this effect. It is significant and surprising that there are investments which benefit from this 30% virtual increase in the volatility 13. Surprising results from abiotic enzyme digestion of dissolved organic matter at the molecular scale Science.gov (United States) Hess, N. J.; Tfaily, M. M.; Heredia-Langnar, A.; Rodriguez, L.; Purvine, E.; Todd-Brown, K. E. 2016-12-01 Sometimes even the simplest of experiments leads to unexpected results and new understanding. We extract dissolved organic matter using water from peat soil obtained from the S1 bog at the Marcell Experimental Forest in northern Minnesota. We characterized the dissolved organic matter in the water extract before and after adding glucosidase, peroxidase and β-N-Acetylglucosaminidase enzymes using electrospray Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry in negative ion mode. Based on mass measurement accuracy of less than 1 ppm for singly charged ions, we assigned putative chemical formula to greater than 80% of the measured mass spectrometry features. For each enzyme tested we are able to easily distinguish between the types and composition of dissolved organic molecules that are susceptible to enzyme degradation - and those that are not - based on the presence new compounds in reacted extracts and loss of compounds from the initial water extract. Next, we created a consensus molecular network analysis based on the neutral mass loss between the measured compounds for each enzyme. The connectivity within these networks suggested a unique, distinctive chemistry for each enzyme. Some results were expected, like the nondiscriminatory oxidation of organic molecules by peroxidase and preferential loss of lignin and tannin-like molecules by glucosidase. However, surprising results include the apparent reactivity of glucosidase enzymatic products to reassemble, forming larger mass organic molecules. While these experiments were conducted abiotically, these molecular-resolved results suggest that biotic enzymatic processes may result in product compounds with unexpected chemistry and reactivity, implying that our current conceptual model of microbial enzymatic activity may be overly simplistic. 14. A conceptual review of the psychosocial genomics of expectancy and surprise: neuroscience perspectives about the deep psychobiology of therapeutic hypnosis. Science.gov (United States) Rossi, Ernest L 2002-10-01 This conceptual review explores some speculative associations between the neuroscience of expectancy and surprise during stress and therapeutic hypnosis. Current neuroscience is exploring how novel interactions between the organism and the environment initiate cascades of gene expression, protein synthesis, neurogenesis, and healing that operate via Darwinian principles of natural variation and selection on all levels from the molecular-genomic to the subjective states of consciousness. From a neuroscience perspective, the novel and surprising experiences of consciousness appear to have as important a role as expectancy in memory, learning and behavior change in the psychobiology of therapeutic hypnosis. This paper explores how we may integrate the psychosocial genomics of expectancy and surprise in therapeutic hypnosis as a complex system of creative adaptation on all levels of human experience from mind to gene expression. 15. The Geminga Fraction CERN Document Server Harding, A K; Gonthier, P L; Harding, Alice K.; Grenier, Isabelle A.; Gonthier, Peter L. 2007-01-01 Radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars like Geminga may account for a number of the unidentified EGRET sources in the Galaxy. The number of Geminga-like pulsars is very sensitive to the geometry of both the gamma-ray and radio beams. Recent studies of the shape and polarization of pulse profiles of young radio pulsars have provided evidence that their radio emission originates in wide cone beams at altitudes that are a significant fraction (1 -10%) of their light cylinder radius. Such wide radio emission beams will be visible at a much larger range of observer angles than the narrow core components thought to originate at lower altitude. Using 3D geometrical modeling that includes relativistic effects from pulsar rotation, we study the visibility of such radio cone beams as well as that of the gamma-ray beams predicted by slot gap and outer gap models. From the results of this study one can obtain revised predictions for the fraction of Geminga-like, radio quiet pulsars present in the gamma-ray pulsar population. 16. NESDIS VIIRS Green Vegetation Fraction Data.gov (United States) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains weekly Green Vegetation Fraction (GVF) derived from VIIRS. The Green Vegetation Fraction product is updated daily and is used as an input to... 17. Advances in robust fractional control CERN Document Server Padula, Fabrizio 2015-01-01 This monograph presents design methodologies for (robust) fractional control systems. It shows the reader how to take advantage of the superior flexibility of fractional control systems compared with integer-order systems in achieving more challenging control requirements. There is a high degree of current interest in fractional systems and fractional control arising from both academia and industry and readers from both milieux are catered to in the text. Different design approaches having in common a trade-off between robustness and performance of the control system are considered explicitly. The text generalizes methodologies, techniques and theoretical results that have been successfully applied in classical (integer) control to the fractional case. The first part of Advances in Robust Fractional Control is the more industrially-oriented. It focuses on the design of fractional controllers for integer processes. In particular, it considers fractional-order proportional-integral-derivative controllers, becau... 18. Fractional Reserve in Banking System OpenAIRE Valkonen, Maria 2016-01-01 This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n... 19. Fractional Reserve in Banking System OpenAIRE Valkonen, Maria 2016-01-01 This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n... 20. Experimental observation of fractional echoes Science.gov (United States) Karras, G.; Hertz, E.; Billard, F.; Lavorel, B.; Siour, G.; Hartmann, J.-M.; Faucher, O.; Gershnabel, Erez; Prior, Yehiam; Averbukh, Ilya Sh. 2016-09-01 We report the observation of fractional echoes in a double-pulse excited nonlinear system. Unlike standard echoes, which appear periodically at delays which are integer multiples of the delay between the two exciting pulses, the fractional echoes appear at rational fractions of this delay. We discuss the mechanism leading to this phenomenon, and provide experimental demonstration of fractional echoes by measuring third harmonic generation in a thermal gas of CO2 molecules excited by a pair of femtosecond laser pulses. 1. Fractional Lattice Dynamics: Nonlocal constitutive behavior generated by power law matrix functions and their fractional continuum limit kernels CERN Document Server Michelitsch, Thomas; Riascos, Alejandro; Nowakowski, Andrzej F; Nicolleau, Franck C G A 2016-01-01 We introduce positive elastic potentials in the harmonic approximation leading by Hamilton's variational principle to fractional Laplacian matrices having the forms of power law matrix functions of the simple local Bornvon Karman Laplacian. The fractional Laplacian matrices are well defined on periodic and infinite lattices in$n=1,2,3,..$dimensions. The present approach generalizes the central symmetric second differenceoperator (Born von Karman Laplacian) to its fractional central symmetric counterpart (Fractional Laplacian matrix).For non-integer powers of the Born von Karman Laplacian, the fractional Laplacian matrix is nondiagonal with nonzero matrix elements everywhere, corresponding to nonlocal behavior: For large lattices the matrix elements far from the diagonal expose power law asymptotics leading to continuum limit kernels of Riesz fractional derivative type. We present explicit results for the fractional Laplacian matrix in 1D for finite periodic and infinite linear chains and their Riesz fractio... 2. How to Produce a Surprise Ending for Readers---Writing Strategies in O. Henry’s The Last Leaf Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) 姚雪莹 2014-01-01 “Twist ending”is well used by writers in a novel in order to leave readers a strong impression. In this essay, the author will focus on the narrative strategies that produce such a surprise ending in a short story, using as the example O. Henry’s The Last Leaf (1907). The author gives each of strategies O. Henry used in the novel a name and explains how it is used to produce a surprise ending, standing at the readers’perspective. 3. Cluster computing for the large scale discrete fractional Cable equation National Research Council Canada - National Science Library Sweilam, N.H; Moharram, Hatem; Abdel Moniem, N.K 2015-01-01 ...), with the implementation of cluster computing on it. The proposed approach fulfills the suitability for the implementation on Linux PC cluster through the minimization of inter-process communication... 4. Fractional Hopfield Neural Networks: Fractional Dynamic Associative Recurrent Neural Networks. Science.gov (United States) Pu, Yi-Fei; Yi, Zhang; Zhou, Ji-Liu 2016-07-14 This paper mainly discusses a novel conceptual framework: fractional Hopfield neural networks (FHNN). As is commonly known, fractional calculus has been incorporated into artificial neural networks, mainly because of its long-term memory and nonlocality. Some researchers have made interesting attempts at fractional neural networks and gained competitive advantages over integer-order neural networks. Therefore, it is naturally makes one ponder how to generalize the first-order Hopfield neural networks to the fractional-order ones, and how to implement FHNN by means of fractional calculus. We propose to introduce a novel mathematical method: fractional calculus to implement FHNN. First, we implement fractor in the form of an analog circuit. Second, we implement FHNN by utilizing fractor and the fractional steepest descent approach, construct its Lyapunov function, and further analyze its attractors. Third, we perform experiments to analyze the stability and convergence of FHNN, and further discuss its applications to the defense against chip cloning attacks for anticounterfeiting. The main contribution of our work is to propose FHNN in the form of an analog circuit by utilizing a fractor and the fractional steepest descent approach, construct its Lyapunov function, prove its Lyapunov stability, analyze its attractors, and apply FHNN to the defense against chip cloning attacks for anticounterfeiting. A significant advantage of FHNN is that its attractors essentially relate to the neuron's fractional order. FHNN possesses the fractional-order-stability and fractional-order-sensitivity characteristics. 5. Nonholonomic constraints with fractional derivatives Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Tarasov, Vasily E [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Zaslavsky, George M [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer St, New York, NY 10012 (United States) 2006-08-04 We consider the fractional generalization of nonholonomic constraints defined by equations with fractional derivatives and provide some examples. The corresponding equations of motion are derived using variational principle. We prove that fractional constraints can be used to describe the evolution of dynamical systems in which some coordinates and velocities are related to velocities through a power-law memory function. 6. How Weird Are Weird Fractions? Science.gov (United States) Stuffelbeam, Ryan 2013-01-01 A positive rational is a weird fraction if its value is unchanged by an illegitimate, digit-based reduction. In this article, we prove that each weird fraction is uniquely weird and initiate a discussion of the prevalence of weird fractions. 7. Membrane fractionation of milk: state of the art and challenges NARCIS (Netherlands) Brans, G.B.P.W.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Boom, R.M. 2004-01-01 Separation of milk into well-defined fractions will lead to a more optimal use of milk components (milk fat, casein, serum proteins) and their functional properties. In principle, membrane separation technology is well capable of large-scale fractionation of milk. Membrane processes for the isolatio 8. Membrane Assisted Enzyme Fractionation DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Yuan, Linfeng . In this thesis, separations using crossflow elecro-membrane filtration (EMF) of amino acids, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and industrial enzymes from Novozymes were performed. The main objective of this study was to investigate the technological feasibility of EMF in the application of industrial enzyme...... fractionation, such as removal of a side activity from the main enzyme activity. As a proof-of-concept, amino acids were used as model solution to test the feasibility of EMF in the application of amphoteric molecule separation. A single amino acid was used to illustrate the effect of an electric field...... on the separation performance were very small in the investigated range. The mass transport of each enzyme can be well explained by the Extended-Nernst-Planck equation. Better separation was observed at lower feed concentration, higher solution pH in the investigated range and with a polysulfone (PS) MF membrane... 9. Membrane Assisted Enzyme Fractionation DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Yuan, Linfeng . In this thesis, separations using crossflow elecro-membrane filtration (EMF) of amino acids, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and industrial enzymes from Novozymes were performed. The main objective of this study was to investigate the technological feasibility of EMF in the application of industrial enzyme...... fractionation, such as removal of a side activity from the main enzyme activity. As a proof-of-concept, amino acids were used as model solution to test the feasibility of EMF in the application of amphoteric molecule separation. A single amino acid was used to illustrate the effect of an electric field...... on the separation performance were very small in the investigated range. The mass transport of each enzyme can be well explained by the Extended-Nernst-Planck equation. Better separation was observed at lower feed concentration, higher solution pH in the investigated range and with a polysulfone (PS) MF membrane... 10. Fractional Chemotaxis Diffusion Equations CERN Document Server Langlands, T A M 2010-01-01 We introduce mesoscopic and macroscopic model equations of chemotaxis with anomalous subdiffusion for modelling chemically directed transport of biological organisms in changing chemical environments with diffusion hindered by traps or macro-molecular crowding. The mesoscopic models are formulated using Continuous Time Random Walk master equations and the macroscopic models are formulated with fractional order differential equations. Different models are proposed depending on the timing of the chemotactic forcing. Generalizations of the models to include linear reaction dynamics are also derived. Finally a Monte Carlo method for simulating anomalous subdiffusion with chemotaxis is introduced and simulation results are compared with numerical solutions of the model equations. The model equations developed here could be used to replace Keller-Segel type equations in biological systems with transport hindered by traps, macro-molecular crowding or other obstacles. 11. Synaptosomal protein synthesis in P2 and Ficoll purified fractions. Science.gov (United States) Eyman, Maria; Cefaliello, Carolina; Bruno, Anna Paola; Bruno, Annapaola; Crispino, Marianna; Giuditta, Antonio 2012-01-30 Cytoplasmic protein synthesis of brain synaptosomes has generally been determined in the Ficoll purified fraction which contains fewer contaminating mitochondria, microsomes and myelin fragments than the parent P2 fraction. Using a highly selective assay of this activity we have compared the total translation activity and the specific activity of the proteins synthesized by either fraction in control rats and in rats trained for a two-way active avoidance task. In control rats the specific activity remained essentially the same in both fractions but in trained rats the value of the Ficoll fraction was markedly lower (38.5%) than in the P2 fraction. Furthermore, the total translation activity of the Ficoll fraction was 30% lower than in the P2 fraction in control rats and 62% lower in trained rats. These decrements indicate that a large proportion of active synaptosomes present in the P2 fraction is not recovered in the Ficoll fraction, notably in rats undergoing plastic brain changes. We conclude that cytoplasmic protein synthesis of brain synaptosomes is better preserved in the P2 fraction. 12. Building Understanding of Decimal Fractions Science.gov (United States) D'Ambrosio, Beatriz S.; Kastberg, Signe E. 2012-01-01 Asked to complete a decimal-ordering task, several preservice teachers were unable to arrange the values from smallest to largest. Even more surprising to the authors were the number who could solve this task correctly but could not justify their solution by representing each decimal in an area model using a decimal grid. Their preservice teachers… 13. Quantifying Distributions of Lyman Continuum Escape Fraction CERN Document Server Cen, Renyue 2015-01-01 Simulations have indicated that most of the escaped Lyman continuum photons escape through a minority of solid angles with near complete transparency, with the remaining majority of the solid angles largely opaque, resulting in a very broad and skewed probability distribution function (PDF) of the escape fraction when viewed at different angles. Thus, the escape fraction of Lyman continuum photons of a galaxy observed along a line of sight merely represents the properties of the interstellar medium along that line of sight, which may be an ill-representation of true escape fraction of the galaxy averaged over its full sky. Here we study how Lyman continuum photons escape from galaxies at$z=4-6$, utilizing high-resolution large-scale cosmological radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. We compute the PDF of the mean escape fraction ($\\left$) averaged over mock observational samples, as a function of the sample size, compared to the true mean (had you an infinite sample size). We find that, when the sample size is... 14. Disordered strictly jammed binary sphere packings attain an anomalously large range of densities. Science.gov (United States) Hopkins, Adam B; Stillinger, Frank H; Torquato, Salvatore 2013-08-01 Previous attempts to simulate disordered binary sphere packings have been limited in producing mechanically stable, isostatic packings across a broad spectrum of packing fractions. Here we report that disordered strictly jammed binary packings (packings that remain mechanically stable under general shear deformations and compressions) can be produced with an anomalously large range of average packing fractions 0.634≤φ≤0.829 for small to large sphere radius ratios α restricted to α≥0.100. Surprisingly, this range of average packing fractions is obtained for packings containing a subset of spheres (called the backbone) that are exactly strictly jammed, exactly isostatic, and also generated from random initial conditions. Additionally, the average packing fractions of these packings at certain α and small sphere relative number concentrations x approach those of the corresponding densest known ordered packings. These findings suggest for entropic reasons that these high-density disordered packings should be good glass formers and that they may be easy to prepare experimentally. We also identify an unusual feature of the packing fraction of jammed backbones (packings with rattlers excluded). The backbone packing fraction is about 0.624 over the majority of the α-x plane, even when large numbers of small spheres are present in the backbone. Over the (relatively small) area of the α-x plane where the backbone is not roughly constant, we find that backbone packing fractions range from about 0.606 to 0.829, with the volume of rattler spheres comprising between 1.6% and 26.9% of total sphere volume. To generate isostatic strictly jammed packings, we use an implementation of the Torquato-Jiao sequential linear programming algorithm [Phys. Rev. E 82, 061302 (2010)], which is an efficient producer of inherent structures (mechanically stable configurations at the local maxima in the density landscape). The identification and explicit construction of binary packings 15. Fractional Calculus: Integral and Differential Equations of Fractional Order CERN Document Server Gorenflo, Rudolf 2008-01-01 We introduce the linear operators of fractional integration and fractional differentiation in the framework of the Riemann-Liouville fractional calculus. Particular attention is devoted to the technique of Laplace transforms for treating these operators in a way accessible to applied scientists, avoiding unproductive generalities and excessive mathematical rigor. By applying this technique we shall derive the analytical solutions of the most simple linear integral and differential equations of fractional order. We show the fundamental role of the Mittag-Leffler function, whose properties are reported in an ad hoc Appendix. The topics discussed here will be: (a) essentials of Riemann-Liouville fractional calculus with basic formulas of Laplace transforms, (b) Abel type integral equations of first and second kind, (c) relaxation and oscillation type differential equations of fractional order. 16. An improved fractional divider for fractional-N frequency synthesizers Science.gov (United States) Zhang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Yongqi 2009-07-01 This paper presents an improved fractional divider used in 1.8~2GHz fractional-N frequency synthesizers. A new clock setting for delta-sigma modulator (DSM) is proposed to prevent the potential problems of traditional fractional dividers: the DSM output would be wrongly loaded and the action of DSM circuit may affect the phase-detection of phase-frequency-detector (PFD). Simulation result shows the effectiveness of this improvement. 17. Surprising Lack of Sex Differences in Normal Cognitive Aging in Twins Science.gov (United States) Finkel, Deborah; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Berg, Stig; Pedersen, Nancy L. 2006-01-01 Sex differences in the etiology of normal cognitive functioning in aging remain largely unexplored. We conducted an investigation of genetic and environmental contributions to sex differences in level of cognitive performance and rate of decline in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA) (Finkel & Pedersen, 2004) data set. Behavioral… 18. Incompressible Stars and Fractional Derivatives CERN Document Server Bayin, S S 2014-01-01 Fractional calculus is an effective tool in incorporating the effects of non-locality and memory into physical models. In this regard, successful applications exist rang- ing from signal processing to anomalous diffusion and quantum mechanics. In this paper we investigate the fractional versions of the stellar structure equations for non radiating spherical objects. Using incompressible fluids as a comparison, we develop models for constant density Newtonian objects with fractional mass distributions or stress conditions. To better understand the fractional effects, we discuss effective values for the density, gravitational field and equation of state. The fractional ob- jects are smaller and less massive than integer models. The fractional parameters are related to a polytropic index for the models considered. 19. Proton Fraction in Neutron Stars Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) 张丰收; 陈列文 2001-01-01 The proton fraction in β-stable neutron stars is investigated within the framework of the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock theory using the extended Skyrme effective interaction for the first time. The calculated results show that the proton fraction disappears at high density, which implies that the pure neutron matter may exist in the interior of neutron stars. The incompressibility of the nuclear equation-of-state is shown to be more important to determine the proton fraction. Meanwhile, it is indicated that the addition of muons in neutron stars will change the proton fraction. It is also found that the higher-order terms of the nuclear symmetry energy have obvious effects on the proton fraction and the parabolic law of the nuclear symmetry energy is not enough to determine the proton fraction. 20. Accessible solitons of fractional dimension Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Zhong, Wei-Ping, E-mail: zhongwp6@126.com [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Shunde Polytechnic, Guangdong Province, Shunde 528300 (China); Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Belić, Milivoj [Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Zhang, Yiqi [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education & Shaanxi Key Lab of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China) 2016-05-15 We demonstrate that accessible solitons described by an extended Schrödinger equation with the Laplacian of fractional dimension can exist in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media. The soliton solutions of the model are constructed by two special functions, the associated Legendre polynomials and the Laguerre polynomials in the fraction-dimensional space. Our results show that these fractional accessible solitons form a soliton family which includes crescent solitons, and asymmetric single-layer and multi-layer necklace solitons. -- Highlights: •Analytic solutions of a fractional Schrödinger equation are obtained. •The solutions are produced by means of self-similar method applied to the fractional Schrödinger equation with parabolic potential. •The fractional accessible solitons form crescent, asymmetric single-layer and multilayer necklace profiles. •The model applies to the propagation of optical pulses in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media. 1. Dosimetric effect of intra-fractional and inter-fractional target motion in lung cancer radiotherapy techniques Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Teerthraj Verma 2015-12-01 Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of present study was to experimentally evaluate the dosimetric uncertainties in 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT, dynamic intensity modulated radiotherapy (D-IMRT, step-shoot (SS-IMRT, and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT treatment delivery techniques due to intra- and inter-fractional target motion. Methods: A previously treated lung patient was selected for this study and was replanned for 60 Gy in 30 fractions using four techniques (3DCRT, D-IMRT, SS-IMRT, and VMAT. These plans were delivered in a clinical linear accelerator equipped with HexaPOD™ evo RT System. The target dose of static QUASAR phantom was calculated that served as reference dose to the target. The QUASAR respiratory body phantom along with patients breathing wave form and HexaPOD™ evo RT System was used to simulate the intra-fraction and inter-fraction motions. Dose measurements were done by applying the intra-fractional and inter-fractional motions in all the four treatment delivery techniques.Results: The maximum percentage deviation in a single field was -4.3%, 10.4%, and -12.2% for 3DCRT, D-IMRT and SS-IMRT deliveries, respectively. Similarly, the deviation for a single fraction was -1.51%, -1.88%, -2.22%, and -3.03% for 3DCRT, D-IMRT, SS-IMRT and VMAT deliveries, respectively. Conclusion: The impact of inter-fractional and intra-fractional uncertainties calculated as deviation between dynamic and static condition dose was large in some fractions, however average deviation calculated for thirty fractions was well within 0.5% in all the four techniques. Therefore, inter- and intra-fractional uncertainties could be concern in fewer fraction treatments such as stereotactic body radiation therapy, and should be used in conjunction with intra- and inter-fractional motion management techniques. 2. Number line representations of fractions OpenAIRE Behr, Merlyn J.; Bright, George W.; Wachsmuth, Ipke; Wagner, Sigrid 1982-01-01 The study explored students' interpretations of representations of fractions on number lines and the effect of instruction on those interpretations. Subjects were five fourth-graders, and instruction was a four-day unit on the use of number lines. A 16-item, multiple-choice pre- and posttest was used along with videotaped interviews. Performance improved except when students had to associate a reduced fraction symbol with an equivalent, unreduced fraction representation on a number line. The ... 3. The Keck Carbon Cycle AMS Laboratory, U.C.I.: Initial operation and a background surprise OpenAIRE Southon, John R.; Santos, Guaciara M.; Druffel-Rodriguez, K C; Druffel, Ellen R. M.; Trumbore, Susan E.; Xu, Xiaomei; Griffin, Sheila; Ali, S.; Mazon, M. 2003-01-01 A new 14C accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) laboratory for carbon cycle studies has been established at the University of California, Irvine. The 0.5 MV AMS system was installed in mid-2002 and has operated routinely since October of that year. This paper briefly describes the spectrometer and summarizes lessons learned during the first year of operation. In the process of setting up the system, we identified and largely suppressed a previously unreported radiocarbon AMS b... 4. Neither chimpanzee nor human, Ardipithecus reveals the surprising ancestry of both Science.gov (United States) White, Tim D.; Lovejoy, C. Owen; Asfaw, Berhane; Carlson, Joshua P.; Suwa, Gen 2015-01-01 Australopithecus fossils were regularly interpreted during the late 20th century in a framework that used living African apes, especially chimpanzees, as proxies for the immediate ancestors of the human clade. Such projection is now largely nullified by the discovery of Ardipithecus. In the context of accumulating evidence from genetics, developmental biology, anatomy, ecology, biogeography, and geology, Ardipithecus alters perspectives on how our earliest hominid ancestors—and our closest living relatives—evolved. PMID:25901308 5. Complex and Fractional Dynamics Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) J. A. Tenreiro Machado 2017-02-01 Full Text Available Complex systems (CS are pervasive in many areas, namely financial markets; highway transportation; telecommunication networks; world and country economies; social networks; immunological systems; living organisms; computational systems; and electrical and mechanical structures. CS are often composed of a large number of interconnected and interacting entities exhibiting much richer global scale dynamics than could be inferred from the properties and behavior of individual elements. [... 6. The heart and brain imaging in lone atrial fibrillation - are we surprised? Science.gov (United States) Shantsila, Eduard; Haeusler, Karl Georg; Fiebach, Jochen B; Breithardt, Gunter; Kirchhof, Paulus 2015-01-01 "Lone" atrial fibrillation (AF) is generally used to refer to patients with AF in the absence of structural heart disease. When the decision for oral anticoagulation is discussed, "lone" AF refers to patients who do not have established stroke risk factors. Imaging is often used to rule out structural heart disease, e.g. coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, mitral stenosis or left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Imaging of the heart has a central role in establishing the "lone" aspect in patients with "lone"AF, similar to the measurement of blood glucose and blood pressure: Patients with structural heart disease, defined as e.g. reduced LV ejection fraction, clinical evidence for heart failure, or evidence for coronary artery disease, will not be considered as patients with "lone" AF. The search for these conditions requires some cardiac imaging, often done by echocardiography and non-invasive tests for coronary artery disease or ischemia. Increasingly, brain imaging is used to define the clinical diagnosis of a stroke, thus also contributing to the detection of stroke risk factors. Cerebral imaging in AF patients without competing causes for silent strokes or microbleeds ("lone" AF, rather used in the context of anticoagulation, i.e. clinical absence of structural heart disease) would allow to better understand the contribution of AF to these brain lesions. The assumption that silent strokes are likely drivers of cognitive dysfunction, and the fact that microbleeds put patients at risk for intracerebral hemorrhage, illustrates the need to collect information on brain imaging. In this review article, we summarize current data on heart and brain imaging in patients with "lone" AF and discuss their clinical implications for risk assessment and management of patients with "lone" AF. 7. Comment on "Fractional quantum mechanics" and "Fractional Schroedinger equation" CERN Document Server Wei, Yuchuan 2016-01-01 In this comment, we point out some shortcomings in two papers "Fractional quantum mechanics" [Phys. Rev. E 62, 3135 (2000)] and "Fractional Schroedinger equation" [Phys. Rev. E 66, 056108 (2002)]. We prove that the fractional uncertainty relation does not hold generally. The probability continuity equation in fractional quantum mechanics has a missing source term, which leads to particle teleportation, i.e., a particle can teleport from one place to another. Since the relativistic kinetic energy can be viewed as an approximate realization of the fractional kinetic energy, the particle teleportation should be an observable relativistic effect in quantum mechanics. With the help of this concept, superconductivity could be viewed as the teleportation of electrons from one side of a superconductor to another and superfluidity could be viewed as the teleportation of helium atoms from one end of a capillary tube to the other. We also point out how to teleport a particle to a destination. 8. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) S.O. Bader 1999-10-18 The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be 9. Self-organizing weights for Internet AS-graphs and surprisingly simple routing metrics DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Scholz, Jan Carsten; Greiner, Martin 2011-01-01 The transport capacity of Internet-like communication networks and hence their efficiency may be improved by a factor of 5–10 through the use of highly optimized routing metrics, as demonstrated previously. The numerical determination of such routing metrics can be computationally demanding...... metrics. The new metrics have negligible computational cost and result in an approximately 5-fold performance increase, providing distinguished competitiveness with the computationally costly counterparts. They are applicable to very large networks and easy to implement in today's Internet routing...... protocol on the AS-level.... 10. Surprisingly high stability of barley lipid transfer protein, LTP1, towards denaturant, heat and proteases DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Winther, J R 2001-01-01 Barley LTP1 belongs to a large family of plant proteins termed non-specific lipid transfer proteins. The in vivo function of these proteins is unknown, but it has been suggested that they are involved in responses towards stresses such as pathogens, drought, heat, cold and salt. Also, the proteins...... have been suggested as transporters of monomers for cutin synthesis. We have analysed the stability of LTP1 towards denaturant, heat and proteases and found it to be a highly stable protein, which apparently does not denature at temperatures up to 100 degrees C. This high stability may be important... 11. Identifying space-dependent coefficients and the order of fractionality in fractional advection diffusion equation CERN Document Server Maryshev, Boris; Latrille, Christelle; Néel, Marie-Christine 2016-01-01 Tracer tests in natural porous media sometimes show abnormalities that suggest considering a fractional variant of the Advection Diffusion Equation supplemented by a time derivative of non-integer order. We are describing an inverse method for this equation: it finds the order of the fractional derivative and the coefficients that achieve minimum discrepancy between solution and tracer data. Using an adjoint equation divides the computational effort by an amount proportional to the number of freedom degrees, which becomes large when some coefficients depend on space. Method accuracy is checked on synthetical data, and applicability to actual tracer test is demonstrated. 12. Sermon and surprise: The meaning of scheduling in broadcast radio history - and - CBC Radio 3: A disquieting revolution OpenAIRE Sahota, Anu 2006-01-01 Essay 1 : 'Sermon & Surprise' explores the importance of scheduling to radio's communicative uses. The essay argues that its capacity for continuous transmission and promotion of shared listening is unique to terrestrial radio. The strengths of traditional radio relative to contemporary on-demand audio media are explored. Early Canadian and British broadcasting policies and scheduling practices demonstrate how radio's programming conceits may innovatively accommodate broadcasting philosop... 13. Surprising robustness of particle-hole symmetry for composite-fermion liquids Science.gov (United States) Sreejith, G. J.; Zhang, Yuhe; Jain, J. K. 2017-09-01 We report on fixed phase diffusion Monte Carlo calculations that show that, even for a large amount of Landau level mixing, the energies of the Pfaffian and anti-Pfaffian phases remain very nearly the same, as also do the excitation gaps at 1 /3 and 2 /3 . These results, combined with previous theoretical and experimental investigations, indicate that particle hole (PH) symmetry for fully spin polarized composite fermion states is much more robust than a priori expected, emerging even in models that explicitly break PH symmetry. We provide insight into this fact by showing that the low energy physics of a generic repulsive 3-body interaction is captured, to a large extent and over a range of filling factors, by a mean field approximation that maps it into a PH symmetric 2-body interaction. This explains why Landau level mixing, which effectively generates such a generic 3-body interaction, is inefficient in breaking PH symmetry. As a byproduct, our results provide a systematic construction of a 2-body interaction which produces, to a good approximation, the Pfaffian wave function as its ground state. 14. Testing an emerging paradigm in migration ecology shows surprising differences in efficiency between flight modes. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Adam E Duerr Full Text Available To maximize fitness, flying animals should maximize flight speed while minimizing energetic expenditure. Soaring speeds of large-bodied birds are determined by flight routes and tradeoffs between minimizing time and energetic costs. Large raptors migrating in eastern North America predominantly glide between thermals that provide lift or soar along slopes or ridgelines using orographic lift (slope soaring. It is usually assumed that slope soaring is faster than thermal gliding because forward progress is constant compared to interrupted progress when birds pause to regain altitude in thermals. We tested this slope-soaring hypothesis using high-frequency GPS-GSM telemetry devices to track golden eagles during northbound migration. In contrast to expectations, flight speed was slower when slope soaring and eagles also were diverted from their migratory path, incurring possible energetic costs and reducing speed of progress towards a migratory endpoint. When gliding between thermals, eagles stayed on track and fast gliding speeds compensated for lack of progress during thermal soaring. When thermals were not available, eagles minimized migration time, not energy, by choosing energetically expensive slope soaring instead of waiting for thermals to develop. Sites suited to slope soaring include ridges preferred for wind-energy generation, thus avian risk of collision with wind turbines is associated with evolutionary trade-offs required to maximize fitness of time-minimizing migratory raptors. 15. Surprisal analysis characterizes the free energy time course of cancer cells undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Science.gov (United States) Zadran, Sohila; Arumugam, Rameshkumar; Herschman, Harvey; Phelps, Michael E; Levine, R D 2014-09-09 The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) initiates the invasive and metastatic behavior of many epithelial cancers. Mechanisms underlying EMT are not fully known. Surprisal analysis of mRNA time course data from lung and pancreatic cancer cells stimulated to undergo TGF-β1-induced EMT identifies two phenotypes. Examination of the time course for these phenotypes reveals that EMT reprogramming is a multistep process characterized by initiation, maturation, and stabilization stages that correlate with changes in cell metabolism. Surprisal analysis characterizes the free energy time course of the expression levels throughout the transition in terms of two state variables. The landscape of the free energy changes during the EMT for the lung cancer cells shows a stable intermediate state. Existing data suggest this is the previously proposed maturation stage. Using a single-cell ATP assay, we demonstrate that the TGF-β1-induced EMT for lung cancer cells, particularly during the maturation stage, coincides with a metabolic shift resulting in increased cytosolic ATP levels. Surprisal analysis also characterizes the absolute expression levels of the mRNAs and thereby examines the homeostasis of the transcription system during EMT. 16. Deterministic ratchets for suspension fractionation NARCIS (Netherlands) Kulrattanarak, T. 2010-01-01 Driven by the current insights in sustainability and technological development in biorefining natural renewable resources, the food industry has taken an interest in fractionation of agrofood materials, like milk and cereal crops. The purpose of fractionation is to split the raw material in sever 17. Financial Planning with Fractional Goals NARCIS (Netherlands) M.H. Goedhart; J. Spronk (Jaap) 1995-01-01 textabstractWhen solving financial planning problems with multiple goals by means of multiple objective programming, the presence of fractional goals leads to technical difficulties. In this paper we present a straightforward interactive approach for solving such linear fractional programs with mult 18. Financial Planning with Fractional Goals OpenAIRE Goedhart, M.H.; Spronk, Jaap 1995-01-01 textabstractWhen solving financial planning problems with multiple goals by means of multiple objective programming, the presence of fractional goals leads to technical difficulties. In this paper we present a straightforward interactive approach for solving such linear fractional programs with multiple goal variables. The approach is illustrated by means of an example in financial planning. 19. Approximations of fractional Brownian motion CERN Document Server Li, Yuqiang; 10.3150/10-BEJ319 2012-01-01 Approximations of fractional Brownian motion using Poisson processes whose parameter sets have the same dimensions as the approximated processes have been studied in the literature. In this paper, a special approximation to the one-parameter fractional Brownian motion is constructed using a two-parameter Poisson process. The proof involves the tightness and identification of finite-dimensional distributions. 20. Investigations on Multiplication of Fractions. Science.gov (United States) Sai, Khoo Phon; Inder, Walter R. D. 1984-01-01 Three different models with continuous materials, discontinuous materials, and number lines were used to study the operation concept in six investigations on multiplication with fractions with pupils aged 11-12 in a Penang International School. All approaches could be understood by pupils, but they preferred the area and fractional models. (MNS) 1. Understanding Magnitudes to Understand Fractions Science.gov (United States) Gabriel, Florence 2016-01-01 Fractions are known to be difficult to learn and difficult to teach, yet they are vital for students to have access to further mathematical concepts. This article uses evidence to support teachers employing teaching methods that focus on the conceptual understanding of the magnitude of fractions. 2. Ejection Fraction Heart Failure Measurement Science.gov (United States) ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Ejection Fraction Heart Failure Measurement Updated:Feb 15,2017 The ejection fraction ( ... failure This content was last reviewed April 2015. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ... 3. Unwrapping Students' Ideas about Fractions Science.gov (United States) Lewis, Rebecca M.; Gibbons, Lynsey K.; Kazemi, Elham; Lind, Teresa 2015-01-01 Supporting students to develop an understanding of the meaning of fractions is an important goal of elementary school mathematics. This involves developing partitioning strategies, creating representations, naming fractional quantities, and using symbolic notation. This article describes how teachers can use a formative assessment problem to… 4. Rational Exponentials and Continued Fractions Science.gov (United States) Denny, J. K. 2012-01-01 Using continued fraction expansions, we can approximate constants, such as pi and e, using an appropriate integer n raised to the power x[superscript 1/x], x a suitable rational. We review continued fractions and give an algorithm for producing these approximations. 5. Wavelet-fractional Fourier transforms Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) Yuan Lin 2008-01-01 This paper extends the definition of fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) proposed by Namias V by using other orthonormal bases for L2 (R) instead of Hermite-Ganssian functions.The new orthonormal basis is gained indirectly from multiresolution analysis and orthonormal wavelets. The so defined FRFT is called wavelets-fractional Fourier transform. 6. Fractional active disturbance rejection control. Science.gov (United States) Li, Dazi; Ding, Pan; Gao, Zhiqiang 2016-05-01 A fractional active disturbance rejection control (FADRC) scheme is proposed to improve the performance of commensurate linear fractional order systems (FOS) and the robust analysis shows that the controller is also applicable to incommensurate linear FOS control. In FADRC, the traditional extended states observer (ESO) is generalized to a fractional order extended states observer (FESO) by using the fractional calculus, and the tracking differentiator plus nonlinear state error feedback are replaced by a fractional proportional-derivative controller. To simplify controller tuning, the linear bandwidth-parameterization method has been adopted. The impacts of the observer bandwidth ωo and controller bandwidth ωc on system performance are then analyzed. Finally, the FADRC stability and frequency-domain characteristics for linear single-input single-output FOS are analyzed. Simulation results by FADRC and ADRC on typical FOS are compared to demonstrate the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed scheme. 7. Radiating subdispersive fractional optical solitons Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Fujioka, J., E-mail: fujioka@fisica.unam.mx; Espinosa, A.; Rodríguez, R. F. [Departamento de Física Química, Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico); Malomed, B. A. [Department of Physical Electronics, School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel) 2014-09-01 It was recently found [Fujioka et al., Phys. Lett. A 374, 1126 (2010)] that the propagation of solitary waves can be described by a fractional extension of the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation which involves a temporal fractional derivative (TFD) of order α > 2. In the present paper, we show that there is also another fractional extension of the NLS equation which contains a TFD with α < 2, and in this case, the new equation describes the propagation of radiating solitons. We show that the emission of the radiation (when α < 2) is explained by resonances at various frequencies between the pulses and the linear modes of the system. It is found that the new fractional NLS equation can be derived from a suitable Lagrangian density, and a fractional Noether's theorem can be applied to it, thus predicting the conservation of the Hamiltonian, momentum and energy. 8. Mechanical Analogies of Fractional Elements Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) HU Kai-Xin; ZHU Ke-Qin 2009-01-01 A Fractional element model describes a special kind of viscoelastic material.Its stress is proportional to the fractional-order derivative of strain. Physically the mechanical analogies of fractional elements can be represented by spring-dashpot fractal networks. We introduce a constitutive operator in the constitutive equations of viscoelastic materials.To derive constitutive operators for spring-dashpot fractal networks, we use Heaviside operational calculus, which provides explicit answers not otherwise obtainable simply.Then the series-parallel formulas for the constitutive operator are derived. Using these formulas, a constitutive equation of fractional element with 1/2-order derivative is obtained.Finally we find the way to derive the constitutive equations with other fractional-order derivatives and their mechanical analogies. 9. Self-organizing weights for Internet AS-graphs and surprisingly simple routing metrics DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Scholz, Jan Carsten; Greiner, Martin The transport capacity of Internet-like communication networks and hence their efficiency may be improved by a factor of 5-10 through the use of highly optimized routing metrics, as demonstrated previously. Numerical determination of such routing metrics can be computationally demanding to an ext......The transport capacity of Internet-like communication networks and hence their efficiency may be improved by a factor of 5-10 through the use of highly optimized routing metrics, as demonstrated previously. Numerical determination of such routing metrics can be computationally demanding...... metrics. The new metrics have negligible computational cost and result in an approximately 5-fold performance increase, providing distinguished competitiveness with the computationally costly counterparts. They are applicable to very large networks and easy to implement in today's Internet routing...... protocol on the AS-level.... 10. Direct terrestrial–marine correlation demonstrates surprisingly late onset of the last interglacial in central Europe Science.gov (United States) Sier, Mark J.; Roebroeks, Wil; Bakels, Corrie C.; Dekkers, Mark J.; Brühl, Enrico; De Loecker, Dimitri; Gaudzinski-Windheuser, Sabine; Hesse, Norbert; Jagich, Adam; Kindler, Lutz; Kuijper, Wim J.; Laurat, Thomas; Mücher, Herman J.; Penkman, Kirsty E.H.; Richter, Daniel; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J.J. 2011-01-01 An interdisciplinary study of a small sedimentary basin at Neumark Nord 2 (NN2), Germany, has yielded a high-resolution record of the palaeomagnetic Blake Event, which we are able to place at the early part of the last interglacial pollen sequence documented from the same section. We use this data to calculate the duration of this stratigraphically important event at 3400 ± 350 yr. More importantly, the Neumark Nord 2 data enables precise terrestrial–marine correlation for the Eemian stage in central Europe. This shows a remarkably large time lag of ca. 5000 yr between the MIS 5e ‘peak’ in the marine record and the start of the last interglacial in this region. PMID:26523075 11. Surprisingly low frequency attenuation effects in long tubes when measuring turbulent fluxes at tall towers DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Ibrom, Andreas; Brændholt, Andreas; Pilegaard, Kim 2016-01-01 by reducing both the water vapour dilution correction and the cross sensitivity effects on the N2O and CO flux measurements. Here we present the set-up of the concentration step change experiment and its results and compare them with recently developed theories for the behaviour of gases in turbulent tube......The eddy covariance technique relies on the fast and accurate measurement of gas concentration fluctuations. While for some gasses robust and compact sensors are available, measurement of, e.g., non CO2 greenhouse gas fluxes is often performed with sensitive equipment that cannot be run on a tower...... that the concentration signal was hardly biased during the ca 10 s travel through the tube. Due to the larger turbulence time scales at large measurement heights the low-pass correction was for the majority of the measurements effect... 12. Surprising Pfaffians in Random Matrix Theory with Dyson index$\\beta=2$CERN Document Server Kieburg, Mario 2012-01-01 In the past decades, determinants and Pfaffians were found for eigenvalue correlations of various random matrix ensembles. These structures simplify the average over a large number of ratios of characteristic polynomials to integrations over one and two characteristic polynomials only. Up to now it was thought that determinants occur for ensembles with Dyson index$\\beta=2$whereas Pfaffians only for ensembles with$\\beta=1,4$. We derive a non-trivial Pfaffian determinant for$\\beta=2$random matrix ensembles which is similar to the one for$\\beta=1,4$. Thus, it unveils a hidden universality of this structure. We also give a general relation between the orthogonal polynomials related to the determinantal structure and the skew-orthogonal polynomials corresponding to the Pfaffian. As a particular example we consider the chiral unitary ensembles in great detail. 13. Permutation entropy of fractional Brownian motion and fractional Gaussian noise Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Zunino, L. [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas, C.C. 124 Correo Central, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: lucianoz@ciop.unlp.edu.ar; Perez, D.G. [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso (PUCV), 23-40025 Valparaiso (Chile)], E-mail: dario.perez@ucv.cl; Martin, M.T. [Instituto de Fisica (IFLP), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata and Argentina' s National Council (CCT-CONICET), C.C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: mtmartin@fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Garavaglia, M. [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas, C.C. 124 Correo Central, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: garavagliam@ciop.unlp.edu.ar; Plastino, A. [Instituto de Fisica (IFLP), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata and Argentina' s National Council (CCT-CONICET), C.C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: plastino@fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Rosso, O.A. [Centre for Bioinformatics, Biomarker Discovery and Information-Based Medicine, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, The University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan NSW 2308 (Australia); Chaos and Biology Group, Instituto de Calculo, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellon II, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: oarosso@fibertel.com.ar 2008-06-30 We have worked out theoretical curves for the permutation entropy of the fractional Brownian motion and fractional Gaussian noise by using the Bandt and Shiha [C. Bandt, F. Shiha, J. Time Ser. Anal. 28 (2007) 646] theoretical predictions for their corresponding relative frequencies. Comparisons with numerical simulations show an excellent agreement. Furthermore, the entropy-gap in the transition between these processes, observed previously via numerical results, has been here theoretically validated. Also, we have analyzed the behaviour of the permutation entropy of the fractional Gaussian noise for different time delays. 14. Corn Ethanol: The Surprisingly Effective Route for Natural Gas Consumption in the Transportation Sector Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Szybist, James P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Curran, Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States) 2015-05-01 Proven reserves and production of natural gas (NG) in the United States have increased dramatically in the last decade, due largely to the commercialization of hydraulic fracturing. This has led to a plentiful supply of NG, resulting in a significantly lower cost on a gallon of gasoline-equivalent (GGE) basis. Additionally, NG is a domestic, non-petroleum source of energy that is less carbon-intensive than coal or petroleum products, and thus can lead to lower greenhouse gas emissions. Because of these factors, there is a desire to increase the use of NG in the transportation sector in the United States (U.S.). However, using NG directly in the transportation sector requires that several non-trivial challenges be overcome. One of these issues is the fueling infrastructure. There are currently only 1,375 NG fueling stations in the U.S. compared to 152,995 fueling stations for gasoline in 2014. Additionally, there are very few light-duty vehicles that can consume this fuel directly as dedicated or bi-fuel options. For example, in model year 2013Honda was the only OEM to offer a dedicated CNG sedan while a number of others offered CNG options as a preparation package for LD trucks and vans. In total, there were a total of 11 vehicle models in 2013 that could be purchased that could use natural gas directly. There are additional potential issues associated with NG vehicles as well. Compared to commercial refueling stations, the at-home refueling time for NG vehicles is substantial – a result of the small compressors used for home refilling. Additionally, the methane emissions from both refueling (leakage) and from tailpipe emissions (slip) from these vehicles can add to their GHG footprint, and while these emissions are not currently regulated it could be a barrier in the future, especially in scenarios with broad scale adoption of CNG vehicles. However, NG consumption already plays a large role in other sectors of the economy, including some that are important to 15. Listening to student conversations during clicker questions: What you have not heard might surprise you! Science.gov (United States) James, Mark C.; Willoughby, Shannon 2011-01-01 When instructors provide time for students to discuss their ideas in Peer Instruction, instructors minimally expect that the conversation partners will discuss their opinions relating to the physical attributes posed in a question and submit clicker responses that coincide with individual opinions. We defined conversations that met these two criteria as "standard conversations." In our study of 361 recorded Peer Instruction conversations from large introductory astronomy classrooms taught by experienced instructors, we found that 38% of student conversations were standard conversations. Of the remaining 62%, we identified three broad categories consisting of ten types of "nonstandard" conversations. The first category of conversations describes student ideas that were not reflected in any of the given multiple choice answers. The second category includes issues related to the interpretation of the statistical feedback provided by electronic classroom response systems. The third category describes common pitfalls experienced by students during conversations that led to unproductive interactions. Our analysis of nonstandard Peer Instruction conversations will be useful to practitioners and researchers seeking to improve the implementation of Peer Instruction. 16. Mitigating Aviation Communication and Satellite Orbit Operations Surprises from Adverse Space Weather Science.gov (United States) Tobiska, W. Kent 2008-01-01 Adverse space weather affects operational activities in aviation and satellite systems. For example, large solar flares create highly variable enhanced neutral atmosphere and ionosphere electron density regions. These regions impact aviation communication frequencies as well as precision orbit determination. The natural space environment, with its dynamic space weather variability, is additionally changed by human activity. The increase in orbital debris in low Earth orbit (LEO), combined with lower atmosphere CO2 that rises into the lower thermosphere and causes increased cooling that results in increased debris lifetime, adds to the environmental hazards of navigating in near-Earth space. This is at a time when commercial space endeavors are posed to begin more missions to LEO during the rise of the solar activity cycle toward the next maximum (2012). For satellite and aviation operators, adverse space weather results in greater expenses for orbit management, more communication outages or aviation and ground-based high frequency radio used, and an inability to effectively plan missions or service customers with space-based communication, imagery, and data transferal during time-critical activities. Examples of some revenue-impacting conditions and solutions for mitigating adverse space weather are offered. 17. Organometallic Ru(II) Photosensitizers Derived from π-Expansive Cyclometalating Ligands: Surprising Theranostic PDT Effects. Science.gov (United States) Sainuddin, Tariq; McCain, Julia; Pinto, Mitch; Yin, Huimin; Gibson, Jordan; Hetu, Marc; McFarland, Sherri A 2016-01-04 The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of π-expansive cyclometalating ligands on the photophysical and photobiological properties of organometallic Ru(II) compounds. Four compounds with increasing π conjugation on the cyclometalating ligand were prepared, and their structures were confirmed by HPLC, 1D and 2D (1)H NMR, and mass spectrometry. The properties of these compounds differed substantially from their Ru(II) polypyridyl counterparts. Namely, they were characterized by red-shifted absorption, very weak to no room temperature phosphorescence, extremely short phosphorescence state lifetimes ( 300 μM) but was phototoxic to cells in the nanomolar regime. Exceptionally large phototherapeutic margins, exceeding 3 orders of magnitude in some cases, were accompanied by bright ligand-centered intracellular fluorescence in cancer cells. Thus, Ru(II) organometallic systems derived from π-expansive cyclometalating ligands, such 4,9,16-triazadibenzo[a,c]napthacene (pbpn), represent the first class of potent light-responsive Ru(II) cyclometalating agents with theranostic potential. 18. Adult pallium transcriptomes surprise in not reflecting predicted homologies across diverse chicken and mouse pallial sectors. Science.gov (United States) Belgard, T Grant; Montiel, Juan F; Wang, Wei Zhi; García-Moreno, Fernando; Margulies, Elliott H; Ponting, Chris P; Molnár, Zoltán 2013-08-01 The thorniest problem in comparative neurobiology is the identification of the particular brain region of birds and reptiles that corresponds to the mammalian neocortex [Butler AB, Reiner A, Karten HJ (2011) Ann N Y Acad Sci 1225:14-27; Wang Y, Brzozowska-Prechtl A, Karten HJ (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(28):12676-12681]. We explored which genes are actively transcribed in the regions of controversial ancestry in a representative bird (chicken) and mammal (mouse) at adult stages. We conducted four analyses comparing the expression patterns of their 5,130 most highly expressed one-to-one orthologous genes that considered global patterns of expression specificity, strong gene markers, and coexpression networks. Our study demonstrates transcriptomic divergence, plausible convergence, and, in two exceptional cases, conservation between specialized avian and mammalian telencephalic regions. This large-scale study potentially resolves the complex relationship between developmental homology and functional characteristics on the molecular level and settles long-standing evolutionary debates. 19. Ferroelectric Fractional-Order Capacitors KAUST Repository Agambayev, Agamyrat 2017-07-25 Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-based polymers and their blends are used to fabricate electrostatic fractional-order capacitors. This simple but effective method allows us to precisely tune the constant phase angle of the resulting fractional-order capacitor by changing the blend composition. Additionally, we have derived an empirical relation between the ratio of the blend constituents and the constant phase angle to facilitate the design of a fractional order capacitor with a desired constant phase angle. The structural composition of the fabricated blends is investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. 20. On Generalized Fractional Differentiator Signals Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Hamid A. Jalab 2013-01-01 Full Text Available By employing the generalized fractional differential operator, we introduce a system of fractional order derivative for a uniformly sampled polynomial signal. The calculation of the bring in signal depends on the additive combination of the weighted bring-in of N cascaded digital differentiators. The weights are imposed in a closed formula containing the Stirling numbers of the first kind. The approach taken in this work is to consider that signal function in terms of Newton series. The convergence of the system to a fractional time differentiator is discussed. 1. Fractional trajectories: Decorrelation versus friction Science.gov (United States) Svenkeson, A.; Beig, M. T.; Turalska, M.; West, B. J.; Grigolini, P. 2013-11-01 The fundamental connection between fractional calculus and subordination processes is explored and affords a physical interpretation of a fractional trajectory, that being an average over an ensemble of stochastic trajectories. Heretofore what has been interpreted as intrinsic friction, a form of non-Markovian dissipation that automatically arises from adopting the fractional calculus, is shown to be a manifestation of decorrelations between trajectories. We apply the general theory developed herein to the Lotka-Volterra ecological model, providing new insight into the final equilibrium state. The relaxation time to achieve this state is also considered. 2. Rapidly growing tropical trees mobilize remarkable amounts of nitrogen, in ways that differ surprisingly among species Science.gov (United States) Russell, Ann E.; Raich, James W. 2012-01-01 Fast-growing forests such as tropical secondary forests can accumulate large amounts of carbon (C), and thereby play an important role in the atmospheric CO2 balance. Because nitrogen (N) cycling is inextricably linked with C cycling, the question becomes: Where does the N come from to match high rates of C accumulation? In unique experimental 16-y-old plantations established in abandoned pasture in lowland Costa Rica, we used a mass-balance approach to quantify N accumulation in vegetation, identify sources of N, and evaluate differences among tree species in N cycling. The replicated design contained four broad-leaved evergreen tree species growing under similar environmental conditions. Nitrogen uptake was rapid, reaching 409 (±30) kg⋅ha−1⋅y−1, double the rate reported from a Puerto Rican forest and greater than four times that observed at Hubbard Brook Forest (New Hampshire, USA). Nitrogen amassed in vegetation was 874 (±176) kg⋅ha−1, whereas net losses of soil N (0–100 cm) varied from 217 (±146) to 3,354 (±915) kg⋅ha−1 (P = 0.018) over 16 y. Soil C:N, δ13C values, and N budgets indicated that soil was the main source of biomass N. In Vochysia guatemalensis, however, N fixation contributed >60 kg⋅ha−1⋅y−1. All species apparently promoted soil N turnover, such that the soil N mean residence time was 32–54 y, an order of magnitude lower than the global mean. High rates of N uptake were associated with substantial N losses in three of the species, in which an average of 1.6 g N was lost for every gram of N accumulated in biomass. PMID:22689942 3. Shared weapons of blood- and plant-feeding insects: Surprising commonalities for manipulating hosts. Science.gov (United States) Guiguet, Antoine; Dubreuil, Géraldine; Harris, Marion O; Appel, Heidi M; Schultz, Jack C; Pereira, Marcos H; Giron, David 2016-01-01 Insects that reprogram host plants during colonization remind us that the insect side of plant-insect story is just as interesting as the plant side. Insect effectors secreted by the salivary glands play an important role in plant reprogramming. Recent discoveries point to large numbers of salivary effectors being produced by a single herbivore species. Since genetic and functional characterization of effectors is an arduous task, narrowing the field of candidates is useful. We present ideas about types and functions of effectors from research on blood-feeding parasites and their mammalian hosts. Because of their importance for human health, blood-feeding parasites have more tools from genomics and other - omics than plant-feeding parasites. Four themes have emerged: (1) mechanical damage resulting from attack by blood-feeding parasites triggers "early danger signals" in mammalian hosts, which are mediated by eATP, calcium, and hydrogen peroxide, (2) mammalian hosts need to modulate their immune responses to the three "early danger signals" and use apyrases, calreticulins, and peroxiredoxins, respectively, to achieve this, (3) blood-feeding parasites, like their mammalian hosts, rely on some of the same "early danger signals" and modulate their immune responses using the same proteins, and (4) blood-feeding parasites deploy apyrases, calreticulins, and peroxiredoxins in their saliva to manipulate the "danger signals" of their mammalian hosts. We review emerging evidence that plant-feeding insects also interfere with "early danger signals" of their hosts by deploying apyrases, calreticulins and peroxiredoxins in saliva. Given emerging links between these molecules, and plant growth and defense, we propose that these effectors interfere with phytohormone signaling, and therefore have a special importance for gall-inducing and leaf-mining insects, which manipulate host-plants to create better food and shelter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 4. Collaborative Resilience to Episodic Shocks and Surprises: A Very Long-Term Case Study of Zanjera Irrigation in the Philippines 1979–2010 Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Ruth Yabes 2015-07-01 Full Text Available This thirty-year case study uses surveys, semi-structured interviews, and content analysis to examine the adaptive capacity of Zanjera San Marcelino, an indigenous irrigation management system in the northern Philippines. This common pool resource (CPR system exists within a turbulent social-ecological system (SES characterized by episodic shocks such as large typhoons as well as novel surprises, such as national political regime change and the construction of large dams. The Zanjera nimbly responded to these challenges, although sometimes in ways that left its structure and function substantially altered. While a partial integration with the Philippine National Irrigation Agency was critical to the Zanjera’s success, this relationship required on-going improvisation and renegotiation. Over time, the Zanjera showed an increasing capacity to learn and adapt. A core contribution of this analysis is the integration of a CPR study within an SES framework to examine resilience, made possible the occurrence of a wide range of challenges to the Zanjera’s function and survival over the long period of study. Long-term analyses like this one, however rare, are particularly useful for understanding the adaptive and transformative dimensions of resilience. 5. Asymptotic expansions for Riesz fractional derivatives of Airy functions and applications NARCIS (Netherlands) N.M. Temme (Nico); V. Varlamov 2009-01-01 textabstractRiesz fractional derivatives of a function,$D_{x}^{\\alpha}f(x)$(also called Riesz potentials), are defined as fractional powers of the Laplacian. Asymptotic expansions for large$x$are computed for the Riesz fractional derivatives of the Airy function of the first kind,$Ai(x)$, and 6. Detection and Interpretation of Low-Level and High-Level Surprising and Important Events in Large-Scale Data Streams Science.gov (United States) 2016-06-28 the car, in the sky , or in the oncoming lane. This might be accomplished with heuristics learned from experience, which humans do well [6...they acquire multitudes of fake followers on the Inter- net . Making them more trustworthy and influential, they can easily attract more genuine 7. Generalized fractional integration of the \\overline{H}-function Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Praveen Agarwal 2012-11-01 Full Text Available A significantly large number of earlier works on the subject of fractional calculus give interesting account of the theory and applications of fractional calculus operators in many different areas of mathematical analysis (such as ordinary and partial differential equations, integral equations, special functions, summation of series, et cetera. In the present paper, we study and develop the generalized fractional integral operators given by Saigo. First, we establish two Theorems that give the images of the product of H-function and a general class of polynomials inSaigo operators. On account of the general nature of the Saigo operators, H-function and a general class of polynomials a large number of new and known Images involving Riemann-Liouville and Erdélyi-Kober fractional integral operators and several special functions notably generalized Wright hypergeometric function, generalized Wright-Bessel function, the polylogarithm and Mittag-Leffler functions follow as special cases of our main findings. 8. Solutions of fractional diffusion problems Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Rabha W. Ibrahim 2010-10-01 Full Text Available Using the concept of majorant functions, we prove the existence and uniqueness of holomorphic solutions to nonlinear fractional diffusion problems. The analytic continuation of these solutions is studied and the singularity for two cases are posed. 9. Australia's Next Top Fraction Model Science.gov (United States) Gould, Peter 2013-01-01 Peter Gould suggests Australia's next top fraction model should be a linear model rather than an area model. He provides a convincing argument and gives examples of ways to introduce a linear model in primary classrooms. 10. Fractional Dynamics of Relativistic Particle CERN Document Server Tarasov, Vasily E 2011-01-01 Fractional dynamics of relativistic particle is discussed. Derivatives of fractional orders with respect to proper time describe long-term memory effects that correspond to intrinsic dissipative processes. Relativistic particle subjected to a non-potential four-force is considered as a nonholonomic system. The nonholonomic constraint in four-dimensional space-time represents the relativistic invariance by the equation for four-velocity u_{\\mu} u^{\\mu}+c^2=0, where c is a speed of light in vacuum. In the general case, the fractional dynamics of relativistic particle is described as non-Hamiltonian and dissipative. Conditions for fractional relativistic particle to be a Hamiltonian system are considered. 11. Physcicists rewarded for 'fractional electrons' CERN Multimedia Ball, P 1998-01-01 The 1998 Nobel prize for physics has been awarded to Horst Stormer, Daniel Tsui and Robert Laughlin.Stormer and Tsui were the first to observe the fractional quantum Hall effect and Laughlin provided the theory shortly afterwards (1 page). 12. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) J. Schulz 2004-11-05 The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the 13. Concurrent fractional and equilibrium crystallisation Science.gov (United States) Sha, Lian-Kun 2012-06-01 This paper proposes the concept of concurrent fractional and equilibrium crystallisation (CFEC) in a multi-phase magmatic system in light of experimental results on diffusivities of elements and other species in minerals and melts. A group of equations are presented to describe how the concentrations of an element or isotope change in fractionated solid, equilibrated solid, melt, liquid, and gas phases, as well as in magma, as a function of distribution coefficients and mass fractions during the CFEC process. CFEC model is a generalised and unified formulation that is valid, not only for pure fractional crystallisation (FC) and perfect equilibrium crystallisation (EC) singly, as two of its limiting end-member cases, but also for the geologically more important process of concurrent fractional and equilibrium crystallisation. The concept that both fractional and equilibrium crystallisation can operate concurrently in a magmatic system, for a given element, among different minerals, and even within different-sized crystal grains of the very same mineral phase, is of fundamental importance in deepening our current understanding of magmatic differentiation processes. CFEC probably occurs more frequently in the natural world than either pure fractional or perfect equilibrium crystallisation alone, as a result of the interplay of varying diffusivities of elements under diverse physicochemical conditions, different residence time and growth rates of mineral phases in magmas, and varying grain sizes within each phase and among different phases. The marked systematic variations in trace element concentrations in the melts of the Bishop Tuff have long been perplexing and difficult to reconcile with existing models of differentiation. CFEC, which is able to better explain the scatter trends in a systematic way than fractional crystallisation, is considered to be the cause. 14. The Periodogram of fractional processes OpenAIRE Velasco, Carlos 2007-01-01 We analyse asymptotic properties of the discrete Fourier transform and the periodogram of time series obtained through (truncated) linear filtering of stationary processes. The class of filters contains the fractional differencing operator and its coefficients decay at an algebraic rate, implying long-range-dependent properties for the filtered processes when the degree of integration α is positive. These include fractional time series which are nonstationary for any value of the memory param... 15. Fractional Reserve Banking: Some Quibbles OpenAIRE Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David 2010-01-01 We explore several unaddressed issues in George Selgin’s (1988) claim that the best monetary system to maintain monetary equilibrium is a fractional reserve free banking one. The claim that adverse clearing balances would limit credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking system is more troublesome than previously reckoned. Both lengthened clearing periods and interbank agreements render credit expansion unrestrained. “The theory of free banking” confuses increases in money held with... 16. Communication Management and Trust: Their Role in Building Resilience to "Surprises" Such As Natural Disasters, Pandemic Flu, and Terrorism Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) P. H. Longstaff 2008-06-01 Full Text Available In times of public danger such as natural disasters and health emergencies, a country's communication systems will be some of its most important assets because access to information will make individuals and groups more resilient. Communication by those charged with dealing with the situation is often critical. We analyzed reports from a wide variety of crisis incidents and found a direct correlation between trust and an organization's preparedness and internal coordination of crisis communication and the effectiveness of its leadership. Thus, trust is one of the most important variables in effective communication management in times of "surprise." 17. The surprising magnetic topology of τ Sco: fossil remnant or dynamo output? Science.gov (United States) Donati, J.-F.; Howarth, I. D.; Jardine, M. M.; Petit, P.; Catala, C.; Landstreet, J. D.; Bouret, J.-C.; Alecian, E.; Barnes, J. R.; Forveille, T.; Paletou, F.; Manset, N. 2006-08-01 We report the discovery of a medium-strength (~0.5 kG) magnetic field on the young, massive star τ Sco (B0.2V), which becomes the third-hottest magnetic star known. Circularly polarized Zeeman signatures are clearly detected in observations collected mostly with the ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter, recently installed on the 3.6-m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope; temporal variability is also clearly established in the polarimetry, and can be unambiguously attributed to rotational modulation with a period close to 41 d. Archival ultraviolet (UV) spectra confirm that this modulation repeats over time-scales of decades, and refine the rotation period to 41.033 +/- 0.002 d. Despite the slow rotation rate of τ Sco, we none the less succeed in reconstructing the large-scale structure of its magnetic topology. We find that the magnetic structure is unusually complex for a hot star, with significant power in spherical-harmonic modes of degree up to 5. The surface topology is dominated by a potential field, although a moderate toroidal component is probably present. We fail to detect intrinsic temporal variability of the magnetic structure over the 1.5-yr period of our spectropolarimetric observations (in agreement with the stable temporal variations of the UV spectra), and infer that any differential surface rotation must be very small. The topology of the extended magnetic field that we derive from the photospheric magnetic maps is also more complex than a global dipole, and features in particular a significantly warped torus of closed magnetic loops encircling the star (tilted at about 90° to the rotation axis), with additional, smaller, networks of closed-field lines. This topology appears to be consistent with the exceptional X-ray properties of τ Sco and also provides a natural explanation of the variability observed in wind-formed UV lines. Although we cannot completely rule out the possibility that the field is produced through dynamo processes of an exotic kind, we 18. Fractional Charge Definitions and Conditions Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Goldhaber, A.S. 2004-06-04 Fractional charge is known through theoretical and experimental discoveries of isolable objects carrying fractions of familiar charge units--electric charge Q, spin S, and the difference of baryon and lepton numbers B-L. With a few simple assumptions all these effects may be described using a generalized version of charge renormalization for locally conserved charges, in which medium correlations yield familiar adiabatic, continuous renormalization, or sometimes nonadiabatic, discrete renormalization. Fractional charges may be carried by fundamental particles or fundamental solitons. Either picture works for the simplest fractional-quantum-Hall-effect quasiholes, though the particle description is far more general. The only known fundamental solitons in three or fewer space dimensions d are the kink (d = 1), the vortex (d = 2), and the magnetic monopole (d = 3). Further, for a charge not intrinsically coupled to the topological charge of a soliton, only the kink and the monopole may carry fractional values. The same reasoning enforces fractional values of B-L for electrically charged elementary particles. 19. Fractionation and characterization of euchromatin isolated from mouse ascites sarcoma cells Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Inaba,Kozo 1978-12-01 Full Text Available Euchromatin specimen prepared by the usual method formed large clumps and had various shapes under electron microscopy. A method of separation of the euchromatin specimen into chromatin fractions having relatively homogeneous form was examined and partial characterization of these fractions was carried out. The heavy euchromatin fraction was a large network of thin fibrils (about 100 A in diameter and various thick fibers. The intermediate euchromatin fraction consisted of relatively homogeneous networks of thick knobby fibers (about 250 A in diameter. The light euchromatin fraction had metworks of thick fibers. These chromatin fractions were quantitatively prepared from sonicated nuclei of mouse ascites sarcoma cells. Twenty-one or twenty-two bands of non-histone proteins besides histones were detected in these chromatin fractions by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. There were significant differences in the electrophoretic patterns of non-histone proteins among these chromatin fractions. 20. C^2/Z_n Fractional branes and Monodromy CERN Document Server Karp, R L 2005-01-01 We construct geometric representatives for the C^2/Z_n fractional branes in terms of branes wrapping certain exceptional cycles of the resolution. In the process we use large radius and conifold-type monodromies, and also check some of the orbifold quantum symmetries. We find the explicit Seiberg-duality, in the Berenstein-Douglas sense, which connects our fractional branes to the ones given by the McKay correspondence. We also comment on the Harvey-Moore BPS algebras. 1. Online Nanoflow Multidimensional Fractionation for High Efficiency Phosphopeptide Analysis* OpenAIRE Ficarro, Scott B.; Zhang, Yi; Carrasco-Alfonso, Marlene J.; Garg, Brijesh; Adelmant, Guillaume; Webber, James T.; Luckey, C. John; Marto, Jarrod A. 2011-01-01 Despite intense, continued interest in global analyses of signaling cascades through mass spectrometry-based studies, the large-scale, systematic production of phosphoproteomics data has been hampered in-part by inefficient fractionation strategies subsequent to phosphopeptide enrichment. Here we explore two novel multidimensional fractionation strategies for analysis of phosphopeptides. In the first technique we utilize aliphatic ion pairing agents to improve retention of phosphopeptides at ... 2. Fractional characteristic times and dissipated energy in fractional linear viscoelasticity Science.gov (United States) Colinas-Armijo, Natalia; Di Paola, Mario; Pinnola, Francesco P. 2016-08-01 In fractional viscoelasticity the stress-strain relation is a differential equation with non-integer operators (derivative or integral). Such constitutive law is able to describe the mechanical behavior of several materials, but when fractional operators appear, the elastic and the viscous contribution are inseparable and the characteristic times (relaxation and retardation time) cannot be defined. This paper aims to provide an approach to separate the elastic and the viscous phase in the fractional stress-strain relation with the aid of an equivalent classical model (Kelvin-Voigt or Maxwell). For such equivalent model the parameters are selected by an optimization procedure. Once the parameters of the equivalent model are defined, characteristic times of fractional viscoelasticity are readily defined as ratio between viscosity and stiffness. In the numerical applications, three kinds of different excitations are considered, that is, harmonic, periodic, and pseudo-stochastic. It is shown that, for any periodic excitation, the equivalent models have some important features: (i) the dissipated energy per cycle at steady-state coincides with the Staverman-Schwarzl formulation of the fractional model, (ii) the elastic and the viscous coefficients of the equivalent model are strictly related to the storage and the loss modulus, respectively. 3. Fractionation and business potential from sludge (Pafrak) Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Pirkonen, P.; Kylloenen, H. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)); Niinimaeki, J.; Oksanen, J. (Univ. of Oulu (Finland)) 2008-07-01 Wastewater sludge contains valuable components which can be recycled and converted to secondary raw material. High water content of sludge can hinder the further processing. Dry solids content of waste activated sludge after dewatering can be as low as 12-20% and even lower for tertiary sludge. This research aims with better knowledge of sludge and fractionation to generation of potential business ideas which could lead to new sludge based products and services in national and international markets already in this project or in separate development projects. Municipal waste activated sludge and deinking, primary, waste activated and tertiary sludge from pulp and paper industry are the suspensions to be studied. Basic properties of these sludges have been determined by large number of analysing methods. Dewatering properties, which are one of the key topics, have been studied with a novel flocculation/filtration device. Conventional fractionation equipment (decanter centrifuge, hydrocyclone. filter belt press and sieve bend) have been used to see how the sludge could be fractionated. State of the art has been drawn up about the current utilisation of wastewater sludge. One of the key issues in future research is how to affect the binding forces between different substances in sludge. (orig.) 4. Fractionation and business potential from sludge - Pafrak Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Kylloenen, H.; Groenroos, A.; Pirkonen, P. (VTT Tecchnical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)), Email: hanna.kyllonen@vtt.fi; Maekinen, L.; Aemmaelae, A.; Niinimaeki, J. (Univ. of Oulu (Finland)), Email: liisa.makinen@oulu.fi 2010-10-15 Wastewater sludges contain valuable components which can be recycled and converted to secondary raw material. High water content of sludge can hinder the further processing. Dry solids content of waste activated sludge after dewatering can be as low as 12-20% and even lower for tertiary sludge. This research aimed with better knowledge of sludge and fractionation to generate potential business ideas, which could lead to new sludge based products and services in national and international markets already in this project or in separate development projects. Primary, waste activated, tertiary and deinking sludge from pulp and paper industry and municipal waste activated sludge were the suspensions to be studied. Basic properties of these sludges have been determined by large number of analysing methods. Wood based components and chemical elements have been determined to clarify the raw material potential for biorefineries. Conventional fractionation techniques (decanter centrifuge, hydrocyclone, belt filter press and sieve bend) have been used to see how the sludge can be fractionated. Correlations of wood based components and dewatering properties have been studied especially for the waste activated sludge. The effects of wood based filter aids were studied on the dewatering properties of waste activated sludge. State of the art has been drawn up about the current utilisation of wastewater sludge. (orig.) 5. Fractional conversion of microalgae from water blooms. Science.gov (United States) Zhou, Yingdong; Li, Linling; Zhang, Rui; Hu, Changwei 2017-09-21 Fractional conversion of natural algae cyanobacteria from Taihu Lake was conducted. The raw Taihu Lake algae (TLA) and pretreated samples were pyrolyzed at 290 °C and 450 °C according to the TGA results. Extraction of lipids or saccharides from the TLA was performed as a pretreatment to obtain lipid extracted algae (LEA) or saccharide extracted algae (SEA). The total yields of bio-oil from fractional pyrolysis were 40.9 wt% from TLA, 42.3 wt% from LEA, and 48.5 wt% from SEA. From TLA, the major components of the bio-oil were fatty acids, amides and hydrocarbons (heptadecane) at 290 °C whereas those at 450 °C were phenols and C10-C15 hydrocarbons. Following the lipid extraction, acids, amides and indoles accounted for a large proportion at 290 °C, while the main products obtained at 450 °C were phenols, indoles and pyrroles. It is worth mentioning that the yield of bio-oil from the LEA had increased, and the composition of the bio-oil was simplified. Moreover, the average molecular weight of the bio-oil obtained from LEA had decreased. Interestingly, the extraction of saccharides inhibited pyrolysis of the lipids, so the distribution of the bio-oil from SEA changed only a little. Fractional pyrolysis of pretreated microalgae not only increased the bio-oil yield but also improved the quality of the bio-oil. 6. Deuterium Fractionation in the Ophiuchus Molecular Cloud CERN Document Server Punanova, A; Pon, A; Belloche, A; André, Ph 2015-01-01 Aims. We measure the deuterium fraction, RD, and the CO-depletion factor, fd, toward a number of starless and protostellar cores in the L1688 region of the Ophiuchus molecular cloud complex and search for variations based upon environmental differences across L1688. The kinematic properties of the dense gas traced by the N2H+ and N2D+ (1-0) lines are also discussed. Methods. RD has been measured via observations of the J=1-0 transition of N2H+ and N2D+ toward 33 dense cores in different regions of L1688. fd estimates have been done using C17O(1-0) and 850 micron dust continuum emission from the SCUBA survey. All line observations were carried out with the IRAM 30 meter antenna. Results. The dense cores show large (2-40%) deuterium fractions, with significant variations between the sub-regions of L1688. The CO-depletion factor also varies from one region to another (1-7). Two different correlations are found between deuterium fraction and CO-depletion factor: cores in regions A, B2 and I show increasing RD wit... 7. Argon isotope fractionation induced by stepwise heating Science.gov (United States) Trieloff, Mario; Falter, Martina; Buikin, Alexei I.; Korochantseva, Ekaterina V.; Jessberger, Elmar K.; Altherr, Rainer 2005-03-01 Noble gas isotopes are widely used to elucidate the history of the rocks in which they have been trapped, either from distinct reservoirs or by accumulation following radioactive decay. To extract noble gases from their host rocks, stepwise heating is the most commonly used technique to deconvolve isotopically different components, e.g., atmospheric, in situ radiogenic, or excess radiogenic from mantle or crustal reservoirs. The accurate determination of the isotopic composition of these different components is of crucial importance, e.g., for ages obtained by 40Ar- 39Ar stepheating plateaus. However, diffusion theory-based model calculations predict that the stepwise thermal extraction process from mineral phases induces isotope fractionation and, hence, adulterates the original composition. Such effects are largely unconsidered, as they are small and a compelling experimental observation is lacking. We report the first unequivocal evidence for significant mass fractionation of argon isotopes during thermal extraction, observed on shungite, a carbon-rich Precambrian sedimentary rock. The degree of fractionation, as monitored by 38Ar/ 36Ar and 40Ar/ 36Ar ratios, very well agrees with theoretical predictions assuming an inverse square root dependence of diffusion coefficient and atomic mass, resulting in easier extraction of lighter isotopes. Hence, subatmospheric 40Ar/ 36Ar ratios obtained for argon extracted at low temperatures may not represent paleoatmospheric argon. Shungite argon resembles modern atmospheric composition, but constraints on the timing of trapping appear difficult to obtain, as shungites are multicomponent systems. In 40Ar- 39Ar stepwise heating, the isotope fractionation effect could cause systematic underestimations of plateau ages, between 0.15 and 0.4% depending on age, or considerably higher if samples contain appreciable atmospheric Ar. The magnitude of this effect is similar to the presently achieved uncertainties of this increasingly 8. Pathways to fraction learning: Numerical abilities mediate the relation between early cognitive competencies and later fraction knowledge. Science.gov (United States) Ye, Ai; Resnick, Ilyse; Hansen, Nicole; Rodrigues, Jessica; Rinne, Luke; Jordan, Nancy C 2016-12-01 The current study investigated the mediating role of number-related skills in the developmental relationship between early cognitive competencies and later fraction knowledge using structural equation modeling. Fifth-grade numerical skills (i.e., whole number line estimation, non-symbolic proportional reasoning, multiplication, and long division skills) mapped onto two distinct factors: magnitude reasoning and calculation. Controlling for participants' (N=536) demographic characteristics, these two factors fully mediated relationships between third-grade general cognitive competencies (attentive behavior, verbal and nonverbal intellectual abilities, and working memory) and sixth-grade fraction knowledge (concepts and procedures combined). However, specific developmental pathways differed by type of fraction knowledge. Magnitude reasoning ability fully mediated paths from all four cognitive competencies to knowledge of fraction concepts, whereas calculation ability fully mediated paths from attentive behavior and verbal ability to knowledge of fraction procedures (all with medium to large effect sizes). These findings suggest that there are partly overlapping, yet distinct, developmental pathways from cognitive competencies to general fraction knowledge, fraction concepts, and fraction procedures. 9. From fractional Fourier transformation to quantum mechanical fractional squeezing transformation Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) 吕翠红; 范洪义; 李东韡 2015-01-01 By converting the triangular functions in the integration kernel of the fractional Fourier transformation to the hy-perbolic function, i.e., tanα→tanhα, sinα→sinhα, we find quantum mechanical fractional squeezing transformation (FrST) which satisfies additivity. By virtue of the integration technique within ordered product of operators (IWOP) wederive the unitary operator responsible for the FrST, which is composite and is made of eiπa†a/2 and exp[ iα2 (a2+a†2)]. The FrST may be implemented in combinations of quadratic nonlinear crystals with different phase mismatches. 10. FRACTIONAL TRANSPORT OF SEDIMENT MIXTURES Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) Baosheng WU; Albert MOLINAS; Anping SHU 2003-01-01 A new method based on the Transport Capacity Fraction (TCF) concept is proposed to compute the fractional transport rates for nonuniform sediment mixtures in sand-bed channels. The TCF concept is derived from the understanding that the measurements and predictions of bed-material load are more accurate and reliable than the measurements and predictions of fractional loads. First the bed-material load is computed using an appropriate equation, then the fractional transport rates are determined by distributing the bed-material load into size groups through a transport capacity distribution function. For the computation of bed-material loads, the Aekers and White, Engelund and Hansen, and Yang equations are used in this study. Two new transport capacity distribution functions are developed for flows in sand-bed channels. The new expressions presented in this paper account for the sheltering and exposure effects that exist in mixtures. Comparisons with measured data show that the proposed method can significantly improve the predictions of fractional transport rates for nonuniform sediment mixtures. 11. Phytotoxic characterization of various fractions of Launaea ... African Journals Online (AJOL) Administrator 2011-06-15 Jun 15, 2011 ... Abbreviations: DMSO, Dimethyl sulfoxide; LPME, Launaea procumbens ... 1, non treated control; 2, n-hexane fraction; 3, ethyl acetate fraction; ... fractionated using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and distilled ... 12. REFractions: The Representing Equivalent Fractions Game Science.gov (United States) Tucker, Stephen I. 2014-01-01 Stephen Tucker presents a fractions game that addresses a range of fraction concepts including equivalence and computation. The REFractions game also improves students' fluency with representing, comparing and adding fractions. 13. Type-2 fuzzy fractional derivatives Science.gov (United States) Mazandarani, Mehran; Najariyan, Marzieh 2014-07-01 In this paper, we introduce two definitions of the differentiability of type-2 fuzzy number-valued functions of fractional order. The definitions are in the sense of Riemann-Liouville and Caputo derivative of order β ɛ (0, 1), and based on type-2 Hukuhara difference and H2-differentiability. The existence and uniqueness of the solutions of type-2 fuzzy fractional differential equations (T2FFDEs) under Caputo type-2 fuzzy fractional derivative and the definition of Laplace transform of type-2 fuzzy number-valued functions are also given. Moreover, the approximate solution to T2FFDE by a Predictor-Evaluate-Corrector-Evaluate (PECE) method is presented. Finally, the approximate solutions of two examples of linear and nonlinear T2FFDEs are obtained using the PECE method, and some cases of T2FFDEs applications in some sciences are presented. 14. Optical encryption with cascaded fractional wavelet transforms Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) BAO Liang-hua; CHEN Lin-fei; ZHAO Dao-mu 2006-01-01 On the basis of fractional wavelet transform, we propose a new method called cascaded fractional wavelet transform to encrypt images. It has the virtues of fractional Fourier transform and wavelet transform. Fractional orders, standard focal lengths and scaling factors are its keys. Multistage fractional Fourier transforms can add the keys easily and strengthen information security. This method can also realize partial encryption just as wavelet transform and fractional wavelet transform. Optical realization of encryption and decryption is proposed. Computer simulations confirmed its possibility. 15. No surprises, please! Science.gov (United States) Davis, Dena S 2013-01-01 This narrative symposium examines the relationship of bioethics practice to personal experiences of illness. A call for stories was developed by Tod Chambers, the symposium editor, and editorial staff and was sent to several commonly used bioethics listservs and posted on the Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics website. The call asked authors to relate a personal story of being ill or caring for a person who is ill, and to describe how this affected how they think about bioethical questions and the practice of medicine. Eighteen individuals were invited to submit full stories based on review of their proposals. Twelve stories are published in this symposium, and six supplemental stories are published online only through Project MUSE. Authors explore themes of vulnerability, suffering, communication, voluntariness, cultural barriers, and flaws in local healthcare systems through stories about their own illnesses or about caring for children, partners, parents and grandparents. Commentary articles by Arthur Frank, Bradley Lewis, and Carol Taylor follow the collection of personal narratives. 16. Tohoku earthquake: a surprise? CERN Document Server Kagan, Yan Y 2011-01-01 We consider three issues related to the 2011 Tohoku mega-earthquake: (1) how to evaluate the earthquake maximum size in subduction zones, (2) what is the repeat time for the largest earthquakes in Tohoku area, and (3) what are the possibilities of short-term forecasts during the 2011 sequence. There are two quantitative methods which can be applied to estimate the maximum earthquake size: a statistical analysis of the available earthquake record and the moment conservation principle. The latter technique studies how much of the tectonic deformation rate is released by earthquakes. For the subduction zones, the seismic or historical record is not sufficient to provide a reliable statistical measure of the maximum earthquake. The moment conservation principle yields consistent estimates of maximum earthquake size: for all the subduction zones the magnitude is of the order 9.0--9.7, and for major subduction zones the maximum earthquake size is statistically indistinguishable. Starting in 1999 we have carried out... 17. A Pleasant Goat Surprise Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) JING XIAOLEI 2010-01-01 @@ For decades,Chinese children have sat in front of television sets mesmerized as American cartoon cat Tom chased mouse rival Jerry,or as the Japanese manga robot feline Doraemon helped his schoolboy companion Nobita Nobi.Now,the animated tables are turning and foreign kids are able to enjoy Chinese cartoons from the comfort of their couches. 18. More statistics, less surprise CERN Multimedia Antonella Del Rosso & the LHCb collaboration 2013-01-01 The LHCb collaboration has recently announced new results for a parameter that measures the CP violation effect in particles containing charm quarks. The new values obtained with a larger data set and with a new independent method are showing that the effect is smaller than previous measurements had suggested. The parameter is back into the Standard Model picture. CP violation signals – in particles containing charm quarks, such as the D0 particle, is a powerful probe of new physics. Indeed, such effects could result in unexpected values of parameters whose expectation values in the Standard Model are known. Although less precise than similar approaches used in particles made of b quarks, the investigation of the charm system has proven to be intriguing. The LHCb collaboration has reported new measurements of ΔACP, the difference in CP violation between the D0→K+K– and D0→π+π– decays. The results are ob... 19. Monotony and Surprise Science.gov (United States) Apostolico, Alberto This paper reviews models and tools emerged in recent years in the author’s work in connection with the discovery of interesting or anomalous patterns in sequences. Whereas customary approaches to pattern discovery proceed from either a statistical or a syntactic characterization alone, the approaches described here present the unifying feature of combining these two descriptors in a solidly intertwined, composite paradigm, whereby both syntactic structure and occurrence lists concur to define and identify a pattern in a subject. In turn, this supports a natural notion of pattern saturation, which enables one to partition patterns into equivalence classes over intervals of monotonicity of commonly adopted scores, in such a way that the subset of class representatives, consisting solely of saturated patterns, suffices to account for all patterns in the subject. The benefits at the outset consist not only of an increased descriptive power, but especially of a mitigation of the often unmanageable roster of candidates unearthed in a discovery attempt, and of the daunting computational burden that goes with it. 20. Surprised by selectivity NARCIS (Netherlands) de Jong, Krijn P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06885580X 2016-01-01 Lower olefins, particularly ethylene (C2H4), propylene (C3H6), and butylene (C4H8), are important intermediates in the manufacture of products such as plastics, solvents, paints, and medicines. They are produced worldwide in amounts exceeding 200 million tons per year (see the photo) (1), mostly 1. The surprising superconductor Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Taner Yildirim 2002-04-01 The serendipitous discovery by Akimitsu’s group1 of the superconductivity of MgB2 at Tc=39 K, almost twice the temperature of other simple intermetallic compounds, has sparked a race to uncover its basic properties and to find other related diborides with even higher Tcs. After the first announcement, the number of preprints appearing on the Los Alamos preprint server (Fig. 1 grew almost exponentially, reaching a maximum of about 60 studies in March (two papers a day, then decreasing linearly down to a paper every other day in August, and staying steady at about this rate until now. During the first year of the MgB2 era, more than 300 studies were published, exploring both fundamental and practical issues, such as the mechanism of the superconductivity; synthesis of MgB2 in the form of powder, thin films, wires, and tapes; the effect on Tc of substitution with various elements and on critical current and fields. 2. Surprises in aperiodic diffraction CERN Document Server Baake, Michael 2009-01-01 Mathematical diffraction theory is concerned with the diffraction image of a given structure and the corresponding inverse problem of structure determination. In recent years, the understanding of systems with continuous and mixed spectra has improved considerably. Moreover, the phenomenon of homometry shows various unexpected new facets. Here, we report on some of the recent results in an exemplary and informal fashion. 3. Jordan: Surprisingly Stable OpenAIRE Ådnegard, Elisabeth 2014-01-01 Over the years, research has demonstrated that conflict spreads to the host country as a consequence of massive influx of refugees. Most studies gathered empirical evidence from African countries and focused on cases where conflict had already spread. In contrast to this literature, the main objective of this thesis is to examine the absence of conflict in Jordan after receiving Syrian refugees that amount to about 10 percent of Jordan s original population over the past three years, 2011-201... 4. Surprising quantum bounces CERN Document Server Nesvizhevsky, Valery 2015-01-01 This unique book demonstrates the undivided unity and infinite diversity of quantum mechanics using a single phenomenon: quantum bounces of ultra-cold particles. Various examples of such "quantum bounces" are: gravitational quantum states of ultra-cold neutrons (the first observed quantum states of matter in a gravitational field), the neutron whispering gallery (an observed matter-wave analog of the whispering gallery effect well known in acoustics and for electromagnetic waves), and gravitational and whispering gallery states for anti-matter atoms that remain to be observed. These quantum states are an invaluable tool in the search for additional fundamental short-range forces, for exploring the gravitational interaction and quantum effects of gravity, for probing physics beyond the standard model, and for furthering studies into the foundations of quantum mechanics, quantum optics, and surface science. 5. No More Surprises. Science.gov (United States) Sorrel, Amy 2016-05-01 Texas Medical Association research shows that health plans' shrinking networks, caps on payments for medical care, inaccurate directories, and other tactics - not physician billing - are bearing down on patients in the form of unexpected, out-of-network balance bills. 6. Surprising radiation detectors CERN Document Server Fleischer, Robert 2003-01-01 Radiation doses received by the human body can be measured indirectly and retrospectively by counting the tracks left by particles in ordinary objects like pair of spectacles, glassware, compact disks...This method has been successfully applied to determine neutron radiation doses received 50 years ago on the Hiroshima site. Neutrons themselves do not leave tracks in bulk matter but glass contains atoms of uranium that may fission when hurt by a neutron, the recoil of the fission fragments generates a track that is detectable. The most difficult is to find adequate glass items and to evaluate the radiation shield they benefited at their initial place. The same method has been used to determine the radiation dose due to the pile-up of radon in houses. In that case the tracks left by alpha particles due to the radioactive decay of polonium-210 have been counted on the superficial layer of the window panes. Other materials like polycarbonate plastics have been used to determine the radiation dose due to heavy io... 7. Neurotransmitter Switching? No Surprise. Science.gov (United States) Spitzer, Nicholas C 2015-06-03 Among the many forms of brain plasticity, changes in synaptic strength and changes in synapse number are particularly prominent. However, evidence for neurotransmitter respecification or switching has been accumulating steadily, both in the developing nervous system and in the adult brain, with observations of transmitter addition, loss, or replacement of one transmitter with another. Natural stimuli can drive these changes in transmitter identity, with matching changes in postsynaptic transmitter receptors. Strikingly, they often convert the synapse from excitatory to inhibitory or vice versa, providing a basis for changes in behavior in those cases in which it has been examined. Progress has been made in identifying the factors that induce transmitter switching and in understanding the molecular mechanisms by which it is achieved. There are many intriguing questions to be addressed. 8. Surprise Trips DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Korn, Matthias; Kawash, Raghid; Andersen, Lisbet Møller 2010-01-01 Little treasures in nature often go unnoticed by visitors when roaming about in a national park. Ubiquitous technology with its less intrusive character may be apt to enhance this natural experience of exploration. In this paper, we report on a system that augments this experience. It builds on t... 9. Fractional Derivatives in Dengue Epidemics Science.gov (United States) Pooseh, Shakoor; Rodrigues, Helena Sofia; Torres, Delfim F. M. 2011-09-01 We introduce the use of fractional calculus, i.e., the use of integrals and derivatives of non-integer (arbitrary) order, in epidemiology. The proposed approach is illustrated with an outbreak of dengue disease, which is motivated by the first dengue epidemic ever recorded in the Cape Verde islands off the coast of west Africa, in 2009. Numerical simulations show that in some cases the fractional models fit better the reality when compared with the standard differential models. The classical results are obtained as particular cases by considering the order of the derivatives to take an integer value. 10. On a fractional difference operator Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) P. Baliarsingh 2016-06-01 Full Text Available In the present article, a set of new difference sequence spaces of fractional order has been introduced and subsequently, an application of these spaces, the notion of the derivatives and the integrals of a function to the case of non-integer order have been generalized. Certain results involving the unusual and non-uniform behavior of the corresponding difference operator have been investigated and also been verified by using some counter examples. We also verify these unusual and non-uniform behaviors by studying the geometry of fractional calculus. 11. A Fast Fractional Difference Algorithm DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Jensen, Andreas Noack; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard We provide a fast algorithm for calculating the fractional difference of a time series. In standard implementations, the calculation speed (number of arithmetic operations) is of order T 2, where T is the length of the time series. Our algorithm allows calculation speed of order T logT . For mode......We provide a fast algorithm for calculating the fractional difference of a time series. In standard implementations, the calculation speed (number of arithmetic operations) is of order T 2, where T is the length of the time series. Our algorithm allows calculation speed of order T log... 12. Fractional Boundaries for Fluid Spheres CERN Document Server Bayin, S; Krisch, J P; Bayin, Selcuk; Krisch, Jean P. 2006-01-01 A single Israel layer can be created when two metrics adjoin with no continuous metric derivative across the boundary. The properties of the layer depend only on the two metrics it separates. By using a fractional derivative match, a family of Israel layers can be created between the same two metrics. The family is indexed by the order of the fractional derivative. The method is applied to Tolman IV and V interiors and a Schwarzschild vacuum exterior. The method creates new ranges of modeling parameters for fluid spheres. A thin shell analysis clarifies pressure/tension in the family of boundary layers. 13. Fractional derivatives in Dengue epidemics CERN Document Server Pooseh, Shakoor; Torres, Delfim F M 2011-01-01 We introduce the use of fractional calculus, i.e., the use of integrals and derivatives of non-integer (arbitrary) order, in epidemiology. The proposed approach is illustrated with an outbreak of dengue disease, which is motivated by the first dengue epidemic ever recorded in the Cape Verde islands off the coast of west Africa, in 2009. Numerical simulations show that in some cases the fractional models fit better the reality when compared with the standard differential models. The classical results are obtained as particular cases by considering the order of the derivatives to take an integer value. 14. Fractional Transport in Strongly Turbulent Plasmas Science.gov (United States) Isliker, Heinz; Vlahos, Loukas; Constantinescu, Dana 2017-07-01 We analyze statistically the energization of particles in a large scale environment of strong turbulence that is fragmented into a large number of distributed current filaments. The turbulent environment is generated through strongly perturbed, 3D, resistive magnetohydrodynamics simulations, and it emerges naturally from the nonlinear evolution, without a specific reconnection geometry being set up. Based on test-particle simulations, we estimate the transport coefficients in energy space for use in the classical Fokker-Planck (FP) equation, and we show that the latter fails to reproduce the simulation results. The reason is that transport in energy space is highly anomalous (strange), the particles perform Levy flights, and the energy distributions show extended power-law tails. Newly then, we motivate the use and derive the specific form of a fractional transport equation (FTE), we determine its parameters and the order of the fractional derivatives from the simulation data, and we show that the FTE is able to reproduce the high energy part of the simulation data very well. The procedure for determining the FTE parameters also makes clear that it is the analysis of the simulation data that allows us to make the decision whether a classical FP equation or a FTE is appropriate. 15. Microhydrodynamics of deformable particles: surprising responses of drops and vesicles to uniform electric field or shear flow Science.gov (United States) Vlahovska, Petia 2015-11-01 Particle motion in a viscous fluid is a classic problem that continues to surprise researchers. In this talk, I will discuss some intriguing, experimentally-observed behaviors of droplets and giant vesicles (cell-size lipid membrane sacs) in electric or flow fields. In a uniform electric field, a droplet deforms into an ellipsoid that can either be steadily tilted relative to the applied field direction or undergo unsteady motions (periodic shape oscillations or irregular flipping); a spherical vesicle can adopt a transient square shape or reversibly porate. In a steady shear flow, a vesicle can tank-tread, tumble or swing. Theoretical models show that the nonlinear drop dynamics originates from the interplay of Quincke rotation and interface deformation, while the vesicle dynamics stems from the membrane inextensibility. The practical motivation for this research lies in an improved understanding of technologies that rely on the manipulation of drops and cells by flow or electric fields. 16. A componential view of children's difficulties in learning fractions. Science.gov (United States) Gabriel, Florence; Coché, Frédéric; Szucs, Dénes; Carette, Vincent; Rey, Bernard; Content, Alain 2013-01-01 Fractions are well known to be difficult to learn. Various hypotheses have been proposed in order to explain those difficulties: fractions can denote different concepts; their understanding requires a conceptual reorganization with regard to natural numbers; and using fractions involves the articulation of conceptual knowledge with complex manipulation of procedures. In order to encompass the major aspects of knowledge about fractions, we propose to distinguish between conceptual and procedural knowledge. We designed a test aimed at assessing the main components of fraction knowledge. The test was carried out by fourth-, fifth- and sixth-graders from the French Community of Belgium. The results showed large differences between categories. Pupils seemed to master the part-whole concept, whereas numbers and operations posed problems. Moreover, pupils seemed to apply procedures they do not fully understand. Our results offer further directions to explain why fractions are amongst the most difficult mathematical topics in primary education. This study offers a number of recommendations on how to teach fractions. 17. Sulfur isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction in organic-rich sediments DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Habicht, K S; Canfield, D E 1997-01-01 by the natural populations of sulfate reducers and previous measurements from pure cultures. This was somewhat surprising given the extremely high rates of sulfate reduction in the experiments. Our results are explained if we conclude that the fractionation was mainly controlled by the specific rate of sulfate......Isotope fractionation during sulfate reduction by natural populations of sulfate-reducing bacteria was investigated in the cyanobacterial microbial mats of Solar Lake, Sinai and the sediments of Logten Lagoon sulfuretum, Denmark. Fractionation was measured at different sediment depths, sulfate...... concentrations, and incubation temperatures. Rates of sulfate reduction varied between 0.1 and 37 micromoles cm-3 d-1, with the highest rates among the highest ever reported from natural sediments. The depletion of 34S during dissimilatory sulfate reduction ranged from 16% to 42%, with the largest 34S... 18. Staircase and Fractional Part Functions Science.gov (United States) Amram, Meirav; Dagan, Miriam; Ioshpe, Michael; Satianov, Pavel 2016-01-01 The staircase and fractional part functions are basic examples of real functions. They can be applied in several parts of mathematics, such as analysis, number theory, formulas for primes, and so on; in computer programming, the floor and ceiling functions are provided by a significant number of programming languages--they have some basic uses in… 19. Fractional Laplace Transforms - A Perspective CERN Document Server Treumann, R A 2014-01-01 A form of the Laplace transform is reviewed as a paradigm for an entire class of fractional functional transforms. Various of its properties are discussed. Such transformations should be useful in application to differential/integral equations or problems in non-extensive statistical mechanics. 20. Subcellular fractionation of rough microsomes. Science.gov (United States) Sabatini, David D 2014-09-02 When eukaryotic cells are homogenized, the rough endoplasmic reticula are converted into small vesicles, called rough microsomes. Strategies for the isolation of rough microsomes are introduced here, as are methods for evaluating the purity and intactness of an isolated rough microsomal fraction. 1. Working with a fractional object: DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Christensen, Bodil Just; Hillersdal, Line; Holm, Lotte 2017-01-01 constitutes ‘appetite’ was a key concern, as each discipline has its particular definition and operationalization of the term. In response, a material-semiotic approach was chosen which allowed for a reconceptualization of appetite as a ‘fractional object’, engaged in multiple relations and enacted... 2. Complexity and the Fractional Calculus Science.gov (United States) 2013-01-01 developed in a number of signif- icant ways in the recent past. Sokolov et al. [1] maintain that this calculus was restricted to the field of mathematics... Sokolov , J. Klafter, and A. Blumen, “Fractional kinetics,” Physics Today, vol. 55, no. 11, pp. 48–54, 2002. [2] V. Seshadri and B. J. West, “Fractal 3. Fractional Laplace Transforms - A Perspective Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Rudolf A. Treumann 2014-06-01 Full Text Available A new form of the Laplace transform is reviewed as a paradigm for an entire class of fractional functional transforms. Various of its properties are discussed. Such transformations should be useful in application to differential/integral equations or problems in non-extensive statistical mechanics. 4. A note on fractional supersolutions Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Janne Korvenpaa 2016-09-01 Full Text Available We study a class of equations driven by nonlocal, possibly degenerate, integro-differential operators of differentiability order$s\\in (0,1$and summability growth$p>1$, whose model is the fractional$p\$-Laplacian with measurable coefficients. We prove that the minimum of the corresponding weak supersolutions is a weak supersolution as well.

5. Math Fair: Focus on Fractions

Science.gov (United States)

Mokashi, Neelima A.

2009-01-01

This article depicts the rewarding experience of creating mathematical environments for kindergarten and elementary students by focusing on one of the most important and often difficult-to-grasp concepts (fractions) through play methods incorporated into a math fair. The basic concept of a math fair is threefold: (1) to create preplanned,…

6. Pythagorean Approximations and Continued Fractions

Science.gov (United States)

Peralta, Javier

2008-01-01

In this article, we will show that the Pythagorean approximations of [the square root of] 2 coincide with those achieved in the 16th century by means of continued fractions. Assuming this fact and the known relation that connects the Fibonacci sequence with the golden section, we shall establish a procedure to obtain sequences of rational numbers…

7. Riesz potential versus fractional Laplacian

KAUST Repository

Ortigueira, Manuel Duarte

2014-09-01

This paper starts by introducing the Grünwald-Letnikov derivative, the Riesz potential and the problem of generalizing the Laplacian. Based on these ideas, the generalizations of the Laplacian for 1D and 2D cases are studied. It is presented as a fractional version of the Cauchy-Riemann conditions and, finally, it is discussed with the n-dimensional Laplacian.

8. Fractional diffusion: recovering the distributed fractional derivative from overposed data

Science.gov (United States)

Rundell, W.; Zhang, Z.

2017-03-01

There has been considerable recent study in ‘subdiffusion’ models that replace the standard parabolic equation model by a one with a fractional derivative in the time variable. There are many ways to look at this newer approach and one such is to realize that the order of the fractional derivative is related to the time scales of the underlying diffusion process. This raises the question of what order α of derivative should be taken and if a single value actually suffices. This has led to models that combine a finite number of these derivatives each with a different fractional exponent {αk} and different weighting value c k to better model a greater possible range of time scales. Ultimately, one wants to look at a situation that combines derivatives in a continuous way—the so-called distributional model with parameter μ ≤ft(α \\right) . However all of this begs the question of how one determines this ‘order’ of differentiation. Recovering a single fractional value has been an active part of the process from the beginning of fractional diffusion modeling and if this is the only unknown then the markers left by the fractional order derivative are relatively straightforward to determine. In the case of a finite combination of derivatives this becomes much more complex due to the more limited analytic tools available for such equations, but recent progress in this direction has been made, (Li et al 2015 Appl. Math. Comput. 257 381–97, Li and Yamamoto 2015 Appl. Anal. 94 570–9). This paper considers the full distributional model where the order is viewed as a function μ ≤ft(α \\right) on the interval (0, 1]. We show existence, uniqueness and regularity for an initial-boundary value problem including an important representation theorem in the case of a single spatial variable. This is then used in the inverse problem of recovering the distributional coefficient μ ≤ft(α \\right) from a time trace of the solution and a uniqueness result is

9. Galaxy Cluster Baryon Fractions Revisited

Science.gov (United States)

Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Sivanandam, Suresh; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Zaritsky, Dennis

2013-11-01

We measure the baryons contained in both the stellar and hot-gas components for 12 galaxy clusters and groups at z ~ 0.1 with M = 1-5 × 1014 M ⊙. This paper improves upon our previous work through the addition of XMM-Newton X-ray data, enabling measurements of the total mass and masses of each major baryonic component—intracluster medium, intracluster stars, and stars in galaxies—for each system. We recover a mean relation for the stellar mass versus halo mass, M_{\\star }\\propto M_{500}^{-0.52+/- 0.04}, that is 1σ shallower than in our previous result. We confirm that the partitioning of baryons between the stellar and hot-gas components is a strong function of M 500; the fractions of total mass in stars and X-ray gas within a sphere of radius r 500 scale as f_{\\star }\\propto M_{500}^{-0.45+/- 0.04} and f_{gas}\\propto M_{500}^{0.26+/- 0.03}, respectively. We also confirm that the combination of the brightest cluster galaxy and intracluster stars is an increasingly important contributor to the stellar baryon budget in lower halo masses. Studies that fail to fully account for intracluster stars typically underestimate the normalization of the stellar baryon fraction versus M 500 relation by ~25%. Our derived stellar baryon fractions are also higher, and the trend with halo mass weaker, than those derived from recent halo occupation distribution and abundance matching analyses. One difference from our previous work is the weak, but statistically significant, dependence here of the total baryon fraction upon halo mass: f_{bary}\\propto M_{500}^{0.16+/- 0.04}. For M 500 >~ 2 × 1014, the total baryon fractions within r 500 are on average 18% below the universal value from the seven year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) analysis, or 7% below for the cosmological parameters from the Planck analysis. In the latter case, the difference between the universal value and cluster baryon fractions is less than the systematic uncertainties associated with

10. Fractional Processes and Fractional-Order Signal Processing Techniques and Applications

CERN Document Server

Sheng, Hu; Qiu, TianShuang

2012-01-01

Fractional processes are widely found in science, technology and engineering systems. In Fractional Processes and Fractional-order Signal Processing, some complex random signals, characterized by the presence of a heavy-tailed distribution or non-negligible dependence between distant observations (local and long memory), are introduced and examined from the ‘fractional’ perspective using simulation, fractional-order modeling and filtering and realization of fractional-order systems. These fractional-order signal processing (FOSP) techniques are based on fractional calculus, the fractional Fourier transform and fractional lower-order moments. Fractional Processes and Fractional-order Signal Processing: • presents fractional processes of fixed, variable and distributed order studied as the output of fractional-order differential systems; • introduces FOSP techniques and the fractional signals and fractional systems point of view; • details real-world-application examples of FOSP techniques to demonstr...

11. Large deviations

CERN Document Server

2016-01-01

The theory of large deviations deals with rates at which probabilities of certain events decay as a natural parameter in the problem varies. This book, which is based on a graduate course on large deviations at the Courant Institute, focuses on three concrete sets of examples: (i) diffusions with small noise and the exit problem, (ii) large time behavior of Markov processes and their connection to the Feynman-Kac formula and the related large deviation behavior of the number of distinct sites visited by a random walk, and (iii) interacting particle systems, their scaling limits, and large deviations from their expected limits. For the most part the examples are worked out in detail, and in the process the subject of large deviations is developed. The book will give the reader a flavor of how large deviation theory can help in problems that are not posed directly in terms of large deviations. The reader is assumed to have some familiarity with probability, Markov processes, and interacting particle systems.

12. Improving Children's Knowledge of Fraction Magnitudes

Science.gov (United States)

Fazio, Lisa K.; Kennedy, Casey A.; Siegler, Robert S.

2016-01-01

We examined whether playing a computerized fraction game, based on the integrated theory of numerical development and on the Common Core State Standards' suggestions for teaching fractions, would improve children's fraction magnitude understanding. Fourth and fifth-graders were given brief instruction about unit fractions and played "Catch…

13. Green's Theorem for Generalized Fractional Derivatives

CERN Document Server

Odzijewicz, Tatiana; Torres, Delfim F M

2012-01-01

We study three types of generalized partial fractional operators. An extension of Green's theorem, by considering partial fractional derivatives with more general kernels, is proved. New results are obtained, even in the particular case when the generalized operators are reduced to the standard partial fractional derivatives and fractional integrals in the sense of Riemann-Liouville or Caputo.

14. Using Number Sense to Compare Fractions

Science.gov (United States)

Bray, Wendy S.; Abreu-Sanchez, Laura

2010-01-01

One mathematical focus for third graders is to develop deep understanding of fractions and fraction equivalence, including comparing fractions through use of models and reasoning strategies. Before reading further, consider how you might solve the following problem: Which fraction is greater, 14/24 or 17/36? The initial impulse of many adults is…

15. 'The mother of all continued fractions'

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Dajani, K.; Kraaikamp, C.

2001-01-01

In this paper we give the relationship between the regular continued fraction and the Lehner fractions using a procedure known as insertion Starting from the regular continued fraction expansion of any real irrational x when the maximal number of insertions is applied one obtains the Lehner fraction

16. 9 CFR 113.7 - Multiple fractions.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-01-01

... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multiple fractions. 113.7 Section 113... § 113.7 Multiple fractions. (a) When a biological product contains more than one immunogenic fraction, the completed product shall be evaluated by tests applicable to each fraction. (b) When...

17. Large deviations

CERN Document Server

Hollander, Frank den

2008-01-01

This book is an introduction to the theory and applications of large deviations, a branch of probability theory that describes the probability of rare events in terms of variational problems. By focusing the theory, in Part A of the book, on random sequences, the author succeeds in conveying the main ideas behind large deviations without a need for technicalities, thus providing a concise and accessible entry to this challenging and captivating subject. The selection of modern applications, described in Part B of the book, offers a good sample of what large deviation theory is able to achieve

18. The inner regions of disk galaxies: a constant baryonic fraction?

CERN Document Server

Lelli, Federico

2014-01-01

For disk galaxies (spirals and irregulars), the inner circular-velocity gradient (inner steepness of the rotation curve) correlates with the central surface brightness with a slope of ~0.5. This implies that the central dynamical mass density scales almost linearly with the central baryonic density. Here I show that this empirical relation is consistent with a simple model where the central baryonic fraction f_bar(0) is fixed to 1 (no dark matter) and the observed scatter is due to differences in the baryonic mass-to-light ratio M_bar/L (ranging from 1 to 3 in the R-band) and in the characteristic thickness of the central stellar component dz (ranging from 100 to 500 pc). Models with lower baryonic fractions are possible, although they require some fine-tuning in the values of M_bar/L and dz. Regardless of the actual value of f_bar(0), the fact that different types of galaxies do not show strong variations in f_bar(0) is surprising, and may represent a challenge for models of galaxy formation in a LCDM cosmol...

19. The Inner Regions of Disk Galaxies: A Constant Baryonic Fraction?

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Federico Lelli

2014-07-01

Full Text Available For disk galaxies (spirals and irregulars, the inner circular-velocity gradient dRV0 (inner steepness of the rotation curve correlates with the central surface brightness ∑*,0 with a slope of ~0.5. This implies that the central dynamical mass density scales almost linearly with the central baryonic density. Here I show that this empirical relation is consistent with a simple model where the central baryonic fraction ƒbar,0 is fixed to 1 (no dark matter and the observed scatter is due to differences in the baryonic mass-to-light ratio Mbar / LR (ranging from 1 to 3 in the R-band and in the characteristic thickness of the central stellar component Δz (ranging from 100 to 500 pc. Models with lower baryonic fractions are possible, although they require some fine-tuning in the values of Mbar/LR and Δz. Regardless of the actual value of ƒbar,0, the fact that different types of galaxies do not show strong variations in ƒbar,0 is surprising, and may represent a challenge for models of galaxy formation in a Λ Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM cosmology.

20. Fractional conservation laws in optimal control theory

CERN Document Server

Frederico, Gastao S F

2007-01-01

Using the recent formulation of Noether's theorem for the problems of the calculus of variations with fractional derivatives, the Lagrange multiplier technique, and the fractional Euler-Lagrange equations, we prove a Noether-like theorem to the more general context of the fractional optimal control. As a corollary, it follows that in the fractional case the autonomous Hamiltonian does not define anymore a conservation law. Instead, it is proved that the fractional conservation law adds to the Hamiltonian a new term which depends on the fractional-order of differentiation, the generalized momentum, and the fractional derivative of the state variable.

1. On a fractal LC-electric circuit modeled by local fractional calculus

Science.gov (United States)

Yang, Xiao-Jun; Machado, J. A. Tenreiro; Cattani, Carlo; Gao, Feng

2017-06-01

A non-differentiable model of the LC-electric circuit described by a local fractional differential equation of fractal dimensional order is addressed in this article. From the fractal electrodynamics point of view, the relaxation oscillator, defined on Cantor sets in LC-electric circuit, and its exact solution using the local fractional Laplace transform are obtained. Comparative results among local fractional derivative, Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative and conventional derivative are discussed. Local fractional calculus is proposed as a new tool suitable for the study of a large class of electric circuits.

2. Noble gas fractionation during subsurface gas migration

Science.gov (United States)

Sathaye, Kiran J.; Larson, Toti E.; Hesse, Marc A.

2016-09-01

Environmental monitoring of shale gas production and geological carbon dioxide (CO2) storage requires identification of subsurface gas sources. Noble gases provide a powerful tool to distinguish different sources if the modifications of the gas composition during transport can be accounted for. Despite the recognition of compositional changes due to gas migration in the subsurface, the interpretation of geochemical data relies largely on zero-dimensional mixing and fractionation models. Here we present two-phase flow column experiments that demonstrate these changes. Water containing a dissolved noble gas is displaced by gas comprised of CO2 and argon. We observe a characteristic pattern of initial co-enrichment of noble gases from both phases in banks at the gas front, followed by a depletion of the dissolved noble gas. The enrichment of the co-injected noble gas is due to the dissolution of the more soluble major gas component, while the enrichment of the dissolved noble gas is due to stripping from the groundwater. These processes amount to chromatographic separations that occur during two-phase flow and can be predicted by the theory of gas injection. This theory provides a mechanistic basis for noble gas fractionation during gas migration and improves our ability to identify subsurface gas sources after post-genetic modification. Finally, we show that compositional changes due to two-phase flow can qualitatively explain the spatial compositional trends observed within the Bravo Dome natural CO2 reservoir and some regional compositional trends observed in drinking water wells overlying the Marcellus and Barnett shale regions. In both cases, only the migration of a gas with constant source composition is required, rather than multi-stage mixing and fractionation models previously proposed.

3. Astrophysical Applications of Fractional Calculus

Science.gov (United States)

Stanislavsky, Aleksander A.

The paradigm of fractional calculus occupies an important place for the macroscopic description of subdiffusion. Its advance in theoretical astrophysics is expected to be very attractive too. In this report we discuss a recent development of the idea to some astrophysical problems. One of them is connected with a random migration of bright points associated with magnetic fields at the solar photosphere. The transport of the bright points has subdiffusive features that require the fractional generalization of the Leighton's model. Another problem is related to the angular distribution of radio beams, being propagated through a medium with random inhomogeneities. The peculiarity of this medium is that radio beams are trapped because of random wave localization. This idea can be useful for the diagnostics of interplanetary and interstellar turbulent media.

4. Geometrical explanation of the fractional complex transform and derivative chain rule for fractional calculus

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

He, Ji-Huan, E-mail: hejihuan@suda.edu.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College of Textile and Engineering, Soochow University, 199 Ren-ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Elagan, S.K., E-mail: sayed_khalil2000@yahoo.com [Mathematics and Statistics Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, P.O. 888 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Menofiya University, Shebin Elkom (Egypt); Li, Z.B., E-mail: zhengbiaoli@l26.com [College of Mathematics and Information Science, Qujing Normal University, Qujing, Yunnan 655011 (China)

2012-01-09

The fractional complex transform is suggested to convert a fractional differential equation with Jumarie's modification of Riemann–Liouville derivative into its classical differential partner. Understanding the fractional complex transform and the chain rule for fractional calculus are elucidated geometrically. -- Highlights: ► The chain rule for fractional calculus is invalid, a counter example is given. ► The fractional complex transform is explained geometrically. ► Fractional equations can be converted into differential equations.

5. Fractional-calculus diffusion equation

OpenAIRE

Ajlouni, Abdul-Wali MS; Al-Rabai'ah, Hussam A

2010-01-01

Background Sequel to the work on the quantization of nonconservative systems using fractional calculus and quantization of a system with Brownian motion, which aims to consider the dissipation effects in quantum-mechanical description of microscale systems. Results The canonical quantization of a system represented classically by one-dimensional Fick's law, and the diffusion equation is carried out according to the Dirac method. A suitable Lagrangian, and Hamiltonian, describing the diffusive...

6. Why Is Learning Fraction and Decimal Arithmetic so Difficult?

Science.gov (United States)

Lortie-Forgues, Hugues; Tian, Jing; Siegler, Robert S.

2015-01-01

Fraction and decimal arithmetic are crucial for later mathematics achievement and for ability to succeed in many professions. Unfortunately, these capabilities pose large difficulties for many children and adults, and students' proficiency in them has shown little sign of improvement over the past three decades. To summarize what is known about…

7. Validating a Written Instrument for Assessing Students' Fractions Schemes and

Science.gov (United States)

Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.

2013-01-01

Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this study,…

8. Fractional statistical potential in graphene

Science.gov (United States)

Ardenghi, J. S.

2017-03-01

In this work the fractional statistics is applied to an anyon gas in graphene to obtain the special features that the arbitrary phase interchange of the particle coordinates introduce in the thermodynamic properties. The electron gas is constituted by N anyons in the long wavelength approximation obeying fractional exclusion statistics and the partition function is analyzed in terms of a perturbation expansion up to first order in the dimensionless constant λ / L being L the length of the graphene sheet and λ = βℏvF the thermal wavelength. By considering the correct permutation expansion of the many-anyons wavefunction, taking into account that the phase changes with the number of inversions in each permutation, the statistical fermionic/bosonic potential is obtained and the intermediate statistical behavior is found. It is shown that "extra" fermonic and bosonic particles states appears and this "statistical particle" distribution depends on N. Entropy and specific heat is obtained up to first order in λ / L showing that the results obtained differs from those obtained in different approximation to the fractional exclusion statistics.

9. Symmetry fractionalization and twist defects

Science.gov (United States)

Tarantino, Nicolas; Lindner, Netanel H.; Fidkowski, Lukasz

2016-03-01

Topological order in two-dimensions can be described in terms of deconfined quasiparticle excitations—anyons—and their braiding statistics. However, it has recently been realized that this data does not completely describe the situation in the presence of an unbroken global symmetry. In this case, there can be multiple distinct quantum phases with the same anyons and statistics, but with different patterns of symmetry fractionalization—termed symmetry enriched topological order. When the global symmetry group G, which we take to be discrete, does not change topological superselection sectors—i.e. does not change one type of anyon into a different type of anyon—one can imagine a local version of the action of G around each anyon. This leads to projective representations and a group cohomology description of symmetry fractionalization, with the second cohomology group {H}2(G,{{ A }}{{abelian}}) being the relevant group. In this paper, we treat the general case of a symmetry group G possibly permuting anyon types. We show that despite the lack of a local action of G, one can still make sense of a so-called twisted group cohomology description of symmetry fractionalization, and show how this data is encoded in the associativity of fusion rules of the extrinsic ‘twist’ defects of the symmetry. Furthermore, building on work of Hermele (2014 Phys. Rev. B 90 184418), we construct a wide class of exactly-solvable models which exhibit this twisted symmetry fractionalization, and connect them to our formal framework.

10. Fractionation and business potential from sludge - Pafrak

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kylloenen, H.; Groenroos, A.; Pirkonen, P. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)), email: hanna.kyllonen@vtt.fi; Maekinen, L.; Suopajaervi, T.; Niinimaeki, J. (Univ. of Oulu (Finland)), email: liisa.makinen@oulu.fi

2009-10-15

Wastewater sludge contains valuable components which can be recycled and converted to secondary raw material. High water content of sludge can hinder the further processing. Dry solids content of waste activated sludge after dewatering can be as low as 12-20% and even lower for tertiary sludge. This research aims with better knowledge of sludge and fractination to generate potential business ideas, which could lead to new sludge based products and services in national and international markets already in this project or in separate development projects. Primary, waste activated, tertiary and deinking sludge from pulp and paper industry and municipal waste activated sludge have been the suspensions to be studied. Basic properties of these sludges have been determined by large number of analysing methods. Wood based components and chemical elements have been determined to clarify the raw material potential for biorefineries. Correlations of wood based components and dewatering properties, which is one of the key topics, have been studied especially for the waste activated sludge. Conventional fractionation techniques (decanter centrifuge, hydro cyclone, belt filter press and sieve bend) have been used to see how the sludge can be fractionated. State of the art has been drawn up about the current utilisation of wastewater sludge. (orig.)

11. Radio observations of D I and fractionation

Science.gov (United States)

Heiles, Carl; Mccullough, Peter R.; Glassgold, Alfred E.

1993-01-01

We report observations to detect the 327 MHz line of atomic deuterium in the primarily molecular clouds towards Cas A and Sgr A, making appropriate choices of spectral and spatial resolution. Our best results for Cas A, based on 1253 hr of observing with the 85 foot (26 m) Hat Creek telescope and 45 hr with the very large array (VLA), yield an upper limit for the fraction of deuterium in atomic form, D I, of 0.14. We present an approximate analytical analysis of deuterium fractionation in translucent clouds, which shows that gas-phase ion-molecule reactions, assisted by dust and HD line self-shielding, are efficient in converting deuterium to HD. We conclude that little atomic deuterium is present in the molecular clumps in the Cas A clouds and that much higher sensitivity observations would be required to detect 327 MHz line in molecular clouds. We have also attempted to detect the 72 GHz line of DCO(+) toward Cas A. The observed upper limit to the DCO(+)/HCO(+) ratio of approximately 0.03 is not much larger than our theoretical estimate, and the DCO(+) line should be detectable with existing instrumentation, unless the temperature of these clouds is much larger than usually assumed.

12. The plant host can affect the encapsidation of brome mosaic virus (BMV) RNA: BMV virions are surprisingly heterogeneous.

Science.gov (United States)

Ni, Peng; Vaughan, Robert C; Tragesser, Brady; Hoover, Haley; Kao, C Cheng

2014-03-01

Brome mosaic virus (BMV) packages its genomic and subgenomic RNAs into three separate viral particles. BMV purified from barley, wheat, and tobacco have distinct relative abundances of the encapsidated RNAs. We seek to identify the basis for the host-dependent differences in viral RNA encapsidation. Sequencing of the viral RNAs revealed recombination events in the 3' untranslated region of RNA1 of BMV purified from barley and wheat, but not from tobacco. However, the relative amounts of the BMV RNAs that accumulated in barley and wheat are similar and RNA accumulation is not sufficient to account for the difference in RNA encapsidation. Virions purified from barley and wheat were found to differ in their isoelectric points, resistance to proteolysis, and contacts between the capsid residues and the RNA. Mass spectrometric analyses revealed that virions from the three hosts had different post-translational modifications that should impact the physiochemical properties of the virions. Another major source of variation in RNA encapsidation was due to the purification of BMV particles to homogeneity. Highly enriched BMV present in lysates had a surprising range of sizes, buoyant densities, and distinct relative amounts of encapsidated RNAs. These results show that the encapsidated BMV RNAs reflect a combination of host effects on the physiochemical properties of the viral capsids and the enrichment of a subset of virions. The previously unexpected heterogeneity in BMV should influence the timing of the infection and also the host innate immune responses.

13. Medial superior olivary neurons receive surprisingly few excitatory and inhibitory inputs with balanced strength and short-term dynamics.

Science.gov (United States)

Couchman, Kiri; Grothe, Benedikt; Felmy, Felix

2010-12-15

Neurons in the medial superior olive (MSO) process microsecond interaural time differences, the major cue for localizing low-frequency sounds, by comparing the relative arrival time of binaural, glutamatergic excitatory inputs. This coincidence detection mechanism is additionally shaped by highly specialized glycinergic inhibition. Traditionally, it is assumed that the binaural inputs are conveyed by many independent fibers, but such an anatomical arrangement may decrease temporal precision. Short-term depression on the other hand might enhance temporal fidelity during ongoing activity. For the first time we show that binaural coincidence detection in MSO neurons may require surprisingly few but strong inputs, challenging long-held assumptions about mammalian coincidence detection. This study exclusively uses adult gerbils for in vitro electrophysiology, single-cell electroporation and immunohistochemistry to characterize the size and short-term plasticity of inputs to the MSO. We find that the excitatory and inhibitory inputs to the MSO are well balanced both in strength and short-term dynamics, redefining this fastest of all mammalian coincidence detector circuits.

14. Rapid evolution in a fraction of the Drosophila nuclear genome.

Science.gov (United States)

Werman, S D; Davidson, E H; Britten, R J

1990-03-01

Previous observations have indicated that Drosophila DNA contains a component that evolves so rapidly that it fails to hybridize between the DNAs of sibling species. To establish the reality of this component and study its properties, the fraction (about 20%) of Drosophila simulans (Dsim) DNA that fails to hybridize to Drosophila melanogaster (Dmel) DNA has been isolated. The majority of the hybridizable part of this isolated fraction (based on control tests on Dsim DNA) fails to hybridize with Dmel DNA under the conditions used for the initial fractionation. Clones of this fraction do hybridize with Dmel DNA at open criterion producing duplexes with greatly reduced thermal stability, indicating that the underlying process is rapid sequence divergence rather than loss of the homologous sequences by relatively large deletions. Cloned fragments from the nonhybridizing fraction from Dsim are more than 15% divergent from the Dmel homologues, whereas the fraction that does hybridize is only 3-5% divergent. In comparison, synonymous substitutions in the coding regions of five genes show a 9% average divergence between Dsim and Dmel. They appear to be intermediate in their degree of divergence between the hybridizing and nonhybridizing components.

15. ‘Surprise’: Outbreak of Campylobacter infection associated with chicken liver pâté at a surprise birthday party, Adelaide, Australia, 2012

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Emma Denehy

2012-11-01

Full Text Available Objective: In July 2012, an outbreak of Campylobacter infection was investigated by the South Australian Communicable Disease Control Branch and Food Policy and Programs Branch. The initial notification identified illness at a surprise birthday party held at a restaurant on 14 July 2012. The objective of the investigation was to identify the potential source of infection and institute appropriate intervention strategies to prevent further illness.Methods: A guest list was obtained and a retrospective cohort study undertaken. A combination of paper-based and telephone questionnaires were used to collect exposure and outcome information. An environmental investigation was conducted by Food Policy and Programs Branch at the implicated premises.Results: All 57 guests completed the questionnaire (100% response rate, and 15 met the case definition. Analysis showed a significant association between illness and consumption of chicken liver pâté (relative risk: 16.7, 95% confidence interval: 2.4–118.6. No other food or beverage served at the party was associated with illness. Three guests submitted stool samples; all were positive for Campylobacter. The environmental investigation identified that the cooking process used in the preparation of chicken liver pâté may have been inconsistent, resulting in some portions not cooked adequately to inactivate potential Campylobacter contamination.Discussion: Chicken liver products are a known source of Campylobacter infection; therefore, education of food handlers remains a high priority. To better identify outbreaks among the large number of Campylobacter notifications, routine typing of Campylobacter isolates is recommended.

16. Influence of Organic Manure on Organic Phosphorus Fraction in Soils

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

ZHANGYONG－SONG; NIWU－ZHONG; 等

1993-01-01

The transformation of organic P(Po) from organic manures in two types of soils (ultisol and entisol) and the influences of external addition of organic substance or inorganic P(Pi) on Po under the condition of the 60% maximum water capacity were investigated.The results obtained from Po fractionation experiments indicated that all the Po fractions except for the highly resistant Po fraction decreased during incubation.Application of pig feces and cow feces could largely increase each fraction of Po in the soils.Immediately after application of organic manure into the soils a large part of labile and moderately labile Po from organic manure was transferred into moderately resistant Po,which might be due to the fact that Ca-or Mg-inositol P was precipitated into Fe-inositol P.However,the availability of Po from organic manure in the soils would increase again after incubation because of the transformation of moderately labile and resistant Po fractions into labile Po fractions.Addition of cellulose or Pi into the soils showed a good effect on increasing all the Po fractions except for the highly resistant Po,and this effect was much more pronounced when cellulose was applied in combination with Pi.Therefore,in view of the effect of organic manure on improving P nutrition to plant,attention should be paid to both the Po and the organic substances from organic manure,It is suggested that application of Pi fertilizer combined with organic manure may be referred to as an effective means of protecting Pi from chemical fixation in soil.

17. On fractional Langevin equation involving two fractional orders

Science.gov (United States)

Baghani, Omid

2017-01-01

In numerical analysis, it is frequently needed to examine how far a numerical solution is from the exact one. To investigate this issue quantitatively, we need a tool to measure the difference between them and obviously this task is accomplished by the aid of an appropriate norm on a certain space of functions. For example, Sobolev spaces are indispensable part of theoretical analysis of partial differential equations and boundary integral equations, as well as are necessary for the analysis of some numerical methods for the solving of such equations. But most of articles that appear in this field usually use ‖.‖∞ in the space of C[a, b] which is very restrictive. In this paper, we introduce a new norm that is convenient for the fractional and singular differential equations. Using this norm, the existence and uniqueness of initial value problems for nonlinear Langevin equation with two different fractional orders are studied. In fact, the obtained results could be used for the classical cases. Finally, by two examples we show that we cannot always speak about the existence and uniqueness of solutions just by using the previous methods.

18. The mycotoxin distribution in maize milling fractions under experimental conditions.

Science.gov (United States)

Burger, H-M; Shephard, G S; Louw, W; Rheeder, J P; Gelderblom, W C A

2013-07-01

Mycotoxin contamination of maize and maize-based food and feed products poses a health risk to humans and animals if not adequately controlled and managed. The current study investigates the effect of dry milling on the reduction of fumonisins (FB), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) in maize. Five composite samples, constructed to represent different mycotoxin contamination levels were degermed yielding degermed maize and the germ. The degermed maize was milled under laboratory conditions and four major milling fractions (SPECIAL, SUPER, semolina (SEM) and milling hominy feed) collected. The whole maize, degermed maize and total hominy feed (germ+milling hominy feed) were reconstructed to ensure homogenous samples for mycotoxin analyses. For comparison, commercial dry milling fractions (whole maize, SPECIAL, SUPER and total hominy feed), collected from three South African industrial mills, were analysed for the same mycotoxins and hence a more accurate assessment of the distribution between the different milling fractions. The distribution of the mycotoxins during the experimental dry milling of the degermed maize differs, with FB mainly concentrated in the SPECIAL, DON in the SEM whereas ZEA was equally distributed between the two milling fractions. Distribution of mycotoxins between the fractions obtained during commercial dry milling generally provided similar results with the total hominy feed containing the highest and the SUPER milling fractions the lowest mycotoxin levels although variations existed. Although milling is an effective way to reduce mycotoxins in maize, kernel characteristics and resultant fungal colonisation may impact on the distribution of specific mycotoxins among the different milling fractions. Differences in industrial dry milling practices and problems encountered in sampling bulk maize remain a large problem in assessing mycotoxin contamination in milling fractions intended for human consumption.

19. Conformable Fractional Nikiforov—Uvarov Method

Science.gov (United States)

Karayer, H.; Demirhan, D.; Büyükkılıç, F.

2016-07-01

We introduce conformable fractional Nikiforov—Uvarov (NU) method by means of conformable fractional derivative which is the most natural definition in non-integer calculus. Since, NU method gives exact eigenstate solutions of Schrödinger equation (SE) for certain potentials in quantum mechanics, this method is carried into the domain of fractional calculus to obtain the solutions of fractional SE. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the conformable fractional NU method, we solve fractional SE for harmonic oscillator potential, Woods—Saxon potential, and Hulthen potential.

20. Fractional vortex dipole phase filter

Science.gov (United States)

Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Joseph, Joby; Senthilkumaran, Paramasivam

2014-10-01

In spatial filtering experiments, the use of vortex phase filters plays an important role in realizing isotropic edge enhancement. In this paper, we report the use of a vortex dipole phase filter in spatial filtering. A dipole made of fractional vortices is used, and its filtering characteristics are studied. It is observed that the filter performance can be tuned by varying the distance of separation between the vortices of the dipole to achieve better contrast and output noise suppression, and when this distance tends to infinity, the filter performs like a 1-D Hilbert mask. Experimental and simulation results are presented.