WorldWideScience

Sample records for surprisingly large fraction

  1. Ontological Surprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leahu, Lucian

    2016-01-01

    a hybrid approach where machine learning algorithms are used to identify objects as well as connections between them; finally, it argues for remaining open to ontological surprises in machine learning as they may enable the crafting of different relations with and through technologies.......This paper investigates how we might rethink design as the technological crafting of human-machine relations in the context of a machine learning technique called neural networks. It analyzes Google’s Inceptionism project, which uses neural networks for image recognition. The surprising output...

  2. Surprise Trips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias; Kawash, Raghid; Andersen, Lisbet Møller

    2010-01-01

    We report on a platform that augments the natural experience of exploration in diverse indoor and outdoor environments. The system builds on the theme of surprises in terms of user expectations and finding points of interest. It utilizes physical icons as representations of users' interests...... and as notification tokens to alert users when they are within proximity of a surprise. To evaluate the concept, we developed mock-ups, a video prototype and conducted a wizard-of-oz user test for a national park in Denmark....

  3. Spatiotemporal Fractionation Schemes for Irradiating Large Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkelbach, Jan, E-mail: junkelbach@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Bussière, Marc R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chapman, Paul H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Loeffler, Jay S.; Shih, Helen A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: To optimally exploit fractionation effects in the context of radiosurgery treatments of large cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). In current practice, fractionated treatments divide the dose evenly into several fractions, which generally leads to low obliteration rates. In this work, we investigate the potential benefit of delivering distinct dose distributions in different fractions. Methods and Materials: Five patients with large cerebral AVMs were reviewed and replanned for intensity modulated arc therapy delivered with conventional photon beams. Treatment plans allowing for different dose distributions in all fractions were obtained by performing treatment plan optimization based on the cumulative biologically effective dose delivered at the end of treatment. Results: We show that distinct treatment plans can be designed for different fractions, such that high single-fraction doses are delivered to complementary parts of the AVM. All plans create a similar dose bath in the surrounding normal brain and thereby exploit the fractionation effect. This partial hypofractionation in the AVM along with fractionation in normal brain achieves a net improvement of the therapeutic ratio. We show that a biological dose reduction of approximately 10% in the healthy brain can be achieved compared with reference treatment schedules that deliver the same dose distribution in all fractions. Conclusions: Boosting complementary parts of the target volume in different fractions may provide a therapeutic advantage in fractionated radiosurgery treatments of large cerebral AVMs. The strategy allows for a mean dose reduction in normal brain that may be valuable for a patient population with an otherwise normal life expectancy.

  4. Charming surprise

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2011-01-01

    The CP violation in charm quarks has always been thought to be extremely small. So, looking at particle decays involving matter and antimatter, the LHCb experiment has recently been surprised to observe that things might be different. Theorists are on the case. The study of the physics of the charm quark was not in the initial plans of the LHCb experiment, whose letter “b” stands for “beauty quark”. However, already one year ago, the Collaboration decided to look into a wider spectrum of processes that involve charm quarks among other things. The LHCb trigger allows a lot of these processes to be selected, and, among them, one has recently shown interesting features. Other experiments at b-factories have already performed the same measurement but this is the first time that it has been possible to achieve such high precision, thanks to the huge amount of data provided by the very high luminosity of the LHC. “We have observed the decay modes of the D0, a pa...

  5. Charming surprise

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2011-01-01

    The CP violation in charm quarks has always been thought to be extremely small. So, looking at particle decays involving matter and antimatter, the LHCb experiment has recently been surprised to observe that things might be different. Theorists are on the case.   The study of the physics of the charm quark was not in the initial plans of the LHCb experiment, whose letter “b” stands for “beauty quark”. However, already one year ago, the Collaboration decided to look into a wider spectrum of processes that involve charm quarks among other things. The LHCb trigger allows a lot of these processes to be selected, and, among them, one has recently shown interesting features. Other experiments at b-factories have already performed the same measurement but this is the first time that it has been possible to achieve such high precision, thanks to the huge amount of data provided by the very high luminosity of the LHC. “We have observed the decay modes of t...

  6. Large deflection of viscoelastic beams using fractional derivative model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahranini, Seyed Masoud Sotoodeh; Eghtesad, Mohammad; Ghavanloo, Esmaeal; Farid, Mehrdad

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with large deflection of viscoelastic beams using a fractional derivative model. For this purpose, a nonlinear finite element formulation of viscoelastic beams in conjunction with the fractional derivative constitutive equations has been developed. The four-parameter fractional derivative model has been used to describe the constitutive equations. The deflected configuration for a uniform beam with different boundary conditions and loads is presented. The effect of the order of fractional derivative on the large deflection of the cantilever viscoelastic beam, is investigated after 10, 100, and 1000 hours. The main contribution of this paper is finite element implementation for nonlinear analysis of viscoelastic fractional model using the storage of both strain and stress histories. The validity of the present analysis is confirmed by comparing the results with those found in the literature.

  7. Surprise, Recipes for Surprise, and Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, Jeffrey

    2018-02-07

    Surprising people can provide an opening for influencing them. Surprises garner attention, are arousing, are memorable, and can prompt shifts in understanding. Less noted is that, as a result, surprises can serve to persuade others by leading them to shifts in attitudes. Furthermore, because stories, pictures, and music can generate surprises and those can be widely shared, surprise can have broad social influence. People also tend to share surprising items with others, as anyone on social media has discovered. This means that in addition to broadcasting surprising information, surprising items can also spread through networks. The joint result is that surprise not only has individual effects on beliefs and attitudes but also collective effects on the content of culture. Items that generate surprise need not be random or accidental. There are predictable methods or recipes for generating surprise. One such recipe is discussed, the repetition-break plot structure, to explore the psychological and social possibilities of examining surprise. Recipes for surprise offer a useful means for understanding how surprise works and offer prospects for harnessing surprise to a wide array of ends. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  8. Bidisperse and polydisperse suspension rheology at large solid fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pednekar, Sidhant [Benjamin Levich Institute and Department of Chemical Engineering, The City College of New York, New York, New York 10031; Chun, Jaehun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352; Morris, Jeffrey F. [Benjamin Levich Institute and Department of Chemical Engineering, The City College of New York, New York, New York 10031

    2018-03-01

    At the same solid volume fraction, bidisperse and polydisperse suspensions display lower viscosities, and weaker normal stress response, compared to monodisperse suspensions. The reduction of viscosity associated with size distribution can be explained by an increase of the maximum flowable, or jamming, solid fraction. In this work, concentrated or "dense" suspensions are simulated under strong shearing, where thermal motion and repulsive forces are negligible, but we allow for particle contact with a mild frictional interaction with interparticle friction coefficient of 0.2. Aspects of bidisperse suspension rheology are first revisited to establish that the approach reproduces established trends; the study of bidisperse suspensions at size ratios of large to small particle radii (2 to 4) shows that a minimum in the viscosity occurs for zeta slightly above 0.5, where zeta=phi_{large}/phi is the fraction of the total solid volume occupied by the large particles. The simple shear flows of polydisperse suspensions with truncated normal and log normal size distributions, and bidisperse suspensions which are statistically equivalent with these polydisperse cases up to third moment of the size distribution, are simulated and the rheologies are extracted. Prior work shows that such distributions with equivalent low-order moments have similar phi_{m}, and the rheological behaviors of normal, log normal and bidisperse cases are shown to be in close agreement for a wide range of standard deviation in particle size, with standard correlations which are functionally dependent on phi/phi_{m} providing excellent agreement with the rheology found in simulation. The close agreement of both viscosity and normal stress response between bi- and polydisperse suspensions demonstrates the controlling in influence of the maximum packing fraction in noncolloidal suspensions. Microstructural investigations and the stress distribution according to particle size are also presented.

  9. Large sulfur isotope fractionations in Martian sediments at Gale crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, H. B.; McAdam, A. C.; Ming, D. W.; Freissinet, C.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Eldridge, D. L.; Fischer, W. W.; Grotzinger, J. P.; House, C. H.; Hurowitz, J. A.; McLennan, S. M.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Vaniman, D. T.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Atreya, S. K.; Conrad, P. G.; Dottin, J. W., III; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Farley, K. A.; Glavin, D. P.; Johnson, S. S.; Knudson, C. A.; Morris, R. V.; Navarro-González, R.; Pavlov, A. A.; Plummer, R.; Rampe, E. B.; Stern, J. C.; Steele, A.; Summons, R. E.; Sutter, B.

    2017-09-01

    Variability in the sulfur isotopic composition in sediments can reflect atmospheric, geologic and biological processes. Evidence for ancient fluvio-lacustrine environments at Gale crater on Mars and a lack of efficient crustal recycling mechanisms on the planet suggests a surface environment that was once warm enough to allow the presence of liquid water, at least for discrete periods of time, and implies a greenhouse effect that may have been influenced by sulfur-bearing volcanic gases. Here we report in situ analyses of the sulfur isotopic compositions of SO2 volatilized from ten sediment samples acquired by NASA’s Curiosity rover along a 13 km traverse of Gale crater. We find large variations in sulfur isotopic composition that exceed those measured for Martian meteorites and show both depletion and enrichment in 34S. Measured values of δ34S range from -47 +/- 14‰ to 28 +/- 7‰, similar to the range typical of terrestrial environments. Although limited geochronological constraints on the stratigraphy traversed by Curiosity are available, we propose that the observed sulfur isotopic signatures at Gale crater can be explained by equilibrium fractionation between sulfate and sulfide in an impact-driven hydrothermal system and atmospheric processing of sulfur-bearing gases during transient warm periods.

  10. Local progression and pseudo progression after single fraction or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for large brain metastases. A single centre study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggenraad, R.; Verbeek-de Kanter, A.; Mast, M. [Radiotherapy Centre West, The Hague (Netherlands); Molenaar, R. [Diaconessenhuis, Leiden (Netherlands). Dept. of Neurology; Lycklama a Nijeholt, G. [Medical Centre Haagladen, The Hague (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Vecht, C. [Medical Centre Haagladen, The Hague (Netherlands). Dept. of Neurology; Struikmans, H. [Radiotherapy Centre West, The Hague (Netherlands); Leiden Univ. Medical Centre (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Kal, H.B.

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: The 1-year local control rates after single-fraction stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for brain metastases > 3 cm diameter are less than 70%, but with fractionated SRT (FSRT) higher local control rates have been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare our treatment results with SRT and FSRT for large brain metastases. Materials and methods: In two consecutive periods, 41 patients with 46 brain metastases received SRT with 1 fraction of 15 Gy, while 51 patients with 65 brain metastases received FSRT with 3 fractions of 8 Gy. We included patients with brain metastases with a planning target volume of > 13 cm{sup 3} or metastases in the brainstem. Results: The minimum follow-up of patients still alive was 22 months. Comparing 1 fraction of 15 Gy with 3 fractions of 8 Gy, the 1-year rates of freedom from any local progression (54% and 61%, p = 0.93) and pseudo progression (85% and 75%, p = 0.25) were not significantly different. Overall survival rates were also not different. Conclusion: The 1-year local progression and pseudo progression rates after 1 fraction of 15 Gy or 3 fractions of 8 Gy for large brain metastases and metastases in the brainstem are similar. For better local control rates, FSRT schemes with a higher biological equivalent dose may be necessary. (orig.)

  11. Local progression and pseudo progression after single fraction or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for large brain metastases. A single centre study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiggenraad, R.; Verbeek-de Kanter, A.; Mast, M.; Molenaar, R.; Lycklama a Nijeholt, G.; Vecht, C.; Struikmans, H.; Leiden Univ. Medical Centre; Kal, H.B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The 1-year local control rates after single-fraction stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for brain metastases > 3 cm diameter are less than 70%, but with fractionated SRT (FSRT) higher local control rates have been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare our treatment results with SRT and FSRT for large brain metastases. Materials and methods: In two consecutive periods, 41 patients with 46 brain metastases received SRT with 1 fraction of 15 Gy, while 51 patients with 65 brain metastases received FSRT with 3 fractions of 8 Gy. We included patients with brain metastases with a planning target volume of > 13 cm 3 or metastases in the brainstem. Results: The minimum follow-up of patients still alive was 22 months. Comparing 1 fraction of 15 Gy with 3 fractions of 8 Gy, the 1-year rates of freedom from any local progression (54% and 61%, p = 0.93) and pseudo progression (85% and 75%, p = 0.25) were not significantly different. Overall survival rates were also not different. Conclusion: The 1-year local progression and pseudo progression rates after 1 fraction of 15 Gy or 3 fractions of 8 Gy for large brain metastases and metastases in the brainstem are similar. For better local control rates, FSRT schemes with a higher biological equivalent dose may be necessary. (orig.)

  12. Beam Attenuators and the Risk of Unrecognized Large-Fraction Irradiation of Critical Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luka, S.; Marks, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiation beam attenuators led to radiation injury of the spinal cord in one patient and of the peripheral nerve in another due to unsuspected large-fraction irradiation. The anatomic distribution of radiation dose was reconstructed in the sagittal plane for the patient who developed radiation myelopathy and in the axial plane for the patient who developed peripheral neuropathy. The actual dose delivered to the injured structure in each patient was taken from the dose distribution and recorded along with the time, number of fractions, and dose per fraction. The patient who developed radiation myelopathy received a total of 46.5 Gy in twenty-three 2.1 Gy fractions in 31 days to the upper cervical spinal cord where the thickness of the neck was less than the central axis thickness due to cervical lordosis and absence of a posterior compensating filter. The patient who developed peripheral neuropathy received 55 Gy in twenty-five 2.2 Gy fractions in 50 days to the femoral nerve using bolus over the groins and an anterior one-half value layer Cerrobend pelvic block to bias the dose anteriorly. Compensating filters and other beam attenuators should be used with caution because they may result in unsuspected large-fraction irradiation and total doses of radiation that exceed the tolerance of critical structures.

  13. Beam Attenuators and the Risk of Unrecognized Large-Fraction Irradiation of Critical Tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luka, S.; Marks, J.E.

    2015-01-15

    The use of radiation beam attenuators led to radiation injury of the spinal cord in one patient and of the peripheral nerve in another due to unsuspected large-fraction irradiation. The anatomic distribution of radiation dose was reconstructed in the sagittal plane for the patient who developed radiation myelopathy and in the axial plane for the patient who developed peripheral neuropathy. The actual dose delivered to the injured structure in each patient was taken from the dose distribution and recorded along with the time, number of fractions, and dose per fraction. The patient who developed radiation myelopathy received a total of 46.5 Gy in twenty-three 2.1 Gy fractions in 31 days to the upper cervical spinal cord where the thickness of the neck was less than the central axis thickness due to cervical lordosis and absence of a posterior compensating filter. The patient who developed peripheral neuropathy received 55 Gy in twenty-five 2.2 Gy fractions in 50 days to the femoral nerve using bolus over the groins and an anterior one-half value layer Cerrobend pelvic block to bias the dose anteriorly. Compensating filters and other beam attenuators should be used with caution because they may result in unsuspected large-fraction irradiation and total doses of radiation that exceed the tolerance of critical structures.

  14. Extracting and analyzing ejection fraction values from electronic echocardiography reports in a large health maintenance organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fagen; Zheng, Chengyi; Yuh-Jer Shen, Albert; Chen, Wansu

    2017-12-01

    The left ventricular ejection fraction value is an important prognostic indicator of cardiovascular outcomes including morbidity and mortality and is often used clinically to indicate severity of heart disease. However, it is usually reported in free-text echocardiography reports. We developed and validated a computerized algorithm to extract ejection fraction values from echocardiography reports and applied the algorithm to a large volume of unstructured echocardiography reports between 1995 and 2011 in a large health maintenance organization. A total of 621,856 echocardiography reports with a description of ejection fraction values or systolic functions were identified, of which 70 percent contained numeric ejection fraction values and the rest (30%) were text descriptions explicitly indicating the systolic left ventricular function. The 12.1 percent (16.0% for male and 8.4% for female) of these extracted ejection fraction values are <45 percent. Validation conducted based on a random sample of 200 reports yielded 95.0 percent sensitivity and 96.9 percent positive predictive value.

  15. A large deviation principle in H\\"older norm for multiple fractional integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz-Solé, Marta; Torrecilla-Tarantino, Iván

    2007-01-01

    For a fractional Brownian motion $B^H$ with Hurst parameter $H\\in]{1/4},{1/2}[\\cup]{1/2},1[$, multiple indefinite integrals on a simplex are constructed and the regularity of their sample paths are studied. Then, it is proved that the family of probability laws of the processes obtained by replacing $B^H$ by $\\epsilon^{{1/2}} B^H$ satisfies a large deviation principle in H\\"older norm. The definition of the multiple integrals relies upon a representation of the fractional Brownian motion in t...

  16. Fractional Modeling of the AC Large-Signal Frequency Response in Magnetoresistive Current Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Iván Ravelo Arias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fractional calculus is considered when derivatives and integrals of non-integer order are applied over a specific function. In the electrical and electronic domain, the transfer function dependence of a fractional filter not only by the filter order n, but additionally, of the fractional order α is an example of a great number of systems where its input-output behavior could be more exactly modeled by a fractional behavior. Following this aim, the present work shows the experimental ac large-signal frequency response of a family of electrical current sensors based in different spintronic conduction mechanisms. Using an ac characterization set-up the sensor transimpedance function  is obtained considering it as the relationship between sensor output voltage and input sensing current,[PLEASE CHECK FORMULA IN THE PDF]. The study has been extended to various magnetoresistance sensors based in different technologies like anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR, giant magnetoresistance (GMR, spin-valve (GMR-SV and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR. The resulting modeling shows two predominant behaviors, the low-pass and the inverse low-pass with fractional index different from the classical integer response. The TMR technology with internal magnetization offers the best dynamic and sensitivity properties opening the way to develop actual industrial applications.

  17. Stationary high confinement plasmas with large bootstrap current fraction in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Y.; Fujita, T.; Ide, S.; Isayama, A.; Takechi, M.; Suzuki, T.; Takenaga, H.; Oyama, N.; Kamada, Y.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the progress in stationary discharges with a large bootstrap current fraction in JT-60U towards steady-state tokamak operation. In the weak shear plasma regime, high-β p ELMy H-mode discharges have been optimized under nearly full non-inductive current drive conditions by the large bootstrap current fraction (f BS ∼ 45%) and the beam driven current fraction (f BD ∼ 50%), which was sustained for 5.8 s in the stationary condition. This duration corresponds to ∼26τ E and ∼2.8τ R , which was limited by the pulse length of negative-ion-based neutral beams. The high confinement enhancement factor H 89 ∼ 2.2 (HH 98y2 ∼ 1.0) was obtained and the profiles of current and pressure reached the stationary condition. In the reversed shear plasma regime, a large bootstrap current fraction (f BS ∼ 75%) has been sustained for 7.4 s under nearly full non-inductive current drive conditions. This duration corresponds to ∼16τ E and ∼2.7τ R . The high confinement enhancement factor H 89 ∼ 3.0 (HH 98y2 ∼ 1.7) was also sustained, and the profiles of current and pressure reached the stationary condition. The large bootstrap current and the off-axis beam driven current sustained this reversed q profile. This duration was limited only by the duration of the neutral beam injection

  18. The large N limit of N=2 super Yang-Mills, fractional instantons and infrared divergences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, Frank

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the large N limit of pure N=2 supersymmetric gauge theory with gauge group SU(N) by using the exact low energy effective action. Typical one-complex dimensional sections of the moduli space parametrized by a global complex mass scale v display three qualitatively different regions depending on the ratio between vertical bar v vertical bar and the dynamically generated scale Λ. At large vertical bar v vertical bar/Λ, instantons are exponentially suppressed as N→∞. When vertical bar v vertical bar ∼Λ, singularities due to massless dyons occur. They are densely distributed in rings of calculable thicknesses in the v-plane. At small vertical bar v vertical bar/Λ, instantons disintegrate into fractional instantons of charge 1/(2N). These fractional instantons give non-trivial contributions to all orders of 1/N, unlike a planar diagrams expansion which generates a series in 1/N 2 , implying the presence of open strings. We have explicitly calculated the fractional instantons series in two representative examples, including the 1/N and 1/N 2 corrections. Our most interesting finding is that the 1/N expansion breaks down at singularities on the moduli space due to severe infrared divergencies, a fact that has remarkable consequences

  19. Surprise... Surprise..., An Empirical Investigation on How Surprise is Connected to Customer Satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vanhamme (Joëlle)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis research investigates the specific influence of the emotion of surprise on customer transaction-specific satisfaction. Four empirical studies-two field studies (a diary study and a cross section survey) and two experiments-were conducted. The results show that surprise positively

  20. Outpatient management of patients with large multinodular goitres treated with fractionated radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, D.M.; Thomas, P.A.; Allen, L.W.; Akerman, R.; Lan, L.; Epstein, M.T.

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy of fractionated out-patient radioiodine therapy in 38 patients with compressive symptoms due to long-standing large multinodular goitres was assessed. The diagnosis was established by clinical assessment in addition to technetium-99m pertechnetate thyroid scan or computed tomography scan of the thyroid and mediastinum. Oral iodine-131 therapy was administered as a 2.22 GBq (60 mCi) cumulative dose over 4 months (555 MBq per month). All patients were monitored with serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine (± free tri-iodothyronine) assays before the treatment and after each dose fraction. Clinical and biochemical follow-up was performed on all patients and ranged from 6 to 45 months after therapy. The patients consisted of 35 female and three male patients with a median age of 59 years (range 37-87 years). Prior to treatment 20 patients were biochemically hyperthyroid and 18 were euthyroid. Overall, 71% of patients reported a subjective improvement in compressive symptoms and 29% reported no change. Clinically assessed reduction in goitre size occurred in 92% of patients while there was no change in 8%. At 3 months of follow-up, 31% of patients had become hypothyroid and at 18 months 66% were hypothyroid. Seven hyperthyroid patients (35%) became euthyroid and 13 hyperthyroid patients (65%) became hypothyroid. Three patients who became hypothyroid experienced neck soreness (transient in one patient, persistent in two patients). There were no differences in outcome between patients who were hyperthyroid and those who were euthyroid prior to treatment. Fractionated out-patient radioiodine therapy showed excellent short- and medium-term safety, was very well tolerated and offered a satisfactory alternative treatment to surgery. (orig.)

  1. Outpatient management of patients with large multinodular goitres treated with fractionated radioiodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, D.M.; Thomas, P.A.; Allen, L.W.; Akerman, R.; Lan, L. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Epstein, M.T. [Department of Endocrinology, John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-01

    The efficacy of fractionated out-patient radioiodine therapy in 38 patients with compressive symptoms due to long-standing large multinodular goitres was assessed. The diagnosis was established by clinical assessment in addition to technetium-99m pertechnetate thyroid scan or computed tomography scan of the thyroid and mediastinum. Oral iodine-131 therapy was administered as a 2.22 GBq (60 mCi) cumulative dose over 4 months (555 MBq per month). All patients were monitored with serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine ({+-} free tri-iodothyronine) assays before the treatment and after each dose fraction. Clinical and biochemical follow-up was performed on all patients and ranged from 6 to 45 months after therapy. The patients consisted of 35 female and three male patients with a median age of 59 years (range 37-87 years). Prior to treatment 20 patients were biochemically hyperthyroid and 18 were euthyroid. Overall, 71% of patients reported a subjective improvement in compressive symptoms and 29% reported no change. Clinically assessed reduction in goitre size occurred in 92% of patients while there was no change in 8%. At 3 months of follow-up, 31% of patients had become hypothyroid and at 18 months 66% were hypothyroid. Seven hyperthyroid patients (35%) became euthyroid and 13 hyperthyroid patients (65%) became hypothyroid. Three patients who became hypothyroid experienced neck soreness (transient in one patient, persistent in two patients). There were no differences in outcome between patients who were hyperthyroid and those who were euthyroid prior to treatment. Fractionated out-patient radioiodine therapy showed excellent short- and medium-term safety, was very well tolerated and offered a satisfactory alternative treatment to surgery. (orig.) With 1 fig., 3 tabs., 23 refs.

  2. A large neutral fraction of cosmic hydrogen a billion years after the Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyithe, J Stuart B; Loeb, Abraham

    2004-02-26

    The fraction of ionized hydrogen left over from the Big Bang provides evidence for the time of formation of the first stars and quasar black holes in the early Universe; such objects provide the high-energy photons necessary to ionize hydrogen. Spectra of the two most distant known quasars show nearly complete absorption of photons with wavelengths shorter than the Lyman alpha transition of neutral hydrogen, indicating that hydrogen in the intergalactic medium (IGM) had not been completely ionized at a redshift of z approximately 6.3, about one billion years after the Big Bang. Here we show that the IGM surrounding these quasars had a neutral hydrogen fraction of tens of per cent before the quasar activity started, much higher than the previous lower limits of approximately 0.1 per cent. Our results, when combined with the recent inference of a large cumulative optical depth to electron scattering after cosmological recombination therefore suggest the presence of a second peak in the mean ionization history of the Universe.

  3. Surprise as a design strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, G.D.S.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Imagine yourself queuing for the cashier’s desk in a supermarket. Naturally, you have picked the wrong line, the one that does not seem to move at all. Soon, you get tired of waiting. Now, how would you feel if the cashier suddenly started to sing? Many of us would be surprised and, regardless of

  4. Content of DNA in cancerous tumours of the breast before and after large-fractionated irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiukashvili, N N

    1976-07-01

    The article presents the results of microspectrophotometric investigation of DNA in different cancerous tumors of the breast gland before and after large-fractionated irradiation. The study of quantitative content of DNA in the non-irradiated tumors of the breast of different histological structure showed that parenchymatous cells are characterized by a definite variety in the DNA content with a different level of their polyploidy. This points to the fact that different histological forms of the breast cancer are distinguished by the character of the components differentiation. The comparative assessment of the ploidity of the cancerous cells of irradiated and non-irradiated tumors revealed that under the changed conditions of co-existence in all histological forms of cancer new modal classes of the cells develop and general quantity of the DNA content decreases. This testifies to the fact that the histological forms of the breast cancer are not equal sensitive tumors. A microspectrophotometric study of the breast tumors makes it possible to reveal the injury of the malignant tumor cells in the initial period of irradiation, when it is difficult to discover clear-cut dystrophical changes during histological investigation.

  5. Multi-slice Fractional Ventilation Imaging in Large Animals with Hyperpolarized Gas MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Kiarash; Xu, Yinan; Hamedani, Hooman; Xin, Yi; Profka, Harrilla; Rajaei, Jennia; Kadlecek, Stephen; Ishii, Masaru; Rizi, Rahim R.

    2012-01-01

    Noninvasive assessment of regional lung ventilation is of critical importance in quantifying the severity of disease and evaluating response to therapy in many pulmonary diseases. This work presents for the first time the implementation of a hyperpolarized (HP) gas MRI technique for measuring whole-lung regional fractional ventilation (r) in Yorkshire pigs (n = 5) through the use of a gas mixing and delivery device in supine position. The proposed technique utilizes a series of back-to-back HP gas breaths with images acquired during short end-inspiratory breath-holds. In order to decouple the RF pulse decay effect from ventilatory signal build-up in the airways, regional distribution of flip angle (α) was estimated in the imaged slices by acquiring a series of back-to-back images with no inter-scan time delay during a breath-hold at the tail-end of the ventilation sequence. Analysis was performed to assess the multi-slice ventilation model sensitivity to noise, oxygen and number of flip angle images. The optimal α value was determined based on minimizing the error in r estimation; αopt = 5–6° for the set of acquisition parameters in pigs. The mean r values for the group of pigs were 0.27±0.09, 0.35±0.06, 0.40±0.04 for ventral, middle and dorsal slices, respectively, (excluding conductive airways r > 0.9). A positive gravitational (ventral-dorsal) ventilation gradient effect was present in all animals. The trachea and major conductive airways showed a uniform near-unity r value, with progressively smaller values corresponding to smaller diameter airways, and ultimately leading to lung parenchyma. Results demonstrate the feasibility of measurements of fractional ventilation in large species, and provides a platform to address technical challenges associated with long breathing time scales through the optimization of acquisition parameters in species with a pulmonary physiology very similar to that of human beings. PMID:22290603

  6. A surprising palmar nevus: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Rafiei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Raised palmar or plantar nevus especially in white people is an unusual feature. We present an uncommon palmar compound nevus in a 26-year-old woman with a large diameter (6 mm which had a collaret-shaped margin. In histopathologic evaluation intralymphatic protrusions of nevic nests were noted. This case was surprising to us for these reasons: size, shape, location and histopathology of the lesion. Palmar nevi are usually junctional (flat and below 3 mm diameter and intra lymphatic protrusion or invasion in nevi is an extremely rare phenomenon.

  7. Wet spinning of PVA composite fibers with a large fraction of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengpan Lai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available PVA composites fibers with a large fraction of multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified by both covalent and non-covalent functionalization were produced by a wet-spinning process. Model XQ-1 tensile tester, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and wide-angle X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the properties of PVA/MWNT composite fibers. The TGA results suggested that MWNTs content in composite fibers were ranged from 5.3 wt% to 27.6 wt%. The mechanical properties of PVA/MWNT composite fibers were obviously superior to pure PVA fiber. The Young׳s modulus of composite fibers enhanced with increasing the content of MWNTs, and it rised gradually from 6.7 GPa for the pure PVA fiber to 12.8 GPa for the composite fibers with 27.6 wt% MWNTs. Meanwhile, the tensile strength increased gradually from 0.39 GPa for the pure PVA fiber to 0.74 GPa for the composite fibers with 14.4 wt% MWNTs. Nevertheless, the tensile strength of the composite fibers decreased as the MWNTs content up to 27.6 wt%. SEM results indicated that the MWNTs homogeneously dispersed in the composite fibers, however some agglomerates also existed when the content of MWNTs reached 27.6 wt%. DSC results proved strong interfacial interaction between MWNTs and PVA chain, which benefited composite fibers in the efficient stress-transfer. WXAD characterization showed that the orientation of PVA molecules declined from 94.1% to 90.9% with the increasing of MWNTs content. The good dispersibility of MWNTs throughout PVA matrix and efficient stress-transfer between MWNTs and PVA matrix may contributed to significant enhancement in the mechanical properties.

  8. First experiences with super fractionated skin irradiations using large afterloading molds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, Peter; Hensley, Frank W.; Berns, Christiane; Schraube, Peter; Wannenmacher, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy of cutaneous metastases of breast cancer requires large radiation fields and high doses. This report examines the effectiveness and sequelae of super fractionated irradiation of cutaneous metastases of breast cancer with afterloading molds on preirradiated and nonirradiated skin. Methods and Materials: A flexible reusable skin mold was developed for use with a pulsed (PDR) after loader. An array of 18 parallel catheters was sewn between two foam rubber slabs 5 mm in thickness to provide a defined constant distance to the skin. By selection of appropriate dwell positions, arbitrarily shaped skin areas can be irradiated up to a maximal field size of 17 x 23.5 cm 2 . Irradiations are performed with a nominal 37 GBq 192 Ir stepping source in pulses of 1 Gy/h at the skin surface. The dose distribution is geometrically optimized. The 80 and 50% dose levels lie 5 and 27 mm below the skin surface. Sixteen patients suffering from metastases at the thoracic wall were treated with 18 fields (78-798 cm 2 ) and total doses of 40-50 Gy applying two PDR split courses with a pause of 4-6 weeks. Eleven of the fields had been previously irradiated with external beam therapy to doses of 50-60 Gy at 7-22 months in advance. Results: For preirradiated fields (n = 10) the results were as follows: follow-up 4.5-28.5 months (median 17); local control (LC): 8 of 10; acute skin reactions: Grade 2 (moist desquamation) 2 of 10; intermediate/late skin reactions after minimum follow-up of 3 months: Grade 1 (atrophy/pigmentation): 2 of 10, Grade 2-3a (minimal/marked telangiectasia): 7 of 10, Grade 4 (ulcer): 1 of 10; recurrencies: 2 of 10. For newly irradiated fields (n = 7) results were: follow-up: 2-20 months (median 5); LC: 6 of 7; acute reactions: Grade 1:4 of 7, Grade 2:3 of 7; intermediate/late skin reactions after minimum follow-up of 3 months (n = 5): Grade 2-3a: 2 of 5; recurrencies: 0 of 7. Local control could be achieved in 82% of the mold fields. Geometric

  9. Fractional order modeling and control of dissimilar redundant actuating system used in large passenger aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman IJAZ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a methodology has been developed to address the issue of force fighting and to achieve precise position tracking of control surface driven by two dissimilar actuators. The nonlinear dynamics of both actuators are first approximated as fractional order models. Based on the identified models, three fractional order controllers are proposed for the whole system. Two Fractional Order PID (FOPID controllers are dedicated to improving transient response and are designed in a position feedback configuration. In order to synchronize the actuator dynamics, a third fractional order PI controller is designed, which feeds the force compensation signal in position feedback loop of both actuators. Nelder-Mead (N-M optimization technique is employed in order to optimally tune controller parameters based on the proposed performance criteria. To test the proposed controllers according to real flight condition, an external disturbance of higher amplitude that acts as airload is applied directly on the control surface. In addition, a disturbance signal function of system states is applied to check the robustness of proposed controller. Simulation results on nonlinear system model validated the performance of the proposed scheme as compared to optimal PID and high gain PID controllers. Keywords: Aerospace, Fractional order control, Model identification, Nelder-Mead optimization, Robustness

  10. Control-Oriented Model of Molar Scavenge Oxygen Fraction for Exhaust Recirculation in Large Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kræn Vodder; Blanke, Mogens; Eriksson, Lars

    2016-01-01

    the behavior of the scavenge oxygen fraction well over the entire envelope of load and blower speed range that are relevant for EGR. The simplicity of the new model makes it suitable for observer and control design, which are essential steps to meet the emission requirements for marine diesel engines that take...

  11. Some Surprising Introductory Physics Facts and Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallmann, A. James

    2016-01-01

    In the entertainment world, people usually like, and find memorable, novels, short stories, and movies with surprise endings. This suggests that classroom teachers might want to present to their students examples of surprising facts associated with principles of physics. Possible benefits of finding surprising facts about principles of physics are…

  12. The Cytotoxic Effect of Small and Large Molecules of PMF Fraction Extracted from Camel Urine on Cancer Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Khorshid, Faten

    2015-01-10

    Aim of the work: Animal urine, including that of camels, has long been used for the therapeutic management of human ailments. In this study, we sought to characterize the cytotoxic properties of newly derived purified fractions from previously described camel urine extract (PMF) on various cancer cell lines. Methodology: Two new size dissimilar fractions of PMF (large and small) were obtained by fractionalizing PMF using 3kD and 50kD membrane filters. A SRB cytotoxicity assay of the PMF fractions was performed on cancer cell lines (A549, HCT116, HepG2, MCF-7, U251 and Hela) as well as normal cell lines (human fibroblast cell line and Vero). Results: This study showed that the newly derived and more purified fraction of PMF (new PMF) possesses effective and selective anti-cancer properties against several types of cancer cell lines. Conclusion: This study, as well as previous ones, suggests that camel urine extracts (old and new PMF) may provide newer therapeutic alternatives to clinically manage cancer patients. However, further studies are needed to verify these positive preliminary results.

  13. Evaluation of the clinical efficacy of fractional radiofrequency microneedle treatment in acne scars and large facial pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soo Ick; Chung, Bo Young; Choi, Min Gyu; Baek, Ji Hwoon; Cho, Hee Jin; Park, Chun Wook; Lee, Cheol Heon; Kim, Hye One

    2012-07-01

    Fractional technology overcomes the problems of ablative lasers, such as inaccurate depth control and damage to the epidermis. Minimally invasive fractional radiofrequency microneedle devices allow for more-selective heating of the dermis. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of fractional radiofrequency microneedle (ERM) treatment in acne scars and large facial pores. Thirty patients with acne scars and large facial pores were enrolled. Bipolar radiofrequency energy was delivered to the skin through the electrodes of the FRM device. Skin lesions were evaluated according to grade of acne scars, Investigator Global Assessment of large pores, skin surface roughness, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), dermal density, microscopic and composite image, sebum measurement, and questionnaires regarding patient satisfaction. The grade of acne scars and Investigator Global Assessment of large pores improved in more than 70% of all patients. Skin surface roughness, dermal density, and microscopic and composite images also improved, whereas TEWL and sebum measurement did not change. Clinical improvement from FRM treatment appeared to be related to dermal matrix regeneration. FRM treatment may be effective in improving acne scars and facial pores. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. COMPARISON OF THE FRACTIONS OF COD IN RAW WASTEWATER INFLUENT FOR SMALL AND LARGE SEWAGE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Smyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparison of the share fraction of COD in raw wastewater in treatment plants which flow in a small amount of wastewater and the sewage treatment with high flow. Compared the constructed wetlands with an average capacity of 4 dm3/m,, the treatment plant with biological deposits with an average capacity of 8 dm3/m, and a sewage treatment plant with activated sludge in Bialystok with a capacity of about 70 000 dm3/m. The lowest percentages of dissolved fraction of soluble organic non-biodegradable substances SI was reported in raw sewage in small sewage treatment plants. Based on the available data wasn’t found significant correlation between the factions XI, SS, XS in raw sewage and the amount of wastewater.

  15. Large effect of irradiance on hydrogen isotope fractionation of alkenones in Emiliania huxleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Marcel T. J.; Benthien, Albert; French, Katherine L.; Epping, Eric; Zondervan, Ingrid; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Bijma, Jelle; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Schouten, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    The hydrogen isotopic (δD) composition of long-chain alkenones produced by certain haptophyte algae has been suggested as a potential proxy for reconstructing paleo sea surface salinity. However, environmental parameters other than salinity may also affect the δD of alkenones. We investigated the impact of the level of irradiance on hydrogen isotopic fractionation of alkenones versus growth water by cultivating two strains of the cosmopolitan haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi at different light intensities. The hydrogen isotope fractionation decreased by approximately 40‰ when irradiance was increased from 15 to 200 μmol photons m-2 s-1 above which it was relatively constant. The response is likely a direct effect of photosystem I and II activity as the relationship of the fractionation factor α versus light intensity can be described by an Eilers-Peeters photosynthesis model. This irradiance effect is in agreement with published δD data of alkenones derived from suspended particulate matter collected from different depths in the photic zone of the Gulf of California and the eastern tropical North Pacific. However, haptophyte algae tend to bloom at relatively high light intensities (>500 μmol photons m-2 s-1) occurring at the sea surface, at which hydrogen isotope fractionation is relatively constant and not affected by changes in light intensity. Alkenones accumulating in the sediment are likely mostly derived from these surface water haptophyte blooms, when the largest amount of biomass is produced. Therefore, the observed irradiance effect is unlikely to affect the applicability of the hydrogen isotopic composition of sedimentary long chain alkenones as a proxy for paleosalinity.

  16. Large-scale isolation and fractionation of organs of Drosophila melanogaster larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweidler, A; Cohen, L H

    1971-10-01

    Methods for the mass isolation of diverse organs from small animals are described. They involve novel devices: a mechanical dissecting system, a centrifugal agitator for the separation of fibrillar from globular particles, and a settling chamber for the fractionation at unit gravity of particles with sedimentation velocities above the useful range for centrifugation. The application of these methods to the isolation of polytene and nonpolytene nuclei from Drosophila melanogaster larvae is described.

  17. Non-equilibrium Inertial Separation Array for High-throughput, Large-volume Blood Fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Baris R; Smith, Kyle C; Edd, Jon F; Nadar, Priyanka; Dlamini, Mcolisi; Kapur, Ravi; Toner, Mehmet

    2017-08-30

    Microfluidic blood processing is used in a range of applications from cancer therapeutics to infectious disease diagnostics. As these applications are being translated to clinical use, processing larger volumes of blood in shorter timescales with high-reliability and robustness is becoming a pressing need. In this work, we report a scaled, label-free cell separation mechanism called non-equilibrium inertial separation array (NISA). The NISA mechanism consists of an array of islands that exert a passive inertial lift force on proximate cells, thus enabling gentler manipulation of the cells without the need of physical contact. As the cells follow their size-based, deterministic path to their equilibrium positions, a preset fraction of the flow is siphoned to separate the smaller cells from the main flow. The NISA device was used to fractionate 400 mL of whole blood in less than 3 hours, and produce an ultrapure buffy coat (96.6% white blood cell yield, 0.0059% red blood cell carryover) by processing whole blood at 3 mL/min, or ∼300 million cells/second. This device presents a feasible alternative for fractionating blood for transfusion, cellular therapy and blood-based diagnostics, and could significantly improve the sensitivity of rare cell isolation devices by increasing the processed whole blood volume.

  18. Immunoglobulin G levels during collection of large volume plasma for fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Thomas; Rothe, Remo; Moog, Rainer

    2017-06-01

    There is a need of comprehensive work dealing with the quality of plasma for fractionation with respect to the IgG content as today most plasma derivates are used to treat patients with immunodeficiencies and autoimmune disorders. Therefore, a prospective study was carried out to analyse IgG levels before plasmapheresis and every 200ml collected plasma. Fifty-four experienced plasmapheresis donors were recruited for subsequent 850ml plasmapheresis using the Aurora Plasmapheresis System. Donorś peripheral blood counts were analysed before and after plasmapheresis using an electronic counter. Total protein, IgG and citrate were measured turbidometrically before, during and after apheresis as well as in the plasma product. Furthermore, platelets, red and white blood cells were analysed as parameters of product quality. An average of 2751±247ml blood was processed in 47±6min. The collected plasma volume was 850±1mL and citrate consumption was 177±15mL. A continuous drop of donors' IgG level was observed during plasmapheresis. The drop was 13% of the IgG baseline value at 800mL collected plasma. Total protein, IgG and cell counts of the plasma product met current guidelines of plasma for fractionation. Donors' IgG levels during apheresis showed a steady decrease without compromising the quality of plasma product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. EFFECTS OF OXYGEN AND AIR MIXING ON VOID FRACTIONS IN A LARGE SCALE SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leishear, R; Hector Guerrero, H; Michael Restivo, M

    2008-01-01

    Oxygen and air mixing with spargers was performed in a 30 foot tall by 30 inch diameter column, to investigate mass transfer as air sparged up through the column and removed saturated oxygen from solution. The mixing techniques required to support this research are the focus of this paper. The fluids tested included water, water with an antifoam agent (AFA), and a high, solids content, Bingham plastic, nuclear waste simulant with AFA, referred to as AZ01 simulant, which is non-radioactive. Mixing of fluids in the column was performed using a recirculation system and an air sparger. The re-circulation system consisted of the column, a re-circulating pump, and associated piping. The air sparger was fabricated from a two inch diameter pipe concentrically installed in the column and open near the bottom of the column. The column contents were slowly re-circulated while fluids were mixed with the air sparger. Samples were rheologically tested to ensure effective mixing, as required. Once the fluids were adequately mixed, oxygen was homogeneously added through the re-circulation loop using a sintered metal oxygen sparger followed by a static mixer. Then the air sparger was re-actuated to remove oxygen from solution as air bubbled up through solution. To monitor mixing effectiveness several variables were monitored, which included flow rates, oxygen concentration, differential pressures along the column height, fluid levels, and void fractions, which are defined as the percent of dissolved gas divided by the total volume of gas and liquid. Research showed that mixing was uniform for water and water with AFA, but mixing for the AZ101 fluid was far more complex. Although mixing of AZ101 was uniform throughout most of the column, gas entrapment and settling of solids significantly affected test results. The detailed test results presented here provide some insight into the complexities of mixing and void fractions for different fluids and how the mixing process itself

  20. EFFECTS OF OXYGEN AND AIR MIXING ON VOID FRACTIONS IN A LARGE SCALE SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, R; Hector Guerrero, H; Michael Restivo, M

    2008-09-11

    Oxygen and air mixing with spargers was performed in a 30 foot tall by 30 inch diameter column, to investigate mass transfer as air sparged up through the column and removed saturated oxygen from solution. The mixing techniques required to support this research are the focus of this paper. The fluids tested included water, water with an antifoam agent (AFA), and a high, solids content, Bingham plastic, nuclear waste simulant with AFA, referred to as AZ01 simulant, which is non-radioactive. Mixing of fluids in the column was performed using a recirculation system and an air sparger. The re-circulation system consisted of the column, a re-circulating pump, and associated piping. The air sparger was fabricated from a two inch diameter pipe concentrically installed in the column and open near the bottom of the column. The column contents were slowly re-circulated while fluids were mixed with the air sparger. Samples were rheologically tested to ensure effective mixing, as required. Once the fluids were adequately mixed, oxygen was homogeneously added through the re-circulation loop using a sintered metal oxygen sparger followed by a static mixer. Then the air sparger was re-actuated to remove oxygen from solution as air bubbled up through solution. To monitor mixing effectiveness several variables were monitored, which included flow rates, oxygen concentration, differential pressures along the column height, fluid levels, and void fractions, which are defined as the percent of dissolved gas divided by the total volume of gas and liquid. Research showed that mixing was uniform for water and water with AFA, but mixing for the AZ101 fluid was far more complex. Although mixing of AZ101 was uniform throughout most of the column, gas entrapment and settling of solids significantly affected test results. The detailed test results presented here provide some insight into the complexities of mixing and void fractions for different fluids and how the mixing process itself

  1. Dose escalation by hypo fractionation in localized prostate cancer - a large single institution experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadevan, A.; Klein, E.; Kupelian, P.

    2003-01-01

    To report the outcomes of high dose radiation therapy using Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) with hypo fractionation in localized prostate cancer at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation. A total of 278 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with IMRT between 1998 and 2001. All cases had available pretreatment PSA (iPSA) and biopsy Gleason scores (bGS), no nodal metastasis, a minimum 2 year follow-up, and >5 follow-up PSA levels. The frequency by T-stage was: T1-T2A in 86%, T2B-T2C in 9%, and T3 in 5%. The median iPSA was 8.35. The frequency by bGS was: =7 in 45%. The age range for the patients was from 48 to 85 years (median 68 years). The median follow-up was 33 months (range: 24-49 months). The median doses delivered were 83Gy (delivered at 2.5Gy per fraction to 70 Gy; this being equivalent to 83 Gy at standard fractionation of 1.8 Gy using an alpha/beta of 2). The ASTRO definition for biochemical failure was used. Toxicity was assessed using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria. The 3-year biochemical relapse free survival (bRFS) for the entire cohort at three years was 91%. Any (grade 1 or higher) acute genito-urinary (GU) side effects were seen in 79% of patients. Grade 2 or higher acute GU toxicity was seen in 18% of patients. Any (grade 1 or higher) acute gastro-intestinal (GI) side effects were seen in 65% of patients. Grade 2 or higher acute GI toxicity was seen in 11% of patients. Any (grade 1 or higher) late GU side effects were seen in 3% of patients. Grade 2 or higher late GU toxicity was seen in 1.5% of patients. Any (grade 1 or higher) late GI side effects were seen in 13% of patients. Grade 2 or higher late GI toxicity was seen in 5% of patients. Higher doses of radiation delivered by IMRT resulted in excellent bRFS outcomes in patients with localized prostate cancer receiving external beam radiation therapy. IMRT can be effectively used to safely increase dose delivery without compromising on quality of life

  2. Analysis of albedo versus cloud fraction relationships in liquid water clouds using heuristic models and large eddy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, Graham; Balsells, Joseph; Glassmeier, Franziska; Yamaguchi, Takanobu; Kazil, Jan; McComiskey, Allison

    2017-07-01

    The relationship between the albedo of a cloudy scene A and cloud fraction fc is studied with the aid of heuristic models of stratocumulus and cumulus clouds. Existing work has shown that scene albedo increases monotonically with increasing cloud fraction but that the relationship varies from linear to superlinear. The reasons for these differences in functional dependence are traced to the relationship between cloud deepening and cloud widening. When clouds deepen with no significant increase in fc (e.g., in solid stratocumulus), the relationship between A and fc is linear. When clouds widen as they deepen, as in cumulus cloud fields, the relationship is superlinear. A simple heuristic model of a cumulus cloud field with a power law size distribution shows that the superlinear A-fc behavior is traced out either through random variation in cloud size distribution parameters or as the cloud field oscillates between a relative abundance of small clouds (steep slopes on a log-log plot) and a relative abundance of large clouds (flat slopes). Oscillations of this kind manifest in large eddy simulation of trade wind cumulus where the slope and intercept of the power law fit to the cloud size distribution are highly correlated. Further analysis of the large eddy model-generated cloud fields suggests that cumulus clouds grow larger and deeper as their underlying plumes aggregate; this is followed by breakup of large plumes and a tendency to smaller clouds. The cloud and thermal size distributions oscillate back and forth approximately in unison.

  3. Determination of average fission fraction produced by 14 MeV neutrons in assemblies with large volume of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dalun; Li Benci; Wang Xiuchun; Li Yijun; Zhang Shaohua; He Yongwu

    1991-07-01

    The average fission fraction of 238 U caused by 14 MeV neutrons in assemblies with large volume depleted uranium has been determined. The measured value of p f 238U (R ∞ depleted ) 14 was 0.897 ± 0.036. Measurements were also completed for neutron flux distribution and average fission fraction of 235 U isotope in depleted uranium sphere. Values of p f 238U (R depleted ) have been obtained by using a series of uranium spheres. For a sphere with Φ 600 the p f 23 '8 U (R 300 depleted ) is 0.823 ± 0.041, the density of depleted uranium assembly is 18.8g/cm 3 and total weight of assembly is about 2.8t

  4. Heat Load Measurements on a Large Superconducting Magnet An Application of a Void Fraction Meter

    CERN Document Server

    Pengo, R; Junker, S; Passardi, Giorgio; ten Kate, H H J

    2004-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the two major experiments of the LHC project at CERN using cryogenics. The superconducting magnet system of ATLAS is composed of the Barrel Toroid (BT), two End Caps Toroids and the Central Solenoid. The BT is formed of 8 race-track superconducting dipoles, each one 25 m long and 5 m wide. A reduced scale prototype (named B0) of one of the 8 dipoles, about one third of the length, has been constructed and tested in a dedicated cryogenic facility at CERN. To simulate the final thermal and hydraulic operating conditions, the B0 was cooled by a forced flow of 4.5 K saturated liquid helium provided by a centrifugal pump of 80 g/s nominal capacity. Both static and dynamic heat loads, generated by the induced currents on the B0 casing during a slow dump or a ramp up, have been measured to verify the expected thermal budget of the entire BT. The instrument used for the heat load measurements was a Void Fraction Meter (VFM) installed on the magnet return line. The instrument constructed at CERN was ca...

  5. Rapid determination of vertebral fat fraction over a large range of vertebral bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Jarad; Nicholson, Geoffrey; Cowin, Gary; Ilente, Clare; Wong, Winnie; Kennedy, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral body fat fraction (FF) has been found to vary between lumbar vertebrae using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). We aim to more quickly assess a larger number of adjacent vertebrae using a single T2-weighted iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) sequence. Five men had dual-energy X-ray absorptometry (DEXA) and 1.5-T MR scans performed. MRS was performed at L3, and a sagittal IDEAL sequence was also performed, resulting in separate fat-only and water-only readings from T10 to S2. For the IDEAL measurements, two independent observers followed a set reading protocol, with five observations each per vertebra. Intra- and interobserver variability were assessed as deviations from the mean within and between observers, respectively. For FF measurements there was limited intra-observer variation, with observers being on average within 3.4% of the pooled mean value. Similarly, there was good interobserver agreement, with an average variation of 2.1%. All men showed a reduction in FF of 1.6–7% between L5 and S1. Otherwise, there was a trend of increasing FF moving inferiorly from T10 to S2. This averaged 2.7% per vertebra (range 1.1–3.8%) and may not have been dependent on MRS-measured FF at the L3 level. There was poor correlation between MRS-measured FF at L2–4 and bone mineral density measured using DEXA (R2=0.06). IDEAL measurements are generally reproducible between observers following a set protocol. There appears to be a gradient in FF moving from T10 to S2, with S1 showing a consistent decrease. This variation may better describe overall marrow function than a single-vertebra reading.

  6. The role of surprise in satisfaction judgements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhamme, J.; Snelders, H.M.J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Empirical findings suggest that surprise plays an important role in consumer satisfaction, but there is a lack of theory to explain why this is so. The present paper provides explanations for the process through which positive (negative) surprise might enhance (reduce) consumer satisfaction. First,

  7. Hydrogen atom with a Yukawa potential: Perturbation theory and continued-fractions--Pade approximants at large order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrscay, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    A simple power-series method is developed to calculate to large order the Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation expansions for energy levels of a hydrogen atom with a Yukawa-type screened Coulomb potential. Perturbation series for the 1s, 2s, and 2p levels, shown not to be of the Stieltjes type, are calculated to 100th order. Nevertheless, the poles of the Pade approximants to these series generally avoid the region of the positive real axis 0 < lambda < lambda(, where lambda( represents the coupling constant threshold. As a result, the Pade sums afford accurate approximations to E(lambda) in this domain. The continued-fraction representations to these perturbation series have been accurately calculated to large (100th) order and demonstrate a curious ''quasioscillatory,'' but non-Stieltjes, behavior. Accurate values of E(lambda) as well as lambda( for the 1s, 2s, and 2p levels are reported

  8. Climate Change as a Predictable Surprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazerman, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I analyze climate change as a 'predictable surprise', an event that leads an organization or nation to react with surprise, despite the fact that the information necessary to anticipate the event and its consequences was available (Bazerman and Watkins, 2004). I then assess the cognitive, organizational, and political reasons why society fails to implement wise strategies to prevent predictable surprises generally and climate change specifically. Finally, I conclude with an outline of a set of response strategies to overcome barriers to change

  9. A toolkit for detecting technical surprise.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, Michael Wayne; Foehse, Mark C.

    2010-10-01

    The detection of a scientific or technological surprise within a secretive country or institute is very difficult. The ability to detect such surprises would allow analysts to identify the capabilities that could be a military or economic threat to national security. Sandia's current approach utilizing ThreatView has been successful in revealing potential technological surprises. However, as data sets become larger, it becomes critical to use algorithms as filters along with the visualization environments. Our two-year LDRD had two primary goals. First, we developed a tool, a Self-Organizing Map (SOM), to extend ThreatView and improve our understanding of the issues involved in working with textual data sets. Second, we developed a toolkit for detecting indicators of technical surprise in textual data sets. Our toolkit has been successfully used to perform technology assessments for the Science & Technology Intelligence (S&TI) program.

  10. SU-E-T-480: Radiobiological Dose Comparison of Single Fraction SRS, Multi-Fraction SRT and Multi-Stage SRS of Large Target Volumes Using the Linear-Quadratic Formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, C; Hrycushko, B; Jiang, S; Meyer, J; Timmerman, R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the radiobiological effect on large tumors and surrounding normal tissues from single fraction SRS, multi-fractionated SRT, and multi-staged SRS treatment. Methods: An anthropomorphic head phantom with a centrally located large volume target (18.2 cm 3 ) was scanned using a 16 slice large bore CT simulator. Scans were imported to the Multiplan treatment planning system where a total prescription dose of 20Gy was used for a single, three staged and three fractionated treatment. Cyber Knife treatment plans were inversely optimized for the target volume to achieve at least 95% coverage of the prescription dose. For the multistage plan, the target was segmented into three subtargets having similar volume and shape. Staged plans for individual subtargets were generated based on a planning technique where the beam MUs of the original plan on the total target volume are changed by weighting the MUs based on projected beam lengths within each subtarget. Dose matrices for each plan were export in DICOM format and used to calculate equivalent dose distributions in 2Gy fractions using an alpha beta ratio of 10 for the target and 3 for normal tissue. Results: Singe fraction SRS, multi-stage plan and multi-fractionated SRT plans had an average 2Gy dose equivalent to the target of 62.89Gy, 37.91Gy and 33.68Gy, respectively. The normal tissue within 12Gy physical dose region had an average 2Gy dose equivalent of 29.55Gy, 16.08Gy and 13.93Gy, respectively. Conclusion: The single fraction SRS plan had the largest predicted biological effect for the target and the surrounding normal tissue. The multi-stage treatment provided for a more potent biologically effect on target compared to the multi-fraction SRT treatments with less biological normal tissue than single-fraction SRS treatment

  11. Radiation Effect on Body Weight and Hematological Changes of Hybrid Mice by Conventional Fraction, Large Abdominal Field Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Heon; Shin, Sei One; Kim, Myung Se

    1985-01-01

    Radiation effect on mammals, especially on hematologic changes, has been studied since discovery of x-ray. Various experimental animals were tried for radiobiological studies. 72 hybrid mice with conventional fraction (5X/week), large abdominal field (2 x 3cm, from symphysis pubic to xyphoid process) were used. Body weight was declined gradually by increasing irradiation doses, nadir was about 29.7% in male ; 30.4% in female at 6000 rad irradiation group. Hemoglobin value was nearly normal throughout entire treatment. Significant dropping of WBC count was noted to 40-50% of pretreatment values by only 1000 rad irradiation. Change of differential count was interesting; lymphocyte proportion showed gradual reduction, instead of gradual increasing of segmented neutrophil. Those proportion were reversed after 6000 rad irradiation. Urinary protein tests showed + - +++, showing no correlation with dosage. Application. of our study in clinical combination therapy (radiation + chemotherapy) was discussed

  12. High-accuracy power series solutions with arbitrarily large radius of convergence for the fractional nonlinear Schrödinger-type equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, U. Al; Al-Refai, M.; Shchedrin, Gavriil; Carr, Lincoln D.

    2018-06-01

    Fractional nonlinear differential equations present an interplay between two common and important effective descriptions used to simplify high dimensional or more complicated theories: nonlinearity and fractional derivatives. These effective descriptions thus appear commonly in physical and mathematical modeling. We present a new series method providing systematic controlled accuracy for solutions of fractional nonlinear differential equations, including the fractional nonlinear Schrödinger equation and the fractional nonlinear diffusion equation. The method relies on spatially iterative use of power series expansions. Our approach permits an arbitrarily large radius of convergence and thus solves the typical divergence problem endemic to power series approaches. In the specific case of the fractional nonlinear Schrödinger equation we find fractional generalizations of cnoidal waves of Jacobi elliptic functions as well as a fractional bright soliton. For the fractional nonlinear diffusion equation we find the combination of fractional and nonlinear effects results in a more strongly localized solution which nevertheless still exhibits power law tails, albeit at a much lower density.

  13. Surprisal analysis and probability matrices for rotational energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, R.D.; Bernstein, R.B.; Kahana, P.; Procaccia, I.; Upchurch, E.T.

    1976-01-01

    The information-theoretic approach is applied to the analysis of state-to-state rotational energy transfer cross sections. The rotational surprisal is evaluated in the usual way, in terms of the deviance of the cross sections from their reference (''prior'') values. The surprisal is found to be an essentially linear function of the energy transferred. This behavior accounts for the experimentally observed exponential gap law for the hydrogen halide systems. The data base here analyzed (taken from the literature) is largely computational in origin: quantal calculations for the hydrogenic systems H 2 +H, He, Li + ; HD+He; D 2 +H and for the N 2 +Ar system; and classical trajectory results for H 2 +Li + ; D 2 +Li + and N 2 +Ar. The surprisal analysis not only serves to compact a large body of data but also aids in the interpretation of the results. A single surprisal parameter theta/subR/ suffices to account for the (relative) magnitude of all state-to-state inelastic cross sections at a given energy

  14. Surprise: a belief or an emotion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellers, Barbara; Fincher, Katrina; Drummond, Caitlin; Bigony, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Surprise is a fundamental link between cognition and emotion. It is shaped by cognitive assessments of likelihood, intuition, and superstition, and it in turn shapes hedonic experiences. We examine this connection between cognition and emotion and offer an explanation called decision affect theory. Our theory predicts the affective consequences of mistaken beliefs, such as overconfidence and hindsight. It provides insight about why the pleasure of a gain can loom larger than the pain of a comparable loss. Finally, it explains cross-cultural differences in emotional reactions to surprising events. By changing the nature of the unexpected (from chance to good luck), one can alter the emotional reaction to surprising events. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fractional thermoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Povstenko, Yuriy

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to fractional thermoelasticity, i.e. thermoelasticity based on the heat conduction equation with differential operators of fractional order. Readers will discover how time-fractional differential operators describe memory effects and space-fractional differential operators deal with the long-range interaction. Fractional calculus, generalized Fourier law, axisymmetric and central symmetric problems and many relevant equations are featured in the book. The latest developments in the field are included and the reader is brought up to date with current research.  The book contains a large number of figures, to show the characteristic features of temperature and stress distributions and to represent the whole spectrum of order of fractional operators.  This work presents a picture of the state-of-the-art of fractional thermoelasticity and is suitable for specialists in applied mathematics, physics, geophysics, elasticity, thermoelasticity and engineering sciences. Corresponding sections of ...

  16. K$^{-}$ over K$^{+}$ multiplicity ratio for kaons produced in DIS with a large fraction of the virtual-photon energy

    CERN Document Server

    Akhunzyanov, R.; The COMPASS collaboration; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anfimov, N.V.; Anosov, V.; Antoshkin, A.; Augsten, K.; Augustyniak, W.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.D.R.; Badełek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, M.; Barth, J.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Birsa, R.; Bodlak, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Burtsev, V.E.; Capozza, L.; Chang, W.-C.; Chatterjee, C.; Chiosso, M.; Chumakov, A.G.; Chung, S.-U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Dreisbach, Ch.; Dünnweber, W.; Dusaev, R.R.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; jr., M.Finger; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giarra, J.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grasso, A.; Gridin, A.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Grube, B.; Guskov, A.; Hahne, D.; Hamar, G.; von Harrach, D.; Heitz, R.; Herrmann, F.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Hsieh, C.-Y.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jary, V.; Joosten, R.; Jörg, P.; Kabuß, E.; Kerbizi, A.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.M.; Kral, Z.; Krämer, M.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kulinich, Y.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Kuznetsov, I.I.; Kveton, A.; Lednev, A.A.; Levchenko, E.A.; Levorato, S.; Lian, Y.-S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Lyubovitskij, V.E.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Mamon, S.A.; Marchand, C.; Marianski, B.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matoušek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.V.; Meyer, M.; Meyer, W.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Mikhasenko, M.; Mitrofanov, E.; Mitrofanov, N.; Miyachi, Y.; Moretti, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nový, J.; Nowak, W.-D.; Nukazuka, G.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, F.; Pesaro, G.; Pešek, M.; Pešková, M.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Pierre, N.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rybnikov, A.; Rychter, A.; Salac, R.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sawada, T.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmieden, H.; Seder, E.; Selyunin, A.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Smolik, J.; Srnka, A.; Steffen, D.; Stolarski, M.; Subrt, O.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thiel, A.; Tomsa, J.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Vasilishin, B.I.; Vauth, A.; Veit, B.M.; Veloso, J.; Vidon, A.; Virius, M.; Wallner, S.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Zaremba, K.; Zavada, P.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhuravlev, N.; Ziembicki, M.

    2018-01-01

    The K$^{-}$ over K$^{+}$ multiplicity ratio is measured in deep-inelastic scattering, for the first time for kaons carrying a large fraction $z$ of the virtual-photon energy. The data were obtained by the COMPASS collaboration using a 160 GeV muon beam and an isoscalar $^6$LiD target. The regime of deep-inelastic scattering is ensured by requiring $Q^2>1$ (GeV/$c)^2$ for the photon virtuality and $W>5$ GeV/$c^2$ for the invariant mass of the produced hadronic system. Kaons are identified in the momentum range from 12 GeV/$c$ to 40 GeV/$c$, thereby restricting the range in Bjorken-$x$ to $0.010.75$. For very large values of $z$, $i.e.$ $z>0.8$, the results contradict expectations obtained using the formalism of (next-to-)leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics. This may imply that cross-section factorisation or/and universality of (kaon) fragmentation functions do not hold. Our studies suggest that within this formalism an additional correction may be required, which takes into account th...

  17. Viral marketing: the use of surprise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindgreen, A.; Vanhamme, J.; Clarke, I.; Flaherty, T.B.

    2005-01-01

    Viral marketing involves consumers passing along a company's marketing message to their friends, family, and colleagues. This chapter reviews viral marketing campaigns and argues that the emotion of surprise often is at work and that this mechanism resembles that of word-of-mouth marketing.

  18. Exploration, Novelty, Surprise and Free Energy Minimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp eSchwartenbeck

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews recent developments under the free energy principle that introduce a normative perspective on classical economic (utilitarian decision-making based on (active Bayesian inference. It has been suggested that the free energy principle precludes novelty and complexity, because it assumes that biological systems – like ourselves - try to minimise the long-term average of surprise to maintain their homeostasis. However, recent formulations show that minimising surprise leads naturally to concepts such as exploration and novelty bonuses. In this approach, agents infer a policy that minimises surprise by minimising the difference (or relative entropy between likely and desired outcomes, which involves both pursuing the goal-state that has the highest expected utility (often termed ‘exploitation’ and visiting a number of different goal-states (‘exploration’. Crucially, the opportunity to visit new states increases the value of the current state. Casting decision-making problems within a variational framework, therefore, predicts that our behaviour is governed by both the entropy and expected utility of future states. This dissolves any dialectic between minimising surprise and exploration or novelty seeking.

  19. Glial heterotopia of maxilla: A clinical surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Mahalik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Glial heterotopia is a rare congenital mass lesion which often presents as a clinical surprise. We report a case of extranasal glial heterotopia in a neonate with unusual features. The presentation, management strategy, etiopathogenesis and histopathology of the mass lesion has been reviewed.

  20. A Shocking Surprise in Stephan's Quintet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This false-color composite image of the Stephan's Quintet galaxy cluster clearly shows one of the largest shock waves ever seen (green arc). The wave was produced by one galaxy falling toward another at speeds of more than one million miles per hour. The image is made up of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and a ground-based telescope in Spain. Four of the five galaxies in this picture are involved in a violent collision, which has already stripped most of the hydrogen gas from the interiors of the galaxies. The centers of the galaxies appear as bright yellow-pink knots inside a blue haze of stars, and the galaxy producing all the turmoil, NGC7318b, is the left of two small bright regions in the middle right of the image. One galaxy, the large spiral at the bottom left of the image, is a foreground object and is not associated with the cluster. The titanic shock wave, larger than our own Milky Way galaxy, was detected by the ground-based telescope using visible-light wavelengths. It consists of hot hydrogen gas. As NGC7318b collides with gas spread throughout the cluster, atoms of hydrogen are heated in the shock wave, producing the green glow. Spitzer pointed its infrared spectrograph at the peak of this shock wave (middle of green glow) to learn more about its inner workings. This instrument breaks light apart into its basic components. Data from the instrument are referred to as spectra and are displayed as curving lines that indicate the amount of light coming at each specific wavelength. The Spitzer spectrum showed a strong infrared signature for incredibly turbulent gas made up of hydrogen molecules. This gas is caused when atoms of hydrogen rapidly pair-up to form molecules in the wake of the shock wave. Molecular hydrogen, unlike atomic hydrogen, gives off most of its energy through vibrations that emit in the infrared. This highly disturbed gas is the most turbulent molecular hydrogen ever seen. Astronomers were surprised not only by the turbulence

  1. Estimation of the algal-available phosphorus pool in sediments of a large, shallow eutrophic lake (Taihu, China) using profiled SMT fractional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Mengyuan; Zhu Guangwei; Li Wei; Zhang Yunlin; Zhao Linlin; Gu Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Because large, shallow lakes are heavily influenced by wind–wave disturbance, it is difficult to estimate internal phosphorus load using traditional methods. To estimate the potential contribution of phosphorus from sediment to overlying water in eutrophic Lake Taihu, phosphorus fractions of surface and deep layer sediments were quantified and analyzed for algal bloom potential using a Standard Measurements and Testing (SMT) sequential extraction method and incubation experiments. Phosphorus bound to Fe, Al and Mn oxides and hydroxides (Fe–P) and organic phosphorus (OP) were to be found bioactive. The difference in Fe–P and OP contents between surface and deep layers equates to the sediment pool of potentially algal-available phosphorus. This pool was estimated at 5168 tons for the entire lake and was closely related to pollution input and algal blooms. Profiled SMT fractionation analysis is thus a potentially useful tool for estimating internal phosphorus loading in large, shallow lakes. - Highlights: ► We used profiled sediment P activity by SMT fractionation to evaluate the P release potential in large and shallow lakes. ► We built the relationship between sediment SMT fractionations of P and the P release by algal bloom degradation process. ► We discussed the supporting mechanism of sediment P release to Microcystis algal bloom in a large and shallow lake. ► We discussed the nutrient control strategy of algal bloom in shallow lakes in highly human activities disturbance catchment. - Profiled SMT fractional analysis of internal phosphorus pool in large, shallow lake.

  2. Radar Design to Protect Against Surprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Technological and doctrinal surprise is about rendering preparations for conflict as irrelevant or ineffective . For a sensor, this means essentially rendering the sensor as irrelevant or ineffective in its ability to help determine truth. Recovery from this sort of surprise is facilitated by flexibility in our own technology and doctrine. For a sensor, this mean s flexibility in its architecture, design, tactics, and the designing organizations ' processes. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory manage d and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000.

  3. Dose fractionated gamma knife radiosurgery for large arteriovenous malformations on daily or alternate day schedule outside the linear quadratic model: Proof of concept and early results. A substitute to volume fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Kanchan Kumar; Kumar, Narendra; Tripathi, Manjul; Oinam, Arun S; Ahuja, Chirag K; Dhandapani, Sivashanmugam; Kapoor, Rakesh; Ghoshal, Sushmita; Kaur, Rupinder; Bhatt, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of dose fractionated gamma knife radiosurgery (DFGKRS) on a daily schedule beyond the linear quadratic (LQ) model, for large volume arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Between 2012-16, 14 patients of large AVMs (median volume 26.5 cc) unsuitable for surgery or embolization were treated in 2-3 of DFGKRS sessions. The Leksell G frame was kept in situ during the whole procedure. 86% (n = 12) patients had radiologic evidence of bleed, and 43% (n = 6) had presented with a history of seizures. 57% (n = 8) patients received a daily treatment for 3 days and 43% (n = 6) were on an alternate day (2 fractions) regimen. The marginal dose was split into 2 or 3 fractions of the ideal prescription dose of a single fraction of 23-25 Gy. The median follow up period was 35.6 months (8-57 months). In the three-fraction scheme, the marginal dose ranged from 8.9-11.5 Gy, while in the two-fraction scheme, the marginal dose ranged from 11.3-15 Gy at 50% per fraction. Headache (43%, n = 6) was the most common early postoperative complication, which was controlled with short course steroids. Follow up evaluation of at least three years was achieved in seven patients, who have shown complete nidus obliteration in 43% patients while the obliteration has been in the range of 50-99% in rest of the patients. Overall, there was a 67.8% reduction in the AVM volume at 3 years. Nidus obliteration at 3 years showed a significant rank order correlation with the cumulative prescription dose (p 0.95, P value 0.01), with attainment of near-total (more than 95%) obliteration rates beyond 29 Gy of the cumulative prescription dose. No patient receiving a cumulative prescription dose of less than 31 Gy had any severe adverse reaction. In co-variate adjusted ordinal regression, only the cumulative prescription dose had a significant correlation with common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTCAE) severity (P value 0.04), independent of age, AVM volume

  4. Surprise: Dwarf Galaxy Harbors Supermassive Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The surprising discovery of a supermassive black hole in a small nearby galaxy has given astronomers a tantalizing look at how black holes and galaxies may have grown in the early history of the Universe. Finding a black hole a million times more massive than the Sun in a star-forming dwarf galaxy is a strong indication that supermassive black holes formed before the buildup of galaxies, the astronomers said. The galaxy, called Henize 2-10, 30 million light-years from Earth, has been studied for years, and is forming stars very rapidly. Irregularly shaped and about 3,000 light-years across (compared to 100,000 for our own Milky Way), it resembles what scientists think were some of the first galaxies to form in the early Universe. "This galaxy gives us important clues about a very early phase of galaxy evolution that has not been observed before," said Amy Reines, a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Virginia. Supermassive black holes lie at the cores of all "full-sized" galaxies. In the nearby Universe, there is a direct relationship -- a constant ratio -- between the masses of the black holes and that of the central "bulges" of the galaxies, leading them to conclude that the black holes and bulges affected each others' growth. Two years ago, an international team of astronomers found that black holes in young galaxies in the early Universe were more massive than this ratio would indicate. This, they said, was strong evidence that black holes developed before their surrounding galaxies. "Now, we have found a dwarf galaxy with no bulge at all, yet it has a supermassive black hole. This greatly strengthens the case for the black holes developing first, before the galaxy's bulge is formed," Reines said. Reines, along with Gregory Sivakoff and Kelsey Johnson of the University of Virginia and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), and Crystal Brogan of the NRAO, observed Henize 2-10 with the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array radio telescope and

  5. Pupil size tracks perceptual content and surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Niels A; Meindertsma, Thomas; van Loon, Anouk M; Lamme, Victor A F; Bonneh, Yoram S; Donner, Tobias H

    2015-04-01

    Changes in pupil size at constant light levels reflect the activity of neuromodulatory brainstem centers that control global brain state. These endogenously driven pupil dynamics can be synchronized with cognitive acts. For example, the pupil dilates during the spontaneous switches of perception of a constant sensory input in bistable perceptual illusions. It is unknown whether this pupil dilation only indicates the occurrence of perceptual switches, or also their content. Here, we measured pupil diameter in human subjects reporting the subjective disappearance and re-appearance of a physically constant visual target surrounded by a moving pattern ('motion-induced blindness' illusion). We show that the pupil dilates during the perceptual switches in the illusion and a stimulus-evoked 'replay' of that illusion. Critically, the switch-related pupil dilation encodes perceptual content, with larger amplitude for disappearance than re-appearance. This difference in pupil response amplitude enables prediction of the type of report (disappearance vs. re-appearance) on individual switches (receiver-operating characteristic: 61%). The amplitude difference is independent of the relative durations of target-visible and target-invisible intervals and subjects' overt behavioral report of the perceptual switches. Further, we show that pupil dilation during the replay also scales with the level of surprise about the timing of switches, but there is no evidence for an interaction between the effects of surprise and perceptual content on the pupil response. Taken together, our results suggest that pupil-linked brain systems track both the content of, and surprise about, perceptual events. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Old Star's "Rebirth" Gives Astronomers Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope are taking advantage of a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to watch an old star suddenly stir back into new activity after coming to the end of its normal life. Their surprising results have forced them to change their ideas of how such an old, white dwarf star can re-ignite its nuclear furnace for one final blast of energy. Sakurai's Object Radio/Optical Images of Sakurai's Object: Color image shows nebula ejected thousands of years ago. Contours indicate radio emission. Inset is Hubble Space Telescope image, with contours indicating radio emission; this inset shows just the central part of the region. CREDIT: Hajduk et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF, ESO, StSci, NASA Computer simulations had predicted a series of events that would follow such a re-ignition of fusion reactions, but the star didn't follow the script -- events moved 100 times more quickly than the simulations predicted. "We've now produced a new theoretical model of how this process works, and the VLA observations have provided the first evidence supporting our new model," said Albert Zijlstra, of the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom. Zijlstra and his colleagues presented their findings in the April 8 issue of the journal Science. The astronomers studied a star known as V4334 Sgr, in the constellation Sagittarius. It is better known as "Sakurai's Object," after Japanese amateur astronomer Yukio Sakurai, who discovered it on February 20, 1996, when it suddenly burst into new brightness. At first, astronomers thought the outburst was a common nova explosion, but further study showed that Sakurai's Object was anything but common. The star is an old white dwarf that had run out of hydrogen fuel for nuclear fusion reactions in its core. Astronomers believe that some such stars can undergo a final burst of fusion in a shell of helium that surrounds a core of heavier nuclei such as carbon and oxygen. However, the

  7. Primary Care Practice: Uncertainty and Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Benjamin F.

    I will focus my comments on uncertainty and surprise in primary care practices. I am a medical anthropologist by training, and have been a full-time researcher in family medicine for close to twenty years. In this talk I want to look at primary care practices as complex systems, particularly taking the perspective of translating evidence into practice. I am going to discuss briefly the challenges we have in primary care, and in medicine in general, of translating new evidence into the everyday care of patients. To do this, I will look at two studies that we have conducted on family practices, then think about how practices can be best characterized as complex adaptive systems. Finally, I will focus on the implications of this portrayal for disseminating new knowledge into practice.

  8. Surprises and counterexamples in real function theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rajwade, A R

    2007-01-01

    This book presents a variety of intriguing, surprising and appealing topics and nonroutine theorems in real function theory. It is a reference book to which one can turn for finding that arise while studying or teaching analysis.Chapter 1 is an introduction to algebraic, irrational and transcendental numbers and contains the Cantor ternary set. Chapter 2 contains functions with extraordinary properties; functions that are continuous at each point but differentiable at no point. Chapters 4 and intermediate value property, periodic functions, Rolle's theorem, Taylor's theorem, points of tangents. Chapter 6 discusses sequences and series. It includes the restricted harmonic series, of alternating harmonic series and some number theoretic aspects. In Chapter 7, the infinite peculiar range of convergence is studied. Appendix I deal with some specialized topics. Exercises at the end of chapters and their solutions are provided in Appendix II.This book will be useful for students and teachers alike.

  9. The conceptualization model problem—surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, John

    2005-03-01

    The foundation of model analysis is the conceptual model. Surprise is defined as new data that renders the prevailing conceptual model invalid; as defined here it represents a paradigm shift. Limited empirical data indicate that surprises occur in 20-30% of model analyses. These data suggest that groundwater analysts have difficulty selecting the appropriate conceptual model. There is no ready remedy to the conceptual model problem other than (1) to collect as much data as is feasible, using all applicable methods—a complementary data collection methodology can lead to new information that changes the prevailing conceptual model, and (2) for the analyst to remain open to the fact that the conceptual model can change dramatically as more information is collected. In the final analysis, the hydrogeologist makes a subjective decision on the appropriate conceptual model. The conceptualization problem does not render models unusable. The problem introduces an uncertainty that often is not widely recognized. Conceptual model uncertainty is exacerbated in making long-term predictions of system performance. C'est le modèle conceptuel qui se trouve à base d'une analyse sur un modèle. On considère comme une surprise lorsque le modèle est invalidé par des données nouvelles; dans les termes définis ici la surprise est équivalente à un change de paradigme. Des données empiriques limitées indiquent que les surprises apparaissent dans 20 à 30% des analyses effectuées sur les modèles. Ces données suggèrent que l'analyse des eaux souterraines présente des difficultés lorsqu'il s'agit de choisir le modèle conceptuel approprié. Il n'existe pas un autre remède au problème du modèle conceptuel que: (1) rassembler autant des données que possible en utilisant toutes les méthodes applicables—la méthode des données complémentaires peut conduire aux nouvelles informations qui vont changer le modèle conceptuel, et (2) l'analyste doit rester ouvert au fait

  10. Design and performance of large-pixel-size high-fill-fraction TES arrays for future X-ray astrophysics missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Bandler, S.R.; Chervenak, J.; Finkbeiner, F.; Iyomoto, N.; Kelley, R.L.; Kilbourne, C.A.; Porter, F.S.; Saab, T.; Sadleir, J.; White, J.

    2006-01-01

    We have designed, modeled, fabricated and tested a 600μm high-fill-fraction microcalorimeter array that will be a good match to the requirements of future X-ray missions. Our devices use transition-edge sensors coupled to overhanging bismuth/copper absorbers to produce arrays with 97% or higher fill fraction. An extensive modeling effort was undertaken in order to accommodate large pixel sizes (500-1000μm) and maintain the best energy resolution possible. The finite thermalization time of the large absorber and the associated position dependence of the pulse shape on absorption position constrain the time constants of the system given a desired energy-resolution performance. We show the results of our analysis and our new pixel design, consisting of a novel TES-on-the-side architecture which creates a controllable TES-absorber conductance

  11. X rays and radioactivity: a complete surprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radvanyi, P.; Bordry, M.

    1995-01-01

    The discoveries of X rays and of radioactivity came as complete experimental surprises; the physicists, at that time, had no previous hint of a possible structure of atoms. It is difficult now, knowing what we know, to replace ourselves in the spirit, astonishment and questioning of these years, between 1895 and 1903. The nature of X rays was soon hypothesized, but the nature of the rays emitted by uranium, polonium and radium was much more difficult to disentangle, as they were a mixture of different types of radiations. The origin of the energy continuously released in radioactivity remained a complete mystery for a few years. The multiplicity of the radioactive substances became soon a difficult matter: what was real and what was induced ? Isotopy was still far ahead. It appeared that some radioactive substances had ''half-lifes'': were they genuine radioactive elements or was it just a transitory phenomenon ? Henri Becquerel (in 1900) and Pierre and Marie Curie (in 1902) hesitated on the correct answer. Only after Ernest Rutherford and Frederick Soddy established that radioactivity was the transmutation of one element into another, could one understand that a solid element transformed into a gaseous element, which in turn transformed itself into a succession of solid radioactive elements. It was only in 1913 - after the discovery of the atomic nucleus -, through precise measurements of X ray spectra, that Henry Moseley showed that the number of electrons of a given atom - and the charge of its nucleus - was equal to its atomic number in the periodic table. (authors)

  12. X rays and radioactivity: a complete surprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radvanyi, P. [Laboratoire National Saturne, Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bordry, M. [Institut du Radium, 75 - Paris (France)

    1995-12-31

    The discoveries of X rays and of radioactivity came as complete experimental surprises; the physicists, at that time, had no previous hint of a possible structure of atoms. It is difficult now, knowing what we know, to replace ourselves in the spirit, astonishment and questioning of these years, between 1895 and 1903. The nature of X rays was soon hypothesized, but the nature of the rays emitted by uranium, polonium and radium was much more difficult to disentangle, as they were a mixture of different types of radiations. The origin of the energy continuously released in radioactivity remained a complete mystery for a few years. The multiplicity of the radioactive substances became soon a difficult matter: what was real and what was induced ? Isotopy was still far ahead. It appeared that some radioactive substances had ``half-lifes``: were they genuine radioactive elements or was it just a transitory phenomenon ? Henri Becquerel (in 1900) and Pierre and Marie Curie (in 1902) hesitated on the correct answer. Only after Ernest Rutherford and Frederick Soddy established that radioactivity was the transmutation of one element into another, could one understand that a solid element transformed into a gaseous element, which in turn transformed itself into a succession of solid radioactive elements. It was only in 1913 - after the discovery of the atomic nucleus -, through precise measurements of X ray spectra, that Henry Moseley showed that the number of electrons of a given atom - and the charge of its nucleus - was equal to its atomic number in the periodic table. (authors).

  13. Void fraction development in gas-liquid flow after a U-bend in a vertically upwards serpentine-configuration large-diameter pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almabrok, Almabrok A.; Aliyu, Aliyu M.; Baba, Yahaya D.; Lao, Liyun; Yeung, Hoi

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the effect of a return U-bend on flow behaviour in the vertical upward section of a large-diameter pipe. A wire mesh sensor was employed to study the void fraction distributions at axial distances of 5, 28 and 47 pipe diameters after the upstream bottom bend. The study found that, the bottom bend has considerable impacts on up-flow behaviour. In all conditions, centrifugal action causes appreciable misdistribution in the adjacent straight section. Plots from WMS measurements show that flow asymmetry significantly reduces along the axis at L/D = 47. Regime maps generated from three axial locations showed that, in addition to bubbly, intermittent and annular flows, oscillatory flow occurred particularly when gas and liquid flow rates were relatively low. At this position, mean void fractions were in agreement with those from other large-pipe studies, and comparisons were made with existing void fraction correlations. Among the correlations surveyed, drift flux-type correlations were found to give the best predictive results.

  14. Large volume TENAX {sup registered} extraction of the bioaccessible fraction of sediment-associated organic compounds for a subsequent effect-directed analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, K.; Brack, W. [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre or Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Effect-Directed Analysis

    2007-06-15

    Background, Aim and Scope: Effect-directed analysis (EDA) is a powerful tool for the identification of key toxicants in complex environmental samples. In most cases, EDA is based on total extraction of organic contaminants leading to an erroneous prioritization with regard to hazard and risk. Bioaccessibility-directed extraction aims to discriminate between contaminants that take part in partitioning between sediment and biota in a relevant time frame and those that are enclosed in structures, that do not allow rapid desorption. Standard protocols of targeted extraction of rapidly desorbing, and thus bioaccessible fraction using TENAX {sup registered} are based only on small amounts of sediment. In order to get sufficient amounts of extracts for subsequent biotesting, fractionation, and structure elucidation a large volume extraction technique needs to be developed applying one selected extraction time and excluding toxic procedural blanks. Materials and Methods: Desorption behaviour of sediment contaminants was determined by a consecutive solid-solid extraction of sediment using TENAX {sup registered} fitting a tri-compartment model on experimental data. Time needed to remove the rapidly desorbing fraction trap was calculated to select a fixed extraction time for single extraction procedures. Up-scaling by about a factor of 100 provided a large volume extraction technique for EDA. Reproducibility and comparability to small volume approach were proved. Blanks of respective TENAX {sup registered} mass were investigated using Scenedesmus vacuolatus and Artemia salina as test organisms. Results: Desorption kinetics showed that 12 to 30 % of sediment associated pollutants are available for rapid desorption. t{sub r}ap is compound dependent and covers a range of 2 to 18 h. On that basis a fixed extraction time of 24 h was selected. Validation of large volume approach was done by the means of comparison to small method and reproducibility. The large volume showed a good

  15. Estimation of dependence between mean of fractionation of photons and neutrons dose and intensity of post-irradiation reaction of mouse large intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasinska, A.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the work was verification of mouse large intestine tolerance on fractionated 250 kV X-rays and 2.3 MeV neutrons doses. Two cm of large intestine of mouse CBA/HT strain were irradiated with various fraction doses: from 0.25 to 35 Gy of X-rays and 0.05-12 Gy of neutrons. The measure of injury was handicap of intestine function. Early post-irradiation reaction was measured by loss of body weight (2-3 weeks after irradiation) and mouse mortality (till 2 months after irradiation, LD50/2). The late reaction was measured on the base of maximal body weight in 1 year period after irradiation, deformation of excrements (after 10 months) and death of animals (till 12. month after irradiation, LD50/12). Fractionation of X-ray dose influenced on decrease of intensification of late irradiation effects. After fractionation of neutrons this effect has not been observed. α/β coefficient for X-rays was 19.9 Gy [15.2; 27.0] for body weight nadir, 13.4 Gy [9.3; 19.5] for early mortality (LD50/2), 6.4 Gy [3.6;11.0] for maximal body weight and 6.9 [4.2; 10.8] for late mortality (LD50/12). Analysis of influence of low doses of photons 90.25-4 Gy) and neutrons (0.05-0.8 Gy) showed trend to reduction α/β for photons only (LD50/2=5.4 Gy; LD50/12=4.6 Gy). α/β coefficient for neutrons was defined by LQ model only for maximal body weight and was 19.9 Gy [9.5; 61.0]. In application of graphic method α/β for neutrons was 230 Gy for early and 48 Gy for late effects. Lower values of α/β coefficient for late irradiation effects for photon radiation demonstrate the big influence of fractionation of photons dose on large intestine tolerance (decrease intensity in all biological effects). Author did not observe increase of intestine tolerance in fractionation of neutrons dose. Effect of irradiation damages repair in interfraction pauses, measured by percent of regenerated dose (F r ) was much bigger for photons. For X-rays it was 50% for early and 63% for late effects. In case of

  16. Equilibrium deuterium isotope effect of surprising magnitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, M.J.; Pressman, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    Seemingly large deuterium isotope effects are reported for the preference of deuterium for the α-chloro site to the bridgehead or to the vinyl site in samples of anti-7-chlorobicyclo[4.3.2]undecatetraene-d 1 . Studies of molecular models did not provide a basis for these large equilibrium deuterium isotope effects. The possibility is proposed that these isotope effects only appear to be large for want of comparison with isotope effects measured for molecules that might provide even greater contrasts in local force fields

  17. Surprises in the suddenly-expanded infinite well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslangul, Claude

    2008-01-01

    I study the time evolution of a particle prepared in the ground state of an infinite well after the latter is suddenly expanded. It turns out that the probability density |Ψ(x, t)| 2 shows up quite a surprising behaviour: for definite times, plateaux appear for which |Ψ(x, t)| 2 is constant on finite intervals for x. Elements of theoretical explanation are given by analysing the singular component of the second derivative ∂ xx Ψ(x, t). Analytical closed expressions are obtained for some specific times, which easily allow us to show that, at these times, the density organizes itself into regular patterns provided the size of the box is large enough; more, above some critical size depending on the specific time, the density patterns are independent of the expansion parameter. It is seen how the density at these times simply results from a construction game with definite rules acting on the pieces of the initial density

  18. The Value of Change: Surprises and Insights in Stellar Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bildsten, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Astronomers with large-format cameras regularly scan the sky many times per night to detect what's changing, and telescopes in space such as Kepler and, soon, TESS obtain very accurate brightness measurements of nearly a million stars over time periods of years. These capabilities, in conjunction with theoretical and computational efforts, have yielded surprises and remarkable new insights into the internal properties of stars and how they end their lives. I will show how asteroseismology reveals the properties of the deep interiors of red giants, and highlight how astrophysical transients may be revealing unusual thermonuclear outcomes from exploding white dwarfs and the births of highly magnetic neutron stars. All the while, stellar science has been accelerated by the availability of open source tools, such as Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA), and the nearly immediate availability of observational results.

  19. Surprises from a Deep ASCA Spectrum of the Broad Absorption Line Quasar PHL 5200

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Smita; Matt, G.; Green, P. J.; Elvis, M.; Singh, K. P.

    2002-01-01

    We present a deep (approx. 85 ks) ASCA observation of the prototype broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO) PHL 5200. This is the best X-ray spectrum of a BALQSO yet. We find the following: (1) The source is not intrinsically X-ray weak. (2) The line-of-sight absorption is very strong, with N(sub H) = 5 x 10(exp 23)/sq cm. (3) The absorber does not cover the source completely; the covering fraction is approx. 90%. This is consistent with the large optical polarization observed in this source, implying multiple lines of sight. The most surprising result of this observation is that (4) the spectrum of this BALQSO is not exactly similar to other radio-quiet quasars. The hard X-ray spectrum of PHL 5200 is steep, with the power-law spectral index alpha approx. 1.5. This is similar to the steepest hard X-ray slopes observed so far. At low redshifts, such steep slopes are observed in narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies, believed to be accreting at a high Eddington rate. This observation strengthens the analogy between BALQSOs and NLS1 galaxies and supports the hypothesis that BALQSOs represent an early evolutionary state of quasars. It is well accepted that the orientation to the line of sight determines the appearance of a quasar: age seems to play a significant role as well.

  20. Fundamental surprise in the application of airpower

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    explain transformations in scientific research proposed by Thomas Kuhn in his book “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions." Kuhn proposed the idea...that the accepted traditions of scientific research within a particular community, known as a paradigm, provide the tools to perform "normal science...the large-scale attacks on Lebanese infrastructure would have on the regime, this concept was a non- starter . The order issued to the IDF on 12 July

  1. The Influence of Negative Surprise on Hedonic Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Kieling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After some time using a product or service, the consumer tends to feel less pleasure with consumption. This reduction of pleasure is known as hedonic adaptation. One of the emotions that interfere in this process is surprise. Based on two experiments, we suggest that negative surprise – differently to positive – influences with the level of pleasure foreseen and experienced by the consumer. Study 1 analyzes the influence of negative (vs. positive surprise on the consumer’s post-purchase hedonic adaptation expectation. Results showed that negative surprise influences the intensity of adaptation, augmenting its strength. Study 2 verifies the influence of negative (vs positive surprise over hedonic adaptation. The findings suggested that negative surprise makes adaptation happen more intensively and faster as time goes by, which brings consequences to companies and consumers in the post-purchase process, such as satisfaction and loyalty.

  2. A Dichotomic Analysis of the Surprise Examination Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Franceschi, Paul

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a dichotomic analysis of the surprise examination paradox. In section 1, I analyse the surprise notion in detail. I introduce then in section 2, the distinction between a monist and dichotomic analysis of the paradox. I also present there a dichotomy leading to distinguish two basically and structurally different versions of the paradox, respectively based on a conjoint and a disjoint definition of the surprise. In section 3, I describe the solution to SEP corresponding to...

  3. Older Galaxy Pair Has Surprisingly Youthful Glow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version A pair of interacting galaxies might be experiencing the galactic equivalent of a mid-life crisis. For some reason, the pair, called Arp 82, didn't make their stars early on as is typical of most galaxies. Instead, they got a second wind later in life -- about 2 billion years ago -- and started pumping out waves of new stars as if they were young again. Arp 82 is an interacting pair of galaxies with a strong bridge and a long tail. NGC 2535 is the big galaxy and NGC 2536 is its smaller companion. The disk of the main galaxy looks like an eye, with a bright 'pupil' in the center and oval-shaped 'eyelids.' Dramatic 'beads on a string' features are visible as chains of evenly spaced star-formation complexes along the eyelids. These are presumably the result of large-scale gaseous shocks from a grazing encounter. The colors of this galaxy indicate that the observed stars are young to intermediate in age, around 2 million to 2 billion years old, much less than the age of the universe (13.7 billion years). The puzzle is: why didn't Arp 82 form many stars earlier, like most galaxies of that mass range? Scientifically, it is an oddball and provides a relatively nearby lab for studying the age of intermediate-mass galaxies. This picture is a composite captured by Spitzer's infrared array camera with light at wavelength 8 microns shown in red, NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer combined 1530 and 2310 Angstroms shown in blue, and the Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy Observatory light at 6940 Angstroms shown in green.

  4. The Value of Surprising Findings for Research on Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    JS Armstrong

    2004-01-01

    In the work of Armstrong (Journal of Business Research, 2002), I examined empirical research on the scientific process and related these to marketing science. The findings of some studies were surprising. In this reply, I address surprising findings and other issues raised by commentators.

  5. Large fractions of CO2-fixing microorganisms in pristine limestone aquifers appear to be involved in the oxidation of reduced sulfur and nitrogen compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Martina; Rusznyák, Anna; Akob, Denise M.; Schulze, Isabel; Opitz, Sebastian; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Küsel, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    The traditional view of the dependency of subsurface environments on surface-derived allochthonous carbon inputs is challenged by increasing evidence for the role of lithoautotrophy in aquifer carbon flow. We linked information on autotrophy (Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle) with that from total microbial community analysis in groundwater at two superimposed—upper and lower—limestone groundwater reservoirs (aquifers). Quantitative PCR revealed that up to 17% of the microbial population had the genetic potential to fix CO2 via the Calvin cycle, with abundances of cbbM and cbbL genes, encoding RubisCO (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) forms I and II, ranging from 1.14 × 103 to 6 × 106 genes liter−1 over a 2-year period. The structure of the active microbial communities based on 16S rRNA transcripts differed between the two aquifers, with a larger fraction of heterotrophic, facultative anaerobic, soil-related groups in the oxygen-deficient upper aquifer. Most identified CO2-assimilating phylogenetic groups appeared to be involved in the oxidation of sulfur or nitrogen compounds and harbored both RubisCO forms I and II, allowing efficient CO2 fixation in environments with strong oxygen and CO2 fluctuations. The genera Sulfuricellaand Nitrosomonas were represented by read fractions of up to 78 and 33%, respectively, within the cbbM and cbbL transcript pool and accounted for 5.6 and 3.8% of 16S rRNA sequence reads, respectively, in the lower aquifer. Our results indicate that a large fraction of bacteria in pristine limestone aquifers has the genetic potential for autotrophic CO2 fixation, with energy most likely provided by the oxidation of reduced sulfur and nitrogen compounds.

  6. Fractional statistics and fractional quantized Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, R.; Wu, Y.S.

    1985-01-01

    The authors suggest that the origin of the odd-denominator rule observed in the fractional quantized Hall effect (FQHE) may lie in fractional statistics which govern quasiparticles in FQHE. A theorem concerning statistics of clusters of quasiparticles implies that fractional statistics do not allow coexistence of a large number of quasiparticles at fillings with an even denominator. Thus, no Hall plateau can be formed at these fillings, regardless of the presence of an energy gap. 15 references

  7. Small changes in Cu redox state and speciation generate large isotope fractionation during adsorption and incorporation of Cu by a phototrophic biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutaud, Margot; Méheut, Merlin; Glatzel, Pieter; Pokrovski, Gleb S.; Viers, Jérôme; Rols, Jean-Luc; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.

    2018-01-01

    Despite the importance of phototrophic biofilms in metal cycling in freshwater systems, metal isotope fractionation linked to metal adsorption and uptake by biofilm remains very poorly constrained. Here, copper isotope fractionation by a mature phototrophic biofilm during Cu surface adsorption and incorporation was studied in batch reactor (BR) and open drip flow reactor (DFR) systems at ambient conditions. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (both Near Edge Structure, XANES, and Extended Fine Structure, EXAFS) at Cu K-edge of the biofilm after its interaction with Cu in BR experiments allowed characterizing the molecular structure of assimilated Cu and quantifying the degree of CuII to CuI reduction linked to Cu assimilation. For both BR and DFR experiments, Cu adsorption caused enrichment in heavy isotope at the surface of the biofilm relative to the aqueous solution, with an apparent enrichment factor for the adsorption process, ε65Cuads, of +1.1 ± 0.3‰. In contrast, the isotope enrichment factor during copper incorporation into the biofilm (ε65Cuinc) was highly variable, ranging from -0.6 to +0.8‰. This variability of the ε65Cuinc value was likely controlled by Cu cellular uptake via different transport pathways resulting in contrasting fractionation. Specifically, the CuII storage induced enrichment in heavy isotope, whereas the toxicity response of the biofilm to Cu exposure resulted in reduction of CuII to CuI, thus yielding the biofilm enrichment in light isotope. EXAFS analyses suggested that a major part of the Cu assimilated by the biofilm is bound to 5.1 ± 0.3 oxygen or nitrogen atoms, with a small proportion of Cu linked to sulfur atoms (NS biofilm exhibited a similar trend over time of exposure. Our study demonstrates the complexity of biological processes associated with live phototrophic biofilms, which produce large and contrasting isotope fractionations following rather small Cu redox and speciation changes during uptake, storage or release of

  8. Corrugator Activity Confirms Immediate Negative Affect in Surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha eTopolinski

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The emotion of surprise entails a complex of immediate responses, such as cognitive interruption, attention allocation to, and more systematic processing of the surprising stimulus. All these processes serve the ultimate function to increase processing depth and thus cognitively master the surprising stimulus. The present account introduces phasic negative affect as the underlying mechanism responsible for these consequences. Surprising stimuli are schema-discrepant and thus entail cognitive disfluency, which elicits immediate negative affect. This affect in turn works like a phasic cognitive tuning switching the current processing mode from more automatic and heuristic to more systematic and reflective processing. Directly testing the initial elicitation of negative affect by suprising events, the present experiment presented high and low surprising neutral trivia statements to N = 28 participants while assessing their spontaneous facial expressions via facial electromyography. High compared to low suprising trivia elicited higher corrugator activity, indicative of negative affect and mental effort, while leaving zygomaticus (positive affect and frontalis (cultural surprise expression activity unaffected. Future research shall investigate the mediating role of negative affect in eliciting surprise-related outcomes.

  9. Surprise Gift” Purchases of Small Electric Appliances: A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vanhamme (Joëlle); C.J.P.M. de Bont (Cees)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractUnderstanding decision-making processes for gifts is of strategic importance for companies selling small electrical appliances as gifts account for a large part of their sales. Among all gifts, the ones that are surprising are the most valued by recipients. However, research about

  10. Managing Uncertainity: Soviet Views on Deception, Surprise, and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hull, Andrew

    1989-01-01

    .... In the first two cases (deception and surprise), the emphasis is on how the Soviets seek to sow uncertainty in the minds of the enemy and how the Soviets then plan to use that uncertainty to gain military advantage...

  11. Dividend announcements reconsidered: Dividend changes versus dividend surprises

    OpenAIRE

    Andres, Christian; Betzer, André; van den Bongard, Inga; Haesner, Christian; Theissen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the issue of share price reactions to dividend announcements. Previous papers rely almost exclusively on a naive dividend model in which the dividend change is used as a proxy for the dividend surprise. We use the difference between the actual dividend and the analyst consensus forecast as obtained from I/B/E/S as a proxy for the dividend surprise. Using data from Germany, we find significant share price reactions after dividend announcements. Once we control for analys...

  12. The Surprise Examination Paradox and the Second Incompleteness Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Kritchman, Shira; Raz, Ran

    2010-01-01

    We give a new proof for Godel's second incompleteness theorem, based on Kolmogorov complexity, Chaitin's incompleteness theorem, and an argument that resembles the surprise examination paradox. We then go the other way around and suggest that the second incompleteness theorem gives a possible resolution of the surprise examination paradox. Roughly speaking, we argue that the flaw in the derivation of the paradox is that it contains a hidden assumption that one can prove the consistency of the...

  13. An efficient community detection algorithm using greedy surprise maximization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yawen; Jia, Caiyan; Yu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Community detection is an important and crucial problem in complex network analysis. Although classical modularity function optimization approaches are widely used for identifying communities, the modularity function (Q) suffers from its resolution limit. Recently, the surprise function (S) was experimentally proved to be better than the Q function. However, up until now, there has been no algorithm available to perform searches to directly determine the maximal surprise values. In this paper, considering the superiority of the S function over the Q function, we propose an efficient community detection algorithm called AGSO (algorithm based on greedy surprise optimization) and its improved version FAGSO (fast-AGSO), which are based on greedy surprise optimization and do not suffer from the resolution limit. In addition, (F)AGSO does not need the number of communities K to be specified in advance. Tests on experimental networks show that (F)AGSO is able to detect optimal partitions in both simple and even more complex networks. Moreover, algorithms based on surprise maximization perform better than those algorithms based on modularity maximization, including Blondel–Guillaume–Lambiotte–Lefebvre (BGLL), Clauset–Newman–Moore (CNM) and the other state-of-the-art algorithms such as Infomap, order statistics local optimization method (OSLOM) and label propagation algorithm (LPA). (paper)

  14. Chemical Characterization and Source Apportionment of Size Fractionated Atmospheric Aerosols, and, Evaluating Student Attitudes and Learning in Large Lecture General Chemistry Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Gregory Harold

    Chemical speciation and source apportionment of size fractionated atmospheric aerosols were investigated using laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LD TOF-MS) and source apportionment was carried out using carbon-14 accelerator mass spectrometry (14C AMS). Sample collection was carried out using the Davis Rotating-drum Unit for Monitoring impact analyzer in Davis, Colfax, and Yosemite, CA. Ambient atmospheric aerosols collected during the winter of 2010/11 and 2011/12 showed a significant difference in the types of compounds found in the small and large sized particles. The difference was due to the increase number of oxidized carbon species that were found in the small particles size ranges, but not in the large particles size ranges. Overall, the ambient atmospheric aerosols collected during the winter in Davis, CA had and average fraction modern of F14C = 0.753 +/- 0.006, indicating that the majority of the size fractionated particles originated from biogenic sources. Samples collected during the King Fire in Colfax, CA were used to determine the contribution of biomass burning (wildfire) aerosols. Factor analysis was used to reduce the ions found in the LD TOF-MS analysis of the King Fire samples. The final factor analysis generated a total of four factors that explained an overall 83% of the variance in the data set. Two of the factors correlated heavily with increased smoke events during the sample period. The increased smoke events produced a large number of highly oxidized organic aerosols (OOA2) and aromatic compounds that are indicative of biomass burning organic aerosols (WBOA). The signal intensities of the factors generated in the King Fire data were investigated in samples collected in Yosemite and Davis, CA to look at the impact of biomass burning on ambient atmospheric aerosols. In both comparison sample collections the OOA2 and WBOA factors both increased during biomass burning events located near the sampling sites. The correlation

  15. FRACTIONAL BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Klimikova

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.

  16. Surprise and Memory as Indices of Concrete Operational Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, Thomas M.

    1973-01-01

    Normal and retarded children's use of color, number, length and continuous quantity as attributes of identification was assessed by presenting them with contrived changes in three properties. Surprise and correct memory responses for color preceded those to number, which preceded logical verbal responses to a conventional number-conservation task.…

  17. Effects of surprisal and locality on Danish sentence processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Kizach, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    An eye-tracking experiment in Danish investigates two dominant accounts of sentence processing: locality-based theories that predict a processing advantage for sentences where the distance between the major syntactic heads is minimized, and the surprisal theory which predicts that processing time...

  18. Things may not be as expected: Surprising findings when updating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-14

    May 14, 2015 ... Things may not be as expected: Surprising findings when updating .... (done at the end of three months after the first review month) ..... Allen G. Getting beyond form filling: The role of institutional governance in human research ...

  19. Automation surprise : results of a field survey of Dutch pilots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, R.J.; Hurts, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Automation surprise (AS) has often been associated with aviation safety incidents. Although numerous laboratory studies have been conducted, few data are available from routine flight operations. A survey among a representative sample of 200 Dutch airline pilots was used to determine the prevalence

  20. The Surprising Impact of Seat Location on Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Katherine K.; Wieman, Carl E.

    2005-01-01

    Every physics instructor knows that the most engaged and successful students tend to sit at the front of the class and the weakest students tend to sit at the back. However, it is normally assumed that this is merely an indication of the respective seat location preferences of weaker and stronger students. Here we present evidence suggesting that in fact this may be mixing up the cause and effect. It may be that the seat selection itself contributes to whether the student does well or poorly, rather than the other way around. While a number of studies have looked at the effect of seat location on students, the results are often inconclusive, and few, if any, have studied the effects in college classrooms with randomly assigned seats. In this paper, we report on our observations of a large introductory physics course in which we randomly assigned students to particular seat locations at the beginning of the semester. Seat location during the first half of the semester had a noticeable impact on student success in the course, particularly in the top and bottom parts of the grade distribution. Students sitting in the back of the room for the first half of the term were nearly six times as likely to receive an F as students who started in the front of the room. A corresponding but less dramatic reversal was evident in the fractions of students receiving As. These effects were in spite of many unusual efforts to engage students at the back of the class and a front-to-back reversal of seat location halfway through the term. These results suggest there may be inherent detrimental effects of large physics lecture halls that need to be further explored.

  1. Sleeping beauties in theoretical physics 26 surprising insights

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Thanu

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses a fascinating set of questions in theoretical physics which will both entertain and enlighten all students, teachers and researchers and other physics aficionados. These range from Newtonian mechanics to quantum field theory and cover several puzzling issues that do not appear in standard textbooks. Some topics cover conceptual conundrums, the solutions to which lead to surprising insights; some correct popular misconceptions in the textbook discussion of certain topics; others illustrate deep connections between apparently unconnected domains of theoretical physics; and a few provide remarkably simple derivations of results which are not often appreciated. The connoisseur of theoretical physics will enjoy a feast of pleasant surprises skilfully prepared by an internationally acclaimed theoretical physicist. Each topic is introduced with proper background discussion and special effort is taken to make the discussion self-contained, clear and comprehensible to anyone with an undergraduate e...

  2. The June surprises: balls, strikes, and the fog of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Charles

    2013-04-01

    At first, few constitutional experts took seriously the argument that the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act exceeded Congress's power under the commerce clause. The highly political opinions of two federal district judges - carefully chosen by challenging plaintiffs - of no particular distinction did not shake that confidence that the act was constitutional. This disdain for the challengers' arguments was only confirmed when the act was upheld by two highly respected conservative court of appeals judges in two separate circuits. But after the hostile, even mocking questioning of the government's advocate in the Supreme Court by the five Republican-appointed justices, the expectation was that the act would indeed be struck down on that ground. So it came as no surprise when the five opined the act did indeed exceed Congress's commerce clause power. But it came as a great surprise when Chief Justice John Roberts, joined by the four Democrat-appointed justices, ruled that the act could be sustained as an exercise of Congress's taxing power - a ground urged by the government almost as an afterthought. It was further surprising, even shocking, that Justices Antonin Scalia, Anthony Kennedy, Clarence Thomas, and Samuel Alito not only wrote a joint opinion on the commerce clause virtually identical to that of their chief, but that in writing it they did not refer to or even acknowledge his opinion. Finally surprising was the fact that Justices Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Stephen Breyer joined the chief in holding that aspects of the act's Medicaid expansion were unconstitutional. This essay ponders and tries to unravel some of these puzzles.

  3. ORMS IN SURPRISING PLACES: CLINICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myroshnychenko MS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Helminthes are the most common human diseases, which are characterized by involvement in the pathological process of all organs and systems. In this article, the authors discuss a few cases of typical and atypical localizations for parasitic worms such as filarial and pinworms which were recovered from surprising places in the bodies of patients in Kharkiv region. This article will allow the doctors of practical health care to pay special attention to the timely prevention and diagnostics of this pathology.

  4. Spatiotemporal neural characterization of prediction error valence and surprise during reward learning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouragnan, Elsa; Queirazza, Filippo; Retzler, Chris; Mullinger, Karen J; Philiastides, Marios G

    2017-07-06

    Reward learning depends on accurate reward associations with potential choices. These associations can be attained with reinforcement learning mechanisms using a reward prediction error (RPE) signal (the difference between actual and expected rewards) for updating future reward expectations. Despite an extensive body of literature on the influence of RPE on learning, little has been done to investigate the potentially separate contributions of RPE valence (positive or negative) and surprise (absolute degree of deviation from expectations). Here, we coupled single-trial electroencephalography with simultaneously acquired fMRI, during a probabilistic reversal-learning task, to offer evidence of temporally overlapping but largely distinct spatial representations of RPE valence and surprise. Electrophysiological variability in RPE valence correlated with activity in regions of the human reward network promoting approach or avoidance learning. Electrophysiological variability in RPE surprise correlated primarily with activity in regions of the human attentional network controlling the speed of learning. Crucially, despite the largely separate spatial extend of these representations our EEG-informed fMRI approach uniquely revealed a linear superposition of the two RPE components in a smaller network encompassing visuo-mnemonic and reward areas. Activity in this network was further predictive of stimulus value updating indicating a comparable contribution of both signals to reward learning.

  5. Stars Form Surprisingly Close to Milky Way's Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    million low mass, sun-like stars in and around the ring, whereas in the disk model, the number of low mass stars could be much less. Nayakshin and his coauthor, Rashid Sunyaev of the Max Plank Institute for Physics in Garching, Germany, used Chandra observations to compare the X-ray glow from the region around Sgr A* to the X-ray emission from thousands of young stars in the Orion Nebula star cluster. They found that the Sgr A* star cluster contains only about 10,000 low mass stars, thereby ruling out the migration model. "We can now say that the stars around Sgr A* were not deposited there by some passing star cluster, rather they were born there," said Sunyaev . "There have been theories that this was possible, but this is the first real evidence. Many scientists are going to be very surprised by these results." Because the Galactic Center is shrouded in dust and gas, it has not been possible to look for the low-mass stars in optical observations. In contrast, X-ray data have allowed astronomers to penetrate the veil of gas and dust and look for these low mass stars. Scenario Dismissed by Chandra Results Scenario Dismissed by Chandra Results "In one of the most inhospitable places in our Galaxy, stars have prevailed," said Nayakshin. "It appears that star formation is much more tenacious than we previously believed." The results suggest that the "rules" of star formation change when stars form in the disk of a giant black hole. Because this environment is very different from typical star formation regions, there is a change in the proportion of stars that form. For example, there is a much higher percentage of massive stars in the disks around black holes. And, when these massive stars explode as supernovae, they will "fertilize" the region with heavy elements such as oxygen. This may explain the large amounts of such elements observed in the disks of young supermassive black holes. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for

  6. The molecular mechanism of Mo isotope fractionation during adsorption to birnessite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasylenki, L.E.; Weeks, C.L.; Bargar, J.R.; Spiro, T.G.; Hein, J.R.; Anbar, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    Fractionation of Mo isotopes during adsorption to manganese oxides is a primary control on the global ocean Mo isotope budget. Previous attempts to explain what drives the surprisingly large isotope effect ??97/95Modissolved-??97/95Moadsorbed=1.8??? have not successfully resolved the fractionation mechanism. New evidence from extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis and density functional theory suggests that Mo forms a polymolybdate complex on the surfaces of experimental and natural samples. Mo in this polynuclear structure is in distorted octahedral coordination, while Mo remaining in solution is predominantly in tetrahedral coordination as MoO42- Our results indicate that the difference in coordination environment between dissolved Mo and adsorbed Mo is the cause of isotope fractionation. The molecular mechanism of metal isotope fractionation in this system should enable us to explain and possibly predict metal isotope effects in other systems where transition metals adsorb to mineral surfaces. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Relationship between the ratio of large and small starch granules determined by gravitational field-flow fractionation and malting quality of barley varieties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chmelík, Josef; Mazanec, Karel; Bohačenko, I.; Psota, V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 30, 9-10 (2007), s. 1289-1301 ISSN 1082-6076 R&D Projects: GA MZe QD1005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : gravitational field- flow fractionation * starch granules * barley varieties Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.977, year: 2007

  8. Fractional charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saminadayar, L.

    2001-01-01

    20 years ago fractional charges were imagined to explain values of conductivity in some materials. Recent experiments have proved the existence of charges whose value is the third of the electron charge. This article presents the experimental facts that have led theorists to predict the existence of fractional charges from the motion of quasi-particles in a linear chain of poly-acetylene to the quantum Hall effect. According to the latest theories, fractional charges are neither bosons nor fermions but anyons, they are submitted to an exclusive principle that is less stringent than that for fermions. (A.C.)

  9. On the surprising rigidity of the Pauli exclusion principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, O.W.

    1989-01-01

    I review recent attempts to construct a local quantum field theory of small violations of the Pauli exclusion principle and suggest a qualitative reason for the surprising rigidity of the Pauli principle. I suggest that small violations can occur in our four-dimensional world as a consequence of the compactification of a higher-dimensional theory in which the exclusion principle is exactly valid. I briefly mention a recent experiment which places a severe limit on possible violations of the exclusion principle. (orig.)

  10. Teacher Supply and Demand: Surprises from Primary Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Wayne

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of primary research studies on public school teacher supply and demand revealed four surprises. Projections show that enrollments are leveling off. Relatedly, annual hiring increases should be only about two or three percent over the next few years. Results from studies of teacher attrition also yield unexpected results. Excluding retirements, only about one in 20 teachers leaves each year, and the novice teachers who quit mainly cite personal and family reasons, not job dissatisfaction. Each of these findings broadens policy makers' options for teacher supply.

  11. Palliation of advanced pelvic malignant disease with large fraction pelvic radiation and misonidazole: final report of RTOG phase I/II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanos, W.J. Jr.; Wasserman, T.; Meoz, R.; Sala, J.; Kong, J.; Stetz, J.

    1987-01-01

    Between October 1979 and June 1982 forty-six patients were entered on a non-randomized Phase I-II protocol for the evaluation of Misonidazole combined with high dose per fraction radiation for the treatment of advanced pelvic malignancies. Pelvic radiation consisted of 1000 cGy in one fraction repeated at 4-week intervals for a total of three treatments. Oral Misonidazole at a dose of 4 gm/m2 was administered 4-6 hr prior to radiation (total dose 12 g/m2). The distribution of histology consisted of 20 gynecologic, 24 bowel, and 2 prostate malignancies. Of the thirty-seven patients completing the three treatments; there were 6 complete responses (14% CR), 10 partial responses (27% PR) 19 minimal or no response (32% NR), and 4 unevaluable. One patient remains NED 5.5 years following radiation. Toxicity directly related to Misonidazole was minimal and consisted primarily of transcient Grade 1, 2 peripheral neuropathy (20% Grade 1, 4% Grade 2) and Grade 2 ototoxicity (4%). Radiation toxicity was significant for late bowel damage. There were 4 (11%) Grade 3 and 7 (19%) Grade 4 gastro-intestinal (GI) toxicities. Kaplan-Meier plot of GI toxicity showed a progressive increase in incidence with time for projected rate of 49% Grade 3, 4 by 12-month. GI toxicity (Grade 3, 4) was also related to tumor response. The complication rate was 80% (4/6) for CR, 30% (3/10) for PR and 26% (5/19) for NR or progression. Because of the GI complication rate, this protocol for palliation of advanced pelvic malignancies has been replaced by a protocol that uses 4 fractions over 2 days (b.i.d.) of 370 cGy per fraction repeated at 3-week intervals for a total of 3 courses

  12. Spatial distributions, fractionation characteristics, and ecological risk assessment of trace elements in sediments of Chaohu Lake, a large eutrophic freshwater lake in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Liu, Guijian; Zhou, Chuncai; Liu, Rongqiong; Xi, Shanshan; Da, Chunnian; Liu, Fei

    2018-01-01

    The concentrations, spatial distribution, fractionation characteristics, and potential ecological risks of trace elements (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, and Co) in the surface sediment samples collected from 32 sites in Chaohu Lake were investigated. The improved BCR sequential extraction procedure was applied to analyze the chemical forms of trace elements in sediments. The enrichment factor (EF), sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), potential ecological risk index (PERI), and risk assessment code (RAC) were employed to evaluate the pollution levels and the potential ecological risks. The results found that the concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, and Co in the surface sediments were 78.59, 36.91, 161.84, 98.87, 38.92, and 10.09 mg kg -1 , respectively. The lower concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, and Ni were almost found in the middle part of the lake, while Co increased from the western toward the eastern parts of the lake. Cr, Ni, Co, and Zn predominantly existed in the residual fractions, with the average values of 76.35, 59.22, 45.60, and 44.30%, respectively. Cu and Pb were mainly combined with Fe/Mn oxides in reducible fraction, with the average values of 66.4 and 69.1%, respectively. The pollution levels were different among the selected elements. Cu had the highest potential ecological risk, while Cr had the lowest potential ecological risk.

  13. Fractional fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackiw, R.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1984-01-01

    The theory of fermion fractionization due to topologically generated fermion ground states is presented. Applications to one-dimensional conductors, to the MIT bag, and to the Hall effect are reviewed. (author)

  14. Estimations of expectedness and potential surprise in possibility theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prade, Henri; Yager, Ronald R.

    1992-01-01

    This note investigates how various ideas of 'expectedness' can be captured in the framework of possibility theory. Particularly, we are interested in trying to introduce estimates of the kind of lack of surprise expressed by people when saying 'I would not be surprised that...' before an event takes place, or by saying 'I knew it' after its realization. In possibility theory, a possibility distribution is supposed to model the relative levels of mutually exclusive alternatives in a set, or equivalently, the alternatives are assumed to be rank-ordered according to their level of possibility to take place. Four basic set-functions associated with a possibility distribution, including standard possibility and necessity measures, are discussed from the point of view of what they estimate when applied to potential events. Extensions of these estimates based on the notions of Q-projection or OWA operators are proposed when only significant parts of the possibility distribution are retained in the evaluation. The case of partially-known possibility distributions is also considered. Some potential applications are outlined.

  15. Chandra Finds Surprising Black Hole Activity In Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Scientists at the Carnegie Observatories in Pasadena, California, have uncovered six times the expected number of active, supermassive black holes in a single viewing of a cluster of galaxies, a finding that has profound implications for theories as to how old galaxies fuel the growth of their central black holes. The finding suggests that voracious, central black holes might be as common in old, red galaxies as they are in younger, blue galaxies, a surprise to many astronomers. The team made this discovery with NASA'S Chandra X-ray Observatory. They also used Carnegie's 6.5-meter Walter Baade Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile for follow-up optical observations. "This changes our view of galaxy clusters as the retirement homes for old and quiet black holes," said Dr. Paul Martini, lead author on a paper describing the results that appears in the September 10 issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters. "The question now is, how do these black holes produce bright X-ray sources, similar to what we see from much younger galaxies?" Typical of the black hole phenomenon, the cores of these active galaxies are luminous in X-ray radiation. Yet, they are obscured, and thus essentially undetectable in the radio, infrared and optical wavebands. "X rays can penetrate obscuring gas and dust as easily as they penetrate the soft tissue of the human body to look for broken bones," said co-author Dr. Dan Kelson. "So, with Chandra, we can peer through the dust and we have found that even ancient galaxies with 10-billion-year-old stars can have central black holes still actively pulling in copious amounts of interstellar gas. This activity has simply been hidden from us all this time. This means these galaxies aren't over the hill after all and our theories need to be revised." Scientists say that supermassive black holes -- having the mass of millions to billions of suns squeezed into a region about the size of our Solar System -- are the engines in the cores of

  16. Physics Nobel prize 2004: Surprising theory wins physics Nobel

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    From left to right: David Politzer, David Gross and Frank Wilczek. For their understanding of counter-intuitive aspects of the strong force, which governs quarks inside protons and neutrons, on 5 October three American physicists were awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics. David J. Gross (Kavli Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara), H. David Politzer (California Institute of Technology), and Frank Wilczek (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) made a key theoretical discovery with a surprising result: the closer quarks are together, the weaker the force - opposite to what is seen with electromagnetism and gravity. Rather, the strong force is analogous to a rubber band stretching, where the force increases as the quarks get farther apart. These physicists discovered this property of quarks, known as asymptotic freedom, in 1976. It later became a key part of the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the Standard Model, the current best theory to describe the interac...

  17. Hepatobiliary fascioliasis in non-endemic zones: a surprise diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ashish Kumar; Goenka, Mahesh Kumar; Goenka, Usha; Chakrabarti, Amrita

    2013-03-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Fasciola hepatica. Because of population migration and international food trade, human fascioliasis is being an increasingly recognised entity in nonendemic zones. In most parts of Asia, hepatobiliary fascioliasis is sporadic. Human hepatobiliary infection by this trematode has two distinct phases: an acute hepatic phase and a chronic biliary phase. Hepatobiliary infection is mostly associated with intense peripheral eosinophilia. In addition to classically defined hepatic phase and biliary phase fascioliasis, some cases may have an overlap of these two phases. Chronic liver abscess formation is a rare presentation. We describe a surprise case of hepatobiliary fascioliasis who presented to us with liver abscess without intense peripheral eosinophilia, a rare presentation of human fascioliasis especially in non-endemic zones. Copyright © 2013 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Exploring the concept of climate surprises. A review of the literature on the concept of surprise and how it is related to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glantz, M.H.; Moore, C.M.; Streets, D.G.; Bhatti, N.; Rosa, C.H.

    1998-01-01

    This report examines the concept of climate surprise and its implications for environmental policymaking. Although most integrated assessment models of climate change deal with average values of change, it is usually the extreme events or surprises that cause the most damage to human health and property. Current models do not help the policymaker decide how to deal with climate surprises. This report examines the literature of surprise in many aspects of human society: psychology, military, health care, humor, agriculture, etc. It draws together various ways to consider the concept of surprise and examines different taxonomies of surprise that have been proposed. In many ways, surprise is revealed to be a subjective concept, triggered by such factors as prior experience, belief system, and level of education. How policymakers have reacted to specific instances of climate change or climate surprise in the past is considered, particularly with regard to the choices they made between proactive and reactive measures. Finally, the report discusses techniques used in the current generation of assessment models and makes suggestions as to how climate surprises might be included in future models. The report concludes that some kinds of surprises are simply unpredictable, but there are several types that could in some way be anticipated and assessed, and their negative effects forestalled

  19. Exploring the concept of climate surprises. A review of the literature on the concept of surprise and how it is related to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, M.H.; Moore, C.M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Streets, D.G.; Bhatti, N.; Rosa, C.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Stewart, T.R. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report examines the concept of climate surprise and its implications for environmental policymaking. Although most integrated assessment models of climate change deal with average values of change, it is usually the extreme events or surprises that cause the most damage to human health and property. Current models do not help the policymaker decide how to deal with climate surprises. This report examines the literature of surprise in many aspects of human society: psychology, military, health care, humor, agriculture, etc. It draws together various ways to consider the concept of surprise and examines different taxonomies of surprise that have been proposed. In many ways, surprise is revealed to be a subjective concept, triggered by such factors as prior experience, belief system, and level of education. How policymakers have reacted to specific instances of climate change or climate surprise in the past is considered, particularly with regard to the choices they made between proactive and reactive measures. Finally, the report discusses techniques used in the current generation of assessment models and makes suggestions as to how climate surprises might be included in future models. The report concludes that some kinds of surprises are simply unpredictable, but there are several types that could in some way be anticipated and assessed, and their negative effects forestalled.

  20. Mystery Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sonalee; Namakshi, Nama; Zunker, Christina; Warshauer, Hiroko K.; Warshauer, Max

    2016-01-01

    Making math more engaging for students is a challenge that every teacher faces on a daily basis. These authors write that they are constantly searching for rich problem-solving tasks that cover the necessary content, develop critical-thinking skills, and engage student interest. The Mystery Fraction activity provided here focuses on a key number…

  1. Fractional Stochastic Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkonen, Juha

    2018-02-01

    Models describing evolution of physical, chemical, biological, social and financial processes are often formulated as differential equations with the understanding that they are large-scale equations for averages of quantities describing intrinsically random processes. Explicit account of randomness may lead to significant changes in the asymptotic behaviour (anomalous scaling) in such models especially in low spatial dimensions, which in many cases may be captured with the use of the renormalization group. Anomalous scaling and memory effects may also be introduced with the use of fractional derivatives and fractional noise. Construction of renormalized stochastic field theory with fractional derivatives and fractional noise in the underlying stochastic differential equations and master equations and the interplay between fluctuation-induced and built-in anomalous scaling behaviour is reviewed and discussed.

  2. Estimation of dependence between mean of fractionation of photons and neutrons dose and intensity of post-irradiation reaction of mouse large intestine; Ocena zaleznosci pomiedzy sposobem frakcjonowania dawki fotonow i neutronow a nasileniem popromiennego odczynu jelita grubego myszy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasinska, A. [Oncology Center, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The aim of the work was verification of mouse large intestine tolerance on fractionated 250 kV X-rays and 2.3 MeV neutrons doses. Two cm of large intestine of mouse CBA/HT strain were irradiated with various fraction doses: from 0.25 to 35 Gy of X-rays and 0.05-12 Gy of neutrons. The measure of injury was handicap of intestine function. Early post-irradiation reaction was measured by loss of body weight (2-3 weeks after irradiation) and mouse mortality (till 2 months after irradiation, LD50/2). The late reaction was measured on the base of maximal body weight in 1 year period after irradiation, deformation of excrements (after 10 months) and death of animals (till 12. month after irradiation, LD50/12). Fractionation of X-ray dose influenced on decrease of intensification of late irradiation effects. After fractionation of neutrons this effect has not been observed. {alpha}/{beta} coefficient for X-rays was 19.9 Gy [15.2; 27.0] for body weight nadir, 13.4 Gy [9.3; 19.5] for early mortality (LD50/2), 6.4 Gy [3.6;11.0] for maximal body weight and 6.9 [4.2; 10.8] for late mortality (LD50/12). Analysis of influence of low doses of photons 90.25-4 Gy) and neutrons (0.05-0.8 Gy) showed trend to reduction {alpha}/{beta} for photons only (LD50/2=5.4 Gy; LD50/12=4.6 Gy). {alpha}/{beta} coefficient for neutrons was defined by LQ model only for maximal body weight and was 19.9 Gy [9.5; 61.0]. In application of graphic method {alpha}/{beta} for neutrons was 230 Gy for early and 48 Gy for late effects. Lower values of {alpha}/{beta} coefficient for late irradiation effects for photon radiation demonstrate the big influence of fractionation of photons dose on large intestine tolerance (decrease intensity in all biological effects). Author did not observe increase of intestine tolerance in fractionation of neutrons dose. Effect of irradiation damages repair in interfraction pauses, measured by percent of regenerated dose (F{sub r}) was much bigger for photons. For X-rays it was 50

  3. Fraction Reduction through Continued Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carley, Holly

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a method of reducing fractions without factoring. The ideas presented may be useful as a project for motivated students in an undergraduate number theory course. The discussion is related to the Euclidean Algorithm and its variations may lead to projects or early examples involving efficiency of an algorithm.

  4. Atom Surprise: Using Theatre in Primary Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Ran; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet

    2011-10-01

    Early exposure to science may have a lifelong effect on children's attitudes towards science and their motivation to learn science in later life. Out-of-class environments can play a significant role in creating favourable attitudes, while contributing to conceptual learning. Educational science theatre is one form of an out-of-class environment, which has received little research attention. This study aims to describe affective and cognitive learning outcomes of watching such a play and to point to connections between theatrical elements and specific outcomes. "Atom Surprise" is a play portraying several concepts on the topic of matter. A mixed methods approach was adopted to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of children (grades 1-6) from two different school settings who watched the play. Data were gathered using questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Analysis suggested that in both schools children's knowledge on the topic of matter increased after the play with younger children gaining more conceptual knowledge than their older peers. In the public school girls showed greater gains in conceptual knowledge than boys. No significant changes in students' general attitudes towards science were found, however, students demonstrated positive changes towards science learning. Theatrical elements that seemed to be important in children's recollection of the play were the narrative, props and stage effects, and characters. In the children's memory, science was intertwined with the theatrical elements. Nonetheless, children could distinguish well between scientific facts and the fictive narrative.

  5. X-rays from comets - a surprising discovery

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    Comets are kilometre-size aggregates of ice and dust, which remained from the formation of the solar system. It was not obvious to expect X-ray emission from such objects. Nevertheless, when comet Hyakutake (C/1996 B2) was observed with the ROSAT X-ray satellite during its close approach to Earth in March 1996, bright X-ray emission from this comet was discovered. This finding triggered a search in archival ROSAT data for comets, which might have accidentally crossed the field of view during observations of unrelated targets. To increase the surprise even more, X-ray emission was detected from four additional comets, which were optically 300 to 30 000 times fainter than Hyakutake. For one of them, comet Arai (C/1991 A2), X-ray emission was even found in data which were taken six weeks before the comet was optically discovered. These findings showed that comets represent a new class of celestial X-ray sources. The subsequent detection of X-ray emission from several other comets in dedicated observations confir...

  6. Self-organizing weights for Internet AS-graphs and surprisingly simple routing metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholz, Jan Carsten; Greiner, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The transport capacity of Internet-like communication networks and hence their efficiency may be improved by a factor of 5–10 through the use of highly optimized routing metrics, as demonstrated previously. The numerical determination of such routing metrics can be computationally demanding...... to an extent that prohibits both investigation of and application to very large networks. In an attempt to find a numerically less expensive way of constructing a metric with a comparable performance increase, we propose a local, self-organizing iteration scheme and find two surprisingly simple and efficient...... metrics. The new metrics have negligible computational cost and result in an approximately 5-fold performance increase, providing distinguished competitiveness with the computationally costly counterparts. They are applicable to very large networks and easy to implement in today's Internet routing...

  7. Fractional statistics and fractional quantized Hall effect. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, R.; Wu, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    We suggest that the origin of the odd denominator rule observed in the fractional quantized Hall effect (FQHE) may lie in fractional statistics which governs quasiparticles in FQHE. A theorem concerning statistics of clusters of quasiparticles implies that fractional statistics does not allow coexistence of a large number of quasiparticles at fillings with an even denominator. Thus no Hall plateau can be formed at these fillings, regardless of the presence of an energy gap. 15 references

  8. Beyond surprise : A longitudinal study on the experience of visual-tactual incongruities in products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, G.D.S.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Hekkert, P.

    2012-01-01

    When people encounter products with visual-tactual incongruities, they are likely to be surprised because the product feels different than expected. In this paper, we investigate (1) the relationship between surprise and the overall liking of the products, (2) the emotions associated with surprise,

  9. Surprising Incentive: An Instrument for Promoting Safety Performance of Construction Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhradin Ghasemi

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study proved that the surprising incentive would improve the employees' safety performance just in the short term because the surprising value of the incentives dwindle over time. For this reason and to maintain the surprising value of the incentive system, the amount and types of incentives need to be evaluated and modified annually or biannually.

  10. The Role of Surprise in Game-Based Learning for Mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Pieter; van Oostendorp, Herre; ter Vrugte, Judith; Vandercruysse, Sylke; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.; Elen, Jan; De Gloria, Alessandro; Veltkamp, Remco

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the potential of surprise on learning with prevocational students in the domain of proportional reasoning. Surprise involves an emotional reaction, but it also serves a cognitive goal as it directs attention to explain why the surprising event occurred and to learn for

  11. Human amygdala response to dynamic facial expressions of positive and negative surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrticka, Pascal; Lordier, Lara; Bediou, Benoît; Sander, David

    2014-02-01

    Although brain imaging evidence accumulates to suggest that the amygdala plays a key role in the processing of novel stimuli, only little is known about its role in processing expressed novelty conveyed by surprised faces, and even less about possible interactive encoding of novelty and valence. Those investigations that have already probed human amygdala involvement in the processing of surprised facial expressions either used static pictures displaying negative surprise (as contained in fear) or "neutral" surprise, and manipulated valence by contextually priming or subjectively associating static surprise with either negative or positive information. Therefore, it still remains unresolved how the human amygdala differentially processes dynamic surprised facial expressions displaying either positive or negative surprise. Here, we created new artificial dynamic 3-dimensional facial expressions conveying surprise with an intrinsic positive (wonderment) or negative (fear) connotation, but also intrinsic positive (joy) or negative (anxiety) emotions not containing any surprise, in addition to neutral facial displays either containing ("typical surprise" expression) or not containing ("neutral") surprise. Results showed heightened amygdala activity to faces containing positive (vs. negative) surprise, which may either correspond to a specific wonderment effect as such, or to the computation of a negative expected value prediction error. Findings are discussed in the light of data obtained from a closely matched nonsocial lottery task, which revealed overlapping activity within the left amygdala to unexpected positive outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Cancer-specific mortality, cure fraction, and noncancer causes of death among diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients in the immunochemotherapy era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlader, Nadia; Mariotto, Angela B; Besson, Caroline; Suneja, Gita; Robien, Kim; Younes, Naji; Engels, Eric A

    2017-09-01

    Survival after the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has been increasing since 2002 because of improved therapies; however, long-term outcomes for these patients in the modern treatment era are still unknown. Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data, this study first assessed factors associated with DLBCL-specific mortality during 2002-2012. An epidemiologic risk profile, based on clinical and demographic characteristics, was used to stratify DLBCL cases into low-, medium-, and high-risk groups. The proportions of DLBCL cases that might be considered cured in these 3 risk groups was estimated. Risks of death due to various noncancer causes among DLBCL cases versus the general population were also calculated with standardized mortality ratios (SMRs). Overall, 8274 deaths were recorded among 18,047 DLBCL cases; 76% of the total deaths were attributed to DLBCL, and 24% were attributed to noncancer causes. The 10-year survival rates for the low-, medium-, and high-risk groups were 80%, 60%, and 36%, respectively. The estimated cure proportions for the low-, medium-, and high-risk groups were 73%, 49%, and 27%, respectively; however, these cure estimates were uncertain because of the need to extrapolate the survival curves beyond the follow-up time. Mortality risks calculated with SMRs were elevated for conditions including vascular diseases (SMR, 1.3), infections (SMR, 3.1), gastrointestinal diseases (SMR, 2.5), and blood diseases (SMR, 4.6). These mortality risks were especially high within the initial 5 years after the diagnosis and declined after 5 years. Some DLBCL patients may be cured of their cancer, but they continue to experience excess mortality from lymphoma and other noncancer causes. Cancer 2017;123:3326-34. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  13. Misonidazole in fractionated radiotherapy: are many small fractions best

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denekamp, J.; McNally, N.J.; Fowler, J.F.; Joiner, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    The largest sensitizing effect is always demonstrated with six fractions, each given with 2 g/m 2 of misonidazole. In the absence of reoxygenation a sensitizer enhancement ratio of 1.7 is predicted, but this falls to 1.1-1.2 if extensive reoxygenation occurs. Less sensitization is observed with 30 fractions, each with 0.4 g/m 2 of drug. However, for clinical use, the important question is which treatment kills the maximum number of tumour cells. Many of the simulations predict a marked disadvantage of reducing the fraction number for X rays alone. The circumstances in which this disadvantage is offset by the large Sensitizer enhancement ratio values with a six-fraction schedule are few. The model calculations suggest that many small fractions, each with a low drug dose, are safest unless the clinician has some prior knowledge that a change in fraction number is not disadvantageous. (author)

  14. 'Surprise': Outbreak of Campylobacter infection associated with chicken liver pâté at a surprise birthday party, Adelaide, Australia, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Amy; Fearnley, Emily; Denehy, Emma

    2012-10-01

    In July 2012, an outbreak of Campylobacter infection was investigated by the South Australian Communicable Disease Control Branch and Food Policy and Programs Branch. The initial notification identified illness at a surprise birthday party held at a restaurant on 14 July 2012. The objective of the investigation was to identify the potential source of infection and institute appropriate intervention strategies to prevent further illness. A guest list was obtained and a retrospective cohort study undertaken. A combination of paper-based and telephone questionnaires were used to collect exposure and outcome information. An environmental investigation was conducted by Food Policy and Programs Branch at the implicated premises. All 57 guests completed the questionnaire (100% response rate), and 15 met the case definition. Analysis showed a significant association between illness and consumption of chicken liver pâté (relative risk: 16.7, 95% confidence interval: 2.4-118.6). No other food or beverage served at the party was associated with illness. Three guests submitted stool samples; all were positive for Campylobacter. The environmental investigation identified that the cooking process used in the preparation of chicken liver pâté may have been inconsistent, resulting in some portions not cooked adequately to inactivate potential Campylobacter contamination. Chicken liver products are a known source of Campylobacter infection; therefore, education of food handlers remains a high priority. To better identify outbreaks among the large number of Campylobacter notifications, routine typing of Campylobacter isolates is recommended.

  15. Carbon Dioxide: Surprising Effects on Decision Making and Neurocognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2013-01-01

    The occupants of modern submarines and the International Space Station (ISS) have much in common as far as their air quality is concerned. Air is polluted by materials offgassing, use of utility compounds, leaks of systems chemicals, and anthropogenic sources. The primary anthropogenic compound of concern to submariners and astronauts has been carbon dioxide (CO2). NASA and the US Navy rely on the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRC-COT) to help formulate exposure levels to CO2 that are thought to be safe for exposures of 3-6 months. NASA calls its limits Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs). Years of experience aboard the ISS and a recent publication on deficits in decision making in ground-based subjects exposed briefly to 0.25% CO2 suggest that exposure levels that have been presumed acceptable to preserve health and performance need to be reevaluated. The current CO2 exposure limits for 3-6 months set by NASA and the UK Navy are 0.7%, and the limit for US submariners is 0.5%, although the NRC-COT recommended a 90-day level of 0.8% as safe a few years ago. NASA has set a 1000-day SMAC at 0.5% for exploration-class missions. Anecdotal experience with ISS operations approaching the current 180-day SMAC of 0.7% suggest that this limit is too high. Temporarily, NASA has limited exposures to 0.5% until further peer-reviewed data become available. In the meantime, a study published last year in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives (Satish U, et al. 2012) demonstrated that complexdecision- making performance is somewhat affected at 0.1% CO2 and becomes "dysfunctional" for at least half of the 9 indices of performance at concentrations approaching 0.25% CO2. The investigators used the Strategic Management Simulation (SMS) method of testing for decisionmaking ability, and the results were so surprising to the investigators that they declared that their findings need to be independently confirmed. NASA has responded to the

  16. Are seismic hazard assessment errors and earthquake surprises unavoidable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Why earthquake occurrences bring us so many surprises? The answer seems evident if we review the relationships that are commonly used to assess seismic hazard. The time-span of physically reliable Seismic History is yet a small portion of a rupture recurrence cycle at an earthquake-prone site, which makes premature any kind of reliable probabilistic statements about narrowly localized seismic hazard. Moreover, seismic evidences accumulated to-date demonstrate clearly that most of the empirical relations commonly accepted in the early history of instrumental seismology can be proved erroneous when testing statistical significance is applied. Seismic events, including mega-earthquakes, cluster displaying behaviors that are far from independent or periodic. Their distribution in space is possibly fractal, definitely, far from uniform even in a single segment of a fault zone. Such a situation contradicts generally accepted assumptions used for analytically tractable or computer simulations and complicates design of reliable methodologies for realistic earthquake hazard assessment, as well as search and definition of precursory behaviors to be used for forecast/prediction purposes. As a result, the conclusions drawn from such simulations and analyses can MISLEAD TO SCIENTIFICALLY GROUNDLESS APPLICATION, which is unwise and extremely dangerous in assessing expected societal risks and losses. For example, a systematic comparison of the GSHAP peak ground acceleration estimates with those related to actual strong earthquakes, unfortunately, discloses gross inadequacy of this "probabilistic" product, which appears UNACCEPTABLE FOR ANY KIND OF RESPONSIBLE SEISMIC RISK EVALUATION AND KNOWLEDGEABLE DISASTER PREVENTION. The self-evident shortcomings and failures of GSHAP appeals to all earthquake scientists and engineers for an urgent revision of the global seismic hazard maps from the first principles including background methodologies involved, such that there becomes: (a) a

  17. Segmentation, Diarization and Speech Transcription: Surprise Data Unraveled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, M.A.H.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, research on large vocabulary continuous speech recognition for unknown audio conditions is presented. For automatic speech recognition systems based on statistical methods, it is important that the conditions of the audio used for training the statistical models match the conditions

  18. Mitigating Surprise Through Enhanced Operational Design: Civilian Conceptual Planning Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    political, historical, cultural , and economic contexts. If we are going to fight among the people, we must understand them.1 When evaluating US military...represents both the Christian and Yoruba minorities as well as the military, continues to compete against rival elites representing disparate elements...undeniably have to learn a new culture , the physical battlespace would not be alien since MS-13 maintains a large presence in areas that are home to

  19. Fractional vector calculus for fractional advection dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerschaert, Mark M.; Mortensen, Jeff; Wheatcraft, Stephen W.

    2006-07-01

    We develop the basic tools of fractional vector calculus including a fractional derivative version of the gradient, divergence, and curl, and a fractional divergence theorem and Stokes theorem. These basic tools are then applied to provide a physical explanation for the fractional advection-dispersion equation for flow in heterogeneous porous media.

  20. A Neural Mechanism for Surprise-related Interruptions of Visuospatial Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Jan R

    2018-01-01

    Surprising perceptual events recruit a fronto-basal ganglia mechanism for inhibition, which suppresses motor activity following surprise. A recent study found that this inhibitory mechanism also disrupts the maintenance of verbal working memory (WM) after surprising tones. However, it is unclear whether this same mechanism also relates to surprise-related interruptions of non-verbal WM. We tested this hypothesis using a change-detection task, in which surprising tones impaired visuospatial WM. Participants also performed a stop-signal task (SST). We used independent component analysis and single-trial scalp-electroencephalogram to test whether the same inhibitory mechanism that reflects motor inhibition in the SST relates to surprise-related visuospatial WM decrements, as was the case for verbal WM. As expected, surprising tones elicited activity of the inhibitory mechanism, and this activity correlated strongly with the trial-by-trial level of surprise. However, unlike for verbal WM, the activity of this mechanism was unrelated to visuospatial WM accuracy. Instead, inhibition-independent activity that immediately succeeded the inhibitory mechanism was increased when visuospatial WM was disrupted. This shows that surprise-related interruptions of visuospatial WM are not effected by the same inhibitory mechanism that interrupts verbal WM, and instead provides evidence for a 2-stage model of distraction. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Momentum fractionation on superstrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bena, Iosif; Martinec, Emil; Turton, David; Warner, Nicholas P.

    2016-01-01

    Superstrata are bound states in string theory that carry D1, D5, and momentum charges, and whose supergravity descriptions are parameterized by arbitrary functions of (at least) two variables. In the D1-D5 CFT, typical three-charge states reside in high-degree twisted sectors, and their momentum charge is carried by modes that individually have fractional momentum. Understanding this momentum fractionation holographically is crucial for understanding typical black-hole microstates in this system. We use solution-generating techniques to add momentum to a multi-wound supertube and thereby construct the first examples of asymptotically-flat superstrata. The resulting supergravity solutions are horizonless and smooth up to well-understood orbifold singularities. Upon taking the AdS_3 decoupling limit, our solutions are dual to CFT states with momentum fractionation. We give a precise proposal for these dual CFT states. Our construction establishes the very nontrivial fact that large classes of CFT states with momentum fractionation can be realized in the bulk as smooth horizonless supergravity solutions.

  2. Fractional Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskin, Nick

    2002-01-01

    Some properties of the fractional Schroedinger equation are studied. We prove the Hermiticity of the fractional Hamilton operator and establish the parity conservation law for fractional quantum mechanics. As physical applications of the fractional Schroedinger equation we find the energy spectra of a hydrogenlike atom (fractional 'Bohr atom') and of a fractional oscillator in the semiclassical approximation. An equation for the fractional probability current density is developed and discussed. We also discuss the relationships between the fractional and standard Schroedinger equations

  3. Latin America: how a region surprised the experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sherbinin, A

    1993-02-01

    In 1960-1970, family planning specialists and demographers worried that poverty, limited education, Latin machismo, and strong catholic ideals would obstruct family planning efforts to reduce high fertility in Latin America. It had the highest annual population growth rate in the world (2.8%), which would increase the population 2-fold in 25 years. Yet, the UN's 1992 population projection for Latin America and the Caribbean in the year 2000 was about 20% lower than its 1963 projection (just over 500 vs. 638 million). Since life expectancy increased simultaneously from 57 to 68 years, this reduced projection was caused directly by a large decline in fertility from 5.9 to 3. A regression analysis of 11 Latin American and Caribbean countries revealed that differences in the contraceptive prevalence rates accounted for 90% of the variation in the total fertility rate between countries. Thus, contraception played a key role in the fertility decline. The second most significant determinant of fertility decline was an increase in the average age at first marriage from about 20 to 23 years. Induced abortion and breast feeding did not contribute significantly to fertility decline. The major socioeconomic factors responsible for the decline included economic development and urbanization, resulting in improvements in health care, reduced infant and child mortality, and increases in female literacy, education, and labor force participation. Public and private family planning programs also contributed significantly to the decline. They expanded from cities to remote rural areas, thereby increasing access to contraception. By the early 1990s, Brazil, Mexico, and Colombia had among the lowest levels of unmet need (13-24%) in developing countries. Other key factors of fertility decline were political commitment, strong communication efforts, and stress on quality services. Latin America provides hope to other regions where religion and culture promote a large family size.

  4. Automated Atmospheric Composition Dataset Level Metadata Discovery. Difficulties and Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strub, R. F.; Falke, S. R.; Kempler, S.; Fialkowski, E.; Goussev, O.; Lynnes, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Composition Portal (ACP) is an aggregator and curator of information related to remotely sensed atmospheric composition data and analysis. It uses existing tools and technologies and, where needed, enhances those capabilities to provide interoperable access, tools, and contextual guidance for scientists and value-adding organizations using remotely sensed atmospheric composition data. The initial focus is on Essential Climate Variables identified by the Global Climate Observing System - CH4, CO, CO2, NO2, O3, SO2 and aerosols. This poster addresses our efforts in building the ACP Data Table, an interface to help discover and understand remotely sensed data that are related to atmospheric composition science and applications. We harvested GCMD, CWIC, GEOSS metadata catalogs using machine to machine technologies - OpenSearch, Web Services. We also manually investigated the plethora of CEOS data providers portals and other catalogs where that data might be aggregated. This poster is our experience of the excellence, variety, and challenges we encountered.Conclusions:1.The significant benefits that the major catalogs provide are their machine to machine tools like OpenSearch and Web Services rather than any GUI usability improvements due to the large amount of data in their catalog.2.There is a trend at the large catalogs towards simulating small data provider portals through advanced services. 3.Populating metadata catalogs using ISO19115 is too complex for users to do in a consistent way, difficult to parse visually or with XML libraries, and too complex for Java XML binders like CASTOR.4.The ability to search for Ids first and then for data (GCMD and ECHO) is better for machine to machine operations rather than the timeouts experienced when returning the entire metadata entry at once. 5.Metadata harvest and export activities between the major catalogs has led to a significant amount of duplication. (This is currently being addressed) 6.Most (if not

  5. Meadow based Fraction Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    In the context of an involutive meadow a precise definition of fractions is formulated and on that basis formal definitions of various classes of fractions are given. The definitions follow the fractions as terms paradigm. That paradigm is compared with two competing paradigms for storytelling on fractions: fractions as values and fractions as pairs.

  6. Orbital melanocytoma: When a tumor becomes a relieving surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haytham E. Nasr

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Melanocytomas are rare pigmented tumors that arise form melanocytes and have been reported in the central nervous system. Orbital melanocytomas “also known as blue nevus” are rarely reported. The occurrence of choroidal melanoma and orbital melanocytomas has never been described. Observations: This is a case of orbital melanocytoma in a 34 year old female who presented with left proptosis and ecchymosis. She has the right eye enucleated to treat a large choroidal melanoma, 6 years earlier. Orbital metastasis was suspected. After orbital imaging and systemic evaluation, incisional biopsy was planned yet the mass could be totally excised and it turned out to be melanocytoma. The condition was not associated with nevus of Ota and the patient is not known to have any predisposing condition for melanocytic lesions. Conclusion and importance: Melanocytoma and malignant melanoma share the same cell of origin. The benign course, the well differentiated cells, absence of anaplasia and the positive reaction to Human Melanoma Black-45 (HMB-45 and S-100 proteins established the diagnosis of the former. Such diagnosis was a relief for this one eyed patient.(HMB-45:human melanoma black-45. Keywords: Orbit, Melanocytoma, Choroidal melanoma, HMB-45, S-100

  7. Ampullary Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinoma: Surprise Histology, Familiar Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahansaria, Shyam Sunder; Agrawal, Nikhil; Arora, Asit; Bihari, Chhagan; Appukuttan, Murali; Chattopadhyay, Tushar Kanti

    2017-10-01

    Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC) has recently been defined by the World Health Organization in 2010. These are rare tumors and MANECs of ampullary region are even rarer. Only 19 cases have been reported in literature. We present 3 cases; the largest series, second case of amphicrine tumor and first case associated with chronic pancreatitis. Retrospective review of 3 patients who were diagnosed to have ampullary MANEC. All 3 patients were diagnosed preoperatively as neuroendocrine carcinoma and underwent margin negative pancreaticoduodenectomy. The histopathology revealed MANECs of small cell, mixed type in 2 patients and large cell, amphicrine type in 1 patient. The neuroendocrine component was grade 3 in all, the tumor was T3 in 2 and T2 in 1 and all had nodal metastases. Two patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and 2 of them had recurrence at 13 and 16 months. The median survival was 15 months. Ampullary MANECs are rare tumors. They are diagnosed on histopathologic examination of the resected specimen. Clinical presentation, management, and prognosis is similar to ampullary adenocarcinoma in literature.

  8. Aeolian comminution experiments revealing surprising sandball mineral aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørnberg, P.; Bak, E.; Finster, K.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Iversen, J. J.; Jensen, S. Knak; Merrison, J. P.

    2014-06-01

    We have undertaken a set of wind erosion experiments on a simple and well defined mineral, quartz. In these experiments wind action is simulated by end over end tumbling of quartz grains in a sealed quartz flask. The tumbling induces collisions among the quartz grains and the walls of the flask. This process simulates wind action impact speed of ∼1.2 m/s. After several months of tumbling we observed the formation of a large number of spherical sand aggregates, which resemble small snowballs under optical microscopy. Upon mechanical load the aggregates are seen to be more elastic than quartz and their mechanical strength is comparable, though slightly lower than that of sintered silica aerogels. Aggregates of this kind have not been reported from field sites or from closed circulation systems. However, sparse occurrence might explain this, or in nature the concentration of the aggregate building particles is so low that they never meet and just appear as the most fine grained tail of the sediment particle size distribution.

  9. Surprising structures hiding in Penrose’s future null infinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Ezra T.

    2017-07-01

    Since the late1950s, almost all discussions of asymptotically flat (Einstein-Maxwell) space-times have taken place in the context of Penrose’s null infinity, I+. In addition, almost all calculations have used the Bondi coordinate and tetrad systems. Beginning with a known asymptotically flat solution to the Einstein-Maxwell equations, we show first, that there are other natural coordinate systems, near I+, (analogous to light-cones in flat-space) that are based on (asymptotically) shear-free null geodesic congruences (analogous to the flat-space case). Using these new coordinates and their associated tetrad, we define the complex dipole moment, (the mass dipole plus i times angular momentum), from the l  =  1 harmonic coefficient of a component of the asymptotic Weyl tensor. Second, from this definition, from the Bianchi identities and from the Bondi-Sachs mass and linear momentum, we show that there exists a large number of results—identifications and dynamics—identical to those of classical mechanics and electrodynamics. They include, among many others, {P}=M{v}+..., {L}= {r} × {P} , spin, Newton’s second law with the rocket force term (\\dotM v) and radiation reaction, angular momentum conservation and others. All these relations take place in the rather mysterious H-space rather than in space-time. This leads to the enigma: ‘why do these well known relations of classical mechanics take place in H-space?’ and ‘What is the physical meaning of H-space?’

  10. Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal representations of the environment, and surprising events are indications for encoding new representations of the environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system, including the hippocampus and surrounding cortex, encodes surprising events and is influenced by motivational state. Because behavior reflects the goals of an individual, we investigated whether motivational valence (i.e., pursuing rewards versus avoiding punishments) also impacts neural and mnemonic encoding of surprising events. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants encountered perceptually unexpected events either during the pursuit of rewards or avoidance of punishments. Despite similar levels of motivation across groups, reward and punishment facilitated the processing of surprising events in different medial temporal lobe regions. Whereas during reward motivation, perceptual surprises enhanced activation in the hippocampus, during punishment motivation surprises instead enhanced activation in parahippocampal cortex. Further, we found that reward motivation facilitated hippocampal coupling with ventromedial PFC, whereas punishment motivation facilitated parahippocampal cortical coupling with orbitofrontal cortex. Behaviorally, post-scan testing revealed that reward, but not punishment, motivation resulted in greater memory selectivity for surprising events encountered during goal pursuit. Together these findings demonstrate that neuromodulatory systems engaged by anticipation of reward and punishment target separate components of the medial temporal lobe, modulating medial temporal lobe sensitivity and connectivity. Thus, reward and punishment motivation yield distinct neural contexts for learning, with distinct consequences for how surprises are incorporated into predictive mnemonic models of the environment. PMID:26854903

  11. Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; LaBar, Kevin S; Adcock, R Alison

    2016-10-01

    Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal representations of the environment, and surprising events are indications for encoding new representations of the environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system, including the hippocampus and surrounding cortex, encodes surprising events and is influenced by motivational state. Because behavior reflects the goals of an individual, we investigated whether motivational valence (i.e., pursuing rewards versus avoiding punishments) also impacts neural and mnemonic encoding of surprising events. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants encountered perceptually unexpected events either during the pursuit of rewards or avoidance of punishments. Despite similar levels of motivation across groups, reward and punishment facilitated the processing of surprising events in different medial temporal lobe regions. Whereas during reward motivation, perceptual surprises enhanced activation in the hippocampus, during punishment motivation surprises instead enhanced activation in parahippocampal cortex. Further, we found that reward motivation facilitated hippocampal coupling with ventromedial PFC, whereas punishment motivation facilitated parahippocampal cortical coupling with orbitofrontal cortex. Behaviorally, post-scan testing revealed that reward, but not punishment, motivation resulted in greater memory selectivity for surprising events encountered during goal pursuit. Together these findings demonstrate that neuromodulatory systems engaged by anticipation of reward and punishment target separate components of the medial temporal lobe, modulating medial temporal lobe sensitivity and connectivity. Thus, reward and punishment motivation yield distinct neural contexts for learning, with distinct consequences for how surprises are incorporated into predictive mnemonic models of the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Metaproteomics of cellulose methanisation under thermophilic conditions reveals a surprisingly high proteolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Fan; Bize, Ariane; Guillot, Alain; Monnet, Véronique; Madigou, Céline; Chapleur, Olivier; Mazéas, Laurent; He, Pinjing; Bouchez, Théodore

    2014-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on Earth. Optimising energy recovery from this renewable but recalcitrant material is a key issue. The metaproteome expressed by thermophilic communities during cellulose anaerobic digestion was investigated in microcosms. By multiplying the analytical replicates (65 protein fractions analysed by MS/MS) and relying solely on public protein databases, more than 500 non-redundant protein functions were identified. The taxonomic community structure as inferred from the metaproteomic data set was in good overall agreement with 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing and fluorescent in situ hybridisation analyses. Numerous functions related to cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis and fermentation catalysed by bacteria related to Caldicellulosiruptor spp. and Clostridium thermocellum were retrieved, indicating their key role in the cellulose-degradation process and also suggesting their complementary action. Despite the abundance of acetate as a major fermentation product, key methanogenesis enzymes from the acetoclastic pathway were not detected. In contrast, enzymes from the hydrogenotrophic pathway affiliated to Methanothermobacter were almost exclusively identified for methanogenesis, suggesting a syntrophic acetate oxidation process coupled to hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Isotopic analyses confirmed the high dominance of the hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Very surprising was the identification of an abundant proteolytic activity from Coprothermobacter proteolyticus strains, probably acting as scavenger and/or predator performing proteolysis and fermentation. Metaproteomics thus appeared as an efficient tool to unravel and characterise metabolic networks as well as ecological interactions during methanisation bioprocesses. More generally, metaproteomics provides direct functional insights at a limited cost, and its attractiveness should increase in the future as sequence databases are growing exponentially.

  13. A multiwavelength survey of H I-excess galaxies with surprisingly inefficient star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geréb, K.; Janowiecki, S.; Catinella, B.; Cortese, L.; Kilborn, V.

    2018-05-01

    We present the results of a multiwavelength survey of H I-excess galaxies, an intriguing population with large H I reservoirs associated with little current star formation. These galaxies have stellar masses M⋆ > 1010 M⊙, and were identified as outliers in the gas fraction versus NUV-r colour and stellar mass surface density scaling relations based on the GALEX Arecibo SDSS Survey (GASS). We obtained H I interferometry with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, Keck optical long-slit spectroscopy, and deep optical imaging (where available) for four galaxies. Our analysis reveals multiple possible reasons for the H I excess in these systems. One galaxy, AGC 10111, shows an H I disc that is counter-rotating with respect to the stellar bulge, a clear indication of external origin of the gas. Another galaxy appears to host a Malin 1-type disc, where a large specific angular momentum has to be invoked to explain the extreme M_{H I}/M⋆ ratio of 166 per cent. The other two galaxies have early-type morphology with very high gas fractions. The lack of merger signatures (unsettled gas, stellar shells, and streams) in these systems suggests that these gas-rich discs have been built several Gyr ago, but it remains unclear how the gas reservoirs were assembled. Numerical simulations of large cosmological volumes are needed to gain insight into the formation of these rare and interesting systems.

  14. Fractional Vector Calculus and Fractional Special Function

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ming-Fan; Ren, Ji-Rong; Zhu, Tao

    2010-01-01

    Fractional vector calculus is discussed in the spherical coordinate framework. A variation of the Legendre equation and fractional Bessel equation are solved by series expansion and numerically. Finally, we generalize the hypergeometric functions.

  15. Calculation of Site-specific Carbon-isotope Fractionation in Pedogenic Oxide Minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rustad, James R.; Zarzycki, Piotr

    2008-07-29

    Ab initio molecular dynamics and quantum chemistry techniques are used to calculate the structure, vibrational frequencies, and carbon-isotope fractionation factors of the carbon dioxide component [CO2(m)] of soil (oxy)hydroxide minerals goethite, diaspore, and gibbsite. We have identified two possible pathways of incorporation of CO2(m) into (oxy)hydroxide crystal structures: one in which the C4+ substitutes for four H+ [CO2(m)A] and another in which C4+ substitutes for (Al3+,Fe3+) + H+ [CO2(m)B]. Calculations of isotope fractionation factors give large differences between the two structures, with the CO2(m)A being isotopically lighter than CO2(m)B by ≈10 per mil in the case of gibbsite and nearly 20 per mil in the case of goethite. The reduced partition function ratio of CO2(m)B structure in goethite differs from CO2(g) by <1 per mil. The predicted fractionation for gibbsite is >10 per mil higher, close to those measured for calcite and aragonite. The surprisingly large difference in the carbon-isotope fractionation factor between the CO2(m)A and CO2(m)B structures within a given mineral suggests that the isotopic signatures of soil (oxy)hydroxide could be heterogeneous.

  16. Xenon fractionation in porous planetesimals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahnle, K.; Pollack, J.B.; Kasting, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The distinctively fractionated Xe on Mars and Earth may have its root in a common source from which both planets accreted. We begin with Ozima and Nakazawa's hypothesis that terrestrial Xe fractionation was caused by gravitational separation of adsorbed solar nebular gases inside large porous planetesimals. We point out that Xe would have been trapped as the planetesimal grew and pores were squeezed shut by lithostatic pressure. We show that enough fractionated Xe to supply the Earth could have been trapped this way. The degree of fractionation is controlled by the lithostatic pressure at the pore-closing front and so would have been roughly the same for all large planetesimals. The predicted degree of fractionation agrees well with that preserved in terrestrial and martian Xe. Relative to Xe, this source is strongly depleted in other noble gases. In contrast to the original Ozima and Nakazawa hypothesis, our hypothesis predicts the observed fractionation, and it allows planetary accretion to occur after the dissipation of the solar nebula. The required planetesimals are large, representing a class of object now extinct in the solar system

  17. Plasma fractionation issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Albert; Evers, Theo; Falcou, Pierre-Francois; Burnouf, Thierry; Amorim, Luiz; Thomas, Sylvia

    2009-04-01

    Procurement and processing of human plasma for fractionation of therapeutic proteins or biological medicines used in clinical practice is a multi-billion dollar international trade. Together the private sector and public sector (non-profit) provide large amounts of safe and effective therapeutic plasma proteins needed worldwide. The principal therapeutic proteins produced by the dichotomous industry include gamma globulins or immunoglobulins (including pathogen-specific hyperimmune globulins, such as hepatitis B immune globulins) albumin, factor VIII and Factor IX concentrates. Viral inactivation, principally by solvent detergent and other processes, has proven highly effective in preventing transmission of enveloped viruses, viz. HBV, HIV, and HCV.

  18. A Contrast-Based Computational Model of Surprise and Its Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Luis; Cardoso, Amílcar

    2017-11-19

    We review our work on a contrast-based computational model of surprise and its applications. The review is contextualized within related research from psychology, philosophy, and particularly artificial intelligence. Influenced by psychological theories of surprise, the model assumes that surprise-eliciting events initiate a series of cognitive processes that begin with the appraisal of the event as unexpected, continue with the interruption of ongoing activity and the focusing of attention on the unexpected event, and culminate in the analysis and evaluation of the event and the revision of beliefs. It is assumed that the intensity of surprise elicited by an event is a nonlinear function of the difference or contrast between the subjective probability of the event and that of the most probable alternative event (which is usually the expected event); and that the agent's behavior is partly controlled by actual and anticipated surprise. We describe applications of artificial agents that incorporate the proposed surprise model in three domains: the exploration of unknown environments, creativity, and intelligent transportation systems. These applications demonstrate the importance of surprise for decision making, active learning, creative reasoning, and selective attention. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. A Statistical Analysis of the Relationship between Harmonic Surprise and Preference in Popular Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Scott A; Rosen, David S; Grzywacz, Norberto M

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that some musical pieces may preferentially activate reward centers in the brain. Less is known, however, about the structural aspects of music that are associated with this activation. Based on the music cognition literature, we propose two hypotheses for why some musical pieces are preferred over others. The first, the Absolute-Surprise Hypothesis, states that unexpected events in music directly lead to pleasure. The second, the Contrastive-Surprise Hypothesis, proposes that the juxtaposition of unexpected events and subsequent expected events leads to an overall rewarding response. We tested these hypotheses within the framework of information theory, using the measure of "surprise." This information-theoretic variable mathematically describes how improbable an event is given a known distribution. We performed a statistical investigation of surprise in the harmonic structure of songs within a representative corpus of Western popular music, namely, the McGill Billboard Project corpus. We found that chords of songs in the top quartile of the Billboard chart showed greater average surprise than those in the bottom quartile. We also found that the different sections within top-quartile songs varied more in their average surprise than the sections within bottom-quartile songs. The results of this study are consistent with both the Absolute- and Contrastive-Surprise Hypotheses. Although these hypotheses seem contradictory to one another, we cannot yet discard the possibility that both absolute and contrastive types of surprise play roles in the enjoyment of popular music. We call this possibility the Hybrid-Surprise Hypothesis. The results of this statistical investigation have implications for both music cognition and the human neural mechanisms of esthetic judgments.

  20. An inverse Sturm–Liouville problem with a fractional derivative

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Bangti

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we numerically investigate an inverse problem of recovering the potential term in a fractional Sturm-Liouville problem from one spectrum. The qualitative behaviors of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are discussed, and numerical reconstructions of the potential with a Newton method from finite spectral data are presented. Surprisingly, it allows very satisfactory reconstructions for both smooth and discontinuous potentials, provided that the order . α∈. (1,. 2) of fractional derivative is sufficiently away from 2. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  1. Effect of a Semi-Purified Oligosaccharide-Enriched Fraction from Caprine Milk on Barrier Integrity and Mucin Production of Co-Culture Models of the Small and Large Intestinal Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia M. Barnett

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Caprine milk contains the highest amount of oligosaccharides among domestic animals, which are structurally similar to human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs. This suggests caprine milk oligosaccharides may offer similar protective and developmental effects to that of HMOs. However, to date, studies using oligosaccharides from caprine milk have been limited. Thus, this study aimed to examine the impact of a caprine milk oligosaccharide-enriched fraction (CMOF on barrier function of epithelial cell co-cultures of absorptive enterocytes (Caco-2 cells and mucus-secreting goblet cells (HT29-MTX cells, that more closely simulate the cell proportions found in the small (90:10 and large intestine (75:25. Treatment of epithelial co-cultures with 0.4, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/mL of CMOF was shown to have no effect on metabolic activity but did enhance cell epithelial barrier integrity as measured by trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER, in a dose-dependent manner. The CMOF at the maximum concentration tested (4.0 mg/mL enhanced TEER, mucin gene expression and mucin protein abundance of epithelial co-cultures, all of which are essential components of intestinal barrier function.

  2. Effect of a Semi-Purified Oligosaccharide-Enriched Fraction from Caprine Milk on Barrier Integrity and Mucin Production of Co-Culture Models of the Small and Large Intestinal Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Alicia M; Roy, Nicole C; McNabb, Warren C; Cookson, Adrian L

    2016-05-06

    Caprine milk contains the highest amount of oligosaccharides among domestic animals, which are structurally similar to human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). This suggests caprine milk oligosaccharides may offer similar protective and developmental effects to that of HMOs. However, to date, studies using oligosaccharides from caprine milk have been limited. Thus, this study aimed to examine the impact of a caprine milk oligosaccharide-enriched fraction (CMOF) on barrier function of epithelial cell co-cultures of absorptive enterocytes (Caco-2 cells) and mucus-secreting goblet cells (HT29-MTX cells), that more closely simulate the cell proportions found in the small (90:10) and large intestine (75:25). Treatment of epithelial co-cultures with 0.4, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/mL of CMOF was shown to have no effect on metabolic activity but did enhance cell epithelial barrier integrity as measured by trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER), in a dose-dependent manner. The CMOF at the maximum concentration tested (4.0 mg/mL) enhanced TEER, mucin gene expression and mucin protein abundance of epithelial co-cultures, all of which are essential components of intestinal barrier function.

  3. The Ultraviolet Surprise. Efficient Soft X-Ray High Harmonic Generation in Multiply-Ionized Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popmintchev, Dimitar; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Dollar, Franklin; Mancuso, Christopher; Perez-Hernandez, Jose A.; Chen, Ming-Chang; Hankla, Amelia; Gao, Xiaohui; Shim, Bonggu; Gaeta, Alexander L.; Tarazkar, Maryam; Romanov, Dmitri A.; Levis, Robert J.; Gaffney, Jim A.; Foord, Mark; Libby, Stephen B.; Jaron-Becker, Agnieskzka; Becker, Andreas; Plaja, Luis; Muranane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Popmintchev, Tenio

    2015-01-01

    High-harmonic generation is a universal response of matter to strong femtosecond laser fields, coherently upconverting light to much shorter wavelengths. Optimizing the conversion of laser light into soft x-rays typically demands a trade-off between two competing factors. Reduced quantum diffusion of the radiating electron wave function results in emission from each species which is highest when a short-wavelength ultraviolet driving laser is used. But, phase matching - the constructive addition of x-ray waves from a large number of atoms - favors longer-wavelength mid-infrared lasers. We identified a regime of high-harmonic generation driven by 40-cycle ultraviolet lasers in waveguides that can generate bright beams in the soft x-ray region of the spectrum, up to photon energies of 280 electron volts. Surprisingly, the high ultraviolet refractive indices of both neutral atoms and ions enabled effective phase matching, even in a multiply ionized plasma. We observed harmonics with very narrow linewidths, while calculations show that the x-rays emerge as nearly time-bandwidt-limited pulse trains of ~100 attoseconds

  4. Summit surprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, N

    1994-01-01

    A New Delhi Population Summit, organized by the Royal Society, the US National Academy of Sciences, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and the Indian National Science Academy, was convened with representation of 120 (only 10% women) scientists from 50 countries and about 12 disciplines and 43 national scientific academies. Despite the common assumption that scientists never agree, a 3000 word statement was signed by 50 prominent national figures and supported by 25 professional papers on diverse subjects. The statement proclaimed that stable world population and "prodigious planning efforts" are required for dealing with global social, economic, and environmental problems. The target should be zero population growth by the next generation. The statement, although containing many uncompromising assertions, was not as strong as a statement by the Royal Society and the US National Academy of Sciences released last year: that, in the future, science and technology may not be able to prevent "irreversible degradation of the environment and continued poverty," and that the capacity to sustain life on the planet may be permanently jeopardized. The Delhi statement was backed by professional papers highlighting several important issues. Dr Mahmoud Fathalla of the Rockefeller Foundation claimed that the 500,000 annual maternal deaths worldwide, of which perhaps 33% are due to "coathanger" abortions, are given far less attention than a one-day political event of 500 deaths would receive. Although biologically women have been given a greater survival advantage, which is associated with their reproductive capacity, socially disadvantaged females are relegated to low status. There is poorer nutrition and overall health care for females, female infanticide, and female fetuses are increasingly aborted in China, India, and other countries. The sex ratio in developed countries is 95-97 males to every 100 females, but in developing Asian countries the ratio is 105 males to 100 females. There are reports of 60-100 million missing females. The human species 12,000 years ago had a population of 6 million, a life expectancy of 20 years, and a doubling time of 8000 years; high birth rates were important for preservation of the species. Profertility attitudes are still prevalent today. Insufficient funds go to contraceptive research.

  5. Xenon fractionation in porous planetesimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnle, Kevin; Pollack, James B.; Kasting, James F.

    1990-01-01

    The distinctively fractionated Xe on Mars and earth may have its root in a common source from which both planets accreted. Beginning with Ozima and Nakazawa's (1980) hypothesis that terrestrial Xe fractionation was caused by gravitational separation of adsorbed solar nebular gases inside large porous planetesimals, it is pointed out that Xe would have been trapped as the planetesimal grew and pores were squeezed shut by lithostatic pressure. It is shown that enough fractionated Xe to supply the earth could have been trapped this way. The degree of fractionation is controlled by the lithostatic pressure at the pore-closing front and so would have been roughly the same for all large planetesimals. The predicted degree of fractionation agrees well with that preserved in terrestrial and Martian Xe. Relative to Xe, this source is strongly depleted in other noble gases. In contrast to the original Ozima and Nakazawa hypothesis, the present hypothesis predicts the observed fractionation, and it allows planetary accretion to occur after the dissipation of the solar nebula.

  6. Fractional quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Laskin, Nick

    2018-01-01

    Fractional quantum mechanics is a recently emerged and rapidly developing field of quantum physics. This is the first monograph on fundamentals and physical applications of fractional quantum mechanics, written by its founder. The fractional Schrödinger equation and the fractional path integral are new fundamental physical concepts introduced and elaborated in the book. The fractional Schrödinger equation is a manifestation of fractional quantum mechanics. The fractional path integral is a new mathematical tool based on integration over Lévy flights. The fractional path integral method enhances the well-known Feynman path integral framework. Related topics covered in the text include time fractional quantum mechanics, fractional statistical mechanics, fractional classical mechanics and the α-stable Lévy random process. The book is well-suited for theorists, pure and applied mathematicians, solid-state physicists, chemists, and others working with the Schrödinger equation, the path integral technique...

  7. Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Murty, Vishnu P.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal representations of the environment, and surprising events are indications for encoding new representations of the environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system, including the hippocampus and surrounding cortex, encodes surprising events and is influenced by motivational state. Because behavior reflects the goals of an individual, we investigated whether motivational valence (i.e., pursuing rewards versus avoiding punishments) also...

  8. Fractional vector calculus and fractional Maxwell's equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of derivatives and integrals of non-integer order goes back to Leibniz, Liouville, Grunwald, Letnikov and Riemann. The history of fractional vector calculus (FVC) has only 10 years. The main approaches to formulate a FVC, which are used in the physics during the past few years, will be briefly described in this paper. We solve some problems of consistent formulations of FVC by using a fractional generalization of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. We define the differential and integral vector operations. The fractional Green's, Stokes' and Gauss's theorems are formulated. The proofs of these theorems are realized for simplest regions. A fractional generalization of exterior differential calculus of differential forms is discussed. Fractional nonlocal Maxwell's equations and the corresponding fractional wave equations are considered

  9. Initialized Fractional Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the need for a nonconstant initialization for the fractional calculus and establishes a basic definition set for the initialized fractional differintegral. This definition set allows the formalization of an initialized fractional calculus. Two basis calculi are considered; the Riemann-Liouville and the Grunwald fractional calculi. Two forms of initialization, terminal and side are developed.

  10. Ignorance, Vulnerability and the Occurrence of "Radical Surprises": Theoretical Reflections and Empirical Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlicke, C.

    2009-04-01

    By definition natural disasters always contain a moment of surprise. Their occurrence is mostly unforeseen and unexpected. They hit people unprepared, overwhelm them and expose their helplessness. Yet, there is surprisingly little known on the reasons for their being surprised. Aren't natural disasters expectable and foreseeable after all? Aren't the return rates of most hazards well known and shouldn't people be better prepared? The central question of this presentation is hence: Why do natural disasters so often radically surprise people at all (and how can we explain this being surprised)? In the first part of the presentation, it is argued that most approaches to vulnerability are not able to grasp this moment of surprise. On the contrary, they have their strength in unravelling the expectable: A person who is marginalized or even oppressed in everyday life is also vulnerable during times of crisis and stress, at least this is the central assumption of most vulnerability studies. In the second part, an understanding of vulnerability is developed, which allows taking into account such radical surprises. First, two forms of the unknown are differentiated: An area of the unknown an actor is more or less aware of (ignorance), and an area, which is not even known to be not known (nescience). The discovery of the latter is mostly associated with a "radical surprise", since it is per definition impossible to prepare for it. Second, a definition of vulnerability is proposed, which allows capturing the dynamics of surprises: People are vulnerable when they discover their nescience exceeding by definition previously established routines, stocks of knowledge and resources—in a general sense their capacities—to deal with their physical and/or social environment. This definition explicitly takes the view of different actors serious and departs from their being surprised. In the third part findings of a case study are presented, the 2002 flood in Germany. It is shown

  11. Large Data Set Mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, I.B.; Broomhall, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Digital emotion research has yet to make history. Until now large data set mining has not been a very active field of research in early modern emotion studies. This is indeed surprising since first, the early modern field has such rich, copyright-free, digitized data sets and second, emotion studies

  12. Tempered fractional calculus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabzikar, Farzad, E-mail: sabzika2@stt.msu.edu [Department of Statistics and Probability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Meerschaert, Mark M., E-mail: mcubed@stt.msu.edu [Department of Statistics and Probability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Chen, Jinghua, E-mail: cjhdzdz@163.com [School of Sciences, Jimei University, Xiamen, Fujian, 361021 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.

  13. Tempered fractional calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzikar, Farzad; Meerschaert, Mark M.; Chen, Jinghua

    2015-07-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.

  14. Tempered fractional calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabzikar, Farzad; Meerschaert, Mark M.; Chen, Jinghua

    2015-01-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series

  15. Evidence of universal inverse-third power law for the shielding-induced fractional decrease in apex field enhancement factor at large spacings: a response via accurate Laplace-type calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis, Thiago A.; Dall’Agnol, Fernando F.

    2018-05-01

    Numerical simulations are important when assessing the many characteristics of field emission related phenomena. In small simulation domains, the electrostatic effect from the boundaries is known to influence the calculated apex field enhancement factor (FEF) of the emitter, but no established dependence has been reported at present. In this work, we report the dependence of the lateral size, L, and the height, H, of the simulation domain on the apex-FEF of a single conducting ellipsoidal emitter. Firstly, we analyze the error, ε, in the calculation of the apex-FEF as a function of H and L. Importantly, our results show that the effects of H and L on ε are scale invariant, allowing one to predict ε for ratios L/h and H/h, where h is the height of the emitter. Next, we analyze the fractional change of the apex-FEF, δ, from a single emitter, , and a pair, . We show that small relative errors in (i.e. ), due to the finite domain size, are sufficient to alter the functional dependence , where c is the distance from the emitters in the pair. We show that obeys a recently proposed power law decay (Forbes 2016 J. Appl. Phys. 120 054302), at sufficiently large distances in the limit of infinite domain size (, say), which is not observed when using a long time established exponential decay (Bonard et al 2001 Adv. Mater. 13 184) or a more sophisticated fitting formula proposed recently by Harris et al (2015 AIP Adv. 5 087182). We show that the inverse-third power law functional dependence is respected for various systems like infinity arrays and small clusters of emitters with different shapes. Thus, , with m  =  3, is suggested to be a universal signature of the charge-blunting effect in small clusters or arrays, at sufficient large distances between emitters with any shape. These results improve the physical understanding of the field electron emission theory to accurately characterize emitters in small clusters or arrays.

  16. Higher fractions theory of fractional hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinov, I.Z.; Popov, V.N.

    1985-07-01

    A theory of fractional quantum Hall effect is generalized to higher fractions. N-particle model interaction is used and the gap is expressed through n-particles wave function. The excitation spectrum in general and the mean field critical behaviour are determined. The Hall conductivity is calculated from first principles. (author)

  17. The fractional quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stormer, H.L.

    1988-01-01

    The fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE), is the manifestation of a new, highly correlated, many-particle ground state that forms in a two-dimensional electron system at low temperatures and in high magnetic fields. It is an example of the new physics that has grown out of the tremendous recent advances in semiconductor material science, which has provided us with high-quality, lower-dimensional carrier systems. The novel electronic state exposes itself in transport experiments through quantization of the Hall resistance to an exact rational fraction of h/e, and concomitantly vanishing longitudinal resistivity. Its relevant energy scale is only a few degrees kelvin. The quantization is a consequence of the spontaneous formation of an energy gap separating the condensed ground state from its rather elusive quasiparticle excitations. The theoretical understanding of the novel quantum liquids which underlie the FQHE has predominantly emerged from an ingenious many-particle wave function strongly supported by numerous few-particle simulations. Theory has now constructed a complex model for ideal two-dimensional electron systems in the presence of high magnetic fields and makes definitive, often fascinating predictions. Experiments have successively uncovered odd-denominator fractional states reaching presently to 7/13. The application of new experimental tools to the FQHE, such as optics, microwaves, and phonon techniques promises the direct observation of such parameters as the gap energy and possibly even some of the more elusive quantities in the future. While theory and experiment in the FQHE appear to be converging, there remains considerable room for challenging surprises. This paper provides a concise overview of the FQHE. It focuses on the experimental aspects and states, but does not expand on the theoretical advances. 70 refs., 11 figs

  18. Nonhomogeneous fractional Poisson processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiaotian [School of Management, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)]. E-mail: swa001@126.com; Zhang Shiying [School of Management, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Fan Shen [Computer and Information School, Zhejiang Wanli University, Ningbo 315100 (China)

    2007-01-15

    In this paper, we propose a class of non-Gaussian stationary increment processes, named nonhomogeneous fractional Poisson processes W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t), which permit the study of the effects of long-range dependance in a large number of fields including quantum physics and finance. The processes W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t) are self-similar in a wide sense, exhibit more fatter tail than Gaussian processes, and converge to the Gaussian processes in distribution in some cases. In addition, we also show that the intensity function {lambda}(t) strongly influences the existence of the highest finite moment of W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t) and the behaviour of the tail probability of W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t)

  19. Nonhomogeneous fractional Poisson processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaotian; Zhang Shiying; Fan Shen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a class of non-Gaussian stationary increment processes, named nonhomogeneous fractional Poisson processes W H (j) (t), which permit the study of the effects of long-range dependance in a large number of fields including quantum physics and finance. The processes W H (j) (t) are self-similar in a wide sense, exhibit more fatter tail than Gaussian processes, and converge to the Gaussian processes in distribution in some cases. In addition, we also show that the intensity function λ(t) strongly influences the existence of the highest finite moment of W H (j) (t) and the behaviour of the tail probability of W H (j) (t)

  20. What is a surprise earthquake? The example of the 2002, San Giuliano (Italy event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mucciarelli

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Both in scientific literature and in the mass media, some earthquakes are defined as «surprise earthquakes». Based on his own judgment, probably any geologist, seismologist or engineer may have his own list of past «surprise earthquakes». This paper tries to quantify the underlying individual perception that may lead a scientist to apply such a definition to a seismic event. The meaning is different, depending on the disciplinary approach. For geologists, the Italian database of seismogenic sources is still too incomplete to allow for a quantitative estimate of the subjective degree of belief. For seismologists, quantification is possible defining the distance between an earthquake and its closest previous neighbor. Finally, for engineers, the San Giuliano quake could not be considered a surprise, since probabilistic site hazard estimates reveal that the change before and after the earthquake is just 4%.

  1. Conference of “Uncertainty and Surprise: Questions on Working with the Unexpected and Unknowable”

    CERN Document Server

    McDaniel, Reuben R; Uncertainty and Surprise in Complex Systems : Questions on Working with the Unexpected

    2005-01-01

    Complexity science has been a source of new insight in physical and social systems and has demonstrated that unpredictability and surprise are fundamental aspects of the world around us. This book is the outcome of a discussion meeting of leading scholars and critical thinkers with expertise in complex systems sciences and leaders from a variety of organizations sponsored by the Prigogine Center at The University of Texas at Austin and the Plexus Institute to explore strategies for understanding uncertainty and surprise. Besides distributions to the conference it includes a key digest by the editors as well as a commentary by the late nobel laureat Ilya Prigogine, "Surprises in half of a century". The book is intended for researchers and scientists in complexity science as well as for a broad interdisciplinary audience of both practitioners and scholars. It will well serve those interested in the research issues and in the application of complexity science to physical and social systems.

  2. Salience and attention in surprisal-based accounts of language processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eZarcone

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The notion of salience has been singled out as the explanatory factor for a diverse range oflinguistic phenomena. In particular, perceptual salience (e.g. visual salience of objects in the world,acoustic prominence of linguistic sounds and semantic-pragmatic salience (e.g. prominence ofrecently mentioned or topical referents have been shown to influence language comprehensionand production. A different line of research has sought to account for behavioral correlates ofcognitive load during comprehension as well as for certain patterns in language usage usinginformation-theoretic notions, such as surprisal. Surprisal and salience both affect languageprocessing at different levels, but the relationship between the two has not been adequatelyelucidated, and the question of whether salience can be reduced to surprisal / predictability isstill open. Our review identifies two main challenges in addressing this question: terminologicalinconsistency and lack of integration between high and low levels of representations in salience-based accounts and surprisal-based accounts. We capitalise upon work in visual cognition inorder to orient ourselves in surveying the different facets of the notion of salience in linguisticsand their relation with models of surprisal. We find that work on salience highlights aspects oflinguistic communication that models of surprisal tend to overlook, namely the role of attentionand relevance to current goals, and we argue that the Predictive Coding framework provides aunified view which can account for the role played by attention and predictability at different levelsof processing and which can clarify the interplay between low and high levels of processes andbetween predictability-driven expectation and attention-driven focus.

  3. Salience and Attention in Surprisal-Based Accounts of Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarcone, Alessandra; van Schijndel, Marten; Vogels, Jorrig; Demberg, Vera

    2016-01-01

    The notion of salience has been singled out as the explanatory factor for a diverse range of linguistic phenomena. In particular, perceptual salience (e.g., visual salience of objects in the world, acoustic prominence of linguistic sounds) and semantic-pragmatic salience (e.g., prominence of recently mentioned or topical referents) have been shown to influence language comprehension and production. A different line of research has sought to account for behavioral correlates of cognitive load during comprehension as well as for certain patterns in language usage using information-theoretic notions, such as surprisal. Surprisal and salience both affect language processing at different levels, but the relationship between the two has not been adequately elucidated, and the question of whether salience can be reduced to surprisal / predictability is still open. Our review identifies two main challenges in addressing this question: terminological inconsistency and lack of integration between high and low levels of representations in salience-based accounts and surprisal-based accounts. We capitalize upon work in visual cognition in order to orient ourselves in surveying the different facets of the notion of salience in linguistics and their relation with models of surprisal. We find that work on salience highlights aspects of linguistic communication that models of surprisal tend to overlook, namely the role of attention and relevance to current goals, and we argue that the Predictive Coding framework provides a unified view which can account for the role played by attention and predictability at different levels of processing and which can clarify the interplay between low and high levels of processes and between predictability-driven expectation and attention-driven focus.

  4. Salience and Attention in Surprisal-Based Accounts of Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarcone, Alessandra; van Schijndel, Marten; Vogels, Jorrig; Demberg, Vera

    2016-01-01

    The notion of salience has been singled out as the explanatory factor for a diverse range of linguistic phenomena. In particular, perceptual salience (e.g., visual salience of objects in the world, acoustic prominence of linguistic sounds) and semantic-pragmatic salience (e.g., prominence of recently mentioned or topical referents) have been shown to influence language comprehension and production. A different line of research has sought to account for behavioral correlates of cognitive load during comprehension as well as for certain patterns in language usage using information-theoretic notions, such as surprisal. Surprisal and salience both affect language processing at different levels, but the relationship between the two has not been adequately elucidated, and the question of whether salience can be reduced to surprisal / predictability is still open. Our review identifies two main challenges in addressing this question: terminological inconsistency and lack of integration between high and low levels of representations in salience-based accounts and surprisal-based accounts. We capitalize upon work in visual cognition in order to orient ourselves in surveying the different facets of the notion of salience in linguistics and their relation with models of surprisal. We find that work on salience highlights aspects of linguistic communication that models of surprisal tend to overlook, namely the role of attention and relevance to current goals, and we argue that the Predictive Coding framework provides a unified view which can account for the role played by attention and predictability at different levels of processing and which can clarify the interplay between low and high levels of processes and between predictability-driven expectation and attention-driven focus. PMID:27375525

  5. Risk, surprises and black swans fundamental ideas and concepts in risk assessment and risk management

    CERN Document Server

    Aven, Terje

    2014-01-01

    Risk, Surprises and Black Swans provides an in depth analysis of the risk concept with a focus on the critical link to knowledge; and the lack of knowledge, that risk and probability judgements are based on.Based on technical scientific research, this book presents a new perspective to help you understand how to assess and manage surprising, extreme events, known as 'Black Swans'. This approach looks beyond the traditional probability-based principles to offer a broader insight into the important aspects of uncertain events and in doing so explores the ways to manage them.

  6. Asphalt chemical fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obando P, Klever N.

    1998-01-01

    Asphalt fractionation were carried out in the Esmeraldas Oil Refinery using n-pentane, SiO 2 and different mixture of benzene- methane. The fractions obtained were analyzed by Fourier's Transformed Infrared Spectrophotometry (FTIR)

  7. Smarandache Continued Fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Ibstedt, H.

    2001-01-01

    The theory of general continued fractions is developed to the extent required in order to calculate Smarandache continued fractions to a given number of decimal places. Proof is given for the fact that Smarandache general continued fractions built with positive integer Smarandache sequences baving only a finite number of terms equal to 1 is convergent. A few numerical results are given.

  8. Fractional calculus in bioengineering, part 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magin, Richard L

    2004-01-01

    Fractional calculus (integral and differential operations of noninteger order) is not often used to model biological systems. Although the basic mathematical ideas were developed long ago by the mathematicians Leibniz (1695), Liouville (1834), Riemann (1892), and others and brought to the attention of the engineering world by Oliver Heaviside in the 1890s, it was not until 1974 that the first book on the topic was published by Oldham and Spanier. Recent monographs and symposia proceedings have highlighted the application of fractional calculus in physics, continuum mechanics, signal processing, and electromagnetics, but with few examples of applications in bioengineering. This is surprising because the methods of fractional calculus, when defined as a Laplace or Fourier convolution product, are suitable for solving many problems in biomedical research. For example, early studies by Cole (1933) and Hodgkin (1946) of the electrical properties of nerve cell membranes and the propagation of electrical signals are well characterized by differential equations of fractional order. The solution involves a generalization of the exponential function to the Mittag-Leffler function, which provides a better fit to the observed cell membrane data. A parallel application of fractional derivatives to viscoelastic materials establishes, in a natural way, hereditary integrals and the power law (Nutting/Scott Blair) stress-strain relationship for modeling biomaterials. In this review, I will introduce the idea of fractional operations by following the original approach of Heaviside, demonstrate the basic operations of fractional calculus on well-behaved functions (step, ramp, pulse, sinusoid) of engineering interest, and give specific examples from electrochemistry, physics, bioengineering, and biophysics. The fractional derivative accurately describes natural phenomena that occur in such common engineering problems as heat transfer, electrode/electrolyte behavior, and sub

  9. Fractional ablative laser skin resurfacing: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajirian, Ani L; Tarijian, Ani L; Goldberg, David J

    2011-12-01

    Ablative laser technology has been in use for many years now. The large side effect profile however has limited its use. Fractional ablative technology is a newer development which combines a lesser side effect profile along with similar efficacy. In this paper we review fractional ablative laser skin resurfacing.

  10. The Most Distant Mature Galaxy Cluster - Young, but surprisingly grown-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Astronomers have used an armada of telescopes on the ground and in space, including the Very Large Telescope at ESO's Paranal Observatory in Chile to discover and measure the distance to the most remote mature cluster of galaxies yet found. Although this cluster is seen when the Universe was less than one quarter of its current age it looks surprisingly similar to galaxy clusters in the current Universe. "We have measured the distance to the most distant mature cluster of galaxies ever found", says the lead author of the study in which the observations from ESO's VLT have been used, Raphael Gobat (CEA, Paris). "The surprising thing is that when we look closely at this galaxy cluster it doesn't look young - many of the galaxies have settled down and don't resemble the usual star-forming galaxies seen in the early Universe." Clusters of galaxies are the largest structures in the Universe that are held together by gravity. Astronomers expect these clusters to grow through time and hence that massive clusters would be rare in the early Universe. Although even more distant clusters have been seen, they appear to be young clusters in the process of formation and are not settled mature systems. The international team of astronomers used the powerful VIMOS and FORS2 instruments on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) to measure the distances to some of the blobs in a curious patch of very faint red objects first observed with the Spitzer space telescope. This grouping, named CL J1449+0856 [1], had all the hallmarks of being a very remote cluster of galaxies [2]. The results showed that we are indeed seeing a galaxy cluster as it was when the Universe was about three billion years old - less than one quarter of its current age [3]. Once the team knew the distance to this very rare object they looked carefully at the component galaxies using both the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based telescopes, including the VLT. They found evidence suggesting that most of the

  11. Fractional smith chart theory

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif

    2011-03-01

    For the first time, a generalized Smith chart is introduced here to represent fractional order circuit elements. It is shown that the standard Smith chart is a special case of the generalized fractional order Smith chart. With illustrations drawn for both the conventional integer based lumped elements and the fractional elements, a graphical technique supported by the analytical method is presented to plot impedances on the fractional Smith chart. The concept is then applied towards impedance matching networks, where the fractional approach proves to be much more versatile and results in a single element matching network for a complex load as compared to the two elements in the conventional approach. © 2010 IEEE.

  12. Dealing with unexpected events on the flight deck : A conceptual model of startle and surprise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman, H.M.; Groen, E.L.; Paassen, M.M. van; Bronkhorst, A.W.; Mulder, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: A conceptual model is proposed in order to explain pilot performance in surprising and startling situations. Background: Today’s debate around loss of control following in-flight events and the implementation of upset prevention and recovery training has highlighted the importance of

  13. Bagpipes and Artichokes: Surprise as a Stimulus to Learning in the Elementary Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Bonnie Schaffhauser

    2016-01-01

    Incorporating surprise into music instruction can stimulate student attention, curiosity, and interest. Novelty focuses attention in the reticular activating system, increasing the potential for brain memory storage. Elementary ages are ideal for introducing novel instruments, pieces, composers, or styles of music. Young children have fewer…

  14. The Educational Philosophies of Mordecai Kaplan and Michael Rosenak: Surprising Similarities and Illuminating Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Jeffrey; Caplan, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The thoughts of Mordecai Kaplan and Michael Rosenak present surprising commonalities as well as illuminating differences. Similarities include the perception that Judaism and Jewish education are in crisis, the belief that Jewish peoplehood must include commitment to meaningful content, the need for teachers to teach from a position of…

  15. Models of Automation surprise : results of a field survey in aviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, Robert; Dekker, Sidney

    2017-01-01

    Automation surprises in aviation continue to be a significant safety concern and the community’s search for effective strategies to mitigate them are ongoing. The literature has offered two fundamentally divergent directions, based on different ideas about the nature of cognition and collaboration

  16. Decision-making under surprise and uncertainty: Arsenic contamination of water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhir, Timothy O.; Mozumder, Pallab; Halim, Nafisa

    2018-05-01

    With ignorance and potential surprise dominating decision making in water resources, a framework for dealing with such uncertainty is a critical need in hydrology. We operationalize the 'potential surprise' criterion proposed by Shackle, Vickers, and Katzner (SVK) to derive decision rules to manage water resources under uncertainty and ignorance. We apply this framework to managing water supply systems in Bangladesh that face severe, naturally occurring arsenic contamination. The uncertainty involved with arsenic in water supplies makes the application of conventional analysis of decision-making ineffective. Given the uncertainty and surprise involved in such cases, we find that optimal decisions tend to favor actions that avoid irreversible outcomes instead of conventional cost-effective actions. We observe that a diversification of the water supply system also emerges as a robust strategy to avert unintended outcomes of water contamination. Shallow wells had a slight higher optimal level (36%) compare to deep wells and surface treatment which had allocation levels of roughly 32% under each. The approach can be applied in a variety of other cases that involve decision making under uncertainty and surprise, a frequent situation in natural resources management.

  17. Surprising results: HIV testing and changes in contraceptive practices among young women in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennott, Christie; Yeatman, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This study uses eight waves of data from the population-based Tsogolo la Thanzi study (2009–2011) in rural Malawi to examine changes in young women’s contraceptive practices, including the use of condoms, non-barrier contraceptive methods, and abstinence, following positive and negative HIV tests. The analysis factors in women’s prior perceptions of their HIV status that may already be shaping their behaviour and separates surprise HIV test results from those that merely confirm what was already believed. Fixed effects logistic regression models show that HIV testing frequently affects the contraceptive practices of young Malawian women, particularly when the test yields an unexpected result. Specifically, women who are surprised to test HIV positive increase their condom use and are more likely to use condoms consistently. Following an HIV negative test (whether a surprise or expected), women increase their use of condoms and decrease their use of non-barrier contraceptives; the latter may be due to an increase in abstinence following a surprise negative result. Changes in condom use following HIV testing are robust to the inclusion of potential explanatory mechanisms including fertility preferences, relationship status, and the perception that a partner is HIV positive. The results demonstrate that both positive and negative tests can influence women’s sexual and reproductive behaviours, and emphasise the importance of conceptualizing of HIV testing as offering new information only insofar as results deviate from prior perceptions of HIV status. PMID:26160156

  18. Surprise, Memory, and Retrospective Judgment Making: Testing Cognitive Reconstruction Theories of the Hindsight Bias Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Ivan K.

    2009-01-01

    Hindsight bias has been shown to be a pervasive and potentially harmful decision-making bias. A review of 4 competing cognitive reconstruction theories of hindsight bias revealed conflicting predictions about the role and effect of expectation or surprise in retrospective judgment formation. Two experiments tested these predictions examining the…

  19. Fractional factorial plans

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Aloke

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop reference to fractional factorials and related orthogonal arrays.Presenting one of the most dynamic areas of statistical research, this book offers a systematic, rigorous, and up-to-date treatment of fractional factorial designs and related combinatorial mathematics. Leading statisticians Aloke Dey and Rahul Mukerjee consolidate vast amounts of material from the professional literature--expertly weaving fractional replication, orthogonal arrays, and optimality aspects. They develop the basic theory of fractional factorials using the calculus of factorial arrangements, thereby providing a unified approach to the study of fractional factorial plans. An indispensable guide for statisticians in research and industry as well as for graduate students, Fractional Factorial Plans features: * Construction procedures of symmetric and asymmetric orthogonal arrays. * Many up-to-date research results on nonexistence. * A chapter on optimal fractional factorials not based on orthogonal arrays. * Trend-free plans...

  20. Fractional Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, José; Luo, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Fractional Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive overview of recent advances in the areas of nonlinear dynamics, vibration and control with analytical, numerical, and experimental results. This book provides an overview of recent discoveries in fractional control, delves into fractional variational principles and differential equations, and applies advanced techniques in fractional calculus to solving complicated mathematical and physical problems.Finally, this book also discusses the role that fractional order modeling can play in complex systems for engineering and science. Discusses how fractional dynamics and control can be used to solve nonlinear science and complexity issues Shows how fractional differential equations and models can be used to solve turbulence and wave equations in mechanics and gravity theories and Schrodinger’s equation  Presents factional relaxation modeling of dielectric materials and wave equations for dielectrics  Develops new methods for control and synchronization of...

  1. On a Fractional Binomial Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoy, Dexter O.; Polito, Federico

    2012-02-01

    The classical binomial process has been studied by Jakeman (J. Phys. A 23:2815-2825, 1990) (and the references therein) and has been used to characterize a series of radiation states in quantum optics. In particular, he studied a classical birth-death process where the chance of birth is proportional to the difference between a larger fixed number and the number of individuals present. It is shown that at large times, an equilibrium is reached which follows a binomial process. In this paper, the classical binomial process is generalized using the techniques of fractional calculus and is called the fractional binomial process. The fractional binomial process is shown to preserve the binomial limit at large times while expanding the class of models that include non-binomial fluctuations (non-Markovian) at regular and small times. As a direct consequence, the generality of the fractional binomial model makes the proposed model more desirable than its classical counterpart in describing real physical processes. More statistical properties are also derived.

  2. Dividing Fractions: A Pedagogical Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Robert

    2016-01-01

    When dividing one fraction by a second fraction, invert, that is, flip the second fraction, then multiply it by the first fraction. To multiply fractions, simply multiply across the denominators, and multiply across the numerators to get the resultant fraction. So by inverting the division of fractions it is turned into an easy multiplication of…

  3. Improving Children's Knowledge of Fraction Magnitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa K Fazio

    Full Text Available We examined whether playing a computerized fraction game, based on the integrated theory of numerical development and on the Common Core State Standards' suggestions for teaching fractions, would improve children's fraction magnitude understanding. Fourth and fifth-graders were given brief instruction about unit fractions and played Catch the Monster with Fractions, a game in which they estimated fraction locations on a number line and received feedback on the accuracy of their estimates. The intervention lasted less than 15 minutes. In our initial study, children showed large gains from pretest to posttest in their fraction number line estimates, magnitude comparisons, and recall accuracy. In a more rigorous second study, the experimental group showed similarly large improvements, whereas a control group showed no improvement from practicing fraction number line estimates without feedback. The results provide evidence for the effectiveness of interventions emphasizing fraction magnitudes and indicate how psychological theories and research can be used to evaluate specific recommendations of the Common Core State Standards.

  4. Effect of a Semi-Purified Oligosaccharide-Enriched Fraction from Caprine Milk on Barrier Integrity and Mucin Production of Co-Culture Models of the Small and Large Intestinal Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia M. Barnett; Nicole C. Roy; Warren C. McNabb; Adrian L. Cookson

    2016-01-01

    Caprine milk contains the highest amount of oligosaccharides among domestic animals, which are structurally similar to human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). This suggests caprine milk oligosaccharides may offer similar protective and developmental effects to that of HMOs. However, to date, studies using oligosaccharides from caprine milk have been limited. Thus, this study aimed to examine the impact of a caprine milk oligosaccharide-enriched fraction (CMOF) on barrier function of epithelial ce...

  5. Influence of Fractionation Scheme and Tumor Location on Toxicities After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Large (≥5 cm) Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Multi-institutional Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Vivek [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Shostrom, Valerie K. [Department of Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Zhen, Weining; Zhang, Mutian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Braunstein, Steve E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Holland, John [Department of Radiation Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Hallemeier, Christopher L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Harkenrider, Matthew M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, Illinois (United States); Iskhanian, Adrian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miami, Florida (United States); Jabbour, Salma K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Attia, Albert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Lee, Percy [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States); Wang, Kyle [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Decker, Roy H. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); McGarry, Ronald C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Simone, Charles B., E-mail: charlessimone@umm.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: To describe the impact of fractionation scheme and tumor location on toxicities in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for ≥5-cm non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as part of a multi-institutional analysis. Methods: Patients with primary ≥5-cm N0 M0 NSCLC who underwent ≤5-fraction SBRT were examined across multiple high-volume SBRT centers. Collected data included clinical/treatment parameters; toxicities were prospectively assessed at each institution according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Patients treated daily were compared with those treated every other day (QOD)/other nondaily regimens. Stratification between central and peripheral tumors was also performed. Results: Ninety-two patients from 12 institutions were evaluated (2004-2016), with median follow-up of 12 months. In total there were 23 (25%) and 6 (7%) grade ≥2 and grade ≥3 toxicities, respectively. Grades 2 and 3 pulmonary toxicities occurred in 9% and 4%, respectively; 1 patient treated daily experienced grade 5 radiation pneumonitis. Of the entire cohort, 46 patients underwent daily SBRT, and 46 received QOD (n=40)/other nondaily (n=6) regimens. Clinical/treatment parameters were similar between groups; the QOD/other group was more likely to receive 3-/4-fraction schemas. Patients treated QOD/other experienced significantly fewer grade ≥2 toxicities as compared with daily treatment (7% vs 43%, P<.001). Patients treated daily also had higher rates of grade ≥2 pulmonary toxicities (P=.014). Patients with peripheral tumors (n=66) were more likely to receive 3-/4-fraction regimens than those with central tumors (n=26). No significant differences in grade ≥2 toxicities were identified according to tumor location (P>.05). Conclusions: From this multi-institutional study, toxicity of SBRT for ≥5-cm lesions is acceptable, and daily treatment was associated with a higher rate of toxicities.

  6. Fractional distillation of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, L D

    1931-10-31

    A method of dividing oil into lubricating oil fractions without substantial cracking by introducing the oil in a heated state into a fractionating column from which oil fractions having different boiling points are withdrawn at different levels, while reflux liquid is supplied to the top of the column, and additional heat is introduced into the column by contacting with the oil therein a heated fluid of higher monlecular weight than water and less susceptible to thermal decomposition than is the highest boiling oil fraction resulting from the distillation, or of which any products produced by thermal decomposition will not occur in the highest boiling distillate withdrawn from the column.

  7. Models of Automation Surprise: Results of a Field Survey in Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert De Boer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Automation surprises in aviation continue to be a significant safety concern and the community’s search for effective strategies to mitigate them are ongoing. The literature has offered two fundamentally divergent directions, based on different ideas about the nature of cognition and collaboration with automation. In this paper, we report the results of a field study that empirically compared and contrasted two models of automation surprises: a normative individual-cognition model and a sensemaking model based on distributed cognition. Our data prove a good fit for the sense-making model. This finding is relevant for aviation safety, since our understanding of the cognitive processes that govern human interaction with automation drive what we need to do to reduce the frequency of automation-induced events.

  8. Human Amygdala Tracks a Feature-Based Valence Signal Embedded within the Facial Expression of Surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M Justin; Mattek, Alison M; Bennett, Randi H; Solomon, Kimberly M; Shin, Jin; Whalen, Paul J

    2017-09-27

    Human amygdala function has been traditionally associated with processing the affective valence (negative vs positive) of an emotionally charged event, especially those that signal fear or threat. However, this account of human amygdala function can be explained by alternative views, which posit that the amygdala might be tuned to either (1) general emotional arousal (activation vs deactivation) or (2) specific emotion categories (fear vs happy). Delineating the pure effects of valence independent of arousal or emotion category is a challenging task, given that these variables naturally covary under many circumstances. To circumvent this issue and test the sensitivity of the human amygdala to valence values specifically, we measured the dimension of valence within the single facial expression category of surprise. Given the inherent valence ambiguity of this category, we show that surprised expression exemplars are attributed valence and arousal values that are uniquely and naturally uncorrelated. We then present fMRI data from both sexes, showing that the amygdala tracks these consensus valence values. Finally, we provide evidence that these valence values are linked to specific visual features of the mouth region, isolating the signal by which the amygdala detects this valence information. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT There is an open question as to whether human amygdala function tracks the valence value of cues in the environment, as opposed to either a more general emotional arousal value or a more specific emotion category distinction. Here, we demonstrate the utility of surprised facial expressions because exemplars within this emotion category take on valence values spanning the dimension of bipolar valence (positive to negative) at a consistent level of emotional arousal. Functional neuroimaging data showed that amygdala responses tracked the valence of surprised facial expressions, unconfounded by arousal. Furthermore, a machine learning classifier identified

  9. Prediction, Expectation, and Surprise: Methods, Designs, and Study of a Deployed Traffic Forecasting Service

    OpenAIRE

    Horvitz, Eric J.; Apacible, Johnson; Sarin, Raman; Liao, Lin

    2012-01-01

    We present research on developing models that forecast traffic flow and congestion in the Greater Seattle area. The research has led to the deployment of a service named JamBayes, that is being actively used by over 2,500 users via smartphones and desktop versions of the system. We review the modeling effort and describe experiments probing the predictive accuracy of the models. Finally, we present research on building models that can identify current and future surprises, via efforts on mode...

  10. The effect of emotionally valenced eye region images on visuocortical processing of surprised faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuaixia; Li, Ping; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Xiangru; Luo, Wenbo

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we presented pictorial representations of happy, neutral, and fearful expressions projected in the eye regions to determine whether the eye region alone is sufficient to produce a context effect. Participants were asked to judge the valence of surprised faces that had been preceded by a picture of an eye region. Behavioral results showed that affective ratings of surprised faces were context dependent. Prime-related ERPs with presentation of happy eyes elicited a larger P1 than those for neutral and fearful eyes, likely due to the recognition advantage provided by a happy expression. Target-related ERPs showed that surprised faces in the context of fearful and happy eyes elicited dramatically larger C1 than those in the neutral context, which reflected the modulation by predictions during the earliest stages of face processing. There were larger N170 with neutral and fearful eye contexts compared to the happy context, suggesting faces were being integrated with contextual threat information. The P3 component exhibited enhanced brain activity in response to faces preceded by happy and fearful eyes compared with neutral eyes, indicating motivated attention processing may be involved at this stage. Altogether, these results indicate for the first time that the influence of isolated eye regions on the perception of surprised faces involves preferential processing at the early stages and elaborate processing at the late stages. Moreover, higher cognitive processes such as predictions and attention can modulate face processing from the earliest stages in a top-down manner. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  11. Analysis of physiological signals for recognition of boredom, pain, and surprise emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun-Hye; Park, Byoung-Jun; Park, Mi-Sook; Kim, Sang-Hyeob; Sohn, Jin-Hun

    2015-06-18

    The aim of the study was to examine the differences of boredom, pain, and surprise. In addition to that, it was conducted to propose approaches for emotion recognition based on physiological signals. Three emotions, boredom, pain, and surprise, are induced through the presentation of emotional stimuli and electrocardiography (ECG), electrodermal activity (EDA), skin temperature (SKT), and photoplethysmography (PPG) as physiological signals are measured to collect a dataset from 217 participants when experiencing the emotions. Twenty-seven physiological features are extracted from the signals to classify the three emotions. The discriminant function analysis (DFA) as a statistical method, and five machine learning algorithms (linear discriminant analysis (LDA), classification and regression trees (CART), self-organizing map (SOM), Naïve Bayes algorithm, and support vector machine (SVM)) are used for classifying the emotions. The result shows that the difference of physiological responses among emotions is significant in heart rate (HR), skin conductance level (SCL), skin conductance response (SCR), mean skin temperature (meanSKT), blood volume pulse (BVP), and pulse transit time (PTT), and the highest recognition accuracy of 84.7% is obtained by using DFA. This study demonstrates the differences of boredom, pain, and surprise and the best emotion recognizer for the classification of the three emotions by using physiological signals.

  12. Influence of Fractionation Scheme and Tumor Location on Toxicities After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Large (≥5 cm) Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Multi-institutional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vivek; Shostrom, Valerie K; Zhen, Weining; Zhang, Mutian; Braunstein, Steve E; Holland, John; Hallemeier, Christopher L; Harkenrider, Matthew M; Iskhanian, Adrian; Jabbour, Salma K; Attia, Albert; Lee, Percy; Wang, Kyle; Decker, Roy H; McGarry, Ronald C; Simone, Charles B

    2017-03-15

    To describe the impact of fractionation scheme and tumor location on toxicities in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for ≥5-cm non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as part of a multi-institutional analysis. Patients with primary ≥5-cm N0 M0 NSCLC who underwent ≤5-fraction SBRT were examined across multiple high-volume SBRT centers. Collected data included clinical/treatment parameters; toxicities were prospectively assessed at each institution according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Patients treated daily were compared with those treated every other day (QOD)/other nondaily regimens. Stratification between central and peripheral tumors was also performed. Ninety-two patients from 12 institutions were evaluated (2004-2016), with median follow-up of 12 months. In total there were 23 (25%) and 6 (7%) grade ≥2 and grade ≥3 toxicities, respectively. Grades 2 and 3 pulmonary toxicities occurred in 9% and 4%, respectively; 1 patient treated daily experienced grade 5 radiation pneumonitis. Of the entire cohort, 46 patients underwent daily SBRT, and 46 received QOD (n=40)/other nondaily (n=6) regimens. Clinical/treatment parameters were similar between groups; the QOD/other group was more likely to receive 3-/4-fraction schemas. Patients treated QOD/other experienced significantly fewer grade ≥2 toxicities as compared with daily treatment (7% vs 43%, Plocation (P>.05). From this multi-institutional study, toxicity of SBRT for ≥5-cm lesions is acceptable, and daily treatment was associated with a higher rate of toxicities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fractional Poisson process (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaotian; Wen Zhixiong; Zhang Shiying

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a stochastic process W H (t)(H-bar (12,1)) which we call fractional Poisson process. The process W H (t) is self-similar in wide sense, displays long range dependence, and has more fatter tail than Gaussian process. In addition, it converges to fractional Brownian motion in distribution

  14. An Appetite for Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Trena L.; Bryan, Tommy; Curry, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how using candy bars as models gives sixth-grade students a taste for learning to represent fractions whose denominators are factors of twelve. Using paper models of the candy bars, students explored and compared fractions. They noticed fewer different representations for one-third than for one-half. The authors conclude…

  15. Can Kindergartners Do Fractions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwikla, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics professor Julie Cwikla decided that she needed to investigate young children's understandings and see what precurricular partitioning notions young minds bring to the fraction table. Cwikla realized that only a handful of studies have examined how preschool-age and early elementary school-age students solve fraction problems (Empson…

  16. Fractional bosonic strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Victor Alfonzo; Giusti, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a simple generalization of bosonic string theory in the framework of the theory of fractional variational problems. Specifically, we present a fractional extension of the Polyakov action, for which we compute the general form of the equations of motion and discuss the connection between the new fractional action and a generalization the Nambu-Goto action. Consequently, we analyze the symmetries of the modified Polyakov action and try to fix the gauge, following the classical procedures. Then we solve the equations of motion in a simplified setting. Finally, we present a Hamiltonian description of the classical fractional bosonic string and introduce the fractional light-cone gauge. It is important to remark that, throughout the whole paper, we thoroughly discuss how to recover the known results as an "integer" limit of the presented model.

  17. Electrochemically controlled iron isotope fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jay R.; Young, Edward D.; Kavner, Abby

    2010-02-01

    Variations in the stable isotope abundances of transition metals have been observed in the geologic record and trying to understand and reconstruct the physical/environmental conditions that produced these signatures is an area of active research. It is clear that changes in oxidation state lead to large fractionations of the stable isotopes of many transition metals such as iron, suggesting that transition metal stable isotope signatures could be used as a paleo-redox proxy. However, the factors contributing to these observed stable isotope variations are poorly understood. Here we investigate how the kinetics of iron redox electrochemistry generates isotope fractionation. Through a combination of electrodeposition experiments and modeling of electrochemical processes including mass-transport, we show that electron transfer reactions are the cause of a large isotope separation, while mass transport-limited supply of reactant to the electrode attenuates the observed isotopic fractionation. Furthermore, the stable isotope composition of electroplated transition metals can be tuned in the laboratory by controlling parameters such as solution chemistry, reaction overpotential, and solution convection. These methods are potentially useful for generating isotopically-marked metal surfaces for tracking and forensic purposes. In addition, our studies will help interpret stable isotope data in terms of identifying underlying electron transfer processes in laboratory and natural samples.

  18. Continuous fractional distillation of petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-11-05

    This invention has for its object a process of distillation, fractional, and continuous, of shale oil, tar, etc., characterized by the vapors leaving the evaporation chamber being forced, before condensation, to go over a continuous circuit. The vapors traverse first a preheater then return to the vaporization chamber in which they are passed along large surfaces and by application of the counter-current principle in contact with the liquid to be distilled. They stream through the chamber in a continuous manner (the quantity of vapor emitted in the circuit being determined in a manner to advance the distillation just to completion); the excess of vapor formed being removed from the circuit and sent to a condensing apparatus for fractionation.

  19. Fractional Order Generalized Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tenreiro Machado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates a novel expression for entropy inspired in the properties of Fractional Calculus. The characteristics of the generalized fractional entropy are tested both in standard probability distributions and real world data series. The results reveal that tuning the fractional order allow an high sensitivity to the signal evolution, which is useful in describing the dynamics of complex systems. The concepts are also extended to relative distances and tested with several sets of data, confirming the goodness of the generalization.

  20. Fractional finite Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Kedar; George, Nicholas

    2004-07-01

    We show that a fractional version of the finite Fourier transform may be defined by using prolate spheroidal wave functions of order zero. The transform is linear and additive in its index and asymptotically goes over to Namias's definition of the fractional Fourier transform. As a special case of this definition, it is shown that the finite Fourier transform may be inverted by using information over a finite range of frequencies in Fourier space, the inversion being sensitive to noise. Numerical illustrations for both forward (fractional) and inverse finite transforms are provided.

  1. Social Trust and Fractionalization:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper takes a closer look at the importance of fractionalization for the creation of social trust. It first argues that the determinants of trust can be divided into two categories: those affecting individuals' trust radii and those affecting social polarization. A series of estimates using...... a much larger country sample than in previous literature confirms that fractionalization in the form of income inequality and political diversity adversely affects social trust while ethnic diversity does not. However, these effects differ systematically across countries, questioning standard...... interpretations of the influence of fractionalization on trust....

  2. The influence of the surprising decay properties of element 108 on search experiments for new elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, S.; Armbruster, P.; Muenzenberg, G.; Reisdorf, W.; Schmidt, K.H.; Burkhard, H.G.; Hessberger, F.P.; Schoett, H.J.; Agarwal, Y.K.; Berthes, G.; Gollerthan, U.; Folger, H.; Hingmann, J.G.; Keller, J.G.; Leino, M.E.; Lemmertz, P.; Montoya, M.; Poppensieker, K.; Quint, B.; Zychor, I.

    1986-01-01

    Results of experiments to synthesize the heaviest elements are reported. Surprising is the high stability against fission not only of the odd and odd-odd nuclei but also of even isotopes of even elements. Alpha decay data gave an increasing stability of nuclei by shell effects up to 266 109, the heaviest known element. Theoretically, the high stability is explained by an island of nuclei with big quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations around Z=109 and N=162. Future experiments will be planned to prove the island character of these heavy nuclei. (orig.)

  3. FRACTIONS: CONCEPTUAL AND DIDACTIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sead Rešić

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fractions represent the manner of writing parts of whole numbers (integers. Rules for operations with fractions differ from rules for operations with integers. Students face difficulties in understanding fractions, especially operations with fractions. These difficulties are well known in didactics of Mathematics throughout the world and there is a lot of research regarding problems in learning about fractions. Methods for facilitating understanding fractions have been discovered, which are essentially related to visualizing operations with fractions.

  4. Discrete fractional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Goodrich, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This text provides the first comprehensive treatment of the discrete fractional calculus. Experienced researchers will find the text useful as a reference for discrete fractional calculus and topics of current interest. Students who are interested in learning about discrete fractional calculus will find this text to provide a useful starting point. Several exercises are offered at the end of each chapter and select answers have been provided at the end of the book. The presentation of the content is designed to give ample flexibility for potential use in a myriad of courses and for independent study. The novel approach taken by the authors includes a simultaneous treatment of the fractional- and integer-order difference calculus (on a variety of time scales, including both the usual forward and backwards difference operators). The reader will acquire a solid foundation in the classical topics of the discrete calculus while being introduced to exciting recent developments, bringing them to the frontiers of the...

  5. Fractional smith chart theory

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif; Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa; Salama, Khaled N.

    2011-01-01

    matching networks, where the fractional approach proves to be much more versatile and results in a single element matching network for a complex load as compared to the two elements in the conventional approach. © 2010 IEEE.

  6. Intracellular Cadmium Isotope Fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, T. J.; Lee, R. B.; Henderson, G. M.; Rickaby, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Recent stable isotope studies into the biological utilization of transition metals (e.g. Cu, Fe, Zn, Cd) suggest several stepwise cellular processes can fractionate isotopes in both culture and nature. However, the determination of fractionation factors is often unsatisfactory, as significant variability can exist - even between different organisms with the same cellular functions. Thus, it has not been possible to adequately understand the source and mechanisms of metal isotopic fractionation. In order to address this problem, we investigated the biological fractionation of Cd isotopes within genetically-modified bacteria (E. coli). There is currently only one known biological use or requirement of Cd, a Cd/Zn carbonic anhydrase (CdCA, from the marine diatom T. weissfloggii), which we introduce into the E. coli genome. We have also developed a cleaning procedure that allows for the treating of bacteria so as to study the isotopic composition of different cellular components. We find that whole cells always exhibit a preference for uptake of the lighter isotopes of Cd. Notably, whole cells appear to have a similar Cd isotopic composition regardless of the expression of CdCA within the E. coli. However, isotopic fractionation can occur within the genetically modified E. coli during Cd use, such that Cd bound in CdCA can display a distinct isotopic composition compared to the cell as a whole. Thus, the externally observed fractionation is independent of the internal uses of Cd, with the largest Cd isotope fractionation occurring during cross-membrane transport. A general implication of these experiments is that trace metal isotopic fractionation most likely reflects metal transport into biological cells (either actively or passively), rather than relating to expression of specific physiological function and genetic expression of different metalloenzymes.

  7. Fractional laser skin resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiades-Armenakas, Macrene R; Dover, Jeffrey S; Arndt, Kenneth A

    2012-11-01

    Laser skin resurfacing (LSR) has evolved over the past 2 decades from traditional ablative to fractional nonablative and fractional ablative resurfacing. Traditional ablative LSR was highly effective in reducing rhytides, photoaging, and acne scarring but was associated with significant side effects and complications. In contrast, nonablative LSR was very safe but failed to deliver consistent clinical improvement. Fractional LSR has achieved the middle ground; it combined the efficacy of traditional LSR with the safety of nonablative modalities. The first fractional laser was a nonablative erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser that produced microscopic columns of thermal injury in the epidermis and upper dermis. Heralding an entirely new concept of laser energy delivery, it delivered the laser beam in microarrays. It resulted in microscopic columns of treated tissue and intervening areas of untreated skin, which yielded rapid reepithelialization. Fractional delivery was quickly applied to ablative wavelengths such as carbon dioxide, Er:YAG, and yttrium scandium gallium garnet (2,790 nm), providing more significant clinical outcomes. Adjustable laser parameters, including power, pitch, dwell time, and spot density, allowed for precise determination of percent surface area, affected penetration depth, and clinical recovery time and efficacy. Fractional LSR has been a significant advance to the laser field, striking the balance between safety and efficacy.

  8. The come-back of hypo fractionation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosset, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Hypo-fractionation (i.e. the use of fewer higher fractional doses than usual) is not a new concept. It had actually been proposed in the early year of Radiotherapy by the German and Austrian specialists. In the seventy's, supported by the - wrong - hypotheses which gave birth to the NSD (Nominal Standard Dose), hypo-fractionation reappears. The consequential increase of late complications which was observed led the radiation oncologists to give up again using large doses per fraction, except for a few specific situations, such as palliative treatments. We are recently facing a new 'come-back' of hypo-fractionation, in particular for breast and prostate cancers. In the case of breast cancer, the aim is clearly to look for more 'convenience' for both the patients and the physicians, proposing shorter irradiation schedules including a lesser number of fractions. Some 'modestly' hypo-fractionated schemes have been proposed and used, without apparently altering the efficacy/toxicity ratio, but these results have been seriously questioned. As for prostate cancer, the situation is different, since in that case new radiobiological data are at the origin of the newly proposed hypo-fractionation schedules. A number of papers actually strongly suggested that the fractionation sensitivity of prostate cancer could be higher than the one of the tissues responsible for late toxicity (i.e the exact opposite of the classical dogma). Based on those data, several hypo-fractionated schemes have been proposed, with a few preliminary results looking similar to the ones obtained by the classical schedules. However, no randomized study is available so far, and a few recent radiobiological data are now questioning the new dogma of the high fractionation sensitivity of prostate cancer. For those two - frequent - cancers, it seems therefore that prudence should prevail before altering classical irradiation schedules which have proven their efficacy, while staying open to new concepts and

  9. Mass fractionation processes of transition metal isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X. K.; Guo, Y.; Williams, R. J. P.; O'Nions, R. K.; Matthews, A.; Belshaw, N. S.; Canters, G. W.; de Waal, E. C.; Weser, U.; Burgess, B. K.; Salvato, B.

    2002-06-01

    Recent advances in mass spectrometry make it possible to utilise isotope variations of transition metals to address some important issues in solar system and biological sciences. Realisation of the potential offered by these new isotope systems however requires an adequate understanding of the factors controlling their isotope fractionation. Here we show the results of a broadly based study on copper and iron isotope fractionation during various inorganic and biological processes. These results demonstrate that: (1) naturally occurring inorganic processes can fractionate Fe isotope to a detectable level even at temperature ˜1000°C, which challenges the previous view that Fe isotope variations in natural system are unique biosignatures; (2) multiple-step equilibrium processes at low temperatures may cause large mass fractionation of transition metal isotopes even when the fractionation per single step is small; (3) oxidation-reduction is an importation controlling factor of isotope fractionation of transition metal elements with multiple valences, which opens a wide range of applications of these new isotope systems, ranging from metal-silicate fractionation in the solar system to uptake pathways of these elements in biological systems; (4) organisms incorporate lighter isotopes of transition metals preferentially, and transition metal isotope fractionation occurs stepwise along their pathways within biological systems during their uptake.

  10. Surprisal analysis of Glioblastoma Multiform (GBM) microRNA dynamics unveils tumor specific phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadran, Sohila; Remacle, Francoise; Levine, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    Gliomablastoma multiform (GBM) is the most fatal form of all brain cancers in humans. Currently there are limited diagnostic tools for GBM detection. Here, we applied surprisal analysis, a theory grounded in thermodynamics, to unveil how biomolecule energetics, specifically a redistribution of free energy amongst microRNAs (miRNAs), results in a system deviating from a non-cancer state to the GBM cancer -specific phenotypic state. Utilizing global miRNA microarray expression data of normal and GBM patients tumors, surprisal analysis characterizes a miRNA system response capable of distinguishing GBM samples from normal tissue biopsy samples. We indicate that the miRNAs contributing to this system behavior is a disease phenotypic state specific to GBM and is therefore a unique GBM-specific thermodynamic signature. MiRNAs implicated in the regulation of stochastic signaling processes crucial in the hallmarks of human cancer, dominate this GBM-cancer phenotypic state. With this theory, we were able to distinguish with high fidelity GBM patients solely by monitoring the dynamics of miRNAs present in patients' biopsy samples. We anticipate that the GBM-specific thermodynamic signature will provide a critical translational tool in better characterizing cancer types and in the development of future therapeutics for GBM.

  11. Cloud Surprises in Moving NASA EOSDIS Applications into Amazon Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlin, Brett

    2017-01-01

    NASA ESDIS has been moving a variety of data ingest, distribution, and science data processing applications into a cloud environment over the last 2 years. As expected, there have been a number of challenges in migrating primarily on-premises applications into a cloud-based environment, related to architecture and taking advantage of cloud-based services. What was not expected is a number of issues that were beyond purely technical application re-architectures. We ran into surprising network policy limitations, billing challenges in a government-based cost model, and difficulty in obtaining certificates in an NASA security-compliant manner. On the other hand, this approach has allowed us to move a number of applications from local hosting to the cloud in a matter of hours (yes, hours!!), and our CMR application now services 95% of granule searches and an astonishing 99% of all collection searches in under a second. And most surprising of all, well, you'll just have to wait and see the realization that caught our entire team off guard!

  12. Low power constant fraction discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Shanti; Raut, S.M.; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a low power ultrafast constant fraction discriminator, which significantly reduces the power consumption. A conventional fast discriminator consumes about 1250 MW of power whereas this low power version consumes about 440 MW. In a multi detector system, where the number of discriminators is very large, reduction of power is of utmost importance. This low power discriminator is being designed for GRACE (Gamma Ray Atmospheric Cerenkov Experiments) telescope where 1000 channels of discriminators are required. A novel method of decreasing power consumption has been described. (author)

  13. Series expansion in fractional calculus and fractional differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ming-Fan; Ren, Ji-Rong; Zhu, Tao

    2009-01-01

    Fractional calculus is the calculus of differentiation and integration of non-integer orders. In a recently paper (Annals of Physics 323 (2008) 2756-2778), the Fundamental Theorem of Fractional Calculus is highlighted. Based on this theorem, in this paper we introduce fractional series expansion method to fractional calculus. We define a kind of fractional Taylor series of an infinitely fractionally-differentiable function. Further, based on our definition we generalize hypergeometric functio...

  14. FRACTIONS: CONCEPTUAL AND DIDACTIC ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sead Rešić; Ismet Botonjić; Maid Omerović

    2016-01-01

    Fractions represent the manner of writing parts of whole numbers (integers). Rules for operations with fractions differ from rules for operations with integers. Students face difficulties in understanding fractions, especially operations with fractions. These difficulties are well known in didactics of Mathematics throughout the world and there is a lot of research regarding problems in learning about fractions. Methods for facilitating understanding fractions have been discovered...

  15. Fractional-order devices

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Karabi; Caponetto, Riccardo; Mendes Lopes, António; Tenreiro Machado, José António

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on two specific areas related to fractional order systems – the realization of physical devices characterized by non-integer order impedance, usually called fractional-order elements (FOEs); and the characterization of vegetable tissues via electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) – and provides readers with new tools for designing new types of integrated circuits. The majority of the book addresses FOEs. The interest in these topics is related to the need to produce “analogue” electronic devices characterized by non-integer order impedance, and to the characterization of natural phenomena, which are systems with memory or aftereffects and for which the fractional-order calculus tool is the ideal choice for analysis. FOEs represent the building blocks for designing and realizing analogue integrated electronic circuits, which the authors believe hold the potential for a wealth of mass-market applications. The freedom to choose either an integer- or non-integer-order analogue integrator...

  16. Vascular legacy: HOPE ADVANCEs to EMPA-REG and LEADER: A Surprising similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently reported cardiovascular outcome studies on empagliflozin (EMPA-REG and liraglutide (LEADER have spurred interest in this field of diabetology. This commentary compares and contrasts these studies with two equally important outcome trials conducted using blood pressure lowering agents. A comparison with MICROHOPE (using ramipril and ADVANCE (using perindopril + indapamide blood pressure arms throws up interesting facts. The degree of blood pressure lowering, dissociation between cardiovascular and cerebrovascular benefits, and discordance between renal and retinal outcomes are surprisingly similar in these trials, conducted using disparate molecules. The time taken to achieve such benefits is similar for all drugs except empagliflozin. Such discussion helps inform rational and evidence-based choice of therapy and forms the framework for future research.

  17. Probing Critical Point Energies of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Surprising Indirect Gap of Single Layer WSe 2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chendong

    2015-09-21

    By using a comprehensive form of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have revealed detailed quasi-particle electronic structures in transition metal dichalcogenides, including the quasi-particle gaps, critical point energy locations, and their origins in the Brillouin zones. We show that single layer WSe surprisingly has an indirect quasi-particle gap with the conduction band minimum located at the Q-point (instead of K), albeit the two states are nearly degenerate. We have further observed rich quasi-particle electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of atomic structures and spin-orbit couplings. Such a local probe for detailed electronic structures in conduction and valence bands will be ideal to investigate how electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides are influenced by variations of local environment.

  18. Probing Critical Point Energies of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Surprising Indirect Gap of Single Layer WSe 2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chendong; Chen, Yuxuan; Johnson, Amber; Li, Ming-yang; Li, Lain-Jong; Mende, Patrick C.; Feenstra, Randall M.; Shih, Chih Kang

    2015-01-01

    By using a comprehensive form of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have revealed detailed quasi-particle electronic structures in transition metal dichalcogenides, including the quasi-particle gaps, critical point energy locations, and their origins in the Brillouin zones. We show that single layer WSe surprisingly has an indirect quasi-particle gap with the conduction band minimum located at the Q-point (instead of K), albeit the two states are nearly degenerate. We have further observed rich quasi-particle electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of atomic structures and spin-orbit couplings. Such a local probe for detailed electronic structures in conduction and valence bands will be ideal to investigate how electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides are influenced by variations of local environment.

  19. Surprising judgments about robot drivers: Experiments on rising expectations and blaming humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Danielson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available N-Reasons is an experimental Internet survey platform designed to enhance public participation in applied ethics and policy. N-Reasons encourages individuals to generate reasons to support their judgments, and groups to converge on a common set of reasons pro and con various issues.  In the Robot Ethics Survey some of the reasons contributed surprising judgments about autonomous machines. Presented with a version of the trolley problem with an autonomous train as the agent, participants gave unexpected answers, revealing high expectations for the autonomous machine and shifting blame from the automated device to the humans in the scenario. Further experiments with a standard pair of human-only trolley problems refine these results. While showing the high expectations even when no autonomous machine is involved, human bystanders are only blamed in the machine case. A third experiment explicitly aimed at responsibility for driverless cars confirms our findings about shifting blame in the case of autonomous machine agents. We conclude methodologically that both results point to the power of an experimental survey based approach to public participation to explore surprising assumptions and judgments in applied ethics. However, both results also support using caution when interpreting survey results in ethics, demonstrating the importance of qualitative data to provide further context for evaluating judgments revealed by surveys. On the ethics side, the result about shifting blame to humans interacting with autonomous machines suggests caution about the unintended consequences of intuitive principles requiring human responsibility.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v9i1.1727

  20. Fractional gradient and its application to the fractional advection equation

    OpenAIRE

    D'Ovidio, M.; Garra, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we provide a definition of fractional gradient operators, related to directional derivatives. We develop a fractional vector calculus, providing a probabilistic interpretation and mathematical tools to treat multidimensional fractional differential equations. A first application is discussed in relation to the d-dimensional fractional advection-dispersion equation. We also study the connection with multidimensional L\\'evy processes.

  1. Sweet Work with Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Natalya; Blaine, Larry

    2013-01-01

    Almost everyone loves chocolate. However, the same cannot be said about fractions, which are loved by markedly fewer. Middle school students tend to view them with wary respect, but little affection. The authors attempt to sweeten the subject by describing a type of game involving division of chocolate bars. The activity they describe provides a…

  2. Fermion Number Fractionization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    1 . In tro d u ctio n. T he N obel P rize in C hem istry for the year 2000 w as aw arded to A lan J H ... soliton, the ground state of the ferm ion-soliton system can have ..... probability density,in a heuristic w ay that a fractional ferm ion num ber m ay ...

  3. Fractional Differential Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa El-Shahed

    2007-01-01

    where 2<α<3 is a real number and D0+α is the standard Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative. Our analysis relies on Krasnoselskiis fixed point theorem of cone preserving operators. An example is also given to illustrate the main results.

  4. Vapor liquid fraction determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This invention describes a method of measuring liquid and vapor fractions in a non-homogeneous fluid flowing through an elongate conduit, such as may be required with boiling water, non-boiling turbulent flows, fluidized bed experiments, water-gas mixing analysis, and nuclear plant cooling. (UK)

  5. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley

    Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental

  6. Fractionation and rectification apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauerwald, A

    1932-05-25

    Fractionation and rectifying apparatus with a distillation vessel and a stirring tube, drainage tubes leading from its coils to a central collecting tube, the drainage tubes being somewhat parallel and attached to the outer half of the stirring tube and partly on the inner half of the central collecting tube, whereby distillation and rectification can be effected in a single apparatus.

  7. Fractional charge search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innes, W.; Klein, S.; Perl, M.; Price, J.C.

    1982-06-01

    A device to search for fractional charge in matter is described. The sample is coupled to a low-noise amplifier by a periodically varying capacitor and the resulting signal is synchronously detected. The varying capacitor is constructed as a rapidly spinning wheel. Samples of any material in volumes of up to 0.05 ml may be searched in less than an hour

  8. The fractional Fourier transform and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, David H.; Swarztrauber, Paul N.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the 'fractional Fourier transform', which admits computation by an algorithm that has complexity proportional to the fast Fourier transform algorithm. Whereas the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is based on integral roots of unity e exp -2(pi)i/n, the fractional Fourier transform is based on fractional roots of unity e exp -2(pi)i(alpha), where alpha is arbitrary. The fractional Fourier transform and the corresponding fast algorithm are useful for such applications as computing DFTs of sequences with prime lengths, computing DFTs of sparse sequences, analyzing sequences with noninteger periodicities, performing high-resolution trigonometric interpolation, detecting lines in noisy images, and detecting signals with linearly drifting frequencies. In many cases, the resulting algorithms are faster by arbitrarily large factors than conventional techniques.

  9. Fractional diffusion equations and anomalous diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Evangelista, Luiz Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Anomalous diffusion has been detected in a wide variety of scenarios, from fractal media, systems with memory, transport processes in porous media, to fluctuations of financial markets, tumour growth, and complex fluids. Providing a contemporary treatment of this process, this book examines the recent literature on anomalous diffusion and covers a rich class of problems in which surface effects are important, offering detailed mathematical tools of usual and fractional calculus for a wide audience of scientists and graduate students in physics, mathematics, chemistry and engineering. Including the basic mathematical tools needed to understand the rules for operating with the fractional derivatives and fractional differential equations, this self-contained text presents the possibility of using fractional diffusion equations with anomalous diffusion phenomena to propose powerful mathematical models for a large variety of fundamental and practical problems in a fast-growing field of research.

  10. -Dimensional Fractional Lagrange's Inversion Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Abd El-Salam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Riemann-Liouville fractional differential operator, a fractional extension of the Lagrange inversion theorem and related formulas are developed. The required basic definitions, lemmas, and theorems in the fractional calculus are presented. A fractional form of Lagrange's expansion for one implicitly defined independent variable is obtained. Then, a fractional version of Lagrange's expansion in more than one unknown function is generalized. For extending the treatment in higher dimensions, some relevant vectors and tensors definitions and notations are presented. A fractional Taylor expansion of a function of -dimensional polyadics is derived. A fractional -dimensional Lagrange inversion theorem is proved.

  11. Fractionation and protraction for radiotherapy of prostate carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, David J.; Hall, Eric J.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether current fractionation and brachytherapy protraction schemes for the treatment of prostatic cancer with radiation are optimal, or could be improved. Methods and Materials: We analyzed two mature data sets on radiotherapeutic tumor control for prostate cancer, one using EBRT and the other permanent seed implants, to extract the sensitivity to changes in fractionation of prostatic tumors. The standard linear-quadratic model was used for the analysis. Results: Prostatic cancers appear significantly more sensitive to changes in fractionation than most other cancers. The estimated α/β value is 1.5 Gy [0.8, 2.2]. This result is not too surprising as there is a documented relationship between cellular proliferative status and sensitivity to changes in fractionation, and prostatic tumors contain exceptionally low proportions of proliferating cells. Conclusions: High dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy would be a highly appropriate modality for treating prostate cancer. Appropriately designed HDR brachytherapy regimens would be expected to be as efficacious as low dose rate, but with added advantages of logistic convenience and more reliable dose distributions. Similarly, external beam treatments for prostate cancer can be designed using larger doses per fraction; appropriately designed hypofractionation schemes would be expected to maintain current levels of tumor control and late sequelae, but with reduced acute morbidity, together with the logistic and financial advantages of fewer numbers of fractions

  12. Hillslope, river, and Mountain: some surprises in Landscape evolution (Ralph Alger Bagnold Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, G. E.

    2012-04-01

    Geomorphology, like the rest of geoscience, has always had two major themes: a quest to understand the earth's history and 'products' - its landscapes and seascapes - and, in parallel, a quest to understand its formative processes. This dualism is manifest in the remarkable career of R. A. Bagnold, who was inspired by landforms such as dunes, and dedicated to understanding the physical processes that shaped them. His legacy inspires us to emulate two principles at the heart of his contributions: the benefits of rooting geomorphic theory in basic physics, and the importance of understanding geomorphic systems in terms of simple equations framed around energy or force. Today, following Bagnold's footsteps, the earth-surface process community is engaged in a quest to build, test, and refine an ever-improving body of theory to describe our planet's surface and its evolution. In this lecture, I review a small sample of some of the fruits of that quest, emphasizing the value of surprises encountered along the way. The first example involves models of long-term river incision into bedrock. When the community began to grapple with how to represent this process mathematically, several different ideas emerged. Some were based on the assumption that sediment transport is the limiting factor; others assumed that hydraulic stress on rock is the key, while still others treated rivers as first-order 'reactors.' Thanks in part to advances in digital topography and numerical computing, the predictions of these models can be tested using natural-experiment case studies. Examples from the King Range, USA, the Central Apennines, Italy, and the fold-thrust belt of Taiwan, illustrate that independent knowledge of history and/or tectonics makes it possible to quantify how the rivers have responded to external forcing. Some interesting surprises emerge, such as: that the relief-uplift relationship can be highly nonlinear in a steady-state landscape because of grain-entrainment thresholds

  13. Gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, Matheus Jatkoske

    2011-01-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrations of non-integers orders was introduced more than three centuries ago but only recently gained more attention due to its application on nonlocal phenomenas. In this context, several formulations of fractional electromagnetic fields was proposed, but all these theories suffer from the absence of an effective fractional vector calculus, and in general are non-causal or spatially asymmetric. In order to deal with these difficulties, we propose a spatially symmetric and causal gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic field from a Lagrangian formulation. From our fractional Maxwell's fields arose a definition for the fractional gradient, divergent and curl operators. -- Highlights: → We propose a fractional Lagrangian formulation for fractional Maxwell's fields. → We obtain gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields. → Our generalized fractional Maxwell's field is spatially symmetrical. → We discuss the non-causality of the theory.

  14. Gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazo, Matheus Jatkoske, E-mail: matheuslazo@furg.br [Instituto de Matematica, Estatistica e Fisica - FURG, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2011-09-26

    Fractional derivatives and integrations of non-integers orders was introduced more than three centuries ago but only recently gained more attention due to its application on nonlocal phenomenas. In this context, several formulations of fractional electromagnetic fields was proposed, but all these theories suffer from the absence of an effective fractional vector calculus, and in general are non-causal or spatially asymmetric. In order to deal with these difficulties, we propose a spatially symmetric and causal gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic field from a Lagrangian formulation. From our fractional Maxwell's fields arose a definition for the fractional gradient, divergent and curl operators. -- Highlights: → We propose a fractional Lagrangian formulation for fractional Maxwell's fields. → We obtain gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields. → Our generalized fractional Maxwell's field is spatially symmetrical. → We discuss the non-causality of the theory.

  15. On matrix fractional differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Kılıçman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the matrix fractional differential equations and to find the exact solution for system of matrix fractional differential equations in terms of Riemann–Liouville using Laplace transform method and convolution product to the Riemann–Liouville fractional of matrices. Also, we show the theorem of non-homogeneous matrix fractional partial differential equation with some illustrative examples to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new methodology. The main objective of this article is to discuss the Laplace transform method based on operational matrices of fractional derivatives for solving several kinds of linear fractional differential equations. Moreover, we present the operational matrices of fractional derivatives with Laplace transform in many applications of various engineering systems as control system. We present the analytical technique for solving fractional-order, multi-term fractional differential equation. In other words, we propose an efficient algorithm for solving fractional matrix equation.

  16. The Local Fractional Bootstrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Mikkel; Hounyo, Ulrich; Lunde, Asger

    We introduce a bootstrap procedure for high-frequency statistics of Brownian semistationary processes. More specifically, we focus on a hypothesis test on the roughness of sample paths of Brownian semistationary processes, which uses an estimator based on a ratio of realized power variations. Our...... new resampling method, the local fractional bootstrap, relies on simulating an auxiliary fractional Brownian motion that mimics the fine properties of high frequency differences of the Brownian semistationary process under the null hypothesis. We prove the first order validity of the bootstrap method...... and in simulations we observe that the bootstrap-based hypothesis test provides considerable finite-sample improvements over an existing test that is based on a central limit theorem. This is important when studying the roughness properties of time series data; we illustrate this by applying the bootstrap method...

  17. Fractionalization and Entrepreneurial Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Awaworyi Churchill, Sefa

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of the literature on ethnicity and entrepreneurship focuses on the construct of ethnic entrepreneurship. However, very little is known about how ethnic heterogeneity affects entrepreneurship. This study attempts to fill the gap, and thus examines the effect of ethnic heterogeneity on entrepreneurial activities in a cross-section of 90 countries. Using indices of ethnic and linguistic fractionalization, we show that ethnic heterogeneity negatively influences entrepreneurship....

  18. Fractional Number Operator and Associated Fractional Diffusion Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rguigui, Hafedh

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we study the fractional number operator as an analog of the finite-dimensional fractional Laplacian. An important relation with the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is given. Using a semigroup approach, the solution of the Cauchy problem associated to the fractional number operator is presented. By means of the Mittag-Leffler function and the Laplace transform, we give the solution of the Caputo time fractional diffusion equation and Riemann-Liouville time fractional diffusion equation in infinite dimensions associated to the fractional number operator.

  19. Cerebral metastasis masquerading as cerebritis: A case of misguiding history and radiological surprise!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral metastases usually have a characteristic radiological appearance. They can be differentiated rather easily from any infective etiology. Similarly, positive medical history also guides the neurosurgeon towards the possible diagnosis and adds to the diagnostic armamentarium. However, occasionally, similarities on imaging may be encountered where even history could lead us in the wrong direction and tends to bias the clinician. We report a case of a 40-year-old female with a history of mastoidectomy for otitis media presenting to us with a space occupying lesion in the right parietal region, which was thought pre-operatively as an abscess along with the cerebritis. Surprisingly, the histopathology proved it to be a metastatic adenocarcinoma. Hence, a ring enhancing lesion may be a high grade neoplasm/metastasis/abscess, significant gyral enhancement; a feature of cerebritis is not linked with a neoplastic etiology more often. This may lead to delayed diagnosis, incorrect prognostication and treatment in patients having coincidental suggestive history of infection. We review the literature and highlight the key points helping to differentiate an infective from a neoplastic pathology which may look similar at times.

  20. Beyond interests and institutions: US health policy reform and the surprising silence of big business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyrl, Marc E

    2014-02-01

    Interest-based arguments do not provide satisfying explanations for the surprising reticence of major US employers to take a more active role in the debate surrounding the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Through focused comparison with the Bismarckian systems of France and Germany, on the one hand, and with the 1950s and 1960s in the United States, on the other, this article concludes that while institutional elements do account for some of the observed behavior of big business, a necessary complement to this is a fuller understanding of the historically determined legitimating ideology of US firms. From the era of the "corporate commonwealth," US business inherited the principles of private welfare provision and of resistance to any expansion of government control. Once complementary, these principles are now mutually exclusive: employer-provided health insurance increasingly is possible only at the cost of ever-increasing government subsidy and regulation. Paralyzed by the uncertainty that followed from this clash of legitimate ideas, major employers found themselves unable to take a coherent and unified stand for or against the law. As a consequence, they failed either to oppose it successfully or to secure modifications to it that would have been useful to them.

  1. Surprise responses in the human brain demonstrate statistical learning under high concurrent cognitive demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Marta Isabel; Teng, Chee Leong James; Taylor, Jeremy Alexander; Rowe, Elise Genevieve; Mattingley, Jason Brett

    2016-06-01

    The ability to learn about regularities in the environment and to make predictions about future events is fundamental for adaptive behaviour. We have previously shown that people can implicitly encode statistical regularities and detect violations therein, as reflected in neuronal responses to unpredictable events that carry a unique prediction error signature. In the real world, however, learning about regularities will often occur in the context of competing cognitive demands. Here we asked whether learning of statistical regularities is modulated by concurrent cognitive load. We compared electroencephalographic metrics associated with responses to pure-tone sounds with frequencies sampled from narrow or wide Gaussian distributions. We showed that outliers evoked a larger response than those in the centre of the stimulus distribution (i.e., an effect of surprise) and that this difference was greater for physically identical outliers in the narrow than in the broad distribution. These results demonstrate an early neurophysiological marker of the brain's ability to implicitly encode complex statistical structure in the environment. Moreover, we manipulated concurrent cognitive load by having participants perform a visual working memory task while listening to these streams of sounds. We again observed greater prediction error responses in the narrower distribution under both low and high cognitive load. Furthermore, there was no reliable reduction in prediction error magnitude under high-relative to low-cognitive load. Our findings suggest that statistical learning is not a capacity limited process, and that it proceeds automatically even when cognitive resources are taxed by concurrent demands.

  2. Pseudohalide (SCN(-))-Doped MAPbI3 Perovskites: A Few Surprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Ansuman; Chulliyil, Ramya; Subbiah, Anand S; Khan, Tuhin; Chattoraj, Shyamtanu; Chowdhury, Arindam; Sarkar, Shaibal K

    2015-09-03

    Pseudohalide thiocyanate anion (SCN(-)) has been used as a dopant in a methylammonium lead tri-iodide (MAPbI3) framework, aiming for its use as an absorber layer for photovoltaic applications. The substitution of SCN(-) pseudohalide anion, as verified using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, results in a comprehensive effect on the optical properties of the original material. Photoluminescence measurements at room temperature reveal a significant enhancement in the emission quantum yield of MAPbI3-x(SCN)x as compared to MAPbI3, suggestive of suppression of nonradiative channels. This increased intensity is attributed to a highly edge specific emission from MAPbI3-x(SCN)x microcrystals as revealed by photoluminescence microscopy. Fluoresence lifetime imaging measurements further established contrasting carrier recombination dynamics for grain boundaries and the bulk of the doped material. Spatially resolved emission spectroscopy on individual microcrystals of MAPbI3-x(SCN)x reveals that the optical bandgap and density of states at various (local) nanodomains are also nonuniform. Surprisingly, several (local) emissive regions within MAPbI3-x(SCN)x microcrystals are found to be optically unstable under photoirradiation, and display unambiguous temporal intermittency in emission (blinking), which is extremely unusual and intriguing. We find diverse blinking behaviors for the undoped MAPbI3 crystals as well, which leads us to speculate that blinking may be a common phenomenon for most hybrid perovskite materials.

  3. From Lithium-Ion to Sodium-Ion Batteries: Advantages, Challenges, and Surprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Prasant Kumar; Yang, Liangtao; Brehm, Wolfgang; Adelhelm, Philipp

    2018-01-02

    Mobile and stationary energy storage by rechargeable batteries is a topic of broad societal and economical relevance. Lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology is at the forefront of the development, but a massively growing market will likely put severe pressure on resources and supply chains. Recently, sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have been reconsidered with the aim of providing a lower-cost alternative that is less susceptible to resource and supply risks. On paper, the replacement of lithium by sodium in a battery seems straightforward at first, but unpredictable surprises are often found in practice. What happens when replacing lithium by sodium in electrode reactions? This review provides a state-of-the art overview on the redox behavior of materials when used as electrodes in lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries, respectively. Advantages and challenges related to the use of sodium instead of lithium are discussed. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Effect of Temperature Shock and Inventory Surprises on Natural Gas and Heating Oil Futures Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, John Wei-Shan; Lin, Chien-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of temperature shock on both near-month and far-month natural gas and heating oil futures returns by extending the weather and storage models of the previous study. Several notable findings from the empirical studies are presented. First, the expected temperature shock significantly and positively affects both the near-month and far-month natural gas and heating oil futures returns. Next, significant temperature shock has effect on both the conditional mean and volatility of natural gas and heating oil prices. The results indicate that expected inventory surprises significantly and negatively affects the far-month natural gas futures returns. Moreover, volatility of natural gas futures returns is higher on Thursdays and that of near-month heating oil futures returns is higher on Wednesdays than other days. Finally, it is found that storage announcement for natural gas significantly affects near-month and far-month natural gas futures returns. Furthermore, both natural gas and heating oil futures returns are affected more by the weighted average temperature reported by multiple weather reporting stations than that reported by a single weather reporting station. PMID:25133233

  5. Surprises from the resolution of operator mixing in N=4 SYM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, Massimo; Rossi, Giancarlo; Stanev, Yassen S.

    2004-01-01

    We reexamine the problem of operator mixing in N=4 SYM. Particular attention is paid to the correct definition of composite gauge invariant local operators, which is necessary for the computation of their anomalous dimensions beyond lowest order. As an application we reconsider the case of operators with naive dimension Δ 0 =4, already studied in the literature. Stringent constraints from the resummation of logarithms in power behaviours are exploited and the role of the generalized N=4 Konishi anomaly in the mixing with operators involving fermions is discussed. A general method for the explicit (numerical) resolution of the operator mixing and the computation of anomalous dimensions is proposed. We then resolve the order g 2 mixing for the 15 (purely scalar) singlet operators of naive dimension Δ 0 =6. Rather surprisingly we find one isolated operator which has a vanishing anomalous dimension up to order g 4 , belonging to an apparently long multiplet. We also solve the order g 2 mixing for the 26 operators belonging to the representation 20' of SU(4). We find an operator with the same one-loop anomalous dimension as the Konishi multiplet

  6. Isotopic fractionation of tritium in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Pierre; Fromm, Michel; Vichot, Laurent; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Guétat, Philippe

    2014-04-01

    Isotopic fractionation of tritium is a highly relevant issue in radiation protection and requires certain radioecological considerations. Sound evaluation of this factor is indeed necessary to determine whether environmental compartments are enriched/depleted in tritium or if tritium is, on the contrary, isotopically well-distributed in a given system. The ubiquity of tritium and the standard analytical methods used to assay it may induce biases in both the measurement and the signification that is accorded to the so-called fractionation: based on an exhaustive review of the literature, we show how, sometimes large deviations may appear. It is shown that when comparing the non-exchangeable fraction of organically bound tritium (neOBT) to another fraction of tritium (e.g. tritiated water) the preparation of samples and the measurement of neOBT reported frequently led to underestimation of the ratio of tritium to hydrogen (T/H) in the non-exchangeable compartment by a factor of 5% to 50%. In the present study, corrections are proposed for most of the biological matrices studied so far. Nevertheless, the values of isotopic fractionation reported in the literature remain difficult to compare with each other, especially since the physical quantities and units often vary between authors. Some improvements are proposed to better define what should encompass the concepts of exchangeable and non-exchangeable fractions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo, Matheus Jatkoske

    2011-09-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrations of non-integers orders was introduced more than three centuries ago but only recently gained more attention due to its application on nonlocal phenomenas. In this context, several formulations of fractional electromagnetic fields was proposed, but all these theories suffer from the absence of an effective fractional vector calculus, and in general are non-causal or spatially asymmetric. In order to deal with these difficulties, we propose a spatially symmetric and causal gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic field from a Lagrangian formulation. From our fractional Maxwell's fields arose a definition for the fractional gradient, divergent and curl operators.

  8. The Extended Fractional Subequation Method for Nonlinear Fractional Differential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jianping; Tang, Bo; Kumar, Sunil; Hou, Yanren

    2012-01-01

    An extended fractional subequation method is proposed for solving fractional differential equations by introducing a new general ansätz and Bäcklund transformation of the fractional Riccati equation with known solutions. Being concise and straightforward, this method is applied to the space-time fractional coupled Burgers’ equations and coupled MKdV equations. As a result, many exact solutions are obtained. It is shown that the considered method provides a very effective, convenient, and powe...

  9. A conceptual geochemical model of the geothermal system at Surprise Valley, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Andrew P. G.; Ferguson, Colin; Cantwell, Carolyn A.; Zierenberg, Robert A.; McClain, James; Spycher, Nicolas; Dobson, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    Characterizing the geothermal system at Surprise Valley (SV), northeastern California, is important for determining the sustainability of the energy resource, and mitigating hazards associated with hydrothermal eruptions that last occurred in 1951. Previous geochemical studies of the area attempted to reconcile different hot spring compositions on the western and eastern sides of the valley using scenarios of dilution, equilibration at low temperatures, surface evaporation, and differences in rock type along flow paths. These models were primarily supported using classical geothermometry methods, and generally assumed that fluids in the Lake City mud volcano area on the western side of the valley best reflect the composition of a deep geothermal fluid. In this contribution, we address controls on hot spring compositions using a different suite of geochemical tools, including optimized multicomponent geochemistry (GeoT) models, hot spring fluid major and trace element measurements, mineralogical observations, and stable isotope measurements of hot spring fluids and precipitated carbonates. We synthesize the results into a conceptual geochemical model of the Surprise Valley geothermal system, and show that high-temperature (quartz, Na/K, Na/K/Ca) classical geothermometers fail to predict maximum subsurface temperatures because fluids re-equilibrated at progressively lower temperatures during outflow, including in the Lake City area. We propose a model where hot spring fluids originate as a mixture between a deep thermal brine and modern meteoric fluids, with a seasonally variable mixing ratio. The deep brine has deuterium values at least 3 to 4‰ lighter than any known groundwater or high-elevation snow previously measured in and adjacent to SV, suggesting it was recharged during the Pleistocene when meteoric fluids had lower deuterium values. The deuterium values and compositional characteristics of the deep brine have only been identified in thermal springs and

  10. Explanatory models of health and disease: surprises from within the former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I Andreeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Extract The review of anthropological theories as applied to public health by Jennifer J. Carroll (Carroll, 2013 published in this issue of TCPHEE made me recollect my first and most surprising discoveries of how differently same things can be understood in different parts of the world. Probably less unexpectedly, these impressions concern substance abuse and addiction behaviors, similarly to many examples deployed by Jennifer J. Carroll. The first of these events happened soon after the break-up of the Soviet Union when some of the most active people from the West rushed to discover what was going on behind the opening iron curtain. A director of an addiction clinic, who had just come into contact with a Dutch counterpart, invited me to join the collaboration and the innovation process he planned to launch. Being a participant of the exchange program started within this collaboration, I had an opportunity to discover how addictive behaviors were understood and explained in books (English, 1961; Kooyman, 1992; Viorst, 1986 recommended by the colleagues in the Netherlands and, as I could observe with my own eyes, addressed in everyday practice. This was a jaw-dropping contrast to what I learnt at the soviet medical university and some post-graduate courses, where all the diseases related to alcohol, tobacco, or drug abuse were considered predominantly a result of the substance intake. In the Soviet discourse, the intake itself was understood as 'willful and deliberate' or immoral behavior which, in some cases, was to be rectified in prison-like treatment facilities. In the West, quite oppositely, substance abuse was seen rather as a consequence of a constellation of life-course adversities thoroughly considered by developmental psychology. This approach was obviously deeply ingrained in how practitioners diagnosed and treated their patients.

  11. [Fall from height--surprising autopsy diagnosis in primarily unclear initial situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyma, Christian; Doberentz, Elke; Madea, Burkhard

    2012-01-01

    External post-mortem examination and first police assessments are often not consistent with subsequent autopsy results. This is all the more surprising the more serious the injuries found at autopsy are. Such discrepancies result especially from an absence of gross external injuries, as demonstrated by four examples. A 42-year-old, externally uninjured male was found at night time in a helpless condition in the street and died in spite of resuscitation. Autopsy showed severe polytrauma with traumatic brain injury and lesions of the thoracic and abdominal organs. A jump from the third floor was identified as the cause. At dawn, a twenty-year-old male was found dead on the grounds of the adjacent house. Because of the blood-covered head the police assumed a traumatic head injury by strike impact. The external examination revealed only abrasions on the forehead and to a minor extent on the back. At autopsy a midfacial fracture, a trauma of the thorax and abdomen and fractures of the spine and pelvis were detected. Afterwards investigations showed that the man, intoxicated by alcohol, had fallen from the flat roof of a multistoried house. A 77-year-old man was found unconscious on his terrace at day time; a cerebral seizure was assumed. He was transferred to emergency care where he died. The corpse was externally inconspicuous. Autopsy revealed serious traumatic injuries of the brain, thorax, abdomen and pelvis, which could be explained by a fall from the balcony. A 47-year-old homeless person without any external injuries was found dead in a barn. An alcohol intoxication was assumed. At autopsy severe injuries of the brain and cervical spine were found which were the result of a fall from a height of 5 m. On the basis of an external post-mortem examination alone gross blunt force trauma cannot be reliably excluded.

  12. Virtual Volatility, an Elementary New Concept with Surprising Stock Market Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prange, Richard; Silva, A. Christian

    2006-03-01

    Textbook investors start by predicting the future price distribution, PDF, of a candidate stock (or portfolio) at horizon T, e.g. a year hence. A (log)normal PDF with center (=drift =expected return) μT and width (=volatility) σT is often assumed on Central Limit Theorem grounds, i.e. by a random walk of daily (log)price increments δs. The standard deviation, stdev, of historical (ex post) δs `s is usually a fair predictor of the coming year's (ex ante) stdev(δs) = σdaily, but the historical mean E(δs) at best roughly limits the true, to be predicted, drift by μtrueT˜ μhistT ± σhistT. Textbooks take a PDF with σ ˜ σdaily and μ as somehow known, as if accurate predictions of μ were possible. It is elementary and presumably new to argue that an average of PDF's over a range of μ values should be taken, e.g. an average over forecasts by different analysts. We estimate that this leads to a PDF with a `virtual' volatility σ ˜ 1.3σdaily. It is indeed clear that uncertainty in the value of the expected gain parameter increases the risk of investment in that security by most measures, e. g. Sharpe's ratio μT/σT will be 30% smaller because of this effect. It is significant and surprising that there are investments which benefit from this 30% virtual increase in the volatility

  13. Technological monitoring radar: a weak signals interpretation tool for the identification of strategic surprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalton Ozaki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current competitive scenario, marked by rapid and constant changes, it is vital that companies actively monitor the business environment, in search of signs which might anticipate changes. This study poses to propose and discuss a tool called Technological Monitoring Radar, which endeavours to address the following query: “How can a company systematically monitor the environment and capture signs that anticipate opportunities and threats concerning a particular technology?”. The literature review covers Competitive Intelligence, Technological Intelligence, Environmental Analysis and Anticipative Monitoring. Based on the critical analysis of the literature, a tool called Technological Monitoring Radar is proposed comprising five environments to be monitored (political, economical, technological, social and competition each of which with key topics for analysis. To exemplify the use of the tool, it is applied to the smartphone segment in an exclusively reflexive manner, and without the participation of a specific company. One of the suggestions for future research is precisely the application of the proposed methodology in an actual company. Despite the limitation of this being a theoretical study, the example demonstrated the tool´s applicability. The radar prove to be very useful for a company that needs to monitor the environment in search of signs of change. This study´s main contribution is to relate different fields of study (technological intelligence, environmental analysis and anticipative monitoring and different approaches to provide a practical tool that allows a manager to identify and better visualize opportunities and threats, thus avoiding strategic surprises in the technological arena.Key words: Technological monitoring. Technological intelligence. Competitive intelligence. Weak signals.

  14. The genome of Pelobacter carbinolicus reveals surprising metabolic capabilities and physiological features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aklujkar, Muktak [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Haveman, Shelley [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; DiDonatoJr, Raymond [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Brown, Peter [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Lovley, Derek [University of Massachusetts, Amherst

    2012-01-01

    Background: The bacterium Pelobacter carbinolicus is able to grow by fermentation, syntrophic hydrogen/formate transfer, or electron transfer to sulfur from short-chain alcohols, hydrogen or formate; it does not oxidize acetate and is not known to ferment any sugars or grow autotrophically. The genome of P. carbinolicus was sequenced in order to understand its metabolic capabilities and physiological features in comparison with its relatives, acetate-oxidizing Geobacter species. Results: Pathways were predicted for catabolism of known substrates: 2,3-butanediol, acetoin, glycerol, 1,2-ethanediol, ethanolamine, choline and ethanol. Multiple isozymes of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, ATP synthase and [FeFe]-hydrogenase were differentiated and assigned roles according to their structural properties and genomic contexts. The absence of asparagine synthetase and the presence of a mutant tRNA for asparagine encoded among RNA-active enzymes suggest that P. carbinolicus may make asparaginyl-tRNA in a novel way. Catabolic glutamate dehydrogenases were discovered, implying that the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle can function catabolically. A phosphotransferase system for uptake of sugars was discovered, along with enzymes that function in 2,3-butanediol production. Pyruvate: ferredoxin/flavodoxin oxidoreductase was identified as a potential bottleneck in both the supply of oxaloacetate for oxidation of acetate by the TCA cycle and the connection of glycolysis to production of ethanol. The P. carbinolicus genome was found to encode autotransporters and various appendages, including three proteins with similarity to the geopilin of electroconductive nanowires. Conclusions: Several surprising metabolic capabilities and physiological features were predicted from the genome of P. carbinolicus, suggesting that it is more versatile than anticipated.

  15. A surprisingly simple correlation between the classical and quantum structural networks in liquid water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Peter; Fanourgakis, George S.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2017-08-01

    Nuclear quantum effects in liquid water have profound implications for several of its macroscopic properties related to the structure, dynamics, spectroscopy, and transport. Although several of water's macroscopic properties can be reproduced by classical descriptions of the nuclei using interaction potentials effectively parameterized for a narrow range of its phase diagram, a proper account of the nuclear quantum effects is required to ensure that the underlying molecular interactions are transferable across a wide temperature range covering different regions of that diagram. When performing an analysis of the hydrogen-bonded structural networks in liquid water resulting from the classical (class) and quantum (qm) descriptions of the nuclei with two interaction potentials that are at the two opposite ends of the range in describing quantum effects, namely the flexible, pair-wise additive q-TIP4P/F, and the flexible, polarizable TTM3-F, we found that the (class) and (qm) results can be superimposed over the temperature range T = 250-350 K using a surprisingly simple, linear scaling of the two temperatures according to T(qm) = α T(class) + ΔT, where α = 0.99 and ΔT = -6 K for q-TIP4P/F and α = 1.24 and ΔT = -64 K for TTM3-F. This simple relationship suggests that the structural networks resulting from the quantum and classical treatment of the nuclei with those two very different interaction potentials are essentially similar to each other over this extended temperature range once a model-dependent linear temperature scaling law is applied.

  16. A post-genomic surprise. The molecular reinscription of race in science, law and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duster, Troy

    2015-03-01

    The completion of the first draft of the Human Genome Map in 2000 was widely heralded as the promise and future of genetics-based medicines and therapies - so much so that pundits began referring to the new century as 'The Century of Genetics'. Moreover, definitive assertions about the overwhelming similarities of all humans' DNA (99.9 per cent) by the leaders of the Human Genome Project were trumpeted as the end of racial thinking about racial taxonomies of human genetic differences. But the first decade of the new century brought unwelcomed surprises. First, gene therapies turned out to be far more complicated than any had anticipated - and instead the pharmaceutical industry turned to a focus on drugs that might be 'related' to population differences based upon genetic markers. While the language of 'personalized medicine' dominated this frame, research on racially and ethnically designated populations differential responsiveness to drugs dominated the empirical work in the field. Ancestry testing and 'admixture research' would play an important role in a new kind of molecular reification of racial categories. Moreover, the capacity of the super-computer to map differences reverberated into personal identification that would affect both the criminal justice system and forensic science, and generate new levels of concern about personal privacy. Social scientists in general, and sociologists in particular, have been caught short by these developments - relying mainly on assertions that racial categories are socially constructed, regionally and historically contingent, and politically arbitrary. While these assertions are true, the imprimatur of scientific legitimacy has shifted the burden, since now 'admixture research' can claim that its results get at the 'reality' of human differentiation, not the admittedly flawed social constructions of racial categories. Yet what was missing from this framing of the problem: 'admixture research' is itself based upon socially

  17. Functional Fractional Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Shantanu

    2011-01-01

    When a new extraordinary and outstanding theory is stated, it has to face criticism and skeptism, because it is beyond the usual concept. The fractional calculus though not new, was not discussed or developed for a long time, particularly for lack of its application to real life problems. It is extraordinary because it does not deal with 'ordinary' differential calculus. It is outstanding because it can now be applied to situations where existing theories fail to give satisfactory results. In this book not only mathematical abstractions are discussed in a lucid manner, with physical mathematic

  18. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  19. The effective delayed neutron fraction for bare-metal criticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearlstein, S.

    1999-01-01

    Given sufficient material, a large number of actinides could be used to form bare-metal criticals. The effective delayed neutron fraction for a bare critical comprised of a fissile material is comparable with the absolute delayed neutron fraction. The effective delayed neutron fraction for a bare critical composed of a fissionable material is reduced by factors of 2 to 10 when compared with the absolute delayed neutron fraction. When the effective delayed neutron fraction is small, the difference between delayed and prompt criticality is small, and extreme caution must be used in critical assemblies of these materials. This study uses an approximate but realistic model to survey the actinide region to compare effective delayed neutron fractions with absolute delayed neutron fractions

  20. Advances in robust fractional control

    CERN Document Server

    Padula, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    This monograph presents design methodologies for (robust) fractional control systems. It shows the reader how to take advantage of the superior flexibility of fractional control systems compared with integer-order systems in achieving more challenging control requirements. There is a high degree of current interest in fractional systems and fractional control arising from both academia and industry and readers from both milieux are catered to in the text. Different design approaches having in common a trade-off between robustness and performance of the control system are considered explicitly. The text generalizes methodologies, techniques and theoretical results that have been successfully applied in classical (integer) control to the fractional case. The first part of Advances in Robust Fractional Control is the more industrially-oriented. It focuses on the design of fractional controllers for integer processes. In particular, it considers fractional-order proportional-integral-derivative controllers, becau...

  1. Search for fractional charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A search was made for fractional charges of the form Z plus two-thirds e, where Z is an integer. It was assumed that the charges exist in natural form bound with other fractional charges in neutral molecules. It was further assumed that these neutral molecules are present in air. Two concentration schemes were employed. One sample was derived from the waste gases from a xenon distillation plant. This assumes that high mass, low vapor pressure components of air are concentrated along with the xenon. The second sample involved ionizing air, allowing a brief recombination period, and then collecting residual ions on the surface of titanium discs. Both samples were analyzed at the University of Rochester in a system using a tandem Van de Graff to accelerate particles through an essentially electrostatic beam handling system. The detector system employed both a Time of Flight and an energy-sensitive gas ionization detector. In the most sensitive mode of analysis, a gas absorber was inserted in the beam path to block the intense background. The presence of an absorber limited the search to highly penetrating particles. Effectively, this limited the search to particles with low Z and masses greater than roughly fifty GeV. The final sensitivities attained were on the order of 1 x 10 -20 for the ionized air sample and 1 x 10 -21 for the gas sample. A discussion of the caveats that could reduce the actual level of sensitivity is included

  2. Fractional Reserve in Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  3. On matrix fractional differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Adem Kılıçman; Wasan Ajeel Ahmood

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study the matrix fractional differential equations and to find the exact solution for system of matrix fractional differential equations in terms of Riemann–Liouville using Laplace transform method and convolution product to the Riemann–Liouville fractional of matrices. Also, we show the theorem of non-homogeneous matrix fractional partial differential equation with some illustrative examples to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new methodology. The main objec...

  4. Boll weevil: experimental sterilization of large numbers by fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, J.W.; Wright, J.E.; Davich, T.B.; Roberson, J.; Griffin, J.G.; Darden, E.

    1978-01-01

    Boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, 9 days after egg implantation in the larval diet were transported from the Boll Weevil Research Laboratory, Mississippi State, MS, to the Comparative Animal Research Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, and irradiated with 6.9 krad (test 1) or 7.2 krad (test 2) of 60 Co gamma rays delivered in 25 equal doses over 100 h. In test 1, from 600 individual pairs of T (treated) males x N (normal) females, only 114 eggs hatched from a sample of 950 eggs, and 47 adults emerged from a sample of 1042 eggs. Also, from 600 pairs of T females x N males, 6 eggs hatched of a sample of 6 eggs and 12 adults emerged from a sample of 20 eggs. In test 2, from 700 individual pairs of T males x N females, 54 eggs hatched from a sample of 1510, and 10 adults emerged from a sample of 1703 eggs. Also, in T females x N males matings, 1 egg hatched of a sample of 3, and no adults emerged from a sample of 4. Transportation and handling in the 2nd test reduced adult emergence an avg of 49%. Thus the 2 replicates in test 2 resulted in 3.4 x 10 5 and 4.3 x 10 5 irradiated weevils emerging/day for 7 days. Bacterial contamination of weevils was low

  5. Fractional Hopfield Neural Networks: Fractional Dynamic Associative Recurrent Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Yi-Fei; Yi, Zhang; Zhou, Ji-Liu

    2017-10-01

    This paper mainly discusses a novel conceptual framework: fractional Hopfield neural networks (FHNN). As is commonly known, fractional calculus has been incorporated into artificial neural networks, mainly because of its long-term memory and nonlocality. Some researchers have made interesting attempts at fractional neural networks and gained competitive advantages over integer-order neural networks. Therefore, it is naturally makes one ponder how to generalize the first-order Hopfield neural networks to the fractional-order ones, and how to implement FHNN by means of fractional calculus. We propose to introduce a novel mathematical method: fractional calculus to implement FHNN. First, we implement fractor in the form of an analog circuit. Second, we implement FHNN by utilizing fractor and the fractional steepest descent approach, construct its Lyapunov function, and further analyze its attractors. Third, we perform experiments to analyze the stability and convergence of FHNN, and further discuss its applications to the defense against chip cloning attacks for anticounterfeiting. The main contribution of our work is to propose FHNN in the form of an analog circuit by utilizing a fractor and the fractional steepest descent approach, construct its Lyapunov function, prove its Lyapunov stability, analyze its attractors, and apply FHNN to the defense against chip cloning attacks for anticounterfeiting. A significant advantage of FHNN is that its attractors essentially relate to the neuron's fractional order. FHNN possesses the fractional-order-stability and fractional-order-sensitivity characteristics.

  6. The random continued fraction transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalle, Charlene; Kempton, Tom; Verbitskiy, Evgeny

    2017-03-01

    We introduce a random dynamical system related to continued fraction expansions. It uses random combinations of the Gauss map and the Rényi (or backwards) continued fraction map. We explore the continued fraction expansions that this system produces, as well as the dynamical properties of the system.

  7. How Weird Are Weird Fractions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuffelbeam, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    A positive rational is a weird fraction if its value is unchanged by an illegitimate, digit-based reduction. In this article, we prove that each weird fraction is uniquely weird and initiate a discussion of the prevalence of weird fractions.

  8. Do Children Understand Fraction Addition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, David W.; Tian, Jing; Siegler, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Many children fail to master fraction arithmetic even after years of instruction. A recent theory of fraction arithmetic (Braithwaite, Pyke, & Siegler, in press) hypothesized that this poor learning of fraction arithmetic procedures reflects poor conceptual understanding of them. To test this hypothesis, we performed three experiments…

  9. On fractional Fourier transform moments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alieva, T.; Bastiaans, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Based on the relation between the ambiguity function represented in a quasi-polar coordinate system and the fractional power spectra, the fractional Fourier transform moments are introduced. Important equalities for the global second-order fractional Fourier transform moments are derived and their

  10. Fractional dynamic calculus and fractional dynamic equations on time scales

    CERN Document Server

    Georgiev, Svetlin G

    2018-01-01

    Pedagogically organized, this monograph introduces fractional calculus and fractional dynamic equations on time scales in relation to mathematical physics applications and problems. Beginning with the definitions of forward and backward jump operators, the book builds from Stefan Hilger’s basic theories on time scales and examines recent developments within the field of fractional calculus and fractional equations. Useful tools are provided for solving differential and integral equations as well as various problems involving special functions of mathematical physics and their extensions and generalizations in one and more variables. Much discussion is devoted to Riemann-Liouville fractional dynamic equations and Caputo fractional dynamic equations.  Intended for use in the field and designed for students without an extensive mathematical background, this book is suitable for graduate courses and researchers looking for an introduction to fractional dynamic calculus and equations on time scales. .

  11. Proliferation studies for different radiotherapy fractionation regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: This study was undertaken to investigate extended treatment schedules and compare the differences between schedules for highly proliferative tumours. Treatment schedules can be extended for various reasons e.g. public holidays, early side effects. For highly proliferative tumours this can dramatically reduce the effective dose delivered to the tumour. To deduce the most effective schedule fractionation regimes are compared to a common schedule so that the effects can be understood. Thus an equation to allow this to be done for the proliferative case has been derived. (i) The linear quadratic model with proliferation has been used to investigate the effect on biological effective dose (BED) when treatment schedules are extended. (ii) An equation was derived for comparison with a standard effective dose (SED) of 2Gy/fraction given daily 5 days per week, this is a common schedule in most radiotherapy centres. The SED equation derived for the proliferative case is where n 1 and n 2 are the number of fractions for the initial and equivalent schedules respectively, d 1 is the dose delivered per fraction for the initial schedules. T 1 is the time taken for the initial schedule (in days) and T p is the proliferation half life for the tumour involved. SEDs were calculated for the CHART regime of 36 fractions at 1.5 Gy in 12 days (Saunders et al. 1988, cited in Fowler J F, Brit. J. Radiol. 62: 679-694, 1989) and various other schedules. Late effects of these schedules and their standard equivalents were compared. The dose required to achieve the same BED when a treatment schedule is extended has been found to be quite large in some circumstances. For breast tumours a loss of 2Gy 10 BED to tumour occurs after ten days extension of treatment time (T p =12 days,T k =12 days). For head and neck tumours a loss of 2Gy 10 BED occurs after only three and a half days (T p =3 days). From these results it seems that an accelerated fractionation schedule would be advantageous

  12. Modern Sedimentation along the SE Bangladesh Coast Reveal Surprisingly Low Accumulation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, C.; Mustaque, S.; Mondal, D. R.; Akhter, S. H.; Iqbal, M.

    2016-12-01

    Recent sediments recovered along the SE coast of Bangladesh, from Teknaf to Cox's Bazar and drainage basin analyses reveal sediment sources and very low sedimentation rates of 1mm/year. These low rates are surprisingly low given that this coast is adjacent to the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta with a yearly discharge of 1GT. The Teknaf anticline (elevation 200 m), part of the western Burma fold-thrust belt dominates the topography extending across and along the Teknaf peninsula. It is thought to have begun evolving since the Miocene (Alam et al. 2003 & Allen et al. 2008). Presently the anticline foothills on the west are flanked by uplifted terraces, the youngest linked to coseismic displacement during the 1762 earthquake (Mondal et al. 2015), and a narrow beach 60-200 m in width. Petrography, semi-quantitative bulk mineralogy and SEM/EDX analyses were conducted on sediments recovered along the west coast from 1-4 m deep trenches and three 4-8 m deep drill holes. GIS mapping of drainage basins and quartz-feldspar-lithic (QFL) ternary plots based on grain counting show mixing of sediments from multiple sources: Himalayan provenance of metamorphic and igneous origin (garnet-mostly almandine, tourmaline, rutile, kyanite, zircon, sillimanite and clinopyroxene) similar to Uddin et al. (2007); Brahmaputra provenance of igneous and metamorphic origin (amphibole, epidote, plagioclase 40% Na and 60% Ca, apatite, ilmenite, magnetite, Cr-spinel and garnet-mostly grossular,) as indicated by Garzanti et al. (2010) & Rahman et al. (2016) and Burmese sources (cassiterite and wolframite) (Zaw 1990 & Searle et al. 2007). Low sedimentation rates are the result of two main factors: 1. Strong longshore currents from the south-east that interact with high tidal ranges as evidenced by the morphology of sand waves and ridge and runnel landforms along the beach. 2. Streams draining the Teknaf anticline are dry during the winter and during summer monsoon rains, the sediments bypass the narrow

  13. Coefficient of restitution in fractional viscoelastic compliant impacts using fractional Chebyshev collocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabiri, Arman; Butcher, Eric A.; Nazari, Morad

    2017-02-01

    Compliant impacts can be modeled using linear viscoelastic constitutive models. While such impact models for realistic viscoelastic materials using integer order derivatives of force and displacement usually require a large number of parameters, compliant impact models obtained using fractional calculus, however, can be advantageous since such models use fewer parameters and successfully capture the hereditary property. In this paper, we introduce the fractional Chebyshev collocation (FCC) method as an approximation tool for numerical simulation of several linear fractional viscoelastic compliant impact models in which the overall coefficient of restitution for the impact is studied as a function of the fractional model parameters for the first time. Other relevant impact characteristics such as hysteresis curves, impact force gradient, penetration and separation depths are also studied.

  14. Membrane Assisted Enzyme Fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Linfeng

    to the variation in size of the proteins and a reasonable separation factor can be observed only when the size difference is in the order of 10 or more. This is partly caused by concentration polarization and membrane fouling which hinders an effective separation of the proteins. Application of an electric field...... across the porous membrane has been demonstrated to be an effective way to reduce concentration polarization and membrane fouling. In addition, this technique can also be used to separate the proteins based on difference in charge, which to some extent overcome the limitations of size difference...... of proteins on the basis of their charge, degree of hydrophobicity, affinity or size. Adequate purity is often not achieved unless several purification steps are combined thereby increasing cost and reducing product yield. Conventional fractionation of proteins using ultrafiltration membranes is limited...

  15. Fraction Reduction in Membrane Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fraction reduction is a basic computation for rational numbers. P system is a new computing model, while the current methods for fraction reductions are not available in these systems. In this paper, we propose a method of fraction reduction and discuss how to carry it out in cell-like P systems with the membrane structure and the rules with priority designed. During the application of fraction reduction rules, synchronization is guaranteed by arranging some special objects in these rules. Our work contributes to performing the rational computation in P systems since the rational operands can be given in the form of fraction.

  16. Thermochemical transformations of anthracite fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkina, T.V.; Privalov, V.E.; Stepanenko, atM.A.

    1979-08-01

    Research on the nature of thermochemical transformations of anthracite fractions and the possibility of increasing their activity and identifying conditions for their use in the electrode pitch process is described. From research done on different anthracite fractions processed at varying temperatures it was concluded that accumulations of condensates from heating anthracite fractions occur significantly slower in comparison with pitch. As a result the electrode pitch process is prolonged. Thermal treatment of an anthracite fraction causes the formation and accumulation of condensates and promotes thermochemical transformations. Lastly, the use of thermally treated anthracite fractions apparently intensifies the electrode pitch process and improves its quality. (16 refs.) (In Russian)

  17. Disordered strictly jammed binary sphere packings attain an anomalously large range of densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Adam B.; Stillinger, Frank H.; Torquato, Salvatore

    2013-08-01

    Previous attempts to simulate disordered binary sphere packings have been limited in producing mechanically stable, isostatic packings across a broad spectrum of packing fractions. Here we report that disordered strictly jammed binary packings (packings that remain mechanically stable under general shear deformations and compressions) can be produced with an anomalously large range of average packing fractions 0.634≤ϕ≤0.829 for small to large sphere radius ratios α restricted to α≥0.100. Surprisingly, this range of average packing fractions is obtained for packings containing a subset of spheres (called the backbone) that are exactly strictly jammed, exactly isostatic, and also generated from random initial conditions. Additionally, the average packing fractions of these packings at certain α and small sphere relative number concentrations x approach those of the corresponding densest known ordered packings. These findings suggest for entropic reasons that these high-density disordered packings should be good glass formers and that they may be easy to prepare experimentally. We also identify an unusual feature of the packing fraction of jammed backbones (packings with rattlers excluded). The backbone packing fraction is about 0.624 over the majority of the α-x plane, even when large numbers of small spheres are present in the backbone. Over the (relatively small) area of the α-x plane where the backbone is not roughly constant, we find that backbone packing fractions range from about 0.606 to 0.829, with the volume of rattler spheres comprising between 1.6% and 26.9% of total sphere volume. To generate isostatic strictly jammed packings, we use an implementation of the Torquato-Jiao sequential linear programming algorithm [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.82.061302 82, 061302 (2010)], which is an efficient producer of inherent structures (mechanically stable configurations at the local maxima in the density landscape). The identification and

  18. Toward lattice fractional vector calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2014-09-01

    An analog of fractional vector calculus for physical lattice models is suggested. We use an approach based on the models of three-dimensional lattices with long-range inter-particle interactions. The lattice analogs of fractional partial derivatives are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions, where the Fourier series transformations of these kernels have a power-law form with respect to wave vector components. In the continuum limit, these lattice partial derivatives give derivatives of non-integer order with respect to coordinates. In the three-dimensional description of the non-local continuum, the fractional differential operators have the form of fractional partial derivatives of the Riesz type. As examples of the applications of the suggested lattice fractional vector calculus, we give lattice models with long-range interactions for the fractional Maxwell equations of non-local continuous media and for the fractional generalization of the Mindlin and Aifantis continuum models of gradient elasticity.

  19. Fractional-Order Discrete-Time Laguerre Filters: A New Tool for Modeling and Stability Analysis of Fractional-Order LTI SISO Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Stanisławski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new results on modeling and analysis of dynamics of fractional-order discrete-time linear time-invariant single-input single-output (LTI SISO systems by means of new, two-layer, “fractional-order discrete-time Laguerre filters.” It is interesting that the fractionality of the filters at the upper system dynamics layer is directly projected from the lower Laguerre-based approximation layer for the Grünwald-Letnikov difference. A new stability criterion for discrete-time fractional-order Laguerre-based LTI SISO systems is introduced and supplemented with a stability preservation analysis. Both the stability criterion and the stability preservation analysis bring up rather surprising results, which is illustrated with simulation examples.

  20. Improving Children’s Knowledge of Fraction Magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Lisa K.; Kennedy, Casey A.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether playing a computerized fraction game, based on the integrated theory of numerical development and on the Common Core State Standards’ suggestions for teaching fractions, would improve children’s fraction magnitude understanding. Fourth and fifth-graders were given brief instruction about unit fractions and played Catch the Monster with Fractions, a game in which they estimated fraction locations on a number line and received feedback on the accuracy of their estimates. The intervention lasted less than 15 minutes. In our initial study, children showed large gains from pretest to posttest in their fraction number line estimates, magnitude comparisons, and recall accuracy. In a more rigorous second study, the experimental group showed similarly large improvements, whereas a control group showed no improvement from practicing fraction number line estimates without feedback. The results provide evidence for the effectiveness of interventions emphasizing fraction magnitudes and indicate how psychological theories and research can be used to evaluate specific recommendations of the Common Core State Standards. PMID:27768756

  1. Fractionation of Pb and Cu in the fine fraction (landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczala, Fabio; Orupõld, Kaja; Augustsson, Anna; Burlakovs, Juris; Hogland, Marika; Bhatnagar, Amit; Hogland, William

    2017-11-01

    The fractionation of metals in the fine fraction (landfill was carried out to evaluate the metal (Pb and Cu) contents and their potential towards not only mobility but also possibilities of recovery/extraction. The fractionation followed the BCR (Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction, and the exchangeable (F1), reducible (F2), oxidizable (F3) and residual fractions were determined. The results showed that Pb was highly associated with the reducible (F2) and oxidizable (F3) fractions, suggesting the potential mobility of this metal mainly when in contact with oxygen, despite the low association with the exchangeable fraction (F1). Cu has also shown the potential for mobility when in contact with oxygen, since high associations with the oxidizable fraction (F3) were observed. On the other hand, the mobility of metals in excavated waste can be seen as beneficial considering the circular economy and recovery of such valuables back into the economy. To conclude, not only the total concentration of metals but also a better understanding of fractionation and in which form metals are bound is very important to bring information on how to manage the fine fraction from excavated waste both in terms of environmental impacts and also recovery of such valuables in the economy.

  2. Fractional variational calculus in terms of Riesz fractional derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, O P

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents extensions of traditional calculus of variations for systems containing Riesz fractional derivatives (RFDs). Specifically, we present generalized Euler-Lagrange equations and the transversality conditions for fractional variational problems (FVPs) defined in terms of RFDs. We consider two problems, a simple FVP and an FVP of Lagrange. Results of the first problem are extended to problems containing multiple fractional derivatives, functions and parameters, and to unspecified boundary conditions. For the second problem, we present Lagrange-type multiplier rules. For both problems, we develop the Euler-Lagrange-type necessary conditions which must be satisfied for the given functional to be extremum. Problems are considered to demonstrate applications of the formulations. Explicitly, we introduce fractional momenta, fractional Hamiltonian, fractional Hamilton equations of motion, fractional field theory and fractional optimal control. The formulations presented and the resulting equations are similar to the formulations for FVPs given in Agrawal (2002 J. Math. Anal. Appl. 272 368, 2006 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 10375) and to those that appear in the field of classical calculus of variations. These formulations are simple and can be extended to other problems in the field of fractional calculus of variations

  3. Modelling altered fractionation schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    The author discusses the conflicting requirements of hyperfractionation and accelerated fractionation used in radiotherapy, and the development of computer modelling to predict how to obtain an optimum of tumour cell kill without exceeding normal-tissue tolerance. The present trend is to shorten hyperfractionated schedules from 6 or 7 weeks to give overall times of 4 or 5 weeks as in new schedules by Herskovic et al (1992) and Harari (1992). Very high doses are given, much higher than can be given when ultrashort schedules such as CHART (12 days) are used. Computer modelling has suggested that optimum overall times, to yield maximum cell kill in tumours ((α/β = 10 Gy) for a constant level of late complications (α/β = 3 Gy) would be X or X-1 weeks, where X is the doubling time of the tumour cells in days (Fowler 1990). For median doubling times of about 5 days, overall times of 4 or 5 weeks should be ideal. (U.K.)

  4. Hydrogen isotope fractionation in methane plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, François; Derenne, Sylvie; Lombardi, Guillaume; Hassouni, Khaled; Michau, Armelle; Reinhardt, Peter; Duhamel, Rémi; Gonzalez, Adriana; Biron, Kasia

    2017-01-01

    Large variations in light element isotope ratios (H, N, C) are routinely observed in meteorite organic matter. The origin of these so-called anomalies is not accounted for by the classical theory of isotope fractionation. In the case of H, micrometer-size areas within the insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from meteorites by acid treatment, exhibit extreme deuterium enrichment. They are generally interpreted as components exogenous to the solar system and attributed to surviving interste...

  5. Limits to the Fraction of High-energy Photon Emitting Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, Carl W.; Zheng, WeiKang

    2013-02-01

    After almost four years of operation, the two instruments on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have shown that the number of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with high-energy photon emission above 100 MeV cannot exceed roughly 9% of the total number of all such events, at least at the present detection limits. In a recent paper, we found that GRBs with photons detected in the Large Area Telescope have a surprisingly broad distribution with respect to the observed event photon number. Extrapolation of our empirical fit to numbers of photons below our previous detection limit suggests that the overall rate of such low flux events could be estimated by standard image co-adding techniques. In this case, we have taken advantage of the excellent angular resolution of the Swift mission to provide accurate reference points for 79 GRB events which have eluded any previous correlations with high-energy photons. We find a small but significant signal in the co-added field. Guided by the extrapolated power-law fit previously obtained for the number distribution of GRBs with higher fluxes, the data suggest that only a small fraction of GRBs are sources of high-energy photons.

  6. LIMITS TO THE FRACTION OF HIGH-ENERGY PHOTON EMITTING GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerlof, Carl W.; Zheng, WeiKang

    2013-01-01

    After almost four years of operation, the two instruments on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have shown that the number of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with high-energy photon emission above 100 MeV cannot exceed roughly 9% of the total number of all such events, at least at the present detection limits. In a recent paper, we found that GRBs with photons detected in the Large Area Telescope have a surprisingly broad distribution with respect to the observed event photon number. Extrapolation of our empirical fit to numbers of photons below our previous detection limit suggests that the overall rate of such low flux events could be estimated by standard image co-adding techniques. In this case, we have taken advantage of the excellent angular resolution of the Swift mission to provide accurate reference points for 79 GRB events which have eluded any previous correlations with high-energy photons. We find a small but significant signal in the co-added field. Guided by the extrapolated power-law fit previously obtained for the number distribution of GRBs with higher fluxes, the data suggest that only a small fraction of GRBs are sources of high-energy photons.

  7. Accessible solitons of fractional dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Wei-Ping, E-mail: zhongwp6@126.com [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Shunde Polytechnic, Guangdong Province, Shunde 528300 (China); Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Belić, Milivoj [Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Zhang, Yiqi [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education & Shaanxi Key Lab of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2016-05-15

    We demonstrate that accessible solitons described by an extended Schrödinger equation with the Laplacian of fractional dimension can exist in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media. The soliton solutions of the model are constructed by two special functions, the associated Legendre polynomials and the Laguerre polynomials in the fraction-dimensional space. Our results show that these fractional accessible solitons form a soliton family which includes crescent solitons, and asymmetric single-layer and multi-layer necklace solitons. -- Highlights: •Analytic solutions of a fractional Schrödinger equation are obtained. •The solutions are produced by means of self-similar method applied to the fractional Schrödinger equation with parabolic potential. •The fractional accessible solitons form crescent, asymmetric single-layer and multilayer necklace profiles. •The model applies to the propagation of optical pulses in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media.

  8. Universal power-law diet partitioning by marine fish and squid with surprising stability–diversity implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossberg, Axel G.; Farnsworth, Keith D.; Satoh, Keisuke; Pinnegar, John K.

    2011-01-01

    A central question in community ecology is how the number of trophic links relates to community species richness. For simple dynamical food-web models, link density (the ratio of links to species) is bounded from above as the number of species increases; but empirical data suggest that it increases without bounds. We found a new empirical upper bound on link density in large marine communities with emphasis on fish and squid, using novel methods that avoid known sources of bias in traditional approaches. Bounds are expressed in terms of the diet-partitioning function (DPF): the average number of resources contributing more than a fraction f to a consumer's diet, as a function of f. All observed DPF follow a functional form closely related to a power law, with power-law exponents independent of species richness at the measurement accuracy. Results imply universal upper bounds on link density across the oceans. However, the inherently scale-free nature of power-law diet partitioning suggests that the DPF itself is a better defined characterization of network structure than link density. PMID:21068048

  9. Fractional Calculus and Shannon Wavelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Cattani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An explicit analytical formula for the any order fractional derivative of Shannon wavelet is given as wavelet series based on connection coefficients. So that for any 2(ℝ function, reconstructed by Shannon wavelets, we can easily define its fractional derivative. The approximation error is explicitly computed, and the wavelet series is compared with Grünwald fractional derivative by focusing on the many advantages of the wavelet method, in terms of rate of convergence.

  10. Fractional variational principles in action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baleanu, Dumitru [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Art and Sciences, Cankaya University, 06530 Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Space Sciences, PO Box MG-23, R 76900, Magurele-Bucharest (Romania)], E-mail: dumitru@cankaya.edu.tr

    2009-10-15

    The fractional calculus has gained considerable importance in various fields of science and engineering, especially during the last few decades. An open issue in this emerging field is represented by the fractional variational principles area. Therefore, the fractional Euler-Lagrange and Hamilton equations started to be examined intensely during the last decade. In this paper, we review some new trends in this field and we discuss some of their potential applications.

  11. Fractional quiver W-algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Taro; Pestun, Vasily

    2018-04-01

    We introduce quiver gauge theory associated with the non-simply laced type fractional quiver and define fractional quiver W-algebras by using construction of Kimura and Pestun (Lett Math Phys, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11005-018-1072-1; Lett Math Phys, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11005-018-1073-0) with representation of fractional quivers.

  12. On the Fractional Mean Value

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinabadi, Abdolali Neamaty; Nategh, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    This work, dealt with the classical mean value theorem and took advantage of it in the fractional calculus. The concept of a fractional critical point is introduced. Some sufficient conditions for the existence of a critical point is studied and an illustrative example rele- vant to the concept of the time dilation effect is given. The present paper also includes, some connections between convexity (and monotonicity) with fractional derivative in the Riemann-Liouville sense.

  13. Fractionated Spacecraft Architectures Seeding Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mathieu, Charlotte; Weigel, Annalisa

    2006-01-01

    .... Models were developed from a customer-centric perspective to assess different fractionated spacecraft architectures relative to traditional spacecraft architectures using multi-attribute analysis...

  14. Soil tension mediates isotope fractionation during soil water evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaj, Marcel; McDonnell, Jeffrey

    2017-04-01

    Isotope tracing of the water cycle is increasing in its use and usefulness. Many new studies are extracting soil waters and relating these to streamflow, groundwater recharge and plant transpiration. Nevertheless, unlike isotope fractionation factors from open water bodies, soil water fractionation factors are poorly understood and until now, only empirically derived. In contrast to open water evaporation where temperature, humidity and vapor pressure gradient define fractionation (as codified in the well-known Craig and Gordon model), soil water evaporation includes additionally, fractionation by matrix effects. There is yet no physical explanation of kinetic and equilibrium fraction from soil water within the soil profile. Here we present a simple laboratory experiment with four admixtures of soil grain size (from sand to silt to clay). Oven-dried samples were spiked with water of known isotopic composition at different soil water contents. Soils were then stored in sealed bags and the headspace filled with dry air and allowed to equilibrate for 24hours. Isotopic analysis of the headspace vapor was done with a Los Gatos Inc. water vapor isotope analyzer. Soil water potential of subsamples were measured with a water potential meter. We show for the first time that soil tension controls isotope fractionation in the resident soil water. Below a Pf 3.5 the δ-values of 18O and 2H of the headspace vapor is more positive and increases with increasing soil water potential. Surprisingly, we find that the relationship between soil tension and equilibrium fractionation is independent of soil type. However, δ-values of each soil type plot along a distinct evaporation line. These results indicate that equilibrium fractionation is affected by soil tension in addition to temperature. Therefore, at high soil water tension (under dry conditions) equilibrium fractionation is not consistent with current empirical formulations that ignore these effects. These findings may have

  15. Cloud Surprises Discovered in Moving NASA EOSDIS Applications into Amazon Web Services… and #6 Will Shock You!

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, B. D.; Pawloski, A. W.

    2017-12-01

    NASA ESDIS has been moving a variety of data ingest, distribution, and science data processing applications into a cloud environment over the last 2 years. As expected, there have been a number of challenges in migrating primarily on-premises applications into a cloud-based environment, related to architecture and taking advantage of cloud-based services. What was not expected is a number of issues that were beyond purely technical application re-architectures. From surprising network policy limitations, billing challenges in a government-based cost model, and obtaining certificates in an NASA security-compliant manner to working with multiple applications in a shared and resource-constrained AWS account, these have been the relevant challenges in taking advantage of a cloud model. And most surprising of all… well, you'll just have to wait and see the "gotcha" that caught our entire team off guard!

  16. The influence of psychological resilience on the relation between automatic stimulus evaluation and attentional breadth for surprised faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grol, Maud; De Raedt, Rudi

    2015-01-01

    The broaden-and-build theory relates positive emotions to resilience and cognitive broadening. The theory proposes that the broadening effects underly the relation between positive emotions and resilience, suggesting that resilient people can benefit more from positive emotions at the level of cognitive functioning. Research has investigated the influence of positive emotions on attentional broadening, but the stimulus in the target of attention may also influence attentional breadth, depending on affective stimulus evaluation. Surprised faces are particularly interesting as they are valence ambiguous, therefore, we investigated the relation between affective evaluation--using an affective priming task--and attentional breadth for surprised faces, and how this relation is influenced by resilience. Results show that more positive evaluations are related to more attentional broadening at high levels of resilience, while this relation is reversed at low levels. This indicates that resilient individuals can benefit more from attending to positively evaluated stimuli at the level of attentional broadening.

  17. Self-organizing weights for Internet AS-graphs and surprisingly simple routing metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholz, Jan Carsten; Greiner, Martin

    The transport capacity of Internet-like communication networks and hence their efficiency may be improved by a factor of 5-10 through the use of highly optimized routing metrics, as demonstrated previously. Numerical determination of such routing metrics can be computationally demanding...... metrics. The new metrics have negligible computational cost and result in an approximately 5-fold performance increase, providing distinguished competitiveness with the computationally costly counterparts. They are applicable to very large networks and easy to implement in today's Internet routing...

  18. Team play with a powerful and independent agent: operational experiences and automation surprises on the Airbus A-320

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarter, N. B.; Woods, D. D.

    1997-01-01

    Research and operational experience have shown that one of the major problems with pilot-automation interaction is a lack of mode awareness (i.e., the current and future status and behavior of the automation). As a result, pilots sometimes experience so-called automation surprises when the automation takes an unexpected action or fails to behave as anticipated. A lack of mode awareness and automation surprises can he viewed as symptoms of a mismatch between human and machine properties and capabilities. Changes in automation design can therefore he expected to affect the likelihood and nature of problems encountered by pilots. Previous studies have focused exclusively on early generation "glass cockpit" aircraft that were designed based on a similar automation philosophy. To find out whether similar difficulties with maintaining mode awareness are encountered on more advanced aircraft, a corpus of automation surprises was gathered from pilots of the Airbus A-320, an aircraft characterized by high levels of autonomy, authority, and complexity. To understand the underlying reasons for reported breakdowns in human-automation coordination, we also asked pilots about their monitoring strategies and their experiences with and attitude toward the unique design of flight controls on this aircraft.

  19. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.O. Bader

    1999-10-18

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  20. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S.O. Bader

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  1. Testing an emerging paradigm in migration ecology shows surprising differences in efficiency between flight modes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam E Duerr

    Full Text Available To maximize fitness, flying animals should maximize flight speed while minimizing energetic expenditure. Soaring speeds of large-bodied birds are determined by flight routes and tradeoffs between minimizing time and energetic costs. Large raptors migrating in eastern North America predominantly glide between thermals that provide lift or soar along slopes or ridgelines using orographic lift (slope soaring. It is usually assumed that slope soaring is faster than thermal gliding because forward progress is constant compared to interrupted progress when birds pause to regain altitude in thermals. We tested this slope-soaring hypothesis using high-frequency GPS-GSM telemetry devices to track golden eagles during northbound migration. In contrast to expectations, flight speed was slower when slope soaring and eagles also were diverted from their migratory path, incurring possible energetic costs and reducing speed of progress towards a migratory endpoint. When gliding between thermals, eagles stayed on track and fast gliding speeds compensated for lack of progress during thermal soaring. When thermals were not available, eagles minimized migration time, not energy, by choosing energetically expensive slope soaring instead of waiting for thermals to develop. Sites suited to slope soaring include ridges preferred for wind-energy generation, thus avian risk of collision with wind turbines is associated with evolutionary trade-offs required to maximize fitness of time-minimizing migratory raptors.

  2. Testing an emerging paradigm in migration ecology shows surprising differences in efficiency between flight modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Adam E; Miller, Tricia A; Lanzone, Michael; Brandes, Dave; Cooper, Jeff; O'Malley, Kieran; Maisonneuve, Charles; Tremblay, Junior; Katzner, Todd

    2012-01-01

    To maximize fitness, flying animals should maximize flight speed while minimizing energetic expenditure. Soaring speeds of large-bodied birds are determined by flight routes and tradeoffs between minimizing time and energetic costs. Large raptors migrating in eastern North America predominantly glide between thermals that provide lift or soar along slopes or ridgelines using orographic lift (slope soaring). It is usually assumed that slope soaring is faster than thermal gliding because forward progress is constant compared to interrupted progress when birds pause to regain altitude in thermals. We tested this slope-soaring hypothesis using high-frequency GPS-GSM telemetry devices to track golden eagles during northbound migration. In contrast to expectations, flight speed was slower when slope soaring and eagles also were diverted from their migratory path, incurring possible energetic costs and reducing speed of progress towards a migratory endpoint. When gliding between thermals, eagles stayed on track and fast gliding speeds compensated for lack of progress during thermal soaring. When thermals were not available, eagles minimized migration time, not energy, by choosing energetically expensive slope soaring instead of waiting for thermals to develop. Sites suited to slope soaring include ridges preferred for wind-energy generation, thus avian risk of collision with wind turbines is associated with evolutionary trade-offs required to maximize fitness of time-minimizing migratory raptors.

  3. Fractional power operation of tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mau, T.K.; Vold, E.L.; Conn, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Methods to operate a tokamak fusion reactor at fractions of its rated power, identify the more effective control knobs and assess the impact of the requirements of fractional power operation on full power reactor design are explored. In particular, the role of burn control in maintaining the plasma at thermal equilibrium throughout these operations is studied. As a prerequisite to this task, the critical physics issues relevant to reactor performance predictions are examined and some insight into their impact on fractional power operation is offered. The basic tool of analysis consists of a zero-dimensional (0-D) time-dependent plasma power balance code which incorporates the most advanced data base and models in transport and burn plasma physics relevant to tokamaks. Because the plasma power balance is dominated by the transport loss and given the large uncertainty in the confinement model, the authors have studied the problem for a wide range of energy confinement scalings. The results of this analysis form the basis for studying the temporal behavior of the plasma under various thermal control mechanisms. Scenarios of thermally stable full and fractional power operations have been determined for a variety of transport models, with either passive or active feedback burn control. Important power control parameters, such as gas fueling rate, auxiliary power and other plasma quantities that affect transport losses, have also been identified. The results of these studies vary with the individual transport scaling used and, in particular, with respect to the effect of alpha heating power on confinement

  4. Fractions, Number Lines, Third Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Kathleen; Ahrendt, Sue; Monson, Debra; Wyberg, Terry; Colum, Karen

    2017-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) (CCSSI 2010) outlines ambitious goals for fraction learning, starting in third grade, that include the use of the number line model. Understanding and constructing fractions on a number line are particularly complex tasks. The current work of the authors centers on ways to successfully…

  5. Unwrapping Students' Ideas about Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Rebecca M.; Gibbons, Lynsey K.; Kazemi, Elham; Lind, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Supporting students to develop an understanding of the meaning of fractions is an important goal of elementary school mathematics. This involves developing partitioning strategies, creating representations, naming fractional quantities, and using symbolic notation. This article describes how teachers can use a formative assessment problem to…

  6. Understanding Magnitudes to Understand Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Fractions are known to be difficult to learn and difficult to teach, yet they are vital for students to have access to further mathematical concepts. This article uses evidence to support teachers employing teaching methods that focus on the conceptual understanding of the magnitude of fractions.

  7. Financial Planning with Fractional Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Goedhart, Marc; Spronk, Jaap

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWhen solving financial planning problems with multiple goals by means of multiple objective programming, the presence of fractional goals leads to technical difficulties. In this paper we present a straightforward interactive approach for solving such linear fractional programs with multiple goal variables. The approach is illustrated by means of an example in financial planning.

  8. Deterministic ratchets for suspension fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulrattanarak, T.

    2010-01-01

    Driven by the current insights in sustainability and technological development in
    biorefining natural renewable resources, the food industry has taken an interest in
    fractionation of agrofood materials, like milk and cereal crops. The purpose of fractionation
    is to split the raw

  9. Fermion fractionization and index theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Minoru; Torii, Tatsuo

    1982-01-01

    The relation between the fermion fractionization and the Callias-Bott-Seeley index theorem for the Dirac operator in the open space of odd dimension is clarified. Only the case of one spatial dimension is discussed in detail. Sum rules for the expectation values of various quantities in fermion-fractionized configurations are derived. (author)

  10. A new fractional wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hongzhe; Zheng, Zhibao; Wang, Wei

    2017-03-01

    The fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) is a potent tool to analyze the time-varying signal. However, it fails in locating the fractional Fourier domain (FRFD)-frequency contents which is required in some applications. A novel fractional wavelet transform (FRWT) is proposed to solve this problem. It displays the time and FRFD-frequency information jointly in the time-FRFD-frequency plane. The definition, basic properties, inverse transform and reproducing kernel of the proposed FRWT are considered. It has been shown that an FRWT with proper order corresponds to the classical wavelet transform (WT). The multiresolution analysis (MRA) associated with the developed FRWT, together with the construction of the orthogonal fractional wavelets are also presented. Three applications are discussed: the analysis of signal with time-varying frequency content, the FRFD spectrum estimation of signals that involving noise, and the construction of fractional Harr wavelet. Simulations verify the validity of the proposed FRWT.

  11. Surprising discovery of high-grade pelitic schist on Cavalli Seamount, offshore Northland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimer, N.; Walker, N.H.; Herzer, R.H.; Calvert, A.; Seward, D.

    1999-01-01

    Serendipity waits in the world's unexplored places. In March 1999, GNS's ONSIDE expedition to the South Fiji Basin made two dredge hauls on Cavalli seamount expecting to recover Miocene oceanic volcanic rocks. Instead dredge DIA recored 1 kg of 10 cm slickensided and chloritised schist pieces and dredge DIB, which was 1.1 km distant, 100 kg of well-foliated biotite schist, mainly in the form of two large subangular boulders. The presence of calsilicate bands initially suggested a correlation with Buller or Takaka Terranes, but whole rock chemical composition of the schist is more consistent with Murihiku, Waipapa or Pahau Terranes. U-Pb TIMS gheochronometry of individual detrital zircons indicates a maximum 170Ma depositional age for the schist protolith, thus clearly ruling out a Buller or Takaka correlation. Rb-Sr whole rock data suggest a young (Cenozoic?) metamorphic age. (author)

  12. Taylor–Fourier spectra to study fractional order systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbé, Kurt; Lauwers, Lieve; Fuentes, Lee Gonzales

    2016-01-01

    In measurement science mathematical models are often used as an indirect measurement of physical properties which are mapped to measurands through the mathematical model. Dynamical systems describing a physical process with a dominant diffusion or dispersion phenomenon requires a large dimensional model due to its long memory. Ignoring a dominant difussion or dispersion component acts as a confounder which may introduce a bias in the estimated quantities of interest. For linear systems it has been observed that fractional order models outperform classical rational forms in terms of the number of parameters for the same fitting error. However it is not straightforward to deal with a fractional order system or long memory effects without prior knowledge. Since the parametric modeling of a fractional system is very involved, we put forward the question whether fractional insight can be gathered in a non-parametric way. In this paper we show that classical Fourier basis leading to the frequency response function lacks fractional insight. To circumvent this problem, we introduce a fractional Taylor–Fourier basis to obtain non-parametric insight in the fractional system. This analysis proposes a novel type of spectrum to visualize the spectral content of a fractional system: Taylor–Fourier spectrum. This spectrum is fully measurement driven which can be used as a first to explore the fractional dynamics of a measured diffusion or dispersion system. (paper)

  13. Generalized fractional Schroedinger equation with space-time fractional derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shaowei; Xu Mingyu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the generalized fractional Schroedinger equation with space and time fractional derivatives is constructed. The equation is solved for free particle and for a square potential well by the method of integral transforms, Fourier transform and Laplace transform, and the solution can be expressed in terms of Mittag-Leffler function. The Green function for free particle is also presented in this paper. Finally, we discuss the relationship between the cases of the generalized fractional Schroedinger equation and the ones in standard quantum

  14. Permutation entropy of fractional Brownian motion and fractional Gaussian noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunino, L.; Perez, D.G.; Martin, M.T.; Garavaglia, M.; Plastino, A.; Rosso, O.A.

    2008-01-01

    We have worked out theoretical curves for the permutation entropy of the fractional Brownian motion and fractional Gaussian noise by using the Bandt and Shiha [C. Bandt, F. Shiha, J. Time Ser. Anal. 28 (2007) 646] theoretical predictions for their corresponding relative frequencies. Comparisons with numerical simulations show an excellent agreement. Furthermore, the entropy-gap in the transition between these processes, observed previously via numerical results, has been here theoretically validated. Also, we have analyzed the behaviour of the permutation entropy of the fractional Gaussian noise for different time delays

  15. Corn Ethanol: The Surprisingly Effective Route for Natural Gas Consumption in the Transportation Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szybist, James P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Curran, Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Proven reserves and production of natural gas (NG) in the United States have increased dramatically in the last decade, due largely to the commercialization of hydraulic fracturing. This has led to a plentiful supply of NG, resulting in a significantly lower cost on a gallon of gasoline-equivalent (GGE) basis. Additionally, NG is a domestic, non-petroleum source of energy that is less carbon-intensive than coal or petroleum products, and thus can lead to lower greenhouse gas emissions. Because of these factors, there is a desire to increase the use of NG in the transportation sector in the United States (U.S.). However, using NG directly in the transportation sector requires that several non-trivial challenges be overcome. One of these issues is the fueling infrastructure. There are currently only 1,375 NG fueling stations in the U.S. compared to 152,995 fueling stations for gasoline in 2014. Additionally, there are very few light-duty vehicles that can consume this fuel directly as dedicated or bi-fuel options. For example, in model year 2013Honda was the only OEM to offer a dedicated CNG sedan while a number of others offered CNG options as a preparation package for LD trucks and vans. In total, there were a total of 11 vehicle models in 2013 that could be purchased that could use natural gas directly. There are additional potential issues associated with NG vehicles as well. Compared to commercial refueling stations, the at-home refueling time for NG vehicles is substantial – a result of the small compressors used for home refilling. Additionally, the methane emissions from both refueling (leakage) and from tailpipe emissions (slip) from these vehicles can add to their GHG footprint, and while these emissions are not currently regulated it could be a barrier in the future, especially in scenarios with broad scale adoption of CNG vehicles. However, NG consumption already plays a large role in other sectors of the economy, including some that are important to

  16. Mitigating Aviation Communication and Satellite Orbit Operations Surprises from Adverse Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent

    2008-01-01

    Adverse space weather affects operational activities in aviation and satellite systems. For example, large solar flares create highly variable enhanced neutral atmosphere and ionosphere electron density regions. These regions impact aviation communication frequencies as well as precision orbit determination. The natural space environment, with its dynamic space weather variability, is additionally changed by human activity. The increase in orbital debris in low Earth orbit (LEO), combined with lower atmosphere CO2 that rises into the lower thermosphere and causes increased cooling that results in increased debris lifetime, adds to the environmental hazards of navigating in near-Earth space. This is at a time when commercial space endeavors are posed to begin more missions to LEO during the rise of the solar activity cycle toward the next maximum (2012). For satellite and aviation operators, adverse space weather results in greater expenses for orbit management, more communication outages or aviation and ground-based high frequency radio used, and an inability to effectively plan missions or service customers with space-based communication, imagery, and data transferal during time-critical activities. Examples of some revenue-impacting conditions and solutions for mitigating adverse space weather are offered.

  17. Electronic structure of fractionally nuclear charged atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavao, Antonio C.; Bastos, Cristiano C.; Ferreira, Joacy V.

    2008-01-01

    Different properties of quark chemistry are studied by performing accurate ab initio Hartree- Fock calculations on fractionally nuclear charged atoms. Ground and first excited states of sodium atoms with quarks attached to the nucleus are obtained using CI calculations. It is suggested that the sodium 2 P -> 2 S electronic transition can be used as a guide in searching for unconfined quarks. Also, the variation of the binding electronic energy with nuclear charge in the isoelectronic series of fractionally nuclear charged atoms A ±2/3 and A ±1/3 (A = H, Li, Na, P and Ca) is analyzed. The present calculations suggest that unconfined colored particles have large appetite for heavy nuclei and that quark-antiquark pairs could be stabilized in presence of the atomic matter. (author)

  18. Toward lattice fractional vector calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, Vasily E

    2014-01-01

    An analog of fractional vector calculus for physical lattice models is suggested. We use an approach based on the models of three-dimensional lattices with long-range inter-particle interactions. The lattice analogs of fractional partial derivatives are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions, where the Fourier series transformations of these kernels have a power-law form with respect to wave vector components. In the continuum limit, these lattice partial derivatives give derivatives of non-integer order with respect to coordinates. In the three-dimensional description of the non-local continuum, the fractional differential operators have the form of fractional partial derivatives of the Riesz type. As examples of the applications of the suggested lattice fractional vector calculus, we give lattice models with long-range interactions for the fractional Maxwell equations of non-local continuous media and for the fractional generalization of the Mindlin and Aifantis continuum models of gradient elasticity. (papers)

  19. Modeling single-file diffusion with step fractional Brownian motion and a generalized fractional Langevin equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S C; Teo, L P

    2009-01-01

    Single-file diffusion behaves as normal diffusion at small time and as subdiffusion at large time. These properties can be described in terms of fractional Brownian motion with variable Hurst exponent or multifractional Brownian motion. We introduce a new stochastic process called Riemann–Liouville step fractional Brownian motion which can be regarded as a special case of multifractional Brownian motion with a step function type of Hurst exponent tailored for single-file diffusion. Such a step fractional Brownian motion can be obtained as a solution of the fractional Langevin equation with zero damping. Various kinds of fractional Langevin equations and their generalizations are then considered in order to decide whether their solutions provide the correct description of the long and short time behaviors of single-file diffusion. The cases where the dissipative memory kernel is a Dirac delta function, a power-law function and a combination of these functions are studied in detail. In addition to the case where the short time behavior of single-file diffusion behaves as normal diffusion, we also consider the possibility of a process that begins as ballistic motion

  20. Collaborative Resilience to Episodic Shocks and Surprises: A Very Long-Term Case Study of Zanjera Irrigation in the Philippines 1979–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Yabes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This thirty-year case study uses surveys, semi-structured interviews, and content analysis to examine the adaptive capacity of Zanjera San Marcelino, an indigenous irrigation management system in the northern Philippines. This common pool resource (CPR system exists within a turbulent social-ecological system (SES characterized by episodic shocks such as large typhoons as well as novel surprises, such as national political regime change and the construction of large dams. The Zanjera nimbly responded to these challenges, although sometimes in ways that left its structure and function substantially altered. While a partial integration with the Philippine National Irrigation Agency was critical to the Zanjera’s success, this relationship required on-going improvisation and renegotiation. Over time, the Zanjera showed an increasing capacity to learn and adapt. A core contribution of this analysis is the integration of a CPR study within an SES framework to examine resilience, made possible the occurrence of a wide range of challenges to the Zanjera’s function and survival over the long period of study. Long-term analyses like this one, however rare, are particularly useful for understanding the adaptive and transformative dimensions of resilience.

  1. Surprise in simplicity: an unusual spectral evolution of a single pulse GRB 151006A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, R.; Iyyani, S.; Chand, V.; Chattopadhyay, T.; Bhattacharya, D.; Rao, A. R.; Vadawale, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    We present a detailed analysis of GRB 151006A, the first gamma-ray burst (GRB) detected by AstroSat Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride Imager (CZTI). We study the long-term spectral evolution by exploiting the capabilities of Fermi and Swift satellites at different phases, which is complemented by the polarization measurement with the CZTI. While the light curve of the GRB in different energy bands shows a simple pulse profile, the spectrum shows an unusual evolution. The first phase exhibits a hard-to-soft evolution until ∼16-20 s, followed by a sudden increase in the spectral peak reaching a few MeV. Such a dramatic change in the spectral evolution in the case of a single pulse burst is reported for the first time. This is captured by all models we used namely, Band function, blackbody+Band and two blackbodies+power law. Interestingly, the Fermi Large Area Telescope also detects its first photon (>100 MeV) during this time. This new injection of energy may be associated with either the beginning of afterglow phase, or a second hard pulse of the prompt emission itself that, however, is not seen in the otherwise smooth pulse profile. By constructing Bayesian blocks and studying the hardness evolution we find a good evidence for a second hard pulse. The Swift data at late epochs (>T90 of the GRB) also show a significant spectral evolution consistent with the early second phase. The CZTI data (100-350 keV), though having low significance (1σ), show high values of polarization in the two epochs (77-94 per cent), in agreement with our interpretation.

  2. Charge-density waves in alpha-uranium: A story of endless surprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lander, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    The properties of element 92, uranium at low temperature have remained an enigma since major anomalies in almost all physical property measurements were first reported over twenty years ago. By far the most dramatic measurements were those by Fisher on the elastic constants, which strongly suggested a structural phase transition at approx. equal to43 K. Initially no such phase transition was found. Recently, neutron inelastic experiments at Oak Ridge mapped out the phonon dispersion curves at room temperature, and in the process discovered an anomalous soft phonon of Σ 4 symmetry along the [100] axis. On cooling, weak satellites were found to form near the position [0.5, 0.0] thus signaling a periodic distortion. However, such a charge-density wave appeared to have a complex wave vector relationship with the fundamental lattice, leading the authors to introduce a two-phase model for the phase transition. Simultaneously, by using photographic technique designed to view large segments of reciprocal space, Marmeggi and Delapalme at the ILL discovered a completely new set of satellite reflections, indexable with wave vector [0.5, qsub(y), qsub(z)], where qsub(y) and qsub(z) are incommensurable (approx. equal to0.18), not equal, and vary with temperature. We have now measured the intensities of a great number of these new satellites and been able to fit the results with a modulated α-U structure. The atoms are displaced in all three independent crystallographic directions according to a sinusoidal wave form. The overall agreement between the predicted and observed structure factors is excellent, suggesting that at least the static positions of the atoms at low temperature in this element are now understood. In this review the status of research on the structural phase transition will be presented. Neither the full details of the phase transition nor the reasons for it are understood at this time. A number of further experiments are suggested. (orig.)

  3. Ferroelectric Fractional-Order Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Agambayev, Agamyrat

    2017-07-25

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-based polymers and their blends are used to fabricate electrostatic fractional-order capacitors. This simple but effective method allows us to precisely tune the constant phase angle of the resulting fractional-order capacitor by changing the blend composition. Additionally, we have derived an empirical relation between the ratio of the blend constituents and the constant phase angle to facilitate the design of a fractional order capacitor with a desired constant phase angle. The structural composition of the fabricated blends is investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques.

  4. Ferroelectric Fractional-Order Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Agambayev, Agamyrat; Patole, Shashikant P.; Farhat, Mohamed; Elwakil, Ahmed; Bagci, Hakan; Salama, Khaled N.

    2017-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-based polymers and their blends are used to fabricate electrostatic fractional-order capacitors. This simple but effective method allows us to precisely tune the constant phase angle of the resulting fractional-order capacitor by changing the blend composition. Additionally, we have derived an empirical relation between the ratio of the blend constituents and the constant phase angle to facilitate the design of a fractional order capacitor with a desired constant phase angle. The structural composition of the fabricated blends is investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques.

  5. On Generalized Fractional Differentiator Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid A. Jalab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By employing the generalized fractional differential operator, we introduce a system of fractional order derivative for a uniformly sampled polynomial signal. The calculation of the bring in signal depends on the additive combination of the weighted bring-in of N cascaded digital differentiators. The weights are imposed in a closed formula containing the Stirling numbers of the first kind. The approach taken in this work is to consider that signal function in terms of Newton series. The convergence of the system to a fractional time differentiator is discussed.

  6. Detection and Interpretation of Low-Level and High-Level Surprising and Important Events in Large-Scale Data Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-28

    a current (start) state to one or several desired (goal) state or states. Note that like in standard search in Artificial Intelligence , the goal may...datasets. Publications: J. Zhao, C. Siagian, L. Itti, Fixation Bank : Learning to Reweight Fixation Candidates, In: Proc. IEEE Confer- ence on Computer...eyeglasses, In: Proc. IEEE/RSJ International Con- ference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), pp. 5674-5679, Nov 2013. [2013 acceptance rate: 43%] A

  7. Communication Management and Trust: Their Role in Building Resilience to "Surprises" Such As Natural Disasters, Pandemic Flu, and Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. H. Longstaff

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In times of public danger such as natural disasters and health emergencies, a country's communication systems will be some of its most important assets because access to information will make individuals and groups more resilient. Communication by those charged with dealing with the situation is often critical. We analyzed reports from a wide variety of crisis incidents and found a direct correlation between trust and an organization's preparedness and internal coordination of crisis communication and the effectiveness of its leadership. Thus, trust is one of the most important variables in effective communication management in times of "surprise."

  8. Generalized fractional integration of the \\overline{H}-function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Agarwal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A significantly large number of earlier works on the subject of fractional calculus give interesting account of the theory and applications of fractional calculus operators in many different areas of mathematical analysis (such as ordinary and partial differential equations, integral equations, special functions, summation of series, et cetera. In the present paper, we study and develop the generalized fractional integral operators given by Saigo. First, we establish two Theorems that give the images of the product of H-function and a general class of polynomials inSaigo operators. On account of the general nature of the Saigo operators, H-function and a general class of polynomials a large number of new and known Images involving Riemann-Liouville and Erdélyi-Kober fractional integral operators and several special functions notably generalized Wright hypergeometric function, generalized Wright-Bessel function, the polylogarithm and Mittag-Leffler functions follow as special cases of our main findings.

  9. On generalized fractional vibration equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Hongzhe; Zheng, Zhibao; Wang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper presents a generalized fractional vibration equation for arbitrary viscoelastically damped system. • Some classical vibration equations can be derived from the developed equation. • The analytic solution of developed equation is derived under some special cases. • The generalized equation is particularly useful for developing new fractional equivalent linearization method. - Abstract: In this paper, a generalized fractional vibration equation with multi-terms of fractional dissipation is developed to describe the dynamical response of an arbitrary viscoelastically damped system. It is shown that many classical equations of motion, e.g., the Bagley–Torvik equation, can be derived from the developed equation. The Laplace transform is utilized to solve the generalized equation and the analytic solution under some special cases is derived. Example demonstrates the generalized transfer function of an arbitrary viscoelastic system.

  10. Physcicists rewarded for 'fractional electrons'

    CERN Multimedia

    Ball, P

    1998-01-01

    The 1998 Nobel prize for physics has been awarded to Horst Stormer, Daniel Tsui and Robert Laughlin.Stormer and Tsui were the first to observe the fractional quantum Hall effect and Laughlin provided the theory shortly afterwards (1 page).

  11. Ultracentrifugation for ultrafine nanodiamond fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koniakhin, S. V.; Besedina, N. A.; Kirilenko, D. A.; Shvidchenko, A. V.; Eidelman, E. D.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we propose a method for ultrafine fractionation of nanodiamonds using the differential centrifugation in the fields up to 215000g. The developed protocols yield 4-6 nm fraction giving main contribution to the light scattering intensity. The desired 4-6 nm fraction can be obtained from various types of initial nanodiamonds: three types of detonation nanodiamonds differing in purifying methods, laser synthesis nanodiamonds and nanodiamonds made by milling. The characterization of the obtained hydrosols was conducted with Dynamic Light Scattering, Zeta potential measurements, powder XRD and TEM. According to powder XRD and TEM data ultracentrifugation also leads to a further fractionation of the primary diamond nanocrystallites in the hydrosols from 4 to 2 nm.

  12. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  13. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M andO 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  14. Fractional Reserve Banking: Some Quibbles

    OpenAIRE

    Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David

    2010-01-01

    We explore several unaddressed issues in George Selgin’s (1988) claim that the best monetary system to maintain monetary equilibrium is a fractional reserve free banking one. The claim that adverse clearing balances would limit credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking system is more troublesome than previously reckoned. Both lengthened clearing periods and interbank agreements render credit expansion unrestrained. “The theory of free banking” confuses increases in money held with...

  15. Intelligent fractions learning system: implementation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Conference Proceedings Paul Cunningham and Miriam Cunningham (Eds) IIMC International Information Management Corporation, 2011 ISBN: 978-1-905824-24-3 An Intelligent Fractions Learning System: Implementation Andrew Cyrus SMITH1, Teemu H. LAINE2 1CSIR... to fractions. Our aim with the current research project is to extend the existing UFractions learning system to incorporate automatic data capturing. ?Intelligent UFractions? allows a teacher to remotely monitor the children?s progress during...

  16. Radiation therapy of malignant melanomas: an evaluation of clinically used fractionation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, A.; Dritschilo, A.; Nathanson, L.; Piro, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    To assess the importance of radiation dose fraction size in the treatment of malignant melanomas, the records of 48 patients (83 sites) treated at Tufts-New England Medical Center from 1971 to 1979 have been retrospectively reviewed. During this period, the dose fractionation schemes evolved from standard fraction size to large-dose techniques. Radiation fraction size was observed to be the major factor in the clinical response of melanoma. Fractions of 600-800 rad resulted in the best overall response (80%). The rapid fractionation scheme of 800-400-400 rad on successive days resulted in intermediate response (58%) and may be useful for the palliative treatment of selected patients

  17. Using lod scores to detect sex differences in male-female recombination fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, B; Greenberg, D A; Hodge, S E

    2004-01-01

    Human recombination fraction (RF) can differ between males and females, but investigators do not always know which disease genes are located in genomic areas of large RF sex differences. Knowledge of RF sex differences contributes to our understanding of basic biology and can increase the power of a linkage study, improve gene localization, and provide clues to possible imprinting. One way to detect these differences is to use lod scores. In this study we focused on detecting RF sex differences and answered the following questions, in both phase-known and phase-unknown matings: (1) How large a sample size is needed to detect a RF sex difference? (2) What are "optimal" proportions of paternally vs. maternally informative matings? (3) Does ascertaining nonoptimal proportions of paternally or maternally informative matings lead to ascertainment bias? Our results were as follows: (1) We calculated expected lod scores (ELODs) under two different conditions: "unconstrained," allowing sex-specific RF parameters (theta(female), theta(male)); and "constrained," requiring theta(female) = theta(male). We then examined the DeltaELOD (identical with difference between maximized constrained and unconstrained ELODs) and calculated minimum sample sizes required to achieve statistically significant DeltaELODs. For large RF sex differences, samples as small as 10 to 20 fully informative matings can achieve statistical significance. We give general sample size guidelines for detecting RF differences in informative phase-known and phase-unknown matings. (2) We defined p as the proportion of paternally informative matings in the dataset; and the optimal proportion p(circ) as that value of p that maximizes DeltaELOD. We determined that, surprisingly, p(circ) does not necessarily equal (1/2), although it does fall between approximately 0.4 and 0.6 in most situations. (3) We showed that if p in a sample deviates from its optimal value, no bias is introduced (asymptotically) to the maximum

  18. Fractional Charge Definitions and Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldhaber, A.S.

    2004-06-04

    Fractional charge is known through theoretical and experimental discoveries of isolable objects carrying fractions of familiar charge units--electric charge Q, spin S, and the difference of baryon and lepton numbers B-L. With a few simple assumptions all these effects may be described using a generalized version of charge renormalization for locally conserved charges, in which medium correlations yield familiar adiabatic, continuous renormalization, or sometimes nonadiabatic, discrete renormalization. Fractional charges may be carried by fundamental particles or fundamental solitons. Either picture works for the simplest fractional-quantum-Hall-effect quasiholes, though the particle description is far more general. The only known fundamental solitons in three or fewer space dimensions d are the kink (d = 1), the vortex (d = 2), and the magnetic monopole (d = 3). Further, for a charge not intrinsically coupled to the topological charge of a soliton, only the kink and the monopole may carry fractional values. The same reasoning enforces fractional values of B-L for electrically charged elementary particles.

  19. Fractional Charge Definitions and Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Fractional charge is known through theoretical and experimental discoveries of isolable objects carrying fractions of familiar charge units--electric charge Q, spin S, and the difference of baryon and lepton numbers B-L. With a few simple assumptions all these effects may be described using a generalized version of charge renormalization for locally conserved charges, in which medium correlations yield familiar adiabatic, continuous renormalization, or sometimes nonadiabatic, discrete renormalization. Fractional charges may be carried by fundamental particles or fundamental solitons. Either picture works for the simplest fractional-quantum-Hall-effect quasiholes, though the particle description is far more general. The only known fundamental solitons in three or fewer space dimensions d are the kink (d = 1), the vortex (d = 2), and the magnetic monopole (d = 3). Further, for a charge not intrinsically coupled to the topological charge of a soliton, only the kink and the monopole may carry fractional values. The same reasoning enforces fractional values of B-L for electrically charged elementary particles

  20. Generating bessel functions in mie scattering calculations using continued fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, W J

    1976-03-01

    A new method of generating the Bessel functions and ratios of Bessel functions necessary for Mie calculations is presented. Accuracy is improved while eliminating the need for extended precision word lengths or large storage capability. The algorithm uses a new technique of evaluating continued fractions that starts at the beginning rather than the tail and has a built-in error check. The continued fraction representations for both spherical Bessel functions and ratios of Bessel functions of consecutive order are presented.

  1. Task A. Study of large P/sub T/ direct photon production at the ISR. Task B. Direct photon production at the tevatron (E-706). Task C. Search for fractional charge particles in semiconductors. Progress report, June 1, 1983-May 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, W.E.; Coon, D.D.; Engels, E. Jr.; Shepard, P.F.; Thompson, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Task A is the Pitt contingent of the Axial Field Spectrometer Collaboration, performing experiment R807/808 at CERN. The experiment has studied several topics related to study of high P/sub T/ phenomena such as production of jets at high E/sub T/ and a comparison of their properties with jets seen in e + e - . We are working primarily on those aspects of the experiment involving reactions with photons in the final state. We are completing an analysis of prompt photons and pions produced at 11 0 in the center of mass, from data taken in 1982. Presently, new data are being taken with two large NaI arrays in place. With these data, we are studying low P/sub T/ (20 to 200 MeV/c) photon production as well as prompt photons in the range 1.5 < P/sub T/ < 4 GeV/c. For the 1.5 - 4 GeV/c data we plan to compare single photon production in pp and anti pp collisions. Task B is the Pitt contingent of the E706 collaboration, which is studying prompt photon production in πp and pp collisions at the Tevatron. The major contribution of the Pitt effort to the experiment is the provision of the array of semiconductor detectors required for the charged particle spectrometer to be used in the study of correlated hadronic jets. Task C is the search for fractional charge in semiconductors. Although the physics goals of this experiment are removed from those of the other tasks, the technical overlap with task B is extremely important. The construction and testing of semiconductor detectors requires specialized semiconductor physics knowledge and instrumentation, both of which are being developed concurrently by these two tasks. 109 references

  2. The kinetics of repair in mouse lung after fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, E.L.; Thames, H.D.; Watkins, T.L.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    The kinetics of repair of sublethal damage in mouse lung was studied after fractionated doses of 137 Cs γ-rays. A wide range of doses per fraction (1.7-12 Gy) was given with interfraction intervals ranging from 0.5 to 24 h. Data were analysed by a direct method of analysis using the incomplete repair model. The half-time of repair (Tsub(1/2)) was 0.76 h for the pneumonitis phase of damage (up to 8 months) and 0.65 h for the later phase of damage up to 12 months. Rate of repair was dependent on fraction size for both phases of lung damage and was faster after large dose fractions than after small fractions. Tsub(1/2) was 0.6 h (95% c.1. 0.53, 0.69) for doses per fraction greater than 5 Gy and 0.83 h (95% c.1. 0.76, 0.92) for doses per fraction of 2 Gy. Repair was nearly complete by 6 h at least for the pneumonitis phase of damage. If extrapolated to humans, these results imply that treatments with multiple fractions per day involving the lung will not be limited by the necessity for interfraction intervals much longer than 6 h. (author)

  3. Fractional Diffusion Equations and Anomalous Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Luiz Roberto; Kaminski Lenzi, Ervin

    2018-01-01

    Preface; 1. Mathematical preliminaries; 2. A survey of the fractional calculus; 3. From normal to anomalous diffusion; 4. Fractional diffusion equations: elementary applications; 5. Fractional diffusion equations: surface effects; 6. Fractional nonlinear diffusion equation; 7. Anomalous diffusion: anisotropic case; 8. Fractional Schrödinger equations; 9. Anomalous diffusion and impedance spectroscopy; 10. The Poisson–Nernst–Planck anomalous (PNPA) models; References; Index.

  4. Conformable Fractional Bessel Equation and Bessel Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Gökdoğan, Ahmet; Ünal, Emrah; Çelik, Ercan

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we study the fractional power series solutions around regular singular point x=0 of conformable fractional Bessel differential equation and fractional Bessel functions. Then, we compare fractional solutions with ordinary solutions. In addition, we present certain property of fractional Bessel functions.

  5. Discrete fractional solutions of a Legendre equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmazer, Resat

    2018-01-01

    One of the most popular research interests of science and engineering is the fractional calculus theory in recent times. Discrete fractional calculus has also an important position in fractional calculus. In this work, we acquire new discrete fractional solutions of the homogeneous and non homogeneous Legendre differential equation by using discrete fractional nabla operator.

  6. Fractional governing equations of transient groundwater flow in confined aquifers with multi-fractional dimensions in fractional time

    OpenAIRE

    M. L. Kavvas; T. Tu; A. Ercan; J. Polsinelli

    2017-01-01

    Using fractional calculus, a dimensionally consistent governing equation of transient, saturated groundwater flow in fractional time in a multi-fractional confined aquifer is developed. First, a dimensionally consistent continuity equation for transient saturated groundwater flow in fractional time and in a multi-fractional, multidimensional confined aquifer is developed. For the equation of water flux within a multi-fractional multidimensional confined aquifer, a dimensionally...

  7. Consideration of margins for hypo fractionated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herschtal, A.; Foroudi, F.; Kron, T.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Geographical misses of the tumour are of concern in radiotherapy and are typically accommodated by introducing margins around the target. However, there is a trade-off between ensuring the target receives sufficient dose and minimising the dose to surrounding normal structures. Several methods of determining margin width have been developed with the most commonly used one proposed by M. VanHerk (VanHerk UROBP 52: 1407, 2002). VanHerk's model sets margins to achieve 95% of dose coverage for the target in 90% of patients. However, this model was derived assuming an infinite number of fractions. The aim of the present work is to estimate the modifications necessary to the model if a finite number of fractions are given. Software simulations were used to determine the true probability of a patient achieving 95% target coverage if different fraction numbers are used for a given margin width. Model parameters were informed by a large data set recently acquired at our institution using daily image guidance for prostate cancer patients with implanted fiducial markers. Assuming a 3 mm penumbral width it was found that using the VanHerk model only 74 or 54% of patients receive 95% of the prescription dose if 20 or 6 fractions are given, respectively. The steep dose gradients afforded by IMRT are likely to make consideration of the effects of hypofractionation more important. It is necessary to increase the margins around the target to ensure adequate tumour coverage if hypofractionated radiotherapy is to be used for cancer treatment. (author)

  8. Fractional charge definitions and conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, Alfred Scharff

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenon of fractional charge has come to prominence in recent decades through theoretical and experimental discoveries of isolable objects which carry fractions of familiar charge units--electric charge Q, spin S, baryon number B and lepton number L. It is shown here on the basis of a few simple assumptions that all these effects may be described using a generalized version of charge renormalization for locally conserved charges, in which many-body correlations can produce familiar adiabatic, continuous renormalization, and in some circumstances nonadiabatic, discrete renormalization. The fractional charges may be carried either by fundamental particles or by fundamental solitons. This excludes nontopological solitons and also skyrmions: The only known fundamental solitons in three or fewer space dimensions d are the kink (d=1), the vortex (d=2), and the magnetic monopole (d=3). Further, for a charge which is not intrinsically coupled to the topological charge of a soliton, only the kink and the monopole may carry fractional values. The same reasoning enforces fractional local values of B-L for electrically charged elementary particles

  9. REFractions: The Representing Equivalent Fractions Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Stephen I.

    2014-01-01

    Stephen Tucker presents a fractions game that addresses a range of fraction concepts including equivalence and computation. The REFractions game also improves students' fluency with representing, comparing and adding fractions.

  10. dimensional generalised time-fractional Hirota equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Youwei Zhang

    2018-02-09

    Feb 9, 2018 ... Fractional calculus has attracted much attention in ... cally proved that the fractional calculus theory is non- ... calculus and various definitions of fractional integration .... basic features of the tanh-expansion are outlined as.

  11. ‘Surprise’: Outbreak of Campylobacter infection associated with chicken liver pâté at a surprise birthday party, Adelaide, Australia, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Emily; Denehy, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Objective In July 2012, an outbreak of Campylobacter infection was investigated by the South Australian Communicable Disease Control Branch and Food Policy and Programs Branch. The initial notification identified illness at a surprise birthday party held at a restaurant on 14 July 2012. The objective of the investigation was to identify the potential source of infection and institute appropriate intervention strategies to prevent further illness. Methods A guest list was obtained and a retrospective cohort study undertaken. A combination of paper-based and telephone questionnaires were used to collect exposure and outcome information. An environmental investigation was conducted by Food Policy and Programs Branch at the implicated premises. Results All 57 guests completed the questionnaire (100% response rate), and 15 met the case definition. Analysis showed a significant association between illness and consumption of chicken liver pâté (relative risk: 16.7, 95% confidence interval: 2.4–118.6). No other food or beverage served at the party was associated with illness. Three guests submitted stool samples; all were positive for Campylobacter. The environmental investigation identified that the cooking process used in the preparation of chicken liver pâté may have been inconsistent, resulting in some portions not cooked adequately to inactivate potential Campylobacter contamination. Discussion Chicken liver products are a known source of Campylobacter infection; therefore, education of food handlers remains a high priority. To better identify outbreaks among the large number of Campylobacter notifications, routine typing of Campylobacter isolates is recommended. PMID:23908933

  12. Surprising finding on colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griglione, Nicole; Naik, Jahnavi; Christie, Jennifer

    2010-02-01

    A 48-year-old man went to his primary care physician for his annual physical. He told his physician that for the past few years, he had intermittent, painless rectal bleeding consisting of small amounts of blood on the toilet paper after defecation. He also mentioned that he often spontaneously awoke, very early in the morning. His past medical history was unremarkable. The patient was born in Cuba but had lived in the United States for more than 30 years. He was divorced, lived alone, and had no children. He had traveled to Latin America-including Mexico, Brazil, and Cuba-off and on over the past 10 years. His last trip was approximately 2 years ago. His physical exam was unremarkable. Rectal examination revealed no masses or external hemorrhoids; stool was brown and Hemoccult negative. Labs were remarkable for eosinophilia ranging from 10% to 24% over the past several years (the white blood cell count ranged from 5200 to 5900/mcL). A subsequent colonoscopy revealed many white, thin, motile organisms dispersed throughout the colon. The organisms were most densely populated in the cecum. Of note, the patient also had nonbleeding internal hemorrhoids. An aspiration of the organisms was obtained and sent to the microbiology lab for further evaluation. What is your diagnosis? How would you manage this condition?

  13. Surprising quantum bounces

    CERN Document Server

    Nesvizhevsky, Valery

    2015-01-01

    This unique book demonstrates the undivided unity and infinite diversity of quantum mechanics using a single phenomenon: quantum bounces of ultra-cold particles. Various examples of such "quantum bounces" are: gravitational quantum states of ultra-cold neutrons (the first observed quantum states of matter in a gravitational field), the neutron whispering gallery (an observed matter-wave analog of the whispering gallery effect well known in acoustics and for electromagnetic waves), and gravitational and whispering gallery states for anti-matter atoms that remain to be observed. These quantum states are an invaluable tool in the search for additional fundamental short-range forces, for exploring the gravitational interaction and quantum effects of gravity, for probing physics beyond the standard model, and for furthering studies into the foundations of quantum mechanics, quantum optics, and surface science.

  14. More Supernova Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    originated in South America. E veryone appreciates the beauty of dai- sies, chrysanthemums, and sunfl ow- ers, and many of us enjoy eating lettuce ...few fossils. On page 1621 of this issue, Barreda et al. ( 1) describe an unusually well-preserved new fossil that sheds light on the history of

  15. Surprising radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Radiation doses received by the human body can be measured indirectly and retrospectively by counting the tracks left by particles in ordinary objects like pair of spectacles, glassware, compact disks...This method has been successfully applied to determine neutron radiation doses received 50 years ago on the Hiroshima site. Neutrons themselves do not leave tracks in bulk matter but glass contains atoms of uranium that may fission when hurt by a neutron, the recoil of the fission fragments generates a track that is detectable. The most difficult is to find adequate glass items and to evaluate the radiation shield they benefited at their initial place. The same method has been used to determine the radiation dose due to the pile-up of radon in houses. In that case the tracks left by alpha particles due to the radioactive decay of polonium-210 have been counted on the superficial layer of the window panes. Other materials like polycarbonate plastics have been used to determine the radiation dose due to heavy io...

  16. More statistics, less surprise

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso & the LHCb collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration has recently announced new results for a parameter that measures the CP violation effect in particles containing charm quarks. The new values obtained with a larger data set and with a new independent method are showing that the effect is smaller than previous measurements had  suggested. The parameter is back into the Standard Model picture.   CP violation signals – in particles containing charm quarks, such as the D0 particle, is a powerful probe of new physics. Indeed, such effects could result in unexpected values of parameters whose expectation values in the Standard Model are known. Although less precise than similar approaches used in particles made of b quarks, the investigation of the charm system has proven  to be intriguing. The LHCb collaboration has reported new measurements of ΔACP, the difference in CP violation between the D0→K+K– and D0→π+π– decays. The results are ob...

  17. Generalized Multiparameters Fractional Variational Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash Agrawal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds upon our recent paper on generalized fractional variational calculus (FVC. Here, we briefly review some of the fractional derivatives (FDs that we considered in the past to develop FVC. We first introduce new one parameter generalized fractional derivatives (GFDs which depend on two functions, and show that many of the one-parameter FDs considered in the past are special cases of the proposed GFDs. We develop several parts of FVC in terms of one parameter GFDs. We point out how many other parts could be developed using the properties of the one-parameter GFDs. Subsequently, we introduce two new two- and three-parameter GFDs. We introduce some of their properties, and discuss how they can be used to develop FVC. In addition, we indicate how these formulations could be used in various fields, and how the generalizations presented here can be further extended.

  18. Semi-infinite fractional programming

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Ram U

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a smooth and unified transitional framework from generalised fractional programming, with a finite number of variables and a finite number of constraints, to semi-infinite fractional programming, where a number of variables are finite but with infinite constraints. It focuses on empowering graduate students, faculty and other research enthusiasts to pursue more accelerated research advances with significant interdisciplinary applications without borders. In terms of developing general frameworks for theoretical foundations and real-world applications, it discusses a number of new classes of generalised second-order invex functions and second-order univex functions, new sets of second-order necessary optimality conditions, second-order sufficient optimality conditions, and second-order duality models for establishing numerous duality theorems for discrete minmax (or maxmin) semi-infinite fractional programming problems.   In the current interdisciplinary supercomputer-oriented research envi...

  19. On a fractional difference operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Baliarsingh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, a set of new difference sequence spaces of fractional order has been introduced and subsequently, an application of these spaces, the notion of the derivatives and the integrals of a function to the case of non-integer order have been generalized. Certain results involving the unusual and non-uniform behavior of the corresponding difference operator have been investigated and also been verified by using some counter examples. We also verify these unusual and non-uniform behaviors by studying the geometry of fractional calculus.

  20. Fractional Transport in Strongly Turbulent Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isliker, Heinz; Vlahos, Loukas; Constantinescu, Dana

    2017-07-01

    We analyze statistically the energization of particles in a large scale environment of strong turbulence that is fragmented into a large number of distributed current filaments. The turbulent environment is generated through strongly perturbed, 3D, resistive magnetohydrodynamics simulations, and it emerges naturally from the nonlinear evolution, without a specific reconnection geometry being set up. Based on test-particle simulations, we estimate the transport coefficients in energy space for use in the classical Fokker-Planck (FP) equation, and we show that the latter fails to reproduce the simulation results. The reason is that transport in energy space is highly anomalous (strange), the particles perform Levy flights, and the energy distributions show extended power-law tails. Newly then, we motivate the use and derive the specific form of a fractional transport equation (FTE), we determine its parameters and the order of the fractional derivatives from the simulation data, and we show that the FTE is able to reproduce the high energy part of the simulation data very well. The procedure for determining the FTE parameters also makes clear that it is the analysis of the simulation data that allows us to make the decision whether a classical FP equation or a FTE is appropriate.

  1. How to use the Fast Fourier Transform in Large Finite Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Petur Birgir

    2011-01-01

    The article contents suggestions on how to perform the Fast Fourier Transform over Large Finite Fields. The technique is to use the fact that the multiplicative groups of specific prime fields are surprisingly composite.

  2. A componential view of children's difficulties in learning fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Florence; Coché, Frédéric; Szucs, Dénes; Carette, Vincent; Rey, Bernard; Content, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Fractions are well known to be difficult to learn. Various hypotheses have been proposed in order to explain those difficulties: fractions can denote different concepts; their understanding requires a conceptual reorganization with regard to natural numbers; and using fractions involves the articulation of conceptual knowledge with complex manipulation of procedures. In order to encompass the major aspects of knowledge about fractions, we propose to distinguish between conceptual and procedural knowledge. We designed a test aimed at assessing the main components of fraction knowledge. The test was carried out by fourth-, fifth- and sixth-graders from the French Community of Belgium. The results showed large differences between categories. Pupils seemed to master the part-whole concept, whereas numbers and operations posed problems. Moreover, pupils seemed to apply procedures they do not fully understand. Our results offer further directions to explain why fractions are amongst the most difficult mathematical topics in primary education. This study offers a number of recommendations on how to teach fractions. PMID:24133471

  3. A componential view of children's difficulties in learning fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Florence; Coché, Frédéric; Szucs, Dénes; Carette, Vincent; Rey, Bernard; Content, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Fractions are well known to be difficult to learn. Various hypotheses have been proposed in order to explain those difficulties: fractions can denote different concepts; their understanding requires a conceptual reorganization with regard to natural numbers; and using fractions involves the articulation of conceptual knowledge with complex manipulation of procedures. In order to encompass the major aspects of knowledge about fractions, we propose to distinguish between conceptual and procedural knowledge. We designed a test aimed at assessing the main components of fraction knowledge. The test was carried out by fourth-, fifth- and sixth-graders from the French Community of Belgium. The results showed large differences between categories. Pupils seemed to master the part-whole concept, whereas numbers and operations posed problems. Moreover, pupils seemed to apply procedures they do not fully understand. Our results offer further directions to explain why fractions are amongst the most difficult mathematical topics in primary education. This study offers a number of recommendations on how to teach fractions.

  4. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Varadhan, S R S

    2016-01-01

    The theory of large deviations deals with rates at which probabilities of certain events decay as a natural parameter in the problem varies. This book, which is based on a graduate course on large deviations at the Courant Institute, focuses on three concrete sets of examples: (i) diffusions with small noise and the exit problem, (ii) large time behavior of Markov processes and their connection to the Feynman-Kac formula and the related large deviation behavior of the number of distinct sites visited by a random walk, and (iii) interacting particle systems, their scaling limits, and large deviations from their expected limits. For the most part the examples are worked out in detail, and in the process the subject of large deviations is developed. The book will give the reader a flavor of how large deviation theory can help in problems that are not posed directly in terms of large deviations. The reader is assumed to have some familiarity with probability, Markov processes, and interacting particle systems.

  5. Riesz potential versus fractional Laplacian

    KAUST Repository

    Ortigueira, Manuel Duarte

    2014-09-01

    This paper starts by introducing the Grünwald-Letnikov derivative, the Riesz potential and the problem of generalizing the Laplacian. Based on these ideas, the generalizations of the Laplacian for 1D and 2D cases are studied. It is presented as a fractional version of the Cauchy-Riemann conditions and, finally, it is discussed with the n-dimensional Laplacian.

  6. A fast fractional difference algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Noack; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    2014-01-01

    We provide a fast algorithm for calculating the fractional difference of a time series. In standard implementations, the calculation speed (number of arithmetic operations) is of order T 2, where T is the length of the time series. Our algorithm allows calculation speed of order T log...

  7. A Fast Fractional Difference Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Noack; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    We provide a fast algorithm for calculating the fractional difference of a time series. In standard implementations, the calculation speed (number of arithmetic operations) is of order T 2, where T is the length of the time series. Our algorithm allows calculation speed of order T log...

  8. Geodesic continued fractions and LLL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, F

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a proposal for a continued fraction-like algorithm to determine simultaneous rational approximations to dd real numbers α1,…,αdα1,…,αd. It combines an algorithm of Hermite and Lagarias with ideas from LLL-reduction. We dynamically LLL-reduce a quadratic form with parameter tt as t↓0t↓0.

  9. A graph with fractional revival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Pierre-Antoine; Chan, Ada; Loranger, Érika; Tamon, Christino; Vinet, Luc

    2018-02-01

    An example of a graph that admits balanced fractional revival between antipodes is presented. It is obtained by establishing the correspondence between the quantum walk on a hypercube where the opposite vertices across the diagonals of each face are connected and, the coherent transport of single excitations in the extension of the Krawtchouk spin chain with next-to-nearest neighbour interactions.

  10. Riesz potential versus fractional Laplacian

    KAUST Repository

    Ortigueira, Manuel Duarte; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Machado, José Antó nio Tenreiro

    2014-01-01

    This paper starts by introducing the Grünwald-Letnikov derivative, the Riesz potential and the problem of generalizing the Laplacian. Based on these ideas, the generalizations of the Laplacian for 1D and 2D cases are studied. It is presented as a fractional version of the Cauchy-Riemann conditions and, finally, it is discussed with the n-dimensional Laplacian.

  11. What next in fractionated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    Trends in models for predicting the total dose required to produce tolerable normal-tissue injury can be seen by the progression from the ''cube root law'', through Strandqvist's slope of 0.22, to NSD, TDF and CRE which have separate time and fraction number exponents, to even better approximations now available. The dose-response formulae that can be used to define the effect of fraction size (and number) include (1) the linear quadratic (LQ) model (2) the two-component (TC) multi-target model and (3) repair-misrepair models. The LQ model offers considerable convenience, requires only two parameters to be determined, and emphasizes the difference between late and early normal-tissue dependence on dose per fraction first shown by exponents greater than the NSD slope of 0.24. Exponents of overall time, e.g. Tsup(0.11), yield the wrong shape of time curve, suggesting that most proliferating occurs early, although it really occurs after a delay depending on the turnover time of the tissue. Improved clinical results are being sought by hyperfractionation, accelerated fractionation, or continuous low dose rate irradiation as in interstitial implants. (U.K.)

  12. Fractional Laplace Transforms - A Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf A. Treumann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new form of the Laplace transform is reviewed as a paradigm for an entire class of fractional functional transforms. Various of its properties are discussed. Such transformations should be useful in application to differential/integral equations or problems in non-extensive statistical mechanics.

  13. Pythagorean Approximations and Continued Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Javier

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we will show that the Pythagorean approximations of [the square root of] 2 coincide with those achieved in the 16th century by means of continued fractions. Assuming this fact and the known relation that connects the Fibonacci sequence with the golden section, we shall establish a procedure to obtain sequences of rational numbers…

  14. Fractional Processes and Fractional-Order Signal Processing Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sheng, Hu; Qiu, TianShuang

    2012-01-01

    Fractional processes are widely found in science, technology and engineering systems. In Fractional Processes and Fractional-order Signal Processing, some complex random signals, characterized by the presence of a heavy-tailed distribution or non-negligible dependence between distant observations (local and long memory), are introduced and examined from the ‘fractional’ perspective using simulation, fractional-order modeling and filtering and realization of fractional-order systems. These fractional-order signal processing (FOSP) techniques are based on fractional calculus, the fractional Fourier transform and fractional lower-order moments. Fractional Processes and Fractional-order Signal Processing: • presents fractional processes of fixed, variable and distributed order studied as the output of fractional-order differential systems; • introduces FOSP techniques and the fractional signals and fractional systems point of view; • details real-world-application examples of FOSP techniques to demonstr...

  15. Fractional governing equations of transient groundwater flow in confined aquifers with multi-fractional dimensions in fractional time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Kavvas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Using fractional calculus, a dimensionally consistent governing equation of transient, saturated groundwater flow in fractional time in a multi-fractional confined aquifer is developed. First, a dimensionally consistent continuity equation for transient saturated groundwater flow in fractional time and in a multi-fractional, multidimensional confined aquifer is developed. For the equation of water flux within a multi-fractional multidimensional confined aquifer, a dimensionally consistent equation is also developed. The governing equation of transient saturated groundwater flow in a multi-fractional, multidimensional confined aquifer in fractional time is then obtained by combining the fractional continuity and water flux equations. To illustrate the capability of the proposed governing equation of groundwater flow in a confined aquifer, a numerical application of the fractional governing equation to a confined aquifer groundwater flow problem was also performed.

  16. Large complex ovarian cyst managed by laparoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Dipak J. Limbachiya; Ankit Chaudhari; Grishma P. Agrawal

    2017-01-01

    Complex ovarian cyst with secondary infection is a rare disease that hardly responds to the usual antibiotic treatment. Most of the times, it hampers day to day activities of women. It is commonly known to cause pain and fever. To our surprise, in our case the cyst was large enough to compress the ureter and it was adherent to the surrounding structures. Laparoscopic removal of the cyst was done and specimen was sent for histopathological examination.

  17. Generalized time fractional IHCP with Caputo fractional derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murio, D A; MejIa, C E

    2008-01-01

    The numerical solution of the generalized time fractional inverse heat conduction problem (GTFIHCP) on a finite slab is investigated in the presence of measured (noisy) data when the time fractional derivative is interpreted in the sense of Caputo. The GTFIHCP involves the simultaneous identification of the heat flux and temperature transient functions at one of the boundaries of the finite slab together with the initial condition of the original direct problem from noisy Cauchy data at a discrete set of points on the opposite (active) boundary. A finite difference space marching scheme with adaptive regularization, using trigonometric mollification techniques and generalized cross validation is introduced. Error estimates for the numerical solution of the mollified problem and numerical examples are provided.

  18. Phosphorous fractions in soils of rubber-based agroforestry systems: Influence of season, management and stand age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenggang; Jin, Yanqiang; Liu, Changan; Tang, Jianwei; Wang, Qingwei; Xu, Mingxi

    2018-03-01

    Rubber-based agroforestry system is a vital management practice and its productivity is often controlled by soil phosphorus (P) nutrient, but little information is available on P fractions dynamics in such system. The aim of this study was to examine the seasonal, management and stand age effects on P fractions, acid phosphatase activity, microbial biomass P, other physical-chemical properties and litter and roots in four systems: 10-year-old rubber mono- (YM) and intercropping (YI) with N-fixing species (NFS), 22-year-old mono- (MM) and intercropping (MI) in Xishuangbanna, Southwestern China. Most P fractions varied seasonally at different depths, with highest values in the fog-cool season (i.e. labile P at 5-60cm, non-labile P and total P at 30-60cm). By contrast, moderately labile P varied little over time, except in MI that had lower values in the rainy season. Compared with their monoculture counterparts, YI doubled resin-P i concentration but decreased NaHCO 3 -extractable P, HCl-P i and residual-P o at the 0-30cm depth, whereas MI had hardly any changes in P species at the 60-cm depth. Surprisingly, residual-P o was enriched down to the deepest soil (30-60cm) in both YI and MI in the fog-cool season. All P fractions, except NaOH 0.1 -P i , were greatly reduced with increasing stand age. In addition to plants uptake, these changes can be explained by seasonality in soil environments (e.g. moisture, temperature, pH and microbial activity) and decomposition of litter and roots. Moreover, YI decreased labile P o stock, but MI increased moderately labile P i at the 60-cm depth across seasons. The results imply that a large amount of residual-P o exists in acidic Oxisol from China and that they can be reasonably exploited to reduce the application of P fertilizers, highlighting the importance of P o pool. Taken together, intercropping mature rubber plantation with NFS appears to be an effective way to enhance productivity while maintaining adequate soil P

  19. The Inner Regions of Disk Galaxies: A Constant Baryonic Fraction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Lelli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available For disk galaxies (spirals and irregulars, the inner circular-velocity gradient dRV0 (inner steepness of the rotation curve correlates with the central surface brightness ∑*,0 with a slope of ~0.5. This implies that the central dynamical mass density scales almost linearly with the central baryonic density. Here I show that this empirical relation is consistent with a simple model where the central baryonic fraction ƒbar,0 is fixed to 1 (no dark matter and the observed scatter is due to differences in the baryonic mass-to-light ratio Mbar / LR (ranging from 1 to 3 in the R-band and in the characteristic thickness of the central stellar component Δz (ranging from 100 to 500 pc. Models with lower baryonic fractions are possible, although they require some fine-tuning in the values of Mbar/LR and Δz. Regardless of the actual value of ƒbar,0, the fact that different types of galaxies do not show strong variations in ƒbar,0 is surprising, and may represent a challenge for models of galaxy formation in a Λ Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM cosmology.

  20. Some comparison of two fractional oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Yonggang; Zhang Xiu'e

    2010-01-01

    The other form of fractional oscillator equation comparing to the widely discussed one is ushered in. The properties of vibration of two fractional oscillators are discussed under the influence of different initial conditions. The interpretation of the characteristics of the fractional oscillators using different method is illustrated. Based on two fractional oscillator equations, two linked bodies and the continuous system are studied.

  1. 9 CFR 113.7 - Multiple fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multiple fractions. 113.7 Section 113... § 113.7 Multiple fractions. (a) When a biological product contains more than one immunogenic fraction, the completed product shall be evaluated by tests applicable to each fraction. (b) When similar...

  2. A fractional Dirac equation and its solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muslih, Sami I; Agrawal, Om P; Baleanu, Dumitru

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a fractional Dirac equation and its solution. The fractional Dirac equation may be obtained using a fractional variational principle and a fractional Klein-Gordon equation; both methods are considered here. We extend the variational formulations for fractional discrete systems to fractional field systems defined in terms of Caputo derivatives. By applying the variational principle to a fractional action S, we obtain the fractional Euler-Lagrange equations of motion. We present a Lagrangian and a Hamiltonian for the fractional Dirac equation of order α. We also use a fractional Klein-Gordon equation to obtain the fractional Dirac equation which is the same as that obtained using the fractional variational principle. Eigensolutions of this equation are presented which follow the same approach as that for the solution of the standard Dirac equation. We also provide expressions for the path integral quantization for the fractional Dirac field which, in the limit α → 1, approaches to the path integral for the regular Dirac field. It is hoped that the fractional Dirac equation and the path integral quantization of the fractional field will allow further development of fractional relativistic quantum mechanics.

  3. On the fractional calculus of Besicovitch function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Yongshun

    2009-01-01

    Relationship between fractional calculus and fractal functions has been explored. Based on prior investigations dealing with certain fractal functions, fractal dimensions including Hausdorff dimension, Box dimension, K-dimension and Packing dimension is shown to be a linear function of order of fractional calculus. Both Riemann-Liouville fractional calculus and Weyl-Marchaud fractional derivative of Besicovitch function have been discussed.

  4. 12 CFR 5.67 - Fractional shares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... connection with fractional shares, a national bank issuing additional stock by stock dividend, upon... fair price upon the fraction not being issued through its sale, or the purchase of the additional... stock; (c) Remit the cash equivalent of the fraction not being issued to those to whom fractional shares...

  5. Single electron probes of fractional quantum hall states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, Vivek

    When electrons are confined to a two dimensional layer with a perpendicular applied magnetic field, such that the ratio of electrons to flux quanta (nu) is a small integer or simple rational value, these electrons condense into remarkable new phases of matter that are strikingly different from the metallic electron gas that exists in the absence of a magnetic field. These phases, called integer or fractional quantum Hall (IQH or FQH) states, appear to be conventional insulators in their bulk, but behave as a dissipationless metal along their edge. Furthermore, electrical measurements of such a system are largely insensitive to the detailed geometry of how the system is contacted or even how large the system is... only the order in which contacts are made appears to matter. This insensitivity to local geometry has since appeared in a number of other two and three dimensional systems, earning them the classification of "topological insulators" and prompting an enormous experimental and theoretical effort to understand their properties and perhaps manipulate these properties to create robust quantum information processors. The focus of this thesis will be two experiments designed to elucidate remarkable properties of the metallic edge and insulating bulk of certain FQH systems. To study such systems, we can use mesoscopic devices known as single electron transistors (SETs). These devices operate by watching single electrons hop into and out of a confining box and into a nearby wire (for measurement). If it is initially unfavorable for an electron to leave the box, it can be made favorable by bringing another charge nearby, modifying the energy of the confined electron and pushing it out of the box and into the nearby wire. In this way, the SET can measure nearby charges. Alternatively, we can heat up the nearby wire to make it easier for electrons to enter and leave the box. In this way, the SET is a sensitive thermometer. First, by operating the SET as an

  6. Fractional vector calculus and fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazopoulos, Konstantinos A.; Lazopoulos, Anastasios K.

    2017-04-01

    Basic fluid mechanics equations are studied and revised under the prism of fractional continuum mechanics (FCM), a very promising research field that satisfies both experimental and theoretical demands. The geometry of the fractional differential has been clarified corrected and the geometry of the fractional tangent spaces of a manifold has been studied in Lazopoulos and Lazopoulos (Lazopoulos KA, Lazopoulos AK. Progr. Fract. Differ. Appl. 2016, 2, 85-104), providing the bases of the missing fractional differential geometry. Therefore, a lot can be contributed to fractional hydrodynamics: the basic fractional fluid equations (Navier Stokes, Euler and Bernoulli) are derived and fractional Darcy's flow in porous media is studied.

  7. FRACTIONATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF TECHNICAL AMMONIUM LIGNOSULPHONATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Ann Leger

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to use lignin in any analytical methodology without reducing its considerable polydispersity by fractionation. An ammonium lignosulphonate sample was fractionated using a method of partial solubility in solutions of isopropanol increasingly diluted with distilled water, effectively fractionating by polarity. Selected fractions were characterised by gravimetric determination of the fractions, and determination of acid insoluble lignin, soluble lignin, and carbohydrate contents. Acid-insoluble lignin content was very low, and soluble lignin provided the majority of the lignin content, as should be expected from sulphonated lignin. Carbohydrate contents were also fairly low, the highest percentage at 14.5 being in Fraction 2, with the bulk lignin and Fraction 3 having 6.5% and 3.2%, respectively. Differences in the composition of each fraction support the efficacy of the fractionation process and permitted selection of fractions for use in subsequent studies.

  8. Fractional hydrodynamic equations for fractal media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2005-01-01

    We use the fractional integrals in order to describe dynamical processes in the fractal medium. We consider the 'fractional' continuous medium model for the fractal media and derive the fractional generalization of the equations of balance of mass density, momentum density, and internal energy. The fractional generalization of Navier-Stokes and Euler equations are considered. We derive the equilibrium equation for fractal media. The sound waves in the continuous medium model for fractional media are considered

  9. Geometrical explanation of the fractional complex transform and derivative chain rule for fractional calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Ji-Huan; Elagan, S.K.; Li, Z.B.

    2012-01-01

    The fractional complex transform is suggested to convert a fractional differential equation with Jumarie's modification of Riemann–Liouville derivative into its classical differential partner. Understanding the fractional complex transform and the chain rule for fractional calculus are elucidated geometrically. -- Highlights: ► The chain rule for fractional calculus is invalid, a counter example is given. ► The fractional complex transform is explained geometrically. ► Fractional equations can be converted into differential equations.

  10. Search for free fractional charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilig, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Recent results of searches for free fractional charge have been null with the exception of the experiment at Stanford under the leadership of W. Fairbank. His experiment, while claiming the observation of free fractional charge, has yet to show that this observation was not spurious. The need for a confirming experiment with a different physical system is the motivation for the current work. A torsional pendulum has been constructed of a fused silica fiber with an attached fused silica crossbar. A transverse electric field is applied to the end of the crossbar, and the resulting deflection of the crossbar is used to measure the torque applied by the field. To date the limit of measurement for the charge on the crossbar (without sample) is 0 +/- 24 electronic charges. The history of this experiment is discussed, along with plans for pushing the limits of measurement to below the single-charge level

  11. Measuring condensate fraction in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarty, Sudip; Kee, Hae-Young

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of off-diagonal long-range order in superconductors shows that the spin-spin correlation function is significantly influenced by the order if the order parameter is anisotropic on a microscopic scale. Thus, magnetic neutron scattering can provide a direct measurement of the condensate fraction of a superconductor. It is also argued that recent measurements in high-temperature superconductors come very close to achieving this goal. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  12. Microfluidic Devices for Blood Fractionation

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Han Wei; Bhagat, Ali Asgar S.; Lee, Wong Cheng J.; Huang, Sha; Han, Jongyoon; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2011-01-01

    Blood, a complex biological fluid, comprises 45% cellular components suspended in protein rich plasma. These different hematologic components perform distinct functions in vivo and thus the ability to efficiently fractionate blood into its individual components has innumerable applications in both clinical diagnosis and biological research. Yet, processing blood is not trivial. In the past decade, a flurry of new microfluidic based technologies has emerged to address this compelling problem. ...

  13. Surfaces allowing for fractional statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneziris, Charilaos.

    1992-07-01

    In this paper we give a necessary condition in order for a geometrical surface to allow for Abelian fractional statistics. In particular, we show that such statistics is possible only for two-dimentional oriented surfaces of genus zero, namely the sphere S 2 , the plane R 2 and the cylindrical surface R 1 *S 1 , and in general the connected sum of n planes R 2 -R 2 -R 2 -...-R 2 . (Author)

  14. Why Is Learning Fraction and Decimal Arithmetic so Difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortie-Forgues, Hugues; Tian, Jing; Siegler, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Fraction and decimal arithmetic are crucial for later mathematics achievement and for ability to succeed in many professions. Unfortunately, these capabilities pose large difficulties for many children and adults, and students' proficiency in them has shown little sign of improvement over the past three decades. To summarize what is known about…

  15. Tempered fractional time series model for turbulence in geophysical flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerschaert, Mark M.; Sabzikar, Farzad; Phanikumar, Mantha S.; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2014-09-01

    We propose a new time series model for velocity data in turbulent flows. The new model employs tempered fractional calculus to extend the classical 5/3 spectral model of Kolmogorov. Application to wind speed and water velocity in a large lake are presented, to demonstrate the practical utility of the model.

  16. Tempered fractional time series model for turbulence in geophysical flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meerschaert, Mark M; Sabzikar, Farzad; Phanikumar, Mantha S; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new time series model for velocity data in turbulent flows. The new model employs tempered fractional calculus to extend the classical 5/3 spectral model of Kolmogorov. Application to wind speed and water velocity in a large lake are presented, to demonstrate the practical utility of the model. (paper)

  17. Validating a Written Instrument for Assessing Students' Fractions Schemes and

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this study,…

  18. Strategy Use and Strategy Choice in Fraction Magnitude Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Lisa K.; DeWolf, Melissa; Siegler, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    We examined, on a trial-by-trial basis, fraction magnitude comparison strategies of adults with more and less mathematical knowledge. College students with high mathematical proficiency used a large variety of strategies that were well tailored to the characteristics of the problems and that were guaranteed to yield correct performance if executed…

  19. The Use of Fractionation Scales for Communication Audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, George A.; And Others

    A study investigated a new method of measuring organizational communication other than the audit methods currently in use. The method, which employs fractionation procedures, was used with workers from five different business groups within a large multinational corporation. The results showed that: (1) workers could use the scales reliably, (2)…

  20. Linear-quadratic model underestimates sparing effect of small doses per fraction in rat spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shun Wong, C.; Toronto University; Minkin, S.; Hill, R.P.; Toronto University

    1993-01-01

    The application of the linear-quadratic (LQ) model to describe iso-effective fractionation schedules for dose fraction sizes less than 2 Gy has been controversial. Experiments are described in which the effect of daily fractionated irradiation given with a wide range of fraction sizes was assessed in rat cervical spine cord. The first group of rats was given doses in 1, 2, 4, 8 and 40 fractions/day. The second group received 3 initial 'top-up'doses of 9 Gy given once daily, representing 3/4 tolerance, followed by doses in 1, 2, 10, 20, 30 and 40 fractions/day. The fractionated portion of the irradiation schedule therefore constituted only the final quarter of the tolerance dose. The endpoint of the experiments was paralysis of forelimbs secondary to white matter necrosis. Direct analysis of data from experiments with full course fractionation up to 40 fractions/day (25.0-1.98 Gy/fraction) indicated consistency with the LQ model yielding an α/β value of 2.41 Gy. Analysis of data from experiments in which the 3 'top-up' doses were followed by up to 10 fractions (10.0-1.64 Gy/fraction) gave an α/β value of 3.41 Gy. However, data from 'top-up' experiments with 20, 30 and 40 fractions (1.60-0.55 Gy/fraction) were inconsistent with LQ model and gave a very small α/β of 0.48 Gy. It is concluded that LQ model based on data from large doses/fraction underestimates the sparing effect of small doses/fraction, provided sufficient time is allowed between each fraction for repair of sublethal damage. (author). 28 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  1. Surprisingly high specificity of the PPD skin test for M. tuberculosis infection from recent exposure in The Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Philip C; Brookes, Roger H; Fox, Annette; Jackson-Sillah, Dolly; Lugos, Moses D; Jeffries, David J; Donkor, Simon A; Adegbola, Richard A; McAdam, Keith P W J

    2006-12-20

    Options for intervention against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection are limited by the diagnostic tools available. The Purified Protein Derivative (PPD) skin test is thought to be non-specific, especially in tropical settings. We compared the PPD skin test with an ELISPOT test in The Gambia. Household contacts over six months of age of sputum smear positive TB cases and community controls were recruited. They underwent a PPD skin test and an ELISPOT test for the T cell response to PPD and ESAT-6/CFP10 antigens. Responsiveness to M. tuberculosis exposure was analysed according to sleeping proximity to an index case using logistic regression. 615 household contacts and 105 community controls were recruited. All three tests assessed increased significantly in positivity with increasing M. tuberculosis exposure, the PPD skin test most dramatically (OR 15.7; 95% CI 6.6-35.3). While the PPD skin test positivity continued to trend downwards in the community with increasing distance from a known case (61.9% to 14.3%), the PPD and ESAT-6/CFP-10 ELISPOT positivity did not. The PPD skin test was more in agreement with ESAT-6/CFP-10 ELISPOT (75%, p = 0.01) than the PPD ELISPOT (53%, pPPD skin test positive increased (pPPD skin test negative decreased (pPPD skin test has surprisingly high specificity for M. tuberculosis infection from recent exposure in The Gambia. In this setting, anti-tuberculous prophylaxis in PPD skin test positive individuals should be revisited.

  2. Surprising transformation of a block copolymer into a high performance polystyrene ultrafiltration membrane with a hierarchically organized pore structure

    KAUST Repository

    Shevate, Rahul

    2018-02-08

    We describe the preparation of hierarchical polystyrene nanoporous membranes with a very narrow pore size distribution and an extremely high porosity. The nanoporous structure is formed as a result of unusual degradation of the poly(4-vinyl pyridine) block from self-assembled poly(styrene)-b-poly(4-vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) membranes through the formation of an unstable pyridinium intermediate in an alkaline medium. During this process, the confined swelling and controlled degradation produced a tunable pore size. We unequivocally confirmed the successful elimination of the P4VP block from a PS-b-P4VPVP membrane using 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy and other characterization techniques. Surprisingly, the long range ordered surface porosity was preserved even after degradation of the P4VP block from the main chain of the diblock copolymer, as revealed by SEM. Aside from a drastically improved water flux (∼67% increase) compared to the PS-b-P4VP membrane, the hydraulic permeability measurements validated pH independent behaviour of the isoporous PS membrane over a wide pH range from 3 to 10. The effect of the pore size on protein transport rate and selectivity (a) was investigated for lysozyme (Lys), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and globulin-γ (IgG). A high selectivity of 42 (Lys/IgG) and 30 (BSA/IgG) was attained, making the membranes attractive for size selective separation of biomolecules from their synthetic model mixture solutions.

  3. How to reach clients of female sex workers: a survey by surprise in brothels in Dakar, Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espirito Santo, M. E. Gomes do; Etheredge, G. D.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the sampling techniques and survey procedures used in identifying male clients who frequent brothels to buy sexual services from female sex workers in Dakar, Senegal, with the aim of measuring the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and investigating related risk behaviours. METHODS: Surveys were conducted in seven brothels in Dakar, Senegal. Clients were identified "by surprise" and interviewed and requested to donate saliva for HIV testing. RESULTS: Of the 1450 clients of prostitutes who were solicited to enter the study, 1140 (79.8%) agreed to be interviewed; 1083 (95%) of these clients provided saliva samples for testing. Of the samples tested, 47 were positive for HIV-1 or HIV-2, giving an HIV prevalence of 4.4%. CONCLUSION: The procedures adopted were successful in reaching the target population. Men present in the brothels could not deny being there, and it proved possible to explain the purpose of the study and to gain their confidence. Collection of saliva samples was shown to be an excellent method for performing HIV testing in difficult field conditions where it is hard to gain access to the population under study. The surveying of prostitution sites is recommended as a means of identifying core groups for HIV infection with a view to targeting education programmes more effectively. In countries such as Senegal, where the prevalence of HIV infection is still low, interventions among commercial sex workers and their clients may substantially delay the onset of a larger epidemic in the general population. PMID:12378288

  4. ‘Surprise’: Outbreak of Campylobacter infection associated with chicken liver pâté at a surprise birthday party, Adelaide, Australia, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Denehy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In July 2012, an outbreak of Campylobacter infection was investigated by the South Australian Communicable Disease Control Branch and Food Policy and Programs Branch. The initial notification identified illness at a surprise birthday party held at a restaurant on 14 July 2012. The objective of the investigation was to identify the potential source of infection and institute appropriate intervention strategies to prevent further illness.Methods: A guest list was obtained and a retrospective cohort study undertaken. A combination of paper-based and telephone questionnaires were used to collect exposure and outcome information. An environmental investigation was conducted by Food Policy and Programs Branch at the implicated premises.Results: All 57 guests completed the questionnaire (100% response rate, and 15 met the case definition. Analysis showed a significant association between illness and consumption of chicken liver pâté (relative risk: 16.7, 95% confidence interval: 2.4–118.6. No other food or beverage served at the party was associated with illness. Three guests submitted stool samples; all were positive for Campylobacter. The environmental investigation identified that the cooking process used in the preparation of chicken liver pâté may have been inconsistent, resulting in some portions not cooked adequately to inactivate potential Campylobacter contamination.Discussion: Chicken liver products are a known source of Campylobacter infection; therefore, education of food handlers remains a high priority. To better identify outbreaks among the large number of Campylobacter notifications, routine typing of Campylobacter isolates is recommended.

  5. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Deuschel, Jean-Dominique; Deuschel, Jean-Dominique

    2001-01-01

    This is the second printing of the book first published in 1988. The first four chapters of the volume are based on lectures given by Stroock at MIT in 1987. They form an introduction to the basic ideas of the theory of large deviations and make a suitable package on which to base a semester-length course for advanced graduate students with a strong background in analysis and some probability theory. A large selection of exercises presents important material and many applications. The last two chapters present various non-uniform results (Chapter 5) and outline the analytic approach that allow

  6. Early fractionation methods and the origins of the NSD concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thames, H.D. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The concept of the time factor in radiotherapy originated in the controversy surrounding single-dose and fractionated treatments during the first 20 years of this century. The success of Coutard's fractionated treatments of larynx tumors was an important factor in the abandonment of single-dose treatments. There was considerable research afterwards into the influence of dose rate and overall time of treatment on the responses of normal tissues. Recovery was modeled in terms of the Schwarzschild law of photochemistry, as exemplified by the analysis of Strandqvist in log dose-log time coordinates. Different conventions were followed in defining the time for a single-dose treatment. Subsequently the concept arose that the slopes of isoeffect lines relating dose and treatment time for normal tissues and tumors were different and moreover that the effects of fraction number and overall time could be separated; these developments constituted the foundation of the Ellis NSD model. It had an important influence on clinical practice and was reasonably successful in predicting isoeffective regimens for acute effects. It failed to predict severe late effects after large dose fractions. The dissociation between acute and late effects with altered fractionation led to recognition of the importance of the ratio α/β in characterizing the fractionation sensitivity of tissues. (orig.) With 125 refs

  7. Measurement of local void fraction in a ribbed annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steimke, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    The computer code FLOWTRAN-TF is used to analyze hypothetical hydraulic accidents for the nuclear reactor at the Savannah River Site. During a hypothetical Large Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA), reactor assemblies would contain a two-phase mixture of air and water which flows downward. Reactor assemblies consist of nested, ribbed annuli. Longitudinal ribs divide each annulus into four subchannels. For accident conditions, air and water can flow past ribs from one subchannel to another. For FLOWTRAN-TF to compute the size of those flows, it is necessary to know the local void fraction in the region of the rib. Measurements have previously been made of length-average void fraction in a ribbed annulus. However, no direct measurements were available of local void fraction. Due to the lack of data, a test was designed to measure local void fraction at the rib. One question addressed by the test was whether void fraction at the rib is solely a function of azimuthal-average void fraction or a function of additional variables such as pressure boundary conditions. This report provides a discussion of this test

  8. Binary Star Fractions from the LAMOST DR4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhi-Jia; Liu, Xiao-Wei; Yuan, Hai-Bo; Chen, Bing-Qiu; Xiang, Mao-Sheng; Huang, Yang; Wang, Chun; Zhang, Hua-Wei; Guo, Jin-Cheng; Ren, Juan-Juan; Huo, Zhi-Ying; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Meng; Bi, Shao-Lan; Yang, Wu-Ming; Liu, Kang; Zhang, Xian-Fei; Li, Tan-Da; Wu, Ya-Qian; Zhang, Jing-Hua

    2018-05-01

    Stellar systems composed of single, double, triple or higher-order systems are rightfully regarded as the fundamental building blocks of the Milky Way. Binary stars play an important role in formation and evolution of the Galaxy. Through comparing the radial velocity variations from multi-epoch observations, we analyze the binary fraction of dwarf stars observed with LAMOST. Effects of different model assumptions, such as orbital period distributions on the estimate of binary fractions, are investigated. The results based on log-normal distribution of orbital periods reproduce the previous complete analyses better than the power-law distribution. We find that the binary fraction increases with T eff and decreases with [Fe/H]. We first investigate the relation between α-elements and binary fraction in such a large sample as provided by LAMOST. The old stars with high [α/Fe] dominate with a higher binary fraction than young stars with low [α/Fe]. At the same mass, earlier forming stars possess a higher binary fraction than newly forming ones, which may be related with evolution of the Galaxy.

  9. Influence of Organic Manure on Organic Phosphorus Fraction in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGYONG-SONG; NIWU-ZHONG; 等

    1993-01-01

    The transformation of organic P(Po) from organic manures in two types of soils (ultisol and entisol) and the influences of external addition of organic substance or inorganic P(Pi) on Po under the condition of the 60% maximum water capacity were investigated.The results obtained from Po fractionation experiments indicated that all the Po fractions except for the highly resistant Po fraction decreased during incubation.Application of pig feces and cow feces could largely increase each fraction of Po in the soils.Immediately after application of organic manure into the soils a large part of labile and moderately labile Po from organic manure was transferred into moderately resistant Po,which might be due to the fact that Ca-or Mg-inositol P was precipitated into Fe-inositol P.However,the availability of Po from organic manure in the soils would increase again after incubation because of the transformation of moderately labile and resistant Po fractions into labile Po fractions.Addition of cellulose or Pi into the soils showed a good effect on increasing all the Po fractions except for the highly resistant Po,and this effect was much more pronounced when cellulose was applied in combination with Pi.Therefore,in view of the effect of organic manure on improving P nutrition to plant,attention should be paid to both the Po and the organic substances from organic manure,It is suggested that application of Pi fertilizer combined with organic manure may be referred to as an effective means of protecting Pi from chemical fixation in soil.

  10. The Impact of a Surprise Dividend Increase on a Stocks Performance : the Analysis of Companies Listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Słoński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of marginal investors to the announcement of a surprise dividend increase has been measured. Although field research is performed on companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange, the paper has important theoretical implications. Valuation theory gives many clues for the interpretation of changes in dividends. At the start of the literature review, the assumption of the irrelevance of dividends (to investment decisions is described. This assumption is the basis for up-to-date valuation procedures leading to fundamental and fair market valuation of equity (shares. The paper is designed to verify whether the market value of stock is immune to the surprise announcement of a dividend increase. This study of the effect of a surprise dividend increase gives the chance to partially isolate such an event from dividend changes based on long-term expectations. The result of the research explicitly shows that a surprise dividend increase is on average welcomed by investors (an average abnormal return of 2.24% with an associated p-value of 0.001. Abnormal returns are realized by investors when there is a surprise increase in a dividend payout. The subsample of relatively high increases in a dividend payout enables investors to gain a 3.2% return on average. The results show that valuation models should be revised to take into account a possible impact of dividend changes on investors behavior. (original abstract

  11. Natural fractionation of uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noordmann, Janine

    2015-01-01

    The topic of this thesis was the investigation of U (n( 238 U) / n( 235 U)) isotope variations in nature with a focus on samples (1) that represent the continental crust and its weathering products (i.e. granites, shales and river water) (2) that represent products of hydrothermal alteration on mid-ocean ridges (i.e. altered basalts, carbonate veins and hydrothermal water) and (3) from restricted euxinic basins (i.e. from the water column and respective sediments). The overall goal was to explore the environmental conditions and unravel the mechanisms that fractionate the two most abundant U isotopes, n( 238 U) and n( 235 U), on Earth.

  12. Fractional separation of hydrocarbon vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-07-10

    A process is described for converting higher boiling hydrocarbons to lower boiling hydrocarbons by subjecting them at elevated temperatures to a conversion operation, then separating the higher and lower boiling fractions. The separation takes place while the reaction products are maintained in the vapor phase by contact with a mass of solid porous material which has little or no catalytic activity but does have a preferential absorption property for higher boiling hydrocarbons so that the lower boiling part of the reaction products pass through the separation zone while the heavier hydrocarbons are retained. The separation is accomplished without substantial loss of heat of these reaction products.

  13. A new in vivo model of pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration reveals a surprising role for transcriptional regulation in pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun ePandey

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration (PKAN is a neurodegenerative disorder with a poorly understood molecular mechanism. It is caused by mutations in Pantothenate Kinase, the first enzyme in the Coenzyme A (CoA biosynthetic pathway. Here, we developed a Drosophila model of PKAN (tim-fbl flies that allows us to continuously monitor the modeled disease in the brain. In tim-fbl flies, downregulation of fumble, the Drosophila PanK homologue in the cells containing a circadian clock results in characteristic features of PKAN such as developmental lethality, hypersensitivity to oxidative stress, and diminished life span. Despite quasi-normal circadian transcriptional rhythms, tim-fbl flies display brain-specific aberrant circadian locomotor rhythms, and a unique transcriptional signature. Comparison with expression data from flies exposed to paraquat demonstrates that, as previously suggested, pathways others than oxidative stress are affected by PANK downregulation. Surprisingly we found a significant decrease in the expression of key components of the photoreceptor recycling pathways, which could lead to retinal degeneration, a hallmark of PKAN. Importantly, these defects are not accompanied by changes in structural components in eye genes suggesting that changes in gene expression in the eye precede and may cause the retinal degeneration. Indeed tim-fbl flies have diminished response to light transitions, and their altered day/night patterns of activity demonstrates defects in light perception. This suggest that retinal lesions are not solely due to oxidative stress and demonstrates a role for the transcriptional response to CoA deficiency underlying the defects observed in dPanK deficient flies. Moreover, in the present study we developed a new fly model that can be applied to other diseases and that allows the assessment of neurodegeneration in the brains of living flies.

  14. Fractional Brownian motion and long term clinical trial recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Lai, Dejian

    2011-05-01

    Prediction of recruitment in clinical trials has been a challenging task. Many methods have been studied, including models based on Poisson process and its large sample approximation by Brownian motion (BM), however, when the independent incremental structure is violated for BM model, we could use fractional Brownian motion to model and approximate the underlying Poisson processes with random rates. In this paper, fractional Brownian motion (FBM) is considered for such conditions and compared to BM model with illustrated examples from different trials and simulations.

  15. Large eddy simulation study of the kinetic energy entrainment by energetic turbulent flow structures in large wind farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    VerHulst, Claire; Meneveau, Charles

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we address the question of how kinetic energy is entrained into large wind turbine arrays and, in particular, how large-scale flow structures contribute to such entrainment. Previous research has shown this entrainment to be an important limiting factor in the performance of very large arrays where the flow becomes fully developed and there is a balance between the forcing of the atmospheric boundary layer and the resistance of the wind turbines. Given the high Reynolds numbers and domain sizes on the order of kilometers, we rely on wall-modeled large eddy simulation (LES) to simulate turbulent flow within the wind farm. Three-dimensional proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis is then used to identify the most energetic flow structures present in the LES data. We quantify the contribution of each POD mode to the kinetic energy entrainment and its dependence on the layout of the wind turbine array. The primary large-scale structures are found to be streamwise, counter-rotating vortices located above the height of the wind turbines. While the flow is periodic, the geometry is not invariant to all horizontal translations due to the presence of the wind turbines and thus POD modes need not be Fourier modes. Differences of the obtained modes with Fourier modes are documented. Some of the modes are responsible for a large fraction of the kinetic energy flux to the wind turbine region. Surprisingly, more flow structures (POD modes) are needed to capture at least 40% of the turbulent kinetic energy, for which the POD analysis is optimal, than are needed to capture at least 40% of the kinetic energy flux to the turbines. For comparison, we consider the cases of aligned and staggered wind turbine arrays in a neutral atmospheric boundary layer as well as a reference case without wind turbines. While the general characteristics of the flow structures are robust, the net kinetic energy entrainment to the turbines depends on the presence and relative

  16. On the fractional systems fault detection: a comparison between fractional and rational residual sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoun, M.; Aribi, A.; Najar, S.; Abdelkrim, M.N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows the interest of extending the dynamic parity space fault detection method for fractional systems. Accordingly, a comparison between fractional and rational residual generators using the later method is presented. An analysis of fractional and rational residuals sensitivity shows the merits of the fractional residual generators. A numerical example illustrating the advantage of using fractional residual generators for fractional systems diagnosis is given.

  17. THE NEW SOLUTION OF TIME FRACTIONAL WAVE EQUATION WITH CONFORMABLE FRACTIONAL DERIVATIVE DEFINITION

    OpenAIRE

    Çenesiz, Yücel; Kurt, Ali

    2015-01-01

    – In this paper, we used new fractional derivative definition, the conformable fractional derivative, for solving two and three dimensional time fractional wave equation. This definition is simple and very effective in the solution procedures of the fractional differential equations that have complicated solutions with classical fractional derivative definitions like Caputo, Riemann-Liouville and etc. The results show that conformable fractional derivative definition is usable and convenient ...

  18. Fractionation of hydrogen isotopes by sulfate- and nitrate-reducing bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Rose Osburn; Katherine S Dawson; Marilyn L Fogel; Alex Sessions

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen atoms from water and food are incorporated into biomass during cellular metabolism and biosynthesis, fractionating the isotopes of hydrogen –protium and deuterium –that are recorded in biomolecules. While these fractionations are often relatively constant in plants, large variations in the magnitude of fractionation are observed for many heterotrophic microbes utilizing different central metabolic pathways. The correlation between metabolism and lipid δ2H provides a potential basis f...

  19. Certain Integral Transform and Fractional Integral Formulas for the Generalized Gauss Hypergeometric Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junesang Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A remarkably large number of integral transforms and fractional integral formulas involving various special functions have been investigated by many authors. Very recently, Agarwal gave some integral transforms and fractional integral formulas involving the Fp(α,β(·. In this sequel, using the same technique, we establish certain integral transforms and fractional integral formulas for the generalized Gauss hypergeometric functions Fp(α,β,m(·. Some interesting special cases of our main results are also considered.

  20. Nonlinear dynamics of fractional order Duffing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zengshan; Chen, Diyi; Zhu, Jianwei; Liu, Yongjian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the nonlinear dynamics of fractional order Duffing system. First, we present the fractional order Duffing system and the numerical algorithm. Second, nonlinear dynamic behaviors of Duffing system with a fixed fractional order is studied by using bifurcation diagrams, phase portraits, Poincare maps and time domain waveforms. The fractional order Duffing system shows some interesting dynamical behaviors. Third, a series of Duffing systems with different fractional orders are analyzed by using bifurcation diagrams. The impacts of fractional orders on the tendency of dynamical motion, the periodic windows in chaos, the bifurcation points and the distance between the first and the last bifurcation points are respectively studied, in which some basic laws are discovered and summarized. This paper reflects that the integer order system and the fractional order one have close relationship and an integer order system is a special case of fractional order ones.

  1. A fractional model for dye removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Huan He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption process has a fractional property, and a fractional model is suggested to study a transport model of direct textile industry wastewater. An approximate solution of the concentration is obtained by the variational iteration method.

  2. Boundary Controllability of Nonlinear Fractional Integrodifferential Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed HamdyM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sufficient conditions for boundary controllability of nonlinear fractional integrodifferential systems in Banach space are established. The results are obtained by using fixed point theorems. We also give an application for integropartial differential equations of fractional order.

  3. Fractional Order Element Based Impedance Matching

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa

    2014-06-24

    Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to fractional order element based impedance matching. In one embodiment, a method includes aligning a traditional Smith chart (|.alpha.|=1) with a fractional order Smith chart (|.alpha.|.noteq.1). A load impedance is located on the traditional Smith chart and projected onto the fractional order Smith chart. A fractional order matching element is determined by transitioning along a matching circle of the fractional order Smith chart based at least in part upon characteristic line impedance. In another embodiment, a system includes a fractional order impedance matching application executed in a computing device. The fractional order impedance matching application includes logic that obtains a first set of Smith chart coordinates at a first order, determines a second set of Smith chart coordinates at a second order, and determines a fractional order matching element from the second set of Smith chart coordinates.

  4. Chaos in discrete fractional difference equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-09-07

    Sep 7, 2016 ... chaotic behaviour of fractional difference equations for the tent map, Gauss map and 2x(mod 1) map are studied ..... (4) No significant change is observed by changing .... (3) In fractional case, the rational initial condition.

  5. Fractional Order Element Based Impedance Matching

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa; Salama, Khaled N.; Shamim, Atif

    2014-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to fractional order element based impedance matching. In one embodiment, a method includes aligning a traditional Smith chart (|.alpha.|=1) with a fractional order Smith chart (|.alpha

  6. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for craniopharyngiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz-Ertner, Daniela; Frank, Claudia; Herfarth, Klaus K.; Rhein, Bernhard; Wannenmacher, Michael; Debus, Juergen

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate outcome and toxicity after fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (FSRT) in patients with craniopharyngiomas. Methods and Materials: Twenty-six patients with craniopharyngiomas were treated with FSRT between May 1989 and February 2001. Median age was 33.5 years (range: 5-57 years). Nine patients received FSRT after surgery as primary treatment, and 17 patients were irradiated for recurrent tumor or progressive growth after initial surgery. Median target dose was 52.2 Gy (range: 50.0-57.6 Gy) with conventional fractionation. Follow-up included MRI and neurologic, ophthalmologic, and endocrinologic examinations. Results: The median follow-up was 43 months (range: 7-143 months). The actuarial local control rate and actuarial overall survival rates were 100% and 100%, respectively, at 5 years and 100% and 83%, respectively, at 10 years. Four patients showed complete response, 14 patients showed partial response, and 8 patients remained stable. In 5 patients, vision improved after radiation therapy. Acute toxicity was mild. One patient required cyst drainage 3 months after radiotherapy. Late toxicity after radiotherapy included impairment of hormone function in 3 out of 18 patients at risk. We did not observe any vision impairment, radionecrosis, or secondary malignancies. Conclusions: FSRT is effective and safe in the treatment of cystic craniopharyngiomas. Toxicity is extremely low using this conformal technique

  7. Microfluidic Devices for Blood Fractionation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chwee Teck Lim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood, a complex biological fluid, comprises 45% cellular components suspended in protein rich plasma. These different hematologic components perform distinct functions in vivo and thus the ability to efficiently fractionate blood into its individual components has innumerable applications in both clinical diagnosis and biological research. Yet, processing blood is not trivial. In the past decade, a flurry of new microfluidic based technologies has emerged to address this compelling problem. Microfluidics is an attractive solution for this application leveraging its numerous advantages to process clinical blood samples. This paper reviews the various microfluidic approaches realized to successfully fractionate one or more blood components. Techniques to separate plasma from hematologic cellular components as well as isolating blood cells of interest including certain rare cells are discussed. Comparisons based on common separation metrics including efficiency (sensitivity, purity (selectivity, and throughput will be presented. Finally, we will provide insights into the challenges associated with blood-based separation systems towards realizing true point-of-care (POC devices and provide future perspectives.

  8. The synchronization of three fractional differential systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Changpin; Yan Jianping

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a new method is proposed and applied to the synchronization of fractional differential systems (or 'differential systems with fractional orders'), where both drive and response systems have the same dimensionality and are coupled by the driving signal. The present technique is based on the stability criterion of linear fractional systems. This method is implemented in (chaos) synchronization of the fractional Lorenz system, Chen system and Chua circuit. Numerical simulations show the present synchronization method works well

  9. Multivariate fractional Poisson processes and compound sums

    OpenAIRE

    Beghin, Luisa; Macci, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present multivariate space-time fractional Poisson processes by considering common random time-changes of a (finite-dimensional) vector of independent classical (non-fractional) Poisson processes. In some cases we also consider compound processes. We obtain some equations in terms of some suitable fractional derivatives and fractional difference operators, which provides the extension of known equations for the univariate processes.

  10. Early Predictors of Middle School Fraction Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Drew H.; Siegler, Robert S.; Geary, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings that earlier fraction knowledge predicts later mathematics achievement raise the question of what predicts later fraction knowledge. Analyses of longitudinal data indicated that whole number magnitude knowledge in first grade predicted knowledge of fraction magnitudes in middle school, controlling for whole number arithmetic…

  11. 16 CFR 500.17 - Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fractions. 500.17 Section 500.17 Commercial... LABELING ACT § 500.17 Fractions. (a) SI metric declarations of net quantity of contents of any consumer commodity may contain only decimal fractions. Other declarations of net quantity of contents may contain...

  12. Teaching Fractions. Educational Practices Series-22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Lisa; Siegler, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Students around the world have difficulties in learning about fractions. In many countries, the average student never gains a conceptual knowledge of fractions. This research guide provides suggestions for teachers and administrators looking to improve fraction instruction in their classrooms or schools. The recommendations are based on a…

  13. On varitional iteration method for fractional calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Hai-Gen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modification of the Das’ variational iteration method for fractional differential equations is discussed, and its main shortcoming involved in the solution process is pointed out and overcome by using fractional power series. The suggested computational procedure is simple and reliable for fractional calculus.

  14. An Alternative Starting Point for Fraction Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, José Luis; Višnovská, Jana; Zúñiga, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the results of a study conducted for the purpose of assessing the viability of an alternative starting point for teaching fractions. The alternative is based on Freudenthal's insights about fraction as comparison. It involves portraying the entities that unit fractions quantify as always being apart from the reference unit, instead of…

  15. Fractional Euler Limits and Their Applications

    OpenAIRE

    MacNamara, Shev; Henry, Bruce I; McLean, William

    2016-01-01

    Generalisations of the classical Euler formula to the setting of fractional calculus are discussed. Compound interest and fractional compound interest serve as motivation. Connections to fractional master equations are highlighted. An application to the Schlogl reactions with Mittag-Leffler waiting times is described.

  16. Prediction of pool void fraction by new drift flux correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, I.; Ishii, M.

    1986-06-01

    A void fraction for a bubbling or boiling pool system is one of the important parameters in analyzing heat and mass transfer processes. Using the drift flux formulation, correlations for the pool void fraction have been developed in collaboration with a large number of experimental data. It has been found that the drift velocity in a pool system depends upon vessel diameter, system pressure, gas flux and fluid physical properties. The results show that the relative velocity and void fraction can be quite different from those predicted by conventional correlations. In terms of the rise velocity, four different regimes are identified. These are bubbly, churn-turbulent, slug and cap bubble regimes. The present correlations are shown to agree with the experimental data over wide ranges of parameters such as vessel diameter, system pressure, gas flux and physical properties. 39 refs., 41 figs

  17. Stability and delay sensitivity of neutral fractional-delay systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi; Shi, Min; Wang, Zaihua

    2016-08-01

    This paper generalizes the stability test method via integral estimation for integer-order neutral time-delay systems to neutral fractional-delay systems. The key step in stability test is the calculation of the number of unstable characteristic roots that is described by a definite integral over an interval from zero to a sufficient large upper limit. Algorithms for correctly estimating the upper limits of the integral are given in two concise ways, parameter dependent or independent. A special feature of the proposed method is that it judges the stability of fractional-delay systems simply by using rough integral estimation. Meanwhile, the paper shows that for some neutral fractional-delay systems, the stability is extremely sensitive to the change of time delays. Examples are given for demonstrating the proposed method as well as the delay sensitivity.

  18. Thermal and quantum depinning of a fractional Josephson vortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldobin, Edward; Gaber, Tobias; Buckenmaier, Kai; Kienzle, Uta; Sickinger, Hanna; Koelle, Dieter; Kleiner, Reinhold [Physikalische Institut, University of Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Meckbach, Max; Kaiser, Christoph; Il' in, Konstantin; Siegel, Michael [Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme, University of Karlsruhe, Hertzstrasse 16, 76187, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    We investigate the bias current induced depinning of a fractional Josephson vortex in a 0-{kappa} Josephson junction, where the {kappa}-discontinuity of the phase is induced by current injectors. At high temperatures T>or similar 100 mK the depinning is governed by thermal fluctuations. By measuring a depinning current histogram and extracting the effective barrier height vs. {kappa}, one can see the signatures of fractional vortex escape. At low Tlarge currents involved (bias current {proportional_to}1 mA, injector current {proportional_to}5 mA), advanced experimental techniques such as superconducting bias filters and persistent mode loops for injector currents allow us to argue that the observed histograms correspond to MQT of a fractional vortex. We also discuss the particular histogram shape in this quantum regime.

  19. Estimation of Fractionally Integrated Panels with Fixed Effects and Cross-Section Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ergemen, Yunus Emre; Velasco, Carlos

    We consider large N, T panel data models with fixed effects, common factors allowing cross-section dependence, and persistent data and shocks, which are assumed fractionally integrated. In a basic setup, the main interest is on the fractional parameter of the idiosyncratic component, which...

  20. Synergetic cloud fraction determination for SCIAMACHY using MERIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schlundt

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Since clouds play an essential role in the Earth's climate system, it is important to understand the cloud characteristics as well as their distribution on a global scale using satellite observations. The main scientific objective of SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY onboard the ENVISAT satellite is the retrieval of vertical columns of trace gases.

    On the one hand, SCIAMACHY has to be sensitive to low variations in trace gas concentrations which means the ground pixel size has to be large enough. On the other hand, such a large pixel size leads to the problem that SCIAMACHY spectra are often contaminated by clouds. SCIAMACHY spectral measurements are not well suitable to derive a reliable sub-pixel cloud fraction that can be used as input parameter for subsequent retrievals of cloud properties or vertical trace gas columns. Therefore, we use MERIS/ENVISAT spectral measurements with its high spatial resolution as sub-pixel information for the determination of MerIs Cloud fRation fOr Sciamachy (MICROS. Since MERIS covers an even broader swath width than SCIAMACHY, no problems in spatial and temporal collocation of measurements occur. This enables the derivation of a SCIAMACHY cloud fraction with an accuracy much higher as compared with other current cloud fractions that are based on SCIAMACHY's PMD (Polarization Measurement Device data.

    We present our new developed MICROS algorithm, based on the threshold approach, as well as a qualitative validation of our results with MERIS satellite images for different locations, especially with respect to bright surfaces such as snow/ice and sands. In addition, the SCIAMACHY cloud fractions derived from MICROS are intercompared with other current SCIAMACHY cloud fractions based on different approaches demonstrating a considerable improvement regarding geometric cloud fraction determination using the MICROS algorithm.

  1. Gram-scale fractionation of nanodiamonds by density gradient ultracentrifugation

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Size is a defining characteristic of nanoparticles; it influences their optical and electronic properties as well as their interactions with molecules and macromolecules. Producing nanoparticles with narrow size distributions remains one of the main challenges to their utilization. At this time, the number of practical approaches to optimize the size distribution of nanoparticles in many interesting materials systems, including diamond nanocrystals, remains limited. Diamond nanocrystals synthesized by detonation protocols-so-called detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs)-are promising systems for drug delivery, photonics, and composites. DNDs are composed of primary particles with diameters mainly <10 nm and their aggregates (ca. 10-500 nm). Here, we introduce a large-scale approach to rate-zonal density gradient ultracentrifugation to obtain monodispersed fractions of nanoparticles in high yields. We use this method to fractionate a highly concentrated and stable aqueous solution of DNDs and to investigate the size distribution of various fractions by dynamic light scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation, transmission electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. This fractionation method enabled us to separate gram-scale amounts of DNDs into several size ranges within a relatively short period of time. In addition, the high product yields obtained for each fraction allowed us to apply the fractionation method iteratively to a particular size range of particles and to collect various fractions of highly monodispersed primary particles. Our method paves the way for in-depth studies of the physical and optical properties, growth, and aggregation mechanism of DNDs. Applications requiring DNDs with specific particle or aggregate sizes are now within reach. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. Natural fractionation of uranium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noordmann, Janine

    2015-01-24

    The topic of this thesis was the investigation of U (n({sup 238}U) / n({sup 235}U)) isotope variations in nature with a focus on samples (1) that represent the continental crust and its weathering products (i.e. granites, shales and river water) (2) that represent products of hydrothermal alteration on mid-ocean ridges (i.e. altered basalts, carbonate veins and hydrothermal water) and (3) from restricted euxinic basins (i.e. from the water column and respective sediments). The overall goal was to explore the environmental conditions and unravel the mechanisms that fractionate the two most abundant U isotopes, n({sup 238}U) and n({sup 235}U), on Earth.

  3. Second Study of Hyper-Fractionated Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jacob

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Method. Hyper-fractionated radiotherapy for treatment of soft tissue sarcomas is designed to deliver a higher total dose of radiation without an increase in late normal tissue damage. In a previous study at the Royal Marsden Hospital, a total dose of 75 Gy using twice daily 1.25 Gy fractions resulted in a higher incidence of late damage than conventional radiotherapy using 2 Gy daily fractions treating to a total of 60 Gy. The current trial therefore used a lower dose per fraction of 1.2 Gy and lower total dose of 72 Gy, with 60 fractions given over a period of 6 weeks.

  4. The Origin of Carbon-bearing Volatiles in Surprise Valley Hot Springs in the Great Basin: Carbon Isotope and Water Chemistry Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.; Romanek, Christopher; Datta, Saugata; Darnell, Mike; Bissada, Adry K.

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous hydrothermal fields within the Great Basin of North America, some of which have been exploited for geothermal resources. With methane and other carbon-bearing compounds being observed, in some cases with high concentrations, however, their origins and formation conditions remain unknown. Thus, studying hydrothermal springs in this area provides us an opportunity to expand our knowledge of subsurface (bio)chemical processes that generate organic compounds in hydrothermal systems, and aid in future development and exploration of potential energy resources as well. While isotope measurement has long been used for recognition of their origins, there are several secondary processes that may generate variations in isotopic compositions: oxidation, re-equilibration of methane and other alkanes with CO2, mixing with compounds of other sources, etc. Therefore, in addition to isotopic analysis, other evidence, including water chemistry and rock compositions, are necessary to identify volatile compounds of different sources. Surprise Valley Hot Springs (SVHS, 41 deg 32'N, 120 deg 5'W), located in a typical basin and range province valley in northeastern California, is a terrestrial hydrothermal spring system of the Great Basin. Previous geophysical studies indicated the presence of clay-rich volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age beneath the lava flows in late Tertiary and Quaternary. Water and gas samples were collected for a variety of chemical and isotope composition analyses, including in-situ pH, alkalinity, conductivity, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), major and trace elements, and C and H isotope measurements. Fluids issuing from SVHS can be classified as Na-(Cl)-SO4 type, with the major cation and anion being Na+ and SO4(2-), respectively. Thermodynamic calculation using ORP and major element data indicated that sulfate is the most dominant sulfur species, which is consistent with anion analysis results. Aquifer temperatures at depth

  5. The Origin of Carbon-bearing Volatiles in Surprise Valley Hot Springs in the Great Basin: Carbon Isotope aud Water Chemistry Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.; Romanek, Christopher; Datta, Saugata; Darnell, Mike; Bissada, Adry K.

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous hydrothermal fields within the Great Basin of North America, some of which have been exploited for geothermal resources. With methane and other carbon-bearing compounds being observed, in some cases with high concentrations, however, their origins and formation conditions remain unknown. Thus, studying hydrothermal springs in this area provides us an opportunity to expand our knowledge of subsurface (bio)chemical processes that generate organic compounds in hydrothermal systems, and aid in future development and exploration of potential energy resources as well. While isotope measurement has long been used for recognition of their origins, there are several secondary processes that may generate variations in isotopic compositions: oxidation, re-equilibration of methane and other alkanes with CO2, mixing with compounds of other sources, etc. Therefore, in addition to isotopic analysis, other evidence, including water chemistry and rock compositions, are necessary to identify volatile compounds of different sources. Surprise Valley Hot Springs (SVHS, 41º32'N, 120º5'W), located in a typical basin and range province valley in northeastern California, is a terrestrial hydrothermal spring system of the Great Basin. Previous geophysical studies indicated the presence of clay-rich volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age beneath the lava flows in late Tertiary and Quaternary. Water and gas samples were collected for a variety of chemical and isotope composition analyses, including in-situ pH, alkalinity, conductivity, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), major and trace elements, and C and H isotope measurements. Fluids issuing from SVHS can be classified as Na-(Cl)-SO4 type, with the major cation and anion being Na+ and SO4 2-, respectively. Thermodynamic calculation using ORP and major element data indicated that sulfate is the most dominant sulfur species, which is consistent with anion analysis results. Aquifer temperatures at depth estimated

  6. Hamiltonian Chaos and Fractional Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combescure, M

    2005-01-01

    This book provides an introduction and discussion of the main issues in the current understanding of classical Hamiltonian chaos, and of its fractional space-time structure. It also develops the most complex and open problems in this context, and provides a set of possible applications of these notions to some fundamental questions of dynamics: complexity and entropy of systems, foundation of classical statistical physics on the basis of chaos theory, and so on. Starting with an introduction of the basic principles of the Hamiltonian theory of chaos, the book covers many topics that can be found elsewhere in the literature, but which are collected here for the readers' convenience. In the last three parts, the author develops topics which are not typically included in the standard textbooks; among them are: - the failure of the traditional description of chaotic dynamics in terms of diffusion equations; - he fractional kinematics, its foundation and renormalization group analysis; - 'pseudo-chaos', i.e. kinetics of systems with weak mixing and zero Lyapunov exponents; - directional complexity and entropy. The purpose of this book is to provide researchers and students in physics, mathematics and engineering with an overview of many aspects of chaos and fractality in Hamiltonian dynamical systems. In my opinion it achieves this aim, at least provided researchers and students (mainly those involved in mathematical physics) can complement this reading with comprehensive material from more specialized sources which are provided as references and 'further reading'. Each section contains introductory pedagogical material, often illustrated by figures coming from several numerical simulations which give the feeling of what's going on, and thus is very useful to the reader who is not very familiar with the topics presented. Some problems are included at the end of most sections to help the reader to go deeper into the subject. My one regret is that the book does not

  7. Granular flow through an aperture: Influence of the packing fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, M. A.; De Schant, R.; Géminard, J.-C.

    2014-07-01

    For the last 50 years, the flow of a granular material through an aperture has been intensely studied in gravity-driven vertical systems (e.g., silos and hoppers). Nevertheless, in many industrial applications, grains are horizontally transported at constant velocity, lying on conveyor belts or floating on the surface of flowing liquids. Unlike fluid flows, that are controlled by the pressure, granular flow is not sensitive to the local pressure but rather to the local velocity of the grains at the outlet. We can also expect the flow rate to depend on the local density of the grains. Indeed, vertical systems are packed in dense configurations by gravity, but, in contrast, in horizontal systems the density can take a large range of values, potentially very small, which may significantly alter the flow rate. In the present article, we study, for different initial packing fractions, the discharge through an orifice of monodisperse grains driven at constant velocity by a horizontal conveyor belt. We report how, during the discharge, the packing fraction is modified by the presence of the outlet, and we analyze how changes in the packing fraction induce variations in the flow rate. We observe that variations of packing fraction do not affect the velocity of the grains at the outlet, and, therefore, we establish that flow-rate variations are directly related to changes in the packing fraction.

  8. Effectiveness of perfluorochemical emulsions and carbogen breathing with fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulder, J.E.; Fish, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    Oxygen-carrying perfluorochemical emulsions have been shown to enhance the response of experimental tumors to large single doses of radiation. Clinically, however, perfluorochemical emulsions will be used with only some fractions of multiple fraction radiation courses. To test the efficacy of a perfluorochemical emulsion (Fluosol-DA 20%, supplied by Alpha Therapeutic Co) under these conditions, BA1112 rat sarcomas were treated with three fractions/week of 6.25 Gy/fraction. Once a week, animals were given Fluosol-DA at 15 ml/kg, and allowed to breathe 95% O/sub 2/:5% CO/sub 2/ (carbogen) for 30 min prior to and during irradiation. The tumor regression rate during treatment was significantly greater in the Fluosol arm than in the control arm. Preliminary data analysis shows a 50% tumor control dose of 86.0 Gy (95% cl:78.0 - 94.3 Gy) in the control arm compared to 69.1 Gy (95% cl:58.3 - 77.3 Gy) in the Fluosol arm. The dose modification factor for intermittent Fluosol and carbogen breathing is 1.26 (95% cl:1.08 - 1.50). In the same fractionated schedule 0.4 mg/kg misonidazole, given once per week, gave a sensitizer enhancement ratio of 1.15 (95% cl:1.03 - 1.33)

  9. Size fractionation and characterization of natural aquatic colloids and nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baalousha, M.; Lead, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to image and quantify natural nanoparticles (prefiltered < 25 nm) from three different freshwater sites (Vale Lake, Bailey Brook and Tern Rivers). Four fractions were analysed by AFM; the prefiltered fraction (< 25 nm) and three fractions collected after separation of this prefiltered sample by flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF) which corresponds to material which has size ranges of < 4.2 nm, 4.2-15.8 nm and 15.8-32.4 nm, as determined by FlFFF theory. The large majority of materials in all samples appeared as < 3 nm nanoparticles, nearly spherical and rich in chromophores active at 254 nm UV, which thus correspond to natural organic matter. However, nanoparticles were also imaged up to slightly more than 25 nm in size, indicating a slight disagreement in sizing between filtration and FlFFF. In addition, some particles in certain fractions were found to be covered with a thin film of less than 0.5-1.0 nm. Substantial differences between sites were observed

  10. The evaporative fraction as a measure of surface energy partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, W.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cuenca, R.H. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The evaporative fraction is a ratio that expresses the proportion of turbulent flux energy over land surfaces devoted to evaporation and transpiration (evapotranspiration). It has been used to characterize the energy partition over land surfaces and has potential for inferring daily energy balance information based on mid-day remote sensing measurements. The HAPEX-MOBILHY program`s SAMER system provided surface energy balance data over a range of agricultural crops and soil types. The databases from this large-scale field experiment was analyzed for the purpose of studying the behavior and daylight stability of the evaporative fraction in both ideal and general meteorological conditions. Strong linear relations were found to exist between the mid-day evaporative fraction and the daylight mean evaporative fraction. Statistical tests however rejected the hypothesis that the two quantities were equal. The relations between the evaporative fraction and the surface soil moisture as well as soil moisture in the complete vegetation root zone were also explored.

  11. The evaporative fraction as a measure of surface energy partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, W.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Cuenca, R.H. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States))

    1990-01-01

    The evaporative fraction is a ratio that expresses the proportion of turbulent flux energy over land surfaces devoted to evaporation and transpiration (evapotranspiration). It has been used to characterize the energy partition over land surfaces and has potential for inferring daily energy balance information based on mid-day remote sensing measurements. The HAPEX-MOBILHY program's SAMER system provided surface energy balance data over a range of agricultural crops and soil types. The databases from this large-scale field experiment was analyzed for the purpose of studying the behavior and daylight stability of the evaporative fraction in both ideal and general meteorological conditions. Strong linear relations were found to exist between the mid-day evaporative fraction and the daylight mean evaporative fraction. Statistical tests however rejected the hypothesis that the two quantities were equal. The relations between the evaporative fraction and the surface soil moisture as well as soil moisture in the complete vegetation root zone were also explored.

  12. Utilization of Different Corn Fractions by Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIFR Costa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional values of fractions of damaged corn. One hundred and eighty 22-d-old Cobb 500 male broilers were distributed in batteries according to a completely randomized design with six treatments of six replicates each. The treatments consisted of diets containing five corn fractions, classified as sound, fermented, insect-damaged, mold-damaged, or reference corn. The test diets consisted of 60% of reference diet + 40% of each corn fraction. Only the reference corn fraction included all the fractions at different proportions (0.8% fermented, 0.05% insect-damaged, 3.3% mold-damaged, and 95.85% sound grains. The method of total excreta collection was used to determine AMEn values and metabolizability coefficients of dry matter (MDM, crude protein (MCP, ether extract (MEE, and gross energy (MGE of the reference corn and its fractions. The density values of the corn fractions were used to calculate the correlations among the evaluated parameters. The evaluated corn fractions presented different compositions values. The insect-damaged and mold-damaged grains presented higher CP level, lower density, and MDM and MCP coefficients compared with the other fractions. However, calculated AMEn values were not significantly different (p>0.05 among corn fractions. A low correlation between density and AMEn content (r0.8 were calculated. Although the evaluated corn fractions presented different nutritional values, there were no marked differences in their utilization by broilers.

  13. The fractional dynamics of quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Longzhao; Yu, Xiangyang

    2018-05-01

    The fractional dynamic process of a quantum system is a novel and complicated problem. The establishment of a fractional dynamic model is a significant attempt that is expected to reveal the mechanism of fractional quantum system. In this paper, a generalized time fractional Schrödinger equation is proposed. To study the fractional dynamics of quantum systems, we take the two-level system as an example and derive the time fractional equations of motion. The basic properties of the system are investigated by solving this set of equations in the absence of light field analytically. Then, when the system is subject to the light field, the equations are solved numerically. It shows that the two-level system described by the time fractional Schrödinger equation we proposed is a confirmable system.

  14. Calculation of the biological effect of fractionated radiotherapy: the importance of radiation-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    The total effect (TE) has been calculated for two different fractionation formalisms: the consecutive and repetitive fractionation mechanism, using a modified linear quadratic (LQ) model which includes the effect of apoptosis. For a given total dose, an increase in TE is seen when increasing the dose per fraction as well as the apoptotic fraction (F a ). Also, the TE increases with increasing α/β ratio (of the modified LQ model). The ratio of TE for tumour tissue and TE for late reacting tissue is calculated assuming the absence of apoptosis in late reacting tissue and a common value of α/β (of the modified LQ model). The biological effect ratio (BR) is higher for a large F a and low doses per fraction, than for large doses per fraction and a small F a . Assuming a consecutive fractionation mechanism, the TE formalism is unable to predict a log cell kill of more than 3 for β values of 0.010-0.028. It is less dependent on dose per fraction and F a than the repetitive fractionation mechanism. The biological effect ratio is only slightly higher than 1, and is less influenced by F a , dose per fraction and α/β ratio. A repetitive fractionation mechanism is also consistent with the preliminary results of published fractionation experiments. The calculations indicate that designing fractionation regimes for optimization of biological effect is a process where the role of apoptotic cell inactivation must be maximized, and where the influence of mitotic cell inactivation may be of less importance. (author)

  15. Local Fractional Laplace Variational Iteration Method for Solving Linear Partial Differential Equations with Local Fractional Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Min Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The local fractional Laplace variational iteration method was applied to solve the linear local fractional partial differential equations. The local fractional Laplace variational iteration method is coupled by the local fractional variational iteration method and Laplace transform. The nondifferentiable approximate solutions are obtained and their graphs are also shown.

  16. Semantic relation vs. surprise: the differential effects of related and unrelated co-verbal gestures on neural encoding and subsequent recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straube, Benjamin; Meyer, Lea; Green, Antonia; Kircher, Tilo

    2014-06-03

    Speech-associated gesturing leads to memory advantages for spoken sentences. However, unexpected or surprising events are also likely to be remembered. With this study we test the hypothesis that different neural mechanisms (semantic elaboration and surprise) lead to memory advantages for iconic and unrelated gestures. During fMRI-data acquisition participants were presented with video clips of an actor verbalising concrete sentences accompanied by iconic gestures (IG; e.g., circular gesture; sentence: "The man is sitting at the round table"), unrelated free gestures (FG; e.g., unrelated up down movements; same sentence) and no gestures (NG; same sentence). After scanning, recognition performance for the three conditions was tested. Videos were evaluated regarding semantic relation and surprise by a different group of participants. The semantic relationship between speech and gesture was rated higher for IG (IG>FG), whereas surprise was rated higher for FG (FG>IG). Activation of the hippocampus correlated with subsequent memory performance of both gesture conditions (IG+FG>NG). For the IG condition we found activation in the left temporal pole and middle cingulate cortex (MCC; IG>FG). In contrast, for the FG condition posterior thalamic structures (FG>IG) as well as anterior and posterior cingulate cortices were activated (FG>NG). Our behavioral and fMRI-data suggest different mechanisms for processing related and unrelated co-verbal gestures, both of them leading to enhanced memory performance. Whereas activation in MCC and left temporal pole for iconic co-verbal gestures may reflect semantic memory processes, memory enhancement for unrelated gestures relies on the surprise response, mediated by anterior/posterior cingulate cortex and thalamico-hippocampal structures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Antioxidant activity of cod (Gadus morhua) protein hydrolysates: Fractionation and characterisation of peptide fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin Habebullah, Sabeena; Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Otte, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to characterise peptide fractions (>5 kDa, 3–5 kDa and fractions were dominated by Ala, Gly, Glu and Ser. The total amino acid composition had high proportions of Lys, Ala...... and Glu. The 3–5 kDa and fractions were further fractionated by size exclusion chromatography. All sub-fractions showed high Fe2+ chelating activity. The DPPH radical-scavenging activity of the 3–5 kDa fraction was exerted mainly by one sub-fraction dominated by peptides with masses below 600 Da....... The DPPH radical-scavenging activity of the fraction was exerted by sub-fractions with low molecular weight. The highest reducing power was found in a sub-fraction containing peptides rich in Arg, Tyr and Phe. Both free amino acids and low molecular weight peptides thus seemed to contribute...

  18. Large ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    This essay presents an alternative to the traditional view that ethics means judging individual behavior against standards of right and wrong. Instead, ethics is understood as creating ethical communities through the promises we make to each other. The "aim" of ethics is to demonstrate in our own behavior a credible willingness to work to create a mutually better world. The "game" of ethics then becomes searching for strategies that overlap with others' strategies so that we are all better for intending to act on a basis of reciprocal trust. This is a difficult process because we have partial, simultaneous, shifting, and inconsistent views of the world. But despite the reality that we each "frame" ethics in personal terms, it is still possible to create sufficient common understanding to prosper together. Large ethics does not make it a prerequisite for moral behavior that everyone adheres to a universally agreed set of ethical principles; all that is necessary is sufficient overlap in commitment to searching for better alternatives.

  19. Fractional Complex Transform and exp-Function Methods for Fractional Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Bekir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The exp-function method is presented for finding the exact solutions of nonlinear fractional equations. New solutions are constructed in fractional complex transform to convert fractional differential equations into ordinary differential equations. The fractional derivatives are described in Jumarie's modified Riemann-Liouville sense. We apply the exp-function method to both the nonlinear time and space fractional differential equations. As a result, some new exact solutions for them are successfully established.

  20. Exact Solutions of Fractional Burgers and Cahn-Hilliard Equations Using Extended Fractional Riccati Expansion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a general fractional Riccati equation and with Jumarie’s modified Riemann-Liouville derivative to an extended fractional Riccati expansion method for solving the time fractional Burgers equation and the space-time fractional Cahn-Hilliard equation, the exact solutions expressed by the hyperbolic functions and trigonometric functions are obtained. The obtained results show that the presented method is effective and appropriate for solving nonlinear fractional differential equations.

  1. Control and Synchronization of the Fractional-Order Lorenz Chaotic System via Fractional-Order Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The unstable equilibrium points of the fractional-order Lorenz chaotic system can be controlled via fractional-order derivative, and chaos synchronization for the fractional-order Lorenz chaotic system can be achieved via fractional-order derivative. The control and synchronization technique, based on stability theory of fractional-order systems, is simple and theoretically rigorous. The numerical simulations demonstrate the validity and feasibility of the proposed method.

  2. Fractions Learning in Children With Mathematics Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Siegler, Robert S

    Learning fractions is difficult for children in general and especially difficult for children with mathematics difficulties (MD). Recent research on developmental and individual differences in fraction knowledge of children with MD and typically achieving (TA) children has demonstrated that U.S. children with MD start middle school behind their TA peers in fraction understanding and fall further behind during middle school. In contrast, Chinese children, who like the MD children in the United States score in the bottom one third of the distribution in their country, possess reasonably good fraction understanding. We interpret these findings within the framework of the integrated theory of numerical development. By emphasizing the importance of fraction magnitude knowledge for numerical understanding in general, the theory proved useful for understanding differences in fraction knowledge between MD and TA children and for understanding how knowledge can be improved. Several interventions demonstrated the possibility of improving fraction magnitude knowledge and producing benefits that generalize to fraction arithmetic learning among children with MD. The reasonably good fraction understanding of Chinese children with MD and several successful interventions with U.S. students provide hope for the improvement of fraction knowledge among American children with MD.

  3. The Initial Conditions of Fractional Calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trigeassou, J. C.; Maamri, N.

    2011-01-01

    During the past fifty years , Fractional Calculus has become an original and renowned mathematical tool for the modelling of diffusion Partial Differential Equations and the design of robust control algorithms. However, in spite of these celebrated results, some theoretical problems have not yet received a satisfying solution. The mastery of initial conditions, either for Fractional Differential Equations (FDEs) or for the Caputo and Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives, remains an open research domain. The solution of this fundamental problem, also related to the long range memory property, is certainly the necessary prerequisite for a satisfying approach to modelling and control applications. The fractional integrator and its continuously frequency distributed differential model is a valuable tool for the simulation of fractional systems and the solution of initial condition problems. Indeed, the infinite dimensional state vector of fractional integrators allows the direct generalization to fractional calculus of the theoretical results of integer order systems. After a reminder of definitions and properties related to fractional derivatives and systems, this presentation is intended to show, based on the results of two recent publications [1,2], how the fractional integrator provides the solution of the initial condition problem of FDEs and of Caputo and Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives. Numerical simulation examples illustrate and validate these new theoretical concepts.

  4. Sequential fractionation and isolation of subcellular proteins from tissue or cultured cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sabina Baghirova; Bryan G. Hughes; Michael J. Hendzel; Richard Schulz

    2015-01-01

    Many types of studies require the localization of a protein to, or isolation of enriched protein from a specific cellular compartment. Many protocols in the literature and from commercially available kits claim to yield pure cellular fractions. However, in our hands, the former often do not work effectively and the latter may be prohibitively expensive if a large number of fractionations are required. Furthermore, the largely proprietary composition of reagents in commercial kits means that t...

  5. Fractionated radiosurgery for 9L gliosarcoma in the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Ho; Khil, Mark S.; Kolozsvary, Andrew; Gutierrez, Jorge A.; Brown, Stephen L.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Fractionated radiosurgery is being carried out in the clinic to improve the therapeutic ratio of single-dose radiosurgery using various fractionation schemes. Because there is a paucity of experimental radiobiological data in the literature on the tumor response and late-responding normal tissue of critical intracranial structures to radiosurgery, the present animal study was designed to compare the response following a single high dose of radiation with that obtained from calculated fractionated doses of radiosurgery. Methods and Materials: Male Fischer rats with 9L gliosarcoma growing in their brains were stereotactically irradiated and assayed for the tumor control rate and brain tissue damage. The radiation dose needed for 50% tumor control (TCD 50 ) was used as the endpoint of the efficacy of radiosurgery. Normal brain damage was measured histologically following a period of time over 270 days. Histological evaluation included hematoxylin-eosin (H and E), Luxol fast blue and periodic acid Schiff (LFB/PAS) for the presence of myelin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) for the assessment of astrocytic re-activity. The optical density of optic nerves and chiasms staining with LFB/PAS was quantitatively measured using a computer image analysis to assess the magnitude of demyelination. Results: Radiosurgery (RS) was found to be more effective in curing small tumors than large tumors. The dose required to control 50% of the tumored animals for 120 days was 24, 31, and 40 Gy for 2-, 6-, and 12-day-old tumors, respectively. Using 12-day-old brain tumors, two fractions of 23.5 Gy and three fractions of 18.5 Gy were found to be equivalent to the single dose of 35 Gy for tumor control. For normal brain damages, the visual pathways including optic nerves and chiasm were found to be highly radiosensitive structures. A single dose of 35 Gy produced 100% severe optic neuropathy. The fractionated RS regimens spared substantial optic nerve damage. Conclusion

  6. Calcium Isotope Geochemistry: Research Horizons and Nanoscale Fractionation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, J. M.; Depaolo, D. J.; Richter, F. M.; Fantle, M. S.; Simon, J. I.; Ryerson, F. J.; Ewing, S. A.; Turchyn, A. V.; Yang, W.; Owens, T. L.

    2008-12-01

    combine them with micro- and nano-scale characterization, and to capture the critical processes in mathematical models. Some of the largest fractionation effects have been observed for silicate liquids, where both chemical and thermal diffusion generate large isotopic variations. Intake and transport of Ca in plants is also associated with substantial fractionation. Continuing work is beginning to place the fractionation into the context of global Ca cycles.

  7. The lack of potassium-isotopic fractionation in Bishunpur chondrules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C.M. O'D.; Grossman, J.N.; Wang, Jingyuan; Zanda, B.; Bourot-Denise, M.; Hewins, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    In a search for evidence of evaporation during chondrule formation, the mesostases of 11 Bishunpur chondrules and melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts in 7 of them have been analyzed for their alkali element abundances and K-isotopic compositions. Except for six points, all areas of the chondrules that were analyzed had δ41K compositions that were normal within error (typically ±3%, 2s̀). The six “anomalous” points are probably all artifacts. Experiments have shown that free evaporation of K leads to large 41K enrichments in the evaporation residues, consistent with Rayleigh fractionation. Under Rayleigh conditions, a 3% enrichment in δ41K is produced by ∼12% loss of K. The range of L-chondrite-normalized K/Al ratios (a measure of the K-elemental fractionation) in the areas analyzed vary by almost three orders of magnitude. If all chondrules started out with L-chondrite-like K abundances and the K loss occurred via Rayleigh fractionation, the most K-depleted chondrules would have had compositions of up to δ41K ≅ 200%. Clearly, K fractionation did not occur by evaporation under Rayleigh conditions. Yet experiments and modeling indicate that K should have been lost during chondrule formation under currently accepted formation conditions (peak temperature, cooling rate, etc.). Invoking precursors with variable alkali abundances to produce the range of K/Al fractionation in chondrules does not explain the K-isotopic data because any K that was present should still have experienced sufficient loss during melting for there to have been a measurable isotopic fractionation. If K loss and isotopic fractionation was inevitable during chondrule formation, the absence of K-isotopic fractionation in Bishunpur chondrules requires that they exchanged K with an isotopically normal reservoir during or after formation. There is evidence for alkali exchange between chondrules and rim-matrix in all unequilibrated ordinary chondrites. However, melt inclusions can have

  8. Radiation therapy of malignant melanomas: an evaluation of clinically used fractionation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, A.; Dritschilo, A.; Nathanson, L.; Piro, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    To assess the importance of radiation dose fraction size in the treatment of malignant melanomas, the records of 48 patients (83 sites) treated at Tufts-New England Medical Center from 1971 to 1979 have been retrospectively reviewed. During this period, the dose fractionation schemes evolved from standard fraction size to large-dose techniques. Radiation fraction size was observed to be the major factor in the clinical response of melanoma. Fractions of 600 to 800 rad resulted in the best overall response (80%). The rapid fractionation scheme of 800 to 400 to 400 rad on successive days resulted in intermediate response (58%) and may be useful for the palliative treatment of selected patients

  9. Palliative radiotherapy for painful bone metastases, single versus multiple fraction treatment: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, L.

    2005-01-01

    Palliative radiotherapy provides pain relief for patients with painful bone metastases. The practice among radiation oncologists as to whether a large single fraction is most effective, or whether multiple smaller fractions are preferable in providing the quickest, most durable pain relief is inconsistent. A literature review was completed to see if there is consensus about whether there is better pain response and control following single versus multiple fraction radiotherapy. The Pub Med search engine was used to find all reported studies comparing single and multiple fraction radiotherapy for painful bone metastases. Each article was reviewed according to specific criteria. A generalized conclusion was ascertained from each study and then compared. Among the studies reviewed, the consensus concluded that single fraction radiotherapy was the better choice for palliation of painful bone metastases. According to the literature reviewed, single fraction radiotherapy provides adequate pain relief with reasonable duration of pain response. (author)

  10. Using soil organic matter fractions as indicators of soil physical quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pulido Moncada, Mansonia A.; Lozano, Z; Delgado, M

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of chemical and physical fractions of soil organic matter (SOM), rather than SOM per se, as indicators of soil physical quality (SPQ) based on their effect on aggregate stability (AS). Chemically extracted humic and fulvic acids (HA and FA) were...... used as chemical fractions, and heavy and light fractions (HF and LF) obtained by density separation as physical fractions. The analyses were conducted on medium-textured soils from tropical and temperate regions under cropland and pasture. Results show that soil organic carbon (SOC), SOM fractions...... and AS appear to be affected by land use regardless of the origin of the soils. A general separation of structurally stable and unstable soils between samples of large and small SOC content, respectively, was observed. SOM fractions did not show a better relationship with AS than SOC per se. In both...

  11. Fractional ablative erbium YAG laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudorf, Elisabeth H; Haak, Christina S; Erlendsson, Andrés M

    2014-01-01

    laser parameters with tissue effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ex vivo pig skin was exposed to a miniaturized 2,940 nm AFXL, spot size 225 µm, density 5%, power levels 1.15-2.22 W, pulse durations 50-225 microseconds, pulse repetition rates 100-500 Hz, and 2, 20, or 50 stacked pulses, resulting in pulse......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Treatment of a variety of skin disorders with ablative fractional lasers (AFXL) is driving the development of portable AFXLs. This study measures micropore dimensions produced by a small 2,940 nm AFXL using a variety of stacked pulses, and determines a model correlating...... 190 to 347 µm. CONCLUSIONS: Pulse stacking with a small, low power 2,940 nm AFXL created reproducible shallow to deep micropores, and influenced micropore configuration. Mathematical modeling established relations between laser settings and micropore dimensions, which assists in choosing laser...

  12. Generalized hydrodynamic correlations and fractional memory functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Rosalio F.; Fujioka, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    A fractional generalized hydrodynamic (GH) model of the longitudinal velocity fluctuations correlation, and its associated memory function, for a complex fluid is analyzed. The adiabatic elimination of fast variables introduces memory effects in the transport equations, and the dynamic of the fluctuations is described by a generalized Langevin equation with long-range noise correlations. These features motivate the introduction of Caputo time fractional derivatives and allows us to calculate analytic expressions for the fractional longitudinal velocity correlation function and its associated memory function. Our analysis eliminates a spurious constant term in the non-fractional memory function found in the non-fractional description. It also produces a significantly slower power-law decay of the memory function in the GH regime that reduces to the well-known exponential decay in the non-fractional Navier-Stokes limit.

  13. The fractional oscillator process with two indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S C; Teo, L P

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new fractional oscillator process which can be obtained as a solution of a stochastic differential equation with two fractional orders. Basic properties such as fractal dimension and short-range dependence of the process are studied by considering the asymptotic properties of its covariance function. By considering the fractional oscillator process as the velocity of a diffusion process, we derive the corresponding diffusion constant, fluctuation-dissipation relation and mean-square displacement. The fractional oscillator process can also be regarded as a one-dimensional fractional Euclidean Klein-Gordon field, which can be obtained by applying the Parisi-Wu stochastic quantization method to a nonlocal Euclidean action. The Casimir energy associated with the fractional field at positive temperature is calculated by using the zeta function regularization technique

  14. Fractional RC and LC Electrical Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Aguilar José Francisco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a fractional differential equation for the electrical RC and LC circuit in terms of the fractional time derivatives of the Caputo type. The order of the derivative being considered is 0 < ɣ ≤1. To keep the dimensionality of the physical parameters R, L, C the new parameter σ is introduced. This parameter characterizes the existence of fractional structures in the system. A relation between the fractional order time derivative ɣ and the new parameter σ is found. The numeric Laplace transform method was used for the simulation of the equations results. The results show that the fractional differential equations generalize the behavior of the charge, voltage and current depending of the values of ɣ. The classical cases are recovered by taking the limit when ɣ = 1. An analysis in the frequency domain of an RC circuit shows the application and use of fractional order differential equations.

  15. Fractional Bateman—Feshbach Tikochinsky Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, Baleanu; Jihad, H. Asad; Ivo, Petras

    2014-02-01

    In the last few years the numerical methods for solving the fractional differential equations started to be applied intensively to real world phenomena. Having these things in mind in this manuscript we focus on the fractional Lagrangian and Hamiltonian of the complex Bateman—Feshbach Tikochinsky oscillator. The numerical analysis of the corresponding fractional Euler-Lagrange equations is given within the Grünwald—Letnikov approach, which is power series expansion of the generating function.

  16. Early Predictors of Middle School Fraction Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Drew H.; Siegler, Robert S.; Geary, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings that earlier fraction knowledge predicts later mathematics achievement raise the question of what predicts later fraction knowledge. Analyses of longitudinal data indicated that whole number magnitude knowledge in first grade predicted knowledge of fraction magnitudes in middle school, controlling for whole number arithmetic proficiency, domain general cognitive abilities, parental income and education, race, and gender. Similarly, knowledge of whole number arithmetic in first...

  17. Operator Fractional Brownian Motion and Martingale Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongshuai Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that martingale difference sequences are very useful in applications and theory. On the other hand, the operator fractional Brownian motion as an extension of the well-known fractional Brownian motion also plays an important role in both applications and theory. In this paper, we study the relation between them. We construct an approximation sequence of operator fractional Brownian motion based on a martingale difference sequence.

  18. Utilization of Different Corn Fractions by Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, SIFR; Stringhini, JH; Ribeiro, AML; Pontalti, G; MacManus, C

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThis study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional values of fractions of damaged corn. One hundred and eighty 22-d-old Cobb 500 male broilers were distributed in batteries according to a completely randomized design with six treatments of six replicates each. The treatments consisted of diets containing five corn fractions, classified as sound, fermented, insect-damaged, mold-damaged, or reference corn. The test diets consisted of 60% of reference diet + 40% of each corn fraction. ...

  19. On the Conformable Fractional Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, F. S.; Hassanabadi, H.; Sobhani, H.; Chung, W. S.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a conformable fractional quantum mechanic has been introduced using three postulates. Then in such a formalism, Schr¨odinger equation, probability density, probability flux and continuity equation have been derived. As an application of considered formalism, a fractional-radial harmonic oscillator has been considered. After obtaining its wave function and energy spectrum, effects of the conformable fractional parameter on some quantities have been investigated and plotted for different excited states.

  20. Fractional Order Models of Industrial Pneumatic Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolhassan Razminia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a new approach for modeling of versatile controllers in industrial automation and process control systems such as pneumatic controllers. Some fractional order dynamical models are developed for pressure and pneumatic systems with bellows-nozzle-flapper configuration. In the light of fractional calculus, a fractional order derivative-derivative (FrDD controller and integral-derivative (FrID are remodeled. Numerical simulations illustrate the application of the obtained theoretical results in simple examples.