WorldWideScience

Sample records for surprisingly intact hgps

  1. Ontological Surprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leahu, Lucian

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how we might rethink design as the technological crafting of human-machine relations in the context of a machine learning technique called neural networks. It analyzes Google’s Inceptionism project, which uses neural networks for image recognition. The surprising output of...... a hybrid approach where machine learning algorithms are used to identify objects as well as connections between them; finally, it argues for remaining open to ontological surprises in machine learning as they may enable the crafting of different relations with and through technologies....

  2. Surprise Trips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias; Kawash, Raghid; Andersen, Lisbet Møller

    We report on a platform that augments the natural experience of exploration in diverse indoor and outdoor environments. The system builds on the theme of surprises in terms of user expectations and finding points of interest. It utilizes physical icons as representations of users' interests and a...

  3. Antisense-Based Progerin Downregulation in HGPS-Like Patients’ Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Harhouri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Progeroid laminopathies, including Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS, OMIM #176670, are premature and accelerated aging diseases caused by defects in nuclear A-type Lamins. Most HGPS patients carry a de novo point mutation within exon 11 of the LMNA gene encoding A-type Lamins. This mutation activates a cryptic splice site leading to the deletion of 50 amino acids at its carboxy-terminal domain, resulting in a truncated and permanently farnesylated Prelamin A called Prelamin A Δ50 or Progerin. Some patients carry other LMNA mutations affecting exon 11 splicing and are named “HGPS-like” patients. They also produce Progerin and/or other truncated Prelamin A isoforms (Δ35 and Δ90 at the transcriptional and/or protein level. The results we present show that morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (AON prevent pathogenic LMNA splicing, markedly reducing the accumulation of Progerin and/or other truncated Prelamin A isoforms (Prelamin A Δ35, Prelamin A Δ90 in HGPS-like patients’ cells. Finally, a patient affected with Mandibuloacral Dysplasia type B (MAD-B, carrying a homozygous mutation in ZMPSTE24, encoding an enzyme involved in Prelamin A maturation, leading to accumulation of wild type farnesylated Prelamin A, was also included in this study. These results provide preclinical proof of principle for the use of a personalized antisense approach in HGPS-like and MAD-B patients, who may therefore be eligible for inclusion in a therapeutic trial based on this approach, together with classical HGPS patients.

  4. Charming surprise

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2011-01-01

    The CP violation in charm quarks has always been thought to be extremely small. So, looking at particle decays involving matter and antimatter, the LHCb experiment has recently been surprised to observe that things might be different. Theorists are on the case.   The study of the physics of the charm quark was not in the initial plans of the LHCb experiment, whose letter “b” stands for “beauty quark”. However, already one year ago, the Collaboration decided to look into a wider spectrum of processes that involve charm quarks among other things. The LHCb trigger allows a lot of these processes to be selected, and, among them, one has recently shown interesting features. Other experiments at b-factories have already performed the same measurement but this is the first time that it has been possible to achieve such high precision, thanks to the huge amount of data provided by the very high luminosity of the LHC. “We have observed the decay modes of t...

  5. Charming surprise

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2011-01-01

    The CP violation in charm quarks has always been thought to be extremely small. So, looking at particle decays involving matter and antimatter, the LHCb experiment has recently been surprised to observe that things might be different. Theorists are on the case. The study of the physics of the charm quark was not in the initial plans of the LHCb experiment, whose letter “b” stands for “beauty quark”. However, already one year ago, the Collaboration decided to look into a wider spectrum of processes that involve charm quarks among other things. The LHCb trigger allows a lot of these processes to be selected, and, among them, one has recently shown interesting features. Other experiments at b-factories have already performed the same measurement but this is the first time that it has been possible to achieve such high precision, thanks to the huge amount of data provided by the very high luminosity of the LHC. “We have observed the decay modes of the D0, a pa...

  6. Pluripotent stem cells to model Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS): Current trends and future perspectives for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Cicero, Alessandra; Nissan, Xavier

    2015-11-01

    Progeria, or Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), is a rare, fatal genetic disease characterized by an appearance of accelerated aging in children. This syndrome is typically caused by mutations in codon 608 (p.G608G) of the LMNA, leading to the production of a mutated form of lamin A precursor called progerin. In HGPS, progerin accumulates in cells causing progressive molecular defects, including nuclear shape abnormalities, chromatin disorganization, damage to DNA and delays in cell proliferation. Here we report how, over the past five years, pluripotent stem cells have provided new insights into the study of HGPS and opened new original therapeutic perspectives to treat the disease.

  7. A High Throughput Phenotypic Screening reveals compounds that counteract premature osteogenic differentiation of HGPS iPS-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Cicero, Alessandra; Jaskowiak, Anne-Laure; Egesipe, Anne-Laure; Tournois, Johana; Brinon, Benjamin; Pitrez, Patricia R.; Ferreira, Lino; de Sandre-Giovannoli, Annachiara; Levy, Nicolas; Nissan, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare fatal genetic disorder that causes systemic accelerated aging in children. Thanks to the pluripotency and self-renewal properties of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), HGPS iPSC-based modeling opens up the possibility of access to different relevant cell types for pharmacological approaches. In this study, 2800 small molecules were explored using high-throughput screening, looking for compounds that could potentially reduce the alkaline phosphatase activity of HGPS mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) committed into osteogenic differentiation. Results revealed seven compounds that normalized the osteogenic differentiation process and, among these, all-trans retinoic acid and 13-cis-retinoic acid, that also decreased progerin expression. This study highlights the potential of high-throughput drug screening using HGPS iPS-derived cells, in order to find therapeutic compounds for HGPS and, potentially, for other aging-related disorders. PMID:27739443

  8. More Supernova Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    SEP 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE More Supernova Surprises 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...PERSPECTIVES More Supernova Surprises ASTRONOMY J. Martin Laming Spectroscopic observations of the supernova SN1987A are providing a new window into high...a core-collapse supernova ) have stretched and motivated research that has expanded our knowledge of astrophysics. The brightest such event in

  9. Surprises with Nonrelativistic Naturalness

    CERN Document Server

    Horava, Petr

    2016-01-01

    We explore the landscape of technical naturalness for nonrelativistic systems, finding surprises which challenge and enrich our relativistic intuition already in the simplest case of a single scalar field. While the immediate applications are expected in condensed matter and perhaps in cosmology, the study is motivated by the leading puzzles of fundamental physics involving gravity: The cosmological constant problem and the Higgs mass hierarchy problem.

  10. Surprises in astrophysical gasdynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Balbus, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Much of astrophysics consists of the study of ionised gas under the influence of gravitational and magnetic fields. Thus, it is not possible to understand the astrophysical universe without a detailed knowledge of the dynamics of magnetised fluids. Fluid dynamics is, however, a notoriously tricky subject, in which it is all too easy for one's a priori intuition to go astray. In this review, we seek to guide the reader through a series of illuminating yet deceptive problems, all with an enlightening twist. We cover a broad range of topics including the instabilities acting in accretion discs, the hydrodynamics governing the convective zone of the Sun, the magnetic shielding of a cooling galaxy cluster, and the behaviour of thermal instabilities and evaporating clouds. The aim of this review is to surprise and intrigue even veteran astrophysical theorists with an idiosynchratic choice of problems and counterintuitive results. At the same time, we endeavour to bring forth the fundamental ideas, to set out import...

  11. Discordant gene expression signatures and related phenotypic differences in lamin A- and A/C-related Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Plasilova

    Full Text Available Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS is a genetic disorder displaying features reminiscent of premature senescence caused by germline mutations in the LMNA gene encoding lamin A and C, essential components of the nuclear lamina. By studying a family with homozygous LMNA mutation (K542N, we showed that HGPS can also be caused by mutations affecting both isoforms, lamin A and C. Here, we aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis in both, lamin A- (sporadic and lamin A and C-related (hereditary HGPS. For this, we performed detailed molecular studies on primary fibroblasts of hetero- and homozygous LMNA K542N mutation carriers, accompanied with clinical examinations related to the molecular findings. By assessing global gene expression we found substantial overlap in altered transcription profiles (13.7%; 90/657 in sporadic and hereditary HGPS, with 83.3% (75/90 concordant and 16.7% (15/90 discordant transcriptional changes. Among the concordant ones we observed down-regulation of TWIST2, whose inactivation in mice and humans leads to loss of subcutaneous fat and dermal appendages, and loss of expression in dermal fibroblasts and periadnexial cells from a LMNA(K542N/K542N patient further confirming its pivotal role in skin development. Among the discordant transcriptional profiles we identified two key mediators of vascular calcification and bone metabolism, ENPP1 and OPG, which offer a molecular explanation for the major phenotypic differences in vascular and bone disease in sporadic and hereditary HGPS. Finally, this study correlates reduced TWIST2 and OPG expression with increased osteocalcin levels, thereby linking altered bone remodeling to energy homeostasis in hereditary HGPS.

  12. Discordant Gene Expression Signatures and Related Phenotypic Differences in Lamin A- and A/C-Related Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasilova, Martina; Chattopadhyay, Chandon; Ghosh, Apurba; Wenzel, Friedel; Demougin, Philippe; Noppen, Christoph; Schaub, Nathalie; Szinnai, Gabor; Terracciano, Luigi; Heinimann, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a genetic disorder displaying features reminiscent of premature senescence caused by germline mutations in the LMNA gene encoding lamin A and C, essential components of the nuclear lamina. By studying a family with homozygous LMNA mutation (K542N), we showed that HGPS can also be caused by mutations affecting both isoforms, lamin A and C. Here, we aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis in both, lamin A- (sporadic) and lamin A and C-related (hereditary) HGPS. For this, we performed detailed molecular studies on primary fibroblasts of hetero- and homozygous LMNA K542N mutation carriers, accompanied with clinical examinations related to the molecular findings. By assessing global gene expression we found substantial overlap in altered transcription profiles (13.7%; 90/657) in sporadic and hereditary HGPS, with 83.3% (75/90) concordant and 16.7% (15/90) discordant transcriptional changes. Among the concordant ones we observed down-regulation of TWIST2, whose inactivation in mice and humans leads to loss of subcutaneous fat and dermal appendages, and loss of expression in dermal fibroblasts and periadnexial cells from a LMNAK542N/K542N patient further confirming its pivotal role in skin development. Among the discordant transcriptional profiles we identified two key mediators of vascular calcification and bone metabolism, ENPP1 and OPG, which offer a molecular explanation for the major phenotypic differences in vascular and bone disease in sporadic and hereditary HGPS. Finally, this study correlates reduced TWIST2 and OPG expression with increased osteocalcin levels, thereby linking altered bone remodeling to energy homeostasis in hereditary HGPS. PMID:21738662

  13. Surprises in astrophysical gasdynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbus, Steven A.; Potter, William J.

    2016-06-01

    Much of astrophysics consists of the study of ionized gas under the influence of gravitational and magnetic fields. Thus, it is not possible to understand the astrophysical universe without a detailed knowledge of the dynamics of magnetized fluids. Fluid dynamics is, however, a notoriously tricky subject, in which it is all too easy for one’s a priori intuition to go astray. In this review, we seek to guide the reader through a series of illuminating yet deceptive problems, all with an enlightening twist. We cover a broad range of topics including the instabilities acting in accretion discs, the hydrodynamics governing the convective zone of the Sun, the magnetic shielding of a cooling galaxy cluster, and the behaviour of thermal instabilities and evaporating clouds. The aim of this review is to surprise and intrigue even veteran astrophysical theorists with an idiosyncratic choice of problems and counterintuitive results. At the same time, we endeavour to bring forth the fundamental ideas, to set out important assumptions, and to describe carefully whatever novel techniques may be appropriate to the problem at hand. By beginning at the beginning, and analysing a wide variety of astrophysical settings, we seek not only to make this review suitable for fluid dynamic veterans, but to engage novice recruits as well with what we hope will be an unusual and instructive introduction to the subject.

  14. Surprises in astrophysical gasdynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbus, Steven A; Potter, William J

    2016-06-01

    Much of astrophysics consists of the study of ionized gas under the influence of gravitational and magnetic fields. Thus, it is not possible to understand the astrophysical universe without a detailed knowledge of the dynamics of magnetized fluids. Fluid dynamics is, however, a notoriously tricky subject, in which it is all too easy for one's a priori intuition to go astray. In this review, we seek to guide the reader through a series of illuminating yet deceptive problems, all with an enlightening twist. We cover a broad range of topics including the instabilities acting in accretion discs, the hydrodynamics governing the convective zone of the Sun, the magnetic shielding of a cooling galaxy cluster, and the behaviour of thermal instabilities and evaporating clouds. The aim of this review is to surprise and intrigue even veteran astrophysical theorists with an idiosyncratic choice of problems and counterintuitive results. At the same time, we endeavour to bring forth the fundamental ideas, to set out important assumptions, and to describe carefully whatever novel techniques may be appropriate to the problem at hand. By beginning at the beginning, and analysing a wide variety of astrophysical settings, we seek not only to make this review suitable for fluid dynamic veterans, but to engage novice recruits as well with what we hope will be an unusual and instructive introduction to the subject.

  15. Surprise... Surprise..., An Empirical Investigation on How Surprise is Connected to Customer Satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vanhamme (Joëlle)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis research investigates the specific influence of the emotion of surprise on customer transaction-specific satisfaction. Four empirical studies-two field studies (a diary study and a cross section survey) and two experiments-were conducted. The results show that surprise positively

  16. Surprise... Surprise..., An Empirical Investigation on How Surprise is Connected to Customer Satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vanhamme (Joëlle)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis research investigates the specific influence of the emotion of surprise on customer transaction-specific satisfaction. Four empirical studies-two field studies (a diary study and a cross section survey) and two experiments-were conducted. The results show that surprise positively [n

  17. Surprise as a design strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, G.D.S.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Imagine yourself queuing for the cashier’s desk in a supermarket. Naturally, you have picked the wrong line, the one that does not seem to move at all. Soon, you get tired of waiting. Now, how would you feel if the cashier suddenly started to sing? Many of us would be surprised and, regardless of

  18. Surprise as a design strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, G.D.S.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Imagine yourself queuing for the cashier’s desk in a supermarket. Naturally, you have picked the wrong line, the one that does not seem to move at all. Soon, you get tired of waiting. Now, how would you feel if the cashier suddenly started to sing? Many of us would be surprised and, regardless of th

  19. Trait Anxiety Is Associated with Negative Interpretations When Resolving Valence Ambiguity of Surprised Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Gewnhi Park; Vasey, Michael W.; Grace Kim; Dixie D Hu; Thayer, Julian F

    2016-01-01

    The current research examines whether trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretation bias when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces. To further isolate the neuro-cognitive mechanism, we presented angry, happy, and surprised faces at broad, high, and low spatial frequency and asked participants to determine the valence of each face. High trait anxiety was associated with more negative interpretations of broad spatial frequency (i.e., intact) surprised faces. However, the mo...

  20. Brazilian rescue plan sparks surprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to Financial Times,when Guido Mantega,Brazil's finance minister,suddenly proposed a “Bric” rescue package for the eurozone this week,he caught not only other world leaders by surprise but also many of his fellow countrymen.Even as officials from other members of the so-called Bric grouping,Russia,India and China,said it was the first they heard of the idea,many ordinary Brazilians expressed shock at the notion of bailing out the world's richest trading bloc.

  1. Some Surprises in Relativistic Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, N O

    2016-01-01

    General Relativity has had tremendous success both on the theoretical and the experimental fronts for over a century now. However, the contents of the theory are far from exhausted. Only very recently, with the detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes, we have started probing the behavior of gravity in the strongly non-linear regime. Even today, the studies of black holes keep revealing more and more paradoxes and bizarre results. In this paper, inspired by David Hilbert's startling observation, we show that, contrary to the conventional wisdom, a freely falling test particle feels gravitational repulsion by a black hole as seen by the asymptotic observer. We dig deeper into this surprising behavior of relativistic gravity and offer some explanations.

  2. Trait Anxiety Is Associated with Negative Interpretations When Resolving Valence Ambiguity of Surprised Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gewnhi; Vasey, Michael W; Kim, Grace; Hu, Dixie D; Thayer, Julian F

    2016-01-01

    The current research examines whether trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretation bias when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces. To further isolate the neuro-cognitive mechanism, we presented angry, happy, and surprised faces at broad spatial frequency (BSF), high spatial frequency (HSF), and low spatial frequency (LSF) and asked participants to determine the valence of each face. High trait anxiety was associated with more negative interpretations of BSF (i.e., intact) surprised faces. However, the modulation of trait anxiety on the negative interpretation of surprised faces disappeared at HSF and LSF. The current study provides evidence that trait anxiety modulates negative interpretations of BSF surprised faces. However, the negative interpretation of LSF surprised faces appears to be a robust default response that occurs regardless of individual differences in trait anxiety.

  3. Trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretations when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gewnhi Park

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The current research examines whether trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretation bias when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces. To further isolate the neuro-cognitive mechanism, we presented angry, happy, and surprised faces at broad, high, and low spatial frequency and asked participants to determine the valence of each face. High trait anxiety was associated with more negative interpretations of broad spatial frequency (i.e., intact surprised faces. However, the modulation of trait anxiety on the negative interpretation of surprised faces disappeared at high and low spatial frequencies. The current study provides evidence that trait anxiety modulates negative interpretations of broad spatial frequency surprised faces. However, the negative interpretation of low spatial frequency surprised faces appears to be a robust default response that occurs regardless of individual differences in trait anxiety.

  4. Some Surprising Introductory Physics Facts and Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallmann, A. James

    2016-01-01

    In the entertainment world, people usually like, and find memorable, novels, short stories, and movies with surprise endings. This suggests that classroom teachers might want to present to their students examples of surprising facts associated with principles of physics. Possible benefits of finding surprising facts about principles of physics are…

  5. Young Galaxy's Magnetism Surprises Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Astronomers have made the first direct measurement of the magnetic field in a young, distant galaxy, and the result is a big surprise. Looking at a faraway protogalaxy seen as it was 6.5 billion years ago, the scientists measured a magnetic field at least 10 times stronger than that of our own Milky Way. They had expected just the opposite. The GBT Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF The scientists made the discovery using the National Science Foundation's ultra-sensitive Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. "This new measurement indicates that magnetic fields may play a more important role in the formation and evolution of galaxies than we have realized," said Arthur Wolfe, of the University of California-San Diego (UCSD). At its great distance, the protogalaxy is seen as it was when the Universe was about half its current age. According to the leading theory, cosmic magnetic fields are generated by the dynamos of rotating galaxies -- a process that would produce stronger fields with the passage of time. In this scenario, the magnetic fields should be weaker in the earlier Universe, not stronger. The new, direct magnetic-field measurement comes on the heels of a July report by Swiss and American astronomers who made indirect measurements that also implied strong magnetic fields in the early Universe. "Our results present a challenge to the dynamo model, but they do not rule it out," Wolfe said. There are other possible explanations for the strong magnetic field seen in the one protogalaxy Wolfe's team studied. "We may be seeing the field close to the central region of a massive galaxy, and we know such fields are stronger toward the centers of nearby galaxies. Also, the field we see may have been amplified by a shock wave caused by the collision of two galaxies," he said. The protogalaxy studied with the GBT, called DLA-3C286, consists of gas with little or no star formation occurring in it. The astronomers suspect that

  6. MRI of intact plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, H. van; Scheenen, T.W.J.; Vergeldt, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-destructive and non-invasive technique that can be used to acquire two- or even three-dimensional images of intact plants. The information within the images can be manipulated and used to study the dynamics of plant water relations and water transpor

  7. MRI of intact plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, van H.; Scheenen, T.; Vergeldt, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-destructive and non-invasive technique that can be used to acquire two- or even three-dimensional images of intact plants. The information within the images can be manipulated and used to study the dynamics of plant water relations and water transpor

  8. [Intact cervical pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habek, D; Bobic, M V; Dosen, L

    2003-01-01

    The authors describe a case of intact cervical pregnancy in a 24-year-old secundigravida. The patient was treated successfully with Methotrexate. Conservative treatment is the first choice in the therapy of uncomplicated cervical pregnancy. Conservative and operative therapeutic procedures are discussed.

  9. Evaluative Appraisals of Environmental Mystery and Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Jack L.; Cubukcu, Ebru

    2011-01-01

    This study used a desktop virtual environment (VE) of 15 large-scale residential streets to test the effects of environmental mystery and surprise on response. In theory, mystery and surprise should increase interest and visual appeal. For each VE, participants walked through an approach street and turned right onto a post-turn street. We designed…

  10. Evaluative Appraisals of Environmental Mystery and Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Jack L.; Cubukcu, Ebru

    2011-01-01

    This study used a desktop virtual environment (VE) of 15 large-scale residential streets to test the effects of environmental mystery and surprise on response. In theory, mystery and surprise should increase interest and visual appeal. For each VE, participants walked through an approach street and turned right onto a post-turn street. We designed…

  11. Analyst Information Precision and Small Earnings Surprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Bissessur; D. Veenman

    2014-01-01

    Prior research attributes zero and small positive earnings surprises to managers’ incentives for earnings management. In contrast, this study introduces and empirically tests an explanation for zero and small positive earnings surprises based on predictable variation in analyst forecast errors. We a

  12. Cognitive and Social Perspectives on Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhami, Mundler

    2007-01-01

    Meanings of "surprise" are wide and include uplifting and engaging facets like wonder and amazement on the one hand as well as ones that may be of the opposite nature like interruption and disrupt on the other. Pedagogically, educators who use surprise in class activities are focusing on students being "taken aback" by a situation, hopefully…

  13. A toolkit for detecting technical surprise.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, Michael Wayne; Foehse, Mark C.

    2010-10-01

    The detection of a scientific or technological surprise within a secretive country or institute is very difficult. The ability to detect such surprises would allow analysts to identify the capabilities that could be a military or economic threat to national security. Sandia's current approach utilizing ThreatView has been successful in revealing potential technological surprises. However, as data sets become larger, it becomes critical to use algorithms as filters along with the visualization environments. Our two-year LDRD had two primary goals. First, we developed a tool, a Self-Organizing Map (SOM), to extend ThreatView and improve our understanding of the issues involved in working with textual data sets. Second, we developed a toolkit for detecting indicators of technical surprise in textual data sets. Our toolkit has been successfully used to perform technology assessments for the Science & Technology Intelligence (S&TI) program.

  14. Deciphering network community structure by surprise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aldecoa, Rodrigo; Marín, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    .... A fundamental, unsolved problem is how to characterize the community structure of a network. Here, using both standard and novel benchmarks, we show that maximization of a simple global parameter, which we call Surprise...

  15. A Surprising Culprit Behind Celiac Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_164503.html A Surprising Culprit Behind Celiac Disease? Study suggests harmless viruses may set stage ... typically harmless type of virus might sometimes trigger celiac disease, a new study suggests. Celiac disease is ...

  16. (Photosynthesis in intact plants)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    Progress in the two years since the last renewal application has been excellent. We have made substantial contributions on both main fronts of the projects, and are particularly happy with the progress of our research on intact plants. The approach of basing our field work on a sound foundation of laboratory studies has enabled is to use methods which provide unambiguous assays of well characterized reactions. We have also made excellent progress in several laboratory studies which will have direct applications in future field work, and have introduced to the laboratory a range of molecular genetics techniques which will allow us to explore new options in the attempt to understand function at the level of molecular structure.

  17. Surprises in numerical expressions of physical constants

    CERN Document Server

    Amir, Ariel; Tokieda, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    In science, as in life, `surprises' can be adequately appreciated only in the presence of a null model, what we expect a priori. In physics, theories sometimes express the values of dimensionless physical constants as combinations of mathematical constants like pi or e. The inverse problem also arises, whereby the measured value of a physical constant admits a `surprisingly' simple approximation in terms of well-known mathematical constants. Can we estimate the probability for this to be a mere coincidence, rather than an inkling of some theory? We answer the question in the most naive form.

  18. Surprising Connections between Partitions and Divisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Thomas J.; Hassen, Abdulkadir; Chandrupatla, Tirupathi R.

    2007-01-01

    The sum of the divisors of a positive integer is one of the most interesting concepts in multiplicative number theory, while the number of ways of expressing a number as a sum is a primary topic in additive number theory. In this article, we describe some of the surprising connections between and similarities of these two concepts.

  19. Surprises from extragalactic propagation of UHECRs

    CERN Document Server

    Boncioli, Denise; Grillo, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-high energy cosmic ray experimental data are now of very good statistical significance even in the region of the expected GZK feature. The identification of their sources requires sophisticate analysis of their propagation in the extragalactic space. When looking at the details of this propagation some unforeseen features emerge. We will discuss some of these "surprises".

  20. The Pathogenic Mechanisms and Therapeutic Strategies of Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome%早老症(HGPS)的发病机制与治疗策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾涛; 刘新光; 周中军

    2007-01-01

    早老症(Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome,HGPS)是一种早发而严重的过早老化性疾病.它是由于编码A/C型核纤层蛋白的LMNA基因发生点突变而引起.这个突变激活了基因11号外显子上一个隐蔽的剪接位点,产生了一种被截短了50个氨基酸的A型核纤层蛋白.然而,一个广泛分布于核膜上结构蛋白的突变,如何引起HGPS患者的早老表现,目前还不太清楚.最近研究发现,HGPS患者的细胞核结构与功能发生了各种异常,主要表现在:progerin蓄积与核变形、细胞核机械性质的改变、组蛋白修饰方式与外遗传控制的改变、基因表达调控异常、p53信号传导通路激活和基因组不稳定等方面.目前存在机械应激假说和基因表达失控假说两种假说解释HGPS的发病机制.对于HGPS患者,尚无有效的临床干预措施,但有学者提出了一些治疗策略,如应用法尼基化的抑制剂、反义寡核苷酸和RNA干扰方法.HGPS被认为是研究正常衰老机制的一个模型.对HGPS深入研究将有助于阐明A型核纤层蛋白和核膜的正常生理功能,及其在生理衰老和疾病中的作用.

  1. Radar Design to Protect Against Surprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Technological and doctrinal surprise is about rendering preparations for conflict as irrelevant or ineffective . For a sensor, this means essentially rendering the sensor as irrelevant or ineffective in its ability to help determine truth. Recovery from this sort of surprise is facilitated by flexibility in our own technology and doctrine. For a sensor, this mean s flexibility in its architecture, design, tactics, and the designing organizations ' processes. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory manage d and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000.

  2. Surprise Leads to Noisier Perceptual Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta I Garrido

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Surprising events in the environment can impair task performance. This might be due to complete distraction, leading to lapses during which performance is reduced to guessing. Alternatively, unpredictability might cause a graded withdrawal of perceptual resources from the task at hand and thereby reduce sensitivity. Here we attempt to distinguish between these two mechanisms. Listeners performed a novel auditory pitch—duration discrimination, where stimulus loudness changed occasionally and incidentally to the task. Responses were slower and less accurate in the surprising condition, where loudness changed unpredictably, than in the predictable condition, where the loudness was held constant. By explicitly modelling both lapses and changes in sensitivity, we found that unpredictable changes diminished sensitivity but did not increase the rate of lapses. These findings suggest that background environmental uncertainty can disrupt goal-directed behaviour. This graded processing strategy might be adaptive in potentially threatening contexts, and reflect a flexible system for automatic allocation of perceptual resources.

  3. Radar Design to Protect Against Surprise.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2015-02-01

    Technological and doctrinal surprise is about rendering preparations for conflict as irrelevant or ineffective . For a sensor, this means essentially rendering the sensor as irrelevant or ineffective in its ability to help determine truth. Recovery from this sort of surprise is facilitated by flexibility in our own technology and doctrine. For a sensor, this mean s flexibility in its architecture, design, tactics, and the designing organizations ' processes. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory manage d and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000.

  4. Surprise-Based Learning for Autonomous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-28

    for scientific theories containing recursive theoretical terms". British Journal of Philosophy of Science, 44. 641-652, 1993. Piaget J.. "The Origins...paradigm stems from Piaget’s theory of Developmental Psychology [5], Herben Simon’s theory on dual-space search for knowledge and problem solving [6...34, Twenty-First Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, Edinburgh, Scotland, July 2005. [34] Itti L., Baldi P., "A Surprising Theory of

  5. Pupil size tracks perceptual content and surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Niels A; Meindertsma, Thomas; van Loon, Anouk M; Lamme, Victor A F; Bonneh, Yoram S; Donner, Tobias H

    2015-04-01

    Changes in pupil size at constant light levels reflect the activity of neuromodulatory brainstem centers that control global brain state. These endogenously driven pupil dynamics can be synchronized with cognitive acts. For example, the pupil dilates during the spontaneous switches of perception of a constant sensory input in bistable perceptual illusions. It is unknown whether this pupil dilation only indicates the occurrence of perceptual switches, or also their content. Here, we measured pupil diameter in human subjects reporting the subjective disappearance and re-appearance of a physically constant visual target surrounded by a moving pattern ('motion-induced blindness' illusion). We show that the pupil dilates during the perceptual switches in the illusion and a stimulus-evoked 'replay' of that illusion. Critically, the switch-related pupil dilation encodes perceptual content, with larger amplitude for disappearance than re-appearance. This difference in pupil response amplitude enables prediction of the type of report (disappearance vs. re-appearance) on individual switches (receiver-operating characteristic: 61%). The amplitude difference is independent of the relative durations of target-visible and target-invisible intervals and subjects' overt behavioral report of the perceptual switches. Further, we show that pupil dilation during the replay also scales with the level of surprise about the timing of switches, but there is no evidence for an interaction between the effects of surprise and perceptual content on the pupil response. Taken together, our results suggest that pupil-linked brain systems track both the content of, and surprise about, perceptual events.

  6. Some surprising facts about (the problem of) surprising facts (from the Dusseldorf Conference, February 2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, D

    2014-03-01

    A common intuition about evidence is that if data x have been used to construct a hypothesis H, then x should not be used again in support of H. It is no surprise that x fits H, if H was deliberately constructed to accord with x. The question of when and why we should avoid such "double-counting" continues to be debated in philosophy and statistics. It arises as a prohibition against data mining, hunting for significance, tuning on the signal, and ad hoc hypotheses, and as a preference for predesignated hypotheses and "surprising" predictions. I have argued that it is the severity or probativeness of the test--or lack of it--that should determine whether a double-use of data is admissible. I examine a number of surprising ambiguities and unexpected facts that continue to bedevil this debate.

  7. Stroke Recovery: Surprising Influences and Residual Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argye E. Hillis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is startling individual variability in the degree to which people recover from stroke and the duration of time over which recovery of some symptoms occurs. There are a variety of mechanisms of recovery from stroke which take place at distinct time points after stroke and are influenced by different variables. We review recent studies from our laboratory that unveil some surprising findings, such as the role of education in chronic recovery. We also report data showing that the consequences that most plague survivors of stroke and their caregivers are loss of high level cortical functions, such as empathy or written language. These results have implications for rehabilitation and management of stroke.

  8. Surprises and mysteries in urban soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groffman, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the Baltimore Ecosystem Study, one of two urban long-term ecological research (LTER) projects funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, we are using "the watershed approach" to integrate ecological, physical and social sciences. Urban and suburban watershed input/output budgets for nitrogen have shown surprisingly high retention which has led to detailed analysis of sources and sinks in soils these watersheds. Home lawns, thought to be major sources of reactive nitrogen in suburban watersheds, have more complex coupled carbon and nitrogen dynamics than previously thought, and are likely the site of much nitrogen retention. Riparian zones, thought to be an important sink for reactive nitrogen in many watersheds, have turned out be nitrogen sources in urban watersheds due to hydrologic changes that disconnect streams from their surrounding landscape. Urban effects on atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and nitrogen deposition have strong effects on soil nitrogen cycling processes and soil:atmosphere fluxes of nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane. Efforts to manage urban soils and watersheds through geomorphic stream restoration, creation of stormwater management features and changes in lawn and forest management can have significant effects on watershed carbon and nitrogen dynamics. Urban soils present a basic and applied science frontier that challenges our understanding of biological, physical, chemical and social science processes. The watershed approach provides an effective platform for integrating these disciplines and for articulating critical questions that arise from surprising results. This approach can help us to meet the challenge of urban soils, which is critical to achieving sustainability goals in cities across the world.

  9. The conceptualization model problem—surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, John

    2005-03-01

    The foundation of model analysis is the conceptual model. Surprise is defined as new data that renders the prevailing conceptual model invalid; as defined here it represents a paradigm shift. Limited empirical data indicate that surprises occur in 20-30% of model analyses. These data suggest that groundwater analysts have difficulty selecting the appropriate conceptual model. There is no ready remedy to the conceptual model problem other than (1) to collect as much data as is feasible, using all applicable methods—a complementary data collection methodology can lead to new information that changes the prevailing conceptual model, and (2) for the analyst to remain open to the fact that the conceptual model can change dramatically as more information is collected. In the final analysis, the hydrogeologist makes a subjective decision on the appropriate conceptual model. The conceptualization problem does not render models unusable. The problem introduces an uncertainty that often is not widely recognized. Conceptual model uncertainty is exacerbated in making long-term predictions of system performance. C'est le modèle conceptuel qui se trouve à base d'une analyse sur un modèle. On considère comme une surprise lorsque le modèle est invalidé par des données nouvelles; dans les termes définis ici la surprise est équivalente à un change de paradigme. Des données empiriques limitées indiquent que les surprises apparaissent dans 20 à 30% des analyses effectuées sur les modèles. Ces données suggèrent que l'analyse des eaux souterraines présente des difficultés lorsqu'il s'agit de choisir le modèle conceptuel approprié. Il n'existe pas un autre remède au problème du modèle conceptuel que: (1) rassembler autant des données que possible en utilisant toutes les méthodes applicables—la méthode des données complémentaires peut conduire aux nouvelles informations qui vont changer le modèle conceptuel, et (2) l'analyste doit rester ouvert au fait

  10. Surprising characteristics of visual systems of invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín-Moro, J; Hernández-Verdejo, J L; Jiménez-Gahete, A E

    2017-01-01

    To communicate relevant and striking aspects about the visual system of some close invertebrates. Review of the related literature. The capacity of snails to regenerate a complete eye, the benefit of the oval shape of the compound eye of many flying insects as a way of stabilising the image during flight, the potential advantages related to the extreme refractive error that characterises the ocelli of many insects, as well as the ability to detect polarised light as a navigation system, are some of the surprising capabilities present in the small invertebrate eyes that are described in this work. The invertebrate eyes have capabilities and sensorial modalities that are not present in the human eye. The study of the eyes of these animals can help us to improve our understanding of our visual system, and inspire the development of optical devices. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Surprises from Saturn: Implications for Other Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, A. J.

    2014-05-01

    The exploration of Saturn by Cassini has provided many surprises regarding: Saturn's rapidly rotating magnetosphere, interactions with its diverse moons, and interactions with the solar wind. Enceladus, orbiting at 4 Saturn radii (RS), was found to have plumes of water vapour and ice which are the dominant source for the inner magnetosphere. Charged water clusters, charged dust and photoelectrons provide key populations in the 'dusty plasma' observed. Direct pickup is seen near Enceladus and field-aligned currents create a spot in Saturn's aurora. At Titan, orbiting at 20 RS, unexpected heavy negative and positive ions are seen in the ionosphere, which provide the source for Titan's haze. Ionospheric plasma is seen in Titan's tail, enabling ion escape to be estimated at 7 tonnes per day. Saturn's ring ionosphere was seen early in the mission and a return will be made in 2017. In addition, highly accelerated electrons are seen at Saturn's high Mach number (MA˜100) quasi-parallel bow shock. Here we review some of these key new results, and discuss the implications for other solar system objects.

  12. A Shocking Surprise in Stephan's Quintet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This false-color composite image of the Stephan's Quintet galaxy cluster clearly shows one of the largest shock waves ever seen (green arc). The wave was produced by one galaxy falling toward another at speeds of more than one million miles per hour. The image is made up of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and a ground-based telescope in Spain. Four of the five galaxies in this picture are involved in a violent collision, which has already stripped most of the hydrogen gas from the interiors of the galaxies. The centers of the galaxies appear as bright yellow-pink knots inside a blue haze of stars, and the galaxy producing all the turmoil, NGC7318b, is the left of two small bright regions in the middle right of the image. One galaxy, the large spiral at the bottom left of the image, is a foreground object and is not associated with the cluster. The titanic shock wave, larger than our own Milky Way galaxy, was detected by the ground-based telescope using visible-light wavelengths. It consists of hot hydrogen gas. As NGC7318b collides with gas spread throughout the cluster, atoms of hydrogen are heated in the shock wave, producing the green glow. Spitzer pointed its infrared spectrograph at the peak of this shock wave (middle of green glow) to learn more about its inner workings. This instrument breaks light apart into its basic components. Data from the instrument are referred to as spectra and are displayed as curving lines that indicate the amount of light coming at each specific wavelength. The Spitzer spectrum showed a strong infrared signature for incredibly turbulent gas made up of hydrogen molecules. This gas is caused when atoms of hydrogen rapidly pair-up to form molecules in the wake of the shock wave. Molecular hydrogen, unlike atomic hydrogen, gives off most of its energy through vibrations that emit in the infrared. This highly disturbed gas is the most turbulent molecular hydrogen ever seen. Astronomers were surprised not only by the turbulence

  13. The Influence of Negative Surprise on Hedonic Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Kieling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After some time using a product or service, the consumer tends to feel less pleasure with consumption. This reduction of pleasure is known as hedonic adaptation. One of the emotions that interfere in this process is surprise. Based on two experiments, we suggest that negative surprise – differently to positive – influences with the level of pleasure foreseen and experienced by the consumer. Study 1 analyzes the influence of negative (vs. positive surprise on the consumer’s post-purchase hedonic adaptation expectation. Results showed that negative surprise influences the intensity of adaptation, augmenting its strength. Study 2 verifies the influence of negative (vs positive surprise over hedonic adaptation. The findings suggested that negative surprise makes adaptation happen more intensively and faster as time goes by, which brings consequences to companies and consumers in the post-purchase process, such as satisfaction and loyalty.

  14. Effects of Surprisal and Locality on Danish Sentence Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Kizach, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    An eye-tracking experiment in Danish investigates two dominant accounts of sentence processing: locality-based theories that predict a processing advantage for sentences where the distance between the major syntactic heads is minimized, and the surprisal theory which predicts that processing time...... constructions with two postverbal NP-objects. An eye-tracking experiment showed a clear advantage for local syntactic relations, with only a marginal effect of lexicalised surprisal and no effect of syntactic surprisal. We conclude that surprisal has a relatively marginal effect, which may be clearest for verbs...

  15. Surprise and Sense Making: Undergraduate Placement Experiences in SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Andreas; Thomas, Rhodri; Jameson, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore undergraduate placement experiences in tourism and hospitality SMEs, focusing on the notions of surprise and sense making. It aims to argue that surprises and sense making are important elements not only of the adjustment process when entering new work environments, but also of the learning experience that…

  16. Neural Responses to Rapid Facial Expressions of Fear and Surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Facial expression recognition is mediated by a distributed neural system in humans that involves multiple, bilateral regions. There are six basic facial expressions that may be recognized in humans (fear, sadness, surprise, happiness, anger, and disgust; however, fearful faces and surprised faces are easily confused in rapid presentation. The functional organization of the facial expression recognition system embodies a distinction between these two emotions, which is investigated in the present study. A core system that includes the right parahippocampal gyrus (BA 30, fusiform gyrus, and amygdala mediates the visual recognition of fear and surprise. We found that fearful faces evoked greater activity in the left precuneus, middle temporal gyrus (MTG, middle frontal gyrus, and right lingual gyrus, whereas surprised faces were associated with greater activity in the right postcentral gyrus and left posterior insula. These findings indicate the importance of common and separate mechanisms of the neural activation that underlies the recognition of fearful and surprised faces.

  17. Association of progerin-interactive partner proteins with lamina proteins:Mel18 is associated with emerin in HGPS%Progerin作用的伴侣蛋白和核纤层蛋白问的相互作用:在早老症中Mel18与emerin的相互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-na JU; W. Ted BROWN; Nanbert ZHONG

    2009-01-01

    Objective :The Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS or progeria) is a childhood disorder with features of premature aging and is caused by mutations in the lamin A gene resulting in the production of an abnormal protein, termed progerin. To investigate the underlying pathogenic mecha-nism, we studied the nuclear co-localization and association of progerin interactive partner proteins (PIPPs) with lamina proteins. Methods:Both wild-type (WT) and progeria fibroblasts were studied by various methods including eonfocal microscopy, immunopreeipitation and Western blot. Results:All PIPPs discovered so-far co-localized with lamin A/C. In addition, the PIPPs were selectively associated with lamina proteins. An increased immunofluorescent staining signal was found for Mel18 in HGPS as com-pared to WT cells. An association of Me118 with emerin was observed in HGPS, but not in WT cells.Conclusion: Based on these findings, we propose that PIPPs, along with associated lamina proteins may form a pathogenic progerin-containing protein complex.

  18. Intact Transition Epitope Mapping (ITEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefremova, Yelena; Opuni, Kwabena F. M.; Danquah, Bright D.; Thiesen, Hans-Juergen; Glocker, Michael O.

    2017-08-01

    Intact transition epitope mapping (ITEM) enables rapid and accurate determination of protein antigen-derived epitopes by either epitope extraction or epitope excision. Upon formation of the antigen peptide-containing immune complex in solution, the entire mixture is electrosprayed to translate all constituents as protonated ions into the gas phase. There, ions from antibody-peptide complexes are separated from unbound peptide ions according to their masses, charges, and shapes either by ion mobility drift or by quadrupole ion filtering. Subsequently, immune complexes are dissociated by collision induced fragmentation and the ion signals of the "complex-released peptides," which in effect are the epitope peptides, are recorded in the time-of-flight analyzer of the mass spectrometer. Mixing of an antibody solution with a solution in which antigens or antigen-derived peptides are dissolved is, together with antigen proteolysis, the only required in-solution handling step. Simplicity of sample handling and speed of analysis together with very low sample consumption makes ITEM faster and easier to perform than other experimental epitope mapping methods.

  19. Defense Science Board (DSB) Summer Study Report on Strategic Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    DSB Summer Study Report on Strategic Surprise July 2015 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden...SUBTITLE DSB Summer Study Report on Strategic Surprise 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Defense Science Board ( DSB ),The Pentagon ,OUSD(AT&L

  20. Intacting Integrity in coping with health issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Stine Leegaard; Bastrup Jørgensen, Lene; Fridlund, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a formal substantive theory (FST) on the multidimensional behavioral process of coping with health issues. Intacting integrity while coping with health issues emerged as the core category of this FST. People facing health issues strive to safeguard and keep...... intact their integrity not only on an individual level but also as members of a group or a system. This intacting process is executed by attunement, continuously minimizing the discrepancy between personal values, personal health, self-expectations and external conditions as health- and cultural...

  1. Avoiding surprises when implementing a single quality system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donawa, Maria

    2009-01-01

    European medical device manufacturers are sometimes surprised to learn that operating ISO 13485 alone is not sufficient to meet United States (US) quality system requirements. This article discusses important considerations for meeting US and European requirements when operating under a single quality system.

  2. Reconsiderations: Donald Murray and the Pedagogy of Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Toward the end of his life, Donald Murray felt that his approach to writing instruction was no longer appreciated by journals in his field. Nevertheless, his emphasis on encouraging students to surprise themselves through informal writing still has considerable value. (Contains 1 note.)

  3. Reconsiderations: Donald Murray and the Pedagogy of Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Toward the end of his life, Donald Murray felt that his approach to writing instruction was no longer appreciated by journals in his field. Nevertheless, his emphasis on encouraging students to surprise themselves through informal writing still has considerable value. (Contains 1 note.)

  4. Errors and surprise in patients with focal brain lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ullsperger, M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent theories of performance monitoring suggest that not only errors and negative action outcomes but also valence-free expectancy violations can trigger cognitive and behavioral adaptations. EEG and fMRI evidence suggests that monitoring of both errors and surprising but valence-free action

  5. Sleeping beauties in theoretical physics 26 surprising insights

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Thanu

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses a fascinating set of questions in theoretical physics which will both entertain and enlighten all students, teachers and researchers and other physics aficionados. These range from Newtonian mechanics to quantum field theory and cover several puzzling issues that do not appear in standard textbooks. Some topics cover conceptual conundrums, the solutions to which lead to surprising insights; some correct popular misconceptions in the textbook discussion of certain topics; others illustrate deep connections between apparently unconnected domains of theoretical physics; and a few provide remarkably simple derivations of results which are not often appreciated. The connoisseur of theoretical physics will enjoy a feast of pleasant surprises skilfully prepared by an internationally acclaimed theoretical physicist. Each topic is introduced with proper background discussion and special effort is taken to make the discussion self-contained, clear and comprehensible to anyone with an undergraduate e...

  6. The June surprises: balls, strikes, and the fog of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Charles

    2013-04-01

    At first, few constitutional experts took seriously the argument that the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act exceeded Congress's power under the commerce clause. The highly political opinions of two federal district judges - carefully chosen by challenging plaintiffs - of no particular distinction did not shake that confidence that the act was constitutional. This disdain for the challengers' arguments was only confirmed when the act was upheld by two highly respected conservative court of appeals judges in two separate circuits. But after the hostile, even mocking questioning of the government's advocate in the Supreme Court by the five Republican-appointed justices, the expectation was that the act would indeed be struck down on that ground. So it came as no surprise when the five opined the act did indeed exceed Congress's commerce clause power. But it came as a great surprise when Chief Justice John Roberts, joined by the four Democrat-appointed justices, ruled that the act could be sustained as an exercise of Congress's taxing power - a ground urged by the government almost as an afterthought. It was further surprising, even shocking, that Justices Antonin Scalia, Anthony Kennedy, Clarence Thomas, and Samuel Alito not only wrote a joint opinion on the commerce clause virtually identical to that of their chief, but that in writing it they did not refer to or even acknowledge his opinion. Finally surprising was the fact that Justices Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Stephen Breyer joined the chief in holding that aspects of the act's Medicaid expansion were unconstitutional. This essay ponders and tries to unravel some of these puzzles.

  7. Autism Spectrum Disorder and intact executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, R; Ansermet, F; Massoni, F; Petrone, L; Onofri, E; Ricci, P; Archer, T; Ricci, S

    2016-01-01

    Earliest notions concerning autism (Autism Spectrum Disorders, ASD) describe the disturbance in executive functioning. Despite altered definition, executive functioning, expressed as higher cognitive skills required complex behaviors linked to the prefrontal cortex, are defective in autism. Specific difficulties in children presenting autism or verbal disabilities at executive functioning levels have been identified. Nevertheless, the developmental deficit of executive functioning in autism is highly diversified with huge individual variation and may even be absent. The aim of the present study to examine the current standing of intact executive functioning intact in ASD.

  8. Estimations of expectedness and potential surprise in possibility theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prade, Henri; Yager, Ronald R.

    1992-01-01

    This note investigates how various ideas of 'expectedness' can be captured in the framework of possibility theory. Particularly, we are interested in trying to introduce estimates of the kind of lack of surprise expressed by people when saying 'I would not be surprised that...' before an event takes place, or by saying 'I knew it' after its realization. In possibility theory, a possibility distribution is supposed to model the relative levels of mutually exclusive alternatives in a set, or equivalently, the alternatives are assumed to be rank-ordered according to their level of possibility to take place. Four basic set-functions associated with a possibility distribution, including standard possibility and necessity measures, are discussed from the point of view of what they estimate when applied to potential events. Extensions of these estimates based on the notions of Q-projection or OWA operators are proposed when only significant parts of the possibility distribution are retained in the evaluation. The case of partially-known possibility distributions is also considered. Some potential applications are outlined.

  9. 10 years of surprises at Saturn: CAPS and INMS highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, A. J.; Waite, J. H.

    2014-04-01

    The Cassini mission at Saturn has provided many surprises on Saturn's rapidly rotating magnetosphere and its interaction with the diverse moons, as well as its interaction with the solar wind. One of the early discoveries was the water-rich composition of the magnetosphere. Its structure and dynamics indicate remarkable injections, periodicities and interchange events. Enceladus, orbiting at 4 RS, was found to have plumes of water vapour and ice which are the dominant source for the inner magnetosphere. Charged water clusters, charged dust and photoelectrons provide key populations in the 'dusty plasma' seen here, as well as chemical complexity in the plume material. Direct pickup is seen near Enceladus and field aligned currents create a spot in Saturn's aurora. At Titan, orbiting at 20 RS, heavy negative and positive ions are seen in the ionosphere, as well as neutrals, all of which have surprising chemical complexity. These provide the source for Titan's haze. Ionospheric plasma is seen in Titan's tail, enabling ion escape to be estimated at 7 tonnes per day. Saturn's ring ionosphere was seen early in the mission, which was oxygen rich and produced photoelectrons; a return will be made in 2017. At Rhea, pickup positive and negative ions indicated weak atmospheres sustained by energetic particle impact, seen in the neutrals also. A weak atmosphere was also seen at Dione. The exosphere production process operates at Jupiter's moons also. Here we review some of the key new results, and discuss the implications for other solar system contexts.

  10. Xenopus egg cytoplasm with intact actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christine M; Nguyen, Phuong A; Ishihara, Keisuke; Groen, Aaron C; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    We report optimized methods for preparing Xenopus egg extracts without cytochalasin D, that we term "actin-intact egg extract." These are undiluted egg cytoplasm that contains abundant organelles, and glycogen which supplies energy, and represents the least perturbed cell-free cytoplasm preparation we know of. We used this system to probe cell cycle regulation of actin and myosin-II dynamics (Field et al., 2011), and to reconstitute the large, interphase asters that organize early Xenopus embryos (Mitchison et al., 2012; Wühr, Tan, Parker, Detrich, & Mitchison, 2010). Actin-intact Xenopus egg extracts are useful for analysis of actin dynamics, and interaction of actin with other cytoplasmic systems, in a cell-free system that closely mimics egg physiology, and more generally for probing the biochemistry and biophysics of the egg, zygote, and early embryo. Detailed protocols are provided along with assays used to check cell cycle state and tips for handling and storing undiluted egg extracts.

  11. Measured Zero Net Energy Performance: Results, Lessons, and Surprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Carrie; LaRue, Anna; Pigman, Margaret; Roberts, Jon; Kaneda, David; Connelly, Dylan; Elliott, John; Pless, Shanti; Pande, Abhijeet; Dean, Edward; Anbarlilar, Can

    2016-08-26

    As more and more zero net energy (ZNE) buildings are built and monitored, we can learn from both careful case studies of individual projects as well as a broader perspective of trends over time. In a forum sponsored by Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E), eight expert speakers discussed: results and lessons from monitoring occupied ZNE buildings; best practices for setting performance targets and getting actionable performance information, and; things that have surprised them about monitored ZNE buildings. This paper distills the content of the forum by laying out the most common hurdles that are encountered in setting up monitoring projects, frequent performance issues that the monitoring uncovers, and lessons learned that can be applied to future projects.

  12. Surprising hair analysis results following acute carbofuran intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulaurent, S; Gaulier, J M; Zouaoui, K; Moesch, C; François, B; Lachâtre, G

    2011-10-10

    We present two non fatal cases of intoxication with carbofuran (CBF) documented by hair analysis. Carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran (OHCBF, its main metabolite) hair concentrations were determined using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The obtained results were surprising if we consider several hair analyses previously published and based on a theory of the presence of xenobiotic in the only segment that comprised its intake. Among the two intoxication cases, we noticed the presence of CBF and OHCBF in hair segments corresponding to 45 days before, and more than 100 days after, the day of intoxication. Additionally, repeated hair samplings and subsequent analysis revealed a decrease of the carbofuran's concentration during the hair life.

  13. Physics Nobel prize 2004: Surprising theory wins physics Nobel

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    From left to right: David Politzer, David Gross and Frank Wilczek. For their understanding of counter-intuitive aspects of the strong force, which governs quarks inside protons and neutrons, on 5 October three American physicists were awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics. David J. Gross (Kavli Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara), H. David Politzer (California Institute of Technology), and Frank Wilczek (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) made a key theoretical discovery with a surprising result: the closer quarks are together, the weaker the force - opposite to what is seen with electromagnetism and gravity. Rather, the strong force is analogous to a rubber band stretching, where the force increases as the quarks get farther apart. These physicists discovered this property of quarks, known as asymptotic freedom, in 1976. It later became a key part of the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the Standard Model, the current best theory to describe the interac...

  14. Probability and Surprisal in Auditory Comprehension of Morphologically Complex Words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Baayen, R. Harald

    2012-01-01

    Two auditory lexical decision experiments document for morphologically complex words two points at which the probability of a target word given the evidence shifts dramatically. The first point is reached when morphologically unrelated competitors are no longer compatible with the evidence....... Adapting terminology from Marslen-Wilson (1984), we refer to this as the word’s initial uniqueness point (UP1). The second point is the complex uniqueness point (CUP) introduced by Balling and Baayen (2008), at which morphologically related competitors become incompatible with the input. Later initial...... in the course of the word co-determines response latencies. The presence of effects of surprisal, both at the initial uniqueness point of complex words, and cumulatively throughout the word, challenges the Shortlist B model of Norris and McQueen (2008), and suggests that a Bayesian approach to auditory...

  15. 2014 Presidential elections in Romania – surprising result or strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Mihalache

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The presidential elections in Romania which took place in November 2014 were won by Klaus Iohannis, who clearly defeated the incumbent prime-minister Victor Ponta by 10%. The result was considered by many a surprise, as none of the opinion polls were able to predict it. This article reveals a part of the strategy of Klaus Iohannis’s campaign and it offers a few clues about how this is result was possible, without having the aim to explain it fully. As the authors were accountable for strategy and political message in the electoral campaign for Klaus Iohannis, the scientific approach is combined with the inside view, to provide the reader a better understanding of the November 2014 events.

  16. Exploring the concept of climate surprises. A review of the literature on the concept of surprise and how it is related to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, M.H.; Moore, C.M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Streets, D.G.; Bhatti, N.; Rosa, C.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Stewart, T.R. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report examines the concept of climate surprise and its implications for environmental policymaking. Although most integrated assessment models of climate change deal with average values of change, it is usually the extreme events or surprises that cause the most damage to human health and property. Current models do not help the policymaker decide how to deal with climate surprises. This report examines the literature of surprise in many aspects of human society: psychology, military, health care, humor, agriculture, etc. It draws together various ways to consider the concept of surprise and examines different taxonomies of surprise that have been proposed. In many ways, surprise is revealed to be a subjective concept, triggered by such factors as prior experience, belief system, and level of education. How policymakers have reacted to specific instances of climate change or climate surprise in the past is considered, particularly with regard to the choices they made between proactive and reactive measures. Finally, the report discusses techniques used in the current generation of assessment models and makes suggestions as to how climate surprises might be included in future models. The report concludes that some kinds of surprises are simply unpredictable, but there are several types that could in some way be anticipated and assessed, and their negative effects forestalled.

  17. How can we conserve intact tropical peatlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Ian; Roucoux, Katherine

    2017-04-01

    The scientific community has, for more than three decades, been expressing increasing alarm about the fate of peatlands in parts of Indonesia and Malaysia, where extensive land-use conversion and drainage for rice and oil palm have greatly compromised peatland hydrology, ecology, biological richness, and carbon storage. The discourse in the literature on these peatlands is now moving on from attempts to preserve the last remaining fragments of peat-swamp forest, towards discussion of how best to restore damaged ecosystems, and whether it is possible to manage plantations more 'sustainably'. It is becoming increasingly clear, however, that peatlands occur quite widely in other parts of the lowland tropics, including parts of Amazonia and the Congo Basin, and many of these peatlands can reasonably be described as 'intact': although few if any parts of the tropics are totally unaffected by human actions, the hydrology and functional ecology of these systems appear to be close to a 'natural' state. The question then arises as to what should be done with the knowledge of their existence. Here we analyse the arguments in favour of protecting intact peatlands, and the potential conflicts with other priorities such as economic development and social justice. We evaluate alternative mechanisms for protecting intact peatlands, focusing on the particular issues raised by peatlands as opposed to other kinds of tropical ecosystem. We identify ways in which natural science agendas can help to inform these arguments, using our own contributions in palaeoecology and carbon mapping as examples. Finally, we argue for a radical reconsideration of research agendas in tropical peatlands, highlighting the potential contribution of methodologies borrowed from the social sciences and humanities.

  18. The surprising diversity of clostridial hydrogenases: a comparative genomic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calusinska, Magdalena; Happe, Thomas; Joris, Bernard; Wilmotte, Annick

    2010-06-01

    Among the large variety of micro-organisms capable of fermentative hydrogen production, strict anaerobes such as members of the genus Clostridium are the most widely studied. They can produce hydrogen by a reversible reduction of protons accumulated during fermentation to dihydrogen, a reaction which is catalysed by hydrogenases. Sequenced genomes provide completely new insights into the diversity of clostridial hydrogenases. Building on previous reports, we found that [FeFe] hydrogenases are not a homogeneous group of enzymes, but exist in multiple forms with different modular structures and are especially abundant in members of the genus Clostridium. This unusual diversity seems to support the central role of hydrogenases in cell metabolism. In particular, the presence of multiple putative operons encoding multisubunit [FeFe] hydrogenases highlights the fact that hydrogen metabolism is very complex in this genus. In contrast with [FeFe] hydrogenases, their [NiFe] hydrogenase counterparts, widely represented in other bacteria and archaea, are found in only a few clostridial species. Surprisingly, a heteromultimeric Ech hydrogenase, known to be an energy-converting [NiFe] hydrogenase and previously described only in methanogenic archaea and some sulfur-reducing bacteria, was found to be encoded by the genomes of four cellulolytic strains: Clostridum cellulolyticum, Clostridum papyrosolvens, Clostridum thermocellum and Clostridum phytofermentans.

  19. Atom Surprise: Using Theatre in Primary Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Ran; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet

    2011-10-01

    Early exposure to science may have a lifelong effect on children's attitudes towards science and their motivation to learn science in later life. Out-of-class environments can play a significant role in creating favourable attitudes, while contributing to conceptual learning. Educational science theatre is one form of an out-of-class environment, which has received little research attention. This study aims to describe affective and cognitive learning outcomes of watching such a play and to point to connections between theatrical elements and specific outcomes. "Atom Surprise" is a play portraying several concepts on the topic of matter. A mixed methods approach was adopted to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of children (grades 1-6) from two different school settings who watched the play. Data were gathered using questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Analysis suggested that in both schools children's knowledge on the topic of matter increased after the play with younger children gaining more conceptual knowledge than their older peers. In the public school girls showed greater gains in conceptual knowledge than boys. No significant changes in students' general attitudes towards science were found, however, students demonstrated positive changes towards science learning. Theatrical elements that seemed to be important in children's recollection of the play were the narrative, props and stage effects, and characters. In the children's memory, science was intertwined with the theatrical elements. Nonetheless, children could distinguish well between scientific facts and the fictive narrative.

  20. Novelty biases attention and gaze in a surprise trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, Gernot; Herwig, Arvid

    2016-01-01

    While the classical distinction between task-driven and stimulus-driven biasing of attention appears to be a dichotomy at first sight, there seems to be a third category that depends on the contrast or discrepancy between active representations and the upcoming stimulus, and may be termed novelty, surprise, or prediction failure. For previous demonstrations of the discrepancy-attention link, stimulus-driven components (saliency) may have played a decisive role. The present study was conducted to evaluate the discrepancy-attention link in a display where novel and familiar stimuli are equated for saliency. Eye tracking was used to determine fixations on novel and familiar stimuli as a proxy for attention. Results show a prioritization of attention by the novel color, and a de-prioritization of the familiar color, which is clearly present at the second fixation, and spans over the next couple of fixations. Saliency, on the other hand, did not prioritize items in the display. The results thus reinforce the notion that novelty captures and binds attention.

  1. A Well-Known But Still Surprising Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2014-12-01

    The bicycle generator is often mentioned as an example of a method to produce electric energy. It is cheap and easily accessible, so it is a natural example to use in teaching. There are different types, but I prefer the old side-wall dynamo. The most common explanation of its working principle seems to be something like the illustration in Fig. 1. The illustration is taken from a popular textbook in the Norwegian junior high school.1 Typically it is explained as a system of a moving magnet or coils that directly results in a varying magnetic field through the coils. According to Faraday's law a voltage is induced in the coils. Simple and easy! A few times I have had a chance to glimpse into a bicycle generator, and I was somewhat surprised to sense that the magnet rotated parallel to the turns of the coil. How could the flux through the coil change and induce a voltage when the magnet rotated parallel to the turns of the coil? When teaching electromagnetic induction I have showed the students a dismantled generator and asked them how this could work. They naturally found that this was more difficult to understand than the principle illustrated in Fig. 1. Other authors in this journal have discussed even more challenging questions concerning electric generators.2,3

  2. Surprise disrupts cognition via a fronto-basal ganglia suppressive mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Jan R; Jenkinson, Ned; Brittain, John-Stuart; Voets, Sarah H E M; Aziz, Tipu Z; Aron, Adam R

    2016-04-18

    Surprising events markedly affect behaviour and cognition, yet the underlying mechanism is unclear. Surprise recruits a brain mechanism that globally suppresses motor activity, ostensibly via the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia. Here, we tested whether this suppressive mechanism extends beyond skeletomotor suppression and also affects cognition (here, verbal working memory, WM). We recorded scalp-EEG (electrophysiology) in healthy participants and STN local field potentials in Parkinson's patients during a task in which surprise disrupted WM. For scalp-EEG, surprising events engage the same independent neural signal component that indexes action stopping in a stop-signal task. Importantly, the degree of this recruitment mediates surprise-related WM decrements. Intracranially, STN activity is also increased post surprise, especially when WM is interrupted. These results suggest that surprise interrupts cognition via the same fronto-basal ganglia mechanism that interrupts action. This motivates a new neural theory of how cognition is interrupted, and how distraction arises after surprising events.

  3. Properties and Surprises of Solar Activity XXIII Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishkov, V. N.

    2010-12-01

    The main properties of the 23rd cycle match almost completely those of average-magnitude solar cycles, and some of the features of the cycle may indicate a change in the generation mode of magnetic fields in the solar convection zone. If this is the case, the Sun enters a period of intermediate and weak cycles of solar activity (SA) in terms of the Wolf number, which may last for 3 to 6 solar cycles. The main development stages of solar cycle 23 are the following: minimum of solar cycle 22: April 1996 (W* = 8.0); maximum of the smoothed relative sunspot number: April 2000; global polarity reversal of the general solar magnetic field: July to December 2000; secondary maximum of the relative sunspot number: November 2001; maximum of the 10.7-cm radio flux: February 2002; phase of the cycle maximum: October 1999 to June 2002; beginning of the decrease phase: July 2002; the point of minimum of the current SA cycle: December 2008. Solar cycle 23 has presented two powerful flare-active sunspot groups, in September 2005 and December 2006 (+5.5 and +6.6 years from the maximum) which by flare potential occupy 4th and 20th place among the most flare-active regions for the last four solar cycles. The unprecedented duration of the relative sunspot numbers fall that has led to already record duration of the last solar cycle among authentic cycles (since 1849) became the next surprise of development of solar activity during the last cycle. The phase of the minimum began in May 2005 and lasted for 4.5 years. Thus, the new solar cycle 24 has begun in January 2009.

  4. Dracunculiasis eradication - Finishing the job before surprises arise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin Jelle Visser

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dracunculiasis(Guinea worm disease) is a preventable waterborne parasitic disease that affects the poorest people living in remote rural areas in sub-SaharanAfrican countries, who do not have access to safe drinking water.The Guinea Worm Eradication Program, a25-year old campaign to rid the world ofGuineaWorm disease has now reached its final stage accelerating to zero cases in all endemic countries.During the19th and20th centuries, dracunculiasis was common in much ofSouthernAsia and theAfrican continent.The overall number of cases has been reduced tremendously by≥99%, from the3.32 million cases estimated to have occurred in1986 inAfrica to only1797 cases reported in2010 reported in only five countries(Sudan,Mali,Ethiopia,Chad andGhana) andAsia free of the disease.This achievement is unique in its kind - the only previously eradicated disease is smallpox, a viral infection for which vaccination was possible - and it has been achieved through primary community-based prevention and health education programs.Most efforts need to be taken in two countries,SouthSudan(comprising94% or1698 out of1797 of the cases reported world-wide in2010) andMali because of frequent movements of nomads in a vast area inside and outsideMali’s borders.All factors favourable to dracunculiasis eradication are available including adequate financial resources, community and political support and high levels of advocacy.Thus there is no reason that this disabling parasitic disease cannot be eradicated soon before surprises arise such as new civil conflicts in currently endemic countries.

  5. Recollections of Parent Characteristics and Attachment Patterns for College Women of Intact vs. Non-Intact Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmann, Peter R.; Carranza, Laura V.; Vendemia, Jennifer M. C.

    2006-01-01

    This study contrasted offsprings' attachment patterns and recollections of parent characteristics in two college samples: 147 females from intact biological parents and 157 females of parental divorce. Secure females from intact or non-intact families rated parents positively, while insecure females rated parents as absent, distant, and demanding.…

  6. Surprising Sensitivities in Simulations of Radiative Convective Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drotos, Gabor; Becker, Tobias; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Stevens, Bjorn

    2017-04-01

    The climate and climate-sensitivity of a global model run in radiative equilibrium is explored. Results from simulations with ECHAM6.3 coupled to a slab ocean and run in a wide range of configurations are presented. Simulations both with and without a parameterised representation of deep convection are conducted for CO2 concentrations ranging from one eighth of present day values to thirty-two times the present day, and for variations in the solar constant of more than a factor of two. Very long simulations, in some case more than a thousand years, are performed to adequately sample the attractor of the different climate states of the model, and provide robust estimates of the system's climate sensitivity parameter. For the standard configuration of the model the climate sensitivity progressively decreases from very large values (6-7K) for the coldest climates to well below 1 K for the warmest climates. For very high CO2 levels (16 and 32 times the present value) fluctuations of globally averaged temperature as large as 10 K arise on decadal time-scales. These fluctuations manifest as quasi-period coolings, driven by large and persistent global scale decks of stratiform low clouds, so that for a period of several years global temperatures drop to levels below the lowest temperatures of the climate with present day values of CO2. The same configuration of the model has more modest sensitivities when the insolation is reduced, but runaway warming results for small (10%) increases. Simulations without parameterised convection have colder (by roughly 10K) climates and smaller (1K) sensitivities, allowing a stable climate with earth-like temperatures even for insolation much (50%) larger than the present day. Such values of insolation are possible because over a large range of the insolation the climate sensitivity parameter is very near zero. The surprising sensitivities of the system, and the limit-cycle like behaviour of the very CO2 rich climates, can be traced to

  7. Stars Form Surprisingly Close to Milky Way's Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way has surprisingly helped spawn a new generation of stars, according to observations from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This novel mode of star formation may solve several mysteries about the supermassive black holes that reside at the centers of nearly all galaxies. "Massive black holes are usually known for violence and destruction," said Sergei Nayakshin of the University of Leicester, United Kingdom, and coauthor of a paper on this research in an upcoming issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. "So it's remarkable that this black hole helped create new stars, not just destroy them." Black holes have earned their fearsome reputation because any material -- including stars -- that falls within the so-called event horizon is never seen again. However, these new results indicate that the immense disks of gas known to orbit many black holes at a "safe" distance from the event horizon can help nurture the formation of new stars. Animation of Stars Forming Around Black Hole Animation of Stars Forming Around Black Hole This conclusion came from new clues that could only be revealed in X-rays. Until the latest Chandra results, astronomers have disagreed about the origin of a mysterious group of massive stars discovered by infrared astronomers to be orbiting less than a light year from the Milky Way's central black hole, a.k.a. Sagittarius A*, or Sgr A*. At such close distances to Sgr A*, the standard model for star formation predicts that gas clouds from which stars form should have been ripped apart by tidal forces from the black hole. Two models to explain this puzzle have been proposed. In the disk model, the gravity of a dense disk of gas around Sgr A* offsets the tidal forces and allows stars to form; in the migration model, the stars formed in a star cluster far away from the black hole and migrated in to form the ring of massive stars. The migration scenario predicts about a

  8. Carbon Dioxide: Surprising Effects on Decision Making and Neurocognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2013-01-01

    The occupants of modern submarines and the International Space Station (ISS) have much in common as far as their air quality is concerned. Air is polluted by materials offgassing, use of utility compounds, leaks of systems chemicals, and anthropogenic sources. The primary anthropogenic compound of concern to submariners and astronauts has been carbon dioxide (CO2). NASA and the US Navy rely on the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRC-COT) to help formulate exposure levels to CO2 that are thought to be safe for exposures of 3-6 months. NASA calls its limits Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs). Years of experience aboard the ISS and a recent publication on deficits in decision making in ground-based subjects exposed briefly to 0.25% CO2 suggest that exposure levels that have been presumed acceptable to preserve health and performance need to be reevaluated. The current CO2 exposure limits for 3-6 months set by NASA and the UK Navy are 0.7%, and the limit for US submariners is 0.5%, although the NRC-COT recommended a 90-day level of 0.8% as safe a few years ago. NASA has set a 1000-day SMAC at 0.5% for exploration-class missions. Anecdotal experience with ISS operations approaching the current 180-day SMAC of 0.7% suggest that this limit is too high. Temporarily, NASA has limited exposures to 0.5% until further peer-reviewed data become available. In the meantime, a study published last year in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives (Satish U, et al. 2012) demonstrated that complexdecision- making performance is somewhat affected at 0.1% CO2 and becomes "dysfunctional" for at least half of the 9 indices of performance at concentrations approaching 0.25% CO2. The investigators used the Strategic Management Simulation (SMS) method of testing for decisionmaking ability, and the results were so surprising to the investigators that they declared that their findings need to be independently confirmed. NASA has responded to the

  9. Are seismic hazard assessment errors and earthquake surprises unavoidable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Why earthquake occurrences bring us so many surprises? The answer seems evident if we review the relationships that are commonly used to assess seismic hazard. The time-span of physically reliable Seismic History is yet a small portion of a rupture recurrence cycle at an earthquake-prone site, which makes premature any kind of reliable probabilistic statements about narrowly localized seismic hazard. Moreover, seismic evidences accumulated to-date demonstrate clearly that most of the empirical relations commonly accepted in the early history of instrumental seismology can be proved erroneous when testing statistical significance is applied. Seismic events, including mega-earthquakes, cluster displaying behaviors that are far from independent or periodic. Their distribution in space is possibly fractal, definitely, far from uniform even in a single segment of a fault zone. Such a situation contradicts generally accepted assumptions used for analytically tractable or computer simulations and complicates design of reliable methodologies for realistic earthquake hazard assessment, as well as search and definition of precursory behaviors to be used for forecast/prediction purposes. As a result, the conclusions drawn from such simulations and analyses can MISLEAD TO SCIENTIFICALLY GROUNDLESS APPLICATION, which is unwise and extremely dangerous in assessing expected societal risks and losses. For example, a systematic comparison of the GSHAP peak ground acceleration estimates with those related to actual strong earthquakes, unfortunately, discloses gross inadequacy of this "probabilistic" product, which appears UNACCEPTABLE FOR ANY KIND OF RESPONSIBLE SEISMIC RISK EVALUATION AND KNOWLEDGEABLE DISASTER PREVENTION. The self-evident shortcomings and failures of GSHAP appeals to all earthquake scientists and engineers for an urgent revision of the global seismic hazard maps from the first principles including background methodologies involved, such that there becomes: (a) a

  10. Effects of hydrolysed casein, intact casein and intact whey protein on energy expenditure and appetite regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Gomes, Sisse

    2014-01-01

    Casein and whey differ in amino acid composition and in the rate of absorption; however, the absorption rate of casein can be increased to mimic that of whey by exogenous hydrolysis. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of hydrolysed casein (HC), intact casein (IC......) and intact whey (IW) on energy expenditure (EE) and appetite regulation, and thereby to investigate the influence of amino acid composition and the rate of absorption. In the present randomised cross-over study, twenty-four overweight and moderately obese young men and women consumed three isoenergetic...... dietary treatments that varied in protein source. The study was conducted in a respiration chamber, where EE, substrate oxidation and subjective appetite were measured over 24 h at three independent visits. Moreover, blood and urine samples were collected from the participants. The results showed...

  11. Comparison of Intact PTH and Bio-Intact PTH Assays Among Non-Dialysis Dependent Chronic Kidney Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einbinder, Yael; Benchetrit, Sydney; Golan, Eliezer; Zitman-Gal, Tali

    2017-09-01

    The third-generation bio-intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) (1-84) assay was designed to overcome problems associated with the detection of C-terminal fragments by the second-generation intact PTH assay. The two assays have been compared primarily among dialysis populations. The present study evaluated the correlations and differences between these two PTH assays among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3 to 5 not yet on dialysis. Blood samples were collected from 98 patients with CKD stages 3 to 5. PTH concentrations were measured simultaneously by using the second-generation - PTH intact-STAT and third-generation bio-intact 1-84 PTH assays. Other serum biomarkers of bone mineral disorders were also assessed. CKD stage was calculated by using the CKD-Epidemiology Collaboration (EPI) formula. Serum bio-intact PTH concentrations were strongly correlated but significantly lower than the intact PTH concentrations (r=0.963, Pbio-intact PTH) positively correlated with urea (r=0.523, r=0.504; P=0.002, respectively), phosphorus (r=0.532, r=0.521; Pbio-intact PTH assay detected significantly lower PTH concentrations compared with intact PTH assay. Additional studies that correlate the diagnosis and management of CKD mineral and bone disorders with bone histomorphometric findings are needed to determine whether bio-intact PTH assay results are better surrogate markers in these early stages of CKD.

  12. Supermagnetic Neutron Star Surprises Scientists, Forces Revision of Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    magnetars because their magnetic fields are 100-1,000 times stronger than those of typical pulsars. It is the decay of those incredibly strong fields that powers their strange X-ray emission. "The magnetic field from a magnetar would make an aircraft carrier spin around and point north quicker than a compass needle moves on Earth," said David Helfand, of Columbia University. A magnetar's field is 1,000 trillion times stronger than Earth's, Helfand pointed out. The new object -- named XTE J1810-197 -- was first discovered by NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer when it emitted a strong burst of X-rays in 2003. While the X-rays were fading in 2004, Jules Halpern of Columbia University and collaborators identified the magnetar as a radio-wave emitter using the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in New Mexico. Any radio emission is highly unusual for a magnetar. Because magnetars had not been seen to regularly emit radio waves, the scientists presumed that the radio emission was caused by a cloud of particles thrown off the neutron star at the time of its X-ray outburst, an idea they soon would realize was wrong. With knowledge that the magnetar emitted some form of radio waves, Camilo and his colleagues observed it with the Parkes radio telescope in Australia in March and immediately detected astonishingly strong radio pulsations every 5.5 seconds, corresponding to the previously-determined rotation rate of the neutron star. As they continued to observe XTE J1810-197, the scientists got more surprises. Whereas most pulsars become weaker at higher radio frequencies, XTE J1810-197 does not, remaining a strong emitter at frequencies up to 140 GHz, the highest frequency ever detected from a radio pulsar. In addition, unlike normal pulsars, the object's radio emission fluctuates in strength from day to day, and the shape of the pulsations changes as well. These variations likely indicate that the magnetic fields around the pulsar are changing

  13. Chandra Finds Surprising Black Hole Activity In Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Scientists at the Carnegie Observatories in Pasadena, California, have uncovered six times the expected number of active, supermassive black holes in a single viewing of a cluster of galaxies, a finding that has profound implications for theories as to how old galaxies fuel the growth of their central black holes. The finding suggests that voracious, central black holes might be as common in old, red galaxies as they are in younger, blue galaxies, a surprise to many astronomers. The team made this discovery with NASA'S Chandra X-ray Observatory. They also used Carnegie's 6.5-meter Walter Baade Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile for follow-up optical observations. "This changes our view of galaxy clusters as the retirement homes for old and quiet black holes," said Dr. Paul Martini, lead author on a paper describing the results that appears in the September 10 issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters. "The question now is, how do these black holes produce bright X-ray sources, similar to what we see from much younger galaxies?" Typical of the black hole phenomenon, the cores of these active galaxies are luminous in X-ray radiation. Yet, they are obscured, and thus essentially undetectable in the radio, infrared and optical wavebands. "X rays can penetrate obscuring gas and dust as easily as they penetrate the soft tissue of the human body to look for broken bones," said co-author Dr. Dan Kelson. "So, with Chandra, we can peer through the dust and we have found that even ancient galaxies with 10-billion-year-old stars can have central black holes still actively pulling in copious amounts of interstellar gas. This activity has simply been hidden from us all this time. This means these galaxies aren't over the hill after all and our theories need to be revised." Scientists say that supermassive black holes -- having the mass of millions to billions of suns squeezed into a region about the size of our Solar System -- are the engines in the cores of

  14. Effects of Surprisal and Locality on Danish Sentence Processing: An Eye-Tracking Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Kizach, Johannes

    2017-03-22

    An eye-tracking experiment in Danish investigates two dominant accounts of sentence processing: locality-based theories that predict a processing advantage for sentences where the distance between the major syntactic heads is minimized, and the surprisal theory which predicts that processing time increases with big changes in the relative entropy of possible parses, sometimes leading to anti-locality effects. We consider both lexicalised surprisal, expressed in conditional trigram probabilities, and syntactic surprisal expressed in the manipulation of the expectedness of the second NP in Danish constructions with two postverbal NP-objects. An eye-tracking experiment showed a clear advantage for local syntactic relations, with only a marginal effect of lexicalised surprisal and no effect of syntactic surprisal. We conclude that surprisal has a relatively marginal effect, which may be clearest for verbs in verb-final languages, while locality is a robust predictor of sentence processing.

  15. Positive Youth Development, Life Satisfaction and Problem Behaviors of Adolescents in Intact and Non-Intact Families in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Tan Lei Shek

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether Chinese adolescents living in intact and non-intact families differed in their positive development, life satisfaction, and risk behavior. A total of 3,328 Secondary 1 students responded to measures of positive youth development (such as resilience and psychosocial competencies, life satisfaction, and risk behavior (substance abuse, delinquency, Internet addiction, consumption of pornographic materials, self-harm, and behavioral intention to engage in problem behavior. Findings revealed that adolescents growing up in intact families reported higher levels of positive developmental outcomes and life satisfaction as compared with adolescents from non-intact families. Adolescents in non-intact families also reported higher levels of risk behaviors than those growing up in intact families.

  16. A Neural Mechanism for Surprise-related Interruptions of Visuospatial Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Jan R

    2016-11-30

    Surprising perceptual events recruit a fronto-basal ganglia mechanism for inhibition, which suppresses motor activity following surprise. A recent study found that this inhibitory mechanism also disrupts the maintenance of verbal working memory (WM) after surprising tones. However, it is unclear whether this same mechanism also relates to surprise-related interruptions of non-verbal WM. We tested this hypothesis using a change-detection task, in which surprising tones impaired visuospatial WM. Participants also performed a stop-signal task (SST). We used independent component analysis and single-trial scalp-electroencephalogram to test whether the same inhibitory mechanism that reflects motor inhibition in the SST relates to surprise-related visuospatial WM decrements, as was the case for verbal WM. As expected, surprising tones elicited activity of the inhibitory mechanism, and this activity correlated strongly with the trial-by-trial level of surprise. However, unlike for verbal WM, the activity of this mechanism was unrelated to visuospatial WM accuracy. Instead, inhibition-independent activity that immediately succeeded the inhibitory mechanism was increased when visuospatial WM was disrupted. This shows that surprise-related interruptions of visuospatial WM are not effected by the same inhibitory mechanism that interrupts verbal WM, and instead provides evidence for a 2-stage model of distraction.

  17. 46 CFR 28.570 - Intact righting energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Intact righting energy. 28.570 Section 28.570 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Stability § 28.570 Intact righting energy. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of...

  18. X-ray inspection for boreholes in intact trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.M.C.; Hemming, J.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray systems are commonly used for luggage inspection. The size of these systems is sufficient for inspection of intact trees. The first objective of this study is to determine whether such an X-ray system is able to visualise boreholes in intact trees. The present study is partly based on human in

  19. Development of spatial database on intact forest landscapes of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar Reddy, C.; Singh, Jyoti; Jha, C. S.; Diwakar, P. G.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2017-01-01

    There is an increased interest in identifying the status of biodiversity in different spatial and temporal scales. The objective of the current research is to prepare a consistent spatial database of intact forest landscapes of India. The intact forest landscapes are located in the Himalayas, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Western Ghats and Sunderbans. At national level 237 forest landscapes and 5.4% of the total natural forest remained as intact in India. Current intact forest landscapes of India consists of blocks larger than 10 km2 covering an area of 34,061 km2. Of the total area under intact forest landscapes, Eastern Himalayas represent 76.7% of the area, followed by Western Himalayas (8.8%), Andaman & Nicobar Islands (6.2%) and Western Ghats (5.7%). The largest intact forest landscape block occupies an area of 3342.9 km2 (9.8%) is found in western Arunachal Pradesh. Temperate forest zone represents the highest intactness (56.6%), followed by subtropical zone (19.2%), tropical zone (18.6%) and alpine zone (5.6%). Himalayan moist temperate forests represent the highest area (39.1%) of intact forest landscapes followed by subtropical broad-leaved hill forests, wet evergreen forests, and montane wet temperate forests. It is estimated that 4.4% of the area of intact forest landscapes fall inside the existing 47 protected areas. The results of the analysis best suited as input for the process of identification of new protected areas. The study recommends fine-scale mapping of biodiversity within the intact forest landscapes and to prepare efficient conservation plans.

  20. Vesta Is Not an Intact Protoplanet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolmagno, Guy; Turrini, Diego; Golabeck, Gregor; Jutzi, Martin; Sirono, Sin-iti; Svetsov, Vladimir; Tsiganis, Kleomenis

    2014-11-01

    Asteroid 4 Vesta has been identified as the likely source of howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) basaltic achondrite meteorites, whose parent body differentiated and started solidifying within 3 Ma after the condensation of the Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). The formation of Jupiter and the disk-driven migration of the giant planets also occurred during this period; thus it was expected that Vesta could provide an intact record of large-scale early episodes of planetary migration and bombardment as in the proposed Jovian Early Bombardment and the “Grand Tack” scenarios. However, the results of the Dawn mission detailing Vesta’s mass, volume, density, and surface characteristics provide challenges for modeling the structure and evolution of this asteroid. All proposed models for the generation of the HEDs require the presence of a substantial olivine-rich mantle. But recent work on the depth of excavation of the large basins at the south pole of Vesta suggests that because there is not abundant mantle olivine visible on Vesta or in the Vestoid family asteroids, the crust of Vesta must be at least 80 km thick. Such a thick crust is radically at odds with previous models; should it exist, it ought to manifest itself in other ways such as Vesta’s density structure and bulk chemical composition. However, we find that no Vesta model of iron core, olivine-rich mantle, and HED crust can match the joint constraints of (a) Vesta’s density as derived from the gravity field observed by Dawn; (b) the observed depletion of sodium and potassium and trace element enrichments of the HED meteorites; and (c) the absence of exposed olivine on Vesta’s surface, among Vestoid asteroids, or in our collection of basaltic meteorites. Either Vesta was subjected to a radical change in composition, presumably due to the intense collisional environment where and when it formed, or the asteroid we see today is in fact a reaccretion of material formed elsewhere from now

  1. Surprisal-based comparison between a symbolic and a connectionist model of sentence processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, S.L.; Taatgen, N.; van Rijn, H.

    2009-01-01

    The 'unlexicalized surprisal' of a word in sentence context is defined as the negative logarithm of the probability of the word's part-of-speech given the sequence of previous parts-of-speech of the sentence. Unlexicalized surprisal is known to correlate with word reading time. Here, it is shown

  2. The role of surprising events in a math game on proportional reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, P.; Oostendorp, van H.; Vrugte, ter J.; Jong, de T.; Vandercruysse, S.; Elen, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether surprising events can be used to stimulate students’ playful learning in a GBL environment in the domain of proportional reasoning. The assumed effect of surprise is that unexpected events interrupt an expectation and therefore triggers the player to evaluate the new situ

  3. Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; LaBar, Kevin S; Adcock, R Alison

    2016-10-01

    Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal representations of the environment, and surprising events are indications for encoding new representations of the environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system, including the hippocampus and surrounding cortex, encodes surprising events and is influenced by motivational state. Because behavior reflects the goals of an individual, we investigated whether motivational valence (i.e., pursuing rewards versus avoiding punishments) also impacts neural and mnemonic encoding of surprising events. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants encountered perceptually unexpected events either during the pursuit of rewards or avoidance of punishments. Despite similar levels of motivation across groups, reward and punishment facilitated the processing of surprising events in different medial temporal lobe regions. Whereas during reward motivation, perceptual surprises enhanced activation in the hippocampus, during punishment motivation surprises instead enhanced activation in parahippocampal cortex. Further, we found that reward motivation facilitated hippocampal coupling with ventromedial PFC, whereas punishment motivation facilitated parahippocampal cortical coupling with orbitofrontal cortex. Behaviorally, post-scan testing revealed that reward, but not punishment, motivation resulted in greater memory selectivity for surprising events encountered during goal pursuit. Together these findings demonstrate that neuromodulatory systems engaged by anticipation of reward and punishment target separate components of the medial temporal lobe, modulating medial temporal lobe sensitivity and connectivity. Thus, reward and punishment motivation yield distinct neural contexts for learning, with distinct consequences for how surprises are incorporated into predictive mnemonic models of the environment.

  4. A laboratory experiment of intact polar lipid degradation in sandy sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Logemann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Intact polar lipids (IPLs are considered biomarkers for living biomass. Their degradation in marine sediments, however, is poorly understood and complicates interpretation of their occurrence in geological samples. To investigate the turnover of IPLs, a degradation experiment with anoxic sandy sediments from the North Sea was conducted. Intact cells of two organisms that do not naturally occur in North Sea sediments were chosen as IPL sources: (i Saccharomyces cerevisiae, representative for ester-bound acyl lipids that also occur in Bacteria, and (ii the archaeon Haloferax volcanii, representative for ether-bound isoprenoid lipids. Surprisingly, IPLs with phosphoester-bound head groups showed approximately the same degradation rate as IPLs with glycosidic head groups. Furthermore, the results indicate a relatively fast degradation of S. cerevisiae IPLs with ester-bound moieties (analogs of bacterial membrane lipids and no significant degradation of archaeal IPLs with ether-bound moieties. Pore water and 16S rRNA-based DGGE analysis showed only a minor influence of the IPL source on microbial metabolism and community profiles. Due to our results, the IPL-based quantification of Archaea and Bacteria should be interpreted with caution.

  5. A laboratory experiment of intact polar lipid degradation in sandy sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Logemann

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Intact polar lipids (IPLs are considered biomarkers for living biomass. Their degradation in marine sediments, however, is poorly understood and complicates interpretation of their occurrence in geological samples. To investigate the turnover of IPLs, a degradation experiment with anoxic sandy sediments from the North Sea was conducted. Intact cells of two organisms that do not naturally occur in North Sea sediments were chosen as IPL sources: (i Saccharomyces cerevisiae, representative for ester-bound acyl lipids that also occur in Bacteria, and (ii the archaeon Haloferax volcanii, representative for ether-bound isoprenoid lipids. Surprisingly, IPLs with phosphoester-bound head groups showed approximately the same degradation rate as IPLs with glycosidic head groups. Furthermore, the results indicate a relatively fast degradation of S. cerevisiae IPLs with ester-bound moieties (analogs of bacterial membrane lipids and no significant degradation of archaeal IPLs with ether-bound moieties. Pore water and 16S rRNA-based DGGE analysis showed only a minor influence of the IPL source on microbial metabolism and community profiles. Due to our results, the IPL-based quantification of Archaea and Bacteria should be interpreted with caution.

  6. Reflectance Spectra Comparison of Orbital Debris, Intact Spacecraft, and Intact Rocket Bodies in the GEO Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albercromby, Kira J.; Abell, Paul; Barker, Ed

    2009-03-01

    A key objective of NASA's Orbital Debris program office at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is to characterize the debris environment by way of assessing the physical properties (type, mass, density, and size) of objects in orbit. Knowledge of the geosynchronous orbit (GEO) debris environment in particular can be used to determine the hazard probability at specific GEO altitudes and aid predictions of the future environment. To calculate an optical size from an intensity measurement of an object in the GEO regime, a 0.175 albedo is assumed currently. However, identification of specific material type or types could improve albedo accuracy and yield a more accurate size estimate for the debris piece. Using spectroscopy, it is possible to determine the surface materials of space objects. The study described herein used the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) to record spectral data in the ~ 0.65 to 2.5 micron regime on eight catalogued space objects. For comparison, all of the objects observed were in GEO or near-GEO. The eight objects consisted of two intact spacecraft, three rocket bodies, and three catalogued debris pieces. Two of the debris pieces stemmed from Titan 3C transtage breakup and the third is from COSMOS 2054. The reflectance spectra of the Titan 3C pieces share similar slopes (increasing with wavelength) and lack any strong absorption features. The COSMOS debris spectrum has a slight slope and has no absorption features. In contrast, the intact spacecraft show classic absorption features due to solar cells with a strong band gap feature near 1 micron. The two spacecraft were spin-stabilized objects and therefore have solar panels surrounding the outer surface. Two of the three rocket bodies are inertial upper stage (IUS) rocket bodies and have similar looking spectra. The slopes flatten out near 1.5 microns with absorption features in the near-infrared that are similar to that of white paint. The third rocket body has a similar flattening of slope but

  7. Treatment for burn blisters: debride or leave intact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Faye; Amblum, Jeshi

    2014-05-01

    This article presents findings from a systematic literature review of whether blisters arising from minor burns should be de-roofed or left intact. It discusses the risks of infection, healing outcomes, discomfort, choice of dressings and costs associated with each method, and reveals that debriding blisters larger than the patient's little fingernail while leaving smaller ones intact is generally agreed to be the best option. The article also explains external factors that influence the choice of whether to debride or leave blisters intact, reviews policy at the trust where one of the authors works in the context of the research and makes recommendations for practice.

  8. Previously seen and expected stimuli elicit surprise in the context of visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retell, James D; Becker, Stefanie I; Remington, Roger W

    2016-04-01

    In the context of visual search, surprise is the phenomenon by which a previously unseen and unexpected stimulus exogenously attracts spatial attention. Capture by such a stimulus occurs, by definition, independent of task goals and is thought to be dependent on the extent to which the stimulus deviates from expectations. However, the relative contributions of prior-exposure and explicit knowledge of an unexpected event to the surprise response have not yet been systematically investigated. Here observers searched for a specific color while ignoring irrelevant cues of different colors presented prior to the target display. After a brief familiarization period, we presented an irrelevant motion cue to elicit surprise. Across conditions we varied prior exposure to the motion stimulus - seen versus unseen - and top-down expectations of occurrence - expected versus unexpected - to assess the extent to which each of these factors contributes to surprise. We found no attenuation of the surprise response when observers were pre-exposed to the motion cue and or had explicit knowledge of its occurrence. Our results show that it is neither sufficient nor necessary that a stimulus be new and unannounced to elicit surprise and suggest that the expectations that determine the surprise response are highly context specific.

  9. A Statistical Analysis of the Relationship between Harmonic Surprise and Preference in Popular Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Scott A; Rosen, David S; Grzywacz, Norberto M

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that some musical pieces may preferentially activate reward centers in the brain. Less is known, however, about the structural aspects of music that are associated with this activation. Based on the music cognition literature, we propose two hypotheses for why some musical pieces are preferred over others. The first, the Absolute-Surprise Hypothesis, states that unexpected events in music directly lead to pleasure. The second, the Contrastive-Surprise Hypothesis, proposes that the juxtaposition of unexpected events and subsequent expected events leads to an overall rewarding response. We tested these hypotheses within the framework of information theory, using the measure of "surprise." This information-theoretic variable mathematically describes how improbable an event is given a known distribution. We performed a statistical investigation of surprise in the harmonic structure of songs within a representative corpus of Western popular music, namely, the McGill Billboard Project corpus. We found that chords of songs in the top quartile of the Billboard chart showed greater average surprise than those in the bottom quartile. We also found that the different sections within top-quartile songs varied more in their average surprise than the sections within bottom-quartile songs. The results of this study are consistent with both the Absolute- and Contrastive-Surprise Hypotheses. Although these hypotheses seem contradictory to one another, we cannot yet discard the possibility that both absolute and contrastive types of surprise play roles in the enjoyment of popular music. We call this possibility the Hybrid-Surprise Hypothesis. The results of this statistical investigation have implications for both music cognition and the human neural mechanisms of esthetic judgments.

  10. October Surprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Ushered in with the rampage of Hurricane Matthew, later days brightened in this month that has often been harbinger of both good and bad news for Cuba and the world. Hurricane Matthew ripped through Eastern Cuba, devastating the historic town of Baracoa (Cuba's first capital, founded in 1511) and the village of Maisí, where the morning sun first rises over Cuban territory. Wind and flood leveled hundreds of homes, brought down the power grid and destroyed crops. Yet there was no loss of human life, unlike in neighboring Haiti and other countries in Matthew's path, and unlike in Cuba in 1963, when Hurricane Flora caused more than 1200 deaths. In Haiti, efforts of health workers-including hundreds of Haitian graduates from Cuba's Latin American Medical School and 600 Cuban health professionals already there-were bolstered by dozens of specially trained Cuban disaster medical personnel in the wake of the storm.

  11. Surprising Resists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Stephie

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses an art adventure with her third, fourth, and fifth grade enrichment kids to the Fort Collins Museum of Contemporary Art in Colorado. The author demonstrates and teaches her students how to use the art tissue paper and oil pastel complementing the creative spirit of the Jaune Quick-to-See Smith work presented…

  12. Vesta is not an intact protoplanet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolmagno, G.; Turrini, D.; Golabek, G.; Svetsov, V.; Sirono, S.; Tsiganis, K.

    2014-07-01

    The Dawn mission was designed to explore ''remnant intact protoplanets from the earliest epoch of solar system formation'' [1]. However, models of Vesta composed of an iron core, olivine mantle, and HED crust in chondritic proportions cannot match the joint constraints from Dawn [1] of Vesta's density, core size, and the extremely limited presence of exposed olivine on its surface. Vesta has a mean density of 3456 kg/m3 and its surface composition is well matched by howardites. The Dawn gravity data suggest a nickel-iron core of radius 110 km and density 7500--7800 kg/m3. The Rheasilvia impact basin, formed within a pre-existing large basin, Veneneia, should have excavated material from a depth of 50 km to 80 km or more below Vesta's surface [2]. If the howardite crust were thinner than 50--80 km, a significant amount of olivine-rich material, derived from depth, would have been exposed within this basin; models suggest that olivine would also be distributed both on Vesta's surface and in space as meteorite-source Vestoids. Such olivine is rare on Vesta, among the Vestoids, or in our meteorite collection. Vesta's density is similar to an L chondrite, but the Na and K abundances in Vesta are strongly depleted compared to chondrites and the average metal content of an L chondrite, 8.4% by mass, would give a core radius less than 90 km. A 110 km radius metallic core, via the Dawn data, represents 15% of Vesta's mass. The Mg/Al ratio in cosmic abundances is about 10:1, but roughly 1:1 within the eucrites; thus if Vesta started with cosmic abundances, the eucrites can only represent 10% of the parent body total mass. Likewise the 10 x chondritic rare earth trace elements (REE) abundance seen in most eucrites demands that, regardless of formation mechanism, these basalts were crystallized from a melt representing 10% of the mass of the source region [3]. Thus the howardite crust of a chondritic HED parent body, mixing all the available eucritic and diogenitic material

  13. Non-intact zona improves development of murine preimplantation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl5

    2012-09-25

    Sep 25, 2012 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 11(77), pp. ... Key words: Mouse, non-intact zona embryos, adenovirus vector with green fluorescent protein (pAd-GFP), embryos ..... informational molecule, could be lysised or its function.

  14. The role of loudness in detection of surprising events in music recordings

    OpenAIRE

    Holonowicz, Piotr; Herrera, Perfecto; Purwins, Hendrik

    2009-01-01

    The abrupt change of loudness is a salient event that is not always expected by a music listener. Therefore loudness is an important cue when seeking for events in a music stream that could violate human expectations. The concept of expectation and surprise in music has become recently the subject of extensive research, however mostly using symbolic data. The aim of this work is to investigate the circumstances when a change of sound intensity could be surprising for a listener. Then, using t...

  15. Computational surprisal analysis speeds-up genomic characterization of cancer processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko-Balasha, Nataly; Simon, Simcha; Levine, R D; Remacle, F; Exman, Iaakov

    2014-01-01

    Surprisal analysis is increasingly being applied for the examination of transcription levels in cellular processes, towards revealing inner network structures and predicting response. But to achieve its full potential, surprisal analysis should be integrated into a wider range computational tool. The purposes of this paper are to combine surprisal analysis with other important computation procedures, such as easy manipulation of the analysis results--e.g. to choose desirable result sub-sets for further inspection--, retrieval and comparison with relevant datasets from public databases, and flexible graphical displays for heuristic thinking. The whole set of computation procedures integrated into a single practical tool is what we call Computational Surprisal Analysis. This combined kind of analysis should facilitate significantly quantitative understanding of different cellular processes for researchers, including applications in proteomics and metabolomics. Beyond that, our vision is that Computational Surprisal Analysis has the potential to reach the status of a routine method of analysis for practitioners. The resolving power of Computational Surprisal Analysis is here demonstrated by its application to a variety of cellular cancer process transcription datasets, ours and from the literature. The results provide a compact biological picture of the thermodynamic significance of the leading gene expression phenotypes in every stage of the disease. For each transcript we characterize both its inherent steady state weight, its correlation with the other transcripts and its variation due to the disease. We present a dedicated website to facilitate the analysis for researchers and practitioners.

  16. Computational surprisal analysis speeds-up genomic characterization of cancer processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly Kravchenko-Balasha

    Full Text Available Surprisal analysis is increasingly being applied for the examination of transcription levels in cellular processes, towards revealing inner network structures and predicting response. But to achieve its full potential, surprisal analysis should be integrated into a wider range computational tool. The purposes of this paper are to combine surprisal analysis with other important computation procedures, such as easy manipulation of the analysis results--e.g. to choose desirable result sub-sets for further inspection--, retrieval and comparison with relevant datasets from public databases, and flexible graphical displays for heuristic thinking. The whole set of computation procedures integrated into a single practical tool is what we call Computational Surprisal Analysis. This combined kind of analysis should facilitate significantly quantitative understanding of different cellular processes for researchers, including applications in proteomics and metabolomics. Beyond that, our vision is that Computational Surprisal Analysis has the potential to reach the status of a routine method of analysis for practitioners. The resolving power of Computational Surprisal Analysis is here demonstrated by its application to a variety of cellular cancer process transcription datasets, ours and from the literature. The results provide a compact biological picture of the thermodynamic significance of the leading gene expression phenotypes in every stage of the disease. For each transcript we characterize both its inherent steady state weight, its correlation with the other transcripts and its variation due to the disease. We present a dedicated website to facilitate the analysis for researchers and practitioners.

  17. Vulnerability of ecosystems to climate change moderated by habitat intactness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenbrod, Felix; Gonzalez, Patrick; Dash, Jadunandan; Steyl, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    The combined effects of climate change and habitat loss represent a major threat to species and ecosystems around the world. Here, we analyse the vulnerability of ecosystems to climate change based on current levels of habitat intactness and vulnerability to biome shifts, using multiple measures of habitat intactness at two spatial scales. We show that the global extent of refugia depends highly on the definition of habitat intactness and spatial scale of the analysis of intactness. Globally, 28% of terrestrial vegetated area can be considered refugia if all natural vegetated land cover is considered. This, however, drops to 17% if only areas that are at least 50% wilderness at a scale of 48×48 km are considered and to 10% if only areas that are at least 50% wilderness at a scale of 4.8×4.8 km are considered. Our results suggest that, in regions where relatively large, intact wilderness areas remain (e.g. Africa, Australia, boreal regions, South America), conservation of the remaining large-scale refugia is the priority. In human-dominated landscapes, (e.g. most of Europe, much of North America and Southeast Asia), focusing on finer scale refugia is a priority because large-scale wilderness refugia simply no longer exist. Action to conserve such refugia is particularly urgent since only 1 to 2% of global terrestrial vegetated area is classified as refugia and at least 50% covered by the global protected area network. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Efficient reduction of complex noise in passive millimeter-wavelength video utilizing Bayesian surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundhenk, T. Nathan; Baron, Josh; Matic, Roy M.

    2011-06-01

    Passive millimeter wavelength (PMMW) video holds great promise given its ability to see targets and obstacles through fog, smoke and rain. However, current imagers produce undesirable complex noise. This can come as a mixture of fast shot (snow like) noise and a slower forming circular fixed pattern. Shot noise can be removed by a simple gain style filter. However, this can produce blurring of objects in the scene. To alleviate this, we measure the amount of Bayesian surprise in videos. Bayesian surprise is feature change in time which is abrupt, but cannot be accounted for as shot noise. Surprise is used to attenuate the shot noise filter in locations of high surprise. Since high Bayesian surprise in videos is very salient to observers, this reduces blurring particularly in places where people visually attend. Fixed pattern noise is removed after the shot noise using a combination of Non-uniformity correction (NUC) and Eigen Image Wavelet Transformation. The combination allows for online removal of time varying fixed pattern noise even when background motion may be absent. It also allows for online adaptation to differing intensities of fixed pattern noise. The fixed pattern and shot noise filters are all efficient allowing for real time video processing of PMMW video. We show several examples of PMMW video with complex noise that is much cleaner as a result of the noise removal. Processed video clearly shows cars, houses, trees and utility poles at 20 frames per second.

  19. Persistent truncus arteriosus with intact ventricular septum diagnosed by echocardiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-qi; SHEN Rong; SUN Kun; ZHONG Shu-wen; WU Yu-rong

    2009-01-01

    Persistent truncus arteriosus (PTA) is a rare congenital cardiac anomaly, and has an incidence of about 0.5 to 0.9 per 10 000 live births. Almost all cases described in the literatures had a large ventricular septal defect, only few rare cases were reported with intact ventricular septum. From June 1998 to December 2008, cardiac angiography were performed in 10 880 patients with congenital heart disease in our hospital, 47 patients with PTA were diagnosed, one case with tricuspid atresia,hypoplastic right ventricle, and intact ventricular septum was encountered.

  20. Conference of “Uncertainty and Surprise: Questions on Working with the Unexpected and Unknowable”

    CERN Document Server

    McDaniel, Reuben R; Uncertainty and Surprise in Complex Systems : Questions on Working with the Unexpected

    2005-01-01

    Complexity science has been a source of new insight in physical and social systems and has demonstrated that unpredictability and surprise are fundamental aspects of the world around us. This book is the outcome of a discussion meeting of leading scholars and critical thinkers with expertise in complex systems sciences and leaders from a variety of organizations sponsored by the Prigogine Center at The University of Texas at Austin and the Plexus Institute to explore strategies for understanding uncertainty and surprise. Besides distributions to the conference it includes a key digest by the editors as well as a commentary by the late nobel laureat Ilya Prigogine, "Surprises in half of a century". The book is intended for researchers and scientists in complexity science as well as for a broad interdisciplinary audience of both practitioners and scholars. It will well serve those interested in the research issues and in the application of complexity science to physical and social systems.

  1. What is a surprise earthquake? The example of the 2002, San Giuliano (Italy event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mucciarelli

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Both in scientific literature and in the mass media, some earthquakes are defined as «surprise earthquakes». Based on his own judgment, probably any geologist, seismologist or engineer may have his own list of past «surprise earthquakes». This paper tries to quantify the underlying individual perception that may lead a scientist to apply such a definition to a seismic event. The meaning is different, depending on the disciplinary approach. For geologists, the Italian database of seismogenic sources is still too incomplete to allow for a quantitative estimate of the subjective degree of belief. For seismologists, quantification is possible defining the distance between an earthquake and its closest previous neighbor. Finally, for engineers, the San Giuliano quake could not be considered a surprise, since probabilistic site hazard estimates reveal that the change before and after the earthquake is just 4%.

  2. Salience and Attention in Surprisal-Based Accounts of Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarcone, Alessandra; van Schijndel, Marten; Vogels, Jorrig; Demberg, Vera

    2016-01-01

    The notion of salience has been singled out as the explanatory factor for a diverse range of linguistic phenomena. In particular, perceptual salience (e.g., visual salience of objects in the world, acoustic prominence of linguistic sounds) and semantic-pragmatic salience (e.g., prominence of recently mentioned or topical referents) have been shown to influence language comprehension and production. A different line of research has sought to account for behavioral correlates of cognitive load during comprehension as well as for certain patterns in language usage using information-theoretic notions, such as surprisal. Surprisal and salience both affect language processing at different levels, but the relationship between the two has not been adequately elucidated, and the question of whether salience can be reduced to surprisal / predictability is still open. Our review identifies two main challenges in addressing this question: terminological inconsistency and lack of integration between high and low levels of representations in salience-based accounts and surprisal-based accounts. We capitalize upon work in visual cognition in order to orient ourselves in surveying the different facets of the notion of salience in linguistics and their relation with models of surprisal. We find that work on salience highlights aspects of linguistic communication that models of surprisal tend to overlook, namely the role of attention and relevance to current goals, and we argue that the Predictive Coding framework provides a unified view which can account for the role played by attention and predictability at different levels of processing and which can clarify the interplay between low and high levels of processes and between predictability-driven expectation and attention-driven focus. PMID:27375525

  3. Salience and attention in surprisal-based accounts of language processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eZarcone

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The notion of salience has been singled out as the explanatory factor for a diverse range oflinguistic phenomena. In particular, perceptual salience (e.g. visual salience of objects in the world,acoustic prominence of linguistic sounds and semantic-pragmatic salience (e.g. prominence ofrecently mentioned or topical referents have been shown to influence language comprehensionand production. A different line of research has sought to account for behavioral correlates ofcognitive load during comprehension as well as for certain patterns in language usage usinginformation-theoretic notions, such as surprisal. Surprisal and salience both affect languageprocessing at different levels, but the relationship between the two has not been adequatelyelucidated, and the question of whether salience can be reduced to surprisal / predictability isstill open. Our review identifies two main challenges in addressing this question: terminologicalinconsistency and lack of integration between high and low levels of representations in salience-based accounts and surprisal-based accounts. We capitalise upon work in visual cognition inorder to orient ourselves in surveying the different facets of the notion of salience in linguisticsand their relation with models of surprisal. We find that work on salience highlights aspects oflinguistic communication that models of surprisal tend to overlook, namely the role of attentionand relevance to current goals, and we argue that the Predictive Coding framework provides aunified view which can account for the role played by attention and predictability at different levelsof processing and which can clarify the interplay between low and high levels of processes andbetween predictability-driven expectation and attention-driven focus.

  4. One In Five Inpatient Emergency Department Cases May Lead To Surprise Bills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmon, Christopher; Chartock, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    A surprise medical bill is a bill from an out-of-network provider that was not expected by the patient or that came from an out-of-network provider not chosen by the patient. In 2014, 20 percent of hospital inpatient admissions that originated in the emergency department (ED), 14 percent of outpatient visits to the ED, and 9 percent of elective inpatient admissions likely led to a surprise medical bill. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  5. Risk, surprises and black swans fundamental ideas and concepts in risk assessment and risk management

    CERN Document Server

    Aven, Terje

    2014-01-01

    Risk, Surprises and Black Swans provides an in depth analysis of the risk concept with a focus on the critical link to knowledge; and the lack of knowledge, that risk and probability judgements are based on.Based on technical scientific research, this book presents a new perspective to help you understand how to assess and manage surprising, extreme events, known as 'Black Swans'. This approach looks beyond the traditional probability-based principles to offer a broader insight into the important aspects of uncertain events and in doing so explores the ways to manage them.

  6. Serum steroid levels in intact and endocrine ablated BALB/c nude mice and their intact littermates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brünner, N; Svenstrup, B; Spang-Thomsen, M;

    1986-01-01

    An investigation was made of the serum steroid levels found in intact and endocrine ablated nude mice of both sexes and in their intact homozygous littermates. The results showed that nude mice have a normal steroidogenesis, but with decreased levels of circulating steroids compared to those...... of the littermates. The efficacy of the endocrine ablations was confirmed by the reduction in serum oestrone following oophorectomy, and by the reduction in serum testosterone and progesterone following orchiectomy. The normal steroidogenesis in nude mice, and the similarities between mouse and man with regard...

  7. Perceived parental control processes, parent-child relational qualities and psychological well-being of Chinese adolescents in intact and non-intact families in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Lee, Tak Yan

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines whether Chinese adolescents' perceptions (N = 3,017) of parental behavioral control (parental knowledge, expectation, monitoring, discipline, and demandingness as well as parental control based on indigenous Chinese concepts), parental psychological control, parent-child relational qualities (perceived parental trust, child's trust of the parents, child's readiness to communicate with the parents, and child's satisfaction with parental control), and adolescent psychological well-being (hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction and self-esteem) differed in intact and non-intact families. Results showed that relative to non-intact families, parental behavioral control processes were higher and parent-child relational qualities were better in intact families. In contrast, parental psychological control was higher in non-intact families than in intact families. Finally, the psychological well-being of adolescents in non-intact families was poorer than that of adolescents in intact families.

  8. Bioavailability and in vivo metabolism of intact glucosinolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Christian; Frandsen, Heidi Blok; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2016-01-01

    Health benefits associated with consumption of cruciferous vegetables have received considerable attention with a hitherto focus on the role and bioactivity of glucosinolate degradation products. We investigated the in vivo metabolism of intact glucosinolates by following their fate in digesta an...

  9. Interleukin 6 in intact and injured mouse peripheral nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, F; Levitzky, R; Rotshenker, S

    1996-03-01

    The multifunctional cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) has direct growth, survival and differentiation effects on peripheral and central neurons. Furthermore, it can modulate the production by non-neuronal cells of other cytokines and growth factors, and thereby affect nerve cells indirectly. We have studied IL-6 expression and production in intact and injured peripheral nerves of C57/BL/6NHSD mice, which display the normal rapid progression of Wallerian degeneration. The IL-6 mRNA was detected in nerves degenerating in vitro or in vivo, but not in intact nerves. In vitro- and in vivo-degenerating nerve segments and neuroma nerve segments synthesized and secreted IL-6. The onset of IL-6 production was rapid and prolonged. It was detected as early as 2 h after injury and persisted for the entire period of 21 days tested after the injury. Of the non-neuronal cells that reside in intact and injured nerves, macrophages and fibroblasts were the major contributors to IL-6 production. We also studied IL-6 production in intact and injured nerves of mutant C57BL/6-WLD/OLA/NHSD mice, which display very slow progression of Wallerian degeneration. Injured nerves of C57BL/6-WLD/OLA/NHSD mice produced significantly lower amounts of IL-6 than did rapidly degenerating nerves of C57/BL/6NHSD mice.

  10. Fostering Activities of Daily Living by Intact Nursing Home Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Charles E.; Glaister, Judy; Brown, Alston; Phillips, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    We assessed effectiveness of four education programs in providing nursing assistants with ability to produce a therapeutic milieu supportive of intact residents' activities of daily living, positive self-esteem and mood: (1) a combination of Orem's Systems of Nursing Care and Skinner's Applied Behavioral Analysis, (2) Applied Behavioral Analysis,…

  11. Cholesteric carbohydrate liquid crystals incorporating an intact glucopyranose moiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, E; Engberts, J.B.F.N.; Kellogg, R.M; van Doren, H.A.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, the first monosaccharide derivatives containing a fully intact monosaccharide and two vicinal OH-groups which display thermotropic chiral mesophases were synthesized. These liquid crystals have a rigid core, with a trans-decalin-like skeleton incorporating the D-glucopyranose ring, substit

  12. Pharmacokinetics of erythropoietin in intact and anephric dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, J.S.; Lertora, J.J.; Brookins, J.; Rice, J.C.; Fisher, J.W.

    1988-06-01

    The present studies were performed to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of erythropoietin in intact and anephric dogs by use of unlabeled crude native erythropoietin (nEp) and iodine 125-labeled purified recombinant erythropoietin (rEp) given by intravenous infusion for 15 minutes. Sephadex G-75 gel filtration was used to confirm that the 125I-rEp molecule remained iodinated in dog plasma during the 24-hour period of these studies. The plasma disappearance of erythropoietin conformed to a biexponential equation for both nEp and 125I-rEp, with the central compartment being larger than the peripheral compartment. The mean distribution half-life of 75.3 +/- 21.2 minutes for nEp was significantly (p less than 0.05) longer than that of 125I-rEp (23.7 +/- 5.0 minutes) in intact dogs. The intercompartmental clearance (CIic) for nEp (0.018 +/- 0.006 L/kg/hr) was significantly smaller than that of 125I-rEp (0.068 +/- 0.018 L/kg/hr) in intact dogs (p less than 0.05). There were no significant differences in apparent volume of distribution, elimination half-life, and elimination clearance (CIe) for nEp and rEp in intact dogs. The mean elimination half-life for 125I-rEp in intact dogs (9.0 +/- 0.6 hours) and anephric dogs (13.8 +/- 1.4 hours) was significantly different (p less than 0.05). The CIe for 125I-rEp in anephric dogs (0.008 +/- 0.001 L/kg/hr) was significantly (p less than 0.05) smaller than that of 125I-rEp in intact dogs (0.011 +/- 0.001 L/kg/hr). There were no significant differences in apparent volume of distribution, distribution half-life, and CIic for 125I-rEp in intact and anephric dogs.

  13. Threats to intact tropical peatlands and opportunities for their conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roucoux, K H; Lawson, I T; Baker, T R; Del Castillo Torres, D; Draper, F C; Lähteenoja, O; Gilmore, M P; Honorio Coronado, E N; Kelly, T J; Mitchard, E T A; Vriesendorp, C F

    2017-03-08

    Large, intact areas of tropical peatland are highly threatened at a global scale by the expansion of commercial agriculture and other forms of economic development. Conserving peatlands on a landscape scale, with their hydrology intact, is of international conservation importance to preserve their distinctive biodiversity and ecosystem services and maintain their resilience to future environmental change. We explored threats to and opportunities for conserving remaining intact tropical peatlands; thus, we excluded peatlands of Indonesia and Malaysia, where extensive deforestation, drainage, and conversion to plantations means conservation in this region can protect only small fragments of the original ecosystem. We focused on a case study, the Pastaza-Marañón Foreland Basin (PMFB) in Peru, which is among the largest known intact tropical peatland landscapes in the world and is representative of peatland vulnerability. Maintenance of the hydrological conditions critical for carbon storage and ecosystem function of peatlands is, in the PMFB, primarily threatened by expansion of commercial agriculture linked to new transport infrastructure that is facilitating access to remote areas. There remain opportunities in the PMFB and elsewhere to develop alternative, more sustainable land-use practices. Although some of the peatlands in the PMFB fall within existing legally protected areas, this protection does not include the most carbon-dense (domed pole forest) areas. New carbon-based conservation instruments (e.g., REDD+, Green Climate Fund), developing markets for sustainable peatland products, transferring land title to local communities, and expanding protected areas offer pathways to increased protection for intact tropical peatlands in Amazonia and elsewhere, such as those in New Guinea and Central Africa which remain, for the moment, broadly beyond the frontier of commercial development. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  14. Did the FED Surprise the Markets in 2001? A Case Study for Vars with Sign Restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.

    2001-01-01

    In 2001, the Fed has lowered interest rates in a series of cuts, starting from 6.5 % at the end of 2000 to 2.0 % by early November.This paper asks, whether the Federal Reserve Bank has been surprising the markets, taking as given the conventional view about the effect of monetary policy shocks.New

  15. Surprise Gift” Purchases of Small Electric Appliances: A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vanhamme (Joëlle); C.J.P.M. de Bont (Cees)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractUnderstanding decision-making processes for gifts is of strategic importance for companies selling small electrical appliances as gifts account for a large part of their sales. Among all gifts, the ones that are surprising are the most valued by recipients. However, research about

  16. Surprising convergence of the Monte Carlo renormalization group for the three-dimensional Ising model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Dorit; Brandt, Achi; Swendsen, Robert H

    2017-05-01

    We present a surprisingly simple approach to high-accuracy calculations of the critical properties of the three-dimensional Ising model. The method uses a modified block-spin transformation with a tunable parameter to improve convergence in the Monte Carlo renormalization group. The block-spin parameter must be tuned differently for different exponents to produce optimal convergence.

  17. Bagpipes and Artichokes: Surprise as a Stimulus to Learning in the Elementary Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Bonnie Schaffhauser

    2016-01-01

    Incorporating surprise into music instruction can stimulate student attention, curiosity, and interest. Novelty focuses attention in the reticular activating system, increasing the potential for brain memory storage. Elementary ages are ideal for introducing novel instruments, pieces, composers, or styles of music. Young children have fewer…

  18. The Educational Philosophies of Mordecai Kaplan and Michael Rosenak: Surprising Similarities and Illuminating Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Jeffrey; Caplan, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The thoughts of Mordecai Kaplan and Michael Rosenak present surprising commonalities as well as illuminating differences. Similarities include the perception that Judaism and Jewish education are in crisis, the belief that Jewish peoplehood must include commitment to meaningful content, the need for teachers to teach from a position of…

  19. Surprise, Memory, and Retrospective Judgment Making: Testing Cognitive Reconstruction Theories of the Hindsight Bias Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Ivan K.

    2009-01-01

    Hindsight bias has been shown to be a pervasive and potentially harmful decision-making bias. A review of 4 competing cognitive reconstruction theories of hindsight bias revealed conflicting predictions about the role and effect of expectation or surprise in retrospective judgment formation. Two experiments tested these predictions examining the…

  20. Did the FED Surprise the Markets in 2001? A Case Study for Vars with Sign Restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.

    2001-01-01

    In 2001, the Fed has lowered interest rates in a series of cuts, starting from 6.5 % at the end of 2000 to 2.0 % by early November.This paper asks, whether the Federal Reserve Bank has been surprising the markets, taking as given the conventional view about the effect of monetary policy shocks.New e

  1. Substrate binding of gelatinase B induces its enzymatic activity in the presence of intact propeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannikov, Gregory A; Karelina, Tatiana V; Collier, Ivan E; Marmer, Barry L; Goldberg, Gregory I

    2002-05-03

    Expression of gelatinase B (matrix metalloprotease 9) in human placenta is developmentally regulated, presumably to fulfill a proteolytic function. Here we demonstrate that gelatinolytic activity in situ, in tissue sections of term placenta, is co-localized with gelatinase B. Judging by molecular mass, however, all the enzyme extracted from this tissue was found in a proform. To address this apparent incongruity, we examined the activity of gelatinase B bound to either gelatin- or type IV collagen-coated surfaces. Surprisingly, we found that upon binding, the purified proenzyme acquired activity against both the fluorogenic peptide (7-methoxycoumarin-4-yl)-acetic acid (MCA)-Pro-Leu-Gly-Leu-3-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-l-2,3-diaminopropionyl-Ala-Arg-NH(2) and gelatin substrates, whereas its propeptide remained intact. These results suggest that although activation of all known matrix metalloproteases in vitro is accomplished by proteolytic processing of the propeptide, other mechanisms, such as binding to a ligand or to a substrate, may lead to a disengagement of the propeptide from the active center of the enzyme, causing its activation.

  2. Effects of stretch and shortening on gene expression in intact myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggart, Charles R; Ames, Elizabeth G; Lee, Jae K; Holmes, Jeffrey W

    2014-01-15

    Multiple cues have been suggested as the mechanical stimulus for the heart's hypertrophic response. Our work has previously suggested that the amount of cyclic shortening in cardiomyocytes controls myocyte shape and the amount of stretch controls myocyte size. To identify gene expression changes that occur in response to these mechanical perturbations, we used microarray analysis of papillary muscles cultured for 12 h at physiological or reduced levels of cyclic shortening and physiological or reduced mean stretch. Overall, genes related to extracellular matrix (ECM) were surprisingly prominent in our analysis. Connective tissue growth factor was among a small group of genes regulated by the amount of cyclic shortening regardless of the level of mean stretch, and many more ECM genes were regulated by shortening with reduced amounts of stretch. When we compared our results to gene expression data from an in vivo model of pressure overload (PO), which also decreases myocyte shortening, we found the genes that were commonly regulated in PO and our decreased shortening groups were most significantly enriched for ontology terms related to the ECM, followed by genes associated with mechanosensing and the cytoskeleton. The list of genes regulated in PO and our decreased shortening groups also includes genes known to change early in hypertrophy, such as myosin heavy chain 7, brain natriuretic peptide, and myosin binding protein C. We conclude that in intact myocardium, the amount of cyclic shortening may be an important regulator not only of myocyte genes classically associated with hypertrophy but also of ECM genes.

  3. The Multilevel Mixed Intact Group Analysis: A Mixed Method to Seek, Detect, Describe, and Explain Differences Among Intact Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonenboom, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Educational innovations often involve intact subgroups, such as school classes or university departments. In small-scale educational evaluation research, typically involving 1 to 20 subgroups, differences among these subgroups are often neglected. This article presents a mixed method from a qualitative perspective, in which differences among…

  4. Spelling-stress regularity effects are intact in developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Ian R; Carroll, Julia M

    2013-01-01

    The current experiment investigated conflicting predictions regarding the effects of spelling-stress regularity on the lexical decision performance of skilled adult readers and adults with developmental dyslexia. In both reading groups, lexical decision responses were significantly faster and significantly more accurate when the orthographic structure of a word ending was a reliable as opposed to an unreliable predictor of lexical stress assignment. Furthermore, the magnitude of this spelling-stress regularity effect was found to be equivalent across reading groups. These findings are consistent with intact phoneme-level regularity effects also observed in dyslexia. The paper discusses how findings of intact spelling-sound regularity effects at both prosodic and phonemic levels, as well as other similar results, can be reconciled with the obvious difficulties that people with dyslexia experience in other domains of phonological processing.

  5. Structural determination of intact proteins using mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruppa, Gary; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Young, Malin M.

    2008-05-06

    The present invention relates to novel methods of determining the sequence and structure of proteins. Specifically, the present invention allows for the analysis of intact proteins within a mass spectrometer. Therefore, preparatory separations need not be performed prior to introducing a protein sample into the mass spectrometer. Also disclosed herein are new instrumental developments for enhancing the signal from the desired modified proteins, methods for producing controlled protein fragments in the mass spectrometer, eliminating complex microseparations, and protein preparatory chemical steps necessary for cross-linking based protein structure determination.Additionally, the preferred method of the present invention involves the determination of protein structures utilizing a top-down analysis of protein structures to search for covalent modifications. In the preferred method, intact proteins are ionized and fragmented within the mass spectrometer.

  6. Binding of Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme to intact cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbeck, Astrid; von Elsner, Leonie; Hagemann, Sandra; Just, Ingo

    2014-06-01

    C3 from Clostridium botulinum (C3) specifically modifies Rho GTPases RhoA, RhoB, and RhoC by mono-ADP-ribosylation. The confined substrate profile of C3 is the basis for its use as pharmacological tool in cell biology to study cellular functions of Rho GTPases. Although C3 exoenzyme does not possess a cell-binding/-translocation domain, C3 is taken up by intact cells via an unknown mechanism. In the present work, binding of C3 to the hippocampus-derived HT22 cells and J774A.1 macrophages was characterized. C3 bound concentration-dependent to HT22 and J774A.1 cells. Pronase treatment of intact cells significantly reduced both C3 binding and C3 cell entry. Removal of sugar residues by glycosidase F treatment resulted in an increased binding of C3, but a reduced cell entry. To explore the involvement of phosphorylation in the binding process of C3, intact HT22 and J774A.1 cells were pre-treated with vanadate prior to incubation with C3. Inhibition of de-phosphorylation by vanadate resulted in an increased binding of C3. To differentiate between intracellular and extracellular phosphorylation, intact cells were treated with CIP (calf intestine phosphatase) to remove extracellular phosphate residues. The removal of phosphate residues resulted in a strong reduction in binding of C3 to cells. In sum, the C3 membranous binding partner is proteinaceous, and the glycosylation as well as the phosphorylation state is critical for efficient binding of C3.

  7. Crisscross heart with dextrocardia and intact interventricular septum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kader Muneer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crisscross heart is a rare congenital heart disease characterized by a twisted atrioventricular connection, as a result of rotation of the ventricular mass along its long axis. We report an asymptomatic 48-year-old woman referred to us for evaluation of a cardiac murmur. Further evaluation showed situs solitus, dextrocardia with normal atrioventricular and ventriculoarterial connection, and a crisscross relation of the atrioventricular valves. Unlike the usual case of crisscross heart, our patient had an intact ventricular septum.

  8. The intact urokinase receptor is required for efficient vitronectin binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer-Hansen, G; Behrendt, N; Ploug, M;

    1997-01-01

    The urokinase receptor (uPAR) is a receptor for both urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and the adhesion protein vitronectin. There are two forms of cell surface-bound uPAR; intact uPAR and a cleaved form, uPAR(2+3), which is formed by uPA-catalyzed cleavage of uPAR. In ligand-blotting experim...

  9. Pancreatic exocrine studies in intact animals: historic and current methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebergall-Roth, E; Teyssen, S; Singer, M V

    1997-12-01

    This report presents a review of the historic and current methods for performing pancreatic exocrine studies in intact animals. Special emphasis is given to the various surgical procedures--pancreatic fistulas, duodenal pouches, and duodenal fistulas--and practice of collecting pancreatic secretion in dogs. Procedures in other animal species--rat, cat, pig, rabbit, cattle, sheep, and horse--also are specified. The advantages and disadvantages, as well as the indications and limitations of the distinct methods, are discussed.

  10. Comparison of the stability of split and intact gabapentin tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Donna A; Gupta, Abhay; Ciavarella, Anthony B; Faustino, Patrick J; Sayeed, Vilayat A; Khan, Mansoor A

    2008-02-28

    The purpose of this study was to determine the stability differences between split and intact gabapentin tablets. Gabapentin tablets from three different manufacturers (G1, G2 and G3) were tested for a period of 9 weeks under long-term (25 degrees C/60% RH) and intermediate stability (30 degrees C/60% RH) storage conditions after storage in closed amber pharmacy dispensing containers. Samples were analyzed for dissolution and potency using validated HPLC methods. Potency test also included the quantitation of gabapentin's main degradation product. Tablets from all manufacturers and at all time points had potency >90%. At 9 weeks, a statistically significant decrease (psplit G2 and G3 tablets under the intermediate storage conditions. At the end of 9 weeks, all samples also showed slightly higher levels of degradation product which was statistically significant (psplit and intact tablets. No difference was observed between the potency and dissolution of the intact and the split tablets from the same manufacturer and the three products tested remained stable throughout the study period. The results suggest that splitting of gabapentin tablets did not affect the stability of these particular drug products tested as part of this study when stored under normal storage conditions for a period of up to 9 weeks. However, the results should not be extrapolated to other gabapentin drug products and to other tablet dosage forms.

  11. Does human leukocyte elastase degrade intact skin elastin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, Christian E H; Jung, Michael C; Wohlrab, Johannes; Neubert, Reinhard H H; Heinz, Andrea

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the susceptibility of intact fibrillar human elastin to human leukocyte elastase and cathepsin G. Elastin is a vital protein of the extracellular matrix of vertebrates, and provides exceptional properties including elasticity and tensile strength to many tissues and organs, including the aorta, lung, cartilage, elastic ligaments and skin, and is thus critical for their long-term function. Mature elastin is an insoluble and extremely durable protein that undergoes very little turnover, but sustained exposure to proteases may lead to irreversible and severe damage, and thus to functional loss of the elastic fiber network. Hence, it is a key issue to understand which enzymes actually initiate elastolysis under certain pathological conditions or during intrinsic aging. In this paper, we provide a complete workflow for isolation of pure and intact elastin from very small tissue samples to test enzymes for their elastolytic potential. This workflow was applied to skin samples from variously aged individuals, and it was found that strong differences exist in the degradability of the elastins investigated. In summary, human leukocyte elastase was unable to degrade intact elastin fibers but hydrolyzed elastin derived from the skin of old people. However, cathepsin G cleaved all elastin samples, even those derived from younger individuals. These results indicate that human leukocyte elastase is not a driving force for elastolysis, but may nevertheless promote further breakdown of elastic fibers after the action of other enzymes such as cathepsin G. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS.

  12. Facial lesions in piglets with intact or grinded teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson Monica

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Piglets are born with eight sharp teeth that during nursing can cause facial lesions on littermates and teat lesions on the sow. Teeth grinding in piglets is therefore often practiced to reduce these lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the consequences of grinding piglet teeth in regard to the occurrence of lesions. In this study the piglets' teeth were grinded in 28 litters, and in 36 litters the piglets' teeth were kept intact. Twice, one time during the first week and one time during the second week after birth facial lesions of the piglets were scored and the teats of the sows were examined for lesions. The facial lesion score accounted for the amount and severity of lesions. The individual observations on piglets in the litter were synthesized in a litter facial lesion score. Findings 69.8% and 43.5% of the piglets had facial lesions in week 1 and week 2 respectively. The effect of treatment was not significant on litter facial lesion score. The litter facial lesion score was higher in week 1 than in week 2 (p p = 0.003 than in small litters. Mortality between week 1 and week 2 was higher in litters with intact teeth (p = 0.02. Sow teat lesions only occurred if litters had intact teeth. Conclusions According to our results teeth grinding is only justifiable in large litters.

  13. Modified Madigan Prostatectomy: A Procedure Preserved Prostatic Urethra Intact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jun; YE Zhangqun; HU Weilie

    2005-01-01

    Summary: A total of 92 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) were subjected to modified Madigan prostatectomy (MPC) for a much satisfactory effect in open prostatectomy surgery. Exposing anterior prostatic urethra near the bladder neck and conjunct cystotomy modified the MPC procedure. This modified procedure preserved prostatic urethra intact and could also deal with intracystic lesions at the same time. The intact of prostatic urethra was kept completely or largely in 86 cases. The amount of blood loss during modified procedure was less. The mean operative time was 105 min. Seventy patients had been followed up for 3-24 months. The postoperative average Qmax was 19.2 ml/s. The cystourethrography revealed that the urethra and bladder neck were intact in 10 patients postoperatively. Furthermore, the prostatic urethra was obviously wider after modified MPC. The modified MPC can reduce the occurrence of urethra injury and enlarge the MPC indications. The modified technique is easy to perform with less complications and much satisfactory clinical result.

  14. Surprising electronic structure of the BeH- dimer: a full-configuration-interaction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdicchio, Marco; Bendazzoli, Gian Luigi; Evangelisti, Stefano; Leininger, Thierry

    2013-01-10

    The electronic structure of the beryllium hydride anion, BeH(-), was investigated at valence full-configuration-interaction (FCI) level, using large cc-pV6Z basis sets. It appears that there is a deep change of the wave function nature as a function of the internuclear distance: the ion structure goes from a weakly bonded Be···H(-) complex, at long distance, to a rather strongly bonded system (more than 2 eV) at short distance, having a (:Be-H)(-) Lewis structure. In this case, it is the beryllium atom that formally bears the negative charge, a surprising result in view of the fact that it is the hydrogen atom that has a larger electronegativity. Even more surprisingly, at very short distances the average position of the total electronic charge is close to the beryllium atom but on the opposite side with respect to the hydrogen position.

  15. Investigating locality effects and surprisal in written English syntactic choice phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Rajakrishnan; van Schijndel, Marten; White, Michael; Schuler, William

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the extent to which syntactic choice in written English is influenced by processing considerations as predicted by Gibson's (2000) Dependency Locality Theory (DLT) and Surprisal Theory (Hale, 2001; Levy, 2008). A long line of previous work attests that languages display a tendency for shorter dependencies, and in a previous corpus study, Temperley (2007) provided evidence that this tendency exerts a strong influence on constituent ordering choices. However, Temperley's study included no frequency-based controls, and subsequent work on sentence comprehension with broad-coverage eye-tracking corpora found weak or negative effects of DLT-based measures when frequency effects were statistically controlled for (Demberg & Keller, 2008; van Schijndel, Nguyen, & Schuler 2013; van Schijndel & Schuler, 2013), calling into question the actual impact of dependency locality on syntactic choice phenomena. Going beyond Temperley's work, we show that DLT integration costs are indeed a significant predictor of syntactic choice in written English even in the presence of competing frequency-based and cognitively motivated control factors, including n-gram probability and PCFG surprisal as well as embedding depth (Wu, Bachrach, Cardenas, & Schuler, 2010; Yngve, 1960). Our study also shows that the predictions of dependency length and surprisal are only moderately correlated, a finding which mirrors Dember & Keller's (2008) results for sentence comprehension. Further, we demonstrate that the efficacy of dependency length in predicting the corpus choice increases with increasing head-dependent distances. At the same time, we find that the tendency towards dependency locality is not always observed, and with pre-verbal adjuncts in particular, non-locality cases are found more often than not. In contrast, surprisal is effective in these cases, and the embedding depth measures further increase prediction accuracy. We discuss the implications of our findings for theories of

  16. Surprise and sense making: what newcomers experience in entering unfamiliar organizational settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, M R

    1980-06-01

    Growing disillusionment among new members of organizations has been traced to inadequacies in approaches to organizational entry. Current directions of research on organizational entry and their limitations are described, and a new perspective is proposed. The new perspective identifies key features of newcomers' entry experiences, including surprise, contrast, and change, and describes the sense-making processes by which individuals cope with their entry experiences. Implications for research and practice on organizational entry are drawn.

  17. Each individual is a surprise: a conversation with Marianne Horney Eckardt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Jeffrey B

    2014-06-01

    "Each Individual is a Surprise" is a brief account of a dialogue between Marianne Horney Eckardt and myself about the state of psychoanalysis and the psychoanalytic process, the danger of idolatry, the damaging impact of psychoanalytic schools when they create a standardized and pathologizing approach to people, the value of curiosity and humility and retaining one's clinical creativity. The role of Rank, Horney, Sullivan, and Fromm in Dr. Eckardt's long life and rich work is touched upon.

  18. Surprise and Opportunity for Learning in Grand Canyon: the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore S. Melis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With a focus on resources of the Colorado River ecosystem below Glen Canyon Dam, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program has included a variety of experimental policy tests, ranging from manipulation of water releases from the dam to removal of non-native fish within Grand Canyon National Park. None of these field-scale experiments has yet produced unambiguous results in terms of management prescriptions. But there has been adaptive learning, mostly from unanticipated or surprising resource responses relative to predictions from ecosystem modeling. Surprise learning opportunities may often be viewed with dismay by some stakeholders who might not be clear about the purpose of science and modeling in adaptive management. However, the experimental results from the Glen Canyon Dam program actually represent scientific successes in terms of revealing new opportunities for developing better river management policies. A new long-term experimental management planning process for Glen Canyon Dam operations, started in 2011 by the U.S. Department of the Interior, provides an opportunity to refocus management objectives, identify and evaluate key uncertainties about the influence of dam releases, and refine monitoring for learning over the next several decades. Adaptive learning since 1995 is critical input to this long-term planning effort. Embracing uncertainty and surprise outcomes revealed by monitoring and ecosystem modeling will likely continue the advancement of resource objectives below the dam, and may also promote efficient learning in other complex programs.

  19. Surprise and Uncertainty—Framing Regional Geohazards in the Theory of Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate M. W. Ratter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the concepts of uncertainty and surprise as key variables of a socio-ecological system’s behavior in the context of the theory of complexity. Experiences from the past have shown that living with uncertainty is part of our daily life and surprises are only surprising because our perspective of system trajectories is basically linear and non-dynamic. The future of humanity is dependent on the understanding of the system’s behavior and needs a change in perspective of linearity to non-linearity and from the planning imperative to a management hedging uncertainty and surprise. In the context of humanity’s future, the theory of complexity offers a new perspective on system trajectories and their understanding of surprises and uncertainty. There is a need for a Gestaltwechsel—a change in perception—which helps to see things differently and fosters the search for new answers to emerging questions at the human-nature interface. Drawing on the case study of hazard management the paper will explain the necessity of analysis system’s behavior and the taking into account of multi-agent behavior on the micro level which led to emergent behavior on the macro-level of the system. Regional geohazards are explained as the regional impact of an uncontrolled risk based on a state of a natural feature that has a direct impact on a regional population being affected by the appearance of a hazard and its development into damage. By acting in space, time and connectivity, people construct hazardscapes and change risk into regional geohazards. This concept shows relevance for future mitigation and adaptation measures. The theory of complexity can help in engendering the necessary shift in perspective. What is non-linear dynamic thinking as suggested by the theory of complexity? Why is the consideration of the system’s behavior crucial and not just the number of system’s elements? What is the role of agents in these systems? In

  20. Feasible pickup from intact ossicular chain with floating piezoelectric microphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Hou-Yong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Many microphones have been developed to meet with the implantable requirement of totally implantable cochlear implant (TICI. However, a biocompatible one without destroying the intactness of the ossicular chain still remains under investigation. Such an implantable floating piezoelectric microphone (FPM has been manufactured and shows an efficient electroacoustic performance in vitro test at our lab. We examined whether it pick up sensitively from the intact ossicular chain and postulated whether it be an optimal implantable one. Methods Animal controlled experiment: five adult cats (eight ears were sacrificed as the model to test the electroacoustic performance of the FPM. Three groups were studied: (1 the experiment group (on malleus: the FPM glued onto the handle of the malleus of the intact ossicular chains; (2 negative control group (in vivo: the FPM only hung into the tympanic cavity; (3 positive control group (Hy-M30: a HiFi commercial microphone placed close to the site of the experiment ear. The testing speaker played pure tones orderly ranged from 0.25 to 8.0 kHz. The FPM inside the ear and the HiFi microphone simultaneously picked up acoustic vibration which recorded as .wav files to analyze. Results The FPM transformed acoustic vibration sensitively and flatly as did the in vitro test across the frequencies above 2.0 kHz, whereas inefficiently below 1.0 kHz for its overloading mass. Although the HiFi microphone presented more efficiently than the FPM did, there was no significant difference at 3.0 kHz and 8.0 kHz. Conclusions It is feasible to develop such an implantable FPM for future TICIs and TIHAs system on condition that the improvement of Micro Electromechanical System and piezoelectric ceramic material technology would be applied to reduce its weight and minimize its size.

  1. A case of mixed transcortical aphasia with intact naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, K M; Tucker, D M; Valenstein, E

    1976-09-01

    Altholgh Lichtheim recognized that Wernicke's 'reflex arch' (primary auditory area, to Wernicke's area, to Broca's area, to primary motor area) was important for repetition, he recognized that other areas of the brain (for example, area of concepts or semantic area) must be important in comprehension and voluntary speech. He suggested that Wernicke's area (phonemic area) not only projected to Broca's area (as Wernicke suggested) but that it also projected to the area of concepts. A lesion of this latter pathway or in the area of concepts would produce a syndrome where repetition was intact but comprehension was impaired (e.g. transcortical sensory aphasia). Lichtheim also thought that the area of concepts projected directly to Broca's area and that voluntary speech was mediated by this pathway. Although Lichtheim's model could explain the mechanism underlying transcortical aphasia, his schema could not explain anomic aphasia. Unlike Lichtheim's schema, Kussmaul's schema suggested that the area of concepts projects back to Wernicke's area before projecting to Broca's area. With this schema, a patient with a hypothetical lesion which interrupted the pathway from the area of concepts to Wernicke's area (but did not interrupt the pathway from Wernicke's area to the area of concepts) should be anomic, with normal comprehension and repetition. In order for this latter schema to be plausible there should also be a lesion which interrupts the pathway from Wernicke's area to the area of concepts but does not interrupt the pathway which goes from the area of concepts to Wernicke's area. A patient with this hypothetical lesion should comprehend poorly; however, in spite of poor comprehension, naming and repetition should be intact. We report a patient who demonstrates poor comprehension with intact naming and repetition. This patient could also read aloud but could not comprehend written language. Not only could this patient name objects but he could demonstrate their use

  2. Direct detection of radicals in intact soybean nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, C; Moreau, S; Frendo, P

    1998-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy has been employed to examine the nature of the metal ions and radicals present in intact root nodules of soybean plants grown in the absence of nitrate. The spectra obtained from nodules of different ages using this non-invasive technique show dramatic...... of the soybean plants, in a manner analogous to that recently described for Lupinus albus. This Lb-NO complex is present at lower concentrations in older nodules, and is almost completely absent from senescent nodules. Exposure of young and mature nodules to oxidant stress, in the form of hydrogen peroxide...

  3. Rhesus monkey brain imaging through intact skull with thermoacoustic tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yuan; Wang, Lihong V.

    2006-01-01

    Two-dimensional microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography (TAT) is applied to imaging the Rhesus monkey brain through the intact skull. To reduce the wavefront distortion caused by the skull, only the low-frequency components of the thermoacoustic signals (< 1 MHz) are used to reconstruct the TAT images. The methods of signal processing and image reconstruction are validated by imaging a lamb kidney. The resolution of the system is found to be 4 mm when we image a 1-month-old monkey head co...

  4. Fast imaging of intact and shattered cryogenic neon pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhehui, E-mail: zwang@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Combs, S. K.; Baylor, L. R.; Foust, C. R.; Lyttle, M. S.; Meitner, S. J.; Rasmussen, D. A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Compact condensed-matter injection technologies are increasingly used in magnetic fusion. One recent application is in disruption mitigation. An imaging system with less-than-100-µm- and sub-µs-resolution is described and used to characterize intact and shattered cryogenic neon pellets. Shattered pellets contain fine particles ranging from tens of µm to about 7 mm. Time-of-flight analyses indicate that pellets could slow down if hitting the wall of the guide tube. Fast high-resolution imaging systems are thus useful to neon and other condensed-matter injector development.

  5. Fast Imaging of Intact and Shattered Cryogenic Neon Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Foust, Charles R [ORNL; Lyttle, Mark S [ORNL; Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Compact condensed-matter injection technologies are increasingly used in magnetic fusion. One recent application is in disruption mitigation. An imaging system with less-than-100- m- and sub- s-resolution is described and used to characterize intact and shattered cryogenic neon pellets. Shattered pellets contain fine particles ranging from tens of m to about 7 mm. Time-of-flight analyses indicate that pellets could slow down if hitting the wall of the guide tube. Fast high-resolution imaging systems are thus useful to neon and other condensed-matter injector development.

  6. Fast imaging of intact and shattered cryogenic neon pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhehui; Combs, S K; Baylor, L R; Foust, C R; Lyttle, M S; Meitner, S J; Rasmussen, D A

    2014-11-01

    Compact condensed-matter injection technologies are increasingly used in magnetic fusion. One recent application is in disruption mitigation. An imaging system with less-than-100-µm- and sub-µs-resolution is described and used to characterize intact and shattered cryogenic neon pellets. Shattered pellets contain fine particles ranging from tens of µm to about 7 mm. Time-of-flight analyses indicate that pellets could slow down if hitting the wall of the guide tube. Fast high-resolution imaging systems are thus useful to neon and other condensed-matter injector development.

  7. A strange and surprising debate: mountains, original sin and 'science' in seventeenth-century England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wragge-Morley, Alexander

    2009-06-01

    It could come as a shock to learn that some seventeenth-century men of science and learning thought that mountains were bad. Even more alarmingly, some thought that God had imposed them on the earth to punish man for his sins. By the end of the seventeenth century, surprisingly many English natural philosophers and theologians were engaged in a debate about whether mountains were 'good' or 'bad', useful or useless. At stake in this debate were not just the careers of its participants, but arguments about the best ways of looking at and reckoning with 'nature' itself.

  8. Corticospinal activity evoked and modulated by non-invasive stimulation of the intact human motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Rothwell, John C

    2014-10-01

    A number of methods have been developed recently that stimulate the human brain non-invasively through the intact scalp. The most common are transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial electric stimulation (TES) and transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS). They are widely used to probe function and connectivity of brain areas as well as therapeutically in a variety of conditions such as depression or stroke. They are much less focal than conventional invasive methods which use small electrodes placed on or in the brain and are often thought to activate all classes of neurones in the stimulated area. However, this is not true. A large body of evidence from experiments on the motor cortex shows that non-invasive methods of brain stimulation can be surprisingly selective and that adjusting the intensity and direction of stimulation can activate different classes of inhibitory and excitatory inputs to the corticospinal output cells. Here we review data that have elucidated the action of TMS and TES, concentrating mainly on the most direct evidence available from spinal epidural recordings of the descending corticospinal volleys. The results show that it is potentially possible to test and condition specific neural circuits in motor cortex that could be affected differentially by disease, or be used in different forms of natural behaviour. However, there is substantial interindividual variability in the specificity of these protocols. Perhaps in the future it will be possible, with the advances currently being made to model the electrical fields induced in individual brains, to develop forms of stimulation that can reliably target more specific populations of neurones, and open up the internal circuitry of the motor cortex for study in behaving humans.

  9. Product of aromatase activity in intact LNCaP and MCF-7 human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnetta, L A; Granata, O M; Bellavia, V; Amodio, R; Scaccianoce, E; Notarbartolo, M; Follari, M R; Miceli, M D; Carruba, G

    1997-04-01

    We investigated conversion rates of androgens to estrogens in cultured, hormone-responsive prostate (LNCaP) and breast (MCF-7) human cancer cells. For this purpose, we adopted an intact cell analysis, whereby cells were incubated for different incubation times in the presence of close-to-physiological (1 nM) or supraphysiological (1 microM) concentrations of labelled androgen precursors, i.e. testosterone (T) and androstenedione (delta4Ad). The aromatase activity, as measured by estrogen formation, was detected in LNCaP cells (0.5 pmol/ml), even though to a significantly lower extent than in MCF-7 cells (5.4 pmol/ml), using 1 microM T after 72 h incubation. Surprisingly, LNCaP cells displayed a much higher aromatase activity when T was used as a substrate with respect to delta4Ad. In either cell line, T transformation to delta4Ad was relatively low, attaining only 2.8% in LNCaP and 7.5% MCF-7 cells. However, T was mostly converted to conjugates (over 95%), glucuronides and some sulphates, in LNCaP cells, whereas it was only partly converted to sulphates (<10%) in MCF-7 cells. Aromatase activity seems to be inconsistent in LNCaP cells, being strongly affected by culture conditions, especially by fetal calf serum (FCS). Further studies should assess the regulation of aromatase expression by serum or growth factors in different human cancer cells, also using anti-aromatase and/or anti-estrogen compounds, in different culture conditions.

  10. A radiological study on lumbar spondylolisthesis with intact neural arch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Myung Ju; Suh, Young Jun; Joe, Seong Jeh; Yoon, Jong Sup [Han-Gang Sung-Shim Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and analyze the radiological findings of 13 cases of lumbar spondylolisthesis with intact neural arch at Han-Gang Sung- Shim Hospital during period from Jan. 1975 to June 1980. 1. The age distribution of the patients varied from 31 to 83 years old. The average of the age was 53 years old. 12 patients were female and only one patient was male. 2. All cases revealed anterior slipping of the L4 body on the L5 body, of which degree was classified by Meyerding's method, first degree in 12 patients and second degree in one patient. 3. The angle between the pedicle and inferior articular facet of affected vertebra was measured by Junghann's method. The average of angle was 123 degree. 4. Of 13 cases, 2 cases who had neural compression caused by dislocation of the vertebral bodies and intrusion of lamina and arthritic facets into stenotic spinal canal treated by laminar decompression including foraminotomy. Good results were obtained. 5. The secondary degenerative change of the vertebra was considered to be the cause of the spondylolisthesis with intact neural arch.

  11. Selective ion changes during spontaneous mitochondrial transients in intact astrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Azarias

    Full Text Available The bioenergetic status of cells is tightly regulated by the activity of cytosolic enzymes and mitochondrial ATP production. To adapt their metabolism to cellular energy needs, mitochondria have been shown to exhibit changes in their ionic composition as the result of changes in cytosolic ion concentrations. Individual mitochondria also exhibit spontaneous changes in their electrical potential without altering those of neighboring mitochondria. We recently reported that individual mitochondria of intact astrocytes exhibit spontaneous transient increases in their Na(+ concentration. Here, we investigated whether the concentration of other ionic species were involved during mitochondrial transients. By combining fluorescence imaging methods, we performed a multiparameter study of spontaneous mitochondrial transients in intact resting astrocytes. We show that mitochondria exhibit coincident changes in their Na(+ concentration, electrical potential, matrix pH and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production during a mitochondrial transient without involving detectable changes in their Ca(2+ concentration. Using widefield and total internal reflection fluorescence imaging, we found evidence for localized transient decreases in the free Mg(2+ concentration accompanying mitochondrial Na(+ spikes that could indicate an associated local and transient enrichment in the ATP concentration. Therefore, we propose a sequential model for mitochondrial transients involving a localized ATP microdomain that triggers a Na(+-mediated mitochondrial depolarization, transiently enhancing the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Our work provides a model describing ionic changes that could support a bidirectional cytosol-to-mitochondria ionic communication.

  12. Selective ion changes during spontaneous mitochondrial transients in intact astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarias, Guillaume; Chatton, Jean-Yves

    2011-01-01

    The bioenergetic status of cells is tightly regulated by the activity of cytosolic enzymes and mitochondrial ATP production. To adapt their metabolism to cellular energy needs, mitochondria have been shown to exhibit changes in their ionic composition as the result of changes in cytosolic ion concentrations. Individual mitochondria also exhibit spontaneous changes in their electrical potential without altering those of neighboring mitochondria. We recently reported that individual mitochondria of intact astrocytes exhibit spontaneous transient increases in their Na(+) concentration. Here, we investigated whether the concentration of other ionic species were involved during mitochondrial transients. By combining fluorescence imaging methods, we performed a multiparameter study of spontaneous mitochondrial transients in intact resting astrocytes. We show that mitochondria exhibit coincident changes in their Na(+) concentration, electrical potential, matrix pH and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production during a mitochondrial transient without involving detectable changes in their Ca(2+) concentration. Using widefield and total internal reflection fluorescence imaging, we found evidence for localized transient decreases in the free Mg(2+) concentration accompanying mitochondrial Na(+) spikes that could indicate an associated local and transient enrichment in the ATP concentration. Therefore, we propose a sequential model for mitochondrial transients involving a localized ATP microdomain that triggers a Na(+)-mediated mitochondrial depolarization, transiently enhancing the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Our work provides a model describing ionic changes that could support a bidirectional cytosol-to-mitochondria ionic communication.

  13. Expectation and surprise determine neural population responses in the ventral visual stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egner, Tobias; Monti, Jim M; Summerfield, Christopher

    2010-12-08

    Visual cortex is traditionally viewed as a hierarchy of neural feature detectors, with neural population responses being driven by bottom-up stimulus features. Conversely, "predictive coding" models propose that each stage of the visual hierarchy harbors two computationally distinct classes of processing unit: representational units that encode the conditional probability of a stimulus and provide predictions to the next lower level; and error units that encode the mismatch between predictions and bottom-up evidence, and forward prediction error to the next higher level. Predictive coding therefore suggests that neural population responses in category-selective visual regions, like the fusiform face area (FFA), reflect a summation of activity related to prediction ("face expectation") and prediction error ("face surprise"), rather than a homogenous feature detection response. We tested the rival hypotheses of the feature detection and predictive coding models by collecting functional magnetic resonance imaging data from the FFA while independently varying both stimulus features (faces vs houses) and subjects' perceptual expectations regarding those features (low vs medium vs high face expectation). The effects of stimulus and expectation factors interacted, whereby FFA activity elicited by face and house stimuli was indistinguishable under high face expectation and maximally differentiated under low face expectation. Using computational modeling, we show that these data can be explained by predictive coding but not by feature detection models, even when the latter are augmented with attentional mechanisms. Thus, population responses in the ventral visual stream appear to be determined by feature expectation and surprise rather than by stimulus features per se.

  14. Infants’ Looking to Surprising Events: When Eye-Tracking Reveals More than Looking Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, H. Henny; Denison, Stephanie; Johnson, Scott P.

    2016-01-01

    Research on infants’ reasoning abilities often rely on looking times, which are longer to surprising and unexpected visual scenes compared to unsurprising and expected ones. Few researchers have examined more precise visual scanning patterns in these scenes, and so, here, we recorded 8- to 11-month-olds’ gaze with an eye tracker as we presented a sampling event whose outcome was either surprising, neutral, or unsurprising: A red (or yellow) ball was drawn from one of three visible containers populated 0%, 50%, or 100% with identically colored balls. When measuring looking time to the whole scene, infants were insensitive to the likelihood of the sampling event, replicating failures in similar paradigms. Nevertheless, a new analysis of visual scanning showed that infants did spend more time fixating specific areas-of-interest as a function of the event likelihood. The drawn ball and its associated container attracted more looking than the other containers in the 0% condition, but this pattern was weaker in the 50% condition, and even less strong in the 100% condition. Results suggest that measuring where infants look may be more sensitive than simply how much looking there is to the whole scene. The advantages of eye tracking measures over traditional looking measures are discussed. PMID:27926920

  15. Calcium Activation Profile In Electrically Stimulated Intact Rat Heart Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerts, Hugo; Nuydens, Rony; Ver Donck, Luc; Nuyens, Roger; De Brabander, Marc; Borgers, Marcel

    1988-06-01

    Recent advances in fluorescent probe technology and image processing equipment have made available the measurement of calcium in living systems on a real-time basis. We present the use of the calcium indicator Fura-2 in intact normally stimulated rat heart cells for the spatial and dynamic measurement of the calcium excitation profile. After electric stimulation (1 Hz), the activation proceeds from the center of the myocyte toward the periphery. Within two frame times (80 ms), the whole cell is activated. The activation is slightly faster in the center of the cell than in the periphery. The mean recovery time is 200-400 ms. There is no difference along the cell's long axis. The effect of a beta-agonist and of a calcium antagonist is described.

  16. Complete posterior migration of intact vertebral body in spinal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Krishnamurthy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal tuberculosis most commonly presents as a paradiscal lesion involving the disc space and adjacent vertebral bodies. Atypical forms of spinal tuberculosis have been described and are most often a result of posterior element involvement. The authors report a patient, who presented with complete posterior migration of an intact vertebral body, a complication of spinal tuberculosis that has not been reported till date. A 12-year-old girl with history of pulmonary tuberculosis presented with progressive paraparesis and back pain. Plain X-rays and MRI revealed that the L2 vertebral body had migrated posteriorly into the spinal canal, without significant movement of the posterior elements. The vertebral body was normal, with no erosion or bone loss. However, bilateral pedicle and facet joint involvement was seen. The neural elements were decompressed through an anterolateral retroperitoneal approach and the spine reconstructed. The authors present this rare manifestation of spinal tuberculosis and discuss the possible mechanisms of this presentation.

  17. In vitro adherence of Moraxella bovis to intact corneal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, S H; Rosenbusch, R F

    1984-09-01

    An in vitro assay is described using radiolabeled Moraxella bovis for studying adherence to intact bovine corneal epithelial surfaces. The assay was optimized for time (45 min) and for the ratio of epithelial cells to bacteria (1:1000) that demonstrated a significant difference in adherence between M. bovis strain 118F, a piliated organism and a nonpiliated variant, strain 118F/4-2. Adherence of these organisms correlated with previous pathogenicity studies involving experimental infection of calves. Scanning electron microscopy of tissues treated in the assay revealed a predilection of M. bovis for dark epithelial cells and for association with depressions in the tissue surface. This assay technique is discussed in comparison with other in vitro adherence assay methods.

  18. Rhesus monkey brain imaging through intact skull with thermoacoustic tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Wang, Lihong V

    2006-03-01

    Two-dimensional microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography (TAT) is applied to imaging the Rhesus monkey brain through the intact skull. To reduce the wavefront distortion caused by the skull, only the low-frequency components of the thermoacoustic signals (images. The methods of signal processing and image reconstruction are validated by imaging a lamb kidney. The resolution of the system is found to be 4 mm when we image a 1-month-old monkey head containing inserted needles. We also image the coronal and axial sections of a 7-month-old monkey head. Brain features that are 3 cm deep in the head are imaged clearly. Our results demonstrate that TAT has potential for use in portable, cost-effective imagers for pediatric brains.

  19. Label-free volumetric optical imaging of intact murine brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jian; Choi, Heejin; Chung, Kwanghun; Bouma, Brett E.

    2017-04-01

    A central effort of today’s neuroscience is to study the brain’s ’wiring diagram’. The nervous system is believed to be a network of neurons interacting with each other through synaptic connection between axons and dendrites, therefore the neuronal connectivity map not only depicts the underlying anatomy, but also has important behavioral implications. Different approaches have been utilized to decipher neuronal circuits, including electron microscopy (EM) and light microscopy (LM). However, these approaches typically demand extensive sectioning and reconstruction for a brain sample. Recently, tissue clearing methods have enabled the investigation of a fully assembled biological system with greatly improved light penetration. Yet, most of these implementations, still require either genetic or exogenous contrast labeling for light microscopy. Here we demonstrate a high-speed approach, termed as Clearing Assisted Scattering Tomography (CAST), where intact brains can be imaged at optical resolution without labeling by leveraging tissue clearing and the scattering contrast of optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI).

  20. Chemical Probes for Visualizing Intact Animal and Human Brain Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hei Ming; Ng, Wai-Lung; Gentleman, Steve M; Wu, Wutian

    2017-06-22

    Newly developed tissue clearing techniques can be used to render intact tissues transparent. When combined with fluorescent labeling technologies and optical sectioning microscopy, this allows visualization of fine structure in three dimensions. Gene-transfection techniques have proved very useful in visualizing cellular structures in animal models, but they are not applicable to human brain tissue. Here, we discuss the characteristics of an ideal chemical fluorescent probe for use in brain and other cleared tissues, and offer a comprehensive overview of currently available chemical probes. We describe their working principles and compare their performance with the goal of simplifying probe selection for neuropathologists and stimulating probe development by chemists. We propose several approaches for the development of innovative chemical labeling methods which, when combined with tissue clearing, have the potential to revolutionize how we study the structure and function of the human brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. True navigation in migrating gulls requires intact olfactory nerves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikelski, Martin; Arriero, Elena; Gagliardo, Anna;

    2015-01-01

    debated. In this experiment we subjected adult lesser black-backed gulls migrating from their Finnish/Russian breeding grounds (from >60°N) to Africa (to systems required for navigation. We translocated birds westward (1080 km) or eastward (885 km......) to simulate natural navigational challenges. When translocated westwards and outside their migratory corridor birds with olfactory nerve section kept a clear directional preference (southerly) but were unable to compensate for the displacement, while intact birds and gulls with the ophthalmic branch...... of the trigeminal nerve sectioned oriented towards their population-specific migratory corridor. Thus, air-borne olfactory information seems to be important for migrating gulls to navigate successfully in some circumstances....

  2. Synthesis of pennogenin utilizing the intact skeleton of diosgenin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN; Weisheng; XU; Qihai; CHEN; Ling; ZHAO; Chunfeng

    2004-01-01

    The first synthesis of pennogenin, an aglycone of bioactive components of Chinese traditional medicine named "Chonglou"(Paris), starting from diosgenin, has been reported, which displays a new strategy of utilizing the resource compounds. According to this new strategy, the full and rational utilization of the intact skeleton and functional groups of starting material has been realized in the conversion of diosgenin to pennogenin. The key step for synthesis of pennogenin is the regioselective transformation of cholest-5-en-16,22-dion-3,26-diol to cholest5,16-dien-22-on-3,26-diol, which can be used to synthesize other bioactive steroids such as cephalostatin and OSW-1.

  3. Simple Genome Editing of Rodent Intact Embryos by Electroporation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehito Kaneko

    Full Text Available The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated (Cas system is a powerful tool for genome editing in animals. Recently, new technology has been developed to genetically modify animals without using highly skilled techniques, such as pronuclear microinjection of endonucleases. Technique for animal knockout system by electroporation (TAKE method is a simple and effective technology that produces knockout rats by introducing endonuclease mRNAs into intact embryos using electroporation. Using TAKE method and CRISPR/Cas system, the present study successfully produced knockout and knock-in mice and rats. The mice and rats derived from embryos electroporated with Cas9 mRNA, gRNA and single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide (ssODN comprised the edited targeted gene as a knockout (67% of mice and 88% of rats or knock-in (both 33%. The TAKE method could be widely used as a powerful tool to produce genetically modified animals by genome editing.

  4. Calcium sparks in the intact gerbil spiral modiolar artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berge Samantha

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calcium sparks are ryanodine receptor mediated transient calcium signals that have been shown to hyperpolarize the membrane potential by activating large conductance calcium activated potassium (BK channels in vascular smooth muscle cells. Along with voltage-dependent calcium channels, they form a signaling unit that has a vasodilatory influence on vascular diameter and regulation of myogenic tone. The existence and role of calcium sparks has hitherto been unexplored in the spiral modiolar artery, the end artery that controls blood flow to the cochlea. The goal of the present study was to determine the presence and properties of calcium sparks in the intact gerbil spiral modiolar artery. Results Calcium sparks were recorded from smooth muscle cells of intact arteries loaded with fluo-4 AM. Calcium sparks occurred with a frequency of 2.6 Hz, a rise time of 17 ms and a time to half-decay of 20 ms. Ryanodine reduced spark frequency within 3 min from 2.6 to 0.6 Hz. Caffeine (1 mM increased spark frequency from 2.3 to 3.3 Hz and prolonged rise and half-decay times from 17 to 19 ms and from 20 to 23 ms, respectively. Elevation of potassium (3.6 to 37.5 mM, presumably via depolarization, increased spark frequency from 2.4 to 3.2 Hz. Neither ryanodine nor depolarization changed rise or decay times. Conclusions This is the first characterization of calcium sparks in smooth muscle cells of the spiral modiolar artery. The results suggest that calcium sparks may regulate the diameter of the spiral modiolar artery and cochlear blood flow.

  5. Static cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation remains intact during deep hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Dheeraj; McLeod, Katherine; Leonard, Samantha; Kibler, Kathleen; Easley, Ronald Blaine; Fraser, Charles D; Andropoulos, Dean; Brady, Ken

    2017-09-01

    Clinical studies measuring cerebral blood flow in infants during deep hypothermia have demonstrated diminished cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation. The coexistence of hypotension in these cohorts confounds the conclusion that deep hypothermia impairs cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation. We sought to compare the lower limit of autoregulation and the static rate of autoregulation between normothermic and hypothermic piglets. Twenty anesthetized neonatal piglets (5-7 days old; 10 normothermic and 10 hypothermic to 20°C) had continuous measurements of cortical red cell flux using laser Doppler flowmetry, while hemorrhagic hypotension was induced without cardiopulmonary bypass. Lower limit of autoregulation was determined for each subject using piecewise regression and SRoR was determined above and below each lower limit of autoregulation as (%change cerebrovascular resistance/%change cerebral perfusion pressure). The estimated difference in lower limit of autoregulation was 1.4 mm Hg (lower in the hypothermic piglets; 95% C.I. -10 to 14 mm Hg; P=0.6). The median lower limit of autoregulation in the normothermic group was 39 mm Hg [IQR 38-51] vs 35 mm Hg [31-50] in the hypothermic group. Intact steady-state pressure autoregulation was defined as static rate of autoregulation >0.5 and was demonstrated in all normothermic subjects (static rate of autoregulation=0.72 [0.65-0.87]) and in 9/10 of the hypothermic subjects (static rate of autoregulation=0.65 [0.52-0.87]). This difference in static rate of autoregulation of 0.06 (95% C.I. -0.3 to 0.1) was not significant (P=0.4). Intact steady-state cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation is demonstrated in a swine model of profound hypothermia. Lower limit of autoregulation and static rate of autoregulation were similar in hypothermic and normothermic subjects. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Surprises from the resummation of ladders in the ABJ(M) cusp anomalous dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Bonini, Marisa; Preti, Michelangelo; Seminara, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    We study the cusp anomalous dimension in N=6 ABJ(M) theory, identifying a scaling limit in which the ladder diagrams dominate. The resummation is encoded into a Bethe-Salpeter equation that is mapped to a Schroedinger problem, exactly solvable due to the surprising supersymmetry of the effective Hamiltonian. In the ABJ case the solution implies the diagonalization of the U(N) and U(M) building blocks, suggesting the existence of two independent cusp anomalous dimensions and an unexpected exponentiation structure for the related Wilson loops. While consistent with previous perturbative analysis, the strong coupling limit of our result does not agree with the string theory computation, emphasizing a difference with the analogous resummation in the N=4 case.

  7. Probing Critical Point Energies of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Surprising Indirect Gap of Single Layer WSe 2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chendong

    2015-09-21

    By using a comprehensive form of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have revealed detailed quasi-particle electronic structures in transition metal dichalcogenides, including the quasi-particle gaps, critical point energy locations, and their origins in the Brillouin zones. We show that single layer WSe surprisingly has an indirect quasi-particle gap with the conduction band minimum located at the Q-point (instead of K), albeit the two states are nearly degenerate. We have further observed rich quasi-particle electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of atomic structures and spin-orbit couplings. Such a local probe for detailed electronic structures in conduction and valence bands will be ideal to investigate how electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides are influenced by variations of local environment.

  8. OCEAN CIRCULATION. Observing the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation yields a decade of inevitable surprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srokosz, M A; Bryden, H L

    2015-06-19

    The importance of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) heat transport for climate is well acknowledged. Climate models predict that the AMOC will slow down under global warming, with substantial impacts, but measurements of ocean circulation have been inadequate to evaluate these predictions. Observations over the past decade have changed that situation, providing a detailed picture of variations in the AMOC. These observations reveal a surprising degree of AMOC variability in terms of the intraannual range, the amplitude and phase of the seasonal cycle, the interannual changes in strength affecting the ocean heat content, and the decline of the AMOC over the decade, both of the latter two exceeding the variations seen in climate models. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation occurs often in cryptogenic ischaemic stroke. Final results from the SURPRISE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Louisa; Krieger, D W; Højberg, S;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke fourfold and is associated with a poor clinical outcome. Despite work-up in compliance with guidelines, up to one-third of patients have cryptogenic stroke (CS). The prevalence of asymptomatic paroxysmal atrial...... fibrillation (PAF) in CS remains unknown. The SURPRISE project aimed at determining this rate using long-term cardiac monitoring. METHODS: Patients with CS after protocolled work-up including electrocardiography (ECG) and telemetry were included after informed consent. An implantable loop recorder (ILR...... patients (16.1%). In three patients PAF was detected by other methods before or after monitoring and was undiscovered due to device sensitivity in one case. The first event of PAF was documented at a mean of 109 days (SD ±48) after stroke onset. PAF was asymptomatic in all cases and occurred in episodes...

  10. Probing Critical Point Energies of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Surprising Indirect Gap of Single Layer WSe2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chendong; Chen, Yuxuan; Johnson, Amber; Li, Ming-Yang; Li, Lain-Jong; Mende, Patrick C; Feenstra, Randall M; Shih, Chih-Kang

    2015-10-14

    By using a comprehensive form of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have revealed detailed quasi-particle electronic structures in transition metal dichalcogenides, including the quasi-particle gaps, critical point energy locations, and their origins in the Brillouin zones. We show that single layer WSe2 surprisingly has an indirect quasi-particle gap with the conduction band minimum located at the Q-point (instead of K), albeit the two states are nearly degenerate. We have further observed rich quasi-particle electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of atomic structures and spin-orbit couplings. Such a local probe for detailed electronic structures in conduction and valence bands will be ideal to investigate how electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides are influenced by variations of local environment.

  11. Beyond surprise: the puzzle of infants' expressive reactions to expectancy violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Klaus R; Zentner, Marcel R; Stern, Daniel

    2004-12-01

    The reactions of 58 infants to expectancy violation by digitally filtering the experimenter's voice were studied in a cross-sectional design for ages 5, 7, 9, 11-12, and 14 months. The results show that behavioral freezing and changes in gaze direction, but not facial or vocal expression, are reliable responses to expectancy violation. The pattern suggests that a transition in the infant's capacity for cognitive evaluation of novel and discrepant events may occur around age 9 months. These findings confirm the consistent failure to find prototypical facial surprise reactions in research on novel or impossible situations. Componential theories of emotion, which predict adaptive behavior patterns from appraisal processes, may provide clues for underlying mechanisms and generate hypotheses on age-related changes in emotional expression. copyright (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Surprising judgments about robot drivers: Experiments on rising expectations and blaming humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Danielson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available N-Reasons is an experimental Internet survey platform designed to enhance public participation in applied ethics and policy. N-Reasons encourages individuals to generate reasons to support their judgments, and groups to converge on a common set of reasons pro and con various issues.  In the Robot Ethics Survey some of the reasons contributed surprising judgments about autonomous machines. Presented with a version of the trolley problem with an autonomous train as the agent, participants gave unexpected answers, revealing high expectations for the autonomous machine and shifting blame from the automated device to the humans in the scenario. Further experiments with a standard pair of human-only trolley problems refine these results. While showing the high expectations even when no autonomous machine is involved, human bystanders are only blamed in the machine case. A third experiment explicitly aimed at responsibility for driverless cars confirms our findings about shifting blame in the case of autonomous machine agents. We conclude methodologically that both results point to the power of an experimental survey based approach to public participation to explore surprising assumptions and judgments in applied ethics. However, both results also support using caution when interpreting survey results in ethics, demonstrating the importance of qualitative data to provide further context for evaluating judgments revealed by surveys. On the ethics side, the result about shifting blame to humans interacting with autonomous machines suggests caution about the unintended consequences of intuitive principles requiring human responsibility.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v9i1.1727

  13. Prophylactic antibiotics for inhibiting preterm labour with intact membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flenady, Vicki; Hawley, Glenda; Stock, Owen M; Kenyon, Sara; Badawi, Nadia

    2013-12-05

    The aetiology of preterm birth is complex and there is evidence that subclinical genital tract infection influences preterm labour in some women but the role of prophylactic antibiotic treatment in the management of preterm labour is controversial. Since rupture of the membranes is an important factor in the progression of preterm labour, it is important to see if the routine administration of antibiotics confers any benefit or causes harm, prior to membrane rupture. To assess the effects of prophylactic antibiotics administered to women in preterm labour with intact membranes, on maternal and neonatal outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 August 2013). Randomised trials that compared antibiotic treatment with placebo or no treatment for women in preterm labour (between 20 and 36 weeks' gestation) with intact membranes. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, and undertook quality assessment and data extraction. We contacted study authors for additional information. Results are presented using risk ratio (RR) for categorical data and mean difference (MD) for data measured on a continuous scale with their respective 95% confidence intervals (CI). The number needed to treat to benefit (NNTB) and the number needed to treat to harm (NNTH) was calculated where appropriate. In this update (2013), with the addition of three trials (305 women), the large ORACLE II 2001 trial continues to dominate the results of this review. This review now includes a total of 14 studies randomising 7837 women. No significant difference was shown in perinatal or infant mortality for infants of women allocated to any prophylactic antibiotics compared with no antibiotics. However, an increase in neonatal deaths was shown for infants of women receiving any prophylactic antibiotics when compared with placebo (RR 1.57, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.40; NNTH 149, 95% CI 2500 to 61). No reduction in preterm birth or other clinically

  14. Identification of Intrinsic Axon Growth Modulators for Intact CNS Neurons after Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathren L. Fink

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional deficits persist after spinal cord injury (SCI because axons in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS fail to regenerate. However, modest levels of spontaneous functional recovery are typically observed after trauma and are thought to be mediated by the plasticity of intact circuitry. The mechanisms underlying intact circuit plasticity are not delineated. Here, we characterize the in vivo transcriptome of sprouting intact neurons from Ngr1 null mice after partial SCI. We identify the lysophosphatidic acid signaling modulators LPPR1 and LPAR1 as intrinsic axon growth modulators for intact corticospinal motor neurons after adjacent injury. Furthermore, in vivo LPAR1 inhibition or LPPR1 overexpression enhances sprouting of intact corticospinal tract axons and yields greater functional recovery after unilateral brainstem lesion in wild-type mice. Thus, the transcriptional profile of injury-induced sprouting of intact neurons reveals targets for therapeutic enhancement of axon growth initiation and new synapse formation.

  15. The Nucleus of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: Lots of Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Paul R.; Rosetta Science Working Team

    2016-10-01

    ESA's Rosetta mission has made many new and unexpected discoveries since its arrival at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in August 2014. The first of these was the unusual shape of the cometary nucleus. Although bilobate nuclei had been seen before, the extreme concavities on 67P were unexpected. Evidence gathered during the mission suggests that two independent bodies came together to form 67P, rather than the nucleus being a single body that was sculpted by sublimation and/or other processes. Although not a surprise, early observations showed that the nucleus rotation period had decreased by ~22 minutes since the previous aphelion passage. A similar rotation period decrease was seen post-perihelion during the encounter. These changes likely arise from asymmetric jetting forces from the irregular nucleus. Initially, Rosetta's instruments found little evidence for water ice on the surface; the presence of surface water ice increased substantially as the nucleus approached perihelion. The nucleus bulk density, 533 ± 6 kg/m3, was measured with Radio Science and OSIRIS imaging of the nucleus volume. This confirmed previous estimates based on indirect methods that the bulk density of cometary nuclei was on the order of 500-600 kg/m3 and on measurement of the density of 9P/Tempel 1's nucleus by Deep Impact. Nucleus topography proved to be highly varied, from smooth dust-covered plains to shallow circular basins, to the very rough terrain where the Philae lander came to rest. Evidence of thermal cracking is everywhere. The discovery of cylindrical pits on the surface, typically 100-200m in diameter with similar depths was a major surprise and has been interpreted as sinkholes. "Goose-bump" terrain consisting of apparently random piles of boulders 2-3 m in diameter was another unexpected discovery. Apparent layering with scales of meters to many tens of meters was seen but there was little or no evidence for impact features. Radar tomography of the interior of the "head

  16. Investigation of the heat source(s) of the Surprise Valley Geothermal System, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, N.; Holt, C. D.; Hawkes, S.; McClain, J. S.; Safford, L.; Mink, L. L.; Rose, C.; Zierenberg, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    Concerns about environmental impacts and energy security have led to an increased interest in sustainable and renewable energy resources, including geothermal systems. It is essential to know the permeability structure and possible heat source(s) of a geothermal area in order to assess the capacity and extent of the potential resource. We have undertaken geophysical surveys at the Surprise Valley Hot Springs in Cedarville, California to characterize essential parameters related to a fault-controlled geothermal system. At present, the heat source(s) for the system are unknown. Igneous bodies in the area are likely too old to have retained enough heat to supply the system, so it is probable that fracture networks provide heat from some deeper or more distributed heat sources. However, the fracture system and permeability structure remain enigmatic. The goal of our research is to identify the pathways for fluid transport within the Surprise Valley geothermal system using a combination of geophysical methods including active seismic surveys and short- and long-period magnetotelluric (MT) surveys. We have collected 14 spreads, consisting of 24 geophones each, of active-source seismic data. We used a "Betsy Gun" source at 8 to 12 locations along each spread and have collected and analyzed about 2800 shot-receiver pairs. Seismic velocities reveal shallow lake sediments, as well as velocities consistent with porous basalts. The latter, with velocities of greater than 3.0 km/s, lie along strike with known hot springs and faulted and tilted basalt outcrops outside our field area. This suggests that basalts may provide a permeable pathway through impermeable lake deposits. We conducted short-period (10Hz-60kHz) MT measurements at 33 stations. Our short-period MT models indicate shallow resistive blocks (>100Ωm) with a thin cover of more conductive sediments ( 10Ωm) at the surface. Hot springs are located in gaps between resistive blocks and are connected to deeper low

  17. Mechanisms of the Frank-Starling phenomena studied in intact hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhoff, D; Stennett, R A; Ogino, K

    1995-01-01

    The impact of ventricular volume on the relationship between intracellular calcium and ventricular pressure under steady-state conditions was determined in intact ferret hearts. The results reveal major quantitative differences and minor qualitative differences between these relations and those previously measured in isolated intact and skinned cardiac muscle. The importance of these differences is discussed within the context of developing a comprehensive mechanistic theory to describe load-dependence of the intact ventricle.

  18. Bryostatins activate protein kinase C in intact human platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.B.; Tallant, E.A.; Pettit, G.R.; Wallace, R.W.

    1986-05-01

    Bryostatins, macrocyclic lactones isolated from a marine bryozoan, have antineoplastic activity in the P388 lymphocytic leukemia system. These compounds also stimulate growth in Swiss 3T3 cells, induce secretion in leukocytes, inhibit phorbol dibutyrate binding to a high affinity receptor, and activate the C-kinase in vitro. In human platelets, phorbol esters induce aggregation and activate protein kinase C, resulting in phosphorylation of a 47K protein and the 20K myosin light chain. The authors now show that bryostatin 7 (B-7) triggers platelet aggregation to the same rate and extent as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). B-7 also causes the in vivo activation of the C-kinase, resulting in phosphorylation of both the 47K and the 20K proteins; the time courses and dose-responses of these B-7-induced phosphorylations were similar to those found with PMA. In addition, B-7 increases the level of /sup 32/P-incorporation into the platelet polyphosphoinositides, which also occurs in response to PMA. Bryostatin 3 (B-3), which has been shown to be much less potent than B-7 in mimicking other PMA effects, was much less effective than PMA or B-7 in inducing platelet aggregation and in stimulating /sup 32/P-incorporation into both proteins and the phosphoinositides. These results demonstrate that, intact human platelets, bryostatins mimic the phorbol esters tumor promoters and directly activate protein kinase C.

  19. Rapid isolation of intact, viable fetal cartilage models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R.R.; Chepenik, K.P.; Paynton, B.V.; Cotler, J.M.

    1982-04-01

    A rapid procedure is described for the isolation of viable, intact, femoral cartilage models (humeri and femora) obtained from pregnant rats on the 18th day of gestation. Viability of these models is demonstrated in an in vitro system where the incorporation of /sup 35/S-sulfate was linear with time of incubation and with numbers of cartilage models utilized. Treatment of cartilage models with ice-cold trichloroacetic acid and a boiling water bath prior to incubation with radiolabel, reduced the amount of radioactivity incorporated to 1.3% of that observed for models incubated by routine procedures. Furthermore, digestion of cartilage model homogenates with protease yielded a supernatant from which 51% to 57% of the radioactivity was precipitated as GAG. This method may also be used to isolate fetal cartilage models as early as the 16th day of gestation. with this system, specific biochemical parameters of mammalian fetal chondrogenesis may be surveyed in normally and abnormally developing fetal cartilage free of surrounding soft tissue.

  20. Compensatory mechanisms underlie intact task-switching performance in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamadar, S; Michie, P; Karayanidis, F

    2010-04-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia tend to perform poorly on many measures of cognitive control. However, recent task-switching studies suggest that they show intact task-switching performance, despite the fact that the regions involved in task-switching are known to be structurally and functionally impaired in the disorder. Behavioral, event-related potential (ERP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures were used to compare the temporal and spatial dynamics of task-switching performance in individuals with schizophrenia and controls. Consistent with previous studies, reaction time (RT) switch cost and its reduction with anticipatory preparation did not differ between groups. There were also no group differences on cue-locked ERP components associated with anticipatory preparation processes. However, both stimulus- and response-locked ERPs were significantly disrupted in schizophrenia, suggesting difficulty with task-set implementation. fMRI analyses indicated that individuals with schizophrenia showed hyperactivity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex. RT-fMRI and ERP-fMRI associations suggested that individuals with schizophrenia employ compensatory mechanisms to overcome difficulties in task-set implementation and thereby achieve the same behavioral outcomes as controls.

  1. Spontaneous NA+ transients in individual mitochondria of intact astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarias, Guillaume; Van de Ville, Dimitri; Unser, Michael; Chatton, Jean-Yves

    2008-02-01

    Mitochondria in intact cells maintain low Na(+) levels despite the large electrochemical gradient favoring cation influx into the matrix. In addition, they display individual spontaneous transient depolarizations. The authors report here that individual mitochondria in living astrocytes exhibit spontaneous increases in their Na(+) concentration (Na(mit)(+) spiking), as measured using the mitochondrial probe CoroNa Red. In a field of view with approximately 30 astrocytes, up to 1,400 transients per minute were typically detected under resting conditions. Na(mit)(+) spiking was also observed in neurons, but was scarce in two nonneural cell types tested. Astrocytic Na(mit)(+) spikes averaged 12.2 +/- 0.8 s in duration and 35.5 +/- 3.2 mM in amplitude and coincided with brief mitochondrial depolarizations; they were impaired by mitochondrial depolarization and ruthenium red pointing to the involvement of a cation uniporter. Na(mit)(+) spiking activity was significantly inhibited by mitochondrial Na(+)/H(+) exchanger inhibition and sensitive to cellular pH and Na(+) concentration. Ca(2+) played a permissive role on Na(mit)(+) spiking activity. Finally, the authors present evidence suggesting that Na(mit)(+) spiking frequency was correlated with cellular ATP levels. This study shows that, under physiological conditions, individual mitochondria in living astrocytes exhibit fast Na(+) exchange across their inner membrane, which reveals a new form of highly dynamic and localized functional regulation.

  2. Intact implicit statistical learning in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unoka, Zsolt; Vizin, Gabriella; Bjelik, Anna; Radics, Dóra; Nemeth, Dezso; Janacsek, Karolina

    2017-09-01

    Wide-spread neuropsychological deficits have been identified in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Previous research found impairments in decision making, declarative memory, working memory and executive functions; however, no studies have focused on implicit learning in BPD yet. The aim of our study was to investigate implicit statistical learning by comparing learning performance of 19 BPD patients and 19 healthy, age-, education- and gender-matched controls on a probabilistic sequence learning task. Moreover, we also tested whether participants retain the acquired knowledge after a delay period. To this end, participants were retested on a shorter version of the same task 24h after the learning phase. We found intact implicit statistical learning as well as retention of the acquired knowledge in this personality disorder. BPD patients seem to be able to extract and represent regularities implicitly, which is in line with the notion that implicit learning is less susceptible to illness compared to the more explicit processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Stress dependence of permeability of intact and fractured shale cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Reinier; Yarushina, Viktoriya

    2016-04-01

    Whether a shale acts as a caprock, source rock, or reservoir, understanding fluid flow through shale is of major importance for understanding fluid flow in geological systems. Because of the low permeability of shale, flow is thought to be largely confined to fractures and similar features. In fracking operations, fractures are induced specifically to allow for hydrocarbon exploration. We have constructed an experimental setup to measure core permeabilities, using constant flow or a transient pulse. In this setup, we have measured the permeability of intact and fractured shale core samples, using either water or supercritical CO2 as the transporting fluid. Our measurements show decreasing permeability with increasing confining pressure, mainly due to time-dependent creep. Furthermore, our measurements show that for a simple splitting fracture, time-dependent creep will also eliminate any significant effect of this fracture on permeability. This effect of confinement on fracture permeability can have important implications regarding the effects of fracturing on shale permeability, and hence for operations depending on that.

  4. Covert spatial attention is functionally intact in amblyopic human adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Mariel; Cymerman, Rachel; Smith, R Theodore; Kiorpes, Lynne; Carrasco, Marisa

    2016-12-01

    Certain abnormalities in behavioral performance and neural signaling have been attributed to a deficit of visual attention in amblyopia, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a diverse array of visual deficits following abnormal binocular childhood experience. Critically, most have inferred attention's role in their task without explicitly manipulating and measuring its effects against a baseline condition. Here, we directly investigate whether human amblyopic adults benefit from covert spatial attention-the selective processing of visual information in the absence of eye movements-to the same degree as neurotypical observers. We manipulated both involuntary (Experiment 1) and voluntary (Experiment 2) attention during an orientation discrimination task for which the effects of covert spatial attention have been well established in neurotypical and special populations. In both experiments, attention significantly improved accuracy and decreased reaction times to a similar extent (a) between the eyes of the amblyopic adults and (b) between the amblyopes and their age- and gender-matched controls. Moreover, deployment of voluntary attention away from the target location significantly impaired task performance (Experiment 2). The magnitudes of the involuntary and voluntary attention benefits did not correlate with amblyopic depth or severity. Both groups of observers showed canonical performance fields (better performance along the horizontal than vertical meridian and at the lower than upper vertical meridian) and similar effects of attention across locations. Despite their characteristic low-level vision impairments, covert spatial attention remains functionally intact in human amblyopic adults.

  5. Structure of the intact ATM/Tel1 kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejuan; Chu, Huanyu; Lv, Mengjuan; Zhang, Zhihui; Qiu, Shuwan; Liu, Haiyan; Shen, Xuetong; Wang, Weiwu; Cai, Gang

    2016-05-27

    The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein is an apical kinase that orchestrates the multifaceted DNA-damage response. Normally, ATM kinase is in an inactive, homodimer form and is transformed into monomers upon activation. Besides a conserved kinase domain at the C terminus, ATM contains three other structural modules, referred to as FAT, FATC and N-terminal helical solenoid. Here we report the first cryo-EM structure of ATM kinase, which is an intact homodimeric ATM/Tel1 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We show that two monomers directly contact head-to-head through the FAT and kinase domains. The tandem N-terminal helical solenoid tightly packs against the FAT and kinase domains. The structure suggests that ATM/Tel1 dimer interface and the consecutive HEAT repeats inhibit the binding of kinase substrates and regulators by steric hindrance. Our study provides a structural framework for understanding the mechanisms of ATM/Tel1 regulation as well as the development of new therapeutic agents.

  6. Measurement of the Mechanical Properties of Intact Collagen Fibrils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercedes, H.; Heim, A.; Matthews, W. G.; Koob, T.

    2006-03-01

    Motivated by the genetic disorder Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), in which proper collagen synthesis is interrupted, we are investigating the structural and mechanical properties of collagen fibrils. The fibrous glycoprotein collagen is the most abundant protein found in the human body and plays a key role in the extracellular matrix of the connective tissue, the properties of which are altered in EDS. We have selected as our model system the collagen fibrils of the sea cucumber dermis, a naturally mutable tissue. This system allows us to work with native fibrils which have their proteoglycan complement intact, something that is not possible with reconstituted mammalian collagen fibrils. Using atomic force microscopy, we measure, as a function of the concentration of divalent cations, the fibril diameter, its response to force loading, and the changes in its rigidity. Through these experiments, we will shed light on the mechanisms which control the properties of the sea cucumber dermis and hope to help explain the altered connective tissue extracellular matrix properties associated with EDS.

  7. Measurement of tritiated norepinephrine metabolism in intact rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitt, M.; Kowalik, S.; Barkai, A.I. (New York State Psychiatric Inst., New York (USA))

    1983-06-01

    A procedure for the study of NE metabolism in the intact rat brain is described. The method involves ventriculocisternal perfusion of the adult male rat with artificial CSF containing (/sup 3/H)NE. Radioactivity in the perfusate associated with NE and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid (DOMA), 3,4-dihydroxphenylethyleneglycol (DHPG), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid (VMA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (MHPG), and normetanephrine (NMN) is separated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After 80 min the radioactivity in the perfusate reaches an apparent steady-state. Analysis of the steady-state samples shows higher activity in the fractions corresponding to DHPG and MHPG than in those corresponding to DOMA and VMA, confirming glycol formation as the major pathway of NE metabolism in the rat brain. Pretreatment with an MAO inhibitor (tranylcypromine) results in a marked decrease in the deaminated metabolites DHPG and MHPG and a concurrent increase in NMN. The results indicate this to be a sensitive procedure for the in vivo determination of changes in NE metabolism.

  8. HIV-2 neutralization by intact V3-specific Fab fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourial Samer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The V3 region of both HIV-1 gp120 and HIV-2 gp125 surface glycoprotein has been described as a target for neutralizing antibodies. In this study a conformation-sensitive (3C4 and a linear site-specific (7C8 anti-HIV-2 V3 monoclonal antibody (mAb were characterized. The neutralization capacity of the purified mAbs and their respective papain-generated Fab fragments was analyzed. The Fabs were further characterized by sequence analysis. Our results demonstrate that neither purified mAbs were capable of neutralizing HIV-2, while intact Fab fragments from both mAbs blocked in vitro infection of HIV-2 isolates. Moreover, the conformation sensitive 3C4 Fab neutralized both subtype A and B HIV-2 isolates and SIVsm. Sequence analysis of the hypervariable regions of 3C4 Fab and 7C8 Fab revealed that the third CDR of the heavy chain (CDRH3 of the antibodies was not as long as many of the previously characterized neutralizing antibodies. Our findings suggest that whole 7C8 and 3C4 mAbs are sterically hindered from neutralizing HIV-2, whereas the smaller size of Fab fragments enables access to the V3 region on the virion surface.

  9. Visual associative learning in restrained honey bees with intact antennae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott E Dobrin

    Full Text Available A restrained honey bee can be trained to extend its proboscis in response to the pairing of an odor with a sucrose reward, a form of olfactory associative learning referred to as the proboscis extension response (PER. Although the ability of flying honey bees to respond to visual cues is well-established, associative visual learning in restrained honey bees has been challenging to demonstrate. Those few groups that have documented vision-based PER have reported that removing the antennae prior to training is a prerequisite for learning. Here we report, for a simple visual learning task, the first successful performance by restrained honey bees with intact antennae. Honey bee foragers were trained on a differential visual association task by pairing the presentation of a blue light with a sucrose reward and leaving the presentation of a green light unrewarded. A negative correlation was found between age of foragers and their performance in the visual PER task. Using the adaptations to the traditional PER task outlined here, future studies can exploit pharmacological and physiological techniques to explore the neural circuit basis of visual learning in the honey bee.

  10. Management of Relocation in Cognitively Intact Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Judith E; Koren, Mary Elaine; Rossetti, Jeanette; Tibbits, Kathryn

    2016-11-01

    Relocation, a major life transition that can affect health positively and negatively, is moving from one permanent home to another. Many older adults will relocate at some time during their life. Relocation is also a complex process that requires careful consideration and planning before the move (i.e., pre-location) and adjustment to the new home after the move (i.e., post-relocation). The current article is a summary of content based on a comprehensive evidence-based practice guideline focused on management of relocation in cognitively intact older adults. The guideline was designed to be used across diverse settings by nurses and other providers. Pre-relocation guidelines include assessment for the need for relocation, interventions prior to moving, and outcomes for evaluation of the pre-relocation process. For post-relocation, content focuses on assessment of risks for not adjusting after the move as well as intervention guidelines to promote adjustment and outcomes for evaluation. Implications include advocacy for older adults by using the guideline, disseminating it, and conducting future research. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(11), 14-23.].

  11. Activation and deactivation of vibronic channels in intact phycocyanin rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganou, C.; David, L.; Meinke, R.; Adir, N.; Maultzsch, J.; Mkandawire, M.; Pouhè, D.; Thomsen, C.

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the excitation modes of the light-harvesting protein phycocyanin (PC) from Thermosynechococcus vulcanus in the crystalline state using UV and near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. The spectra revealed the absence of a hydrogen out-of-plane wagging (HOOP) mode in the PC trimer, which suggests that the HOOP mode is activated in the intact PC rod, while it is not active in the PC trimer. Furthermore, in the PC trimer an intense mode at 984 cm-1 is assigned to the C-C stretching vibration while the mode at 454 cm-1 is likely due to ethyl group torsion. In contrast, in the similar chromophore phytochromobilin the C5,10,15-D wag mode at 622 cm-1 does not come from a downshift of the HOOP. Additionally, the absence of modes between 1200 and 1300 cm-1 rules out functional monomerization. A correlation between phycocyanobilin (PCB) and phycoerythrobilin (PEB) suggests that the PCB cofactors of the PC trimer appear in a conformation similar to that of PEB. The conformation of the PC rod is consistent with that of the allophycocyanin (APC) trimer, and thus excitonic flow is facilitated between these two independent light-harvesting compounds. This excitonic flow from the PC rod to APC appears to be modulated by the vibration channels during HOOP wagging, C = C stretching, and the N-H rocking in-plan vibration.

  12. Amniotic Fluid Infection in Preterm Pregnancies with Intact Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahkonen, Leena; Nupponen, Irmeli; Pätäri-Sampo, Anu; Tikkanen, Minna; Sorsa, Timo; Juhila, Juuso; Andersson, Sture; Paavonen, Jorma; Stefanovic, Vedran

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Intra-amniotic infection (IAI) is a major cause of preterm labor and adverse neonatal outcome. We evaluated amniotic fluid (AF) proteolytic cascade forming biomarkers in relation to microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) and IAI in preterm pregnancies with intact membranes. Material and Methods. Amniocentesis was made to 73 women with singleton pregnancies; 27 with suspected IAI; and 46 controls. AF biomarkers were divided into three cascades: Cascade 1: matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), MMP-9, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and interleukin-6; Cascade 2: neutrophil elastase (HNE), elafin, and MMP-9; Cascade 3: MMP-2, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), MMP-8/TIMP-1 molar ratio, and C-reactive protein (CRP). MMP-8 was measured by an immunoenzymometric assay and the others were measured by ELISA. Standard biochemical methods, molecular microbiology, and culture techniques were used. Results. MMP-8, MMP-9, MPO, elafin, and TIMP-1 concentrations were higher in IAI suspected cases compared to controls and also in IAI suspected cases with MIAC compared to those without MIAC when adjusted by gestational age at amniocentesis. All biomarkers except elafin and MMP-2 had the sensitivity of 100% with thresholds based on ROC-curve. Odd ratios of biomarkers for MIAC were 1.2-38 and 95% confidential intervals 1.0-353.6. Conclusions. Neutrophil based AF biomarkers were associated with IAI and MIAC. PMID:28167848

  13. Surprising results on phylogenetic tree building methods based on molecular sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonnet Gaston H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We analyze phylogenetic tree building methods from molecular sequences (PTMS. These are methods which base their construction solely on sequences, coding DNA or amino acids. Results Our first result is a statistically significant evaluation of 176 PTMSs done by comparing trees derived from 193138 orthologous groups of proteins using a new measure of quality between trees. This new measure, called the Intra measure, is very consistent between different groups of species and strong in the sense that it separates the methods with high confidence. The second result is the comparison of the trees against trees derived from accepted taxonomies, the Taxon measure. We consider the NCBI taxonomic classification and their derived topologies as the most accepted biological consensus on phylogenies, which are also available in electronic form. The correlation between the two measures is remarkably high, which supports both measures simultaneously. Conclusions The big surprise of the evaluation is that the maximum likelihood methods do not score well, minimal evolution distance methods over MSA-induced alignments score consistently better. This comparison also allows us to rank different components of the tree building methods, like MSAs, substitution matrices, ML tree builders, distance methods, etc. It is also clear that there is a difference between Metazoa and the rest, which points out to evolution leaving different molecular traces. We also think that these measures of quality of trees will motivate the design of new PTMSs as it is now easier to evaluate them with certainty.

  14. Pooling designs with surprisingly high degree of error correction in a finite vector space

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Pooling designs are standard experimental tools in many biotechnical applications. It is well-known that all famous pooling designs are constructed from mathematical structures by the "containment matrix" method. In particular, Macula's designs (resp. Ngo and Du's designs) are constructed by the containment relation of subsets (resp. subspaces) in a finite set (resp. vector space). Recently, we generalized Macula's designs and obtained a family of pooling designs with more high degree of error correction by subsets in a finite set. In this paper, as a generalization of Ngo and Du's designs, we study the corresponding problems in a finite vector space and obtain a family of pooling designs with surprisingly high degree of error correction. Our designs and Ngo and Du's designs have the same number of items and pools, respectively, but the error-tolerant property is much better than that of Ngo and Du's designs, which was given by D'yachkov et al. \\cite{DF}, when the dimension of the space is large enough.

  15. IP Eri: A surprising long-period binary system hosting a He white dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Merle, T; Masseron, T; Van Eck, S; Siess, L; Van Winckel, H

    2014-01-01

    We determine the orbital elements for the K0 IV + white dwarf (WD) system IP Eri, which appears to have a surprisingly long period of 1071 d and a significant eccentricity of 0.25. Previous spectroscopic analyses of the WD, based on a distance of 101 pc inferred from its Hipparcos parallax, yielded a mass of only 0.43 M$_\\odot$, implying it to be a helium-core WD. The orbital properties of IP Eri are similar to those of the newly discovered long-period subdwarf B star (sdB) binaries, which involve stars with He-burning cores surrounded by extremely thin H envelopes, and are therefore close relatives to He WDs. We performed a spectroscopic analysis of high-resolution spectra from the HERMES/Mercator spectrograph and concluded that the atmospheric parameters of the K0 component are $T_{\\rm eff} = 4960$ K, $\\log{g} = 3.3$, [Fe/H] = 0.09 and $\\xi = 1.5$ km/s. The detailed abundance analysis focuses on C, N, O abundances, carbon isotopic ratio, light (Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti) and s-process (Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, N...

  16. Surprising dissimilarities in a newly formed pair of 'identical twin' stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassun, Keivan G; Mathieu, Robert D; Cargile, Phillip A; Aarnio, Alicia N; Stempels, Eric; Geller, Aaron

    2008-06-19

    The mass and chemical composition of a star are the primary determinants of its basic physical properties-radius, temperature and luminosity-and how those properties evolve with time. Accordingly, two stars born at the same time, from the same natal material and with the same mass, are 'identical twins,' and as such might be expected to possess identical physical attributes. We have discovered in the Orion nebula a pair of stellar twins in a newborn binary star system. Each star in the binary has a mass of 0.41 +/- 0.01 solar masses, identical to within 2 per cent. Here we report that these twin stars have surface temperatures differing by approximately 300 K ( approximately 10 per cent) and luminosities differing by approximately 50 per cent, both at high confidence level. Preliminary results indicate that the stars' radii also differ, by 5-10 per cent. These surprising dissimilarities suggest that one of the twins may have been delayed by several hundred thousand years in its formation relative to its sibling. Such a delay could only have been detected in a very young, definitively equal-mass binary system. Our findings reveal cosmic limits on the age synchronization of young binary stars, often used as tests for the age calibrations of star-formation models.

  17. The Surprising Composition of the Salivary Proteome of Preterm Human Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnola, Massimo; Inzitari, Rosanna; Fanali, Chiara; Iavarone, Federica; Vitali, Alberto; Desiderio, Claudia; Vento, Giovanni; Tirone, Chiara; Romagnoli, Costantino; Cabras, Tiziana; Manconi, Barbara; Teresa Sanna, Maria; Boi, Roberto; Pisano, Elisabetta; Olianas, Alessandra; Pellegrini, Mariagiuseppina; Nemolato, Sonia; Wilhelm Heizmann, Claus; Faa, Gavino; Messana, Irene

    2011-01-01

    Saliva is a body fluid of a unique composition devoted to protect the mouth cavity and the digestive tract. Our high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-electrospray ionization-MS analysis of the acidic soluble fraction of saliva from preterm human newborn surprisingly revealed more than 40 protein masses often undetected in adult saliva. We were able to identify the following proteins: stefin A and stefin B, S100A7 (two isoforms), S100A8, S100A9 (four isoforms), S100A11, S100A12, small proline-rich protein 3 (two isoforms), lysozyme C, thymosins β4 and β10, antileukoproteinase, histone H1c, and α and γ globins. The average mass value reported in international data banks was often incongruent with our experimental results mostly because of post-translational modifications of the proteins, e.g. acetylation of the N-terminal residue. A quantitative label-free MS analysis showed protein levels altered in relation to the postconceptional age and suggested coordinate and hierarchical functions for these proteins during development. In summary, this study shows for the first time that analysis of these proteins in saliva of preterm newborns might represent a noninvasive way to obtain precious information of the molecular mechanisms of development of human fetal oral structures. PMID:20943598

  18. Marine Protected Areas, Multiple-Agency Management, and Monumental Surprise in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. Kittinger

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Large, regional-scale marine protected areas (MPAs and MPA networks face different challenges in governance systems than locally managed or community-based MPAs. An emerging theme in large-scale MPA management is the prevalence of governance structures that rely on institutional collaboration, presenting new challenges as agencies with differing mandates and cultures work together to implement ecosystem-based management. We analyzed qualitative interview data to investigate multi-level social interactions and institutional responses to the surprise establishment of the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (monument in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI. The governance arrangement for the monument represents a new model in US MPA management, requiring two federal agencies and the State of Hawai‘i to collaboratively manage the NWHI. We elucidate the principal barriers to institutional cotrusteeship, characterize institutional transformations that have occurred among the partner agencies in the transition to collaborative management, and evaluate the governance arrangement for the monument as a model for MPAs. The lessons learned from the NWHI governance arrangement are critical as large-scale MPAs requiring multiple-agency management become a prevalent feature on the global seascape.

  19. You'll Never Guess Who Wrote That: 78 Surprising Authors of Psychological Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2016-07-01

    One can find psychological authors in the most unexpected places. We present a capsule summary of scholarly publications of psychological interest authored or coauthored by 78 surprising individuals, most of whom are celebrities or relatives of celebrities, historical figures, or people who have otherwise achieved visibility in academic circles, politics, religion, art, and diverse realms of popular culture. Still other publications are authored by individuals who are far better known for their contributions to popular than to academic psychology. The publications, stretching across more than two centuries, encompass a wide swath of domains of psychological inquiry and highlight the intersection of psychology with fields that fall outside its traditional borders, including public health, economics, law, neurosurgery, and even magic. Many of these scholarly contributions have enriched psychology and its allied disciplines, such as psychiatry, in largely unappreciated ways, and they illustrate the penetration of psychological knowledge into multiple scientific disciplines and everyday life. At the same time, our author list demonstrates that remarkable intellectual accomplishments in one scientific domain, such as physics, do not necessarily translate into success in psychology and underscores the distinction between intelligence, on the one hand, and critical thinking and wisdom, on the other.

  20. Surprise responses in the human brain demonstrate statistical learning under high concurrent cognitive demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Marta Isabel; Teng, Chee Leong James; Taylor, Jeremy Alexander; Rowe, Elise Genevieve; Mattingley, Jason Brett

    2016-06-01

    The ability to learn about regularities in the environment and to make predictions about future events is fundamental for adaptive behaviour. We have previously shown that people can implicitly encode statistical regularities and detect violations therein, as reflected in neuronal responses to unpredictable events that carry a unique prediction error signature. In the real world, however, learning about regularities will often occur in the context of competing cognitive demands. Here we asked whether learning of statistical regularities is modulated by concurrent cognitive load. We compared electroencephalographic metrics associated with responses to pure-tone sounds with frequencies sampled from narrow or wide Gaussian distributions. We showed that outliers evoked a larger response than those in the centre of the stimulus distribution (i.e., an effect of surprise) and that this difference was greater for physically identical outliers in the narrow than in the broad distribution. These results demonstrate an early neurophysiological marker of the brain's ability to implicitly encode complex statistical structure in the environment. Moreover, we manipulated concurrent cognitive load by having participants perform a visual working memory task while listening to these streams of sounds. We again observed greater prediction error responses in the narrower distribution under both low and high cognitive load. Furthermore, there was no reliable reduction in prediction error magnitude under high-relative to low-cognitive load. Our findings suggest that statistical learning is not a capacity limited process, and that it proceeds automatically even when cognitive resources are taxed by concurrent demands.

  1. A surprisingly simple correlation between the classical and quantum structural networks in liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, Peter; Fanourgakis, George S.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2017-08-14

    Nuclear quantum effects in liquid water have profound implications for several of its macroscopic properties related to structure, dynamics, spectroscopy and transport. Although several of water’s macroscopic properties can be reproduced by classical descriptions of the nuclei using potentials effectively parameterized for a narrow range of its phase diagram, a proper account of the nuclear quantum effects is required in order to ensure that the underlying molecular interactions are transferable across a wide temperature range covering different regions of that diagram. When performing an analysis of the hydrogen bonded structural networks in liquid water resulting from the classical (class.) and quantum (q.m.) descriptions of the nuclei with the transferable, flexible, polarizable TTM3-F interaction potential, we found that the two results can be superimposed over the temperature range of T=270-350 K using a surprisingly simple, linear scaling of the two temperatures according to T(q.m.)=aT(class)- T , where a=1.2 and T=51 K. The linear scaling and constant shift of the temperature scale can be considered as a generalization of the previously reported temperature shifts (corresponding to structural changes and the melting T) induced by quantum effects in liquid water.

  2. Polar F-layer model-observation comparisons: a neutral wind surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Sojka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a month-long continuous database of incoherent scatter radar observations of the ionosphere from the EISCAT Savlbard Radar (ESR at Longyearbyen, Norway, provides an unprecedented opportunity for model/data comparisons. Physics-based ionospheric models, such as the Utah State University Time Dependent Ionospheric Model (TDIM, are usually only compared with observations over restricted one or two day events or against climatological averages. In this study, using the ESR observations, the daily weather, day-to-day variability, and month-long climatology can be simultaneously addressed to identify modeling shortcomings and successes. Since for this study the TDIM is driven by climatological representations of the magnetospheric convection, auroral oval, neutral atmosphere, and neutral winds, whose inputs are solar and geomagnetic indices, it is not surprising that the daily weather cannot be reproduced. What is unexpected is that the horizontal neutral wind has come to the forefront as a decisive model input parameter in matching the diurnal morphology of density structuring seen in the observations.

  3. Metabolic Characterization of Intact Cells Reveals Intracellular Amyloid Beta but Not Its Precursor Protein to Reduce Mitochondrial Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Patrick M.; von Einem, Bjoern; Walther, Paul; Calzia, Enrico; von Arnim, Christine A. F.

    2016-01-01

    One hallmark of Alzheimer´s disease are senile plaques consisting of amyloid beta (Aβ), which derives from the processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer´s disease and both Aβ and APP have been reported to affect mitochondrial function in isolated systems. However, in intact cells, considering a physiological localization of APP and Aβ, it is pending what triggers the mitochondrial defect. Thus, the aim of this study was to dissect the impact of APP versus Aβ in inducing mitochondrial alterations with respect to their subcellular localization. We performed an overexpression of APP or beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), increasing APP and Aβ levels or Aβ alone, respectively. Conducting a comprehensive metabolic characterization we demonstrate that only APP overexpression reduced mitochondrial respiration, despite lower extracellular Aβ levels compared to BACE overexpression. Surprisingly, this could be rescued by a gamma secretase inhibitor, oppositionally indicating an Aβ-mediated mitochondrial toxicity. Analyzing Aβ localization revealed that intracellular levels of Aβ and an increased spatial association of APP/Aβ with mitochondria are associated with reduced mitochondrial respiration. Thus, our data provide marked evidence for a prominent role of intracellular Aβ accumulation in Alzheimer´s disease associated mitochondrial dysfunction. Thereby it highlights the importance of the localization of APP processing and intracellular transport as a decisive factor for mitochondrial function, linking two prominent hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:28005987

  4. Geophysical Investigation of the Lake City Fault Zone, Surprise Valley, California, and Implications for Geothermal Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, D. K.; Glen, J. M.; Egger, A. E.; Chuchel, B. A.

    2009-12-01

    New audiomagnetotelluric (AMT), gravity, and magnetic data were collected in Surprise Valley, northwestern Basin and Range, in order to investigate the role that the Lake City Fault Zone (LCFZ) may play in controlling geothermal circulation in the area. Surprise Valley hosts an extensional geothermal system currently undergoing exploration for development on several scales. The focus of much of that exploration has been the LCFZ, a set of NW-SE-trending structures that has been suggested on the basis of (1) low-relief scarps in the NW portion of the zone, (2) dissolved mineral-rich groundwater chemistry along its length, and (3) parallelism with a strong regional fabric that includes the Brothers Fault Zone. The LCFZ extends across the valley at a topographic high, intersecting the N-S-trending basin-bounding faults where major hot springs occur. This relationship suggests that the LCFZ may be a zone of permeability for flow of hydrothermal fluids. Previous potential field data indicate that there is no vertical offset along this fault zone, and little signature at all in either the gravity or magnetic data; along with the lack of surface expression along most of its length, the subsurface geometry of the LCFZ and its influence on geothermal fluid circulation remains enigmatic. The LCFZ therefore provides an ideal opportunity to utilize AMT data, which measures subsurface resistivity and therefore - unlike potential field data - is highly sensitive to the presence of saline fluids. AMT data and additional gravity and magnetic data were collected in 2009 along 3 profiles perpendicular to the LCFZ in order to define the subsurface geometry and conductivity of the fault zone down to depths of ~ 500 m. AMT soundings were collected using the Geometrics Stratagem EH4 system, a four channel, natural and controlled-source tensor system recording in the range of 10 to 92,000 Hz. To augment the low signal in the natural field a transmitter of two horizontal-magnetic dipoles

  5. Surprise and Opportunity for Learning in Grand Canyon: the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, T. S.; Walters, C. J.; Korman, J.

    2013-12-01

    With a focus on resources of the Colorado River ecosystem downstream of Glen Canyon Dam in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area (GCNRA) and Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) of northern Arizona, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program has evaluated experimental flow and nonflow policy tests since 1990. Flow experiments have consisted of a variety of water releases from the dam within pre-existing annual downstream delivery agreements. The daily experimental dam operation, termed the Modified Low Fluctuating Flow (MLFF), implemented in 1996 to increase daily low flows and decrease daily peaks were intended to limit daily flow range to conserve tributary sand inputs and improve navigation among other objectives, including hydropower energy. Other flow tests have included controlled floods with some larger releases bypassing the dam's hydropower plant to rebuild and maintain eroded sandbars in GCNP. Experimental daily hydropeaking tests beyond MLFF have also been evaluated for managing the exotic recreational rainbow trout fishery in the dam's GCNRA tailwater. Experimental nonflow policies, such as physical removal of exotic fish below the tailwater, and experimental translocation of endangered native humpback chub from spawning habitats in the Little Colorado River (the largest natal origin site for chub in the basin) to other tributaries within GCNP have also been monitored. None of these large-scale field experiments has yet produced unambiguous results in terms of management prescriptions, owing to inadequate monitoring programs and confounding of treatment effects with effects of ongoing natural changes; most notably, a persistent warming of the river resulting from reduced storage in the dam's reservoir after 2003. But there have been several surprising results relative to predictions from models developed to identify monitoring needs and evaluate experimental design options at the start of the adaptive ecosystem assessment and management program in 1997

  6. Mechanisms of neuronal chloride accumulation in intact mouse olfactory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, William T; Kleene, Nancy K; Kleene, Steven J

    2007-09-15

    When olfactory receptor neurons respond to odours, a depolarizing Cl(-) efflux is a substantial part of the response. This requires that the resting neuron accumulate Cl(-) against an electrochemical gradient. In isolated olfactory receptor neurons, the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter NKCC1 is essential for Cl(-) accumulation. However, in intact epithelium, a robust electrical olfactory response persists in mice lacking NKCC1. This response is largely due to a neuronal Cl(-) efflux. It thus appears that NKCC1 is an important part of a more complex system of Cl(-) accumulation. To identify the remaining transport proteins, we first screened by RT-PCR for 21 Cl(-) transporters in mouse nasal tissue containing olfactory mucosa. For most of the Cl(-) transporters, the presence of mRNA was demonstrated. We also investigated the effects of pharmacological block or genetic ablation of Cl(-) transporters on the olfactory field potential, the electroolfactogram (EOG). Mice lacking the common Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger AE2 had normal EOGs. Block of NKCC cotransport with bumetanide reduced the EOG in epithelia from wild-type mice but had no effect in mice lacking NKCC1. Hydrochlorothiazide, a blocker of the Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter, had only a small effect. DIDS, a blocker of some KCC cotransporters and Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchangers, reduced the EOG in epithelia from both wild-type and NKCC1 knockout mice. A combination of bumetanide and DIDS decreased the response more than either drug alone. However, no combination of drugs completely abolished the Cl(-) component of the response. These results support the involvement of both NKCC1 and one or more DIDS-sensitive transporters in Cl(-) accumulation in olfactory receptor neurons.

  7. Boron and Zinc Transport Through Intact Columns of Calcareous Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. MAHMOOD-UL-HASSAN; M. S. AKHTAR; G. NABI

    2008-01-01

    Leaching of boron (B) and zinc (Zn) can be significant in some pedomorphic conditions, which can cause contamination of shallow groundwater and economic losses. Boron and Zn adsorption and transport was studied using 8.4 cm diameter ×28 cm long intact columns from two calcareous soil series with differing clay contents and vadose zone structures:Lyallpur soil series, clay loam (fine-silty, mixed, hyperthermic Ustalfic Haplargid), and Sultanpur soil series, sandy loam (coarse-silty, mixed, hyperthermic Ustollic Camborthid). The adsorption isotherms were developed by equilibrating soil with 0.01 mol L-1 CaCl2 aqueous solution containing varying amounts of B and Zn and were fitted to the Langmuir equation. The B and Zn breakthrough curves were fitted to the two-domain convective-dispersive equation. At the end of the leaching experiment, 0.11 L 10 g L-1 blue dye solution was also applied to each column to mark the flow paths.The Lyallpur soil columns had a slightly greater adsorption partition coefficient both for B and Zn than the Sultanpur soil columns. In the Lyallpur soil columns, B arrival was immediate but the peak concentration ratio (the concentration in solution at equilibrium/concentration applied) was lower than that in the Sultanpur soil columns. The breakthrough of B in the Sultanpur soil columns occurred after about 10 cm of cumulative drainage in both the columns; the rise in effluent concentration was fast and the peak concentration ratio was almost 1. Zinc leaching through the soil columns was very limited as only one column from the Lyallpur soil series showed Zn breakthrough in the effluent where the peak concentration ratio was only 0.05. This study demonstrates the effect of soil structure on B transport and has implications for the nutrient management in field soils.

  8. Raman mapping of intact biofilms on stainless steel surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Julie K.; Heighton, Lynne; Xu, Yunfeng; Nou, Xiangwu; Schmidt, Walter F.

    2016-05-01

    Many issues occur when microbial bacteria contaminates human food or water; it can be dangerous to the public. Determining how the microbial are growing, it can help experts determine how to prevent the outbreaks. Biofilms are a tightly group of microbial cells that grow on living surfaces or surrounding themselves. Though biofilms are not necessarily uniform; when there are more than one type of microbial bacteria that are grown, Raman mapping is performed to determine the growth patterns. Depending on the type of microbial bacteria, they can grow in various patterns such as symmetrical or scattered on the surface. The biofilms need to be intact in order to preclude and potentially figuring out the relative intensity of different components in a biofilm mixture. In addition, it is important to determine whether one biofilms is a substrate for another biofilm to be detected. For example, it is possible if layer B appears above layer A, but layer A doesn't appear above layer B. In this case, three types of biofilms that are grown includes Listeria(L), Ralstonia(R), and a mixture of the two (LR). Since microbe deposits on metal surfaces are quite suitable, biofilms were grown on stainless steel surface slides. Each slide was viewed under a Raman Microscope at 100X and using a 532nm laser to provide great results and sharp peaks. The mapping of the laser helps determine how the bacteria growth, at which intensity the bacteria appeared in order to identify specific microbes to signature markers on biofilms.

  9. The effects of silver nanoparticles on intact wastewater biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiya eSheng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs have strong antibacterial properties, which may adversely affect biological wastewater treatment processes. To determine the overall effect, intact biofilm samples were collected from the rotating biological contactor (RBC at the local wastewater treatment plant and treated with 200 mg Ag/L Ag-NPs for 24 h. The biofilm uptake of Ag-NPs was monitored with transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Forty-five min after Ag-NP application, Ag-NPs were seen in the biofilm extracellular polymeric substances (EPS. After 24 h, Ag-NPs had entered certain microbial cells, while other cells contained no observable Ag-NPs. Some cells were dying after the uptake of Ag-NPs. However, there was no significant reduction in cultivable bacteria in the biofilms, based on heterotrophic plate counts (HPC. While this may indicate that wastewater biofilms are highly resistant to Ag-NPs, the HPC represents only a small portion of the total microbial population. To further investigate the effects of Ag-NPs, a GeoChip microarray was used to directly detect changes in the functional gene structure of the microbial community in the biofilm. A clear decrease (34.6% decrease in gene number in gene diversity was evident in the GeoChip analysis. However, the complete loss of any specific gene was rare. Some gene families present in both treated and untreated biofilms. However, this doesn’t necessarily mean that there was no change in these families. Signal intensity decreased in certain variants in each family while other variants increased to compensate the effects of Ag-NPs. The results indicate that Ag-NP treatment decreased microbial community diversity but did not significantly affect the microbial community function. This provides direct evidence for the functional redundancy of microbial community in engineered ecosystems such as wastewater biofilms.

  10. Lymphocytic alveolitis: A surprising index of poor prognosis in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalavanga, Y A; Voulgari, P V; Georgiadis, A N; Leontaridi, C; Katsenos, S; Vassiliou, M; Drosos, A A; Constantopoulos, S H

    2006-07-01

    Twelve years ago we reported that lymphocytic alveolitis [or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) lymphocytosis] correlates with clinical pulmonary involvement in primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS). Our thesis was based on subtle clinical and functional evidence of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in pSS patients with "high lymphocytic alveolitis" (>15% lymphocytes in BAL). This report is a follow-up study of these patients. Basic clinical and functional re-evaluation of the 22 patients with pSS, studied in 1991, emphasized the differences between those with alveolitis and those without alveolitis. There was no significant functional decline. There were, however, two statistically significant differences between the two groups: (1) only patients with BAL lymphocytosis had to be treated with steroids (5/12 vs. 0/10, P < 0.05) and (2) only patients with BAL lymphocytosis had died in the mean time (6/12 vs. 0/10, P < 0.01). The causes of death were various. On only two occasions were they related to respiratory infections while there were no deaths from respiratory failure secondary to ILD. BAL lymphocytosis appears to be a surprisingly serious index of dismal prognosis in patients with pSS. We offer no unifying pathophysiologic mechanism for it and, therefore, all we propose is that BAL is performed early, in as many patients with pSS as possible. These patients should then be followed up systematically, in order to evaluate if BAL lymphocytosis has any pathophysiologic importance in the development of clinically serious pSS, which is serious enough to lead to death.

  11. A post-genomic surprise. The molecular reinscription of race in science, law and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duster, Troy

    2015-03-01

    The completion of the first draft of the Human Genome Map in 2000 was widely heralded as the promise and future of genetics-based medicines and therapies - so much so that pundits began referring to the new century as 'The Century of Genetics'. Moreover, definitive assertions about the overwhelming similarities of all humans' DNA (99.9 per cent) by the leaders of the Human Genome Project were trumpeted as the end of racial thinking about racial taxonomies of human genetic differences. But the first decade of the new century brought unwelcomed surprises. First, gene therapies turned out to be far more complicated than any had anticipated - and instead the pharmaceutical industry turned to a focus on drugs that might be 'related' to population differences based upon genetic markers. While the language of 'personalized medicine' dominated this frame, research on racially and ethnically designated populations differential responsiveness to drugs dominated the empirical work in the field. Ancestry testing and 'admixture research' would play an important role in a new kind of molecular reification of racial categories. Moreover, the capacity of the super-computer to map differences reverberated into personal identification that would affect both the criminal justice system and forensic science, and generate new levels of concern about personal privacy. Social scientists in general, and sociologists in particular, have been caught short by these developments - relying mainly on assertions that racial categories are socially constructed, regionally and historically contingent, and politically arbitrary. While these assertions are true, the imprimatur of scientific legitimacy has shifted the burden, since now 'admixture research' can claim that its results get at the 'reality' of human differentiation, not the admittedly flawed social constructions of racial categories. Yet what was missing from this framing of the problem: 'admixture research' is itself based upon socially

  12. Explanatory models of health and disease: surprises from within the former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I Andreeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Extract The review of anthropological theories as applied to public health by Jennifer J. Carroll (Carroll, 2013 published in this issue of TCPHEE made me recollect my first and most surprising discoveries of how differently same things can be understood in different parts of the world. Probably less unexpectedly, these impressions concern substance abuse and addiction behaviors, similarly to many examples deployed by Jennifer J. Carroll. The first of these events happened soon after the break-up of the Soviet Union when some of the most active people from the West rushed to discover what was going on behind the opening iron curtain. A director of an addiction clinic, who had just come into contact with a Dutch counterpart, invited me to join the collaboration and the innovation process he planned to launch. Being a participant of the exchange program started within this collaboration, I had an opportunity to discover how addictive behaviors were understood and explained in books (English, 1961; Kooyman, 1992; Viorst, 1986 recommended by the colleagues in the Netherlands and, as I could observe with my own eyes, addressed in everyday practice. This was a jaw-dropping contrast to what I learnt at the soviet medical university and some post-graduate courses, where all the diseases related to alcohol, tobacco, or drug abuse were considered predominantly a result of the substance intake. In the Soviet discourse, the intake itself was understood as 'willful and deliberate' or immoral behavior which, in some cases, was to be rectified in prison-like treatment facilities. In the West, quite oppositely, substance abuse was seen rather as a consequence of a constellation of life-course adversities thoroughly considered by developmental psychology. This approach was obviously deeply ingrained in how practitioners diagnosed and treated their patients.

  13. The genome of Pelobacter carbinolicus reveals surprising metabolic capabilities and physiological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aklujkar Muktak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterium Pelobacter carbinolicus is able to grow by fermentation, syntrophic hydrogen/formate transfer, or electron transfer to sulfur from short-chain alcohols, hydrogen or formate; it does not oxidize acetate and is not known to ferment any sugars or grow autotrophically. The genome of P. carbinolicus was sequenced in order to understand its metabolic capabilities and physiological features in comparison with its relatives, acetate-oxidizing Geobacter species. Results Pathways were predicted for catabolism of known substrates: 2,3-butanediol, acetoin, glycerol, 1,2-ethanediol, ethanolamine, choline and ethanol. Multiple isozymes of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, ATP synthase and [FeFe]-hydrogenase were differentiated and assigned roles according to their structural properties and genomic contexts. The absence of asparagine synthetase and the presence of a mutant tRNA for asparagine encoded among RNA-active enzymes suggest that P. carbinolicus may make asparaginyl-tRNA in a novel way. Catabolic glutamate dehydrogenases were discovered, implying that the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle can function catabolically. A phosphotransferase system for uptake of sugars was discovered, along with enzymes that function in 2,3-butanediol production. Pyruvate:ferredoxin/flavodoxin oxidoreductase was identified as a potential bottleneck in both the supply of oxaloacetate for oxidation of acetate by the TCA cycle and the connection of glycolysis to production of ethanol. The P. carbinolicus genome was found to encode autotransporters and various appendages, including three proteins with similarity to the geopilin of electroconductive nanowires. Conclusions Several surprising metabolic capabilities and physiological features were predicted from the genome of P. carbinolicus, suggesting that it is more versatile than anticipated.

  14. Virtual Volatility, an Elementary New Concept with Surprising Stock Market Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prange, Richard; Silva, A. Christian

    2006-03-01

    Textbook investors start by predicting the future price distribution, PDF, of a candidate stock (or portfolio) at horizon T, e.g. a year hence. A (log)normal PDF with center (=drift =expected return) μT and width (=volatility) σT is often assumed on Central Limit Theorem grounds, i.e. by a random walk of daily (log)price increments δs. The standard deviation, stdev, of historical (ex post) δs `s is usually a fair predictor of the coming year's (ex ante) stdev(δs) = σdaily, but the historical mean E(δs) at best roughly limits the true, to be predicted, drift by μtrueT˜ μhistT ± σhistT. Textbooks take a PDF with σ ˜ σdaily and μ as somehow known, as if accurate predictions of μ were possible. It is elementary and presumably new to argue that an average of PDF's over a range of μ values should be taken, e.g. an average over forecasts by different analysts. We estimate that this leads to a PDF with a `virtual' volatility σ ˜ 1.3σdaily. It is indeed clear that uncertainty in the value of the expected gain parameter increases the risk of investment in that security by most measures, e. g. Sharpe's ratio μT/σT will be 30% smaller because of this effect. It is significant and surprising that there are investments which benefit from this 30% virtual increase in the volatility

  15. Surprising results from abiotic enzyme digestion of dissolved organic matter at the molecular scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, N. J.; Tfaily, M. M.; Heredia-Langnar, A.; Rodriguez, L.; Purvine, E.; Todd-Brown, K. E.

    2016-12-01

    Sometimes even the simplest of experiments leads to unexpected results and new understanding. We extract dissolved organic matter using water from peat soil obtained from the S1 bog at the Marcell Experimental Forest in northern Minnesota. We characterized the dissolved organic matter in the water extract before and after adding glucosidase, peroxidase and β-N-Acetylglucosaminidase enzymes using electrospray Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry in negative ion mode. Based on mass measurement accuracy of less than 1 ppm for singly charged ions, we assigned putative chemical formula to greater than 80% of the measured mass spectrometry features. For each enzyme tested we are able to easily distinguish between the types and composition of dissolved organic molecules that are susceptible to enzyme degradation - and those that are not - based on the presence new compounds in reacted extracts and loss of compounds from the initial water extract. Next, we created a consensus molecular network analysis based on the neutral mass loss between the measured compounds for each enzyme. The connectivity within these networks suggested a unique, distinctive chemistry for each enzyme. Some results were expected, like the nondiscriminatory oxidation of organic molecules by peroxidase and preferential loss of lignin and tannin-like molecules by glucosidase. However, surprising results include the apparent reactivity of glucosidase enzymatic products to reassemble, forming larger mass organic molecules. While these experiments were conducted abiotically, these molecular-resolved results suggest that biotic enzymatic processes may result in product compounds with unexpected chemistry and reactivity, implying that our current conceptual model of microbial enzymatic activity may be overly simplistic.

  16. The analysis of eight transcriptomes from all poriferan classes reveals surprising genetic complexity in sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesgo, Ana; Farrar, Nathan; Windsor, Pamela J; Giribet, Gonzalo; Leys, Sally P

    2014-05-01

    Sponges (Porifera) are among the earliest evolving metazoans. Their filter-feeding body plan based on choanocyte chambers organized into a complex aquiferous system is so unique among metazoans that it either reflects an early divergence from other animals prior to the evolution of features such as muscles and nerves, or that sponges lost these characters. Analyses of the Amphimedon and Oscarella genomes support this view of uniqueness-many key metazoan genes are absent in these sponges-but whether this is generally true of other sponges remains unknown. We studied the transcriptomes of eight sponge species in four classes (Hexactinellida, Demospongiae, Homoscleromorpha, and Calcarea) specifically seeking genes and pathways considered to be involved in animal complexity. For reference, we also sought these genes in transcriptomes and genomes of three unicellular opisthokonts, two sponges (A. queenslandica and O. carmela), and two bilaterian taxa. Our analyses showed that all sponge classes share an unexpectedly large complement of genes with other metazoans. Interestingly, hexactinellid, calcareous, and homoscleromorph sponges share more genes with bilaterians than with nonbilaterian metazoans. We were surprised to find representatives of most molecules involved in cell-cell communication, signaling, complex epithelia, immune recognition, and germ-lineage/sex, with only a few, but potentially key, absences. A noteworthy finding was that some important genes were absent from all demosponges (transcriptomes and the Amphimedon genome), which might reflect divergence from main-stem lineages including hexactinellids, calcareous sponges, and homoscleromorphs. Our results suggest that genetic complexity arose early in evolution as shown by the presence of these genes in most of the animal lineages, which suggests sponges either possess cryptic physiological and morphological complexity and/or have lost ancestral cell types or physiological processes.

  17. Young stars in old galaxies - surprising discovery with the world's leading telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    similar to the way a palaeontologist uses the skeletons of dinosaurs to deduce information about the era in which they lived. A surprising discovery The team combined images of a number of galaxies from Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 with infrared images obtained from the multi-mode ISAAC instrument on the 8.2m VLT Antu telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). To their great surprise, they discovered that many of the globular clusters in one of these galaxies, NGC 4365, a member of the large Virgo cluster of galaxies, were only a few thousand million years old, much younger than most of the other stars in this galaxy (roughly 12 thousand million years old). The astronomers were able to identify three major groups of stellar clusters. There is an old population of clusters of metal-poor stars, some clusters of old but metal-rich stars and now, seen for the first time, a population of clusters with young and metal-rich stars. These results have been fully confirmed by spectroscopic observations made with another of the world's giant telescopes, the 10-metre Keck on Hawaii. "It is a great pleasure to see two projects wholly or partly funded by Europe - VLT and Hubble - work in concert to produce such an important scientific result", says Piero Benvenuti, ESA Hubble Project Scientist. "The synergy between the most advanced ground and space telescopes continues to prove its effectiveness, paving the way to impressive new discoveries that would not otherwise be possible." The discovery of young globular clusters within old galaxies is surprising since the stars in the giant elliptical galaxies were until now believed to have formed during a single period early in the history of the Universe. It is now clear that some of the galaxies may be hiding their true nature and have indeed experienced much more recent periods of major star formation. Notes for editors This press release is issued in coordination between ESA and ESO. The Hubble Space Telescope project

  18. A conceptual review of the psychosocial genomics of expectancy and surprise: neuroscience perspectives about the deep psychobiology of therapeutic hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Ernest L

    2002-10-01

    This conceptual review explores some speculative associations between the neuroscience of expectancy and surprise during stress and therapeutic hypnosis. Current neuroscience is exploring how novel interactions between the organism and the environment initiate cascades of gene expression, protein synthesis, neurogenesis, and healing that operate via Darwinian principles of natural variation and selection on all levels from the molecular-genomic to the subjective states of consciousness. From a neuroscience perspective, the novel and surprising experiences of consciousness appear to have as important a role as expectancy in memory, learning and behavior change in the psychobiology of therapeutic hypnosis. This paper explores how we may integrate the psychosocial genomics of expectancy and surprise in therapeutic hypnosis as a complex system of creative adaptation on all levels of human experience from mind to gene expression.

  19. How to Produce a Surprise Ending for Readers---Writing Strategies in O. Henry’s The Last Leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚雪莹

    2014-01-01

    “Twist ending”is well used by writers in a novel in order to leave readers a strong impression. In this essay, the author will focus on the narrative strategies that produce such a surprise ending in a short story, using as the example O. Henry’s The Last Leaf (1907). The author gives each of strategies O. Henry used in the novel a name and explains how it is used to produce a surprise ending, standing at the readers’perspective.

  20. Measurements and interpretations of light scattering from intact biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jeremy D.

    Visible light interacts with biological cells primarily through elastic scattering. The details of how cells scatter light depend on their morphology and their substructures. In this thesis we first present a series of experiments and models to discern the specific contributions of certain sub-cellular constituents to whole-cell scattering. Exploiting the findings of those studies, we report on experiments within model systems of cell death that demonstrate the potential of light scattering measurements as a tool in modern biology. Instrumentation capable of exploiting the findings of this thesis from a biology-relevant microscopy platform is designed and developed. A Mie theory based interpretation of light scattering signals originating from a collection of particles with a broad size distribution is developed. Upon applying this model to scattering data from intact cells, we find that it robustly extracts the size scale of dominant light scattering particles, suggests that scattering measurements are sensitive primarily to mitochondrial and lysosomal morphology, and unites conflicting results in the literature. Using this model as a basis, we present a collection of studies in which we use various strategies of photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a biophysical tool to perturb mitochondria and lysosomes, and observe the effects of these perturbations on whole-cell scattering. Through these experiments, we are able to discern the individual contributions of mitochondria and lysosomes to whole-cell light scattering, and demonstrate that mitochondria are responsible for roughly 80% of the scattering signal. Results of experiments aimed at demonstrating the potential role that light scattering measurements have to play in future studies of cell death biology are presented. We first show that mitochondrial-PDT-induced morphology changes measured with light scattering map into the cell killing efficacy of the therapy. We next demonstrate that mitochondrial

  1. The Most Distant Mature Galaxy Cluster - Young, but surprisingly grown-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Astronomers have used an armada of telescopes on the ground and in space, including the Very Large Telescope at ESO's Paranal Observatory in Chile to discover and measure the distance to the most remote mature cluster of galaxies yet found. Although this cluster is seen when the Universe was less than one quarter of its current age it looks surprisingly similar to galaxy clusters in the current Universe. "We have measured the distance to the most distant mature cluster of galaxies ever found", says the lead author of the study in which the observations from ESO's VLT have been used, Raphael Gobat (CEA, Paris). "The surprising thing is that when we look closely at this galaxy cluster it doesn't look young - many of the galaxies have settled down and don't resemble the usual star-forming galaxies seen in the early Universe." Clusters of galaxies are the largest structures in the Universe that are held together by gravity. Astronomers expect these clusters to grow through time and hence that massive clusters would be rare in the early Universe. Although even more distant clusters have been seen, they appear to be young clusters in the process of formation and are not settled mature systems. The international team of astronomers used the powerful VIMOS and FORS2 instruments on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) to measure the distances to some of the blobs in a curious patch of very faint red objects first observed with the Spitzer space telescope. This grouping, named CL J1449+0856 [1], had all the hallmarks of being a very remote cluster of galaxies [2]. The results showed that we are indeed seeing a galaxy cluster as it was when the Universe was about three billion years old - less than one quarter of its current age [3]. Once the team knew the distance to this very rare object they looked carefully at the component galaxies using both the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based telescopes, including the VLT. They found evidence suggesting that most of the

  2. Visual speech fills in both discrimination and identification of non-intact auditory speech in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerger, Susan; Damian, Markus F; McAlpine, Rachel P; Abdi, Hervé

    2017-07-20

    To communicate, children must discriminate and identify speech sounds. Because visual speech plays an important role in this process, we explored how visual speech influences phoneme discrimination and identification by children. Critical items had intact visual speech (e.g. bæz) coupled to non-intact (excised onsets) auditory speech (signified by /-b/æz). Children discriminated syllable pairs that differed in intactness (i.e. bæz:/-b/æz) and identified non-intact nonwords (/-b/æz). We predicted that visual speech would cause children to perceive the non-intact onsets as intact, resulting in more same responses for discrimination and more intact (i.e. bæz) responses for identification in the audiovisual than auditory mode. Visual speech for the easy-to-speechread /b/ but not for the difficult-to-speechread /g/ boosted discrimination and identification (about 35-45%) in children from four to fourteen years. The influence of visual speech on discrimination was uniquely associated with the influence of visual speech on identification and receptive vocabulary skills.

  3. Brine Inclusions Migration in Intact Salt Crystals under Thermal Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporuscio, F.; Boukhalfa, H.

    2013-12-01

    The behavior of water contained in rock salt under the influence of thermal gradients is critical to the performance of salt as a medium for the disposal of nuclear waste. Water contained in salt can be present as discrete inclusions within intact salt crystals, at the interface between salt crystals and aggregates, and also as hydration water and structural water present in accessory minerals present in salt. Water content in pure halite salt usually rages from 0.1 to 0.5 wt. % but is significantly higher in clay rich salt, for which water content can be up to several wt. %. Under the influence of thermal gradients brine inclusions and water associated to the accessory mineral is mobilized. Previous investigations have shown brine inclusions tend to move towards the heat source through a mechanism that involves the dissolution of salt at the hot face of the brine inclusion and its precipitation at the colder side of the inclusion. Uncertainties remain on the exact parameters that define the rate of brine migration and whether it truly migrates to towards the heat source. We performed studies under controlled thermal gradients to examine the behavior of brine inclusions in single salt crystals obtained from the underground salt mine at the Waste Isolation Power Plant (WIPP). We found that the behavior of the brine inclusions under thermal gradients is dependent on the thermal gradient magnitude and the nature of the inclusion. Full inclusions (liquid only) migrate predominantly towards the heat source, but when the inclusions are large and close to the surface they fracture the salt and release water near the surface. Inclusions that migrate towards the heat source migrate through a mechanism that involves the dissolution of salt at the hot side of the inclusion and its deposition along the migration path. SEM analysis of the migration pathways shows that brine migrates through the creation of a network of square shaped hollow channels of about 10 micron diameter

  4. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Terrestrial Intactness and Potential For Change

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows current and near-term terrestrial intactness, as well as long term potential for development and climate change. These datasets are the results of a...

  5. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Terrestrial Intactness and Potential For Change (HUC5)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows current and near-term terrestrial intactness, as well as long term potential for development and climate change. These datasets are the results of a...

  6. Spectral sensitivity of light induced respiratory activity of photoreceptor mitochondria in the intact fly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinbergen, J.; Stavenga, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    Fly Calliphora erythrocephala (white eyed) photoreceptors were investigated in intact, living animals by microspectrofluorometry in vivo. The fluorescence of mitochondrial flavoproteins was used to monitor transient changes in oxidative metabolism, which were induced by a test light following a stim

  7. Ultra fast magic angle spinning solid - state NMR spectroscopy of intact bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandan; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Kayastha, Arvind M; Sinha, Neeraj

    2016-02-01

    Ultra fast magic angle spinning (MAS) has been a potent method to significantly average out homogeneous/inhomogeneous line broadening in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) spectroscopy. It has given a new direction to ssNMR spectroscopy with its different applications. We present here the first and foremost application of ultra fast MAS (~60 kHz) for ssNMR spectroscopy of intact bone. This methodology helps to comprehend and elucidate the organic content in the intact bone matrix with resolution and sensitivity enhancement. At this MAS speed, amino protons from organic part of intact bone start to appear in (1) H NMR spectra. The experimental protocol of ultra-high speed MAS for intact bone has been entailed with an additional insight achieved at 60 kHz.

  8. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Conservation Elements: Aquatic Intactness (HUC5)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map provides an estimate of current and near-term aquatic intactness, which is based on the results of a fuzzy logic model integrating land use, water quality,...

  9. High resolution TOF MS coupled to CE for the analysis of isotopically resolved intact proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taichrib, Angelina; Pelzing, Matthias; Pellegrino, Cristoforo; Rossi, Mara; Neusüss, Christian

    2011-06-10

    Intact protein analysis by mass spectrometry is of great interest for the characterisation of biotechnological products. Exact mass measurement in combination with isotopic resolution allows the detection of modifications leading to small mass changes like deamidation or reduction of disulfide bonds directly on the level of the intact protein. Here, a concept is presented based on time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A bench top TOF MS and a high resolution TOF MS were used to resolve the isotopes of intact recombinant human growth hormone and intact human erythropoietin, respectively. Thus, these 22 and around 30kDa large proteins can be characterised sensitively in great detail and along with capillary electrophoretic separation unambiguous identification of minor protein modifications like deamidation is possible. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Responses of intact and injured sural nerve fibers to cooling and menthol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teliban, Alina; Bartsch, Fabian; Struck, Marek; Baron, Ralf; Jänig, Wilfrid

    2014-05-01

    Intact and injured cutaneous C-fibers in the rat sural nerve are cold sensitive, heat sensitive, and/or mechanosensitive. Cold-sensitive fibers are either low-threshold type 1 cold sensitive or high-threshold type 2 cold sensitive. The hypothesis was tested, in intact and injured afferent nerve fibers, that low-threshold cold-sensitive afferent nerve fibers are activated by the transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) agonist menthol, whereas high-threshold cold-sensitive C-fibers and cold-insensitive afferent nerve fibers are menthol insensitive. In anesthetized rats, activity was recorded from afferent nerve fibers in strands isolated from the sural nerve, which was either intact or crushed 6-12 days before the experiment distal to the recording site. In all, 77 functionally identified afferent C-fibers (30 intact fibers, 47 injured fibers) and 34 functionally characterized A-fibers (11 intact fibers, 23 injured fibers) were tested for their responses to menthol applied to their receptive fields either in the skin (10 or 20%) or in the nerve (4 or 8 mM). Menthol activated all intact (n = 12) and 90% of injured (n = 20/22) type 1 cold-sensitive C-fibers; it activated no intact type 2 cold-sensitive C-fibers (n = 7) and 1/11 injured type 2 cold-sensitive C-fibers. Neither intact nor injured heat- and/or mechanosensitive cold-insensitive C-fibers (n = 25) and almost no A-fibers (n = 2/34) were activated by menthol. These results strongly argue that cutaneous type 1 cold-sensitive afferent fibers are nonnociceptive cold fibers that use the TRPM8 transduction channel.

  11. Structural Studies on Intact Clostridium Botulinum Neurotoxins Complexed with Inhibitors Leading to Drug Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    structure1. Introduction Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) produced by Clostridium tetani and the seven antigenically distinct botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT/A-G...2-0011 TITLE: Structural Studies on Intact Clostridium Botulinum Neurotoxins Complexed with Inhibitors Leading to Drug...DATES COVERED (From - To) 28 Jan 2005 – 27 Jan 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Structural Studies on Intact Clostridium Botulinum Neurotoxins Complexed

  12. Sermon and surprise: The meaning of scheduling in broadcast radio history - and - CBC Radio 3: A disquieting revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Sahota, Anu

    2006-01-01

    Essay 1 : 'Sermon & Surprise' explores the importance of scheduling to radio's communicative uses. The essay argues that its capacity for continuous transmission and promotion of shared listening is unique to terrestrial radio. The strengths of traditional radio relative to contemporary on-demand audio media are explored. Early Canadian and British broadcasting policies and scheduling practices demonstrate how radio's programming conceits may innovatively accommodate broadcasting philosop...

  13. 40 CFR 261.41 - Notification and Recordkeeping for Used, Intact Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) Exported for Reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Used, Intact Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) Exported for Reuse. 261.41 Section 261.41 Protection of... Tubes (CRTs) Exported for Reuse. (a) Persons who export used, intact CRTs for reuse must send a one-time... to export used, intact CRTs for reuse, the notifier's name, address, and EPA ID number (if...

  14. Surprisal analysis characterizes the free energy time course of cancer cells undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadran, Sohila; Arumugam, Rameshkumar; Herschman, Harvey; Phelps, Michael E; Levine, R D

    2014-09-09

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) initiates the invasive and metastatic behavior of many epithelial cancers. Mechanisms underlying EMT are not fully known. Surprisal analysis of mRNA time course data from lung and pancreatic cancer cells stimulated to undergo TGF-β1-induced EMT identifies two phenotypes. Examination of the time course for these phenotypes reveals that EMT reprogramming is a multistep process characterized by initiation, maturation, and stabilization stages that correlate with changes in cell metabolism. Surprisal analysis characterizes the free energy time course of the expression levels throughout the transition in terms of two state variables. The landscape of the free energy changes during the EMT for the lung cancer cells shows a stable intermediate state. Existing data suggest this is the previously proposed maturation stage. Using a single-cell ATP assay, we demonstrate that the TGF-β1-induced EMT for lung cancer cells, particularly during the maturation stage, coincides with a metabolic shift resulting in increased cytosolic ATP levels. Surprisal analysis also characterizes the absolute expression levels of the mRNAs and thereby examines the homeostasis of the transcription system during EMT.

  15. Investigation of mitochondrial dysfunction by sequential microplate-based respiration measurements from intact and permeabilized neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascaline Clerc

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction is a component of many neurodegenerative conditions. Measurement of oxygen consumption from intact neurons enables evaluation of mitochondrial bioenergetics under conditions that are more physiologically realistic compared to isolated mitochondria. However, mechanistic analysis of mitochondrial function in cells is complicated by changing energy demands and lack of substrate control. Here we describe a technique for sequentially measuring respiration from intact and saponin-permeabilized cortical neurons on single microplates. This technique allows control of substrates to individual electron transport chain complexes following permeabilization, as well as side-by-side comparisons to intact cells. To illustrate the utility of the technique, we demonstrate that inhibition of respiration by the drug KB-R7943 in intact neurons is relieved by delivery of the complex II substrate succinate, but not by complex I substrates, via acute saponin permeabilization. In contrast, methyl succinate, a putative cell permeable complex II substrate, failed to rescue respiration in intact neurons and was a poor complex II substrate in permeabilized cells. Sequential measurements of intact and permeabilized cell respiration should be particularly useful for evaluating indirect mitochondrial toxicity due to drugs or cellular signaling events which cannot be readily studied using isolated mitochondria.

  16. Investigation of mitochondrial dysfunction by sequential microplate-based respiration measurements from intact and permeabilized neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, Pascaline; Polster, Brian M

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a component of many neurodegenerative conditions. Measurement of oxygen consumption from intact neurons enables evaluation of mitochondrial bioenergetics under conditions that are more physiologically realistic compared to isolated mitochondria. However, mechanistic analysis of mitochondrial function in cells is complicated by changing energy demands and lack of substrate control. Here we describe a technique for sequentially measuring respiration from intact and saponin-permeabilized cortical neurons on single microplates. This technique allows control of substrates to individual electron transport chain complexes following permeabilization, as well as side-by-side comparisons to intact cells. To illustrate the utility of the technique, we demonstrate that inhibition of respiration by the drug KB-R7943 in intact neurons is relieved by delivery of the complex II substrate succinate, but not by complex I substrates, via acute saponin permeabilization. In contrast, methyl succinate, a putative cell permeable complex II substrate, failed to rescue respiration in intact neurons and was a poor complex II substrate in permeabilized cells. Sequential measurements of intact and permeabilized cell respiration should be particularly useful for evaluating indirect mitochondrial toxicity due to drugs or cellular signaling events which cannot be readily studied using isolated mitochondria.

  17. Identification of Intrinsic Axon Growth Modulators for Intact CNS Neurons after Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Kathren L; López-Giráldez, Francesc; Kim, In-Jung; Strittmatter, Stephen M; Cafferty, William B J

    2017-03-14

    Functional deficits persist after spinal cord injury (SCI) because axons in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) fail to regenerate. However, modest levels of spontaneous functional recovery are typically observed after trauma and are thought to be mediated by the plasticity of intact circuitry. The mechanisms underlying intact circuit plasticity are not delineated. Here, we characterize the in vivo transcriptome of sprouting intact neurons from Ngr1 null mice after partial SCI. We identify the lysophosphatidic acid signaling modulators LPPR1 and LPAR1 as intrinsic axon growth modulators for intact corticospinal motor neurons after adjacent injury. Furthermore, in vivo LPAR1 inhibition or LPPR1 overexpression enhances sprouting of intact corticospinal tract axons and yields greater functional recovery after unilateral brainstem lesion in wild-type mice. Thus, the transcriptional profile of injury-induced sprouting of intact neurons reveals targets for therapeutic enhancement of axon growth initiation and new synapse formation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Performance of intact and castrated beef cattle in an intensive croppasture rotation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tercilio Turini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research had as objective to evaluate the performance of intact or castrated beef cattle in a croppasture rotation system. The experiment was conducted during 2004 and 2005, and carried out at the Cooperativa Agropecuária Mourãoense (COAMO Experimental Farm, in Campo Mourão city, Paraná state. It was used a completely randomized design, with two treatments, intact or castrated. Forty ½Angus+½Nelore crossbred animals, with average age of nine months, were used. Half of the animals were castrated at weaning, and the other half was kept intact. Pasture was composed of two areas. The winter field, established after soybean crop, was composed by a mixture of black oat (Avena strigosa and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiforum. The summer field was composed by stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis and Mombaça grass (Panicum maximum. During the winter time it was used a continues grazing system, with regulator animals (put and take, and during the summer an intensive rotational system, with regulator animals and fixed grazing period. Intact animals presented higher average daily weight gain (0.907 vs 0.698 kg, slaughter weight (490.9 vs 442.2 kg, and hot carcass weight (250.2 vs 232.6 kg. Slaughter age was influenced by sexual condition, being lesser in the intact animals. Carcass dressing percentage was similar for the groups. Castrated animals showed better finishing fat cover and backfat thickness (3.45 vs 2.70 mm compared to intact ones. Therefore, it can be concluded that intact animals presents better performance than castrated ones when finished in an intensive crop-pasture rotation system, however, they may not present the minimum required fat cover, when slaughter at young ages.

  19. Comparison of ripening processes in intact tomato fruit and excised pericarp discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A D; Huysamer, M; Stotz, H U; Greve, L C; Labavitch, J M

    1990-12-01

    Physiological processes characteristic of ripening in tissues of intact tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were examined in excised pericarp discs. Pericarp discs were prepared from mature-green tomato fruit and stored in 24-well culture plates, in which individual discs could be monitored for color change, ethylene biosynthesis, and respiration, and selected for cell wall analysis. Within the context of these preparation and handling procedures, most whole fruit ripening processes were maintained in pericarp discs. Pericarp discs and matched intact fruit passed through the same skin color stages at similar rates, as expressed in the L(*)a(*)b(*) color space, changing from green (a(*) red (a(*) > 15) in about 6 days. Individual tissues of the pericarp discs changed color in the same sequence seen in intact fruit (exocarp, endocarp, then vascular parenchyma). Discs from different areas changed in the same spatial sequence seen in intact fruit (bottom, middle, top). Pericarp discs exhibited climacteric increases in ethylene biosynthesis and CO(2) production comparable with those seen in intact fruit, but these were more tightly linked to rate of color change, reaching a peak around a(*) = 5. Tomato pericarp discs decreased in firmness as color changed. Cell wall carbohydrate composition changed with color as in intact fruit: the quantity of water-soluble pectin eluted from the starch-free alcohol insoluble substances steadily increased and more tightly bound, water-insoluble, pectin decreased in inverse relationship. The cell wall content of the neutral sugars arabinose, rhamnose, and galactose steadily decreased as color changed. The extractable activity of specific cell wall hydrolases changed as in intact fruit: polygalacturonase activity, not detectable in green discs (a(*) = -5), appeared as discs turned yellow-red (a(*) = 5), and increased another eight-fold as discs became full red (a(*) value +20). Carboxymethyl-cellulase activity, low in extracts

  20. Parasite load in intact and ulcerative skin of dogs with leishmaniais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Maria de França Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The skin is the site of inoculation of Leishmania spp. in susceptible hosts, and consequently dermatopathies, especially ulcerative dermatitis, are the main clinical signs observed. The aim of this study was to assess parasitism of the skin (intact and ulcerated among dogs that were naturally infected by Leishmania spp., through immunohistochemical analysis. Skin fragments (intact and ulcerated were collected from 13 dogs with positive parasitological (bone marrow aspiration and exfoliative skin and serological examinations (ELISA S7® Biogene forLeishmania spp. These samples were processed using the immunohistochemical technique, involving the streptavidin-peroxidase complex. Ulcerative lesions were mainly observed on the elbows (53.84%; 7/13, nostrils (15.38%; 2/13, ears (23.07%; 3/13 and wings of the ilium (7.69%; 1/13. A severe parasite load was detected in 46.15% and 76.92% of the intact and ulcerated skin samples tested, respectively. The parasite load on ulcerated skin was statistically higher than on intact skin (p = 0.0221. These results indicate that the intact and ulcerated skin may host a high parasite load of amastigote forms of Leishmania spp., which can favor the transmission of the parasite.

  1. Apoplastic superoxide production and peroxidase activity by intact and excised axenically grown seedling roots of sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Inmaculada; Espinosa, Francisco; Alvarez-Tinaut, M Carmen

    2012-10-01

    Excised and cold-preincubated sunflower seedling roots were compared with intact non-preincubated roots to test the effect of the injury stress and cold preincubation on the oxidative burst measured as apoplastic superoxide (O (2) (.-) ) generation and exocellular peroxidase (ECPOX) activity. Preincubated excised or intact roots released into the medium apoplastic proteins with peroxidase activity. Intact and excised roots responded to methyl jasmonate by an immediate oxidative burst that could not be induced by salicylic acid; both phytohormones also induced a slight and slow O (2)(.-) generation and ECPOX activity on excised roots, when added to the cold preincubation medium. The results with cyanide, azide, SHAM (ECPOX inhibitors) and diphenylene iodonium (inhibitor of trans-plasma membrane NAD(P)H-oxidases (NOX)-respiratory burst oxidase homologue in plants (RBOH), the trans-plasmamembrane nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase) are consistent with the hypothesis that different systems may be the origin of O (2) (.-) in intact and excised roots; ECPOX was an important component of them in both, together with NOX-RBOH in intact roots, but in excised roots the last one was replaced by an oxidase sensitive to the same inhibitors as the alternative mitochondrial oxidase. According to our hypothesis, these results could be explained if the electron flux would be deviated to different interconnected plasma membrane-redox systems, with different terminal oxidases, activated by different effectors or stresses.

  2. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy for predicting amino acids content in intact processed animal proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Haba, Maria José; Garrido-Varo, Ana; Guerrero-Ginel, José Emilio; Pérez-Marín, Dolores C

    2006-10-01

    Near-infrared calibrations were developed for the instantaneous prediction of amino acids composition of processed animal proteins (PAPs). Two sample presentation modes were compared (ground vs intact) for demonstrating the viability of the analysis in the intact form, avoiding the need for milling. Modified partial least-squares (MPLS) equations for the prediction of amino acids in PAPs were developed using the same set of samples (N = 92 PAPs) analyzed in ground and intact form and in three cups differing in the optical window size. The standard error for cross validation (SECV) and the coefficient of determination (1-VR) values yielded with the calibrations developed using the samples analyzed in the intact form showed similar or even better accuracy than those obtained with finely ground samples. The excellent predictive ability (1-VR > 0.90; CV < 3.0%) obtained for the prediction of amino acids in intact processed animal proteins opens an enormous expectative for the on-line implementation of NIRS technology in the processing and marketing of these important protein feed ingredients, alleviating the costs and time associated with the routine quality controls.

  3. Communication Management and Trust: Their Role in Building Resilience to "Surprises" Such As Natural Disasters, Pandemic Flu, and Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. H. Longstaff

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In times of public danger such as natural disasters and health emergencies, a country's communication systems will be some of its most important assets because access to information will make individuals and groups more resilient. Communication by those charged with dealing with the situation is often critical. We analyzed reports from a wide variety of crisis incidents and found a direct correlation between trust and an organization's preparedness and internal coordination of crisis communication and the effectiveness of its leadership. Thus, trust is one of the most important variables in effective communication management in times of "surprise."

  4. Transient increase of intact visual field size by high-frequency narrow-band stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Mark A; Seifert, Doerthe; Poggel, Dorothe A; Strasburger, Hans

    2015-03-01

    Three patients with visual field defects were stimulated with a square matrix pattern, either static, or flickering at frequencies that had been found to either promote or not promote blindsight performance. Comparison between pre- and post-stimulation perimetric maps revealed an increase in the size of the intact visual field but only for flicker frequencies previously found to promote blindsight. These changes were temporary but dramatic - in two instances the intact field was increased by an area of ∼30 deg(2) of visual angle. These results indicate that not only does specific high-frequency stimulus flicker promote blindsight, but that intact visual field size may be increased by stimulation at the same frequencies. Our findings inform speculation on both the brain mechanisms and the potency of temporal modulation for altering the functional visual field.

  5. Spontaneous and light-induced photon emission from intact brains of chick embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锦珠; 于文斗; 孙彤

    1997-01-01

    Photon emission (PE) and light-induced photon emission(LPE) of intact brains isolated from chick embryos have been measured by using the single photon counting device. Experimental results showed that the intensi-ty level of photon emission was detected to be higher from intact brain than from the medium in which the brain was immerged during measuring, and the emission intensity was related to the developmental stages, the healthy situation of the measured embryos, and the freshness of isolated brains as well. After white light illumination, a short-life de-layed emission from intact brains was observed, and its relaxation behavior followed a hyperbolic rather than an expo-nential law. According to the hypothesis of biophoton emission originating from a delocalized coherent electromagnetic field and Frohlich’s idea of coherent long-range interactions in biological systems, discussions were made on the signifi-cance of photon emission in studying cell communication, biological regulation, living system’

  6. Neural activation differences in amputees during imitation of intact versus amputee movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F Cusack

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The mirror neuron system has been attributed with increased activation in motor-related cortical areas upon viewing of another’s actions. Recent work suggests that limb movements that are similar and dissimilar in appearance to that of the viewer equivalently activate the mirror neuron system. It is unclear if this result can be observed in the action encoding areas in amputees who use prosthetic devices. Intact subjects and upper extremity amputee prosthesis users were recruited to view video demonstrations of tools being used by an intact actor and a prosthetic device user. All subjects were asked to pantomime the movements seen in the video while recording electroencephalography. Intact subjects showed equivalent left parietofrontal activity during imitation after watching the intact or prosthetic arm. Likewise, when prosthesis users imitated prosthesis demonstrations, typical left parietofrontal activation was observed during planning. When prosthesis users imitated intact actors, a new pattern was revealed which showed greater bilateral parietal and occipital activity during movement planning (p<0.001. This change may be required for prosthesis users to imitate movements in which the limb states between the observed and the observer do not match. The finding that prosthesis users imitating other prosthesis users showed typical left parietofrontal activation suggests that these subjects engage normal planning related activity when they are able to imitate a limb matching their own. This result has significant implications on rehabilitation, as standard therapy involves training with an intact occupational therapist, which could necessitate atypical planning mechanisms in amputees when learning to use their prosthesis.

  7. Effect of tail suspension on haemodynamics in intact and sympathectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasova, O; Figourina, I; Zotov, A; Borovik, A; Vinogradova, O

    2001-09-01

    The effect of a 2-week tail suspension on mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse interval (PI) was studied in conscious chronically instrumented intact and sympathectomized rats. Sympathectomy was induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (100 mg x kg(-1), i.v.), injected 1 day before, and on days 5 and 10 of suspension. During suspension the intact rats had the same levels of MAP and PI as the intact controls. After release from suspension their MAP did not change: PI decreased (by 9%), but only for 1 h. Sympathectomy augmented the haemodynamic changes after release from suspension: tachycardia (10%) and hypotension (19%) were observed during the entire recording period (2 h). Therefore, in rats, post-suspension hypotension becomes apparent only after elimination of sympathetic influences. In spite of unaltered systemic parameters, intact post-suspension rats showed diminished responses to intravenous administration of tyramine (100 microg x kg(-1)) and phenylephrine (1-2 microg x kg(-1)). In addition, they showed augmented haemodynamic changes associated with natural behaviour. The increase of MAP and the decrease of PI on transition from rest to movement were more pronounced in the intact post-suspension rats than in the control rats (MAP 8.3% vs 4.5%, PI 15% vs 9%). In control rats the spectrum power density of low-frequency (0.0195-0.25 Hz) MAP fluctuations depended only weakly on behavioural activity, whereas in post-suspension intact rats it was profoundly augmented during movements (by 170%). Since the rapid adjustment of haemodynamics to behavioural activity is controlled by the sympathetic nervous system, the unbalanced condition of the cardiovascular system after suspension may reflect an altered sympathetic nerve control of the circulation.

  8. Losing a jewel—Rapid declines in Myanmar’s intact forests from 2002-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horning, Ned; Khaing, Thiri; Thein, Zaw Min; Aung, Kyaw Moe; Aung, Kyaw Htet; Phyo, Paing; Tun, Ye Lin; Oo, Aung Htat; Neil, Anthony; Thu, Win Myo; Songer, Melissa; Huang, Qiongyu; Connette, Grant; Leimgruber, Peter

    2017-01-01

    New and rapid political and economic changes in Myanmar are increasing the pressures on the country’s forests. Yet, little is known about the past and current condition of these forests and how fast they are declining. We mapped forest cover in Myanmar through a consortium of international organizations and environmental non-governmental groups, using freely-available public domain data and open source software tools. We used Landsat satellite imagery to assess the condition and spatial distribution of Myanmar’s intact and degraded forests with special focus on changes in intact forest between 2002 and 2014. We found that forests cover 42,365,729 ha or 63% of Myanmar, making it one of the most forested countries in the region. However, severe logging, expanding plantations, and degradation pose increasing threats. Only 38% of the country’s forests can be considered intact with canopy cover >80%. Between 2002 and 2014, intact forests declined at a rate of 0.94% annually, totaling more than 2 million ha forest loss. Losses can be extremely high locally and we identified 9 townships as forest conversion hotspots. We also delineated 13 large (>100,000 ha) and contiguous intact forest landscapes, which are dispersed across Myanmar. The Northern Forest Complex supports four of these landscapes, totaling over 6.1 million ha of intact forest, followed by the Southern Forest Complex with three landscapes, comprising 1.5 million ha. These remaining contiguous forest landscape should have high priority for protection. Our project demonstrates how open source data and software can be used to develop and share critical information on forests when such data are not readily available elsewhere. We provide all data, code, and outputs freely via the internet at (for scripts: https://bitbucket.org/rsbiodiv/; for the data: http://geonode.themimu.info/layers/geonode%3Amyan_lvl2_smoothed_dec2015_resamp) PMID:28520726

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Human Salivary Gland-Derived Intact Proteome Using Top-Down Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Si; Brown, Joseph N.; Tolic, Nikola; Meng, Da; Liu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Haizhen; Zhao, Rui; Moore, Ronald J.; Pevzner, Pavel A.; Smith, Richard D.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2014-05-31

    There are several notable challenges inherent to fully characterizing the entirety of the human saliva proteome using bottom-up approaches, including polymorphic isoforms, post-translational modifications, unique splice variants, deletions, and truncations. To address these challenges, we have developed a top-down based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approach, which cataloged 20 major human salivary proteins with a total of 83 proteoforms, containing a broad range of post-translational modifications. Among these proteins, several previously reported disease biomarker proteins were identified at the intact protein level, such as beta-2 microglobulin (B2M). In addition, intact glycosylated proteoforms of several saliva proteins were also characterized, including intact N-glycosylated protein prolactin inducible protein (PIP) and O-glycosylated acidic protein rich protein (aPRP). These characterized proteoforms constitute an intact saliva proteoform database, which was used for quantitative comparison of intact salivary proteoforms among six healthy individuals. Human parotid (PS) and submandibular/sublingual gland (SMSL) secretion samples (2 μg of protein each) from six healthy individuals were compared using RPLC coupled with the 12T FTICR mass spectrometer. Significantly different protein and PTM patterns were resolved with high reproducibility between PS and SMSL glands. The results from this study provide further insight into the potential mechanisms of PTM pathways in oral glandular secretion, expanding our knowledge of this complex yet easily accessible fluid. Intact protein LC-MS approach presented herein can potentially be applied for rapid and accurate identification of biomarkers from only a few microliters of human glandular saliva.

  10. [A histochemical study of acetylcholinesterase in intact and deafferented cat auditory cortex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genis, E D

    1976-01-01

    The peculiarities of the AChE distribution were investigated in the intact cat auditory cortex and during early period of its neuronal isolation. It is shown that in the isolated cortex slab the staining of the AChE containing fibre disappeared from the neuropile, while in the intact cortex it was well pronounced. AChE accumulation was observed in the proximal parts of the transsected thalamo-cortical fibres. It is supposed that the AChE-containing fibres in the auditory cortex belong to nonspecific thalamic inputs.

  11. Population Studies of Intact Vitamin D Binding Protein by Affinity Capture ESI-TOF-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Chad R.; Jarvis, Jason W.; Oran, Paul E.; Rogers, Stephen P.; Nelson, Randall W.

    2008-01-01

    Blood plasma proteins with molecular weights greater than approximately 30 kDa are refractory to comprehensive, high-throughput qualitative characterization of microheterogeneity across human populations. Analytical techniques for obtaining high mass resolution for targeted, intact protein characterization and, separately, high sample throughput exist, but efficient means of coupling these assay characteristics remain rather limited. This article discusses the impetus for analyzing intact proteins in a targeted manner across populations and describes the methodology required to couple mass spectrometric immunoassay with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the purpose of qualitatively characterizing a prototypical large plasma protein, vitamin D binding protein, across populations. PMID:19137103

  12. Relationship between parental aspiration and academic achievement of Xhosa children from broken and intact families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, V I

    1994-06-01

    This study concerned the relationship between parental aspiration and academic achievement of Xhosa pupils (369 boys and 652 girls) whose ages ranged from 13 to 17 years (mean age, 15.3 yr.). Children were chosen at random from the Standard 7/Year 9 population of Transkei. A questionnaire administered to parents or parent surrogates identified 242 children of parents divorced or separated and 713 from intact homes and obtained parental aspiration for the education of children. Analysis of variance showed significant effects of parental aspiration on academic achievement of children whether the children were from broken or intact homes.

  13. Assessment of contractility in intact ventricular cardiomyocytes using the dimensionless 'Frank-Starling Gain' index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollensdorff, Christian; Lookin, Oleg; Kohl, Peter

    2011-07-01

    This paper briefly recapitulates the Frank-Starling law of the heart, reviews approaches to establishing diastolic and systolic force-length behaviour in intact isolated cardiomyocytes, and introduces a dimensionless index called 'Frank-Starling Gain', calculated as the ratio of slopes of end-systolic and end-diastolic force-length relations. The benefits and limitations of this index are illustrated on the example of regional differences in Guinea pig intact ventricular cardiomyocyte mechanics. Potential applicability of the Frank-Starling Gain for the comparison of cell contractility changes upon stretch will be discussed in the context of intra- and inter-individual variability of cardiomyocyte properties.

  14. The impact of family intactness on family functioning, parental control and parent-child relational qualities in a Chinese context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Tan Lei Shek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the differences between intact and non-intact families in family processes, including systematic family functioning, parental behavioral control, parental psychological control, and parent-child relational qualities. The participants were 3,328 Secondary One students, with a mean age of 12.59 years, recruited from 28 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Four validated scales were used to assess family processes. Results showed that adolescents in non-intact families perceived relatively poorer family functioning, lower level of paternal and maternal behavioral control, lower level of paternal psychological control and poorer parent-child relational qualities than did adolescents in intact families. This generally indicated that family processes were poorer in non-intact families, compared with those in intact families. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed.

  15. No surprises, please!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Dena S

    2013-01-01

    This narrative symposium examines the relationship of bioethics practice to personal experiences of illness. A call for stories was developed by Tod Chambers, the symposium editor, and editorial staff and was sent to several commonly used bioethics listservs and posted on the Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics website. The call asked authors to relate a personal story of being ill or caring for a person who is ill, and to describe how this affected how they think about bioethical questions and the practice of medicine. Eighteen individuals were invited to submit full stories based on review of their proposals. Twelve stories are published in this symposium, and six supplemental stories are published online only through Project MUSE. Authors explore themes of vulnerability, suffering, communication, voluntariness, cultural barriers, and flaws in local healthcare systems through stories about their own illnesses or about caring for children, partners, parents and grandparents. Commentary articles by Arthur Frank, Bradley Lewis, and Carol Taylor follow the collection of personal narratives.

  16. Tohoku earthquake: a surprise?

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Yan Y

    2011-01-01

    We consider three issues related to the 2011 Tohoku mega-earthquake: (1) how to evaluate the earthquake maximum size in subduction zones, (2) what is the repeat time for the largest earthquakes in Tohoku area, and (3) what are the possibilities of short-term forecasts during the 2011 sequence. There are two quantitative methods which can be applied to estimate the maximum earthquake size: a statistical analysis of the available earthquake record and the moment conservation principle. The latter technique studies how much of the tectonic deformation rate is released by earthquakes. For the subduction zones, the seismic or historical record is not sufficient to provide a reliable statistical measure of the maximum earthquake. The moment conservation principle yields consistent estimates of maximum earthquake size: for all the subduction zones the magnitude is of the order 9.0--9.7, and for major subduction zones the maximum earthquake size is statistically indistinguishable. Starting in 1999 we have carried out...

  17. A Pleasant Goat Surprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING XIAOLEI

    2010-01-01

    @@ For decades,Chinese children have sat in front of television sets mesmerized as American cartoon cat Tom chased mouse rival Jerry,or as the Japanese manga robot feline Doraemon helped his schoolboy companion Nobita Nobi.Now,the animated tables are turning and foreign kids are able to enjoy Chinese cartoons from the comfort of their couches.

  18. More statistics, less surprise

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso & the LHCb collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration has recently announced new results for a parameter that measures the CP violation effect in particles containing charm quarks. The new values obtained with a larger data set and with a new independent method are showing that the effect is smaller than previous measurements had  suggested. The parameter is back into the Standard Model picture.   CP violation signals – in particles containing charm quarks, such as the D0 particle, is a powerful probe of new physics. Indeed, such effects could result in unexpected values of parameters whose expectation values in the Standard Model are known. Although less precise than similar approaches used in particles made of b quarks, the investigation of the charm system has proven  to be intriguing. The LHCb collaboration has reported new measurements of ΔACP, the difference in CP violation between the D0→K+K– and D0→π+π– decays. The results are ob...

  19. Monotony and Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolico, Alberto

    This paper reviews models and tools emerged in recent years in the author’s work in connection with the discovery of interesting or anomalous patterns in sequences. Whereas customary approaches to pattern discovery proceed from either a statistical or a syntactic characterization alone, the approaches described here present the unifying feature of combining these two descriptors in a solidly intertwined, composite paradigm, whereby both syntactic structure and occurrence lists concur to define and identify a pattern in a subject. In turn, this supports a natural notion of pattern saturation, which enables one to partition patterns into equivalence classes over intervals of monotonicity of commonly adopted scores, in such a way that the subset of class representatives, consisting solely of saturated patterns, suffices to account for all patterns in the subject. The benefits at the outset consist not only of an increased descriptive power, but especially of a mitigation of the often unmanageable roster of candidates unearthed in a discovery attempt, and of the daunting computational burden that goes with it.

  20. Surprised by selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Krijn P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06885580X

    2016-01-01

    Lower olefins, particularly ethylene (C2H4), propylene (C3H6), and butylene (C4H8), are important intermediates in the manufacture of products such as plastics, solvents, paints, and medicines. They are produced worldwide in amounts exceeding 200 million tons per year (see the photo) (1), mostly

  1. The surprising superconductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner Yildirim

    2002-04-01

    The serendipitous discovery by Akimitsu’s group1 of the superconductivity of MgB2 at Tc=39 K, almost twice the temperature of other simple intermetallic compounds, has sparked a race to uncover its basic properties and to find other related diborides with even higher Tcs. After the first announcement, the number of preprints appearing on the Los Alamos preprint server (Fig. 1 grew almost exponentially, reaching a maximum of about 60 studies in March (two papers a day, then decreasing linearly down to a paper every other day in August, and staying steady at about this rate until now. During the first year of the MgB2 era, more than 300 studies were published, exploring both fundamental and practical issues, such as the mechanism of the superconductivity; synthesis of MgB2 in the form of powder, thin films, wires, and tapes; the effect on Tc of substitution with various elements and on critical current and fields.

  2. Surprises in aperiodic diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Baake, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical diffraction theory is concerned with the diffraction image of a given structure and the corresponding inverse problem of structure determination. In recent years, the understanding of systems with continuous and mixed spectra has improved considerably. Moreover, the phenomenon of homometry shows various unexpected new facets. Here, we report on some of the recent results in an exemplary and informal fashion.

  3. Jordan: Surprisingly Stable

    OpenAIRE

    Ådnegard, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, research has demonstrated that conflict spreads to the host country as a consequence of massive influx of refugees. Most studies gathered empirical evidence from African countries and focused on cases where conflict had already spread. In contrast to this literature, the main objective of this thesis is to examine the absence of conflict in Jordan after receiving Syrian refugees that amount to about 10 percent of Jordan s original population over the past three years, 2011-201...

  4. Surprising quantum bounces

    CERN Document Server

    Nesvizhevsky, Valery

    2015-01-01

    This unique book demonstrates the undivided unity and infinite diversity of quantum mechanics using a single phenomenon: quantum bounces of ultra-cold particles. Various examples of such "quantum bounces" are: gravitational quantum states of ultra-cold neutrons (the first observed quantum states of matter in a gravitational field), the neutron whispering gallery (an observed matter-wave analog of the whispering gallery effect well known in acoustics and for electromagnetic waves), and gravitational and whispering gallery states for anti-matter atoms that remain to be observed. These quantum states are an invaluable tool in the search for additional fundamental short-range forces, for exploring the gravitational interaction and quantum effects of gravity, for probing physics beyond the standard model, and for furthering studies into the foundations of quantum mechanics, quantum optics, and surface science.

  5. No More Surprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrel, Amy

    2016-05-01

    Texas Medical Association research shows that health plans' shrinking networks, caps on payments for medical care, inaccurate directories, and other tactics - not physician billing - are bearing down on patients in the form of unexpected, out-of-network balance bills.

  6. Surprising radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Radiation doses received by the human body can be measured indirectly and retrospectively by counting the tracks left by particles in ordinary objects like pair of spectacles, glassware, compact disks...This method has been successfully applied to determine neutron radiation doses received 50 years ago on the Hiroshima site. Neutrons themselves do not leave tracks in bulk matter but glass contains atoms of uranium that may fission when hurt by a neutron, the recoil of the fission fragments generates a track that is detectable. The most difficult is to find adequate glass items and to evaluate the radiation shield they benefited at their initial place. The same method has been used to determine the radiation dose due to the pile-up of radon in houses. In that case the tracks left by alpha particles due to the radioactive decay of polonium-210 have been counted on the superficial layer of the window panes. Other materials like polycarbonate plastics have been used to determine the radiation dose due to heavy io...

  7. Neurotransmitter Switching? No Surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Nicholas C

    2015-06-03

    Among the many forms of brain plasticity, changes in synaptic strength and changes in synapse number are particularly prominent. However, evidence for neurotransmitter respecification or switching has been accumulating steadily, both in the developing nervous system and in the adult brain, with observations of transmitter addition, loss, or replacement of one transmitter with another. Natural stimuli can drive these changes in transmitter identity, with matching changes in postsynaptic transmitter receptors. Strikingly, they often convert the synapse from excitatory to inhibitory or vice versa, providing a basis for changes in behavior in those cases in which it has been examined. Progress has been made in identifying the factors that induce transmitter switching and in understanding the molecular mechanisms by which it is achieved. There are many intriguing questions to be addressed.

  8. Surprise Trips 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias; Kawash, Raghid; Andersen, Lisbet Møller

    2010-01-01

    Little treasures in nature often go unnoticed by visitors when roaming about in a national park. Ubiquitous technology with its less intrusive character may be apt to enhance this natural experience of exploration. In this paper, we report on a system that augments this experience. It builds on t...

  9. Utilizing Adventure Activities with Intact Groups: A Sociodramatic Systems Approach to Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, H. Lee; Bonney, Warren C.

    1989-01-01

    Describes team-building activities for mental health counselors who function as consultants to staffs, groups, or other intact work systems. Provides rationale for application of strategic systems and sociodrama techniques to an adventure activity that allows a group to metaphorically enact its common issue. Provides example of a consultation…

  10. How-to-Do-It: Cytokinin Induced Cell Division & Differentiation Using Intact Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnsack, Charles W.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a procedure by which cytokinins are used to induce a population of dividing and differentiating cells on the cut surface of the roots of an intact plant. Includes the method used, results, and suggestions for a variety of variables that may be tested. (RT)

  11. The action of cobra venom phospholipase A2 isoenzymes towards intact human erythrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, B.; Sibenius Trip, M.; Verheij, H.M.; Zevenbergen, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    1. 1. Cobra venom phospholipase A2 from three different sources has been fractionated into different isoenzymes by DEAE ion-exchange chromatography. 2. 2. Treatment of intact human erythrocytes with the various isoenzymes revealed significant differences in the degree of phosphatidylcholine hydroly

  12. High incidence of intact or fragmented immunoglobulin in urine of patients with multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraj, Maria; Kruk, Barbara; Lech-Marańda, Ewa; Warzocha, Krzysztof; Prochorec-Sobieszek, Monika

    2015-01-01

    In this prospective study we determined the incidence of intact/fragmented immunoglobulin and Bence Jones protein in urine immunofixation using Sebia reagents and HydrasysTM 2 apparatus and compared the results to concentrations of serum free light chains (FLC) assessed using Siemens BNTM II nephelometer and the immunoassay Freelite (Binding Site) in 289 patients with multiple myeloma at diagnosis. It was found that in one third of IgG, IgA and IgD myeloma patients, intact/fragmented immunoglobulin can be detected in urine and is connected with impaired renal function and reduced survival. Urine immunofixation detects monoclonal protein (FLC and intact/fragmented immunoglobulin) in 66-79% of IgG and IgA myeloma patients while serum FLC immunoassay detect it in 82-94% of IgG and IgA myeloma patients. However, the latter method is inadequate for detection of intact/fragmented immunoglobulin in urine. Serum FLC immunoassay and urine immunofixation are complementary methods in diagnosing and monitoring monoclonal protein in patients with myeloma.

  13. Using Spores for Fusarium spp. Classification by MALDI-Based Intact Cell/Spore Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Winkler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium is a widespread genus of filamentous fungi and a member of the soil microbial community. Certain subspecies are health threatening because of their mycotoxin production that affects the human and animal food chain. Thus, for early and effective pest control, species identification is of particular interest; however, differentiation on the subspecies level is challenging and time-consuming for this fungus. In the present study, we show the possibilities of intact cell mass spectrometry for spore analysis of 22 different Fusarium strains belonging to six Fusarium subspecies. We found that species differentiation is possible if mass spectrometric analyses are performed under well-defined conditions with fixed parameters. A critical point for analysis is a proper sample preparation of spores, which increases the quality of mass spectra with respect to signal intensity and m/z value variations. It was concluded that data acquistion has to be performed automatically; otherwise, user-specific variations are introduced generating data which cannot fit the existing datasets. Data that show clearly that matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-based intact cell/intact spore mass spectrometry (IC/ISMS can be applied to differentiate closely related Fusarium spp. are presented. Results show a potential to build a database on Fusarium species for accurate species identification, for fast response in the case of infections in the cornfield. We furthermore demonstrate the high precision of our approach in classification of intact Fusarium species according to the location of their collection.

  14. Collagen fibril size and crimp morphology in ruptured and intact Achilles tendons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, S P; Qvortrup, K; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard

    2002-01-01

    The present study examined the hypothesis that collagen fibril diameter and crimp angle in ruptured human Achilles tendons differed from that of intact ones. Tissue samples were obtained from the central core (distal core) and the posterior periphery (distal superficial) at the rupture site, and ...... tendon rupture site. Moreover, the lack of symptoms prior to the rupture suggests that clinical tendinopathy is not an etiological factor in complete tendon ruptures.......The present study examined the hypothesis that collagen fibril diameter and crimp angle in ruptured human Achilles tendons differed from that of intact ones. Tissue samples were obtained from the central core (distal core) and the posterior periphery (distal superficial) at the rupture site......, and the proximally intact (proximal superficial) part of the tendon in 10 subjects (38+/-8 years) with a complete tendon rupture. For comparisons corresponding tissue samples were procured from age (38+/-7 years) and gender matched intact Achilles tendons during routine forensic autopsy. The cross-sectional area...

  15. Row-like organization of ATP synthase in intact mitochondria determined by cryo-electron tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dudkina, Natalya V.; Oostergetel, Gert T.; Lewejohann, Dagmar; Braun, Hans-Peter; Boekema, Egbert J.

    2010-01-01

    The fine structure of intact, close-to-spherical mitochondria from the alga Polytomella was visualized by dual-axis cryo-electron tomography. The supramolecular organization of dimeric ATP synthase in the cristae membranes was investigated by averaging subvolumes of tomograms and 3D details at simil

  16. The Father-Child Relationship, Parenting Styles, and Adolescent Risk Behaviors in Intact Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Moore, Kristin A.; Carrano, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    The father-child relationship and father's parenting style are examined as predictors of first delinquency and substance use, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997, Rounds 1 to 3 (N = 5,345), among adolescents in intact families. Discrete time logistic regressions indicate that a more positive father-child relationship…

  17. Germination of Saccharum ravennae(L.)L.(Poaceae) caryopses and intact spikelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenna grass, Saccharum ravennae (L.) L., is a robust perennial bunchgrass grown as an ornamental in the United States, but where adapted, has become naturalized in riparian areas. Little is known about the seed size distribution and germination characteristics of caryopses and intact spikelets. ...

  18. Imaging of intact MOF-5 nanocrystals by advanced TEM at liquid

    OpenAIRE

    Wiktor, Christian; Turner, Stuart; Zacher, Denise; Fischer, Roland A.; Tendeloo, van, G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: First results on the imaging of intact metalorganic framework (MOF) pores in MOF-5 nanocrystals by aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM) under liquid nitrogen conditions are presented. The applied technique is certainly transferable to other MOF systems, permitting detailed studies of MOF interfaces, MOFnanoparticle interaction and MOF thin films.

  19. Probing the Intact Cluster Catalysis Concept by Tetrahedral Clusters With Framework Chirality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. Süss-Fink; L. Vieille-Petit

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Results and Discussion In order to bring evidence for or against the hypothesis of catalytic hydrogenation by intact trinuclear arene ruthenium clusters containing an oxo cap, the substrate being hydrogenated inside the hydrophobic pocket spanned by the three arene ligands ("supramolecular cluster catalysis")[1], we synthesized cationic Ru3O clusters (See Fig. 1) with three different arene ligands (intrinsically chiral tetrahedra).

  20. Automated setup for characterization of intact histone tails in Suz12-/- stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidoli, Simone; Schwämmle, Veit; Hansen, Thomas Aarup

    Epigenetics is defined as the study of heritable changes that occur without modifying the DNA sequence. Histone proteins are crucial components of epigenetic mechanisms and regulation, since they are fundamental for chromatin structure. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is already an integrated...... developed a high-resolving and automated LC-MS/MS setup to characterize intact histone tails (middle-down strategy)...

  1. Intact School Matching in Education: Exploring the Relative Importance of Focal and Local Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Vivian C.; Hallberg, Kelly; Cook, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    The nested data structure inherent in education (i.e. students nested in schools nested in districts) makes intact school matching an appealing approach in observational studies of educational interventions and policies for both theoretical and practical purposes. This paper provides guidance to applied education researchers who are employing…

  2. Family relationships and the psychosocial adjustment of school-aged children in intact families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Hakvoort; H.M.W. Bos; F. van Balen; J.M.A. Hermanns

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the quality of three family relationships (i.e., marital, parent-child, sibling) in intact families are associated with each other and with children's psychosocial adjustment. Data were collected by means of maternal and child reports (N = 88) using standardized inst

  3. Urinary felinine excretion in intact male cats is increased by dietary cystine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, W.H.; Rutherfurd-Markwick, K.J.; Weidgraaf, K.; Morton, R.H.; Rogers, Q.R.

    2008-01-01

    Felinine is a branched-chain sulfur amino acid present in the urine of certain Felidae, including domestic cats. The objective of the present study was to determine if additional cystine and/or dietary N would increase felinine and N-acetylfelinine excretion by intact male cats fed a low-protein (LP

  4. The action of cobra venom phospholipase A2 isoenzymes towards intact human erythrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, B.; Sibenius Trip, M.; Verheij, H.M.; Zevenbergen, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    1. 1. Cobra venom phospholipase A2 from three different sources has been fractionated into different isoenzymes by DEAE ion-exchange chromatography. 2. 2. Treatment of intact human erythrocytes with the various isoenzymes revealed significant differences in the degree of phosphatidylcholine hydroly

  5. Adolescents' Perception of the Ideal Mate: Its Relationship to Parental Characteristics in Intact and Nonintact Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Amnon; Guttmann, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    The relation of adolescents' experiencing parental divorce, their perception of parents' characteristics, and their perception of the ideal mate's characteristics was investigated. One hundred adolescents from intact families and 79 from nonintact families were asked to rank both the degree to which each of 40 personality traits characterized…

  6. Bacterial delivery of large intact genomic-DNA-containing BACs into mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Wing; Kotzamanis, George; Abdulrazzak, Hassan; Goussard, Sylvie; Kaname, Tadashi; Kotsinas, Athanassios; Gorgoulis, Vassilis G; Grillot-Courvalin, Catherine; Huxley, Clare

    2012-01-01

    Efficient delivery of large intact vectors into mammalian cells remains problematical. Here we evaluate delivery by bacterial invasion of two large BACs of more than 150 kb in size into various cells. First, we determined the effect of several drugs on bacterial delivery of a small plasmid into different cell lines. Most drugs tested resulted in a marginal increase of the overall efficiency of delivery in only some cell lines, except the lysosomotropic drug chloroquine, which was found to increase the efficiency of delivery by 6-fold in B16F10 cells. Bacterial invasion was found to be significantly advantageous compared with lipofection in delivering large intact BACs into mouse cells, resulting in 100% of clones containing intact DNA. Furthermore, evaluation of expression of the human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene from its genomic locus, which was present in one of the BACs, showed that single copy integrations of the HPRT-containing BAC had occurred in mouse B16F10 cells and that expression of HPRT from each human copy was 0.33 times as much as from each endogenous mouse copy. These data provide new evidence that bacterial delivery is a convenient and efficient method to transfer large intact therapeutic genes into mammalian cells.

  7. Urinary felinine excretion in intact male cats is increased by dietary cystine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, W.H.; Rutherfurd-Markwick, K.J.; Weidgraaf, K.; Morton, R.H.; Rogers, Q.R.

    2008-01-01

    Felinine is a branched-chain sulfur amino acid present in the urine of certain Felidae, including domestic cats. The objective of the present study was to determine if additional cystine and/or dietary N would increase felinine and N-acetylfelinine excretion by intact male cats fed a low-protein

  8. Intactness of cell wall structure controls the in vitro digestion of starch in legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, Sushil; Bhattarai, Rewati R; Gorham, John; Gidley, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Increasing the level of starch that is not digested by the end of the small intestine and therefore enters the colon ('resistant starch') is a major opportunity for improving the nutritional profile of foods. One mechanism that has been shown to be successful is entrapment of starch within an intact plant tissue structure. However, the level of tissue intactness required for resistance to amylase digestion has not been defined. In this study, intact cells were isolated from a range of legumes after thermal treatment at 60 °C (starch not gelatinised) or 95 °C (starch gelatinised) followed by hydrolysis using pancreatic alpha amylase. It was found that intact cells, isolated at either temperature, were impervious to amylase. However, application of mechanical force damaged the cell wall and made starch accessible to digestive enzymes. This shows that the access of enzymes to the entrapped swollen starch is the rate limiting step controlling hydrolysis of starch in cooked legumes. The results suggest that a single cell wall could be sufficient to provide an effective delivery of starch to the large intestine with consequent nutritional benefits, provided that mechanical damage during digestion is avoided.

  9. Tympanoplasty in chronic otitis media patients with an intact, but severely retracted malleus: a treatment challenge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, M.K.S.; Nguyen, D.Q.; Schlegel-Wagner, C.; Pabst, G.; Linder, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the outcome of patients with chronic otitis media (COM) with an intact, but markedly medialized ossicular chain, treated by removing the malleus head and interposing an autologous incus and then an underlay myringoplasty. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective clinical study. SETTING: Ter

  10. Bacterial delivery of large intact genomic-DNA-containing BACs into mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Wing; Kotzamanis, George; Abdulrazzak, Hassan; Goussard, Sylvie; Kaname, Tadashi; Kotsinas, Athanassios; Gorgoulis, Vassilis G.; Grillot-Courvalin, Catherine; Huxley, Clare

    2012-01-01

    Efficient delivery of large intact vectors into mammalian cells remains problematical. Here we evaluate delivery by bacterial invasion of two large BACs of more than 150 kb in size into various cells. First, we determined the effect of several drugs on bacterial delivery of a small plasmid into different cell lines. Most drugs tested resulted in a marginal increase of the overall efficiency of delivery in only some cell lines, except the lysosomotropic drug chloroquine, which was found to increase the efficiency of delivery by 6-fold in B16F10 cells. Bacterial invasion was found to be significantly advantageous compared with lipofection in delivering large intact BACs into mouse cells, resulting in 100% of clones containing intact DNA. Furthermore, evaluation of expression of the human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene from its genomic locus, which was present in one of the BACs, showed that single copy integrations of the HPRT-containing BAC had occurred in mouse B16F10 cells and that expression of HPRT from each human copy was 0.33 times as much as from each endogenous mouse copy. These data provide new evidence that bacterial delivery is a convenient and efficient method to transfer large intact therapeutic genes into mammalian cells. PMID:22095052

  11. Family relationships and the psychosocial adjustment of school-aged children in intact families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakvoort, E.M.; Bos, H.M.W.; van Balen, F.; Hermanns, J.M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the quality of three family relationships (i.e., marital, parent-child, sibling) in intact families are associated with each other and with children's psychosocial adjustment. Data were collected by means of maternal and child reports (N = 88) using standardized

  12. Compound-specific stable isotope analysis of nitrogen-containing intact polar lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, Elizabeth; Schouten, Stefan; Stam, Axel; Middelburg, Jack J.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of nitrogen in amino acids has proven a valuable tool in many fields (e.g. ecology). Several intact polar lipids (IPLs) also contain nitrogen, and their nitrogen isotope ratios have the potential to elucidate food-web interactions or metabolic path

  13. Fossilization and degradation of intact polar lipids in deep subsurface sediments: A theoretical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, S.; Middelburg, J.J.; Hopmans, E.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Intact polar membrane lipids (IPLs) are frequently used as markers for living microbial cells in sedimentary environments. The assumption with these studies is that IPLs are rapidly degraded upon cell lysis and therefore IPLs present in sediments are derived from in situ microbial production. We use

  14. Compound-specific stable isotope analysis of nitrogen-containing intact polar lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, E.; Schouten, S.; Stam, A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of nitrogen in amino acids has proven a valuable tool in manyfields (e.g. ecology). Several intact polar lipids (IPLs) also contain nitrogen, and their nitrogen isotope ratios have thepotential to elucidate food-web interactions or metabolic pathw

  15. The origin and fate of intact polar lipids in the marine environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, J.

    2011-01-01

    A promising method for the identification, characterization and enumeration of microbial communities in the natural environment is the measurement of intact polar lipids (IPLs), the basic building blocks of biomembranes. These complex molecules are ubiquitous in nature and have several characterist

  16. Designing medical foods for inherited metabolic disorders: why intact protein is superior to amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, Denise Marie; Etzel, Mark Raymond

    2017-04-01

    Phenylketonuria and tyrosinemia are inherited metabolic disorders characterized by high blood levels of phenylalanine (Phe) or tyrosine (Tyr), due to mutations in genes affecting Phe and Tyr metabolism, respectively. The primary management is a lifelong diet restricted in protein from natural foods in combination with medical foods comprised mixtures of synthetic amino acids. Compliance is often poor after childhood leading to neuropsychological sequela. Glycomacropeptide, an intact 64 amino acid glycophosphopeptide isolated from cheese whey, provides a new paradigm for the management of phenylketonuria and tyrosinemia because glycomacropeptide contains no Phe and Tyr in its pure form, and is also a prebiotic. Medical foods made from glycomacropeptide have been used successfully for the management of phenylketonuria and tyrosinemia. Preclinical and clinical studies demonstrate that intact protein from glycomacropeptide provides a more acceptable and physiologic source of defined protein compared to amino acids in medical foods. For example, harmful gut bacteria were reduced, beneficial short chain fatty acids increased, renal workload decreased, protein utilization increased, and bone fragility decreased using intact protein versus amino acids. Advances in biotechnology will propel the transition from synthetic amino acids to intact proteins for the management of inherited metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. OXYGEN DEPENDENCE OF PHOTOINHIBITION AT LOW-TEMPERATURE IN INTACT PROTOPLASTS OF VALERIANELLA-LOCUSTA L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANWIJK, KJ; KRAUSE, GH

    1991-01-01

    Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in vivo is shown to be considerably promoted by O2 under circumstances where energy turnover by photorespiration and photosynthetic carbon metabolism are low. Intact protoplasts of Valerianella locusta L. were photoinhibited by 30 min irradiation with 3000-mu-mol ph

  18. Decubitus grade IV (deep pressure sore) with intact skin in a patient with spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, C.C.W.; Zeilstra, J.T.; van Voorst Vader, P.C.; Kardaun, S.H.; Leeman, F.W.J.

    2006-01-01

    Even with intact skin the possibility of pressure sores should not be dismissed. Early recognition of a pressure sore is important for adequate treatment and prevention of progression. Multidisciplinary intervention is essential. A wheelchair patient with spinal cord injury is described, who develop

  19. Non-amphiphilic carbohydrate liquid crystals containing an intact monosaccharide moiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, E; Engberts, J.B.F.N.; Kellogg, R.M; van Doren, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    A chiral rigid moiety which forms the basis of a new class of non-amphiphilic carbohydrate liquid crystals has been developed. This moiety contains a fully intact glucopyranose ring embedded in a trans-decalin structure. The original carbohydrate is substituted so that only two hydroxyl groups are l

  20. Fertility, pregnancy, and delivery after biventricular repair for pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenthen, W.; Pieper, P.G.; Roos-Hesselink, J.W.; Zoon, N.; Voors, A.A.; Mulder, B.J.M.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Vliegen, H.W.; Sollie, K.M.; Ebels, T.; Veldhuisen, D.J. van

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study to investigate fertility, pregnancy, and delivery in women with biventricular repair for pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum (PAIVS). Using a nationwide registry (CONCOR), 37 patients with pulmonary atresia were identified, 6 of whom (aged 21 to 34

  1. Recent advances in the use of non-destructive near infrared spectroscopy on intact olive fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this review is to illustrate the state of the art in the use of non-destructive near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for quality evaluation of intact fruit in the olive industry. First, the most recent studies regarding the application of non-destructive NIR spectroscopy methods to asse...

  2. Microhydrodynamics of deformable particles: surprising responses of drops and vesicles to uniform electric field or shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahovska, Petia

    2015-11-01

    Particle motion in a viscous fluid is a classic problem that continues to surprise researchers. In this talk, I will discuss some intriguing, experimentally-observed behaviors of droplets and giant vesicles (cell-size lipid membrane sacs) in electric or flow fields. In a uniform electric field, a droplet deforms into an ellipsoid that can either be steadily tilted relative to the applied field direction or undergo unsteady motions (periodic shape oscillations or irregular flipping); a spherical vesicle can adopt a transient square shape or reversibly porate. In a steady shear flow, a vesicle can tank-tread, tumble or swing. Theoretical models show that the nonlinear drop dynamics originates from the interplay of Quincke rotation and interface deformation, while the vesicle dynamics stems from the membrane inextensibility. The practical motivation for this research lies in an improved understanding of technologies that rely on the manipulation of drops and cells by flow or electric fields.

  3. Simultaneous bicompartmental bucket-handle meniscal tears with intact anterior cruciate ligament: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beris Alexandros E

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bucket handle tear of the menisci is a common type of lesion resulting from injury to the knee joint. Bucket handle injury of both menisci in almost all cases is associated with a lesion to either the anterior or the posterior cruciate ligament of the knee joint. We describe a case of acute bucket-handle tear of the medial and lateral menisci with intact anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments in a dancer. To the best of our knowledge, there are no previous reports of this type of injury in the literature. Case presentation A 28-year-old Caucasian Greek woman presented to the emergency department after sustaining an injury to her right knee during dancing. An MRI evaluation demonstrated tears in both menisci of the right knee, while the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments were found to be intact. A partial medial and lateral meniscectomy was then performed. At a follow-up examination six months after her injury, clinical tests demonstrated that our patient's right knee was stable, had a full range of motion and had no tenderness. She was satisfied with the outcome of the operation and returned to her pre-injury activities. Conclusion We present the first case in the literature that describes a combined bucket-handle injury of both the medial and lateral menisci with an intact anterior cruciate ligament. The clinical examination of the anterior cruciate ligament was unremarkable, with no signs of deficiency or rupture. The posterior cruciate ligament was also intact. On magnetic resonance imaging, the ligaments were visualised as intact in all their length. These findings were confirmed by arthroscopic evaluation.

  4. Dynamic, six-axis stiffness matrix characteristics of the intact intervertebral disc and a disc replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsgrove, Timothy P; Gill, Harinderjit S; Miles, Anthony W; Gheduzzi, Sabina

    2015-11-01

    Thorough pre-testing is critical in assessing the likely in vivo performance of spinal devices prior to clinical use. However, there is a lack of data available concerning the dynamic testing of lumbar (porcine model) total disc replacements in all six axes under preload conditions. The aim of this study was to provide new data comparing porcine lumbar spinal specimen stiffness between the intact state and after the implantation of an unconstrained total disc replacement, in 6 degrees of freedom. The dynamic, stiffness matrix testing of six porcine lumbar isolated disc specimens was completed using triangle waves at a test frequency of 0.1 Hz. An axial preload of 500 N was applied during all testing. Specimens were tested both in the intact condition and after the implantation of the total disc replacement. Sixteen key stiffness terms were identified for the comparison of the intact and total disc replacement specimens, comprising the 6 principal stiffness terms and 10 key off-axis stiffness terms. The total disc replacement specimens were significantly different to the intact specimens in 12 of these key terms including all six principal stiffness terms. The implantation of the total disc replacement resulted in a mean reduction in the principal stiffness terms of 100%, 91%, and 98% in lateral bending, flexion-extension, and axial rotation, respectively. The novel findings of this study have demonstrated that the unconstrained, low-friction total disc replacement does not replicate the stiffness of the intact specimens. It is likely that other low-friction total disc replacements would produce similar results due to stiffness being actively minimised as part of the design of low-friction devices, without the introduction of stiffening elements or mechanisms to more accurately replicate the mechanical properties of the natural intervertebral disc. This study has demonstrated, for the first time, a method for the quantitative comparative mechanical function

  5. Aboveground biomass variability across intact and degraded forests in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Marcos; Keller, Michael; dos-Santos, Maiza N.; Leitold, Veronika; Pinagé, Ekena R.; Baccini, Alessandro; Saatchi, Sassan; Nogueira, Euler M.; Batistella, Mateus; Morton, Douglas C.

    2016-11-01

    Deforestation rates have declined in the Brazilian Amazon since 2005, yet degradation from logging, fire, and fragmentation has continued in frontier forests. In this study we quantified the aboveground carbon density (ACD) in intact and degraded forests using the largest data set of integrated forest inventory plots (n = 359) and airborne lidar data (18,000 ha) assembled to date for the Brazilian Amazon. We developed statistical models relating inventory ACD estimates to lidar metrics that explained 70% of the variance across forest types. Airborne lidar-ACD estimates for intact forests ranged between 5.0 ± 2.5 and 31.9 ± 10.8 kg C m-2. Degradation carbon losses were large and persistent. Sites that burned multiple times within a decade lost up to 15.0 ± 0.7 kg C m-2 (94%) of ACD. Forests that burned nearly 15 years ago had between 4.1 ± 0.5 and 6.8 ± 0.3 kg C m-2 (22-40%) less ACD than intact forests. Even for low-impact logging disturbances, ACD was between 0.7 ± 0.3 and 4.4 ± 0.4 kg C m-2 (4-21%) lower than unlogged forests. Comparing biomass estimates from airborne lidar to existing biomass maps, we found that regional and pantropical products consistently overestimated ACD in degraded forests, underestimated ACD in intact forests, and showed little sensitivity to fires and logging. Fine-scale heterogeneity in ACD across intact and degraded forests highlights the benefits of airborne lidar for carbon mapping. Differences between airborne lidar and regional biomass maps underscore the need to improve and update biomass estimates for dynamic land use frontiers, to better characterize deforestation and degradation carbon emissions for regional carbon budgets and Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+).

  6. First trimester intact hCG as an early marker of trisomy 21: a promise unrecognised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Kevin; Cowans, Nicholas J; Uldbjerg, Niels; Vereecken, Annie; Tørring, Niels

    2008-12-01

    An initial study of trisomy 21 cases showed that prior to 10 weeks, maternal serum levels of intact hCG in the early first trimester are lower than normal. Here we further study the levels prior to and after 10 weeks of gestation to further establish whether or not the intact hCG is effective as a very early screening marker. Fifty-nine samples from pregnancies with trisomy 21 were identified, 31 were collected between the sixth and ninth weeks of gestation and 28 after the tenth week. A series of 629 gestational age-matched samples collected during the same period formed the control group. Intact hCG was measured by a DELFIA assay. The multiples of the median (MoM) in cases (n = 31) collected prior to 10 weeks were 0.79 (CI 0.62-0.98) at a median gestation of 9.1 weeks. Prior to 9 weeks (n = 14) the median was 0.774 (CI 0.54-1.09) at a median gestation of 8.5 weeks. Modelling the detection rate for a 3 or 5% false-positive rate when screening using intact hCG, free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 8-10 weeks of gestation indicated that 71 or 77% of cases would be detected. More data are needed to establish a secure MoM for intact hCG in pregnancies prior to 10 weeks, before it could be considered a suitable screening marker. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Visual speech alters the discrimination and identification of non-intact auditory speech in children with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerger, Susan; Damian, Markus F; McAlpine, Rachel P; Abdi, Hervé

    2017-03-01

    Understanding spoken language is an audiovisual event that depends critically on the ability to discriminate and identify phonemes yet we have little evidence about the role of early auditory experience and visual speech on the development of these fundamental perceptual skills. Objectives of this research were to determine 1) how visual speech influences phoneme discrimination and identification; 2) whether visual speech influences these two processes in a like manner, such that discrimination predicts identification; and 3) how the degree of hearing loss affects this relationship. Such evidence is crucial for developing effective intervention strategies to mitigate the effects of hearing loss on language development. Participants were 58 children with early-onset sensorineural hearing loss (CHL, 53% girls, M = 9;4 yrs) and 58 children with normal hearing (CNH, 53% girls, M = 9;4 yrs). Test items were consonant-vowel (CV) syllables and nonwords with intact visual speech coupled to non-intact auditory speech (excised onsets) as, for example, an intact consonant/rhyme in the visual track (Baa or Baz) coupled to non-intact onset/rhyme in the auditory track (/-B/aa or/-B/az). The items started with an easy-to-speechread/B/or difficult-to-speechread/G/onset and were presented in the auditory (static face) vs. audiovisual (dynamic face) modes. We assessed discrimination for intact vs. non-intact different pairs (e.g., Baa:/-B/aa). We predicted that visual speech would cause the non-intact onset to be perceived as intact and would therefore generate more same-as opposed to different-responses in the audiovisual than auditory mode. We assessed identification by repetition of nonwords with non-intact onsets (e.g.,/-B/az). We predicted that visual speech would cause the non-intact onset to be perceived as intact and would therefore generate more Baz-as opposed to az- responses in the audiovisual than auditory mode. Performance in the audiovisual mode showed more same

  8. Multi-Axis Prosthetic Knee Resembles Alpine Skiing Movements of an Intact Leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demšar, Ivan; Duhovnik, Jože; Lešnik, Blaž; Supej, Matej

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyse the flexion angles of the ski boot, ankle and knee joints of an above-knee prosthesis and to compare them with an intact leg and a control group of skiers. One subject with an above-knee amputation of the right leg and eight healthy subjects simulated the movement of a skiing turn by performing two-leg squats in laboratory conditions. By adding additional loads in proportion to body weight (BW; +1/3 BW, +2/3 BW, +3/3 BW), various skiing regimes were simulated. Change of Flexion Angle (CoFA) and Range of Motion (RoM) in the ski boot, ankle and knee joints were calculated and compared. An average RoM in the skiing boot on the side of prosthesis (4.4 ± 1.1°) was significantly lower compared to an intact leg (5.9 ± 1.8°) and the control group (6.5 ± 2.3°). In the ankle joint, the average RoM was determined to be 13.2±2.9° in the prosthesis, 12.7 ± 2.8° in an intact leg and 14.8±3.6 in the control group. However, the RoM of the knee joint in the prosthesis (42.2 ± 4.2°) was significantly larger than that of the intact leg (34.7 ± 4.4°). The average RoM of the knee joint in the control group was 47.8 ± 5.4°. The influences of additional loads on the kinematics of the lower extremities were different on the side of the prosthesis and on the intact leg. In contrast, additional loads did not produce any significant differences in the control group. Although different CoFAs in the ski boot, ankle and knee joints were used, an above-knee prosthesis with a built-in multi-axis prosthetic knee enables comparable leg kinematics in simulated alpine skiing. Key points The RoM in the ski boot on the side of the prosthetic leg was smaller than the RoM of the intact leg and the control group of healthy subjects. The RoM in the ankle joint of prosthetic leg was comparable to that of the intact leg and the control group of healthy subjects. The RoM in the prosthetic knee joint was greater than the RoM in the knee joint of the

  9. Evidence does not support absorption of intact solid lipid nanoparticles via oral delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiongwei; Fan, Wufa; Yu, Zhou; Lu, Yi; Qi, Jianping; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Xiaochun; Zhao, Weili; Wu, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Whether and to what extent solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) can be absorbed integrally via oral delivery should be clarified because it is the basis for elucidation of absorption mechanisms. To address this topic, the in vivo fate of SLNs as well as their interaction with biomembranes is investigated using water-quenching fluorescent probes that can signal structural variations of lipid-based nanocarriers. Live imaging indicates prolonged retention of SLNs in the stomach, whereas in the intestine, SLNs can be digested quickly. No translocation of intact SLNs to other organs or tissues can be observed. The in situ perfusion study shows bioadhesion of both SLNs and simulated mixed micelles (SMMs) to intestinal mucus, but no evidence of penetration of integral nanocarriers. Both SLNs and SMMs exhibit significant cellular uptake, but fail to penetrate cell monolayers. Confocal laser scanning microscopy reveals that nanocarriers mainly concentrate on the surface of the monolayers, and no evidence of penetration of intact vehicles can be obtained. The mucous layer acts as a barrier to the penetration of both SLNs and SMMs. Both bile salt-decoration and SMM formulation help to strengthen the interaction with biomembranes. It is concluded that evidence does not support absorption of intact SLNs via oral delivery.Whether and to what extent solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) can be absorbed integrally via oral delivery should be clarified because it is the basis for elucidation of absorption mechanisms. To address this topic, the in vivo fate of SLNs as well as their interaction with biomembranes is investigated using water-quenching fluorescent probes that can signal structural variations of lipid-based nanocarriers. Live imaging indicates prolonged retention of SLNs in the stomach, whereas in the intestine, SLNs can be digested quickly. No translocation of intact SLNs to other organs or tissues can be observed. The in situ perfusion study shows bioadhesion of both SLNs and

  10. 0.7 and 3 T MRI and sap flow in intact trees: xylem and phloem in action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan, N.; Windt, C.W.; Vergeldt, F.J.; Gerkema, E.; As, van H.

    2007-01-01

    Dedicated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) hardware is described that allows imaging of sap flow in intact trees with a maximal trunk diameter of 4 cm and height of several meters. This setup is used to investigate xylem and phloem flow in an intact tree quantitatively. Due to the fragile gradients

  11. 40 CFR 261.40 - Conditional Exclusion for Used, Intact Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) Exported for Recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conditional Exclusion for Used, Intact Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) Exported for Recycling. 261.40 Section 261.40 Protection of Environment...) Exported for Recycling. Used, intact CRTs exported for recycling are not solid wastes if they meet...

  12. 0.7 and 3 T MRI and sap flow in intact trees: xylem and phloem in action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan, N.; Windt, C.W.; Vergeldt, F.J.; Gerkema, E.; As, van H.

    2007-01-01

    Dedicated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) hardware is described that allows imaging of sap flow in intact trees with a maximal trunk diameter of 4 cm and height of several meters. This setup is used to investigate xylem and phloem flow in an intact tree quantitatively. Due to the fragile gradients

  13. Ethanol vapor and saprophytic yeast treatments reduce decay and maintain quality of intact and fresh-cut cherries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of an ethanol vapor release pad and a saprophytic yeast (Cryptococcus infirmo-miniatum) to reduce decay and maintain postharvest quality of intact or fresh-cut sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) cv. Lapins and Bing. Intact or fresh-cut fruit were pac...

  14. [A sarcophagus with a surprise: computed tomography of a mummy from the Late Period of ancient Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidro, Albert; Díez-Santacoloma, Iván; Bagot, Jaume; Milla, Lidón; Gallart, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging techniques, at present especially computed tomography (CT), have become the most important noninvasive method for the study of mummies because they enable high resolution images and three-dimensional reconstructions without damaging the mummified subject. We present a sarcophagus with a mummy hidden inside that was acquired by a gallery in Barcelona. The sarcophagus and mummy were examined by CT at the Hospital Universitari Sagrat Cor in Barcelona. A flexible clamp was used to obtain tissue samples for further study. The results showed the presence of an anatomically intact female human subject albeit with a destructured thorax and upper abdomen. Various metal objects were detected, corresponding to amulets, artificial eyes, and an external wooden brace. CT is an excellent noninvasive imaging technique for the detailed study of mummies, as it enables not only the anatomic identification of the mummified subject but also the obtainment of tissue samples for complementary analyses. The description of these findings enables us to know the major radiologic landmarks for the paleopathologic study of mummies. Copyright © 2015 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Truncated prelamin A expression in HGPS-like patients: a transcriptional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barthelemy, F.; Navarro, C; Fayek, R.; Silva, N.; Roll, P.; Sigaudy, S.; Oshima, J.; Bonne, G.; Papadopoulou-Legbelou, K.; Evangeliou, A.E.; Spilioti, M.; Lemerrer, M.; Wevers, R.A.; Morava, E.; Robaglia-Schlupp, A.; Levy, N.; Bartoli, M.; Sandre-Giovannoli, A. De

    2015-01-01

    Premature aging syndromes are rare genetic disorders mimicking clinical and molecular features of aging. A recently identified group of premature aging syndromes is linked to mutation of the LMNA gene encoding lamins A and C, and is associated with nuclear deformation and dysfunction. Hutchinson-Gil

  16. Truncated prelamin A expression in HGPS-like patients: a transcriptional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barthelemy, F.; Navarro, C; Fayek, R.; Silva, N.; Roll, P.; Sigaudy, S.; Oshima, J.; Bonne, G.; Papadopoulou-Legbelou, K.; Evangeliou, A.E.; Spilioti, M.; Lemerrer, M.; Wevers, R.A.; Morava, E.; Robaglia-Schlupp, A.; Levy, N.; Bartoli, M.; Sandre-Giovannoli, A. De

    2015-01-01

    Premature aging syndromes are rare genetic disorders mimicking clinical and molecular features of aging. A recently identified group of premature aging syndromes is linked to mutation of the LMNA gene encoding lamins A and C, and is associated with nuclear deformation and dysfunction. Hutchinson-Gil

  17. Electrospray ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometric analysis of intact bikunin glycosaminoglycan from normal human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laremore, Tatiana N; Leach, Franklin E; Amster, I Jonathan; Linhardt, Robert J

    2011-08-15

    A mixture of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains from a plasma proteoglycan bikunin was fractionated using native, continuous-elution polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the resulting fractions were analyzed by electrospray ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ESI FTMS). Molecular mass analysis of the intact GAG afforded information about the length and composition of GAG chains in the mixture. Ambiguity in the interpretation of the intact GAG mass spectra was eliminated by conducting an additional experiment in which the GAG chains of known molecular mass were treated with a GAG-degrading enzyme, chondroitinase ABC, and the digestion products were analyzed by ESI FTMS. The plasma bikunin GAG chains consisted predominantly of odd number of saccharides, although few chains consisting of even number of saccharides were also detected. Majority of the analyzed chains were tetrasulfated or pentasulfated and comprised by 29 to 41 monosaccharides.

  18. Occurrence of iridoid glycosides in in vitro cultures and intact plants of Scrophularia nodosa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesterhenn, Katja; Distl, Melanie; Wink, Michael

    2007-03-01

    Shoot, root, and callus cultures of Scrophularia nodosa L. (Scrophulariaceae) were established and cultivated in vitro. Iridoid glycosides, such as harpagoside, aucubin, and catalpol were identified by LC-ESI-MS and their contents determined by HPLC. For comparison intact plants of S. nodosa were analysed. In shoot cultures slightly lower amounts of detectable iridoid glycosides (4.36% dry weight) were determined than in the field grown plants (4.88%). Concentration of harpagoside was highest in leaves of field plants (1.05%) and in flowers of in vitro plantlets (1.10%). For aucubin the highest amount was found in the leaves of in vitro plantlets (1.67%) whereas the levels of aucubin in the leaves of field plants were remarkably lower. Catalpol was produced as a trace compound in intact plants and shoot cultures. Callus and root cultures were apparently not able to synthesise iridoid glycosides.

  19. Characterization of the anion sensitive ATPase in intact vacuoles of Kalanchoe diagremontiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobza, J.; Uribe, E.G.

    1986-04-01

    A method for the isolation of intact vacuoles from K. daigremontiana was developed which produced high yields of relatively pure vacuoles as determined by marker enzyme contamination. Upon isolation, the vacuoles were stabilized by the inclusion of 5% (w/v) ficoll. Enzyme activity was insensitive to vanadate and azide but was strongly inhibited by DCCD. Enzyme activity was strictly dependent on the inclusion of Mg/sup 2 +/ and was stimulated by anions as depicted by the series, NO/sub 3//sup -/ < Br/sup -/ < SO/sub 4//sup -/ < HCO/sub 3//sup -/ < Cl/sup -/. It was found that in intact vacuoles the ATPase activity was stimulated by phosphate to a level equivalent to that found with the chloride. The enzyme exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a Km for Mg-ATP complex of 0.51 mM.

  20. Automated closed-chamber measurements of methane fluxes from intact leaves and trunk of Japanese cypress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kenshi; Kosugi, Yoshiko; Kanazawa, Akito; Sakabe, Ayaka

    2012-05-01

    Continuous in situ measurements of methane (CH4) fluxes from intact leaves and trunk of Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc) were conducted in a temperate forest from August 2009 to August 2010. An automated closed-chamber system, which was used to evaluate CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and forest ecosystems, was coupled to a laser-based instrument to monitor CH4 concentrations. Temporal changes in CH4 concentrations from the foliage and trunk were measured at one-second intervals during chamber closure to determine CH4 fluxes between the leaf and trunk surfaces and the atmosphere. While recent studies have suggested that some plants emit CH4 under aerobic conditions, emission or uptake of CH4 in detectable amounts with our experimental system, by intact leaves or the trunk of C. obtusa, was not significantly observed throughout the measurement period.

  1. Neurodevelopment. Live imaging of adult neural stem cell behavior in the intact and injured zebrafish brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Joana S; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Rosario; Di Giaimo, Rossella; Baumgart, Emily Violette; Theis, Fabian J; Götz, Magdalena; Ninkovic, Jovica

    2015-05-15

    Adult neural stem cells are the source for restoring injured brain tissue. We used repetitive imaging to follow single stem cells in the intact and injured adult zebrafish telencephalon in vivo and found that neurons are generated by both direct conversions of stem cells into postmitotic neurons and via intermediate progenitors amplifying the neuronal output. We observed an imbalance of direct conversion consuming the stem cells and asymmetric and symmetric self-renewing divisions, leading to depletion of stem cells over time. After brain injury, neuronal progenitors are recruited to the injury site. These progenitors are generated by symmetric divisions that deplete the pool of stem cells, a mode of neurogenesis absent in the intact telencephalon. Our analysis revealed changes in the behavior of stem cells underlying generation of additional neurons during regeneration.

  2. Modified alkaline elution allows the measurement of intact apurinic sites in mammalian genomic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvy, C; Lefrançois, M; Bertrand, J R; Markovits, J

    2000-08-01

    The presence of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites in cell genomes is known to be toxic and mutagenic. These lesions are therefore repaired in cells by efficient enzymatic systems. However, a report (Nakamura and Swenberg, Cancer Res. 59 (1999) 2522-2526) indicates an unexpected high rate of endogenous apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites in genomic DNA in mammalian tissues. The technology used does not allow the authors to distinguish between intact AP sites and 3'cleaved AP sites. The corresponding values range between 2 and 4 sites per million of nucleotides in various human and rat tissues. Using a modified alkaline elution method we show here that the stationary level of intact AP sites is about 0.16 per million of nucleotides in leukemic mouse L1210 cells.

  3. 3D Nonlinear Numerical Simulation of Intact and Debonded Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Quan(陈权); Marcus L.

    2004-01-01

    To study the behaviour of reinforced concrete (RC) structures with sections of concrete removed and the reinforcement exposed, 3D nonlinear numerical analysis was performed upon both intact and debonded RC beams by using finite element techniques. The deformational characteristics and the ultimate loads were obtained through numerical models, as well as crack and stress distributions. The failure modes can also be deduced from computational results. Compared with intact beams, the normal assumptions of plane section behaviour is not hold true and the patterns of stress and strain are different in debonded RC beams. The numerical results show good consistency with experimental data. This kind of numerical simulation is a supplement to existing codes.

  4. Percutaneous penetration of uranium in rats after a contamination on intact or wounded skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petitot, F.; Gautier, C.; Moreels, A.M.; Frelon, S.; Paquet, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Laboratoire de Radiotoxicologie Experimentale, IRSN/DRPH/SRBE/LRTOX, Site du Tricastin, B.P. 166, 26702 Pierrelatte Cedex (France)

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work is to assess in vivo in a hairless rat model, the percutaneous diffusion of uranium through intact or wounded rat skin. Six types of wounds were simulated by excoriation and burns with 10 N HF, 2, 5 and 14 N HNO{sub 3} and 10 N NaOH on anesthetized hairless rats. Percutaneous penetration through wounded skin towards blood and subsequent urinary excretion of uranium was followed in vivo during 24 h. The influence of the physicochemical form (solution or powder) of uranyl nitrate (UN) on its percutaneous diffusion was also investigated. UN, even as a powder, can diffuse through intact skin. The presence of uranium in blood is more persistent and its urinary elimination is slower after an HF burn than after an HNO{sub 3} burn. Excoriation increases dramatically percutaneous absorption of UN. Thus, percutaneous diffusion of UN is largely dependent on skin barrier integrity with a particular importance of stratum corneum. (authors)

  5. Slow passive diffusion of NAD+ between intact isolated plant mitochondria and suspending medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuburger, M; Douce, R

    1983-11-15

    Isolated potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber mitochondria purified by isopycnic centrifugation in density gradients of Percoll were found to be highly intact, to be devoid of extramitochondrial contaminations and to retain a high rate of O2 consumption. When suspended in a medium that avoided rupture of the outer membrane, intact purified mitochondria progressively lost their NAD+ content by passive diffusion. This led to a slow decrease of oxoglutarate-dependent O2 consumption by isolated mitochondria. Addition of NAD+ to the medium restored the initial State-3 rate of oxoglutarate oxidation. The rate of NAD+ accumulation in the matrix space was concentration-dependent, exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics and was strongly inhibited by the analogue N-4-azido-2-nitrophenyl-4-aminobutyryl-NAD+.

  6. Persistent Truncus Arteriosus With Intact Ventricular Septum: Clinical, Hemodynamic and Short-term Surgical Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein Ajami

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Truncus arteriosus with intact ventricular septum is a rare and unique variant of persistent truncus arteriosus (PTA which usually presents with central cyanosis and congestive heart failure in neonate and early infancy. Associated cardiac and non-cardiac anomalies may affect morbidity and mortality of these patients. Case Presentation: We describe clinical presentation, echocardiography and angiographic features of a 7-month old boy with PTA and intact ventricular septum who underwent surgical repair of the anomaly at our institution. Operative findings, surgical procedure and short-term outcome are reported. Conclusions: While our patient had systemic pulmonary arterial pressure at the time of complete surgical repair, it was improved after surgery.

  7. Intact-Brain Analyses Reveal Distinct Information Carried by SNc Dopamine Subcircuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Talia N; Shilyansky, Carrie; Davidson, Thomas J; Evans, Kathryn E; Beier, Kevin T; Zalocusky, Kelly A; Crow, Ailey K; Malenka, Robert C; Luo, Liqun; Tomer, Raju; Deisseroth, Karl

    2015-07-30

    Recent progress in understanding the diversity of midbrain dopamine neurons has highlighted the importance--and the challenges--of defining mammalian neuronal cell types. Although neurons may be best categorized using inclusive criteria spanning biophysical properties, wiring of inputs, wiring of outputs, and activity during behavior, linking all of these measurements to cell types within the intact brains of living mammals has been difficult. Here, using an array of intact-brain circuit interrogation tools, including CLARITY, COLM, optogenetics, viral tracing, and fiber photometry, we explore the diversity of dopamine neurons within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). We identify two parallel nigrostriatal dopamine neuron subpopulations differing in biophysical properties, input wiring, output wiring to dorsomedial striatum (DMS) versus dorsolateral striatum (DLS), and natural activity patterns during free behavior. Our results reveal independently operating nigrostriatal information streams, with implications for understanding the logic of dopaminergic feedback circuits and the diversity of mammalian neuronal cell types.

  8. Forest Loss in Protected Areas and Intact Forest Landscapes: A Global Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Heino

    Full Text Available In spite of the high importance of forests, global forest loss has remained alarmingly high during the last decades. Forest loss at a global scale has been unveiled with increasingly finer spatial resolution, but the forest extent and loss in protected areas (PAs and in large intact forest landscapes (IFLs have not so far been systematically assessed. Moreover, the impact of protection on preserving the IFLs is not well understood. In this study we conducted a consistent assessment of the global forest loss in PAs and IFLs over the period 2000-2012. We used recently published global remote sensing based spatial forest cover change data, being a uniform and consistent dataset over space and time, together with global datasets on PAs' and IFLs' locations. Our analyses revealed that on a global scale 3% of the protected forest, 2.5% of the intact forest, and 1.5% of the protected intact forest were lost during the study period. These forest loss rates are relatively high compared to global total forest loss of 5% for the same time period. The variation in forest losses and in protection effect was large among geographical regions and countries. In some regions the loss in protected forests exceeded 5% (e.g. in Australia and Oceania, and North America and the relative forest loss was higher inside protected areas than outside those areas (e.g. in Mongolia and parts of Africa, Central Asia, and Europe. At the same time, protection was found to prevent forest loss in several countries (e.g. in South America and Southeast Asia. Globally, high area-weighted forest loss rates of protected and intact forests were associated with high gross domestic product and in the case of protected forests also with high proportions of agricultural land. Our findings reinforce the need for improved understanding of the reasons for the high forest losses in PAs and IFLs and strategies to prevent further losses.

  9. Forest Loss in Protected Areas and Intact Forest Landscapes: A Global Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heino, Matias; Kummu, Matti; Makkonen, Marika; Mulligan, Mark; Verburg, Peter H; Jalava, Mika; Räsänen, Timo A

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the high importance of forests, global forest loss has remained alarmingly high during the last decades. Forest loss at a global scale has been unveiled with increasingly finer spatial resolution, but the forest extent and loss in protected areas (PAs) and in large intact forest landscapes (IFLs) have not so far been systematically assessed. Moreover, the impact of protection on preserving the IFLs is not well understood. In this study we conducted a consistent assessment of the global forest loss in PAs and IFLs over the period 2000-2012. We used recently published global remote sensing based spatial forest cover change data, being a uniform and consistent dataset over space and time, together with global datasets on PAs' and IFLs' locations. Our analyses revealed that on a global scale 3% of the protected forest, 2.5% of the intact forest, and 1.5% of the protected intact forest were lost during the study period. These forest loss rates are relatively high compared to global total forest loss of 5% for the same time period. The variation in forest losses and in protection effect was large among geographical regions and countries. In some regions the loss in protected forests exceeded 5% (e.g. in Australia and Oceania, and North America) and the relative forest loss was higher inside protected areas than outside those areas (e.g. in Mongolia and parts of Africa, Central Asia, and Europe). At the same time, protection was found to prevent forest loss in several countries (e.g. in South America and Southeast Asia). Globally, high area-weighted forest loss rates of protected and intact forests were associated with high gross domestic product and in the case of protected forests also with high proportions of agricultural land. Our findings reinforce the need for improved understanding of the reasons for the high forest losses in PAs and IFLs and strategies to prevent further losses.

  10. Ion Channel Photoswitch Reveals Crosstalk between Intact and Injured Nociceptive Neurons after Nerve Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Herold, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The development of novel techniques utilizing the advantages of light has created an optical revolution for neuroscience research. Controlling and probing neuronal function with light has provided unprecedented insights by being able to manipulate many neurons simultaneously in intact circuits and living organisms.In my dissertation research, I used novel optical methods to probe the cellular permeability of sensory neuron populations. Primary nociceptive afferents detect, modulate and integr...

  11. Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles: Behavior towards Intact and Impaired Human Skin and Keratinocytes Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Marcella Mauro; Matteo Crosera; Marco Pelin; Chiara Florio; Francesca Bellomo; Gianpiero Adami; Piero Apostoli; Giuseppe Palma; Massimo Bovenzi; Marco Campanini; Francesca Larese Filon

    2015-01-01

    Skin absorption and toxicity on keratinocytes of cobalt oxide nanoparticles (Co3O4NPs) have been investigated. Co3O4NPs are commonly used in industrial products and biomedicine. There is evidence that these nanoparticles can cause membrane damage and genotoxicity in vitro, but no data are available on their skin absorption and cytotoxicity on keratinocytes. Two independent 24 h in vitro experiments were performed using Franz diffusion cells, using intact (experiment 1) and needle-abraded huma...

  12. In vitro absorption of metal powders through intact and damaged human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filon, Francesca Larese; D'Agostin, Flavia; Crosera, Matteo; Adami, Gianpiero; Bovenzi, Massimo; Maina, Giovanni

    2009-06-01

    The bioavailability of metals, which are known as important contact allergens, is decisive for the development and the maintenance of contact dermatitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the percutaneous penetration of metal powders of cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) and the effect of skin lesions on skin absorption. In vitro permeation experiments were performed using the Franz diffusion cells with intact and damaged human skin. Physiological solution was used as receiving phase and metal powders (Co, Ni and Cr) dispersed in synthetic sweat at pH 4.5 were applied as donor phase to the outer surface of the skin for 24h. The amount of each metal permeating the skin was analysed by electro-thermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (ETAAS). Donor solution analysis demonstrated that metals were present as ions. Measurements of metals skin content were also exploited. Median Co and Ni concentrations found in the receiving phase were significantly higher when Co and Ni powders were applied on the abraded skin than after application on the intact skin (3566 and 2631ngcm(-2) vs. 8.4 and 31ngcm(-2), respectively). No significant difference was found in Cr permeation through intact and damaged skin. The measurement of metals skin content showed that Co, Ni and Cr concentrations were significantly higher in the damaged skin than in the intact skin. Co and Ni ions concentrations increased significantly when the donor solutions were applied on the damaged skin, while Cr ions concentrations did not increase. This study demonstrated that Co and Ni powders can permeate through damaged skin more easily than Cr powder, which has probably a stronger skin proteins binding capacity. Therefore, our results suggest that is necessary to prevent skin contamination when using toxic substances because a small injury to the skin barrier can significantly increase skin absorption.

  13. DETERMINATION OF THE MINIMUM INTACT DIMENSIONS AVAILABLE IN PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF LASER CUTTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Gyorgy HORVATH

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The reuse of wastes is one of the main requirements of sustainable wood processing. Technologies available for waste management however are currently suited to the reuse of large quantities. This study investigates the utilisation of individual pieces of sawn wood and veneer wastes by laser cutting, with special emphasis on the search for the practical minimum intact dimension that can be produced by laser cutting

  14. Expression of the intact C4 type pepc gene cloned from maize in transgenic winter wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xuqing; ZHANG Xiaodong; LIANG Rongqi; ZHANG Liquan; YANG Fengping; CAO Mingqing

    2004-01-01

    Maize intact C4-pepc gene was amplified through LA-PCR and successfully sub-cloned into modified vector pGreen0029 to form a stable expression construct named as Pbac214 (12 kb), which contains CaMV 35S promoter driven bar gene as selection marker. Comparing the cloned DNA sequences (6.7 kb) with published maize C4-pepc gene (GenBank accession E17154) sequences, the identity of DNA sequence alignment is 98.96%. There are only 49 differences between these two intact DNA sequences, of which 13 occur in the region of promoter, 18 in introns, and 18 in exons. The homology of Mrna sequence alignment is 99.38%, and the putative amino acids sequence identity is 99.38%. There are only 15 differences between these two Mrna, and these differences bring 4 sites mutant on the putative amino acids of PEPC protein. Through biolistic bombardment of PDS1000/He system, expression vector Pbac214 has been transformed into winter wheat. Southern blotting results show that the intact C4-pepc gene has been integrated into genome of winter wheat. SDS-PAGE analysis of leaf soluble protein in transgenic wheat showed that the intact C4-pepc gene was well transcribed, spliced and translated as in maize. The enzyme activity of leaf PEPC in transgenic wheat has been detected. The activities of leaf PEPC increased over 3-5 times in some transgenic plants. The data of photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate of transgenic wheat flag leaves showed that the C4-pepc gene can increase the photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate of transgenic wheat.

  15. Large Right Ventricular Clot in Pulmonary Atresia With Intact Ventricular Septum: In Defense of Biventricular Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Nilanjan; Ghosh, Rajarshi; Awasthy, Neeraj; Iyer, Parvathi U; Girotra, Sumir; Iyer, Krishna S

    2016-09-01

    Thrombus formation within the right ventricle (RV) in the setting of pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum (PAIVS) is not a very common occurrence and can be catastrophic. We present the case of a seven-month-old child with PAIVS and RV clot who successfully underwent biventricular repair. We discuss the interesting case and the rationale for management by means of biventricular repair over single ventricle repair when feasible in such a setting.

  16. Atomic force microscopy of swelling and hardening of intact erythrocytes fixed on substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalisov, M. M.; Timoshchuk, K. I.; Ankudinov, A. V.; Timoshenko, T. E.

    2017-02-01

    Peak force measurements with the aid of atomic force microscopy are used to quantitatively map nanomechanical properties of intact erythrocytes of rats under conditions that are close to physiological conditions. Erythrocytes that are immobilized on the substrate preliminary processed using poly-L-lysine predominantly exhibit plane shape. However, cells may also exhibit stepwise transformation to semispherical objects with an increase in volume and hardening. Possible reasons for such transformations are discussed.

  17. Efficient and simple electro-transformation of intact cells for the basidiomycetous fungus Pseudozyma hubeiensis

    OpenAIRE

    Konishi, Masaaki; Yoshida, Yuta; Ikarashi, Mizuki; Horiuchi, Junichi; 小西, 正朗

    2015-01-01

    Objective: An electroporation procedure for the species was investigated to develop an efficient transformation method for the basidiomycetous fungus Pseudozyma hubeiensis SY62, a strong biosurfactant-producing host. Results: A plasmid, pUXV1emgfp including green fluorescence protein as a reporter gene, was constructed to determine the transformation and expression of foreign genes. Optimal electroporation conditions achieved 44.8 transformants μg−1 plasmid competency (intact cells) without p...

  18. Regulation of Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Activity in Intact Wheat Leaves by Light, CO2, and Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    MÄCHLER, F.; NÖSBERGER, J.

    2017-01-01

    The activity of the enzyme ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) was estimated after rapidly extracting it from intact wheat leaves pretreated under different light and CO2 levels. No HCO3− was added to the extraction buffer since it is shown to inhibit RuBPCase. The activity increased as light intensity or CO2 concentration during pretreatment was increased. Enzyme activity increased as temperature during pretreatment was decreased. Light activation did not affect the affinity of RuBP...

  19. Investigation of Ion Transmission Effects on Intact Protein Quantification in a Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Evelyn H.; Appulage, Dananjaya Kalu; McAllister, Erin A.; Schug, Kevin A.

    2017-09-01

    Recently, direct intact protein quantitation using triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (QqQ-MS) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was demonstrated (J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 27, 886-896 (2016)). Even though QqQ-MS is known to provide extraordinary detection sensitivity for quantitative analysis, we found that intact proteins exhibited a less than 5% ion transmission from the first quadrupole to the third quadrupole mass analyzer in the presence of zero collision energy (ZCE). With the goal to enhance intact protein quantitation sensitivity, ion scattering effects, proton transfer effects, and mass filter resolution widths were examined for their contributions to the lost signal. Protein standards myoglobin and ubiquitin along with small molecules reserpine and vancomycin were analyzed together with various collision induced dissociation (CID) gases (N2, He, and Ar) at different gas pressures. Mass resolution settings played a significant role in reducing ion transmission signal. By narrowing the mass resolution window by 0.35 m/z on each side, roughly 75%-90% of the ion signal was lost. The multiply charged proteins experienced additional proton transfer effects, corresponding to 10-fold signal reduction. A study of increased sensitivity of the method was also conducted with various MRM summation techniques. Although the degree of enhancement was analyte-dependent, an up to 17-fold increase in sensitivity was observed for ubiquitin using a summation of multiple MRM transitions. Biological matrix, human urine, and equine plasma were spiked with proteins to demonstrate the specificity of the method. This study provides additional insight into optimizing the use and sensitivity of QqQ-MS for intact protein quantification. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Structural Studies on Intact Clostridium botulinum Neurotoxins Complexed with Inhibitors Leading to Drug Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Clostridium botulinum Neurotoxins Complexed with Inhibitors Leading to Drug Design PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Subramanyam Swaminathan...Inhibitors Leading to Drug Design 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-02-2-0011 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Subramanyam Swaminathan, Ph.D. 5d...on Intact Clostridium botulinum Neurotoxins Complexed with Inhibitors Leading to Drug Design Annual Report for the Period ending January 2008

  1. Cyanide reduction by nitrogenase in intact cells of Rhodopseudomonas gelatinose Molisch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materassi, R; Balloni, W; Florenzano, G

    1977-01-01

    Intact cells of Rhodopseudomonas gelatinosa, grown in N-free medium, reduce cyanide to methane and ammonia at a rate 5--8 times lower than acetylene. Cyanide reduction in whole cells is distinctly more sensitive to cyanide inhibition compared with enzyme preparations. These results are discussed in view of the exploitation of nitrogen-fixing photobacteria in the anaerobic detoxification of cyanide-containing wastewaters.

  2. The Effect of Self-Transcendence on Depression in Cognitively Intact Nursing Home Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Gørill Haugan; Siw Tone Innstrand

    2012-01-01

    Aims. This study's aim was to test the effects of self-transcendence on depression among cognitively intact nursing home patients. Background. Depression is considered the most frequent mental disorder among the elderly population. Specifically, the depression rate among nursing home patients is three to four times higher than that among community-dwelling elderly. Therefore, finding new and alternative ways to prevent and decrease depression is of great importance for nursing home patients' ...

  3. Bioengineered human IAS reconstructs with functional and molecular properties similar to intact IAS

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Jagmohan; Rattan, Satish

    2012-01-01

    Because of its critical importance in rectoanal incontinence, we determined the feasibility to reconstruct internal anal sphincter (IAS) from human IAS smooth muscle cells (SMCs) with functional and molecular attributes similar to the intact sphincter. The reconstructs were developed using SMCs from the circular smooth muscle layer of the human IAS, grown in smooth muscle differentiation media under sterile conditions in Sylgard-coated tissue culture plates with central Sylgard posts. The bas...

  4. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study of intact cells of the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum brasilense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamnev, A. A.; Ristić, M.; Antonyuk, L. P.; Chernyshev, A. V.; Ignatov, V. V.

    1997-06-01

    The data of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic measurements performed on intact cells of the soil nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum brasilense grown in a standard medium and under the conditions of an increased metal uptake are compared and discussed. The structural FTIR information obtained is considered together with atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) data on the content of metal cations in the bacterial cells. Some methodological aspects concerning preparation of bacterial cell samples for FTIR measurements are also discussed.

  5. The plant host can affect the encapsidation of brome mosaic virus (BMV) RNA: BMV virions are surprisingly heterogeneous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Peng; Vaughan, Robert C; Tragesser, Brady; Hoover, Haley; Kao, C Cheng

    2014-03-01

    Brome mosaic virus (BMV) packages its genomic and subgenomic RNAs into three separate viral particles. BMV purified from barley, wheat, and tobacco have distinct relative abundances of the encapsidated RNAs. We seek to identify the basis for the host-dependent differences in viral RNA encapsidation. Sequencing of the viral RNAs revealed recombination events in the 3' untranslated region of RNA1 of BMV purified from barley and wheat, but not from tobacco. However, the relative amounts of the BMV RNAs that accumulated in barley and wheat are similar and RNA accumulation is not sufficient to account for the difference in RNA encapsidation. Virions purified from barley and wheat were found to differ in their isoelectric points, resistance to proteolysis, and contacts between the capsid residues and the RNA. Mass spectrometric analyses revealed that virions from the three hosts had different post-translational modifications that should impact the physiochemical properties of the virions. Another major source of variation in RNA encapsidation was due to the purification of BMV particles to homogeneity. Highly enriched BMV present in lysates had a surprising range of sizes, buoyant densities, and distinct relative amounts of encapsidated RNAs. These results show that the encapsidated BMV RNAs reflect a combination of host effects on the physiochemical properties of the viral capsids and the enrichment of a subset of virions. The previously unexpected heterogeneity in BMV should influence the timing of the infection and also the host innate immune responses.

  6. Benford's law predicted digit distribution of aggregated income taxes: the surprising conformity of Italian cities and regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Tariq Ahmad; Ausloos, Marcel; Cerqueti, Roy

    2014-11-01

    The yearly aggregated tax income data of all, more than 8000, Italian municipalities are analyzed for a period of five years, from 2007 to 2011, to search for conformity or not with Benford's law, a counter-intuitive phenomenon observed in large tabulated data where the occurrence of numbers having smaller initial digits is more favored than those with larger digits. This is done in anticipation that large deviations from Benford's law will be found in view of tax evasion supposedly being widespread across Italy. Contrary to expectations, we show that the overall tax income data for all these years is in excellent agreement with Benford's law. Furthermore, we also analyze the data of Calabria, Campania and Sicily, the three Italian regions known for strong presence of mafia, to see if there are any marked deviations from Benford's law. Again, we find that all yearly data sets for Calabria and Sicily agree with Benford's law whereas only the 2007 and 2008 yearly data show departures from the law for Campania. These results are again surprising in view of underground and illegal nature of economic activities of mafia which significantly contribute to tax evasion. Some hypothesis for the found conformity is presented.

  7. Medial superior olivary neurons receive surprisingly few excitatory and inhibitory inputs with balanced strength and short-term dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couchman, Kiri; Grothe, Benedikt; Felmy, Felix

    2010-12-15

    Neurons in the medial superior olive (MSO) process microsecond interaural time differences, the major cue for localizing low-frequency sounds, by comparing the relative arrival time of binaural, glutamatergic excitatory inputs. This coincidence detection mechanism is additionally shaped by highly specialized glycinergic inhibition. Traditionally, it is assumed that the binaural inputs are conveyed by many independent fibers, but such an anatomical arrangement may decrease temporal precision. Short-term depression on the other hand might enhance temporal fidelity during ongoing activity. For the first time we show that binaural coincidence detection in MSO neurons may require surprisingly few but strong inputs, challenging long-held assumptions about mammalian coincidence detection. This study exclusively uses adult gerbils for in vitro electrophysiology, single-cell electroporation and immunohistochemistry to characterize the size and short-term plasticity of inputs to the MSO. We find that the excitatory and inhibitory inputs to the MSO are well balanced both in strength and short-term dynamics, redefining this fastest of all mammalian coincidence detector circuits.

  8. Predictors of attachment security in preschool children from intact and divorced families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Hira; Murray, Ann D

    2005-09-01

    The authors selected 58 mother-child dyads from divorced and intact families to participate in a study on the impact of divorce on preschoolers' attachment security. The authors explored pathways that lead to security of attachment. They found that mothers from divorced families were younger, had lower income levels, and had lower levels of education compared with their intact counterparts. Divorced mothers also reported significantly higher levels of stress, depression, need for social support, and conflict with their spouses. Mothers from intact families were more likely to use positive (authoritative) parenting styles compared with divorced mothers. Children in the divorced group had lower security scores on the Attachment Q-Set instrument (E. Waters, 1995). Regression analyses indicated that parenting style made a direct (independent) contribution to attachment security. In addition, temperament was related to attachment security, but temperament did not diminish the association of parenting style with attachment security. Furthermore, regression analyses indicated that the relationship of divorce to attachment security was mediated by parenting style.

  9. Biomechanical Comparison Of Intact Lumbar Lamp Spine And Endoscopic Discectomized Lamp Spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Karakasli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Purpose of current study was biomechanical comparison of changes wrought on motion segments after minimally invasive percutan endoscopic discectomized and intact spine. Materials and Methods: We prepared ten fresh-frozen lamb spines were used for this study. The spine of each specimen was dissected between L4-L5. The biomechanical tests for both intact spine and discectomized spine were performed by using axial compression testing machine (AG-I 10 kN, Shimadzu, Japanese. The axial compression was applied to all specimens with the loading speed of 5 mm/min. 8400 N/mm moment was applied to each specimen to achieve flexion and extension motions, right and left bending by a specially designed fixture. Results: In axial compression and flexion tests, the specimens were more stable according to displacement values. The displacement values of sectioned specimens were closer to intact specimens. Only displacement values of left-bending anteroposterior test for both situations were significant (0.05 ;#8805; P. Conclusion: PTED hasn't biomechanical and cilinical disadvantages. Endoscopic discectomy hadn't any disadvantages in stability. Only anterior-posterior displacement values of left bending test were statistically significant. We consider that cause of these results were due to the fact that all specimens had percutan transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED from left side.

  10. Membrane-bound ATPase of intact vacuoles and tonoplasts isolated from mature plant tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, W.; Wagner, G.J.; Siegelman, H.W.; Hind, G.

    1977-01-01

    Intact vacuoles were isolated from petals of Hippeastrum and Tulipa (Wagner, G. J. and Siegelman, H. W. (1975) Science 190, 1298 to 1299). The ATPase activity of fresh vacuole suspensions was found to be 2 to 3 times that of protoplasts from the same tissue. 70 to 80% of the ATPase activity of intact vacuoles was recovered in tonoplast preparations. The antibiotic Dio-9 at 6 ..mu..g/10/sup 6/ vacuoles or protoplasts causes 40% inhibition. However, only the protoplast ATPase is sensitive to oligomycin. N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbondiimide (DCCD) slightly stimulates ATPase activity in both vacuole and protoplast suspensions, whereas ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide) (EDAC) strongly inhibits. Spectrophotometric studies show that in the petal the vacuolar contents have a pH of 4.0 for Tulipa and 4.3 for Hippeastrum, whereas the intact isolated vacuole has an internal pH of 7.0 (in pH 8.0 buffer) for Tulipa and about 7.3 for Hippeastrum. Internal ion concentrations of 150, 46, 30, 30 and 6 mM were found for K/sup +/, Na/sup +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, Cl/sup -/, and Ca/sup 2 +/ respectively, which are about the same as those in protoplasts.

  11. Multiple Reaction Monitoring for Direct Quantitation of Intact Proteins Using a Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Evelyn H; Combe, Peter C; Schug, Kevin A

    2016-05-01

    Methods that can efficiently and effectively quantify proteins are needed to support increasing demand in many bioanalytical fields. Triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (QQQ-MS) is sensitive and specific, and it is routinely used to quantify small molecules. However, low resolution fragmentation-dependent MS detection can pose inherent difficulties for intact proteins. In this research, we investigated variables that affect protein and fragment ion signals to enable protein quantitation using QQQ-MS. Collision induced dissociation gas pressure and collision energy were found to be the most crucial variables for optimization. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions for seven standard proteins, including lysozyme, ubiquitin, cytochrome c from both equine and bovine, lactalbumin, myoglobin, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were determined. Assuming the eventual goal of applying such methodology is to analyze protein in biological fluids, a liquid chromatography method was developed. Calibration curves of six standard proteins (excluding PSA) were obtained to show the feasibility of intact protein quantification using QQQ-MS. Linearity (2-3 orders), limits of detection (0.5-50 μg/mL), accuracy (protein. Sensitivities for different proteins varied considerably. Biological fluids, including human urine, equine plasma, and bovine plasma were used to demonstrate the specificity of the approach. The purpose of this model study was to identify, study, and demonstrate the advantages and challenges for QQQ-MS-based intact protein quantitation, a largely underutilized approach to date.

  12. Multiple Reaction Monitoring for Direct Quantitation of Intact Proteins Using a Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Evelyn H.; Combe, Peter C.; Schug, Kevin A.

    2016-05-01

    Methods that can efficiently and effectively quantify proteins are needed to support increasing demand in many bioanalytical fields. Triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (QQQ-MS) is sensitive and specific, and it is routinely used to quantify small molecules. However, low resolution fragmentation-dependent MS detection can pose inherent difficulties for intact proteins. In this research, we investigated variables that affect protein and fragment ion signals to enable protein quantitation using QQQ-MS. Collision induced dissociation gas pressure and collision energy were found to be the most crucial variables for optimization. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions for seven standard proteins, including lysozyme, ubiquitin, cytochrome c from both equine and bovine, lactalbumin, myoglobin, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were determined. Assuming the eventual goal of applying such methodology is to analyze protein in biological fluids, a liquid chromatography method was developed. Calibration curves of six standard proteins (excluding PSA) were obtained to show the feasibility of intact protein quantification using QQQ-MS. Linearity (2-3 orders), limits of detection (0.5-50 μg/mL), accuracy (protein. Sensitivities for different proteins varied considerably. Biological fluids, including human urine, equine plasma, and bovine plasma were used to demonstrate the specificity of the approach. The purpose of this model study was to identify, study, and demonstrate the advantages and challenges for QQQ-MS-based intact protein quantitation, a largely underutilized approach to date.

  13. Rapid Prediction of Moisture Content in Intact Green Coffee Beans Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Adnan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Moisture content (MC is one of the most important quality parameters of green coffee beans. Therefore, its fast and reliable measurement is necessary. This study evaluated the feasibility of near infrared (NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics for rapid and non-destructive prediction of MC in intact green coffee beans of both Coffea arabica (Arabica and Coffea canephora (Robusta species. Diffuse reflectance (log 1/R spectra of intact beans were acquired using a bench top Fourier transform NIR instrument. MC was determined gravimetrically according to The International Organization for Standardization (ISO 6673. Samples were split into subsets for calibration (n = 64 and independent validation (n = 44. A three-component partial least squares regression (PLSR model using raw NIR spectra yielded a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP of 0.80% MC; a four component PLSR model using scatter corrected spectra yielded a RMSEP of 0.57% MC. A simplified PLS model using seven selected wavelengths (1155, 1212, 1340, 1409, 1724, 1908, and 2249 nm yielded a similar accuracy (RMSEP: 0.77% MC which opens the possibility of creating cheaper NIR instruments. In conclusion, NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy appears to be suitable for rapid and reliable MC prediction in intact green coffee; no separate model for Arabica and Robusta species is needed.

  14. Rapid Prediction of Moisture Content in Intact Green Coffee Beans Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Adnan; Hörsten, Dieter von; Pawelzik, Elke; Mörlein, And Daniel

    2017-05-19

    Moisture content (MC) is one of the most important quality parameters of green coffee beans. Therefore, its fast and reliable measurement is necessary. This study evaluated the feasibility of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics for rapid and non-destructive prediction of MC in intact green coffee beans of both Coffeaarabica (Arabica) and Coffeacanephora (Robusta) species. Diffuse reflectance (log 1/R) spectra of intact beans were acquired using a bench top Fourier transform NIR instrument. MC was determined gravimetrically according to The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 6673. Samples were split into subsets for calibration (n = 64) and independent validation (n = 44). A three-component partial least squares regression (PLSR) model using raw NIR spectra yielded a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.80% MC; a four component PLSR model using scatter corrected spectra yielded a RMSEP of 0.57% MC. A simplified PLS model using seven selected wavelengths (1155, 1212, 1340, 1409, 1724, 1908, and 2249 nm) yielded a similar accuracy (RMSEP: 0.77% MC) which opens the possibility of creating cheaper NIR instruments. In conclusion, NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy appears to be suitable for rapid and reliable MC prediction in intact green coffee; no separate model for Arabica and Robusta species is needed.

  15. The intact structural form of LLO in endosomes cannot protect against listeriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Del Rio, Estela; Frande-Cabanes, Elisabet; Tobes, Raquel; Pareja, Eduardo; Lecea-Cuello, M. Jesús; Ruiz-Sáez, Marta; Carrasco-Marín, Eugenio; Alvarez-Dominguez, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    LLO is the major immuno-dominant antigen in listeriosis and is also required for protective immunity. Two forms of LLO can be observed in endosomal membranes, a LLO intact form and a Ctsd-processed LLO1-491 form. Endosomes obtained from resting macrophages contained only LLO intact forms, while endosomes obtained from IFN-activated macrophages contained both forms. Both types of endosomes elicited LLO90-91/CD8+ and LLO189-201/CD4+ specific immune responses. However, only endosomes containing the Ctsd-processed LLO1-491 form showed significant CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses similar to LM infected bone marrow derived macrophages and characteristic of protective Listeria immunity. Moreover, endosomes with intact LLO could not confer protection as vaccine carriers against murine listeriosis. While endosomes with Ctsd-processed LLO1-491 form showed a moderate ability, slightly lower than high efficiency vaccine vectors as MØ infected with LM. These studies argue that all cell-free membrane vesicles might serve as valid vaccine carriers against infectious agents. Exclusively those cell-free vesicles MIIC competent for LLO processing are protective vaccines vectors since they recruit significant numbers of mature dendritic cells to the vaccination sites and contain a LLO1-491 form that might be accessible for MHC class I and class II antigen presentation. PMID:22003433

  16. Microchip capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry of intact proteins using uncoated Ormocomp microchips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikanen, Tiina; Aura, Susanna; Franssila, Sami; Kotiaho, Tapio; Kostiainen, Risto

    2012-01-20

    We present rapid (microchips. The microchips are fabricated fully of commercial inorganic-organic hybrid material, Ormocomp, by UV-embossing and adhesive Ormocomp-Ormocomp bonding (CE microchannels). A sheath-flow ESI interface is monolithically integrated with the UV-embossed separation channels by cutting a rectangular emitter tip in the end with a dicing saw. As a result, electrospray was produced from the corner of chip with good reproducibility between parallel tips (stability within 3.8-9.2% RSD). Thanks to its inherent biocompatibility and stable (negative) surface charge, Ormocomp microchips enable efficient intact protein analysis with up to ∼10(4) theoretical separation plates per meter without any chemical or physical surface modification before analysis. The same microchip setup is also feasible for rapid peptide sequencing and mass fingerprinting and shows excellent migration time repeatability from run to run for both peptides (5.6-5.9% RSD, n=4) and intact proteins (1.3-7.5% RSD, n=3). Thus, the Ormocomp microchips provide a versatile new tool for MS-based proteomics. Particularly, the feasibility of the Ormocomp chips for rapid analysis of intact proteins with such a simple setup is a valuable increment to the current technology.

  17. The effect of self-transcendence on depression in cognitively intact nursing home patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugan, Gørill; Innstrand, Siw Tone

    2012-01-01

    Aims. This study's aim was to test the effects of self-transcendence on depression among cognitively intact nursing home patients. Background. Depression is considered the most frequent mental disorder among the elderly population. Specifically, the depression rate among nursing home patients is three to four times higher than that among community-dwelling elderly. Therefore, finding new and alternative ways to prevent and decrease depression is of great importance for nursing home patients' well-being. Self-transcendence is related to spiritual as well as nonspiritual factors, and it is described as a correlate and resource for well-being among vulnerable populations and at the end of life. Methods. A two-factor construct of the self-transcendence scale (interpersonal and intrapersonal) and the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) was applied. A sample of 202 cognitively intact nursing home patients in central Norway was selected to respond to the questionnaires in 2008/2009. Results. A hypothesized SEM model demonstrated significant direct relationships and total effects of self-transcendence on depression. Conclusion and Implication for Practice. Facilitating patients' self-transcendence, both interpersonally and intrapersonally, might decrease depression among cognitively intact nursing home patients.

  18. Multi-Axis Prosthetic Knee Resembles Alpine Skiing Movements of an Intact Leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Demšar, Jože Duhovnik, Blaž Lešnik, Matej Supej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to analyse the flexion angles of the ski boot, ankle and knee joints of an above-knee prosthesis and to compare them with an intact leg and a control group of skiers. One subject with an above-knee amputation of the right leg and eight healthy subjects simulated the movement of a skiing turn by performing two-leg squats in laboratory conditions. By adding additional loads in proportion to body weight (BW; +1/3 BW, +2/3 BW, +3/3 BW, various skiing regimes were simulated. Change of Flexion Angle (CoFA and Range of Motion (RoM in the ski boot, ankle and knee joints were calculated and compared. An average RoM in the skiing boot on the side of prosthesis (4.4 ± 1.1° was significantly lower compared to an intact leg (5.9 ± 1.8° and the control group (6.5 ± 2.3°. In the ankle joint, the average RoM was determined to be 13.2±2.9° in the prosthesis, 12.7 ± 2.8° in an intact leg and 14.8±3.6 in the control group. However, the RoM of the knee joint in the prosthesis (42.2 ± 4.2° was significantly larger than that of the intact leg (34.7 ± 4.4°. The average RoM of the knee joint in the control group was 47.8 ± 5.4°. The influences of additional loads on the kinematics of the lower extremities were different on the side of the prosthesis and on the intact leg. In contrast, additional loads did not produce any significant differences in the control group. Although different CoFAs in the ski boot, ankle and knee joints were used, an above-knee prosthesis with a built-in multi-axis prosthetic knee enables comparable leg kinematics in simulated alpine skiing.

  19. Food insecurity and mental health: surprising trends among community health volunteers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia during the 2008 food crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Kenneth C; Hadley, Craig; Tesfaye, Fikru; Shifferaw, Selamawit

    2010-05-01

    The 2008 food crisis may have increased household food insecurity and caused distress among impoverished populations in low-income countries. Policy researchers have attempted to quantify the impact that a sharp rise in food prices might have on population wellbeing by asking what proportion of households would drop below conventional poverty lines given a set increase in prices. Our understanding of the impact of food crises can be extended by conducting micro-level ethnographic studies. This study examined self-reported household food insecurity (FI) and common mental disorders (CMD) among 110 community health AIDS care volunteers living in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia during the height of the 2008 food crisis. We used generalized estimating equations that account for associations between responses given by the same participants over 3 survey rounds during 2008, to model the longitudinal response profiles of FI, CMD symptoms, and socio-behavioral and micro-economic covariates. To help explain the patterns observed in the response profiles and regression results, we examine qualitative data that contextualize the cognition and reporting behavior of AIDS care volunteers, as well as potential observation biases inherent in longitudinal, community-based research. Our data show that food insecurity is highly prevalent, that is it associated with household economic factors, and that it is linked to mental health. Surprisingly, the volunteers in this urban sample did not report increasingly severe FI or CMD during the peak of the 2008 food crisis. This is a counter-intuitive result that would not be predicted in analyses of population-level data such as those used in econometrics simulations. But when these results are linked to real people in specific urban ecologies, they can improve our understanding of the psychosocial consequences of food price shocks.

  20. Surprisingly low compliance to local guidelines for risk factor based screening for gestational diabetes mellitus - A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winkvist Anna

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is routine during pregnancy in many countries in the world. The screening programs are either based on general screening offered to all pregnant women or risk factor based screening stipulated in local clinical guidelines. The aims of this study were to investigate: 1 the compliance with local guidelines of screening for GDM and 2 the outcomes of pregnancy and birth in relation to risk factors of GDM and whether or not exposed to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. Methods This study design was a population-based retrospective cross-sectional study of 822 women. A combination of questionnaire data and data collected from medical records was applied. Compliance to the local guidelines of risk factor based screening for GDM was examined and a comparison of outcomes of pregnancy and delivery in relation to risk factor groups for GDM was performed. Results Of the 822 participants, 257 (31.3% women fulfilled at least one criterion for being exposed to screening for GDM according to the local clinical guidelines. However, only 79 (30.7% of these women were actually exposed to OGTT and of those correctly exposed for screening, seven women were diagnosed with GDM. Women developing risk factors for GDM during pregnancy had a substantially increased risk of giving birth to an infant with macrosomia. Conclusion Surprisingly low compliance with the local clinical guidelines for screening for GDM during pregnancy was found. Furthermore, the prevalence of the risk factors of GDM in our study was almost doubled compared to previous Swedish studies. Pregnant women developing risk factors of GDM during pregnancy were found to be at substantially increased risk of giving birth to an infant with macrosomia. There is a need of actions improving compliance to the local guidelines.

  1. A new in vivo model of pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration reveals a surprising role for transcriptional regulation in pathogenesis.

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    Varun ePandey

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration (PKAN is a neurodegenerative disorder with a poorly understood molecular mechanism. It is caused by mutations in Pantothenate Kinase, the first enzyme in the Coenzyme A (CoA biosynthetic pathway. Here, we developed a Drosophila model of PKAN (tim-fbl flies that allows us to continuously monitor the modeled disease in the brain. In tim-fbl flies, downregulation of fumble, the Drosophila PanK homologue in the cells containing a circadian clock results in characteristic features of PKAN such as developmental lethality, hypersensitivity to oxidative stress, and diminished life span. Despite quasi-normal circadian transcriptional rhythms, tim-fbl flies display brain-specific aberrant circadian locomotor rhythms, and a unique transcriptional signature. Comparison with expression data from flies exposed to paraquat demonstrates that, as previously suggested, pathways others than oxidative stress are affected by PANK downregulation. Surprisingly we found a significant decrease in the expression of key components of the photoreceptor recycling pathways, which could lead to retinal degeneration, a hallmark of PKAN. Importantly, these defects are not accompanied by changes in structural components in eye genes suggesting that changes in gene expression in the eye precede and may cause the retinal degeneration. Indeed tim-fbl flies have diminished response to light transitions, and their altered day/night patterns of activity demonstrates defects in light perception. This suggest that retinal lesions are not solely due to oxidative stress and demonstrates a role for the transcriptional response to CoA deficiency underlying the defects observed in dPanK deficient flies. Moreover, in the present study we developed a new fly model that can be applied to other diseases and that allows the assessment of neurodegeneration in the brains of living flies.

  2. The second face of blindness: processing speed deficits in the intact visual field after pre- and post-chiasmatic lesions.

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    Michał Bola

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Damage along the visual pathway results in a visual field defect (scotoma, which retinotopically corresponds to the damaged neural tissue. Other parts of the visual field, processed by the uninjured tissue, are considered to be intact. However, perceptual deficits have been observed in the "intact" visual field, but these functional impairments are poorly understood. We now studied temporal processing deficits in the intact visual field of patients with either pre- or post-chiasmatic lesions to better understand the functional consequences of partial blindness. METHODS: Patients with pre- (n = 53 or post-chiasmatic lesions (n = 98 were tested with high resolution perimetry--a method used to map visual fields with supra-threshold light stimuli. Reaction time of detections in the intact visual field was then analyzed as an indicator of processing speed and correlated with features of the visual field defect. RESULTS: Patients from both groups exhibited processing speed deficits in their presumably "intact" field as indicated by comparison to a normative sample. Further, in both groups processing speed was found to be a function of two factors. Firstly, a spatially restricted (retinotopic influence of the scotoma was seen in longer reaction times when stimuli were presented in intact field sectors close to the defect. Secondly, patients with larger scotomata had on average longer reaction times in their intact field indicating a more general (non-retinotopic influence of the scotoma. CONCLUSIONS: Processing speed deficits in the "intact" visual field of patients with visual system damage demonstrate that visual system lesions have more widespread consequences on perception than previously thought. Because dysfunctions of the seeing field are expected to contribute to subjective vision, including visual tests of the presumed "intact" field may help to better understand vision loss and to improve methods of vision restoration and

  3. Mechanical analysis of the human cadaveric thoracic spine with intact rib cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannen, Erin M; Anderson, John T; Arnold, Paul M; Friis, Elizabeth A

    2015-07-16

    The goal of this study was to characterize the overall in-plane and basic coupled motion of a cadaveric human thoracic spine with intact true ribs. Researchers are becoming increasingly interested in the thoracic spine due to both the high prevalence of injury and pain in the region and also innovative surgical techniques that utilize the rib cage. Computational models can be useful tools to predict loading patterns and understand effects of surgical procedures or medical devices, but they are often limited by insufficient cadaveric input data. In this study, pure moments to ±5 Nm were applied in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation to seven human cadaveric thoracic spine specimens (T1-T12) with intact true ribs to determine symmetry of in-plane motion, differences in neutral and elastic zone motion and stiffness, and significance of out-of-plane rotations and translations. Results showed that lateral bending and axial rotation exhibited symmetric motion, neutral and elastic zone motion and stiffness values were significantly different for all modes of bending (p<0.05), and out-of-plane rotations and translations were greater than zero for most rotations and translations. Overall in-plane rotations were 7.7±3.4° in flexion, 9.6±3.7° in extension, 23.3±8.4° in lateral bending, and 26.3±12.2° in axial rotation. Results of this study could provide inputs or validation comparisons for computational models. Future studies should characterize coupled motion patterns and local and regional level biomechanics of cadaveric human thoracic spines with intact true ribs.

  4. Human skin penetration of silver nanoparticles through intact and damaged skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larese, Francesca Filon; D'Agostin, Flavia; Crosera, Matteo; Adami, Gianpiero; Renzi, Nadia; Bovenzi, Massimo; Maina, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing interest on nanoparticle safety for topical use. The benefits of nanoparticles have been shown in several scientific fields, but little is known about their potential to penetrate the skin. This study aims at evaluating in vitro skin penetration of silver nanoparticles. Experiments were performed using the Franz diffusion cell method with intact and damaged human skin. Physiological solution was used as receiving phase and 70 microg/cm2 of silver nanoparticles coated with polyvinylpirrolidone dispersed in synthetic sweat were applied as donor phase to the outer surface of the skin for 24h. The receptor fluid measurements were performed by electro thermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (ETAAS). Human skin penetration was also determined by using transmission electron microscope (TEM) to verify the location of silver nanoparticles in exposed membranes. Median silver concentrations of 0.46 ng cm(-2) (range intact skin (eight cells) and on damaged skin (eight cells), respectively. Twenty-four hours silver flux permeation in damaged skin was 0.62+/-0.2 ng cm(-2) with a lag time <1h. Our experimental data showed that silver nanoparticles absorption through intact and damaged skin was very low but detectable, and that in case of damaged skin it was possible an increasing permeation of silver applied as nanoparticles. Moreover, silver nanoparticles could be detected in the stratum corneum and the outermost surface of the epidermis by electron microscopy. We demonstrated for the first time that silver applied as nanoparticles coated with polyvinylpirrolidone is able to permeate the damaged skin in an in vitro diffusion cell system.

  5. Human skin penetration of gold nanoparticles through intact and damaged skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filon, Francesca Larese; Crosera, Matteo; Adami, Gianpiero; Bovenzi, Massimo; Rossi, Federica; Maina, Giovanni

    2011-12-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are produced for many applications but there is a lack of available data on their skin absorption. Experiments were performed using the Franz diffusion cell method with intact and damaged human skin. A physiological solution was used as receiving phase and 0.5 mL (1st exp) and 1.5 mL (2nd exp) of a solution containing 100 mg L⁻¹ of AuNPs (15 and 45 μg cm⁻², respectively) was applied as donor phase to the outer surface of the skin for 24 h. Skin absorption was dose dependent. Mean gold content of 214.0 ± 43.7 ng cm⁻² and 187.7 ± 50.2 ng cm⁻² were found in the receiving solutions of cells where the AuNPs solution was applied in higher concentration on intact skin (8 Franz cells) and on damaged skin (8 Franz cells), respectively. Twenty-four hours gold flux permeation was 7.8 ± 2.0 ng cm⁻² h⁻¹ and 7.1 ± 2.5 ng cm⁻² h⁻¹ in intact and damaged skin, respectively, with a lag time less than 1 hour. Transmission Electron Microscope analysis on skin samples and chemical analysis using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry demonstrated the presence of AuNPs into epidermis and dermis. This study showed that AuNPs are able to penetrate the human skin in an in vitro diffusion cell system.

  6. Mechanisms of Granule Membrane Recapture following Exocytosis in Intact Mast Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Jose M.; Acosta, Jorge; Alés, Eva

    2013-01-01

    In secretory cells, several exocytosis-coupled forms of endocytosis have been proposed including clathrin-mediated endocytosis, kiss-and-run endocytosis, cavicapture, and bulk endocytosis. These forms of endocytosis can be induced under different conditions, but their detailed molecular mechanisms and functions are largely unknown. We studied exocytosis and endocytosis in mast cells with both perforated-patch and whole-cell configurations of the patch clamp technique using cell capacitance measurements in combination with amperometric serotonin detection. We found that intact mast cells exhibit an early endocytosis that follows exocytosis induced by compound 48/80. Direct observation of individual exocytic and endocytic events showed a higher percentage of capacitance flickers (27.3%) and off-steps (11.4%) in intact mast cells than in dialyzed cells (5.4% and 2.9%, respectively). Moreover, we observed a type of endocytosis of large pieces of membrane that were likely formed by cumulative fusion of several secretory granules with the cell membrane. We also identified “large-capacitance flickers” that occur after large endocytosis events. Pore conductance analysis indicated that these transient events may represent “compound cavicapture,” most likely due to the flickering of a dilated fusion pore. Using fluorescence imaging of individual exocytic and endocytic events we observed that granules can fuse to granules already fused with the plasma membrane, and then the membranes and dense cores of fused granules are internalized. Altogether, our results suggest that stimulated exocytosis in intact mast cells is followed by several forms of compensatory endocytosis, including kiss-and-run endocytosis and a mechanism for efficient retrieval of the compound membrane of several secretory granules through a single membrane fission event. PMID:23709219

  7. Analysis of responses to glyceryl trinitrate and sodium nitrite in the intact chest rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nossaman, Bobby D; Pankey, Edward A; Badejo, Adeleke R; Casey, David B; Uppu, Satvika; Murthy, Subramanyam N; Kadowitz, Philip J

    2012-05-15

    Responses to glyceryl trinitrate/nitroglycerin (GTN), S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), and sodium nitrite were compared in the intact chest rat. The iv injections of GTN, sodium nitrite, and GSNO produced dose-dependent decreases in pulmonary and systemic arterial pressures. In as much as cardiac output was not reduced, the decreases in pulmonary and systemic arterial pressures indicate that GTN, sodium nitrite, and GSNO have significant vasodilator activity in the pulmonary and systemic vascular beds in the rat. Responses to GTN were attenuated by cyanamide, but not allopurinol, whereas responses to nitrite formed by the metabolism of GTN were attenuated by allopurinol and cyanamide. The results with allopurinol and cyanamide suggest that only mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase is involved in the bioactivation of GTN, sodium nitrite, and GSNO, whereas both pathways are involved in the bioactivation of nitrite anion in the intact rat. The comparison of vasodilator activity indicates that GSNO and GTN are more than 1000-fold more potent than sodium nitrite in decreasing pulmonary and systemic arterial pressures in the rat. Following administration of 1H-[1,2,4]-oxadizaolo[4,3-]quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ), responses to GTN were significantly attenuated, indicating that responses are mediated by the activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase. These data suggest that the reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide formed from the metabolism of GTN, cannot account for the vasodilator activity of GTN in the intact rat and that another mechanism; perhaps the formation of an S-NO, may mediate the vasodilator response to GTN in this species.

  8. Sediment properties and CO2 efflux from intact and cleared temperate mangrove forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulmer, R. H.; Lundquist, C. J.; Schwendenmann, L.

    2015-10-01

    Temperate mangrove forests in New Zealand have increased in area over recent decades. Expansion of temperate mangroves in New Zealand is associated with perceived loss of other estuarine habitats, and decreased recreational and amenity values, resulting in clearing of mangrove forests. In the tropics, changes in sediment characteristics and carbon efflux have been reported following mangrove clearance. This is the first study in temperate mangrove (Avicennia marina) forests investigating the impact of clearing on sediment CO2 efflux and associated biotic and abiotic factors. Sediment CO2 efflux rates from intact (168.5 ± 45.8 mmol m-2 d-1) and cleared (133.9 ± 37.2 mmol m-2 d-1) mangrove forests in New Zealand are comparable to rates measured in tropical mangrove forests. We did not find a significant difference in sediment CO2 efflux rates between intact and cleared temperate mangrove forests. Pre-shading the sediment for more than 30 min prior to dark chamber measurements was found to have no significant effect on sediment CO2 efflux. This suggests that the continuation of photosynthetic CO2 uptake by biofilm communities was not occurring after placement of dark chambers. Rather, above-ground mangrove biomass, sediment temperature and chlorophyll a concentration were the main factors explaining the variability in sediment CO2 efflux in intact mangrove forests. The main factors influencing sediment CO2 efflux in cleared mangrove forest sites were sediment organic carbon concentration, nitrogen concentration and sediment grain size. Our results show that greater consideration should be given regarding the rate of carbon released from mangrove forest following clearance and the relative contribution to global carbon emissions.

  9. An intact dorsomedial posterior arcuate nucleus is not necessary for photoperiodic responses in Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubner, Brett J W; Leitner, Claudia; Thomas, Michael A; Ryu, Vitaly; Bartness, Timothy J

    2015-04-01

    Seasonal responses of many animal species are triggered by changes in daylength and its transduction into a neuroendocrine signal by the pineal gland through the nocturnal duration of melatonin (MEL) release. The precise central sites necessary to receive, transduce, and relay the short day (SD) fall-winter MEL signals into seasonal responses and changes in physiology and behavior are unclear. In Siberian hamsters, SDs trigger decreases in body and lipid mass, testicular regression and pelage color changes. Several candidate genes and their central sites of expression have been proposed as components of the MEL transduction system with considerable recent focus on the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and its component, the dorsomedial posterior arcuate nucleus (dmpARC). This site has been postulated as a critical relay of SD information through the modulation of a variety of neurochemicals/receptors important for the control of energy balance. Here the necessity of an intact dmpARC for SD responses was tested by making electrolytic lesions of the Siberian hamster dmpARC and then exposing them to either long days (LD) or SDs for 12wks. The SD typical decreases in body and fat mass, food intake, testicular volume, serum testosterone concentrations, pelage color change and increased UCP-1 protein expression (a proxy for brown adipose tissue thermogenesis) all occurred despite the lack of an intact dmpARC. Although the Siberian hamster dmpARC contains photoperiod-modulated constituents, these data demonstrate that an intact dmpARC is not necessary for SD responses and not integral to the seasonal energy- and reproductive-related responses measured here.

  10. Palladium nanoparticles exposure: Evaluation of permeation through damaged and intact human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larese Filon, Francesca; Crosera, Matteo; Mauro, Marcella; Baracchini, Elena; Bovenzi, Massimo; Montini, Tiziano; Fornasiero, Paolo; Adami, Gianpiero

    2016-07-01

    The intensified use of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) in many chemical reactions, jewellery, electronic devices, in car catalytic converters and in biomedical applications lead to a significant increase in palladium exposure. Pd can cause allergic contact dermatitis when in contact with the skin. However, there is still a lack of toxicological data related to nano-structured palladium and information on human cutaneous absorption. In fact, PdNPs, can be absorbed through the skin in higher amounts than bulk Pd because NPs can release more ions. In our study, we evaluated the absorption of PdNPs, with a size of 10.7 ± 2.8 nm, using intact and damaged human skin in Franz cells. 0.60 mg cm(-2) of PdNPs were applied on skin surface for 24 h. Pd concentrations in the receiving solutions at the end of experiments were 0.098 ± 0.067 μg cm(-2) and 1.06 ± 0.44 μg cm(-2) in intact skin and damaged skin, respectively. Pd flux permeation after 24 h was 0.005 ± 0.003 μg cm(-2) h(-1) and 0.057 ± 0.030 μg cm(-2) h(-1) and lag time 4.8 ± 1.7 and 4.2 ± 3.6 h, for intact and damaged skin respectively. This study indicates that Pd can penetrate human skin.

  11. Correlations Between Physical and Hydraulic Properties and Uranium Desorption in Contaminated, Intact Sediment Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockhold, M. L.; Oostrom, M.; Wietsma, T. W.; Zachara, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    An unlined disposal pond in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site received uranium-bearing liquid effluents associated with nuclear reactor fuel rod processing from 1943 to 1975. Contaminated sediments from the base and sides of the former pond were excavated and removed from the site in the early 1990s, but a uranium plume has persisted in the groundwater at concentrations exceeding the drinking water standard. The former process pond is located adjacent to the Columbia River and seasonal fluctuations in the river stage and water table provide a mechanism for resupplying residual uranium from the vadose zone to the groundwater when the lower vadose zone is periodically rewetted. Intact cores were collected from the site for measurements of physical, hydraulic, and geochemical properties. Multistep outflow experiments were also performed on the intact cores to determine permeability-saturation-capillary pressure relations. Pore water displaced during these experiments for two of the vadose zone cores was also analyzed for uranium. For a core containing finer-textured sediment classified as muddy sandy gravel, and a core containing coarser-textured sediment classified as gravel, the relative aqueous uranium concentrations increased by factors of 8.3 and 1.5, respectively, as the cores were desaturated and progressively smaller pore-size classes were drained. Aqueous concentrations of uranium in the extracted pore waters were up to 115 times higher than the current drinking water standard of 30 ppb. These results confirm that there is a continuing source of uranium in the vadose zone at the site, and are consistent with a hypothesis that the persistence of the groundwater uranium plume is also associated, in part, with rate-limited mass transfer from finer-textured sediments. The data from these and several other intact cores from the site are evaluated to explore relationships between physical and hydraulic properties and uranium desorption characteristics.

  12. Design and characterisation of a phased antenna array for intact breast hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto, Sergio; Garcia-Miquel, Aleix; Suh, Minyoung; Vidal, Neus; Lopez-Villegas, Jose M; Prakash, Punit

    2017-06-28

    Currently available hyperthermia technology is not well suited to treating cancer malignancies in the intact breast. This study investigates a microwave applicator incorporating multiple patch antennas, with the goal of facilitating controllable power deposition profiles for treating lesions at diverse locations within the intact breast. A 3D-computational model was implemented to assess power deposition profiles with 915 MHz applicators incorporating a hemispheric groundplane and configurations of 2, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 antennas. Hemispheric breast models of 90 mm and 150 mm diameter were considered, where cuboid target volumes of 10 mm edge length (1 cm(3)) and 30 mm edge length (27 cm(3)) were positioned at the centre of the breast, and also located 15 mm from the chest wall. The average power absorption (αPA) ratio expressed as the ratio of the PA in the target volume and in the full breast was evaluated. A 4-antenna proof-of-concept array was fabricated and experimentally evaluated. Computational models identified an optimal inter-antenna spacing of 22.5° along the applicator circumference. Applicators with 8 and 12 antennas excited with constant phase presented the highest αPA at centrally located and deep-seated targets, respectively. Experimental measurements with a 4-antenna proof-of-concept array illustrated the potential for electrically steering power deposition profiles by adjusting the relative phase of the signal at antenna inputs. Computational models and experimental results suggest that the proposed applicator may have potential for delivering conformal thermal therapy in the intact breast.

  13. Bioengineered human IAS reconstructs with functional and molecular properties similar to intact IAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jagmohan; Rattan, Satish

    2012-09-15

    Because of its critical importance in rectoanal incontinence, we determined the feasibility to reconstruct internal anal sphincter (IAS) from human IAS smooth muscle cells (SMCs) with functional and molecular attributes similar to the intact sphincter. The reconstructs were developed using SMCs from the circular smooth muscle layer of the human IAS, grown in smooth muscle differentiation media under sterile conditions in Sylgard-coated tissue culture plates with central Sylgard posts. The basal tone in the reconstructs and its changes were recorded following 0 Ca(2+), KCl, bethanechol, isoproterenol, protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, and Rho kinase (ROCK) and PKC inhibitors Y-27632 and Gö-6850, respectively. Western blot (WB), immunofluorescence (IF), and immunocytochemical (IC) analyses were also performed. The reconstructs developed spontaneous tone (0.68 ± 0.26 mN). Bethanechol (a muscarinic agonist) and K(+) depolarization produced contraction, whereas isoproterenol (β-adrenoceptor agonist) and Y-27632 produced a concentration-dependent decrease in the tone. Maximal decrease in basal tone with Y-27632 and Gö-6850 (each 10(-5) M) was 80.45 ± 3.29 and 17.76 ± 3.50%, respectively. WB data with the IAS constructs' SMCs revealed higher levels of RhoA/ROCK, protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitor or inhibitory phosphoprotein for myosin phosphatase (CPI-17), phospho-CPI-17, MYPT1, and 20-kDa myosin light chain vs. rectal smooth muscle. WB, IF, and IC studies of original SMCs and redispersed from the reconstructs for the relative distribution of different signal transduction proteins confirmed the feasibility of reconstruction of IAS with functional properties similar to intact IAS and demonstrated the development of myogenic tone with critical dependence on RhoA/ROCK. We conclude that it is feasible to bioengineer IAS constructs using human IAS SMCs that behave like intact IAS.

  14. Impact of extreme weather on critical infrastructure: the EU-INTACT risk framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagg Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resilience of critical infrastructure (CI to extreme weather events, such as heavy rainfall, high temperatures and winter storms, is one of the most demanding challenges for governments and society. Recent experiences have highlighted the economic and societal reliance on a dependable and resilient infrastructure, and the far-reaching impacts that outages or malfunctions can have. Growing scientific evidence indicates that more severe and frequent extreme weather events are likely. The EU-funded INTACT project addresses these CI challenges and attempts to bring together cutting-edge knowledge and experience from across Europe to inform the development of best practice approaches in planning, crisis response and recovery capabilities. The project considers the options for mitigating the extreme weather impacts. A key component of the INTACT project is the development of a risk management structure to support decision-making in the case studies. This structure forms part of the overall INTACT Wiki: the main output of the project. It comprises a risk ‘framework’ that sets out how information and guidance can be accessed by CI owners and operators. Within this there is a step-wise risk assessment process based on best practice from the IEC. The risk framework and process presents: structures for models and data requirements for decision making; identifies tools and methods that support decision making; supports analysis of measures to protect CI through simulation; and indicates gaps in modelling and data availability. This paper outlines the components of the risk framework and process, and illustrates its use in a case study dealing with electricity supply and winter storms.

  15. Prototypic and Arkypallidal Neurons in the Dopamine-Intact External Globus Pallidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Azzedine; Mallet, Nicolas; Mohamed, Foad Y.; Sharott, Andrew; Dodson, Paul D.; Nakamura, Kouichi C.; Suri, Sana; Avery, Sophie V.; Larvin, Joseph T.; Garas, Farid N.; Garas, Shady N.; Vinciati, Federica; Morin, Stéphanie; Bezard, Erwan

    2015-01-01

    Studies in dopamine-depleted rats indicate that the external globus pallidus (GPe) contains two main types of GABAergic projection cell; so-called “prototypic” and “arkypallidal” neurons. Here, we used correlative anatomical and electrophysiological approaches in rats to determine whether and how this dichotomous organization applies to the dopamine-intact GPe. Prototypic neurons coexpressed the transcription factors Nkx2-1 and Lhx6, comprised approximately two-thirds of all GPe neurons, and were the major GPe cell type innervating the subthalamic nucleus (STN). In contrast, arkypallidal neurons expressed the transcription factor FoxP2, constituted just over one-fourth of GPe neurons, and innervated the striatum but not STN. In anesthetized dopamine-intact rats, molecularly identified prototypic neurons fired at relatively high rates and with high regularity, regardless of brain state (slow-wave activity or spontaneous activation). On average, arkypallidal neurons fired at lower rates and regularities than prototypic neurons, and the two cell types could be further distinguished by the temporal coupling of their firing to ongoing cortical oscillations. Complementing the activity differences observed in vivo, the autonomous firing of identified arkypallidal neurons in vitro was slower and more variable than that of prototypic neurons, which tallied with arkypallidal neurons displaying lower amplitudes of a “persistent” sodium current important for such pacemaking. Arkypallidal neurons also exhibited weaker driven and rebound firing compared with prototypic neurons. In conclusion, our data support the concept that a dichotomous functional organization, as actioned by arkypallidal and prototypic neurons with specialized molecular, structural, and physiological properties, is fundamental to the operations of the dopamine-intact GPe. PMID:25926446

  16. Elemental and isotopic imaging to study biogeochemical functioning of intact soil micro-environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Carsten W.

    2017-04-01

    The complexity of soils extends from the ecosystem-scale to individual micro-aggregates, where nano-scale interactions between biota, organic matter (OM) and mineral particles are thought to control the long-term fate of soil carbon and nitrogen. It is known that such biogeochemical processes show disproportionally high reaction rates within nano- to micro-meter sized isolated zones ('hot spots') in comparison to surrounding areas. However, the majority of soil research is conducted on large bulk (> 1 g) samples, which are often significantly altered prior to analysis and analysed destructively. Thus it has previously been impossible to study elemental flows (e.g. C and N) between plants, microbes and soil in complex environments at the necessary spatial resolution within an intact soil system. By using nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) in concert with other imaging techniques (e.g. scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and micro computed tomography (µCT)), classic analyses (isotopic and elemental analysis) and biochemical methods (e.g. GC-MS) it is possible to exhibit a more complete picture of soil processes at the micro-scale. I will present exemplarily results about the fate and distribution of organic C and N in complex micro-scale soil structures for a range of intact soil systems. Elemental imaging was used to study initial soil formation as an increase in the structural connectivity of micro-aggregates. Element distribution will be presented as a key to detect functional spatial patterns and biogeochemical hot spots in macro-aggregate functioning and development. In addition isotopic imaging will be demonstrated as a key to trace the fate of plant derived OM in the intact rhizosphere from the root to microbiota and mineral soil particles. Especially the use of stable isotope enrichment (e.g. 13CO2, 15NH4+) in conjunction with NanoSIMS allows to directly trace the fate of OM or nutrients in soils at the relevant scale (e.g. assimilate C

  17. Effect of cold-restraint stress and zinc acexamate on gastric mucus production in intact glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escolar, G; Navarro, C; Sendros, S; Bulbena, O

    1987-11-01

    Gastric mucus content was morphometrically evaluated in gastric glands of normal and cold-restraint stressed rats. Variations induced by treatment with zinc acexamate (200 mg/kg p.o.) were also investigated. Stress decreased the glycoprotein content in glands located in areas of injury. However, in intact glands from the same animals, the glycoprotein content was increased and the proportion of sulphated macromolecules greatly augmented. Zinc acexamate reduced the severity of damage in stressed rats. Although it augmented mucus content it prevented the modification in sulphated macromolecules in these rats. These findings are discussed in relation to the role of gastric mucus in preventing gastric damage.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of intact globe superior subluxation into the intracranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nariman Nezami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 67-year-old man with right-sided blunt ocular trauma is reported here. Despite having received primary medical care, the patient complained of severe headache for 14 days. Initial computed tomography (CT indicated hematoma in the right frontal lobe. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI indicated that the right globe along with its optic nerve had been intactly dislocated into the intracranium and differentiated from hematoma. In this case, the significance of MRI, in blunt ocular trauma work-up, and also regaining successful ocular function are highlighted.

  19. Instant Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Wave on Hemoglobin in Single Living Intact Red Blood Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Can YAO; Xiao Kun LI; Yao Xiong HUANG

    2005-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of the hemoglobin (Hb) in single living intact red blood cell (RBC), exposed in 900 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic wave (RF-EMW), was non-invasive,in situ, real-time measured by employing a highly sensitive fast multi-channel microspectrophotometer system. Both the absorption intensity and site of intracellular Hb were altered after RBCs were exposed in 900 MHz RF-EMW with power density at 5 mW/cm2. It was indicated that not only the concentration of Hb in living RBCs was decreased, but the molecular structure of Hb was changed by the RF-EMW action.

  20. Superresolution and Fluorescence Dynamics Evidence Reveal That Intact Liposomes Do Not Cross the Human Skin Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Jes; Sørensen, Jens A; Brewer, Jonathan R

    2016-01-01

    In this study we use the combination of super resolution optical microscopy and raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) to study the mechanism of action of liposomes as transdermal drug delivery systems in human skin. Two different compositions of liposomes were applied to newly excised human...... skin, a POPC liposome and a more flexible liposome containing the surfactant sodium cholate. Stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED) images of intact skin and cryo-sections of skin treated with labeled liposomes were recorded displaying an optical resolution low enough to resolve the 100 nm...

  1. APPLICATION OF INDEX TESTING METHODS IN DETERMINING MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF INTACT ROCK MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Dobrilović

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The review of index testing methods with detailed observations on the application of Schmidt rebound hardness and point load strength index in mechanical properties estimations of intact rock material is given in this paper. The results of conducted testing in determining applicability of the above-mentioned testing methods for the estimations of uniaxial compressive strength, elasticity modulus, tensile strength and flexural strength for three characteristic types of limestone from the roof layers of „Korenići“ deposit are also presented (the paper is published in Croatian.

  2. A Universal Protocol for Photochemical Covalent Immobilization of Intact Carbohydrates for the Preparation of Carbohydrate Microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huibin; Zhang, Yiming; Yuan, Xun; Chen, Yi; Yan, Mingdi

    2010-01-01

    A universal photochemical method has been established for the immobilization of intact carbohydrates and their analogues, and for the fabrication of carbohydrate microarrays. The method features the use of perfluorophenyl azide (PFPA)-modified substrates and the photochemical reaction of surface azido groups with printed carbohydrates. Various aldoses, ketoses, non-reducing sugars such as alditols and their derivatives can be directly arrayed on the PFPA-modified chips. The lectin-recognition ability of arrayed mannose, glucose and their oligo- and polysaccharides were confirmed using surface plasmon resonance imaging and laser-induced fluorescence imaging. PMID:21138274

  3. Hydrogen ions directly regulating the oligomerization state of Photosystem I in intact Spirulina platensis cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    H+ concentration induced-monomerization or trimerization of photosystem I (PSI) in cyanobacteria has never been directly observed. In this work, taking characteristic spectra for the trimers and monomers as the indicators, it was experimentally demonstrated that H+ could induce the oligomeric changes of PSI reaction centers in the intact Spirulina ,platensis cells and also in the isolated thylakoid membrane complexes. Especially, the higher concentration of H+ would induce the monomerization while the lower the trimerization, suggesting the electrostatic interaction should be mainly responsible forchanges in the oligomeric state of PSI in Spirulina platensis.

  4. Multiphoton imaging to distinguish grana and starch inside an intact leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Yu; Zhuo, Guan-Yu; Chen, Po-Fu; Wu, Pei-Chun; Liu, Tzu-Ming; Chu, Shi-Wei

    2013-02-01

    We have demonstrated a straightforward and noninvasive method to identify the distribution of grana and starch within an intact leaf. Grana and starch are the major functional structures for photosynthesis and energy storage of plant, respectively. Both exhibit highly ordered molecular structures and appear as micrometer-sized granules inside chloroplasts. In order to distinguish grana and starch, we used multiphoton microscopy, with simultaneous acquisition of two photon fluorescence (2PF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) signals. Consequently, SHG is found on both grana and starch while 2PF from chlorophyll indicates the identity of grana.

  5. Recycling of intact dense core vesicles in neurites of NGF-treated PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Roslyn A; Khera, Rebecca S; Lieber, Janet L; Angleson, Joseph K

    2004-07-30

    Exocytic fusion in neuroendocrine cells does not always result in complete release of the peptide contents from dense core vesicles (DCVs). In this study, we use fluorescence imaging and immunoelectron microscopy to examine the retention, endocytosis and recycling of chromogranin B in DCVs of NGF-treated PC12 cells. Our results indicate that DCVs retained and retrieved an intact core that was available for subsequent exocytic release. The endocytic process was inhibited by cyclosporine A or by substitution of extracellular Ca(2+) with Ba(2+) and the total recycling time was less than 5 min.

  6. IODP Expeditions 309 and 312 Drill an Intact Section of Upper Oceanic Basement into Gabbros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S. Wilson

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program’s (IODP Expeditions 309 and 312 successfully completed the first sampling of an intact section of upper oceanic crust, through lavas and the sheeted dikes into the uppermost gabbros. Hole 1256D, which was initiated on the Ocean Drilling Program’s (ODP Leg 206, now penetrates to >1500 mbsf and >1250 m sub-basement. The first gabbroic rocks were encountered at 1407 mbsf. Below this, the hole penetrates ~100 m into a complex zone of fractionated gabbros intruded into contact metamorphosed dikes.

  7. The Fate of Dissolved Creosote Compounds in an Intact Fratured Clay Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Kim; Arvin, Erik; Hansen, Asger

    1995-01-01

    The fate of 16 different organics typical for creosote was studied under aerobic conditions in a large intact fractured clay column experiment. Some of the organics (benzene, toluene, o-xylene, phenol, and o-cresol) were transported at the same rate as bromide through the fractured clay, whereas ...... estimated. This column experiment revealed that transport of organics through fractured clay is an important process. It may in many cases cause groundwater contamination of aquifers, sofar believed to be protected by overlying clay layers....

  8. A surprise at the bottom of the main sequence: Rapid rotation and NO H-alpha emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Gibor; Marcy, Geoffrey W.

    1995-01-01

    We report Kech Observatory high-resolution echelle spectra from 640-850 nm for eight stars near the faint end of the main sequence. These spectra are the highest resolution spectra of such late-type stars, and clearly resolve the TiO, VO, and atomic lines. The sample includes the field brown-dwarf candidate, BRI 0021-0214 (M9.5+). Very unexpectedly, it shows the most rapid rotation in the entire samples, v sin i approximately 40 km/s, which is 20x faster than typical field nonemission M stars. Equally surprising is that BRI 0021 exhibits no emission or absorptionat H-alpha. We argue that this absence is not simply due to its cool photosphere, but that stellar activity declines in a fundamental way at the end of the main sequence. As it is the first very late M dwarf observed at high spectral resolution, BRI 0021 may be signaling a qualitative change in the angular momentum loss rate among the lowest mass stars. Conventionally, its rapid rotation would have marked BRI 0021 as very young, consistent with the selection effect which arises if the latest-type dwarfs are really brown dwarfs on cooling curves. In any case, it is unprecedented to find no sign of stellar activity in such a rapidly rotating convective star. We also discuss the possible conflict between this observation and the extremely strong H-alpha seen in another very cool star, PC 0025+0447. Extrapolation of M-L relations for BRI 0021 yields M approximately 0.065 solar mass, and the other sample objects have expected masses near the H-burning limit. These include two Pleiades brown-dwarf candidates, four field M6 dwarfs and one late-type T Tauri star. The two Pleiades M6 dwarfs have v sin i of 26 and 37 km/s, H-alpha in emission, and radial velocities consistent with Pleiades M6 dwarfs have v sin i of 26 and 37 km/s, H-alpha in emission, and radial velocities consistent with Pleiades membership. Similarly, the late-type T Tauri star has v sin i approximately 30 km/s and H alpha emission indicate of its

  9. Cinacalcet reduces plasma intact parathyroid hormone, serum phosphate and calcium levels in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism irrespective of its severity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the severity of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) - defined in terms of baseline plasma intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level - and the magnitude of response to cinacalcet.

  10. Novel molecular events associated with altered steroidogenesis induced by exposure to atrazine in the intact and castrate male rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxicology is increasingly focused on molecular events comprising adverse outcome pathways. Atrazine activates the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, but relationships to gonadal alterations are unknown. We characterized hormone profiles and adrenal (intact and castrate) and te...

  11. Novel molecular events associated with altered steroidogenesis induced by exposure to atrazine in the intact and castrate male rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxicology is increasingly focused on molecular events comprising adverse outcome pathways. Atrazine activates the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, but relationships to gonadal alterations are unknown. We characterized hormone profiles and adrenal (intact and castrate) and te...

  12. Gravidez ovariana íntegra: tratamento cirúrgico videolaparoscópico The intact ovarian pregnancy: videolaparoscopy surgical treatament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bigolin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The intact ovarian pregnancy is an extremely rare condition. We report the case of a 34- years old woman case, nuliparus, with no previous clinical history of pelvic disease. An intact right ovarian pregnancy was diagnosed by a transvaginal ultrasonographic exam. A video-laparoscopy surgery was undertaken and only the ectopic tissue was removed. The authors discuss the effectiveness of the diagnostic tools and the surgical approach.

  13. Surprising Impact of Remote Groups on the Folding-Unfolding and Dimer-Chain Equilibria of Bifunctionl H-Bonding Unimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Rui; Cheng, Shuang; Baker, Erin Shammel; Smith, Richard D.; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Gong, Bing

    2016-01-28

    Oligoamide 1, consisting of two H-bonding units linked by a trimethylene linker, was previously found to form a very stable, folded dimer. In this work, replacing the side chains and end groups of 1 led to derivatives that show the surprising impact of end groups on the folding and dimer-chain equilibria of the resultant molecules.

  14. Hot boning of intact carcasses: a procedure to avoid central nervous system self-contamination in beef and beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røtterud, Ole-Johan; Helps, Chris R; Hillman, Tim J; Fisher, Alan V; Harbour, Dave; Anil, Haluk; Nesbakken, Truls

    2006-02-01

    Compared with traditional boning of split refrigerated carcasses, hot boning of intact carcasses (the removal of meat from the skeleton prerigor) provides several commercially important cuts, may improve quality and reduce refrigeration costs, and may reduce the contamination of carcasses with central nervous system (CNS) tissue. In a comparative study of hot boning of intact and split carcasses, the CNS tissue contamination of intact carcasses was negligible (as measured with the CNS-related proteins glial fibrillary acidic protein and S-100 protein), but split carcasses were highly contaminated. The same trends were observed for dissection worktables used during the boning process. Most current boning plants have processing lines that are organized for boning carcass quarters, where the carcasses, in addition to transversal division, also are split horizontally. This part of the boning process was incorporated in the design of our study. Nine of the 18 intact carcasses were split horizontally between thoracic vertebrae 10 and 11 before they were hot boned. CNS tissue contamination was not detected on the carcass site related to this procedure. The amount of CNS tissue contamination was similar in boned cuts and minced meat from split and intact carcasses, except in the forerib. Boning of split carcasses appears to reduce CNS tissue contamination significantly to a level comparable to that of intact hot-boned carcasses.

  15. Structural organization of an intact phycobilisome and its association with photosystem II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Leifu; Liu, Xianwei; Li, Yanbing; Liu, Cui-Cui; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Jindong; Sui, Sen-Fang

    2015-06-01

    Phycobilisomes (PBSs) are light-harvesting antennae that transfer energy to photosynthetic reaction centers in cyanobacteria and red algae. PBSs are supermolecular complexes composed of phycobiliproteins (PBPs) that bear chromophores for energy absorption and linker proteins. Although the structures of some individual components have been determined using crystallography, the three-dimensional structure of an entire PBS complex, which is critical for understanding the energy transfer mechanism, remains unknown. Here, we report the structures of an intact PBS and a PBS in complex with photosystem II (PSII) from Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 using single-particle electron microscopy in combination with biochemical and molecular analyses. In the PBS structure, all PBP trimers and the conserved linker protein domains were unambiguously located, and the global distribution of all chromophores was determined. We provide evidence that ApcE and ApcF are critical for the formation of a protrusion at the bottom of PBS, which plays an important role in mediating PBS interaction with PSII. Our results provide insights into the molecular architecture of an intact PBS at different assembly levels and provide the basis for understanding how the light energy absorbed by PBS is transferred to PSII.

  16. Patterns of electrical propagation in the intact pregnant guinea pig uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Wim J E P; Mirghani, H; Stephen, B; Dhanasekaran, S; Wahab, A; Al Sultan, M A H; Abazer, F

    2008-03-01

    Previous studies have reported on propagation of individual spikes in isolated segments of the pregnant uterus, but there is no information on patterns of spike propagation in the intact organ. There is also no information on propagation of myometrial burst. The aim of this study was to record, at high resolution, patterns of propagation of electrical activities in the pregnant uterus. Sixteen timed-pregnant guinea pigs were euthanized at term, and their uteruses isolated. Fetuses were removed and replaced by an equal amount of Tyrode. A 240-electrode array was positioned at various locations along the organ, all signals were recorded simultaneously, and the electrical propagations were reconstructed. In the intact pregnant uterus at term, spikes propagated with high velocity in longitudinal (6.8 +/- 2.4 cm/s) and slower velocity in circular direction (2.8 +/- 1.0 cm/s; P pregnant uterus reveals fundamental properties in spatial and temporal patterns of spike and burst propagation that determine the contraction of the organ.

  17. Displaced Medial and Lateral Bucket Handle Meniscal Tears With Intact ACL and PCL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boody, Barrett S; Omar, Imran M; Hill, James A

    2015-08-01

    Bucket handle lesions are vertical longitudinal tears in the meniscus that may displace centrally into the respective medial or lateral compartment, frequently causing mechanical symptoms, including pain, perceived instability, and mechanical locking. Bucket handle meniscal tears are most commonly from a traumatic etiology and are frequently found with concomitant anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Multiple imaging signs and associations have been described for the diagnosis of bucket handle meniscus tears, including coronal truncation, absent bow tie sign, double posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), double ACL, displacement of the bucket handle fragment, and disproportionate posterior horn signs. Among meniscal pathology encountered on magnetic resonance imaging or during arthroscopy, bucket handle meniscal tears are infrequent occurrences. Furthermore, the occurrence of displaced medial and lateral bucket handle tears found on imaging and during arthroscopy is very uncommon and is only sparsely reported in the literature. When displaced medial and lateral bucket handle meniscal segments are visualized within the intercondylar notch along with the ACL and PCL, the radiologic findings are referred to as the "quadruple cruciate" sign or the "Jack and Jill lesion." Of the few case reports described in the literature, only one noted displaced medial and lateral bucket handle meniscus tears with an intact ACL and PCL. The current case report outlines a similar rare case of the quadruple cruciate sign: displaced medial and lateral bucket handle meniscal tears located within the intercondylar notch and an intact ACL and PCL.

  18. Intact skull chronic windows for mesoscopic wide-field imaging in awake mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silasi, Gergely; Xiao, Dongsheng; Vanni, Matthieu P.; Chen, Andrew C. N.; Murphy, Timothy H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Craniotomy-based window implants are commonly used for microscopic imaging, in head-fixed rodents, however their field of view is typically small and incompatible with mesoscopic functional mapping of cortex. New Method We describe a reproducible and simple procedure for chronic through-bone wide-field imaging in awake head-fixed mice providing stable optical access for chronic imaging over large areas of the cortex for months. Results The preparation is produced by applying clear-drying dental cement to the intact mouse skull, followed by a glass coverslip to create a partially transparent imaging surface. Surgery time takes about 30 minutes. A single set-screw provides a stable means of attachment for mesoscale assessment without obscuring the cortical field of view. Comparison with Existing Methods We demonstrate the utility of this method by showing seed-pixel functional connectivity maps generated from spontaneous cortical activity of GCAMP6 signals in both awake and anesthetized mice. Conclusions We propose that the intact skull preparation described here may be used for most longitudinal studies that do not require micron scale resolution and where cortical neural or vascular signals are recorded with intrinsic sensors. PMID:27102043

  19. Dopant-specific unzipping of carbon nanotubes for intact crystalline graphene nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Joonwon; Narayan Maiti, Uday; Kim, Na-Young; Narayan, Rekha; Jun Lee, Won; Sung Choi, Dong; Oh, Youngtak; Min Lee, Ju; Yong Lee, Gil; Hun Kang, Seok; Kim, Hyunwoo; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Ouk Kim, Sang

    2016-01-01

    Atomic level engineering of graphene-based materials is in high demand to enable customize structures and properties for different applications. Unzipping of the graphene plane is a potential means to this end, but uncontrollable damage of the two-dimensional crystalline framework during harsh unzipping reaction has remained a key challenge. Here we present heteroatom dopant-specific unzipping of carbon nanotubes as a reliable and controllable route to customized intact crystalline graphene-based nanostructures. Substitutional pyridinic nitrogen dopant sites at carbon nanotubes can selectively initiate the unzipping of graphene side walls at a relatively low electrochemical potential (0.6 V). The resultant nanostructures consisting of unzipped graphene nanoribbons wrapping around carbon nanotube cores maintain the intact two-dimensional crystallinity with well-defined atomic configuration at the unzipped edges. Large surface area and robust electrical connectivity of the synergistic nanostructure demonstrate ultrahigh-power supercapacitor performance, which can serve for AC filtering with the record high rate capability of -85° of phase angle at 120 Hz.

  20. Fluorescent-protein stabilization and high-resolution imaging of cleared, intact mouse brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin K Schwarz

    Full Text Available In order to observe and quantify long-range neuronal connections in intact mouse brain by light microscopy, it is first necessary to clear the brain, thus suppressing refractive-index variations. Here we describe a method that clears the brain and preserves the signal from proteinaceous fluorophores using a pH-adjusted non-aqueous index-matching medium. Successful clearing is enabled through the use of either 1-propanol or tert-butanol during dehydration whilst maintaining a basic pH. We show that high-resolution fluorescence imaging of entire, structurally intact juvenile and adult mouse brains is possible at subcellular resolution, even following many months in clearing solution. We also show that axonal long-range projections that are EGFP-labelled by modified Rabies virus can be imaged throughout the brain using a purpose-built light-sheet fluorescence microscope. To demonstrate the viability of the technique, we determined a detailed map of the monosynaptic projections onto a target cell population in the lateral entorhinal cortex. This example demonstrates that our method permits the quantification of whole-brain connectivity patterns at the subcellular level in the uncut brain.

  1. Human skin penetration of cobalt nanoparticles through intact and damaged skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larese Filon, Francesca; Crosera, Matteo; Timeus, Elisa; Adami, Gianpiero; Bovenzi, Massimo; Ponti, Jessica; Maina, Giovanni

    2013-02-01

    Cobalt nanoparticles (CoNPs) are produced for several industrial and biomedical applications but there is a lack of data on human cutaneous absorption. Cobalt is also a skin sensitizer that can cause allergic contact dermatitis. Co applied as NPs, due to their small size and high surface, can penetrate into the skin in higher amount that bulk material. The aim of this study was to evaluate the absorption of Co applied as NPs in both intact and damaged skin. Experiments were performed using Franz cells and 1.0 mg cm(-2) of CoNPs was applied as donor phase for 24h. Mean Co content of 8.5 ± 1.2 ng cm(-2) and 1.87 ± 0.86 μg cm(-2) were found in the receiving solutions of Franz cells when the CoNPs suspension was applied on intact skin and on damaged skin, respectively. Twenty-four hours Co flux permeation was 76 ± 49 ng cm(-2)h(-1) in damaged skin with a lag time of 2.8 ± 2.1h. This study suggests that Co applied as NPs is able to penetrate the human skin in an in vitro diffusion cell system.

  2. Prediction of valid acidity in intact apples with Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan-de; YING Yi-bin; FU Xia-ping

    2005-01-01

    To develop nondestructive acidity prediction for intact Fuji apples, the potential of Fourier transform near infrared(FT-NIR) method with fiber optics in interactance mode was investigated. Interactance in the 800 nm to 2619 nm region was measured for intact apples, harvested from early to late maturity stages. Spectral data were analyzed by two multivariate calibration techniques including partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) methods. A total of 120 Fuji apples were tested and 80 of them were used to form a calibration data set. The influences of different data preprocessing and spectra treatments were also quantified. Calibration models based on smoothing spectra were slightly worse than that based on derivative spectra, and the best result was obtained when the segment length was 5 nm and the gap size was 10 points. Depending on data preprocessing and PLS method, the best prediction model yielded correlation coefficient of determination (r2) of 0.759, low root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.0677, low root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) of 0.0562. The results indicated the feasibility of FT-NIR spectral analysis for predicting apple valid acidity in a nondestructive way.

  3. IgE epitopes of intact and digested Ara h 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Nielsen, H.; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard;

    2012-01-01

    epitopes have been suggested to be of great importance. ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to identify IgE specific epitopes of intact and digested Ara h 1, and to compare epitope patterns between humans and rats. MethodsSera from five peanut allergic patients and five Brown Norway rats were used...... to identify intact and digested Ara h 1-specific IgE epitopes by competitive immunoscreening of a phage-displayed random hepta-mer peptide library using polyclonal IgE from the individual sera. The resulting peptide sequences were mapped on the surface of a three-dimensional structure of the Ara h 1 molecule...... to mimic epitopes using a computer-based algorithm. ResultsPatients as well as rats were shown to have individual IgE epitope patterns. All epitope mimics were conformational and found to cluster into three different areas of the Ara h 1 molecule. Five epitope motifs were identified by patient IgE, which...

  4. Variable-angle total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of intact cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Myung K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM is a powerful tool for observing fluorescently labeled molecules on the plasma membrane surface of animal cells. However, the utility of TIRFM in plant cell studies has been limited by the fact that plants have cell walls, thick peripheral layers surrounding the plasma membrane. Recently, a new technique known as variable-angle epifluorescence microscopy (VAEM was developed to circumvent this problem. However, the lack of a detailed analysis of the optical principles underlying VAEM has limited its applications in plant-cell biology. Results Here, we present theoretical and experimental evidence supporting the use of variable-angle TIRFM in observations of intact plant cells. We show that when total internal reflection occurs at the cell wall/cytosol interface with an appropriate angle of incidence, an evanescent wave field of constant depth is produced inside the cytosol. Results of experimental TIRFM observations of the dynamic behaviors of phototropin 1 (a membrane receptor protein and clathrin light chain (a vesicle coat protein support our theoretical analysis. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that variable-angle TIRFM is appropriate for quantitative live imaging of cells in intact tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  5. Superresolution and Fluorescence Dynamics Evidence Reveal That Intact Liposomes Do Not Cross the Human Skin Barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jes Dreier

    Full Text Available In this study we use the combination of super resolution optical microscopy and raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS to study the mechanism of action of liposomes as transdermal drug delivery systems in human skin. Two different compositions of liposomes were applied to newly excised human skin, a POPC liposome and a more flexible liposome containing the surfactant sodium cholate. Stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED images of intact skin and cryo-sections of skin treated with labeled liposomes were recorded displaying an optical resolution low enough to resolve the 100 nm liposomes in the skin. The images revealed that virtually none of the liposomes remained intact beneath the skin surface. RICS two color cross correlation diffusion measurements of double labeled liposomes confirmed these observations. Our results suggest that the liposomes do not act as carriers that transport their cargo directly through the skin barrier, but mainly burst and fuse with the outer lipid layers of the stratum corneum. It was also found that the flexible liposomes showed a greater delivery of the fluorophore into the stratum corneum, indicating that they functioned as chemical permeability enhancers.

  6. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in pregnant women determined by an immunoradiometric assay for intact PTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, O.K.; Hawkins, D.S.; Rubin, L.P.; Posillico, J.T.; Brown, E.M.; Schiff, I.

    1988-10-01

    Most studies of circulating PTH levels using traditional RIAs have supported the concept of physiological hyperparathyroidism of pregnancy, with pregnant women having serum immunoreactive PTH levels significantly higher than those in nonpregnant subjects. However, such RIAs are insensitive and often detect inactive PTH fragments, so that the correlation between PTH immunoreactivity and bioactivity is poor. Employing a new intact PTH immunoradiometric assay (Allegro-Nichols), we reassessed the effects of pregnancy on parathyroid function. The mean serum PTH level in 81 pregnant women was 14.4 +/- 6.3 (+/- SD) compared to 24.8 +/- 9.0 ng/L in 11 normally cycling nonpregnant women (P less than 0.001). The mean serum total and ionized calcium levels in the 2 groups were similar. In 5 of the pregnant women, serum bioactive PTH, determined by cytochemical bioassay, was slightly lower (7.7 +/- 3.4 ng/L) than in normal individuals (11.1 +/- 1.9 ng/L). Our findings suggest, in contrast with the results of most previous studies, that serum intact PTH may decline during pregnancy.

  7. Quantitative Determination of Fusarium proliferatum Concentration in Intact Garlic Cloves Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Elena; Mamolini, Elisabetta; De Bastiani, Morena; Marchetti, Maria Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium proliferatum is considered to be a pathogen of many economically important plants, including garlic. The objective of this research was to apply near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to rapidly determine fungal concentration in intact garlic cloves, avoiding the laborious and time-consuming procedures of traditional assays. Preventive detection of infection before seeding is of great interest for farmers, because it could avoid serious losses of yield during harvesting and storage. Spectra were collected on 95 garlic cloves, divided in five classes of infection (from 1-healthy to 5-very highly infected) in the range of fungal concentration 0.34–7231.15 ppb. Calibration and cross validation models were developed with partial least squares regression (PLSR) on pretreated spectra (standard normal variate, SNV, and derivatives), providing good accuracy in prediction, with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.829 and 0.774, respectively, a standard error of calibration (SEC) of 615.17 ppb, and a standard error of cross validation (SECV) of 717.41 ppb. The calibration model was then used to predict fungal concentration in unknown samples, peeled and unpeeled. The results showed that NIRS could be used as a reliable tool to directly detect and quantify F. proliferatum infection in peeled intact garlic cloves, but the presence of the external peel strongly affected the prediction reliability. PMID:27428978

  8. In vitro comparison of human fibroblasts from intact and ruptured ACL for use in tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Brune

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study compares fibroblasts extracted from intact and ruptured human anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL for creation of a tissue engineered ACL-construct, made of porcine small intestinal submucosal extracellular matrix (SIS-ECM seeded with these ACL cells. The comparison is based on histological, immunohistochemical and RT-PCR analyses. Differences were observed between cells in a ruptured ACL (rACL and cells in an intact ACL (iACL, particularly with regard to the expression of integrin subunits and smooth muscle actin (SMA. Despite these differences in the cell source, both cell populations behaved similarly when seeded on an SIS-ECM scaffold, with similar cell morphology, connective tissue organization and composition, SMA and integrin expression. This study shows the usefulness of naturally occurring scaffolds such as SIS-ECM for the study of cell behaviour in vitro, and illustrates the possibility to use autologous cells extracted from ruptured ACL biopsies as a source for tissue engineered ACL constructs.

  9. Estimation of drug particle size in intact tablets by two dimensional X-ray diffractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakral, Seema; Thakral, Naveen K; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2017-09-09

    The average grain size of a crystalline material can be determined from the γ-profile of Debye rings in two-dimensional X-ray diffraction (2D XRD) frames. Our objectives were to: (i) validate the method for organic powders and use it to determine the grain size in intact tablets, and (ii) demonstrate the pharmaceutical application of this technique by determining the grain size of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in marketed formulations. Six sieve fractions of sucrose were prepared and the particle size distribution was confirmed by laser diffraction. Their average grain size was determined from the 2D XRD frames by the γ-profile method. For particles size determined by the three methods were in good agreement. When these particles were compressed, there was no discernible change in the sucrose grain size in tablets. When the particles were > 250 μm, compression resulted in a mixture of large grains and fine powder. The grain size of acetaminophen in eleven marketed tablet formulations was determined to be either ∼ 35 μm or ∼ 80 μm. This non-destructive technique can therefore be potentially useful to estimate the grain size of crystalline formulation components in intact tablets. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. In vitro bioactive properties of intact and enzymatically hydrolysed whey protein: targeting the enteroinsular axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power-Grant, O; Bruen, C; Brennan, L; Giblin, L; Jakeman, P; FitzGerald, R J

    2015-03-01

    Enzymatically hydrolysed milk proteins have a variety of biofunctional effects some of which may be beneficial in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of commercially available intact and hydrolysed whey protein ingredients (DH 32, DH 45) on markers of the enteroinsular axis (glucagon like peptide-1 secretion, dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibition, insulin secretion and antioxidant activity) before and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID). A whey protein hydrolysate, DH32, significantly enhanced (P whey protein hydrolysates inhibited dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity, yielding half maximal inhibitory concentration values (IC50) of 1.5 ± 0.1 and 1.1 ± 0.1 mg mL(-1) for the DH 32 and DH 45, samples respectively, and were significantly more potent than the intact whey (P whey protein significantly enhanced (P whey, as measured by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC). This antioxidant activity was maintained (DH 32, P > 0.05) or enhanced (DH 45, P whey stimulated GLP-1 secretion from enteroendocrine cells compared to vehicle control (P whey proteins and peptides can act through multiple targets within the enteroinsular axis and as such may have glucoregulatory potential.

  11. Evaluating a genetically encoded optical sensor of neural activity using electrophysiology in intact adult fruit flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Laurent

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Genetically encoded optical indicators hold the promise of enabling non-invasive monitoring of activity in identified neurons in behaving organisms. However, the interpretation of images of brain activity produced using such sensors is not straightforward. Several recent studies of sensory coding used G-CaMP 1.3-a calcium sensor-as an indicator of neural activity; some of these studies characterized the imaged neurons as having narrow tuning curves, a conclusion not always supported by parallel electrophysiological studies. To better understand the possible cause of these conflicting results, we performed simultaneous in vivo 2-photon imaging and electrophysiological recording of G-CaMP 1.3 expressing neurons in the antennal lobe (AL of intact fruitflies. We find that G-CaMP has a relatively high threshold, that its signal often fails to capture spiking response kinetics, and that it can miss even high instantaneous rates of activity if those are not sustained. While G-CaMP can be misleading, it is clearly useful for the identification of promising neural targets: when electrical activity is well above the sensor's detection threshold, its signal is fairly well correlated with mean firing rate and G-CaMP does not appear to alter significantly the responses of neurons that express it. The methods we present should enable any genetically encoded sensor, activator, or silencer to be evaluated in an intact neural circuit in vivo in Drosophila.

  12. Gaze-cueing requires intact face processing - Insights from acquired prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burra, Nicolas; Kerzel, Dirk; Ramon, Meike

    2017-04-01

    Gaze-cueing is the automatic spatial orienting of attention in the direction of perceived gaze. Participants respond faster to targets located at positions congruent with the direction of gaze, compared to incongruent ones (gaze cueing effect, GCE). However, it still remains unclear whether its occurrence depends on intact integration of information from the entire eye region or face, rather than simply the presence of the eyes per se. To address this question, we investigated the GCE in PS, an extensively studied case of pure acquired prosopagnosia. In our gaze-cueing paradigm, we manipulated the duration at which cues were presented (70ms vs. 400ms) and the availability of facial information (full-face vs. eyes-only). For 70ms cue duration, we found a context-dependent dissociation between PS and controls: PS showed a GCE for eyes-only stimuli, whereas controls showed a GCE only for full-face stimuli. For 400ms cue duration, PS showed gaze-cueing independently of stimulus context, whereas in healthy controls a GCE again emerged only for full-face stimuli. Our findings suggest that attentional deployment based on the gaze direction of briefly presented faces requires intact processing of facial information, which affords salience to the eye region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. In Vivo Optical Imaging of Neurogenesis: Watching New Neurons in the Intact Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Couillard-Despres

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis is a highly dynamic process modulated by several pathologic and environmental factors, as well as by various compounds. So far, available techniques to study neurogenesis are lengthy and personnel and cost intensive. We developed a new tool based on the doublecortin promoter driving the expression of the luciferase reporter gene (DCX-promo-luciferase in transgenic mice to perform in vivo imaging of neurogenesis. Indeed, the DCX-promo-luciferase mice allowed optical in vivo imaging of the onset of and increase in neurogenesis in developing fetal brains, as well as imaging of neurogenesis in the intact adult mouse central nervous system. Moreover, the capacity to specifically detect a small number of migrating neuronal precursors in vivo after transplantation is for the first time feasible using this DCX-promo-luciferase transgenic tool. The present imaging approach offers several crucial advantages over methods currently available, such as bromodeoxyuridine incorporation or labeling using iron oxide nanoparticles. Hence, it allows longitudinal study of neurogenesis in intact animals without the requirement of cellular prelabeling. Moreover, it guarantees that detection is specific for neuronal precursors and restricted to viable cells. Hence, our DCX-promo-luciferase transgenic model constitutes an effective tool that answers the pressing need for rapid investigation of the impact on neurogenesis of a large number of candidate compounds waiting to be tested.

  14. Proteomic analysis using 2-D liquid separations of intact proteins from whole-cell lysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kan; Yan, Fang; O'Neil, Kimberly A; Hamler, Rick; Lubman, David M; Lin, Linda; Barder, Timothy J

    2004-02-01

    This unit describes procedures for 2-D liquid separations of proteins from whole-cell lysates. Protocols for protein isoelectric point (pI) fractionation in the first dimension include the use of liquid isoelectric focusing (IEF) and chromatofocusing. The liquid IEF provides a pI-based fractionation using a batch-phase electrophoretic method, while chromatofocusing uses a column-based chromatographic method to generate the pH gradient. Using either method, a second-dimension fractionation is provided in the liquid phase using nonporous silica-based reversed-phase HPLC (NPS-RP-HPLC) to generate a 2-D liquid map of the protein content of the cell. The eluate of the 2-D liquid fractionation is directly coupled to a mass spectrometer for on-line detection of the intact molecular weights of proteins. As a result, a multidimensional map of protein expression is obtained that characterizes cellular proteins by pI, hydrophobicity, and intact molecular weight. Such expression maps are useful for differential proteomic comparison between different cell samples.

  15. Phenol increases intracellular [Ca2+] during twitch contractions in intact Xenopus skeletal myofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Leonardo; Hogan, Michael C

    2010-11-01

    Phenol is a neurolytic agent used for management of spasticity in patients with either motoneuron lesions or stroke. In addition, compounds that enhance muscle contractility (i.e., polyphenols, etc.) may affect muscle function through the phenol group. However, the effects of phenol on muscle function are unknown, and it was, therefore, the purpose of the present investigation to examine the effects of phenol on tension development and Ca(2+) release in intact skeletal muscle fibers. Dissected intact muscle fibers from Xenopus laevis were electrically stimulated, and cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](c)) and tension development were recorded. During single twitches and unfused tetani, phenol significantly increased [Ca(2+)](c) and tension without affecting myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity. To investigate the phenol effects on Ca(2+) channel/ryanodine receptors, single fibers were treated with different concentrations of caffeine in the presence and absence of phenol. Low concentrations of phenol significantly increased the caffeine sensitivity (P twitch contractions in muscle fibers without altering myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity and may be used as a new agent to study skeletal muscle Ca(2+) handling.

  16. A genetically encoded tag for correlated light and electron microscopy of intact cells, tissues, and organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaokun Shu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Electron microscopy (EM achieves the highest spatial resolution in protein localization, but specific protein EM labeling has lacked generally applicable genetically encoded tags for in situ visualization in cells and tissues. Here we introduce "miniSOG" (for mini Singlet Oxygen Generator, a fluorescent flavoprotein engineered from Arabidopsis phototropin 2. MiniSOG contains 106 amino acids, less than half the size of Green Fluorescent Protein. Illumination of miniSOG generates sufficient singlet oxygen to locally catalyze the polymerization of diaminobenzidine into an osmiophilic reaction product resolvable by EM. MiniSOG fusions to many well-characterized proteins localize correctly in mammalian cells, intact nematodes, and rodents, enabling correlated fluorescence and EM from large volumes of tissue after strong aldehyde fixation, without the need for exogenous ligands, probes, or destructive permeabilizing detergents. MiniSOG permits high quality ultrastructural preservation and 3-dimensional protein localization via electron tomography or serial section block face scanning electron microscopy. EM shows that miniSOG-tagged SynCAM1 is presynaptic in cultured cortical neurons, whereas miniSOG-tagged SynCAM2 is postsynaptic in culture and in intact mice. Thus SynCAM1 and SynCAM2 could be heterophilic partners. MiniSOG may do for EM what Green Fluorescent Protein did for fluorescence microscopy.

  17. Feasibility in multispectral imaging for predicting the content of bioactive compounds in intact tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changhong; Liu, Wei; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2015-04-15

    Tomato is an important health-stimulating fruit because of the antioxidant properties of its main bioactive compounds, dominantly lycopene and phenolic compounds. Nowadays, product differentiation in the fruit market requires an accurate evaluation of these value-added compounds. An experiment was conducted to simultaneously and non-destructively measure lycopene and phenolic compounds content in intact tomatoes using multispectral imaging combined with chemometric methods. Partial least squares (PLS), least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM) and back propagation neural network (BPNN) were applied to develop quantitative models. Compared with PLS and LS-SVM, BPNN model considerably improved the performance with coefficient of determination in prediction (RP(2))=0.938 and 0.965, residual predictive deviation (RPD)=4.590 and 9.335 for lycopene and total phenolics content prediction, respectively. It is concluded that multispectral imaging is an attractive alternative to the standard methods for determination of bioactive compounds content in intact tomatoes, providing a useful platform for infield fruit sorting/grading.

  18. Modeling of Recovery Profiles in Mentally Disabled and Intact Patients after Sevoflurane Anesthesia; A Pharmacodynamic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Teo Jeon; Noh, Gyu-Jeong; Koo, Yong-Seo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Mentally disabled patients show different recovery profiles compared to normal patients after general anesthesia. However, the relationship of dose-recovery profiles of mentally disabled patients has never been compared to that of normal patients. Materials and Methods Twenty patients (10 mentally disabled patients and 10 mentally intact patients) scheduled to dental surgery under general anesthesia was recruited. Sevoflurane was administered to maintain anesthesia during dental treatment. At the end of the surgery, sevoflurane was discontinued. End-tidal sevoflurane and recovery of consciousness (ROC) were recorded after sevoflurane discontinuation. The pharmacodynamic relation between the probability of ROC and end-tidal sevoflurane concentration was analyzed using NONMEM software (version VII). Results End-tidal sevoflurane concentration associated with 50% probability of ROC (C50) and γ value were lower in the mentally disabled patients (C50=0.37 vol %, γ=16.5 in mentally intact patients, C50=0.19 vol %, γ=4.58 in mentally disabled patients). Mentality was a significant covariate of C50 for ROC and γ value to pharmacodynamic model. Conclusion A sigmoid Emanx model explains the pharmacodynamic relationship between end-tidal sevoflurane concentration and ROC. Mentally disabled patients may recover slower from anesthesia at lower sevoflurane concentration at ROC an compared to normal patients. PMID:25323901

  19. An effective manual deboning method to prepare intact mouse nasal tissue with preserved anatomical organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunston, David; Ashby, Sarah; Krosnowski, Kurt; Ogura, Tatsuya; Lin, Weihong

    2013-08-10

    The mammalian nose is a multi-functional organ with intricate internal structures. The nasal cavity is lined with various epithelia such as olfactory, respiratory, and squamous epithelia which differ markedly in anatomical locations, morphology, and functions. In adult mice, the nose is covered with various skull bones, limiting experimental access to internal structures, especially those in the posterior such as the main olfactory epithelium (MOE). Here we describe an effective method for obtaining almost the entire and intact nasal tissues with preserved anatomical organization. Using surgical tools under a dissecting microscope, we sequentially remove the skull bones surrounding the nasal tissue. This procedure can be performed on both paraformaldehyde-fixed and freshly dissected, skinned mouse heads. The entire deboning procedure takes about 20-30 min, which is significantly shorter than the experimental time required for conventional chemical-based decalcification. In addition, we present an easy method to remove air bubbles trapped between turbinates, which is critical for obtaining intact thin horizontal or coronal or sagittal sections from the nasal tissue preparation. Nasal tissue prepared using our method can be used for whole mount observation of the entire epithelia, as well as morphological, immunocytochemical, RNA in situ hybridization, and physiological studies, especially in studies where region-specific examination and comparison are of interest.

  20. Simultaneous high-speed imaging and optogenetic inhibition in the intact mouse brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovetti, Serena; Moretti, Claudio; Zucca, Stefano; Dal Maschio, Marco; Bonifazi, Paolo; Fellin, Tommaso

    2017-01-01

    Genetically encoded calcium indicators and optogenetic actuators can report and manipulate the activity of specific neuronal populations. However, applying imaging and optogenetics simultaneously has been difficult to establish in the mammalian brain, even though combining the techniques would provide a powerful approach to reveal the functional organization of neural circuits. Here, we developed a technique based on patterned two-photon illumination to allow fast scanless imaging of GCaMP6 signals in the intact mouse brain at the same time as single-photon optogenetic inhibition with Archaerhodopsin. Using combined imaging and electrophysiological recording, we demonstrate that single and short bursts of action potentials in pyramidal neurons can be detected in the scanless modality at acquisition frequencies up to 1 kHz. Moreover, we demonstrate that our system strongly reduces the artifacts in the fluorescence detection that are induced by single-photon optogenetic illumination. Finally, we validated our technique investigating the role of parvalbumin-positive (PV) interneurons in the control of spontaneous cortical dynamics. Monitoring the activity of cellular populations on a precise spatiotemporal scale while manipulating neuronal activity with optogenetics provides a powerful tool to causally elucidate the cellular mechanisms underlying circuit function in the intact mammalian brain. PMID:28053310

  1. On the utility of predictive chromatography to complement mass spectrometry based intact protein identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridatchenko, Marina L; Perlova, Tatyana Yu; Ben Hamidane, Hisham; Goloborodko, Anton A; Tarasova, Irina A; Gorshkov, Alexander V; Evreinov, Victor V; Tsybin, Yury O; Gorshkov, Mikhail V

    2012-03-01

    The amino acid sequence determines the individual protein three-dimensional structure and its functioning in an organism. Therefore, "reading" a protein sequence and determining its changes due to mutations or post-translational modifications is one of the objectives of proteomic experiments. The commonly utilized approach is gradient high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in combination with tandem mass spectrometry. While serving as a way to simplify the protein mixture, the liquid chromatography may be an additional analytical tool providing complementary information about the protein structure. Previous attempts to develop "predictive" HPLC for large biomacromolecules were limited by empirically derived equations based purely on the adsorption mechanisms of the retention and applicable to relatively small polypeptide molecules. A mechanism of the large biomacromolecule retention in reversed-phase gradient HPLC was described recently in thermodynamics terms by the analytical model of liquid chromatography at critical conditions (BioLCCC). In this work, we applied the BioLCCC model to predict retention of the intact proteins as well as their large proteolytic peptides separated under different HPLC conditions. The specific aim of these proof-of-principle studies was to demonstrate the feasibility of using "predictive" HPLC as a complementary tool to support the analysis of identified intact proteins in top-down, middle-down, and/or targeted selected reaction monitoring (SRM)-based proteomic experiments.

  2. Simultaneous high-speed imaging and optogenetic inhibition in the intact mouse brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovetti, Serena; Moretti, Claudio; Zucca, Stefano; Dal Maschio, Marco; Bonifazi, Paolo; Fellin, Tommaso

    2017-01-01

    Genetically encoded calcium indicators and optogenetic actuators can report and manipulate the activity of specific neuronal populations. However, applying imaging and optogenetics simultaneously has been difficult to establish in the mammalian brain, even though combining the techniques would provide a powerful approach to reveal the functional organization of neural circuits. Here, we developed a technique based on patterned two-photon illumination to allow fast scanless imaging of GCaMP6 signals in the intact mouse brain at the same time as single-photon optogenetic inhibition with Archaerhodopsin. Using combined imaging and electrophysiological recording, we demonstrate that single and short bursts of action potentials in pyramidal neurons can be detected in the scanless modality at acquisition frequencies up to 1 kHz. Moreover, we demonstrate that our system strongly reduces the artifacts in the fluorescence detection that are induced by single-photon optogenetic illumination. Finally, we validated our technique investigating the role of parvalbumin-positive (PV) interneurons in the control of spontaneous cortical dynamics. Monitoring the activity of cellular populations on a precise spatiotemporal scale while manipulating neuronal activity with optogenetics provides a powerful tool to causally elucidate the cellular mechanisms underlying circuit function in the intact mammalian brain.

  3. Intact error monitoring in combat Veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Diane; Honzel, Nikki; Turken, U

    2015-11-30

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is a neuroelectric signature of performance monitoring during speeded response time tasks. Previous studies indicate that individuals with anxiety disorders show ERN enhancements that correlate with the degree of clinical symptomology. Less is known about the error monitoring system in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is characterized by impairments in the regulation of fear and other emotional responses, as well as deficits in maintaining cognitive control. Here, combat Veterans with PTSD were compared to control Veterans in two different versions of the flanker task (n=13 or 14 per group). Replicating and extending previous findings, PTSD patients showed an intact ERN in both experiments. In addition, task performance and error compensation behavior were intact. Finally, ERN amplitude showed no relationship with self-reported PTSD, depression, or post-concussive symptoms. These results suggest that error monitoring represents a relative strength in PTSD that can dissociate from cognitive control functions that are impaired, such as response inhibition and sustained attention. A healthy awareness of errors in external actions could be leveraged to improve interoceptive awareness of emotional state. The results could have positive implications for PTSD treatments that rely on self-monitoring abilities, such as neurofeedback and mindfulness training.

  4. Uranium migration through intact sandstone: effect of pollutant concentration and the reversibility of uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, R.; Lawless, T. A.; Alexander, J. L.; Bennett, D. G.; Read, D.

    1996-02-01

    A series of core flood experiments has been performed to investigate the migration behaviour of uranium under rigidly controlled conditions. Intact sandstone cores, pre-equilibrated with synthetic groundwater, were flooded with uranium solutions at varying concentrations and the transport process monitored as a function of pH, tracer concentration and the concentration of a competing ion, cadmium. In each case a substantial amount of uranium was retained by the core, implying a strong interaction with the rock matrix. The adsorption process was found to be highly concentration dependent; however, such that the finite retention capacity of an intact core can be exhausted within a relatively short time. The reversibility of uptake was studied by attempting to displace adsorbed uranium by injected cadmium and flushing with brine. Most of the uranium was readily recoverable but a small percentage is released very slowly on flushing, suggesting conversion to a more stable form. Prior to performing each experiment a simulation was carried out using a one-dimensional coupled chemical transport code, encompassing a thermodynamic description of the electrical double layer. The model was successful in predicting a priori the dominant trends in the uranium migration behaviour which may aid in model developments for more complex geochemical regimes than those studied here.

  5. Mixed-mode reversed phase/positively charged repulsion chromatography for intact protein separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ling; Guo, Zhimou; Hu, Zhuo; Liang, Xinmiao

    2017-05-10

    A mixed-mode reversed phase/positively charged repulsion stationary phase C8PN composed of octyl and amino group has been developed for separation of intact protein. Before the separation of proteins, a set of probe compounds were employed to evaluate the chromatographic properties of C8PN, demonstrating typical reversed phase/positively charged repulsion interaction on this stationary phase as estimated. Then the new C8PN stationary phase was used to separate a standard protein mixture on the reversed phase mode. Compared with a commercial C4 stationary phase, it showed different selectivity for some proteins. In order to better understand the properties of C8PN, the effect of acetonitrile content was investigated based on retention equation. Higher values of the equation parameters on C8PN demonstrated that the protein retentions were more sensitive to the change of acetonitrile content. Besides, the influences of buffer salt additives on the protein retentions were also studied. The retention factors of the proteins got larger with the increase of buffer salt concentration, which confirmed the positively charged repulsion interaction on the column. Finally, the C8PN was further applied to separate oxidized- and reduced- forms of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone. Our study indicated the advantages and application potential of mixed-mode reversed phase/positively charged repulsion stationary phase for intact protein separation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Laboratory simulation of intact capture of cometary and asteroidal dust particles in ISAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, A.; Nakamura, A.; Kadono, T.

    In order to develop a collector for intact capturing of cometary dust particles in the SOCCER mission and regolith dust particles released from asteroid surfaces by the impact of projectiles launched from a flying-by spacecraft, various kinds of materials as the collector candidates have been exposed to hypervelocity projectiles in our laboratory. Data based on the penetration characteristics of various materials (penetration depth, hole profile, effectiveness for intact capturing) are greatly increased. The materials tested for these simulation experiments include various kinds of low-density media and multisheet stacks; these are foamed plastics (polystyrene 0.01 g/cc), silica aerogels (0.04 g/cc), air (0.001 g/cc), liquid, and multisheet stack consisting of thin Al sheets (thickness 0.002 to 0.1 mm) or polyethylene sheets. Projectiles used are spheres or cylinders of nylon, polycarbonate, basalt, copper, iron, and volatile organics (e.g.,paradichlorobenzene) of size ranging from 30 micrometers to 1 cm launched by a two-stage light gas gun and a rail gun in ISAS at velocity up to about 7 km/s. Some results obtained by using nylon projectiles of velocity less than about 5 km/s are presented; the penetration depth vs. bulk density of the collector material for several kinds of materials and the velocity at which the projectiles begin to fragment vs. material density for foamed polystyrene.

  7. Sex Steroid Metabolism in Benign and Malignant Intact Prostate Biopsies: Individual Profiling of Prostate Intracrinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Gianfrilli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro studies reveal that androgens, oestrogens, and their metabolites play a crucial role in prostate homeostasis. Most of the studies evaluated intraprostatic hormone metabolism using cell lines or preprocessed specimens. Using an ex vivo model of intact tissue cultures with preserved architecture, we characterized the enzymatic profile of biopsies from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH or cancer (PC, focusing on 17β-hydroxy-steroid-dehydrogenases (17β-HSDs and aromatase activities. Samples from 26 men who underwent prostate needle core biopsies (BPH n = 14; PC n = 12 were incubated with radiolabeled 3H-testosterone or 3H-androstenedione. Conversion was evaluated by TLC separation and beta-scanning of extracted supernatants. We identified three major patterns of conversion. The majority of BPHs revealed no active testosterone/oestradiol conversion as opposed to prostate cancer. Conversion correlated with histology and PSA, but not circulating hormones. Highest Gleason scores had a higher androstenedion-to-testosterone conversion and expression of 17β-HSD-isoenzymes-3/5. Conclusions. We developed an easy tool to profile individual intraprostatic enzymatic activity by characterizing conversion pathways in an intact tissue environment. In fresh biopsies we found that 17β-HSD-isoenzymes and aromatase activities correlate with biological behaviour allowing for morphofunctional phenotyping of pathology specimens and clinical monitoring of novel enzyme-targeting drugs.

  8. [Management of threatening preterm labor with intact membranes: indications for antibiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, N

    2002-11-01

    To analyse the benefits and disadvantages of systematic antibiotic therapy in patient presenting a preterm labor with intact membranes. We reviewed French and English reports on Medline using to the following key words: "antibiotic therapy and preterm labor, preterm labor, streptococcus B, vaginose, mycoplasma, antenatal infection". The systematic prescription of antibiotics is not recommended for patients presenting preterm labor who have intact membranes and no symptoms of infection. The benefit of antibiotics is small and shows a tendency to prolong the pregnancy and the reduction of maternal infection. No benefit has been shown for neonatal results. When early-onset neonatal sepsis develops in a case in which antepartum chemoprophylaxis was used, the isolated bacteria will present an increasing risk of bacterial drug resistance. Local treatment (cream or pessary) do not belong in the treatment of threatening preterm labor and are not recommended for the prevention of prematurity or materno fetal infection. Risk groups of patients who present a positive vaginal colonization are subject to discussion. Studies do not allow us to ascertain that antibiotics have a beneficial effect on prematurity in these groups. Antibiotics are recommended for the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria. This treatment reduces prematurity and maternal infections. Despite poor consensus criteria, if threatening preterm labor is associated with a bacteriuria, experts usually recommend treatment.

  9. On plant detection of intact tomato fruits using image analysis and machine learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Guo, Wei; Yoshioka, Yosuke; Ninomiya, Seishi

    2014-07-09

    Fully automated yield estimation of intact fruits prior to harvesting provides various benefits to farmers. Until now, several studies have been conducted to estimate fruit yield using image-processing technologies. However, most of these techniques require thresholds for features such as color, shape and size. In addition, their performance strongly depends on the thresholds used, although optimal thresholds tend to vary with images. Furthermore, most of these techniques have attempted to detect only mature and immature fruits, although the number of young fruits is more important for the prediction of long-term fluctuations in yield. In this study, we aimed to develop a method to accurately detect individual intact tomato fruits including mature, immature and young fruits on a plant using a conventional RGB digital camera in conjunction with machine learning approaches. The developed method did not require an adjustment of threshold values for fruit detection from each image because image segmentation was conducted based on classification models generated in accordance with the color, shape, texture and size of the images. The results of fruit detection in the test images showed that the developed method achieved a recall of 0.80, while the precision was 0.88. The recall values of mature, immature and young fruits were 1.00, 0.80 and 0.78, respectively.

  10. On Plant Detection of Intact Tomato Fruits Using Image Analysis and Machine Learning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyosuke Yamamoto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fully automated yield estimation of intact fruits prior to harvesting provides various benefits to farmers. Until now, several studies have been conducted to estimate fruit yield using image-processing technologies. However, most of these techniques require thresholds for features such as color, shape and size. In addition, their performance strongly depends on the thresholds used, although optimal thresholds tend to vary with images. Furthermore, most of these techniques have attempted to detect only mature and immature fruits, although the number of young fruits is more important for the prediction of long-term fluctuations in yield. In this study, we aimed to develop a method to accurately detect individual intact tomato fruits including mature, immature and young fruits on a plant using a conventional RGB digital camera in conjunction with machine learning approaches. The developed method did not require an adjustment of threshold values for fruit detection from each image because image segmentation was conducted based on classification models generated in accordance with the color, shape, texture and size of the images. The results of fruit detection in the test images showed that the developed method achieved a recall of 0.80, while the precision was 0.88. The recall values of mature, immature and young fruits were 1.00, 0.80 and 0.78, respectively.

  11. Monitoring intra- and extracellular redox capacity of intact barley aleurone layers responding to phytohormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Christina; Zór, Kinga; Heiskanen, Arto; Dufva, Martin; Emnéus, Jenny; Finnie, Christine

    2016-12-15

    Redox regulation is important for numerous processes in plant cells including abiotic stress, pathogen defence, tissue development, seed germination and programmed cell death. However, there are few methods allowing redox homeostasis to be addressed in whole plant cells, providing insight into the intact in vivo environment. An electrochemical redox assay that applies the menadione-ferricyanide double mediator is used to assess changes in the intracellular and extracellular redox environment in living aleurone layers of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Himalaya) grains, which respond to the phytohormones gibberellic acid and abscisic acid. Gibberellic acid is shown to elicit a mobilisation of electrons as detected by an increase in the reducing capacity of the aleurone layers. By taking advantage of the membrane-permeable menadione/menadiol redox pair to probe the membrane-impermeable ferricyanide/ferrocyanide redox pair, the mobilisation of electrons was dissected into an intracellular and an extracellular, plasma membrane-associated component. The intracellular and extracellular increases in reducing capacity were both suppressed when the aleurone layers were incubated with abscisic acid. By probing redox levels in intact plant tissue, the method provides a complementary approach to assays of reactive oxygen species and redox-related enzyme activities in tissue extracts.

  12. Acetate free citrate-containing dialysate increase intact-PTH and BAP levels in the patients with low intact-PTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuragano Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, acetate-free citrate containing dialysate (A(−D was developed. We have already reported about the significant effect of A(−D on metabolic acidosis, anemia, and malnutrition in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD patients. In this study, we compared the effect of A(−D and acetate containing dialysate (A(+D on serum calcium and intact-parathyroid hormone (int-PTH levels. Method Single session study: Seventeen patients were treated with A(+D in one session and also treated with A(−D in another session. Serum levels of pH, HCO3-, total (t-calcium, ionized (i-calcium, and int-PTH were evaluated at the beginning and the end of each session. Cross over study: A total of 29 patients with MHD were treated with A(+D for 4 months, switched to A(−D for next 4 months, and returned to A(+D for the final 4 months. Results In single session study, serum i-calcium and t-calcium levels significantly increased, and int-PTH levels decreased after HD with A(+D, whereas HD with A(−D did not affect iCa and int-PTH. In cross over study, if all patients were analyzed, there was no significant difference in serum int-PTH or bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP levels during each study period. In contrast, in the patients with low int-PTH ( Conclusion A(−D containing citrate could affect calcium and PTH levels, and, in 4 month period of crossover study, increased int-PTH levels pararelled with increasing BAP levels, exclusively in MHD patients with low int-PTH levels.

  13. Ladder Treadmill: A Method to Assess Locomotion in Cats with an Intact or Lesioned Spinal Cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona, Manuel; Delivet-Mongrain, Hugo; Kundu, Aritra; Gossard, Jean-Pierre; Rossignol, Serge

    2017-05-31

    After lesions of the CNS, locomotor abilities of animals (mainly cats) are often assessed on a simple flat treadmill (FTM), which imposes little demands on supraspinal structures as is the case when walking on targets. Therefore, the aims of the present work were as follows: (1) to develop a treadmill allowing the assessment of locomotion of intact cats required to place the paws on the rungs of a moving ladder treadmill (LTM); (2) to assess the capability of cats after a unilateral spinal hemisection at T10 to cope with such a demanding locomotor task; and (3) to regularly train cats for 6 weeks on the LTM to determine whether such regular training improves locomotor recovery on the FTM. A significant improvement would indicate that LTM training maximizes the contribution of spinal locomotor circuits as well as remnant supraspinal inputs. Together, we used 9 cats (7 females, 2 males). Six were used to compare the EMG and kinematic locomotor characteristics during walking on the FTM and LTM. We found that the swing phase during LTM walking was slightly enhanced as well as some specific activity of knee flexor muscles. Fore-hindlimb coupling favored a more stable diagonal coupling. These 6 cats were then hemispinalized and trained for 6 weeks on the LTM, whereas the 3 other cats were hemispinalized and trained solely on the FTM to compare the two training regimens. Intensive LTM training after hemisection was found to change features of locomotion, such as the foot trajectory as well as diminished paw drag often observed after hemisection.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This paper introduces a method (ladder treadmill [LTM]) to study the locomotor ability of cats with an intact spinal cord or after a unilateral hemisection to walk with a precise foot placement on the rungs fixed to an ordinary flat treadmill (FTM). Because cats are compared in various conditions (intact or hemisected at different time points) in the same enclosure on the FTM and the LTM, the changes in

  14. Top-Down Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Intact Proteins by LAESI FT-ICR MS

    CERN Document Server

    Kiss, András; Reschke, Brent R; Powell, Matthew J; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-01-01

    Laser Ablation Electrospray Ionization is a recent development in mass spectrometry imaging. It has been shown that lipids and small metabolites can be imaged in various samples such as plant material, tissue sections or bacterial colonies without anysample pre-treatment. Further, laser ablation electrospray ionization has been shown to produce multiply charged protein ions from liquids or solid surfaces. This presents a means to address one of the biggest challenges in mass spectrometry imaging; the identification of proteins directly from biological tissue surfaces. Such identification is hindered by the lack of multiply charged proteins in common MALDI ion sources and the difficulty of performing tandem MS on such large, singly charged ions. We present here top-down identification of intact proteins from tissue with a LAESI ion source combined with a hybrid ion-trap FT-ICR mass spectrometer. The performance of the system was first tested with a standard protein with ECD and IRMPD fragmentation to prove the...

  15. SEPTO-OPTICDYSPLASIA WITH AN ANTERIOR ENCEPHALOCELE AND INTACT SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Razavi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe diagnosis of de Morsier syndrome or septo-optic dysplasia is made on the basis of the diagnosis of optic nerve hypoplasia. Septo-optic dysplasia is defined by a variable combination of dysgenesis of midline brain structures including optic nerve hypoplasia and hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction often associated with a wide variety of brain malformations of cortical development.The importance of direct ophthalmoscopy of optic nerve abnormalities is stressed, as well as of magnetic resonance imaging, which has become a guideline in the classification of  this syndrome This article reports a 19-year-old female with bilateral optic nerve  hypoplasia,anterior encephalocele and intact septum pellucidum. She was diagnosed withdiabetes insipidus, short stature and the history of seizure.

  16. EU-INTACT-case studies: Impact of extreme weather on critical Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Ruiten Kees

    2016-01-01

    One of the case studies is located in the Netherlands and deals with the port of Rotterdam. The situation in Rotterdam is representative for many other main ports in Europe. These ports are all situated in a delta area, near the sea and rivers or canals. Also, these ports are close to urban areas and industrial complexes. Finally, these ports have a multimodal transport infrastructure to and from its hinterland, which is also vulnerable for extreme weather events. The case study is not only significant for the development of methods and tools, but also of direct interest for the region itself. The combination of the National Water safety policy and the best practices from the INTACT cases offer challenges to create better adaptation options and coping capacity to these relatively unforeseen and unexpected impacts based on climate change scenario’s and socio-economic megatrends.

  17. Field Scale Variation in Water Dispersible Colloids from Aggregates and Intact Soil Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Trine; Møldrup, Per; Ferré, Ty P A

    Colloid-facilitated transport can play an important role in the transport of chemicals through the soil profile. The negative surface charge and large surface area makes colloids perfect carriers for strongly sorbing chemicals, like phosphorus and certain pesticides, in highly structured soils....... It is, however, difficult to quantify the amount of colloids ready available to participate in colloid-facilitated transport. In literature, the part of the colloidal fraction that readily disperses into suspension is referred to as water-dispersible clay (WDC). In this study we used two methods...... cm intact soil columns sampled from the same field grid also showed that the largest mass of particles and phosphorus leached from this part of the field. Thus, the presented WDC method comparison and results seem highly relevant in regard to field-scale mapping of leaching risk in regard to colloid...

  18. The intact Kunitz domain protects the amyloid precursor protein from being processed by matriptase-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Anna-Madeleine; Glebov, Konstantin; Walter, Jochen; Merkel, Olaf; Mangold, Martin; Schmidt, Frederike; Becker-Pauly, Christoph; Gütschow, Michael; Stirnberg, Marit

    2016-08-01

    Proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) leads to amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. So far, the mechanism of APP processing is insufficiently characterized at the molecular level. Whereas the knowledge of Aβ generation by several proteases has been expanded, the contribution of the Kunitz-type protease inhibitor domain (KPI) present in two major APP isoforms to the complex proteolytic processing of APP is poorly understood. In this study, we have identified KPI-containing APP as a very potent, slow-binding inhibitor for the membrane-bound proteolytic regulator of iron homeostasis matriptase-2 by forming stable complexes with its target protease in HEK cells. Inhibition and complex formation depend on the intact KPI domain. By inhibiting matriptase-2, KPI-containing APP is protected from matriptase-2-mediated proteolysis within the Aβ region, thus preventing the generation of N-terminally truncated Aβ.

  19. Imaging individual proteins and nanodomains on intact cell membranes with a probe-based optical antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zanten, Thomas S; Lopez-Bosque, Maria J; Garcia-Parajo, Maria F

    2010-01-01

    Optical antennas that confine and enhance electromagnetic fields in a nanometric region hold great potential for nanobioimaging and biosensing. Probe-based monopole optical antennas are fabricated to enhance fields localized to <30 nm near the antenna apex in aqueous conditions. These probes are used under appropriate excitation antenna conditions to image individual antibodies with an unprecedented resolution of 26 +/- 4 nm and virtually no surrounding background. On intact cell membranes in physiological conditions, the obtained resolution is 30 +/- 6 nm. Importantly, the method allows individual proteins to be distinguished from nanodomains and the degree of clustering to be quantified by directly measuring physical size and intensity of individual fluorescent spots. Improved antenna geometries should lead to true live cell imaging below 10-nm resolution with position accuracy in the subnanometric range.

  20. [Detection of erucic acid and glucosinolate in intact rapeseed by near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riu, Yu-kui; Huang, Kun-lun; Wang, Wei-min; Guo, Jing; Jin, Yin-hua; Luo, Yun-bo

    2006-12-01

    With the rapid development of transgenic food, more and more transgenic food has been pouring into the market, raising great concern about transgenic food' s edible safety. To analyze the content of erucic acid and glucosinolate in transgenic rapeseed and its parents, all the seeds were scanned intact by continuous wave of near infrared diffuse reflectance spectrometry ranging from 12 000 to 4 000 cm(-1) with a resolution of 4 cm(-1) and 64 times of scanning. Bruker OPUS software package was applied for quantification, while the results were compared with the standard methods. The results showed that the method of NIRS was very precise, which proved that infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy can be applied to detect the toxins in transgenic food. On the other hand, the results also showed that the content of erucic acid in transgenic rapeseeds is 0. 5-1. 0 times

  1. Pulmonary Atresia with Intact Ventricular Septum and Absence of Tricuspid Valve. A Report of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel E. González Morejón

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum suggests a simple congenital heart malformation. However, nothing could be further from the truth. Among the morphological peculiarities of this condition, the presence of congenitally unguarded tricuspid valve orifice is rarely observed. The present paper aims at describing a series of four patients with both malformations detected in the William Soler Children’s Heart Center from 1986 through 2012. Echocardiographic diagnosis could be accurately performed in the last two patients; identification of the initial cases was established by the findings at necropsy. All patients underwent Blalock – Taussig shunt as initial palliative treatment, which was associated with balloon atrioseptostomy in two cases. Only one of the last children mentioned survived. Vital prognosis of patients suffering from this association of malformations lies in early echocardiographic detection.

  2. In vivo robotics: the automation of neuroscience and other intact-system biological fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodandaramaiah, Suhasa B; Boyden, Edward S; Forest, Craig R

    2013-12-01

    Robotic and automation technologies have played a huge role in in vitro biological science, having proved critical for scientific endeavors such as genome sequencing and high-throughput screening. Robotic and automation strategies are beginning to play a greater role in in vivo and in situ sciences, especially when it comes to the difficult in vivo experiments required for understanding the neural mechanisms of behavior and disease. In this perspective, we discuss the prospects for robotics and automation to influence neuroscientific and intact-system biology fields. We discuss how robotic innovations might be created to open up new frontiers in basic and applied neuroscience and present a concrete example with our recent automation of in vivo whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology of neurons in the living mouse brain.

  3. Intrapelvic Lumbosacral Fracture Dislocation in a Neurologically Intact Patient: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaie Yazdi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Lumbosacral fracture dislocation is a rare entity mainly occurred in high-energy trauma accidents. In this unstable injury, anatomical separation of the spinal column from pelvis is usually associated with severe neurological deficits. Case Presentation We described a 16-year-old girl with extremely severe axial trauma to the lumbosacral spine who presented with fracture dislocation of the lumbosacral spine and its intrusion to the pelvic space. Despite violent lumbosacral joint dissociation on imaging studies, the patient was neurologically intact. She was treated with spinopelvic fusion and instrumentation. Conclusions Although spinopelvic fracture dislocation injuries are severe high-energy entities, in cases with traumatic spondylolytic spondylolisthesis due to widening of the vertebral canal, neurologic deficit may not be seen at all.

  4. Cleavage of honeybee prepromelittin by an endoprotease from rat liver microsomes: identification of intact signal peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollay, C; Vilas, U; Kreil, G

    1982-01-01

    It has previously been shown that rat liver microsomes contain a proteolytic enzyme that cleaves honeybee prepromelittin to yield promelittin. This enzyme has now been further purified by centrifugation on a sucrose-deoxycholate gradient and then reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles. Incubation of prepromelittin with vesicles in the presence of melittin yields, in addition to promelittin, a hydrophobic peptide. The latter could be isolated by extraction with l-butanol and paper electrophoresis in 30% formic acid and was shown to be intact signal peptide by analysis of peptic fragments and automated Edman degradation. The microsomal enzyme is thus an endoprotease that hydrolyzes prepromelittin exclusively at the pre-pro junction. The precision of this cleavage of an insect preprotein by a rat liver enzyme indicates that we are dealing with the ubiquitous eukaryotic signal peptidase. PMID:7048315

  5. Numerical modeling of heat transfer and pasteurizing value during thermal processing of intact egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasnezhad, Behzad; Hamdami, Nasser; Monteau, Jean-Yves; Vatankhah, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Thermal Pasteurization of Eggs, as a widely used nutritive food, has been simulated. A three-dimensional numerical model, computational fluid dynamics codes of heat transfer equations using heat natural convection, and conduction mechanisms, based on finite element method, was developed to study the effect of air cell size and eggshell thickness. The model, confirmed by comparing experimental and numerical results, was able to predict the temperature profiles, the slowest heating zone, and the required heating time during pasteurization of intact eggs. The results showed that the air cell acted as a heat insulator. Increasing the air cell volume resulted in decreasing of the heat transfer rate, and the increasing the required time of pasteurization (up to 14%). The findings show that the effect on thermal pasteurization of the eggshell thickness was not considerable in comparison to the air cell volume.

  6. Effect of deastringency treatment of intact persimmon fruits on the quality of fresh-cut persimmons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hun-Sik; Kim, Han-Soo; Lee, Young-Guen; Seong, Jong-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    The changes in the quality characteristics of the fresh-cut products prepared from intact 'Cheongdobansi' persimmons treated with different deastringency methods (nontreated, carbon dioxide gas, warm water, ethanol vapour) have been investigated for 6 days at 10 °C. Flesh firmness of the persimmons decreased after ethanol vapour treatment. The decrease in L(∗) value and flesh firmness in the slices prepared from persimmons treated with warm water was retarded. Soluble solids content and titratable acidity of the persimmons decreased after all deastringency treatments. Soluble tannins and radical scavenging activity of the slices from untreated persimmons were maintained at higher concentrations, unlike slices from astringency-removed persimmons. These results suggest that pre-slicing deastringency treatments affect the characteristics of fresh-cut persimmons, and that warm-water treatment could be a useful method to control the browning and softening of fresh-cut persimmons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Express diagnostics of intact and pathological dental hard tissues by optical PNC method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masychev, Victor I.; Alexandrov, Michail T.

    2000-03-01

    The results of hard tooth tissues research by the optical PNC- method in experimental and clinical conditions are presented. In the experiment under 90 test-sample of tooth slices with thickness about 1 mm (enamel, dentine and cement) were researched. The results of the experiment were processed by the method of correlation analyze. Clinical researches were executed on teeth of 210 patients. The regions of tooth tissue diseases with initial, moderate and deep caries were investigated. Spectral characteristics of intact and pathologically changed tooth tissues are presented and their peculiar features are discussed. The results the optical PNC- method application while processing tooth carious cavities are presented in order to estimate efficiency of the mechanical and antiseptic processing of teeth. It is revealed that the PNC-method can be used as for differential diagnostics of a degree dental carious stage, as for estimating of carefulness of tooth cavity processing before filling.

  8. Lac repressor: Crystallization of intact tetramer and its complexes with inducer and operator DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, H.C.; Lu, P. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (USA)); Lewis, M. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, (USA) Smith Kline and French Labs., King of Prussia, PA (USA))

    1990-03-01

    The intact lac repressor tetramer, which regulates expression of the lac operon in Escherichia coli, has been crystallized in the native form, with an inducer, and in a ternary complex with operator DNA and an anti-inducer. The crystals without DNA diffract to better than 3.5 {angstrom}. They belong to the monoclinic space group C2 and have cell dimensions a = 164.7 {angstrom}, b = 75.6 {angstrom}, and c = 161.2 {angstrom}, with {alpha} = {gamma} = 90{degree} and {beta} = 125.5{degree}. Cocrystals have been obtained with a number of different lac operator-related DNA fragments. The complex with a blunt-ended 16-base-pair strand yielded tetragonal bipyramids that diffract to 6.5 {angstrom}. These protein-DNA cocrystals crack upon exposure to the gratuitous inducer isopropyl {beta}-D-thiogalactoside, suggesting a conformational change in the repressor-operator complex.

  9. Intact-protein analysis system for discovery of serum-based disease biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Hanash, Samir

    2011-01-01

    Profiling of serum and plasma proteins has substantial relevance to the discovery of circulating disease biomarkers. However, the extreme complexity and vast dynamic range of protein abundance in serum and plasma present a formidable challenge for protein analysis. Thus, integration of multiple technologies is required to achieve high-resolution and high-sensitivity proteomic analysis of serum or plasma. In this chapter, we describe an orthogonal multidimensional intact-protein analysis system (IPAS) (Wang et al., Mol Cell Proteomics 4:618-625, 2005) coupled with protein tagging (Faca et al., J Proteome Res 5:2009-2018, 2006) to profile the serum and plasma proteomes quantitatively, which we have applied in our biomarker discovery studies (Katayama et al., Genome Med 1:47, 2009; Faca et al., PLoS Med 5:e123, 2008; Zhang et al. Genome Biol 9:R93, 2008).

  10. Field Scale Variation in Water Dispersible Colloids from Aggregates and Intact Soil Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Trine; Møldrup, Per; Ferré, Ty P A;

    Colloid-facilitated transport can play an important role in the transport of chemicals through the soil profile. The negative surface charge and large surface area makes colloids perfect carriers for strongly sorbing chemicals, like phosphorus and certain pesticides, in highly structured soils....... It is, however, difficult to quantify the amount of colloids ready available to participate in colloid-facilitated transport. In literature, the part of the colloidal fraction that readily disperses into suspension is referred to as water-dispersible clay (WDC). In this study we used two methods...... cm intact soil columns sampled from the same field grid also showed that the largest mass of particles and phosphorus leached from this part of the field. Thus, the presented WDC method comparison and results seem highly relevant in regard to field-scale mapping of leaching risk in regard to colloid...

  11. Video Communication With Cognitively Intact Nursing Home Residents: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Amy M; Hunter, Elizabeth G

    2017-05-01

    Limited research exists examining video communication among cognitively intact nursing home residents to connect with family. This scoping review evaluated existing literature for video communication usage with nursing home residents, family, and nursing homes. A comprehensive search was completed using PubMed and EBSCOhost (including AgeLine, CINAHL, and PsycINFO) between 1972 and 2016 to locate English-language articles. The analysis identified five eligible studies (four involved an intervention, one assessed family views) meeting inclusion criteria. Findings included, seeing family members separated by distance, seeing other parts of their life, and visually monitoring resident's health. Participants described frustration with technology limitations, such as video or audio lag. Current literature does not show a comprehensive assessment of video communication usage for residents, family, and nursing homes. Future studies should address the complexity of the intersection of the person, nursing home, and families in terms of potential benefits and capability of video communication use with residents.

  12. The sense of the intact and the deconstruction of the self: Story as redemptive mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.H. Willies

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The notion of self is posed as a problematic which may fruitfully be approached by a dose examination of the meaning of what story is. The problematic is resolved to some extent by the argument that story encompasses both the sense of the intact and the trace of decomtruction. Because the self indicates not only the empirical but also the numinous and ineffable, its relation to story is considered in terms of redemptive value. The mediative values of story are discussed by referring to the self as writer, reader and narrative. Because story offers an endless possibility of image and sequence, its co-dependence with s e lf offers hope, possibility, and consequently, an imminent redemption.

  13. MALDI FTICR IMS of Intact Proteins: Using Mass Accuracy to Link Protein Images with Proteomics Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spraggins, Jeffrey M.; Rizzo, David G.; Moore, Jessica L.; Rose, Kristie L.; Hammer, Neal D.; Skaar, Eric P.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2015-06-01

    MALDI imaging mass spectrometry is a highly sensitive and selective tool used to visualize biomolecules in tissue. However, identification of detected proteins remains a difficult task. Indirect identification strategies have been limited by insufficient mass accuracy to confidently link ion images to proteomics data. Here, we demonstrate the capabilities of MALDI FTICR MS for imaging intact proteins. MALDI FTICR IMS provides an unprecedented combination of mass resolving power (~75,000 at m/z 5000) and accuracy (calprotectin, in kidney tissue from mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus. S100A8 - M37O/C42O3 ( m/z 10228.00, -2.6ppm) was found to co-localize with bacterial microcolonies at the center of infectious foci. The ability of MALDI FTICR IMS to distinguish S100A8 modifications is critical to understanding calprotectin's roll in nutritional immunity.

  14. Intact Context-Dependent Modulation of Conflict Monitoring in Childhood ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluschke, Annet; Chmielewski, Witold X; Roessner, Veit; Beste, Christian

    2016-04-25

    Conflict monitoring is well known to be modulated by context. This is known as the Gratton effect, meaning that the degree of interference is smaller when a stimulus-response conflict had been encountered previously. It is unclear to what extent these processes are changed in ADHD. Children with ADHD (combined subtype) and healthy controls performed a modified version of the sequence flanker task. Patients with ADHD made significantly more errors than healthy controls, indicating general performance deficits. However, there were no differences regarding reaction times, indicating an intact Gratton effect in ADHD. These results were supported by Bayesian statistics. The results suggest that the ability to take contextual information into account during conflict monitoring is preserved in patients with ADHD despite this disorder being associated with changes in executive control functions overall. These findings are discussed in light of different theoretical accounts on contextual modulations of conflict monitoring. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. The Sodium and Potassium Exchange between Intact Frogs and Their Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    STEINBACH, H. BURR

    1966-01-01

    Intact living frogs (Rana pipiens) were partially immersed in dilute salt solution labeled with K42 or Na24 or, alternatively, injected with Ringer’s fluid containing the appropriate isotope and then partially immersed in unlabeled dilute salt. Before isotopic equilibrium, the animals were sacrificed and specific activities of K42 and Na24 were determined for medium, skin, plasma, and other tissues. With Na24, entering from the medium or escaping to the medium, specific activities of the skin approach that of the plasma. For K42, entering from the medium, the specific activity exceeds that of the plasma. The results are interpreted as indicating that the exchange rate for Na is greater plasma to skin than medium to skin, with the reverse situation for K. Values are given for average Na, K, and Cl contents of the various organ systems. PMID:5924103

  16. Effects of nanosized lithium carbonate particles on intact muscle tissue and tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bgatova, N P; Borodin, Yu I; Makarova, V V; Pozhidaeva, A A; Rachkovskaya, L N; Konenkov, V I

    2014-05-01

    The effects of nanosized lithium carbonate particles on muscle tissue structure and development of experimental hepatocarcinoma-29 transplanted into the hip were studied in CBA mice. Necrotic changes in all structural components of the muscle were detected after intramuscular injection of nanosized lithium carbonate particles to intact animals. Regeneration of the muscle fibers after lithium carbonate treatment was associated with a significant increase in macrophage count, number of microvessels, activation of fibroblasts, and complete recovery of the organ structure. Injection of lithium carbonate nanoparticles at the periphery of tumor growth caused tumor cell necrosis, destruction of the vascular bed, and attraction of neutrophils and macrophages to the tumor focus. After the preparation was discontinued, the tumor developed with lesser number of vessels, smaller tumor cells, and lesser deformation of the cell nuclei structure.

  17. A simple physiologic pulsatile perfusion system for the study of intact vascular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, B S; Surowiec, S M; Lin, P H; Chen, C

    2000-07-01

    Perfusion vascular culture models may provide a useful link between cell culture models and animal culture models by allowing a high level of control over important parameters while maintaining physiologic structure. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a new vascular culture system for pulsatile perfusion culture of intact vascular tissue. The system generates a pulsatile component of flow by means of a cam-driven syringe and a peristaltic pump and compliance chamber. Cams were designed, constructed and tested to simulate canine femoral and common carotid artery flows. The mean pressure was adjusted between 60 and 200 mmHg without significantly affecting flow rate, flow waveform, or the pressure waveform. Porcine common carotid artery segments were cultured in this pulsatile perfusion system. The viability of vascular segments was tested after various culture times with a functional assay that demonstrated both smooth muscle cell and endothelial cell response to vasomotor challenge.

  18. Mass and stiffness spectrometry of nanoparticles and whole intact bacteria by multimode nanomechanical resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvar, O.; Ruz, J. J.; Kosaka, P. M.; Domínguez, C. M.; Gil-Santos, E.; Calleja, M.; Tamayo, J.

    2016-11-01

    The identification of species is a fundamental problem in analytical chemistry and biology. Mass spectrometers identify species by their molecular mass with extremely high sensitivity (<10-24 g). However, its application is usually limited to light analytes (<10-19 g). Here we demonstrate that by using nanomechanical resonators, heavier analytes can be identified by their mass and stiffness. The method is demonstrated with spherical gold nanoparticles and whole intact E. coli bacteria delivered by electrospray ionization to microcantilever resonators placed in low vacuum at 0.1 torr. We develop a theoretical procedure for obtaining the mass, position and stiffness of the analytes arriving the resonator from the adsorption-induced eigenfrequency jumps. These results demonstrate the enormous potential of this technology for identification of large biological complexes near their native conformation, a goal that is beyond the capabilities of conventional mass spectrometers.

  19. Myocardial ischemia, reperfusion, and infarction in chronically instrumented, intact, conscious, and unrestrained mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Heidi L; Janbaih, Hussein; Feng, Han-Zhong; Jin, Jian-Ping; DiCarlo, Stephen E

    2012-06-15

    In the United States alone, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) has invested several hundred million dollars in pursuit of myocardial infarct-sparing therapies. However, due largely to methodological limitations, this investment has not produced any notable clinical application or cardioprotective therapy. Among the major methodological limitations is the reliance on animal models that do not mimic the clinical situation. In this context, the limited use of conscious animal models is of major concern. In fact, whenever possible, studies of cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology should be conducted in conscious, complex models to avoid the complications associated with the use of anesthesia and surgical trauma. The mouse has significant advantages over other experimental models for the investigation of infarct-sparing therapies. The mouse is inexpensive, has a high throughput, and presents the ability of one to create genetically modified models. However, successful infarct-sparing therapies in anesthetized mice or isolated mouse hearts may not be successful in more complex models, including conscious mice. Accordingly, a conscious mouse model of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion has the potential to be of major importance for advancing the concepts and methods that drive the development of infarct-sparing therapies. Therefore, we describe, for the first time, the use of an intact, conscious, and unrestrained mouse model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion and infarction. The conscious mouse model permits occlusion and reperfusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery in an intact, complex model free of the confounding influences of anesthetics and surgical trauma. This methodology may be adopted for advancing the concepts and ideas that drive cardiovascular research.

  20. C-C chemokine receptor-7 mediated endocytosis of antibody cargoes into intact cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier eCharest-Morin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The C-C chemokine receptor-7 (CCR7 is a G protein coupled receptor that has a role in leukocyte homing, but that is also expressed in aggressive tumor cells. Preclinical research supports that CCR7 is a valid target in oncology. In view of the increasing availability of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies that carry cytotoxic cargoes, we studied the feasibility of forcing intact cells to internalize known monoclonal antibodies by exploiting the cycle of endocytosis and recycling triggered by the CCR7 agonist CCL19. Firstly, an anti-CCR7 antibody (CD197; clone 150503 labeled surface recombinant CCR7 expressed in intact HEK 293a cells and the fluorescent antibody was internalized following CCL19 treatment. Secondly, a recombinant myc-tagged CCL19 construction was exploited along the anti-myc monoclonal antibody 4A6. The myc-tagged ligand was produced as a conditioned medium of transfected HEK 293a cells that contained the equivalent of 430 ng/ml of immunoreactive CCL19 (average value, ELISA determination. CCL19-myc, but not authentic CCL19, carried the fluorophore-labeled antibody 4A6 into other recipient cells that expressed recombinant CCR7 (microscopy, cytofluorometry. The immune complexes were apparent in endosomal structures, colocalized well with the small GTPase Rab5 and progressed toward Rab7-positive endosomes. A dominant negative form of Rab5 (GDP-locked inhibited this endocytosis. Further, endosomes in CCL19-myc- or CCL19-stimulated cells were positive for β-arrestin2, but rarely for β-arrestin1. Following treatment with CCL19-myc and the 4A6 antibody, the melanoma cell line A375 that expresses endogenous CCR7 was specifically stained using a secondary peroxidase-conjugated antibody. Agonist-stimulated CCR7 can transport antibody-based cargoes, with possible therapeutic applications in oncology.

  1. Structural organization of the intact bacterial cellulosome as revealed by electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Mohamed; Mayer, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The architecture of the intact cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum, a huge extracellular multi-polypetide bacterial enzyme complex engaged in degradation of cellulose, was investigated by electron microscopy. This was done because former electron microscopic studies aimed at elucidation of the structure of polycellulosomes and cellulosomes were restricted by the fact that data on macromolecular details could only be derived from deformed or disrupted enzyme complexes, or by application of cryo preparation and imaging techniques yielding insufficient resolution. The shape of well-preserved cellulosomes was more or less spherical, often similar to that of an olive fruit with a cavity. Therein, multiple fibrillar structures could be visualized, interpreted to be the proximal stretches of copies of the fibrillar protein Cip A ('scaffoldin'), the nonenzymatic scaffolding protein known to function as attachment site for the enzymatic subunits, as well as fibrillar parts of anchoring proteins. The enzymatic subunits were depicted to be attached, in a repetitive fashion, to the distal stretches of the Cip A proteins. The enzymatic subunits were seen, in the intact cellulosome, to form a shell-like complex substructure surrounding the cavity. Obviously, this kind of architecture makes sure that the catalytic domains of the enzymatic subunits are exposed to the environment, and, hence, to the substrate, the cellulose fibrils. Attempts were made to demonstrate the alternating occurrence of coiled domains and fibrillar stretches along the elongated protein Cip A previously characterized by sequencing, X-ray, and NMR studies. To this end, Cip A molecules, with adhering enzymatic subunits, were partially removed from their native location within the cellulosome, "stretched" by hydromechanical forces directly on the electron microscopic support film, negatively stained, and depicted by electron microscopy. The alternating occurrence of presumed coiled domains and fibrillar

  2. Microbiological and microscopic analysis of the pulp of non-vital traumatized teeth with intact crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kely Firmino Bruno

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the presence of microorganisms and analyzed microscopically the pulp of 20 traumatized human teeth with intact crowns and clinical diagnosis of pulp necrosis, based on the association of at least three of the clinical criteria: crown discoloration, negative response to thermal and electric pulp vitality tests, positive response to vertical and horizontal percussion, pain on palpation or mobility. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Microbiological collection was performed from the root canals to evaluate the presence of microorganisms. The pulp samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H.E. for histological evaluation of possible morphological alterations. RESULTS: Analysis of results was performed by statistical tests (linear regression test and diagnostic analysis and subjective analysis of the sections stained with H.E. and revealed that only 15% of the sample did not exhibit microbial development. The time elapsed between dental trauma and onset of endodontic intervention ranged from 15 days to 31 months; the percussion test presented high sensitivity (80% for detection of microorganisms in the root canal of traumatized teeth; 3 teeth (15% did not present pulp tissue, being characterized as complete autolysis; analysis of pulp samples was performed on the other 17 cases, among which 3 (15% exhibited partial necrosis without possibility of repair and 14 presented complete necrosis; none of the clinical criteria employed for the diagnosis of pulp necrosis in traumatized teeth was pathognomonic. CONCLUSIONS: The present results allowed the following conclusions: with regard to microbiological findings, 85% of teeth presented microorganisms in the root canal, despite the presence of an intact crown. Concerning the microscopic findings, 100% of traumatized teeth presented pulp necrosis; the pulp vitality tests based on pulp response to heat, cold and vertical percussion were the most reliable to diagnose pulp necrosis in

  3. Malnutrition among Cognitively Intact, non-Critically Ill Older Adults in the Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Greg F.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Weaver, Mark A.; Holland, Wesley C.; Platts-Mills, Timothy F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We estimate the prevalence of malnutrition among older patients presenting to an emergency department (ED) in the southeastern United States and identify subgroups at increased risk. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study with random time block sampling of cognitively intact patients aged 65 years and older. Nutrition was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short-Form (0–14 scale) with malnutrition defined as a score of 7 or less and at-risk for malnutrition defined as a score of 8–11. The presence of depressive symptoms was defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression-10 score of 4 or more (0–10 scale). Results Among 138 older adults, 16% (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 10%–22%) were malnourished and 60% (95% CI, 52%–69%) were either malnourished or at-risk for malnutrition. Seventeen of the 22 malnourished patients (77%) denied previously being diagnosed with malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition was not appreciably different between males and females, across levels of patient education, or between those living in urban and rural areas. However, the prevalence of malnutrition was higher among patients with depressive symptoms 52%, those residing in assisted living 50%, those with difficulty eating 38%, and those reporting difficulty buying groceries 33%. Conclusion Among a random sample of cognitively intact older ED patients, more than half were malnourished or at-risk for malnutrition, and the majority of malnourished patients had not previously been diagnosed. Higher rates of malnutrition among those with depression, difficulty eating, and difficulty buying groceries suggest the need to explore multifaceted interventions. PMID:25129819

  4. Intact Cell/Spore Mass Spectrometry of Fusarium Macro Conidia for Fast Isolate and Species Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hongjuan; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Winkler, Wolfgang; Lohninger, Hans; Allmaier, Guenter

    The focus of this paper is the development of an approach called intact cell mass spectrometry (ICMS) or intact spore mass spectrometry (ISMS) based on the technique matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for the rapid differentiation and identification of Fusarium species. Several parameters, which are known to affect the quality of IC mass spectra, have been investigated in detail by varying the MALDI matrix as well as the solvent system, in which the matrix has been dissolved, the solvent system for sample purification and the type of sample/MALDI matrix deposition technique. In the end characteristic as well as highly reproducible IC or IS mass spectra or peptide/protein fingerprints of three Fusarium species (F. cerealis, F. graminearum and F. poae) including 16 Fusarium isolates derived from different hosts and geographical locations have been obtained. Unscaled hierarchical cluster analysis based on ICMS data of eight selected Fusarium isolates of two species F. graminearum and F. poae revealed significant difference among the peptide/protein pattern of them. The results of the applied cluster analysis proved that, ICMS is a powerful approach for the rapid differentiation of Fusarium species. In addition, an on-target tryptic digestion was applied to Fusarium macro conidia spores to identify proteins using MALDI post source decay (PSD) fragment ion analysis. Two kinds of trypsin, namely bead-immobilized - to favor cleavage of surface-associated proteins - and non-immobilized trypsin were applied and compared. The results showed that the latter is more suitable for generating sequence tags by PSD fragment ion analysis.

  5. Effect of muscle length on cross-bridge kinetics in intact cardiac trabeculae at body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani-Nejad, Nima; Xu, Ying; Davis, Jonathan P.; Campbell, Kenneth S.

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic force generation in cardiac muscle, which determines cardiac pumping activity, depends on both the number of sarcomeric cross-bridges and on their cycling kinetics. The Frank–Starling mechanism dictates that cardiac force development increases with increasing cardiac muscle length (corresponding to increased ventricular volume). It is, however, unclear to what extent this increase in cardiac muscle length affects the rate of cross-bridge cycling. Previous studies using permeabilized cardiac preparations, sub-physiological temperatures, or both have obtained conflicting results. Here, we developed a protocol that allowed us to reliably and reproducibly measure the rate of tension redevelopment (ktr; which depends on the rate of cross-bridge cycling) in intact trabeculae at body temperature. Using K+ contractures to induce a tonic level of force, we showed the ktr was slower in rabbit muscle (which contains predominantly β myosin) than in rat muscle (which contains predominantly α myosin). Analyses of ktr in rat muscle at optimal length (Lopt) and 90% of optimal length (L90) revealed that ktr was significantly slower at Lopt (27.7 ± 3.3 and 27.8 ± 3.0 s−1 in duplicate analyses) than at L90 (45.1 ± 7.6 and 47.5 ± 9.2 s−1). We therefore show that ktr can be measured in intact rat and rabbit cardiac trabeculae, and that the ktr decreases when muscles are stretched to their optimal length under near-physiological conditions, indicating that the Frank–Starling mechanism not only increases force but also affects cross-bridge cycling kinetics. PMID:23277479

  6. Holographic interferometry of intact and radially incised human eye-bank corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolek, M K

    1994-05-01

    Many methods to measure corneal elasticity destroy the tissue and thereby produce erroneous results. Holographic interferometry, a highly precise nondestructive optical comparison technique, was used to evaluate corneal elasticity of intact eye-bank eyes. A double-pulse holographic interferometer operating at 632.8 nm was used to measure corneal deformation in 20 whole-globe eyes from donors 45 to 83 years of age for intraocular pressures from 16 mm Hg to 21 mm Hg. Stress was computed from LaPlace's law, and arc length strain was derived from z-axis distention of the central cornea. The stress-strain relationship in the normal physiological range of intraocular pressure was linear with a Young's elastic modulus of 1.03 gigapascals for the central cornea (r = 0.999). During interferometry of radial keratotomy of the cornea, interference fringe patterns developed in association with each incision as it was made. When four incisions were placed deep along each of the primary semimeridians, the fringe pattern developed as expected, based on current keratotomy models. When incisions were shallow (approximately 50% depth) and placed asymmetrically along the nasal, temporal, and superior semimeridians, the resulting surface strain was symmetrical about the central cornea, forming an annular pattern of interference fringes. These results indicate that when the cornea was stressed at physiological pressures as part of the intact whole globe, it was less elastic than excised corneal tissue tested by strip extensiometry. Radially incised corneas demonstrated strain patterns suggestive of inherent structural anisotropy with a possible inferior quadrant weakness.

  7. Effect of Autonomic Nervous System on the Transmurai Dispersion of Ventricular Repolarization in Intact Canine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张存泰; 徐大文; 李泱; 刘念; 王琳; 陆再英

    2004-01-01

    Summary: The effect of the autonomic nerves on the transmural dispersion of ventricular repolarization in intact canine was investigated. By using the monophasic action potential (MAP) recording technique, monophasic action potentials (MAPs) of the epicardium (Epi), midmyocardium (Mid)and endocardium (Endo) were recorded simultaneously by specially designed plunge-needle electrodes at the left ventricular free wall in 12 open-chest dogs. MAPD90 and transmural dispersion of repolarization among three myocardial layers as well as the incidence of the EAD before autonomic nervous stimulation and during autonomic nervous stimulation were compared. The results showed that the MAPD90 of Epi, Mid and Endo before autonomic nervous stimulation were 278±11 ms,316± 16 ms and 270± 12 ms respectively, the MAPD90of Mid was significantly longer than that of Epi or Endo (P<0.01). MAPD90 of Epi, Mid and Endo were shortened by 19±4 ms, 45±6 ms,18± 3 ms respectively during sympathetic stimulation. Compared with that of the control, the transmural dispersion of repolarization during sympathetic stimulation was shortened from 44 ± 4 ms to 15±3 ms (P<0. 01), but early afterdepolarizations were elicited in the Mid of 5 dogs (41 0%)during sympathetic stimulation. Parasympathetic stimulation did not significantly affect the MAPD90 in the three layers. It is concluded that there is the transmural dispersion of ventricular repolarization in intact canine. Sympathetic stimulation can reduce transmural dispersion of repolarization, but it can produce early afterdepolarizations in the Mid. Parasympathetic stimulation does not significantly affect the transmural dispersion of ventricular repolarization.

  8. Transcatheter pulmonary valve perforation using chronic total occlusion wire in pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhru, Shweta; Marathe, Shilpa; Saxena, Manish; Verma, Sudeep; Saileela, Rajan; Dash, Tapan K; Koneti, Nageswara Rao

    2017-01-01

    Background: Perforation of pulmonary valve using radiofrequency ablation in pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum (PA IVS) is a treatment of choice. However, significant cost of the equipment limits its utility, especially in the developing economies. Objective: To assess the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of perforation of pulmonary valve using chronic total occlusion (CTO) wires in patients with PA IVS as an alternative to radiofrequency ablation. Methods: This is a single-center, nonrandomized, retrospective study conducted during June 2008 to September 2015. Twenty-four patients with PA IVS were selected for the procedure during the study period. The median age and weight of the study population were 8. days and 2.65 kg, respectively. Four patients were excluded after right ventricular angiogram as they showed right ventricular-dependent coronary circulation. The pulmonary valve perforation was attempted using various types of CTO wires based on the tip load with variable penetrating characteristics. Results: The procedure was successful in 16 of twenty patients using CTO wires: Shinobi in nine, Miracle in four, CROSS-IT in two, and Conquest Pro in one. Two patients had perforation of right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). Pericardiocentesis was required in one patient to relieve cardiac tamponade. Later, the same patient underwent successful hybrid pulmonary valvotomy. The other patient underwent ductus arteriosus (DA) stenting. Balloon atrial septostomy was needed in three cases with systemic venous congestion. Desaturation was persistent in five cases necessitating DA or RVOT stenting to augment pulmonary blood flow. There were two early and two late deaths. The mean follow-up was 22.66 ± 16 months. Three patients underwent one and half ventricle repair and one Blalock–Taussig shunt during follow-up. Conclusion: Perforation of the pulmonary valve can be done successfully using CTO wires in selected cases of pulmonary atresia with intact

  9. Children use visual speech to compensate for non-intact auditory speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerger, Susan; Damian, Markus F; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Abdi, Hervé

    2014-10-01

    We investigated whether visual speech fills in non-intact auditory speech (excised consonant onsets) in typically developing children from 4 to 14 years of age. Stimuli with the excised auditory onsets were presented in the audiovisual (AV) and auditory-only (AO) modes. A visual speech fill-in effect occurs when listeners experience hearing the same non-intact auditory stimulus (e.g., /-b/ag) as different depending on the presence/absence of visual speech such as hearing /bag/ in the AV mode but hearing /ag/ in the AO mode. We quantified the visual speech fill-in effect by the difference in the number of correct consonant onset responses between the modes. We found that easy visual speech cues /b/ provided greater filling in than difficult cues /g/. Only older children benefited from difficult visual speech cues, whereas all children benefited from easy visual speech cues, although 4- and 5-year-olds did not benefit as much as older children. To explore task demands, we compared results on our new task with those on the McGurk task. The influence of visual speech was uniquely associated with age and vocabulary abilities for the visual speech fill--in effect but was uniquely associated with speechreading skills for the McGurk effect. This dissociation implies that visual speech--as processed by children-is a complicated and multifaceted phenomenon underpinned by heterogeneous abilities. These results emphasize that children perceive a speaker's utterance rather than the auditory stimulus per se. In children, as in adults, there is more to speech perception than meets the ear. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Highly efficient transformation of intact yeast-like conidium cells of Tremella fuciformin by electroporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO LiQiong; LIU Yong; ZHAO ShuXian; LIU ErXian; LIU JunFang

    2008-01-01

    Tremella fuciformis is one of higher basidiomycetes. Its basidiospore can reproduce yeast-like conidia, also called the blastospore by budding. The yeast-like conidia of T. Fuciformis is monokaryotic and easy to culture by submerged fermentation similar to yeast. So it is a good recipient cell for exogenous gone expression. In this study, two expression vectors pGIg-gfp containing gpd-GI promoter and gfp gone and pGIg-hph containing gpd-GI promoter and hph gone were constructed. The lowest sensitive concentration of hygromycin for the blastospore was determined on three types of media. Our ex-perimenta showed that the lowest sensitive concentration of hygromycin for the blastospore was 5 μg/mL on MA medium. The intact blastospores were transformed with the expression vector pGIg-hph by electroporation. The putative transformants were obtained by the MA selective medium. Experi-mental results showed that the most effective parameters for the electroporation of intact blastospores were obtained by using STM buffer, 1.0×108 cells/mL of blastospores, 200 μL in transformation volume, 6 μg plasmid, 2.0 kV/cm of electric pulse voltage, stillness culturing on MB liquid medium for 48 h after electroporation. In these transformation conditions, the efficiency reached 277 colonies/μg DNA. With the optimal parameters. The putative co-transformants were obtained by the MA selective medium. Eight randomly selected colonies from the vast putative co-transformants were analyzed by PCR de-tection and Southern blotting. The experiments showed that the gfp was integrated into the genomes of three transformants. The co-transformation efficiency was 37.5%. Green fluorescence was observed under laser scanning confocal microscope in these gfp positive transformants. This indicates that the exogenous gfp can be expressed effectively in the yeast-like conidia of T. Fuciformis.

  11. Rapid and non-invasive quantification of intramuscular fat content of intact pork cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H; Liu, L; Ngadi, M O; Gariépy, C

    2014-02-01

    Having acquired near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral images of intact pork loin samples through an NIR hyperspectral imaging system, the efficiency of a variety of image processing techniques including texture pattern analysis techniques were applied to process hyperspectral images so as to determine the intramuscular fat (IMF) content non-destructively. After the segmentation of region of interest (ROI), the raw spectral, texture-based spectral and textural characteristics of pork images were extracted by spectral averaging and pattern recognition techniques namely Gabor filter and improved gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), respectively. First derivatives of the non-filtered and the Gabor filtered spectra were also investigated. Full waveband partial least squares regression (PLSR) was employed to determine the optimal parameters of Gabor filter and GLCM, and to select optimal wavelengths for IMF prediction. A stepwise procedure was applied to the optimal wavelengths to further optimize them to key wavelengths. Multiple linear regression (MLR) models were built based on the key wavelengths. Mean spectra and the Gabor filtered spectra outperformed GLCM. The best result, represented by correlation coefficients of calibration (Rc), cross validation (Rcv) and prediction (Rp) of 0.89, 0.89, and 0.86, respectively, was achieved using the first derivative of Gabor filtered spectra at 1193 and 1217 nm. To visualize the IMF content in pork, the distribution maps of IMF content in pork were drawn using a mean spectra-based MLR model. These promising results highlight the great potential of NIR hyperspectral imaging for non-destructive prediction of IMF content of intact pork.

  12. Computed Tomography of the Prostate Gland in Healthy Intact Dogs and Dogs with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasikowska, J; Hebel, M; Niżański, W; Nowak, M

    2015-10-01

    To date, there is only scarce data on the evaluation of the prostate gland in dogs using computed tomography (CT). The aims of our study were to describe CT features of BPH in dogs and to determine the size of the prostate gland in healthy male dogs and dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) through CT. Additionally, we aimed to compare and establish the most useful parameters for CT measurements of the prostate in patients with BPH. The study population consisted of 20 healthy intact male dogs and 20 male intact dogs with confirmed BPH. Pre- and post-contrast CT studies were evaluated. The most common CT features in dogs with recognized BPH were symmetrical prostatomegaly and heterogeneity of the prostatic parenchyma. The mean prostatic density (D) was 56HU (±4.39) in pre-contrast CT images and 84HU (±8) in post-contrast images in dogs with BPH. The mean prostatic length (L) was 43.87 mm (±11), the mean width (W) amounted to 48.95 mm (±8.76) and the mean height (H) reached 44.9 mm (±9.48) in clinically affected patients. The mean ratios were: rL - 2,12 (±0.5); rW - 2.39 (±0.53) and rH - 2.16 (±0.39) in the BPH group. The prostate should be considered to be enlarged when rL exceeds 3.05; rW exceeds 3.38 and rH exceeds 2.94. Our findings indicated that CT is a useful tool in diagnosing prostate disorders, including BPH. The heterogeneity, density and ratios of prostatic length, width and height can be useful parameters in the diagnosis of BPH.

  13. Sediment CO2 efflux from cleared and intact temperate mangroves and tidal flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulmer, R. H.; Schwendenmann, L.; Lundquist, C. J.

    2015-02-01

    Temperate mangroves in Southern Australia and New Zealand have been increasing in area over the past 50 years, whereas tropical mangroves have declined by 30-50% over a similar time frame. Tropical mangroves are understood to be an important carbon sink and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions following clearance are estimated to be comparable or greater than CO2 emissions following the clearance of many terrestrial forest systems. Recreational and amenity values or perceived loss of other estuarine habitats due to expanding temperate mangrove forests have resulted in clearing of temperate mangroves. In this study, we investigated the impact of temperate mangrove clearance on CO2 efflux from the sediment to the atmosphere along with a range of other biotic and abiotic factors. Significantly higher CO2 efflux rates were measured in cleared (1.34 ± 0.46 μmol m2 s-1) and intact mangrove sites (2.31 ± 0.72 μmol m2 s-1) than in tidal flats (-0.23 ± 0.27 μmol m2 s-1). Site and sediment characteristics such as sediment carbon and nitrogen concentration, chlorophyll α concentration, grain size, mangrove height, macrofaunal abundance, sediment temperature and moisture were strongly correlated with sediment CO2 efflux. Our results suggest that carbon stored within temperate mangrove sediment is released over a period of years to decades after mangrove clearance. CO2 efflux from intact and cleared temperate mangroves was found to be comparable to rates observed in the tropics. Disturbance of the surface biofilm resulted in elevated CO2 efflux across all habitats, suggesting the important role of surface biofilm communities in mediating CO2 efflux.

  14. Gross nitrogen fluxes in intact beech-soil-microbe systems under experimentally simulated climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Javier; Bilela, Silvija; Gasche Gasche, Rainer; Gschwendtner, Silvia; Leberecht, Martin; Bimüller, Carolin; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Polle, Andrea; Schloter, Michael; Rennenberg, Heinz; Dannenmann, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The vulnerability of beech forests of Central Europe to projected climate change conditions is a current matter of debate and concern. In order to investigate the response of N cycling in a typical beech forest to projected climate change conditions, we transplanted small lysimeters with intact beech-soil systems from a slope with N-exposure (representing present day climate conditions) to a slope with S exposure (serving as a warmer and drier model climate for future conditions). Lysimeters transfers within the N exposure served as control. After an equilibration period of 1 year, three isotope labeling/harvest cycles were performed: (1) comparison between N and S slopes under ambient conditions; (2) comparison between N and S slopes after intensified drought at S exposure; (3) rewetting after the drought period. Homogenous triple isotope labeling (15N/13C glutamine, 15NH4+, 15NO3-) in combination with 15N tracing and -pool dilution approaches as well as molecular analyses of nitrogen cycling genes and mycorrhiza morphotyping allowed to simultaneously quantify all N turnover processes in the intact beech-soil-microbe system. Nitrate was the major N source of beech seedlings with little importance of ammonium and no importance of glutamine. Experimental simulation of climate change resulted in significantly reduced gene copies of ammonia oxidizing bacteria in soil (AOB), a dramatic attenuation of microbial gross nitrate production from 252±83 mg N m-2 day-1 for the control treatment to 49±29 mg N m-2 day-1 for the climate change treatment and associated strong declines in soil nitrate concentrations as well as nitrate uptake by microorganisms and beech, which could not be compensated by uptake of ammonium or glutamine. Therefore, N content of beech seedlings was strongly reduced in the climate change treatment. Hence our data provide a microbial mechanism to explain nutritional limitations of beech under higher temperatures and drought and raise questions about

  15. Intact motivated attention in schizophrenia: evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, William P; Foti, Dan; Hajcak, Greg; Wynn, Jonathan K; Green, Michael F

    2012-03-01

    Emotionally significant stimuli typically capture attention (called motivated attention) even when they are irrelevant to tasks where attention is directed. Previous studies indicate that several components of emotional processing are intact in schizophrenia when subjects are instructed to attend to emotionally-evocative stimuli. However, few studies have examined whether emotional stimuli capture attention to a normal degree in people with schizophrenia when attention is directed elsewhere. The current event-related potential study examined motivated attention to task-irrelevant emotional stimuli in 35 stabilized outpatients and 26 healthy controls with a modified visual P300 oddball detection task. Participants viewed images of rare target and commonly occurring standard letter stimuli, as well as intermixed emotional (unpleasant, pleasant, neutral) pictures. Subjects were instructed to count the number of rare targets; the emotional valence of the picture stimuli was, therefore, task-irrelevant. We separately evaluated the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN) and Late Positive Potential (LPP) to emotional pictures and the P300 to target stimuli. Patients and controls showed similar patterns of EPN and LPP amplitude to the emotional stimuli, such that the EPN and LPP were larger for both pleasant and unpleasant versus neutral pictures. Although patients performed worse than controls on the target counting task, both groups showed comparable P300 differentiation between target versus non-target stimuli. Emotional stimuli captured attentional resources in people with schizophrenia even when the emotional stimuli were task-irrelevant, suggesting intact motivated attention at the level of early electrophysiological responding. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Malnutrition among cognitively intact, noncritically ill older adults in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Greg F; Bulik, Cynthia M; Weaver, Mark A; Holland, Wesley C; Platts-Mills, Timothy F

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the prevalence of malnutrition among older patients presenting to an emergency department (ED) in the southeastern United States and identify subgroups at increased risk. We conducted a cross-sectional study with random time block sampling of cognitively intact patients aged 65 years and older. Nutrition was assessed with the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short-Form (0 to 14 scale), with malnutrition defined as a score of 7 or less and at risk for malnutrition defined as a score of 8 to 11. The presence of depressive symptoms was defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression-10 score of 4 or more (0 to 10 scale). Among 138 older adults, 16% (95% confidence interval [CI] 11% to 23%) were malnourished and 60% (95% CI 52% to 68%) were either malnourished or at risk for malnutrition. Seventeen of the 22 malnourished patients (77%) denied previously receiving a diagnosis of malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition was not appreciably different between men and women, across levels of patient education, or between those living in urban and rural areas. However, the prevalence of malnutrition was higher among patients with depressive symptoms (52%), those residing in assisted living (44%), those with difficulty eating (38%), and those reporting difficulty buying groceries (33%). Among a random sample of cognitively intact older ED patients, more than half were malnourished or at risk for malnutrition, and the majority of malnourished patients had not previously received a diagnosis. Higher rates of malnutrition among individuals with depression, difficulty eating, and difficulty buying groceries suggest the need to explore multifaceted interventions. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Defining Gas-Phase Fragmentation Propensities of Intact Proteins During Native Top-Down Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverland, Nicole A; Skinner, Owen S; Fellers, Ryan T; Tariq, Areeba A; Early, Bryan P; LeDuc, Richard D; Fornelli, Luca; Compton, Philip D; Kelleher, Neil L

    2017-06-01

    Fragmentation of intact proteins in the gas phase is influenced by amino acid composition, the mass and charge of precursor ions, higher order structure, and the dissociation technique used. The likelihood of fragmentation occurring between a pair of residues is referred to as the fragmentation propensity and is calculated by dividing the total number of assigned fragmentation events by the total number of possible fragmentation events for each residue pair. Here, we describe general fragmentation propensities when performing top-down mass spectrometry (TDMS) using denaturing or native electrospray ionization. A total of 5311 matched fragmentation sites were collected for 131 proteoforms that were analyzed over 165 experiments using native top-down mass spectrometry (nTDMS). These data were used to determine the fragmentation propensities for 399 residue pairs. In comparison to denatured top-down mass spectrometry (dTDMS), the fragmentation pathways occurring either N-terminal to proline or C-terminal to aspartic acid were even more enhanced in nTDMS compared with other residues. More generally, 257/399 (64%) of the fragmentation propensities were significantly altered (P ≤ 0.05) when using nTDMS compared with dTDMS, and of these, 123 were altered by 2-fold or greater. The most notable enhancements of fragmentation propensities for TDMS in native versus denatured mode occurred (1) C-terminal to aspartic acid, (2) between phenylalanine and tryptophan (F|W), and (3) between tryptophan and alanine (W|A). The fragmentation propensities presented here will be of high value in the development of tailored scoring systems used in nTDMS of both intact proteins and protein complexes. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  18. In vitro evaluation of percutaneous diffusion of uranyl nitrate through intact or excoriated skin of rat and pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petitot, F.; Moreels, A.M.; Paquet, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Lab. d' Etudes Appliquees de Radiotoxicologie, Service de Dosimetrie, Dept. de Protection de la sante de l' Homme et de Dosimetrie, Pierrelatte CEDEX (France)]. E-mail: fabrice.petitot@irsn.fr

    2004-02-01

    At the present time, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has not published any model concerning internal radioactive contamination by uptake from wounds. The aims of our work were to determine the time available to treat contamination of intact or wounded skin before a significant uptake of uranium occurred and to evaluate the consequences of incomplete decontamination on uranium uptake. The kinetics of percutaneous diffusion of uranium through intact or excoriated skin and its distribution in skin layers were evaluated using an in vitro technique. Our data demonstrated a dramatic increase of uranium percutaneous diffusion through excoriated skin compared with intact skin. Significant uptake of uranium through excoriated skin occurred in only 30 min, indicating that there is only a short interval available to treat a contaminated wound effectively. Moreover, in the case of an incompletely decontaminated superficial wound, viable epidermis behaved as a reservoir for uranium that remained bioavailable. At the present time, potential uptake of uranium and perhaps other radionuclides through intact or wounded skin is not adequately taken into account by radiological protection agencies. Our results emphasize the need for further study and modeling of uptake of radionuclides through intact or wounded skin. (author)

  19. Effects of acetone and fasting on cytochrome P-450 and xenobiotic metabolism in intact and hypophysectomized rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.T.; Simonet, L.

    1987-05-01

    Hypophysectomized and intact male and female rats were fasted for 24-48 hrs or given acetone (5ml/kg body weight) in order to evaluate the effects of these treatments on hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450 and xenobiotic metabolism. Fasting and acetone treatment resulted in a significant increase (p < 0.05) in total P-450 in intact female rats. However, there was no significant changes in P-450 in microsomes from fasted or acetone-treated hypophysectomized rats. Fasting and acetone treatment resulted in significant increases in nitrosamine metabolism in intact rats. This effect was markedly reduced in the hypophysectomized rat. When intact male rats were fasted or treated with acetone there was a significant increase in P-450 in microsomes from acetone treated rats. Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity was significantly increased in both intact and hypophysectomized male and female rats treated with acetone. These results suggest that the pituitary gland or some product markedly influences acetone-stimulated nitrosamine metabolism.

  20. Intact proinsulin and beta-cell function in lean and obese subjects with and without type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, M E; Dinesen, B; Hartling, S G;

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous disease in which both beta-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance are pathogenetic factors. Disproportionate hyperproinsulinemia (elevated proinsulin/insulin) is another abnormality in type 2 diabetes whose mechanism is unknown. Increased demand due...... to obesity and/or insulin resistance may result in secretion of immature beta-cell granules with a higher content of intact proinsulin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We investigated the impact of obesity on beta-cell secretion in normal subjects and in type 2 diabetic patients by measuring intact proinsulin......, total proinsulin immunoreactivity (PIM), intact insulin, and C-peptide (by radioimmunoassay) by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in the fasting state and during a 120-min glucagon (1 mg i.v.) stimulation test. Lean (BMI 23.5 +/- 0.3 kg/m2) (LD) and obese (30.1 +/- 0.4 kg/m2) (OD) type 2...