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Sample records for surprisingly hypertonicity leads

  1. Surprise Leads to Noisier Perceptual Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta I Garrido

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Surprising events in the environment can impair task performance. This might be due to complete distraction, leading to lapses during which performance is reduced to guessing. Alternatively, unpredictability might cause a graded withdrawal of perceptual resources from the task at hand and thereby reduce sensitivity. Here we attempt to distinguish between these two mechanisms. Listeners performed a novel auditory pitch—duration discrimination, where stimulus loudness changed occasionally and incidentally to the task. Responses were slower and less accurate in the surprising condition, where loudness changed unpredictably, than in the predictable condition, where the loudness was held constant. By explicitly modelling both lapses and changes in sensitivity, we found that unpredictable changes diminished sensitivity but did not increase the rate of lapses. These findings suggest that background environmental uncertainty can disrupt goal-directed behaviour. This graded processing strategy might be adaptive in potentially threatening contexts, and reflect a flexible system for automatic allocation of perceptual resources.

  2. One In Five Inpatient Emergency Department Cases May Lead To Surprise Bills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmon, Christopher; Chartock, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    A surprise medical bill is a bill from an out-of-network provider that was not expected by the patient or that came from an out-of-network provider not chosen by the patient. In 2014, 20 percent of hospital inpatient admissions that originated in the emergency department (ED), 14 percent of outpatient visits to the ED, and 9 percent of elective inpatient admissions likely led to a surprise medical bill. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  3. Young stars in old galaxies - surprising discovery with the world's leading telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    similar to the way a palaeontologist uses the skeletons of dinosaurs to deduce information about the era in which they lived. A surprising discovery The team combined images of a number of galaxies from Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 with infrared images obtained from the multi-mode ISAAC instrument on the 8.2m VLT Antu telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). To their great surprise, they discovered that many of the globular clusters in one of these galaxies, NGC 4365, a member of the large Virgo cluster of galaxies, were only a few thousand million years old, much younger than most of the other stars in this galaxy (roughly 12 thousand million years old). The astronomers were able to identify three major groups of stellar clusters. There is an old population of clusters of metal-poor stars, some clusters of old but metal-rich stars and now, seen for the first time, a population of clusters with young and metal-rich stars. These results have been fully confirmed by spectroscopic observations made with another of the world's giant telescopes, the 10-metre Keck on Hawaii. "It is a great pleasure to see two projects wholly or partly funded by Europe - VLT and Hubble - work in concert to produce such an important scientific result", says Piero Benvenuti, ESA Hubble Project Scientist. "The synergy between the most advanced ground and space telescopes continues to prove its effectiveness, paving the way to impressive new discoveries that would not otherwise be possible." The discovery of young globular clusters within old galaxies is surprising since the stars in the giant elliptical galaxies were until now believed to have formed during a single period early in the history of the Universe. It is now clear that some of the galaxies may be hiding their true nature and have indeed experienced much more recent periods of major star formation. Notes for editors This press release is issued in coordination between ESA and ESO. The Hubble Space Telescope project

  4. [Lead poisoning. A surprising cause of constipation, abdominal pain and anemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmanová, Iva; Kačírková, Petra; Kučerová, Irena; Ševčík, Rudolf; Sánchez, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    This article reports on patient that has been presented with sudden onset of constipation, abdominal pain and normocytic anemia. Gastroscopy and colonoscopy ruled out an organic diseases. In peripheral blood and bone marrow aspirates mears, coarse basophilic stippling of erythrocyte (and erythroblasts) point out a possibility of heavy metal poisoning. The level of plumbemia exceeded 8.4 times the maximal permitted value for common (non-professional) population. A source of poisoning was indentified from a glaze on a ceramic jug, from which the patient had drank tea with lemon for three months. A lead concentration in the tea extract was 227 mg/kg. In developed countries, lead poisoning is a rare diagnosis. As the symptoms are nonspecific, missed diagnoses could occur, especially in sporadic, non-occupational exposure. However, a microscopic evaluation of the peripheral bloods mear with finding of predominantly coarse basophilic stippling of erythrocyte mayle ad to suspicion of lead poisoning.

  5. Ontological Surprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leahu, Lucian

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how we might rethink design as the technological crafting of human-machine relations in the context of a machine learning technique called neural networks. It analyzes Google’s Inceptionism project, which uses neural networks for image recognition. The surprising output of...... a hybrid approach where machine learning algorithms are used to identify objects as well as connections between them; finally, it argues for remaining open to ontological surprises in machine learning as they may enable the crafting of different relations with and through technologies....

  6. Surprise Trips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias; Kawash, Raghid; Andersen, Lisbet Møller

    We report on a platform that augments the natural experience of exploration in diverse indoor and outdoor environments. The system builds on the theme of surprises in terms of user expectations and finding points of interest. It utilizes physical icons as representations of users' interests and a...

  7. Charming surprise

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2011-01-01

    The CP violation in charm quarks has always been thought to be extremely small. So, looking at particle decays involving matter and antimatter, the LHCb experiment has recently been surprised to observe that things might be different. Theorists are on the case.   The study of the physics of the charm quark was not in the initial plans of the LHCb experiment, whose letter “b” stands for “beauty quark”. However, already one year ago, the Collaboration decided to look into a wider spectrum of processes that involve charm quarks among other things. The LHCb trigger allows a lot of these processes to be selected, and, among them, one has recently shown interesting features. Other experiments at b-factories have already performed the same measurement but this is the first time that it has been possible to achieve such high precision, thanks to the huge amount of data provided by the very high luminosity of the LHC. “We have observed the decay modes of t...

  8. Charming surprise

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2011-01-01

    The CP violation in charm quarks has always been thought to be extremely small. So, looking at particle decays involving matter and antimatter, the LHCb experiment has recently been surprised to observe that things might be different. Theorists are on the case. The study of the physics of the charm quark was not in the initial plans of the LHCb experiment, whose letter “b” stands for “beauty quark”. However, already one year ago, the Collaboration decided to look into a wider spectrum of processes that involve charm quarks among other things. The LHCb trigger allows a lot of these processes to be selected, and, among them, one has recently shown interesting features. Other experiments at b-factories have already performed the same measurement but this is the first time that it has been possible to achieve such high precision, thanks to the huge amount of data provided by the very high luminosity of the LHC. “We have observed the decay modes of the D0, a pa...

  9. Surprises with Nonrelativistic Naturalness

    CERN Document Server

    Horava, Petr

    2016-01-01

    We explore the landscape of technical naturalness for nonrelativistic systems, finding surprises which challenge and enrich our relativistic intuition already in the simplest case of a single scalar field. While the immediate applications are expected in condensed matter and perhaps in cosmology, the study is motivated by the leading puzzles of fundamental physics involving gravity: The cosmological constant problem and the Higgs mass hierarchy problem.

  10. More Supernova Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    SEP 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE More Supernova Surprises 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...PERSPECTIVES More Supernova Surprises ASTRONOMY J. Martin Laming Spectroscopic observations of the supernova SN1987A are providing a new window into high...a core-collapse supernova ) have stretched and motivated research that has expanded our knowledge of astrophysics. The brightest such event in

  11. ROC trials update on prehospital hypertonic saline resuscitation in the aftermath of the US-Canadian trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Dubick

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this review are to assess the current state of hypertonic saline as a prehospital resuscitation fluid in hypotensive trauma patients, particularly after the 3 major Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium trauma trials in the US and Canada were halted due to futility. Hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury are the leading causes of death in both military and civilian populations. Prehospital fluid resuscitation remains controversial in civilian trauma, but small-volume resuscitation with hypertonic fluids is of utility in military scenarios with prolonged or delayed evacuation times. A large body of pre-clinical and clinical literature has accumulated over the past 30 years on the hemodynamic and, most recently, the anti-inflammatory properties of hypertonic saline, alone or with dextran-70. This review assesses the current state of hypertonic fluid resuscitation in the aftermath of the failed Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium trials.

  12. Hypertonicity: Clinical entities, manifestations and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondon-Berrios, Helbert; Argyropoulos, Christos; Ing, Todd S; Raj, Dominic S; Malhotra, Deepak; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Rohrscheib, Mark; Khitan, Zeid J; Murata, Glen H; Shapiro, Joseph I; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H

    2017-01-01

    Hypertonicity causes severe clinical manifestations and is associated with mortality and severe short-term and long-term neurological sequelae. The main clinical syndromes of hypertonicity are hypernatremia and hyperglycemia. Hypernatremia results from relative excess of body sodium over body water. Loss of water in excess of intake, gain of sodium salts in excess of losses or a combination of the two are the main mechanisms of hypernatremia. Hypernatremia can be hypervolemic, euvolemic or hypovolemic. The management of hypernatremia addresses both a quantitative replacement of water and, if present, sodium deficit, and correction of the underlying pathophysiologic process that led to hypernatremia. Hypertonicity in hyperglycemia has two components, solute gain secondary to glucose accumulation in the extracellular compartment and water loss through hyperglycemic osmotic diuresis in excess of the losses of sodium and potassium. Differentiating between these two components of hypertonicity has major therapeutic implications because the first component will be reversed simply by normalization of serum glucose concentration while the second component will require hypotonic fluid replacement. An estimate of the magnitude of the relative water deficit secondary to osmotic diuresis is obtained by the corrected sodium concentration, which represents a calculated value of the serum sodium concentration that would result from reduction of the serum glucose concentration to a normal level. PMID:28101446

  13. Surprises in astrophysical gasdynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Balbus, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Much of astrophysics consists of the study of ionised gas under the influence of gravitational and magnetic fields. Thus, it is not possible to understand the astrophysical universe without a detailed knowledge of the dynamics of magnetised fluids. Fluid dynamics is, however, a notoriously tricky subject, in which it is all too easy for one's a priori intuition to go astray. In this review, we seek to guide the reader through a series of illuminating yet deceptive problems, all with an enlightening twist. We cover a broad range of topics including the instabilities acting in accretion discs, the hydrodynamics governing the convective zone of the Sun, the magnetic shielding of a cooling galaxy cluster, and the behaviour of thermal instabilities and evaporating clouds. The aim of this review is to surprise and intrigue even veteran astrophysical theorists with an idiosynchratic choice of problems and counterintuitive results. At the same time, we endeavour to bring forth the fundamental ideas, to set out import...

  14. Surprises in astrophysical gasdynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbus, Steven A.; Potter, William J.

    2016-06-01

    Much of astrophysics consists of the study of ionized gas under the influence of gravitational and magnetic fields. Thus, it is not possible to understand the astrophysical universe without a detailed knowledge of the dynamics of magnetized fluids. Fluid dynamics is, however, a notoriously tricky subject, in which it is all too easy for one’s a priori intuition to go astray. In this review, we seek to guide the reader through a series of illuminating yet deceptive problems, all with an enlightening twist. We cover a broad range of topics including the instabilities acting in accretion discs, the hydrodynamics governing the convective zone of the Sun, the magnetic shielding of a cooling galaxy cluster, and the behaviour of thermal instabilities and evaporating clouds. The aim of this review is to surprise and intrigue even veteran astrophysical theorists with an idiosyncratic choice of problems and counterintuitive results. At the same time, we endeavour to bring forth the fundamental ideas, to set out important assumptions, and to describe carefully whatever novel techniques may be appropriate to the problem at hand. By beginning at the beginning, and analysing a wide variety of astrophysical settings, we seek not only to make this review suitable for fluid dynamic veterans, but to engage novice recruits as well with what we hope will be an unusual and instructive introduction to the subject.

  15. Surprises in astrophysical gasdynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbus, Steven A; Potter, William J

    2016-06-01

    Much of astrophysics consists of the study of ionized gas under the influence of gravitational and magnetic fields. Thus, it is not possible to understand the astrophysical universe without a detailed knowledge of the dynamics of magnetized fluids. Fluid dynamics is, however, a notoriously tricky subject, in which it is all too easy for one's a priori intuition to go astray. In this review, we seek to guide the reader through a series of illuminating yet deceptive problems, all with an enlightening twist. We cover a broad range of topics including the instabilities acting in accretion discs, the hydrodynamics governing the convective zone of the Sun, the magnetic shielding of a cooling galaxy cluster, and the behaviour of thermal instabilities and evaporating clouds. The aim of this review is to surprise and intrigue even veteran astrophysical theorists with an idiosyncratic choice of problems and counterintuitive results. At the same time, we endeavour to bring forth the fundamental ideas, to set out important assumptions, and to describe carefully whatever novel techniques may be appropriate to the problem at hand. By beginning at the beginning, and analysing a wide variety of astrophysical settings, we seek not only to make this review suitable for fluid dynamic veterans, but to engage novice recruits as well with what we hope will be an unusual and instructive introduction to the subject.

  16. Hypertonic saline in treatment of pulmonary disease in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reeves, Emer P

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of lung disease in cystic fibrosis is characterised by decreased airway surface liquid volume and subsequent failure of normal mucociliary clearance. Mucus within the cystic fibrosis airways is enriched in negatively charged matrices composed of DNA released from colonizing bacteria or inflammatory cells, as well as F-actin and elevated concentrations of anionic glycosaminoglycans. Therapies acting against airway mucus in cystic fibrosis include aerosolized hypertonic saline. It has been shown that hypertonic saline possesses mucolytic properties and aids mucociliary clearance by restoring the liquid layer lining the airways. However, recent clinical and bench-top studies are beginning to broaden our view on the beneficial effects of hypertonic saline, which now extend to include anti-infective as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This review aims to discuss the described therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline and specifically to identify novel models of hypertonic saline action independent of airway hydration.

  17. Hypertonic Saline in Treatment of Pulmonary Disease in Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emer P. Reeves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of lung disease in cystic fibrosis is characterised by decreased airway surface liquid volume and subsequent failure of normal mucociliary clearance. Mucus within the cystic fibrosis airways is enriched in negatively charged matrices composed of DNA released from colonizing bacteria or inflammatory cells, as well as F-actin and elevated concentrations of anionic glycosaminoglycans. Therapies acting against airway mucus in cystic fibrosis include aerosolized hypertonic saline. It has been shown that hypertonic saline possesses mucolytic properties and aids mucociliary clearance by restoring the liquid layer lining the airways. However, recent clinical and bench-top studies are beginning to broaden our view on the beneficial effects of hypertonic saline, which now extend to include anti-infective as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This review aims to discuss the described therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline and specifically to identify novel models of hypertonic saline action independent of airway hydration.

  18. Operating room use of hypertonic solutions: a clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Azoubel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperosmotic-hyperoncotic solutions have been widely used during prehospital care of trauma patients and have shown positive hemodynamic effects. Recently, there has been a growing interest in intra-operative use of hypertonic solutions. We reviewed 30 clinical studies on the use of hypertonic saline solutions during surgeries, with the majority being cardiac surgeries. Reduced positive fluid balance, increased cardiac index, and decreased systemic vascular resistance were the main beneficial effects of using hypertonic solutions in this population. Well-designed clinical trials are highly needed, particularly in aortic aneurysm repair surgeries, where hypertonic solutions have shown many beneficial effects. Examining the immunomodulatory effects of hypertonic solutions should also be a priority in future studies.

  19. Infusion of hypertonic saline before elective hysterectomy: effects on cytokines and stress hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolsen-Petersen, J A; Bendtzen, K; Tonnesen, E

    2008-01-01

    Infusion of hypertonic saline provides early haemodynamic benefits and may affect the immune system. It is unknown if infusion of hypertonic saline affects plasma cytokines and stress hormones after surgery.......Infusion of hypertonic saline provides early haemodynamic benefits and may affect the immune system. It is unknown if infusion of hypertonic saline affects plasma cytokines and stress hormones after surgery....

  20. Modeling liver electrical conductivity during hypertonic injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellví, Quim; Sánchez-Velázquez, Patricia; Moll, Xavier; Berjano, Enrique; Andaluz, Anna; Burdío, Fernando; Bijnens, Bart; Ivorra, Antoni

    2017-05-30

    Metastases in the liver frequently grow as scattered tumor nodules that neither can be removed by surgical resection nor focally ablated. Previously, we have proposed a novel technique based on irreversible electroporation that may be able to simultaneously treat all nodules in the liver while sparing healthy tissue. The proposed technique requires increasing the electrical conductivity of healthy liver by injecting a hypersaline solution through the portal vein. Aiming to assess the capability of increasing the global conductivity of the liver by means of hypersaline fluids, here, it is presented a mathematical model that estimates the NaCl distribution within the liver and the resulting conductivity change. The model fuses well-established compartmental pharmacokinetic models of the organ with saline injection models used for resuscitation treatments, and it considers changes in sinusoidal blood viscosity because of the hypertonicity of the solution. Here, it is also described a pilot experimental study in pigs in which different volumes of NaCl 20% (from 100 to 200 mL) were injected through the portal vein at different flow rates (from 53 to 171 mL/minute). The in vivo conductivity results fit those obtained by the model, both quantitatively and qualitatively, being able to predict the maximum conductivity with a 14.6% average relative error. The maximum conductivity value was 0.44 second/m, which corresponds to increasing 4 times the mean basal conductivity (0.11 second/m). The results suggest that the presented model is well suited for predicting on liver conductivity changes during hypertonic saline injection. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Isotonic and hypertonic sodium loading in supine humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L J; Jensen, T U; Bestle, M H

    1999-01-01

    The hypothesis that hypertonic saline infusion induces a greater natriuresis than infusion of the same amount of sodium as isotonic saline was tested in 8 supine subjects on fixed sodium intake of 150 mmol NaCl day(-1). Sodium loads equivalent to the amount of sodium contained in 10% of measured...... extracellular volume were administered intravenously over 90 min either as isotonic saline or as hypertonic saline (850 mmol L(-1)). A third series without saline infusion served as time control. Experiments lasted 8 h. Water balance and sodium loads were maintained by replacing the excreted amounts every hour....... Plasma sodium concentrations only increased following hypertonic saline infusion (by 2.7 +/- 0.3 mmol L(-1)). Oncotic pressure decreased significantly more with isotonic saline (4.1 +/- 0.3 mmHg) than with hypertonic saline (3.2 +/- 0.2 mmHg), indicating that isotonic saline induced a stronger volumetric...

  2. Therapeutic effects of compound hypertonic saline on rats with sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Dong

    Full Text Available Sepsis is one of the major causes of death and is the biggest obstacle preventing improvement of the success rate in curing critical illnesses. Currently, isotonic solutions are used in fluid resuscitation technique. Several studies have shown that hypertonic saline applied in hemorrhagic shock can rapidly increase the plasma osmotic pressure, facilitate the rapid return of interstitial fluid into the blood vessels, and restore the effective circulating blood volume. Here, we established a rat model of sepsis by using the cecal ligation and puncture approach. We found that intravenous injection of hypertonic saline dextran (7.5% NaCl/6% dextran after cecal ligation and puncture can improve circulatory failure at the onset of sepsis. We found that the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 levels in the lung tissue of cecal ligation and puncture rats treated with hypertonic saline dextran were significantly lower than the corresponding levels in the control group. We inferred that hypertonic saline dextran has a positive immunoregulatory effect and inhibits the overexpression of the inflammatory response in the treatment of sepsis. The percentage of neutrophils, lung myeloperoxidase activity, wet to dry weight ratio of lung tissues, histopathological changes in lung tissues, and indicators of arterial blood gas analysis was significantly better in the hypertonic saline dextran-treated group than in the other groups in this study. Hypertonic saline dextran-treated rats had significantly improved survival rates at 9 and 18 h compared to the control group. Our results suggest that hypertonic saline dextran plays a protective role in acute lung injury caused after cecal ligation and puncture. In conclusion, hypertonic/hyperoncotic solutions have beneficial therapeutic effects in the treatment of an animal model of sepsis.

  3. Surprise... Surprise..., An Empirical Investigation on How Surprise is Connected to Customer Satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vanhamme (Joëlle)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis research investigates the specific influence of the emotion of surprise on customer transaction-specific satisfaction. Four empirical studies-two field studies (a diary study and a cross section survey) and two experiments-were conducted. The results show that surprise positively

  4. Surprise... Surprise..., An Empirical Investigation on How Surprise is Connected to Customer Satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vanhamme (Joëlle)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis research investigates the specific influence of the emotion of surprise on customer transaction-specific satisfaction. Four empirical studies-two field studies (a diary study and a cross section survey) and two experiments-were conducted. The results show that surprise positively [n

  5. Early Implementation of THAM for ICP Control: Therapeutic Hypothermia Avoidance and Reduction in Hypertonics/Hyperosmotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Zeiler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tromethamine (THAM has been demonstrated to reduce intracranial pressure (ICP. Early consideration for THAM may reduce the need for other measures for ICP control. Objective. To describe 4 cases of early THAM therapy for ICP control and highlight the potential to avoid TH and paralytics and achieve reduction in sedation and hypertonic/hyperosmotic agent requirements. Methods. We reviewed the charts of 4 patients treated with early THAM for ICP control. Results. We identified 2 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH and 2 with traumatic brain injury (TBI receiving early THAM for ICP control. The mean time to initiation of THAM therapy was 1.8 days, with a mean duration of 5.3 days. In all patients, after 6 to 12 hours of THAM administration, ICP stability was achieved, with reduction in requirements for hypertonic saline and hyperosmotic agents. There was a relative reduction in mean hourly hypertonic saline requirements of 89.1%, 96.1%, 82.4%, and 97.0% for cases 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, comparing pre- to post-THAM administration. Mannitol, therapeutic hypothermia, and paralytics were avoided in all patients. Conclusions. Early administration of THAM for ICP control could potentially lead to the avoidance of other ICP directed therapies. Prospective studies of early THAM administration are warranted.

  6. Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found? Who is at risk? What are the health effects of lead? Get educational material about lead Get certified as a Lead Abatement Worker, or other abatement discipline Lead in drinking water Lead air pollution Test your child Check and maintain your home ...

  7. Surprise as a design strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, G.D.S.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Imagine yourself queuing for the cashier’s desk in a supermarket. Naturally, you have picked the wrong line, the one that does not seem to move at all. Soon, you get tired of waiting. Now, how would you feel if the cashier suddenly started to sing? Many of us would be surprised and, regardless of

  8. Surprise as a design strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, G.D.S.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Imagine yourself queuing for the cashier’s desk in a supermarket. Naturally, you have picked the wrong line, the one that does not seem to move at all. Soon, you get tired of waiting. Now, how would you feel if the cashier suddenly started to sing? Many of us would be surprised and, regardless of th

  9. Efficiency of hypertonic and isotonic seawater solutions in chronic rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Čulig

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim To compare the efficiency of isotonic and hypertonic seawatersolutions used for nasal lavage and quality of life of the patientswith chronic rhinosinusitis. Methods A random and controlled clinical study was performed. The study included 60 patients with history of chronic rhinosinusitis. At the beginning of the study, each subject was given a Patient Lobook, which needed to be filled ut daily during the 15-day tudy period. There were three visits per each patient during the study. Results Patient Logbook notes showed significant statistical differences inall symptoms in the group of patients using hypertonic seawater solution. However, while the notes showed significant statistical differences in congestion and rhinorrhea, in the group of patients using isotonic seawater solution, other symptoms showed no major changes during the study period. Conclusion Hypertonic seawater solution has been proven to bebetter than isotonic seawater solution in eliminating the symptomsof nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, cough, headache and waking up duringthe night.

  10. [Stiff baby syndrome is a rare cause of neonatal hypertonicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønne, Maria Sode; Nielsen, Preben Berg; Mogensen, Christian Backer

    2014-02-24

    Stiff baby syndrome (hyperekplexia) is a rare genetic disorder. The condition can easily be misdiagnosed as epilepsy or severe sepsis because of hypertonicity and seizure-like episodes and has an increased risk of severe apnoea and sudden infant death. Tapping of the nasal bridge inducing a startle response is the clinical hallmark. We report cases of two sisters born with stiff baby syndrome with hypertonicity, exaggerated startle reaction and cyanosis. The syndrome has a good prognosis if treated with clonazepam and both cases were developmental normal after one year.

  11. New Form of Hypertonic Solution for Nebulization Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Simonova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucolytic, expectorative and antitussive drugs are traditionally used in acute or chronic respiratory episodes affected by acute respiratory infections. Today, preference is given to drugs in a form of solutions for nebulization therapy. The article presents data on the new dosage form of 7% inhalation hypertonic solution in combination with hyaluronic acid used in mucostasis therapy for chronic respiratory diseases. The information on the properties and the favorable effect of hyaluronic acid is provided. We discuss the evidence base of inhalation of the hypertonic solution in combination with hyaluronic acid in cystic fibrosis.

  12. Young Galaxy's Magnetism Surprises Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Astronomers have made the first direct measurement of the magnetic field in a young, distant galaxy, and the result is a big surprise. Looking at a faraway protogalaxy seen as it was 6.5 billion years ago, the scientists measured a magnetic field at least 10 times stronger than that of our own Milky Way. They had expected just the opposite. The GBT Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF The scientists made the discovery using the National Science Foundation's ultra-sensitive Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. "This new measurement indicates that magnetic fields may play a more important role in the formation and evolution of galaxies than we have realized," said Arthur Wolfe, of the University of California-San Diego (UCSD). At its great distance, the protogalaxy is seen as it was when the Universe was about half its current age. According to the leading theory, cosmic magnetic fields are generated by the dynamos of rotating galaxies -- a process that would produce stronger fields with the passage of time. In this scenario, the magnetic fields should be weaker in the earlier Universe, not stronger. The new, direct magnetic-field measurement comes on the heels of a July report by Swiss and American astronomers who made indirect measurements that also implied strong magnetic fields in the early Universe. "Our results present a challenge to the dynamo model, but they do not rule it out," Wolfe said. There are other possible explanations for the strong magnetic field seen in the one protogalaxy Wolfe's team studied. "We may be seeing the field close to the central region of a massive galaxy, and we know such fields are stronger toward the centers of nearby galaxies. Also, the field we see may have been amplified by a shock wave caused by the collision of two galaxies," he said. The protogalaxy studied with the GBT, called DLA-3C286, consists of gas with little or no star formation occurring in it. The astronomers suspect that

  13. Comparing hypertonic saline and xylometazoline in allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Sinha

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Our findings suggest that using hypertonic nasal drops can reduce the dependence on pharmacological agents like xylometazoline, improve symptoms and quality of life with fewer adverse reactions. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3620-3623

  14. Brazilian rescue plan sparks surprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to Financial Times,when Guido Mantega,Brazil's finance minister,suddenly proposed a “Bric” rescue package for the eurozone this week,he caught not only other world leaders by surprise but also many of his fellow countrymen.Even as officials from other members of the so-called Bric grouping,Russia,India and China,said it was the first they heard of the idea,many ordinary Brazilians expressed shock at the notion of bailing out the world's richest trading bloc.

  15. Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Appendix I Appendix II Tables Figures State Programs Alabama Alaska Arizona ... Tool Kit Resources Healthy Homes and Lead Poisoning Prevention Training Center (HHLPPTC) Training Tracks File Formats Help: ...

  16. Some Surprises in Relativistic Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, N O

    2016-01-01

    General Relativity has had tremendous success both on the theoretical and the experimental fronts for over a century now. However, the contents of the theory are far from exhausted. Only very recently, with the detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes, we have started probing the behavior of gravity in the strongly non-linear regime. Even today, the studies of black holes keep revealing more and more paradoxes and bizarre results. In this paper, inspired by David Hilbert's startling observation, we show that, contrary to the conventional wisdom, a freely falling test particle feels gravitational repulsion by a black hole as seen by the asymptotic observer. We dig deeper into this surprising behavior of relativistic gravity and offer some explanations.

  17. Endothelin receptor antagonism and hypertonic solutions in experimental endotoxin shock

    OpenAIRE

    Somell, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Sepsis is a common and serious condition among patients in the intensive care unit. It is characterized by a systemic inflammatory response, resulting in cardiovascular instability and impaired organ tissue oxygenation due to hypoperfusion and inflammatory changes. The supportive treatment includes fluid resuscitation and other measures to promote organ perfusion. Hypertonic saline/dextran (HSD) resuscitation has shown improved haemodynamics in haemorrhage. In addition, immu...

  18. Transperitoneal transport of sodium during hypertonic peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, J; Fugleberg, S; Brahm, J

    1996-01-01

    The mechanisms of transperitoneal sodium transport during hypertonic peritoneal dialysis were evaluated by kinetic modelling. A total of six nested mathematical models were designed to elucidate the presence or absence of diffusive, non-lymphatic convective and lymphatic convective solute transport....... Experimental results were obtained from 26 non-diabetic patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. The model validation procedure demonstrated that only diffusive and non-lymphatic convective transport mechanisms were identifiable in the transperitoneal transport of sodium. Non-lymphatic convective sodium...

  19. Oral hypertonic saline causes transient fall of vasopressin in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seckl, J.R.; Williams, D.M.; Lightman, S.L.

    1986-08-01

    After dehydration, oral rehydration causes a fall in plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) that precedes changes in plasma osmolality. To investigate further the stimulus for this effect, its specificity, and association with thirst, six volunteers were deprived of water for 24 h and given a salt load on two separate occasions. On each study day they then drank rapidly 10 ml/kg of either tap water or hypertonic saline (360 mosmol/kg). There was a significant fall in plasma AVP from 2.0 +/- 0.3 to 1.2 +/- 0.4 pmol/l 5 min after drinking water and from 1.8 +/- 0.3 to 0.9 +/- 0.2 pmol/l after hypertonic saline. Plasma osmolality fell 30-60 min after water and was unchanged after saline. Plasma renin activity, oxytocin, and total protein all remained unchanged. All subjects reported diminished thirst after hypertonic saline. Gargling with water reduced thirst but did not affect plasma AVP. There appears to be a drinking-mediated neuroendocrine reflex that decreases plasma AVP irrespective of the osmolality of the liquid consumed. The sensation of thirst did not correlate with plasma osmolality and was not always related to plasma AVP concentration. AVP was measured by radioimmunoassay.

  20. Some Surprising Introductory Physics Facts and Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallmann, A. James

    2016-01-01

    In the entertainment world, people usually like, and find memorable, novels, short stories, and movies with surprise endings. This suggests that classroom teachers might want to present to their students examples of surprising facts associated with principles of physics. Possible benefits of finding surprising facts about principles of physics are…

  1. Nebulized hypertonic saline decreases IL-8 in sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reeves, Emer P

    2011-06-01

    Inflammation within the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung is mediated by inflammatory chemokines, such as IL-8. IL-8 is protected from proteolytic degradation in the airways by binding to glycosaminoglycans, while remaining active. Evidence that increased hypertonicity of airway secretions induced by hypertonic saline treatment alters levels of IL-8 is lacking.

  2. Epinephrine Improves the Efficacy of Nebulized Hypertonic Saline in Moderate Bronchiolitis: A Randomised Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Carlos Flores-González

    Full Text Available There is no evidence that the epinephrine-3% hypertonic saline combination is more effective than 3% hypertonic saline alone for treating infants hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis. We evaluated the efficacy of nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline.We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 208 infants hospitalized with acute moderate bronchiolitis. Infants were randomly assigned to receive nebulized 3% hypertonic saline with either 3 mL of epinephrine or 3 mL of placebo, administered every four hours. The primary outcome measure was the length of hospital stay.A total of 185 infants were analyzed: 94 in the epinephrine plus 3% hypertonic saline group and 91 in the placebo plus 3% hypertonic saline group. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Length of hospital stay was significantly reduced in the epinephrine group as compared with the placebo group (3.94 ±1.88 days vs. 4.82 ±2.30 days, P = 0.011. Disease severity also decreased significantly earlier in the epinephrine group (P = 0.029 and P = 0.036 on days 3 and 5, respectively.In our setting, nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline significantly shortens hospital stay in hospitalized infants with acute moderate bronchiolitis compared to 3% hypertonic saline alone, and improves the clinical scores of severity from the third day of treatment, but not before.EudraCT 2009-016042-57.

  3. Epinephrine Improves the Efficacy of Nebulized Hypertonic Saline in Moderate Bronchiolitis: A Randomised Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-González, J Carlos; Matamala-Morillo, Miguel A; Rodríguez-Campoy, Patricia; Pérez-Guerrero, Juan J; Serrano-Moyano, Belén; Comino-Vazquez, Paloma; Palma-Zambrano, Encarnación; Bulo-Concellón, Rocio; Santos-Sánchez, Vanessa; Lechuga-Sancho, Alfonso M

    2015-01-01

    There is no evidence that the epinephrine-3% hypertonic saline combination is more effective than 3% hypertonic saline alone for treating infants hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis. We evaluated the efficacy of nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 208 infants hospitalized with acute moderate bronchiolitis. Infants were randomly assigned to receive nebulized 3% hypertonic saline with either 3 mL of epinephrine or 3 mL of placebo, administered every four hours. The primary outcome measure was the length of hospital stay. A total of 185 infants were analyzed: 94 in the epinephrine plus 3% hypertonic saline group and 91 in the placebo plus 3% hypertonic saline group. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Length of hospital stay was significantly reduced in the epinephrine group as compared with the placebo group (3.94 ±1.88 days vs. 4.82 ±2.30 days, P = 0.011). Disease severity also decreased significantly earlier in the epinephrine group (P = 0.029 and P = 0.036 on days 3 and 5, respectively). In our setting, nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline significantly shortens hospital stay in hospitalized infants with acute moderate bronchiolitis compared to 3% hypertonic saline alone, and improves the clinical scores of severity from the third day of treatment, but not before. EudraCT 2009-016042-57.

  4. Infusion of hypertonic saline (7.5% NaCl) causes minor immunological changes in normovolaemic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Aage Kølsen; Nielsen, J O D; Bendtzen, K;

    2004-01-01

    Haemorrhagic shock is treated effectively by infusion of hypertonic saline/colloid solutions. Furthermore, previous studies found hypertonicity to affect immune responses in animals and in human blood cell cultures. It is unknown, however, whether hypertonic saline infusion affects immune responses...

  5. Infusion of hypertonic saline (7.5% NaCl) causes minor immunological changes in normovolaemic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Aage Kølsen; Nielsen, J O D; Bendtzen, K;

    2004-01-01

    Haemorrhagic shock is treated effectively by infusion of hypertonic saline/colloid solutions. Furthermore, previous studies found hypertonicity to affect immune responses in animals and in human blood cell cultures. It is unknown, however, whether hypertonic saline infusion affects immune respons...

  6. Protein kinase Cmu plays an essential role in hypertonicity-induced heat shock protein 70 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yun Sook; Lee, Jae Seon; Huang, Tai Qin; Seo, Jeong Sun

    2008-12-31

    Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), which evidences important functions as a molecular chaperone and anti-apoptotic molecule, is substantially induced in cells exposed to a variety of stresses, including hypertonic stress, heavy metals, heat shock, and oxidative stress, and prevents cellular damage under these conditions. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the induction of HSP70 in response to hypertonicity has been characterized to a far lesser extent. In this study, we have investigated the cellular signaling pathway of HSP70 induction under hypertonic conditions. Initially, we applied a variety of kinase inhibitors to NIH3T3 cells that had been exposed to hypertonicity. The induction of HSP70 was suppressed specifically by treatment with protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors (Gö6976 and GF109203X). As hypertonicity dramatically increased the phosphorylation of PKCmu, we then evaluated the role of PKCmu in hypertonicity-induced HSP70 expression and cell viability. The depletion of PKCmu with siRNA or the inhibition of PKCmu activity with inhibitors resulted in a reduction in HSP70 induction and cell viability. Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP), a transcription factor for hypertonicity-induced HSP70 expression, was translocated rapidly into the nucleus and was modified gradually in the nucleus under hypertonic conditions. When we administered treatment with PKC inhibitors, the mobility shift of TonEBP was affected in the nucleus. However, PKCmu evidenced no subcellular co-localization with TonEBP during hypertonic exposure. From our results, we have concluded that PKCmu performs a critical function in hypertonicity-induced HSP70 induction, and finally cellular protection, via the indirect regulation of TonEBP modification.

  7. Evaluative Appraisals of Environmental Mystery and Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Jack L.; Cubukcu, Ebru

    2011-01-01

    This study used a desktop virtual environment (VE) of 15 large-scale residential streets to test the effects of environmental mystery and surprise on response. In theory, mystery and surprise should increase interest and visual appeal. For each VE, participants walked through an approach street and turned right onto a post-turn street. We designed…

  8. Evaluative Appraisals of Environmental Mystery and Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Jack L.; Cubukcu, Ebru

    2011-01-01

    This study used a desktop virtual environment (VE) of 15 large-scale residential streets to test the effects of environmental mystery and surprise on response. In theory, mystery and surprise should increase interest and visual appeal. For each VE, participants walked through an approach street and turned right onto a post-turn street. We designed…

  9. Analyst Information Precision and Small Earnings Surprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Bissessur; D. Veenman

    2014-01-01

    Prior research attributes zero and small positive earnings surprises to managers’ incentives for earnings management. In contrast, this study introduces and empirically tests an explanation for zero and small positive earnings surprises based on predictable variation in analyst forecast errors. We a

  10. Cognitive and Social Perspectives on Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhami, Mundler

    2007-01-01

    Meanings of "surprise" are wide and include uplifting and engaging facets like wonder and amazement on the one hand as well as ones that may be of the opposite nature like interruption and disrupt on the other. Pedagogically, educators who use surprise in class activities are focusing on students being "taken aback" by a situation, hopefully…

  11. The conceptualization model problem—surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, John

    2005-03-01

    The foundation of model analysis is the conceptual model. Surprise is defined as new data that renders the prevailing conceptual model invalid; as defined here it represents a paradigm shift. Limited empirical data indicate that surprises occur in 20-30% of model analyses. These data suggest that groundwater analysts have difficulty selecting the appropriate conceptual model. There is no ready remedy to the conceptual model problem other than (1) to collect as much data as is feasible, using all applicable methods—a complementary data collection methodology can lead to new information that changes the prevailing conceptual model, and (2) for the analyst to remain open to the fact that the conceptual model can change dramatically as more information is collected. In the final analysis, the hydrogeologist makes a subjective decision on the appropriate conceptual model. The conceptualization problem does not render models unusable. The problem introduces an uncertainty that often is not widely recognized. Conceptual model uncertainty is exacerbated in making long-term predictions of system performance. C'est le modèle conceptuel qui se trouve à base d'une analyse sur un modèle. On considère comme une surprise lorsque le modèle est invalidé par des données nouvelles; dans les termes définis ici la surprise est équivalente à un change de paradigme. Des données empiriques limitées indiquent que les surprises apparaissent dans 20 à 30% des analyses effectuées sur les modèles. Ces données suggèrent que l'analyse des eaux souterraines présente des difficultés lorsqu'il s'agit de choisir le modèle conceptuel approprié. Il n'existe pas un autre remède au problème du modèle conceptuel que: (1) rassembler autant des données que possible en utilisant toutes les méthodes applicables—la méthode des données complémentaires peut conduire aux nouvelles informations qui vont changer le modèle conceptuel, et (2) l'analyste doit rester ouvert au fait

  12. Effects of hypertonic buffer composition on lymph node uptake and bioavailability of rituximab, after subcutaneous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathallah, Anas M; Turner, Michael R; Mager, Donald E; Balu-Iyer, Sathy V

    2015-03-01

    The subcutaneous administration of biologics is highly desirable; however, incomplete bioavailability after s.c. administration remains a major challenge. In this work we investigated the effects of excipient dependent hyperosmolarity on lymphatic uptake and plasma exposure of rituximab as a model protein. Using Swiss Webster (SW) mice as the animal model, we compared the effects of NaCl, mannitol and O-phospho-L-serine (OPLS) on the plasma concentration of rituximab over 5 days after s.c. administration. An increase was observed in plasma concentrations in animals administered rituximab in hypertonic buffer solutions, compared with isotonic buffer. Bioavailability, as estimated by our pharmacokinetic model, increased from 29% in isotonic buffer to 54% in hypertonic buffer containing NaCl, to almost complete bioavailability in hypertonic buffers containing high dose OPLS or mannitol. This improvement in plasma exposure is due to the improved lymphatic trafficking as evident from the increase in the fraction of dose trafficked through the lymph nodes in the presence of hypertonic buffers. The fraction of the dose trafficked through the lymphatics, as estimated by the model, increased from 0.05% in isotonic buffer to 13% in hypertonic buffer containing NaCl to about 30% for hypertonic buffers containing high dose OPLS and mannitol. The data suggest that hypertonic solutions may be a viable option for improving s.c. bioavailability. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The Toronto prehospital hypertonic resuscitation-head injury and multi organ dysfunction trial (TOPHR HIT - Methods and data collection tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perreira Tyrone

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trials evaluating the use of hypertonic saline in the treatment of hypovolemia and head trauma suggest no survival superiority over normal saline; however subgroup analyses suggest there may be a reduction in the inflammatory response and multiorgan failure which may lead to better survival and enhanced neurocognitive function. We describe a feasibility study of randomizing head injured patients to hypertonic saline and dextran vs. normal saline administration in the out of hospital setting. Methods/Design This feasibility study employs a randomized, placebo-controlled design evaluating normal saline compared with a single dose of 250 ml of 7.5% hypertonic saline in 6% dextran 70 in the management of traumatic brain injuries. The primary feasibility endpoints of the trial were: 1 baseline survival rates for the treatment and control group to aid in the design of a definitive multicentre trial, 2 randomization compliance rate, 3 ease of protocol implementation in the out-of-hospital setting, and 4 adverse event rate of HSD infusion. The secondary objectives include measuring the effect of HSD in modulating the immuno-inflammatory response to severe head injury and its effect on modulating the release of neuro-biomarkers into serum; evaluating the role of serum neuro-biomarkers in predicting patient outcome and clinical response to HSD intervention; evaluating effects of HSD on brain atrophy post-injury and neurocognitive and neuropsychological outcomes. Discussion We anticipate three aspects of the trial will present challenges to trial success; ethical demands associated with a waiver of consent trial, challenging follow up and comprehensive accurate timely data collection of patient identifiers and clinical or laboratory values. In addition all the data collection tools had to be derived de novo as none existed in the literature. Trial registration number NCT00878631

  14. Pleuropulmonary hydatid disease treated with thoracoscopic instillation of hypertonic saline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmanan P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is caused by the larval stage of the cestode, Echinococcus granulo-sus. Man is the intermediate host in its life cycle. The most common organ involved is liver followed by lung. Although surgery remains the definitive treatment for symptomatic lesions, it is associated with considerable morbidity. Other less inva-sive treatment strategies as an adjunct to medical treatment that have been tried in various case series include percutaneous aspiration, instillation and re-aspiration of scolicidal agents (PAIR, and thoracoscopic removal of cysts located subpleurally. Here we report the case of a 58 year old gentleman with hepatic and pleuropulmo-nary hydatid disease who was subjected to medical thoracoscopy and instillation of hypertonic saline (3%, followed by medical management with albendazole with which complete resolution of the pulmonary cysts was achieved.

  15. Monitoring the intracellular calcium response to a dynamic hypertonic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaowen; Yue, Wanqing; Liu, Dandan; Yue, Jianbo; Li, Jiaqian; Sun, Dong; Yang, Mengsu; Wang, Zuankai

    2016-03-01

    The profiling of physiological response of cells to external stimuli at the single cell level is of importance. Traditional approaches to study cell responses are often limited by ensemble measurement, which is challenging to reveal the complex single cell behaviors under a dynamic environment. Here we report the development of a simple microfluidic device to investigate intracellular calcium response to dynamic hypertonic conditions at the single cell level in real-time. Interestingly, a dramatic elevation in the intracellular calcium signaling is found in both suspension cells (human leukemic cell line, HL-60) and adherent cells (lung cancer cell line, A549), which is ascribed to the exposure of cells to the hydrodynamic stress. We also demonstrate that the calcium response exhibits distinct single cell heterogeneity as well as cell-type-dependent responses to the same stimuli. Our study opens up a new tool for tracking cellular activity at the single cell level in real time for high throughput drug screening.

  16. Hypertonic saline challenge in an adult epidemiological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabone, S J; Phoon, W O; Anderson, S D; Wan, K C; Seneviratne, M; Gutierrez, L; Brannan, J

    1996-06-01

    Bronchial provocation tests using pharmacological agents such as methacholine or histamine are used in epidemiological studies to identify asthma despite recognition of limitations in specificity, positive predictive value and availability of reagents. Hypertonic saline (4.5%) bronchial challenge (HSBC), although less sensitive than pharmacological challenges, is reportedly highly specific in diagnosing current asthma. Added advantages are that reagents are cheap, stable and recognized by participants. Thus, HSBC may offer benefits over pharmacological tests in epidemiological surveys. This paper reports on the second field survey using the test, a study of 99 adults from the timber industry in Western Australia. The test is described and critically appraised as a practical epidemiological tool for assessing asthma prevalence. At a cutoff point of 20% FEV, fall, HSBC was positive in 8% of subjects, appeared specific for asthma, was safe, well-accepted and easy to use in the field.

  17. A toolkit for detecting technical surprise.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, Michael Wayne; Foehse, Mark C.

    2010-10-01

    The detection of a scientific or technological surprise within a secretive country or institute is very difficult. The ability to detect such surprises would allow analysts to identify the capabilities that could be a military or economic threat to national security. Sandia's current approach utilizing ThreatView has been successful in revealing potential technological surprises. However, as data sets become larger, it becomes critical to use algorithms as filters along with the visualization environments. Our two-year LDRD had two primary goals. First, we developed a tool, a Self-Organizing Map (SOM), to extend ThreatView and improve our understanding of the issues involved in working with textual data sets. Second, we developed a toolkit for detecting indicators of technical surprise in textual data sets. Our toolkit has been successfully used to perform technology assessments for the Science & Technology Intelligence (S&TI) program.

  18. Deciphering network community structure by surprise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aldecoa, Rodrigo; Marín, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    .... A fundamental, unsolved problem is how to characterize the community structure of a network. Here, using both standard and novel benchmarks, we show that maximization of a simple global parameter, which we call Surprise...

  19. A Surprising Culprit Behind Celiac Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_164503.html A Surprising Culprit Behind Celiac Disease? Study suggests harmless viruses may set stage ... typically harmless type of virus might sometimes trigger celiac disease, a new study suggests. Celiac disease is ...

  20. L-Carnitine Reduces in Human Conjunctival Epithelial Cells Hypertonic-Induced Shrinkage through Interacting with TRPV1 Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushafarin Khajavi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Ocular surface health depends on conjunctival epithelial (HCjE layer integrity since it protects against pathogenic infiltration and contributes to tissue hydration maintenance. As the same increases in tear film hyperosmolarity described in dry eye disease can increase corneal epithelial transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1 channel activity, we evaluated its involvement in mediating an osmoprotective effect by L-carnitine against such stress. Methods: Using siRNA gene silencing, Ca2+ imaging, planar patch-clamping and relative cell volume measurements, we determined if the protective effects of this osmolyte stem from its interaction with TRPV1. Results: TRPV1 activation by capsaicin (CAP and an increase in osmolarity to ≈ 450 mOsM both induced increases in Ca2+ levels. In contrast, blocking TRPV1 activation with capsazepine (CPZ fully reversed this response. Similarly, L-carnitine (1 mM also reduced underlying whole-cell currents. In calcein-AM loaded cells, hypertonic-induced relative cell volume shrinkage was fully blocked during exposure to L-carnitine. On the other hand, in TRPV1 gene-silenced cells, this protective effect by L-carnitine was obviated. Conclusion: The described L-carnitine osmoprotective effect is elicited through suppression of hypertonic-induced TRPV1 activation leading to increases in L-carnitine uptake through a described Na+-dependent L-carnitine transporter.

  1. Comparison of normal saline, hypertonic saline albumin and terlipressin plus hypertonic saline albumin in an infant animal model of hypovolemic shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Urbano

    Full Text Available In series of cases and animal models suffering hemorrhagic shock, the use of vasopressors has shown potential benefits regarding hemodynamics and tissue perfusion. Terlipressin is an analogue of vasopressin with a longer half-life that can be administered by bolus injection. We have previously observed that hypertonic albumin improves resuscitation following controlled hemorrhage in piglets. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether the treatment with the combination of terlipressin and hypertonic albumin can produce better hemodynamic and tissular perfusion parameters than normal saline or hypertonic albumin alone at early stages of hemorrhagic shock in an infant animal model.Experimental, randomized animal study including 39 2-to-3-month-old piglets. Thirty minutes after controlled 30 ml/kg bleed, pigs were randomized to receive either normal saline (NS 30 ml/kg (n = 13, 5% albumin plus 3% hypertonic saline (AHS 15 ml/kg (n = 13 or single bolus of terlipressin 15 μg/kg i.v. plus 5% albumin plus 3% hypertonic saline 15 ml/kg (TAHS (n = 13 over 30 minutes. Global hemodynamic and tissular perfusion parameters were compared.After controlled bleed a significant decrease of blood pressure, cardiac index, central venous saturation, carotid and peripheral blood flow, brain saturation and an increase of heart rate, gastric PCO2 and lactate was observed. After treatment no significant differences in most hemodynamic (cardiac index, mean arterial pressure and perfusion parameters (lactate, gastric PCO2, brain saturation, cutaneous blood flow were observed between the three therapeutic groups. AHS and TAHS produced higher increase in stroke volume index and carotid blood flow than NS.In this pediatric animal model of hypovolemic shock, albumin plus hypertonic saline with or without terlipressin achieved similar hemodynamics and perfusion parameters than twice the volume of NS. Addition of terlipressin did not produce better results than AHS.

  2. The effect of 3% and 6% hypertonic saline in viral bronchiolitis: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, Jasmijn; Hochs, Anne H J; Vaessen-Verberne, Anja; Boehmer, Annemie L M; Smeets, Carien C J M; Brackel, Hein; van Gent, René; Wesseling, Judith; Logtens-Stevens, Danielle; de Moor, Ronald; Rosias, Philippe P R; Potgieter, Steph; Faber, Marianne R; Hendriks, Han J E; Janssen-Heijnen, Maryska L G; Loza, Bettina F

    2014-10-01

    Bronchiolitis is a common disorder in young children that often results in hospitalisation. Except for a possible effect of nebulised hypertonic saline (sodium chloride), no evidence-based therapy is available. This study investigated the efficacy of nebulised 3% and 6% hypertonic saline compared with 0.9% hypertonic saline in children hospitalised with viral bronchiolitis. In this multicentre, double-blind, randomised, controlled trial, children hospitalised with acute viral bronchiolitis were randomised to receive either nebulised 3%, 6% hypertonic saline or 0.9% normal saline during their entire hospital stay. Salbutamol was added to counteract possible bronchial constriction. The primary endpoint was the length of hospital stay. Secondary outcomes were need for supplemental oxygen and tube feeding. From the 292 children included in the study (median age 3.4 months), 247 completed the study. The median length of hospital stay did not differ between the groups: 69 h (interquartile range 57), 70 h (IQR 69) and 53 h (IQR 52), for 3% (n=84) and 6% (n=83) hypertonic saline and 0.9% (n=80) normal saline, respectively, (p=0.29). The need for supplemental oxygen or tube feeding did not differ significantly. Adverse effects were similar in the three groups. Nebulisation with hypertonic saline (3% or 6% sodium chloride) although safe, did not reduce the length of stay in hospital, duration of supplemental oxygen or tube feeding in children hospitalised with moderate-to-severe viral bronchiolitis.

  3. Surprises in numerical expressions of physical constants

    CERN Document Server

    Amir, Ariel; Tokieda, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    In science, as in life, `surprises' can be adequately appreciated only in the presence of a null model, what we expect a priori. In physics, theories sometimes express the values of dimensionless physical constants as combinations of mathematical constants like pi or e. The inverse problem also arises, whereby the measured value of a physical constant admits a `surprisingly' simple approximation in terms of well-known mathematical constants. Can we estimate the probability for this to be a mere coincidence, rather than an inkling of some theory? We answer the question in the most naive form.

  4. Surprising Connections between Partitions and Divisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Thomas J.; Hassen, Abdulkadir; Chandrupatla, Tirupathi R.

    2007-01-01

    The sum of the divisors of a positive integer is one of the most interesting concepts in multiplicative number theory, while the number of ways of expressing a number as a sum is a primary topic in additive number theory. In this article, we describe some of the surprising connections between and similarities of these two concepts.

  5. Surprises from extragalactic propagation of UHECRs

    CERN Document Server

    Boncioli, Denise; Grillo, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-high energy cosmic ray experimental data are now of very good statistical significance even in the region of the expected GZK feature. The identification of their sources requires sophisticate analysis of their propagation in the extragalactic space. When looking at the details of this propagation some unforeseen features emerge. We will discuss some of these "surprises".

  6. Sleeping beauties in theoretical physics 26 surprising insights

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Thanu

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses a fascinating set of questions in theoretical physics which will both entertain and enlighten all students, teachers and researchers and other physics aficionados. These range from Newtonian mechanics to quantum field theory and cover several puzzling issues that do not appear in standard textbooks. Some topics cover conceptual conundrums, the solutions to which lead to surprising insights; some correct popular misconceptions in the textbook discussion of certain topics; others illustrate deep connections between apparently unconnected domains of theoretical physics; and a few provide remarkably simple derivations of results which are not often appreciated. The connoisseur of theoretical physics will enjoy a feast of pleasant surprises skilfully prepared by an internationally acclaimed theoretical physicist. Each topic is introduced with proper background discussion and special effort is taken to make the discussion self-contained, clear and comprehensible to anyone with an undergraduate e...

  7. Effects of Surprisal and Locality on Danish Sentence Processing: An Eye-Tracking Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Kizach, Johannes

    2017-03-22

    An eye-tracking experiment in Danish investigates two dominant accounts of sentence processing: locality-based theories that predict a processing advantage for sentences where the distance between the major syntactic heads is minimized, and the surprisal theory which predicts that processing time increases with big changes in the relative entropy of possible parses, sometimes leading to anti-locality effects. We consider both lexicalised surprisal, expressed in conditional trigram probabilities, and syntactic surprisal expressed in the manipulation of the expectedness of the second NP in Danish constructions with two postverbal NP-objects. An eye-tracking experiment showed a clear advantage for local syntactic relations, with only a marginal effect of lexicalised surprisal and no effect of syntactic surprisal. We conclude that surprisal has a relatively marginal effect, which may be clearest for verbs in verb-final languages, while locality is a robust predictor of sentence processing.

  8. Environmental hypertonicity causes induction of gluconeogenesis in the air-breathing singhi catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Das

    Full Text Available The air-breathing singhi catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis is frequently being challenged by different environmental insults such as hyper-ammonia, dehydration and osmotic stresses in their natural habitats throughout the year. The present study investigated the effect of hyperosmotic stress, due to exposure to hypertonic environment (300 mM mannitol for 14 days, on gluconeogenesis in this catfish. In situ exposure to hypertonic environment led to significant stimulation of gluconeogenic fluxes from the perfused liver after 7 days of exposure, followed by further increase after 14 days in presence of three different potential gluconeogenic substrates (lactate, pyruvate and glutamate. Environmental hypertonicity also caused a significant increase of activities of key gluconeogenic enzymes, namely phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1, 6-bisphosphatase and glucose 6-phosphatase by about 2-6 fold in liver, and 3-6 fold in kidney tissues. This was accompanied by more abundance of enzyme proteins by about 1.8-3.7 fold and mRNAs by about 2.2-5.2 fold in both the tissues with a maximum increase after 14 days of exposure. Hence, the increase in activities of key gluconeogenic enzymes under hypertonic stress appeared to be as a result of transcriptional regulation of genes. Immunocytochemical analysis further confirmed the tissue specific localized expression of these enzymes in both the tissues with the possibility of expressing more in the same localized places. The induction of gluconeogenesis during exposure to environmental hypertonicity possibly occurs as a consequence of changes in hydration status/cell volume of different cell types. Thus, these adaptational strategies related to gluconeogenesis that are observed in this catfish under hypertonic stress probably help in maintaining glucose homeostasis and also for a proper energy supply to support metabolic demands mainly for ion transport and other altered metabolic processes under various

  9. Radar Design to Protect Against Surprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Technological and doctrinal surprise is about rendering preparations for conflict as irrelevant or ineffective . For a sensor, this means essentially rendering the sensor as irrelevant or ineffective in its ability to help determine truth. Recovery from this sort of surprise is facilitated by flexibility in our own technology and doctrine. For a sensor, this mean s flexibility in its architecture, design, tactics, and the designing organizations ' processes. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory manage d and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000.

  10. Radar Design to Protect Against Surprise.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2015-02-01

    Technological and doctrinal surprise is about rendering preparations for conflict as irrelevant or ineffective . For a sensor, this means essentially rendering the sensor as irrelevant or ineffective in its ability to help determine truth. Recovery from this sort of surprise is facilitated by flexibility in our own technology and doctrine. For a sensor, this mean s flexibility in its architecture, design, tactics, and the designing organizations ' processes. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory manage d and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000.

  11. Surprise-Based Learning for Autonomous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-28

    for scientific theories containing recursive theoretical terms". British Journal of Philosophy of Science, 44. 641-652, 1993. Piaget J.. "The Origins...paradigm stems from Piaget’s theory of Developmental Psychology [5], Herben Simon’s theory on dual-space search for knowledge and problem solving [6...34, Twenty-First Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, Edinburgh, Scotland, July 2005. [34] Itti L., Baldi P., "A Surprising Theory of

  12. Hypertonic saline impedes tumor cell-endothelial cell interaction by reducing adhesion molecule and laminin expression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shields, Conor J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Hypertonic saline infusion dampens inflammatory responses and suppresses neutrophil-endothelial interaction by reducing adhesion molecule expression. This study tested the hypothesis that hypertonic saline attenuates tumor cell adhesion to the endothelium through a similar mechanism. METHODS: Human colon cancer cells (LS174T) were transfected with green fluorescent protein and exposed to lipopolysaccharide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-6 under hypertonic and isotonic conditions for 1 and 4 hours. Confluent human umbilical vein endothelial cells were similarly exposed. Cellular apoptosis and expression of adhesion molecules and laminin were measured by flow cytometry. Tumor cell adhesion to endothelium and laminin was assessed with fluorescence microscopy. Data are represented as mean +\\/- standard error of mean, and an ANOVA test was performed to gauge statistical significance, with P <.05 considered significant. RESULTS: Hypertonic exposure significantly reduced tumor cell adhesion despite the presence of the perioperative cell stressors (42 +\\/- 2.9 vs 172.5 +\\/- 12.4, P <.05), attenuated tumor cell beta-1 integrin (14.43 vs 23.84, P <.05), and endothelial cell laminin expression (22.78 +\\/- 2.2 vs 33.74 +\\/- 2.4, P <.05), but did not significantly alter cell viability. CONCLUSION: Hypertonic saline significantly attenuates tumor cell adhesion to endothelium by inhibiting adhesion molecule and laminin expression. This may halt the metastatic behavior of tumor cells shed at surgery.

  13. Normal Saline Versus Hypertonic 3% Saline: It’s Efficacy in Non-Acute Rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezamoddin Berjis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sinusitis is one of the most common diseases in general and in otolaryngology practice, but the optimal therapeutic options have not yet been fully developed. This manuscript will try to compare normal saline nasal douching with hypertonic saline in reducing symptoms and improving its signs. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fourteen patients suffering from non acute rhinosinusitis, documented by history, physical examination and radiologic studies were divided into normal saline and hypertonic saline groups, each consisting of 57 patients. data were obtained by physical examination and a questionnaire.. Results:  Type of treatment had no significant effect on headache, morning dryness of mouth and pharynx and fatigue. Nontheless, nasal congestion, purulent discharge and postnasal discharge were reported to have improved in the group treated with hypertonic saline versus the normal saline group. Patient satisfaction also showed better scores in the hypertonic saline group. Conclusion: Hypertonic saline (3% is more effective for nasal irrigation  than normal saline in chronic rhinosinusitis.

  14. Pupil size tracks perceptual content and surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Niels A; Meindertsma, Thomas; van Loon, Anouk M; Lamme, Victor A F; Bonneh, Yoram S; Donner, Tobias H

    2015-04-01

    Changes in pupil size at constant light levels reflect the activity of neuromodulatory brainstem centers that control global brain state. These endogenously driven pupil dynamics can be synchronized with cognitive acts. For example, the pupil dilates during the spontaneous switches of perception of a constant sensory input in bistable perceptual illusions. It is unknown whether this pupil dilation only indicates the occurrence of perceptual switches, or also their content. Here, we measured pupil diameter in human subjects reporting the subjective disappearance and re-appearance of a physically constant visual target surrounded by a moving pattern ('motion-induced blindness' illusion). We show that the pupil dilates during the perceptual switches in the illusion and a stimulus-evoked 'replay' of that illusion. Critically, the switch-related pupil dilation encodes perceptual content, with larger amplitude for disappearance than re-appearance. This difference in pupil response amplitude enables prediction of the type of report (disappearance vs. re-appearance) on individual switches (receiver-operating characteristic: 61%). The amplitude difference is independent of the relative durations of target-visible and target-invisible intervals and subjects' overt behavioral report of the perceptual switches. Further, we show that pupil dilation during the replay also scales with the level of surprise about the timing of switches, but there is no evidence for an interaction between the effects of surprise and perceptual content on the pupil response. Taken together, our results suggest that pupil-linked brain systems track both the content of, and surprise about, perceptual events.

  15. Nebulized hypertonic saline via positive expiratory pressure versus via jet nebulizer in patients with severe cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Oisin J

    2011-06-01

    Nebulized hypertonic saline is a highly effective therapy for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), yet 10% of patients are intolerant of hypertonic saline administered via jet nebulizer. Positive expiratory pressure (PEP) nebulizers splint open the airways and offers a more controlled rate of nebulization.

  16. [Metabolic evolution of hypertonic dehydration treated with fluidotherapy: revision of 40 infants (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruza, F; Rodrigo, F; Jara, P; Ferro, O; Segurado, E; Junco, E

    1979-01-01

    Authors study the metabolic evolution of osmolarity, natraemia, chloremia, kaliemia and uremia of 40 infants with hypertonic dehydration. They divide the serie into two groups in accordance with initial value of natraemia: more or less than 170 mEq./l. The slow average decreases by hour of osmolarity, natraemia and chloremia were evaluated, and that justifies good evolution of hypertonic dehydration and minimal neurological repercussion found. Renal function in this metabolic condition is discussed. The usefulness of the fluidotherapic technique employed is demonstrated.

  17. Infusion of hypertonic saline before elective hysterectomy: effects on cytokines and stress hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kølsen-Petersen, Jens Aage; Bendtzen, Klaus; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infusion of hypertonic saline provides early haemodynamic benefits and may affect the immune system. It is unknown if infusion of hypertonic saline affects plasma cytokines and stress hormones after surgery. METHODS: Sixty-two women undergoing abdominal hysterectomy were randomized...... factor-alpha. Serum cortisol and vasopressin were measured at these time points and 48 h after operation. Epinephrine and norepinephrine (n=26) were quantified at baseline, after infusion, 25 min after incision, 1, and 4 h after surgery. Finally, C-reactive protein was measured at baseline, 24, and 48 h...... with the other groups (Pstress...

  18. Nebulised dornase alfa versus placebo or hypertonic saline in adult critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, Casper; Perner, Anders; Møller, Morten Hylander

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nebulised dornase alfa is used off-label in critically ill patients. We aimed to assess the benefits and harms of nebulised dornase alfa versus placebo, no prophylaxis, or hypertonic saline on patient-important outcome measures in adult critically ill patients. METHODS: We performed...... a systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA) using the Cochrane Collaboration methodology. Eligible trials were randomised clinical trials comparing nebulised dornase alfa with placebo, no prophylaxis, or hypertonic saline. The predefined outcome measures were all-cause mortality...

  19. Hypertonic Saline Dextran Ameliorates Organ Damage in Beagle Hemorrhagic Shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-xiang Zhao

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of hypertonic saline with 6% Dextran-70 (HSD resuscitation on organ damage and the resuscitation efficiency of the combination of HSD and lactated ringers (LR in a model of hemorrhage shock in dogs.Beagles were bled to hold their mean arterial pressure (MAP at 50 ± 5 mmHg for 1 h. After hemorrhage, beagles were divided into three groups (n = 7 to receive pre-hospital resuscitation for 1 h (R1: HSD (4 ml/kg, LR (40 ml/kg, and HSD+LR (a combination of 4 ml/kg HSD and 40 ml/kg LR. Next, LR was transfused into all groups as in-hospital resuscitation (R2. After two hours of observation (R3, autologous blood was transfused. Hemodynamic responses and systemic oxygenation were measured at predetermined phases. Three days after resuscitation, the animals were sacrificed and tissues including kidney, lung, liver and intestinal were obtained for pathological analysis.Although the initial resuscitation with HSD was shown to be faster than LR with regard to an ascending MAP, the HSD group showed a similar hemodynamic performance compared to the LR group throughout the experiment. Compared with the LR group, the systemic oxygenation performance in the HSD group was similar but showed a lower venous-to-arterial CO2 gradient (Pv-aCO2 at R3 (p < 0.05. Additionally, the histology score of the kidneys, lungs and liver were significantly lower in the HSD group than in the LR group (p < 0.05. The HSD+LR group showed a superior hemodynamic response but higher extravascular lung water (EVLW and lower arterial oxygen tension (PaO2 than the other groups (p < 0.05. The HSD+LR group showed a marginally improved systemic oxygenation performance and lower histology score than other groups.Resuscitation after hemorrhagic shock with a bolus of HSD showed a similar hemodynamic response compared with LR at ten times the volume of HSD, but HSD showed superior efficacy in organ protection. Our findings suggest that

  20. Comparison of Normal Saline, Hypertonic Saline Albumin and Terlipressin plus Hypertonic Saline Albumin in an Infant Animal Model of Hypovolemic Shock

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Urbano; Rafael González; Jorge López; Solana, María J.; Bellón, José M.; Marta Botrán; Ana García; Fernández, Sarah N.; Jesús López-Herce

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In series of cases and animal models suffering hemorrhagic shock, the use of vasopressors has shown potential benefits regarding hemodynamics and tissue perfusion. Terlipressin is an analogue of vasopressin with a longer half-life that can be administered by bolus injection. We have previously observed that hypertonic albumin improves resuscitation following controlled hemorrhage in piglets. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether the treatment with the combination of...

  1. Some surprising facts about (the problem of) surprising facts (from the Dusseldorf Conference, February 2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, D

    2014-03-01

    A common intuition about evidence is that if data x have been used to construct a hypothesis H, then x should not be used again in support of H. It is no surprise that x fits H, if H was deliberately constructed to accord with x. The question of when and why we should avoid such "double-counting" continues to be debated in philosophy and statistics. It arises as a prohibition against data mining, hunting for significance, tuning on the signal, and ad hoc hypotheses, and as a preference for predesignated hypotheses and "surprising" predictions. I have argued that it is the severity or probativeness of the test--or lack of it--that should determine whether a double-use of data is admissible. I examine a number of surprising ambiguities and unexpected facts that continue to bedevil this debate.

  2. Stroke Recovery: Surprising Influences and Residual Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argye E. Hillis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is startling individual variability in the degree to which people recover from stroke and the duration of time over which recovery of some symptoms occurs. There are a variety of mechanisms of recovery from stroke which take place at distinct time points after stroke and are influenced by different variables. We review recent studies from our laboratory that unveil some surprising findings, such as the role of education in chronic recovery. We also report data showing that the consequences that most plague survivors of stroke and their caregivers are loss of high level cortical functions, such as empathy or written language. These results have implications for rehabilitation and management of stroke.

  3. Surprises and mysteries in urban soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groffman, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the Baltimore Ecosystem Study, one of two urban long-term ecological research (LTER) projects funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, we are using "the watershed approach" to integrate ecological, physical and social sciences. Urban and suburban watershed input/output budgets for nitrogen have shown surprisingly high retention which has led to detailed analysis of sources and sinks in soils these watersheds. Home lawns, thought to be major sources of reactive nitrogen in suburban watersheds, have more complex coupled carbon and nitrogen dynamics than previously thought, and are likely the site of much nitrogen retention. Riparian zones, thought to be an important sink for reactive nitrogen in many watersheds, have turned out be nitrogen sources in urban watersheds due to hydrologic changes that disconnect streams from their surrounding landscape. Urban effects on atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and nitrogen deposition have strong effects on soil nitrogen cycling processes and soil:atmosphere fluxes of nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane. Efforts to manage urban soils and watersheds through geomorphic stream restoration, creation of stormwater management features and changes in lawn and forest management can have significant effects on watershed carbon and nitrogen dynamics. Urban soils present a basic and applied science frontier that challenges our understanding of biological, physical, chemical and social science processes. The watershed approach provides an effective platform for integrating these disciplines and for articulating critical questions that arise from surprising results. This approach can help us to meet the challenge of urban soils, which is critical to achieving sustainability goals in cities across the world.

  4. Nebulized hypertonic saline decreases IL-8 in sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reeves, Emer P

    2012-02-01

    RATIONALE: Inflammation within the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung is mediated by inflammatory chemokines, such as IL-8. IL-8 is protected from proteolytic degradation in the airways by binding to glycosaminoglycans, while remaining active. Evidence that increased hypertonicity of airway secretions induced by hypertonic saline treatment alters levels of IL-8 is lacking. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the antiinflammatory effect of hypertonic saline (HTS) treatment within the CF lung by focusing on IL-8. METHODS: Degradation of IL-8 in CF lung secretions after treatment with glycosaminoglycan lyases and HTS was analyzed by Western blot analysis and ELISA. The ex vivo chemotactic activity of purified neutrophils in response to CF airway secretions was evaluated post nebulization of HTS (7% saline). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In vivo CF bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) IL-8 levels were significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.05). Digesting glycosaminoglycans in CF BALF displaced IL-8 from glycosaminoglycan matrices, rendering the chemokine susceptible to proteolytic cleavage. High sodium concentrations also liberate IL-8 in CF BALF in vitro, and in vivo in CF sputum from patients receiving aerosolized HTS, resulting in degradation of IL-8 and decreased neutrophil chemotactic efficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Glycosaminoglycans possess the ability to influence the chemokine profile of the CF lung by binding and stabilizing IL-8, which promotes neutrophil chemotaxis and activation. Nebulized hypertonic saline treatment disrupts the interaction between glycosaminoglycans and IL-8, rendering IL-8 susceptible to proteolytic degradation with subsequent decrease in neutrophil chemotaxis, thereby facilitating resolution of inflammation.

  5. The hypertonic environment differentially regulates wild-type CFTR and TNR-CFTR chloride channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassance-Soares, Roberta M; Cheng, Jie; Krasnov, Kristina; Cebotaru, Liudmila; Cutting, Garry R; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Morales, Marcelo M; Guggino, William B

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that the hypertonic environment of the renal medulla regulates the expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) and its natural splice variant, TNR-CFTR. To accomplish this, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) stable cell lines expressing TNR-CFTR or CFTR were used. The cells were treated with hypertonic medium made with either NaCl or urea or sucrose (480 mOsm/kg or 560 mOsm/kg) to mimic the tonicity of the renal medulla environment. Western blot data showed that CFTR and TNR-CFTR total cell protein is increased by hypertonic medium, but using the surface biotinylation technique, only CFTR was found to be increased in cell plasma membrane. Confocal microscopy showed TNR-CFTR localization primarily at the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane. In conclusion, CFTR and TNR-CFTR have different patterns of distribution in MDCK cells and they are modulated by a hypertonic environment, suggesting their physiological importance in renal medulla.

  6. Prehospital guidelines for use of hypertonic saline are not followed systematically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejselbaek, Julie; Steinmetz, Jacob; Rasmussen, Lars Simon

    2012-01-01

    Hypertonic saline (HS) was introduced in our physician-based mobile emergency care unit (MECU) in September 2006 for patients with severe traumatic brain injury and hypotension. HS has, however, rarely been used and we sought to identify barriers to its implementation....

  7. Inducible nucleosome depletion at OREBP-binding-sites by hypertonic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith H Y Tong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Osmotic Response Element-Binding Protein (OREBP, also known as TonEBP or NFAT5, is a unique transcription factor. It is hitherto the only known mammalian transcription factor that regulates hypertonic stress-induced gene transcription. In addition, unlike other monomeric members of the NFAT family, OREBP exists as a homodimer and it is the only transcription factor known to bind naked DNA targets by complete encirclement in vitro. Nevertheless, how OREBP interacts with target DNA, also known as ORE/TonE, and how it elicits gene transcription in vivo, remains unknown. METHODOLOGY: Using hypertonic induction of the aldose reductase (AR gene activation as a model, we showed that OREs contained dynamic nucleosomes. Hypertonic stress induced a rapid and reversible loss of nucleosome(s around the OREs. The loss of nucleosome(s was found to be initiated by an OREBP-independent mechanism, but was significantly potentiated in the presence of OREBP. Furthermore, hypertonic induction of AR gene was associated with an OREBP-dependent hyperacetylation of histones that spanned the 5' upstream sequences and at least some exons of the gene. Nevertheless, nucleosome loss was not regulated by the acetylation status of histone. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings offer novel insights into the mechanism of OREBP-dependent transcriptional regulation and provide a basis for understanding how histone eviction and transcription factor recruitment are coupled.

  8. Hypertonic Saline Dextran (HSD) in a Complex Military Injury - A Preclinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    the pulmonary artery. Cannula placement was determined by monitoring pressure changes at the tip. Once venous access had been established...SILVA Hypertonic saline resuscitation. Medicina (B Aires), 1998, 58, (4), 393-402. [36] HARBAN, F.M.J., KIRKMAN, E., KENWARD, C.E., and WATKINS, P.E

  9. Oxytocin and prolactin release after hypertonic saline administration in melatonin-treated male Syrian hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juszczak, M.; Steger, R.W.; Fadden, C.; Bartke, A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the present investigations was to examine the effects of melatonin (Mel) on oxytocin (OT) release under conditions of osmotic stimulation, brought about by hypertonic saline administration, as well as to determine whether osmotically stimulated OT release in Mel-treated Syrian hamster is associated with alterations in the release of prolactin (PRL) and in norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) content in the hypothalamus. In both Mel- and vehicle-treated hamsters, injection of hypertonic saline was followed by a significant decrease in OT content in the pituitary neurointermediate lobe (NIL) and elevation of plasma OT and PRL levels. Melatonin injections had no significant affect on NIL OT content in either isotonic- or hypertonic-saline treated animals. Pretreatment with Mel did not alter plasma OT or PRL levels in isotonic saline-injected animals. However, Mel facilitated the release of OT, but prevented the release of PRL after hypertonic saline administration. Melatonin treatment reduced hypothalamic NE content (but not that of DA) in isotonic-saline treated animals. After osmotic stimulation, hypothalamic content of NE and DA was significantly lower in Mel-treated than in vehicle-treated animals. Data from the present study suggest that the osmotically-stimulated release of OT and PRL seems to be related to the activation of noradrenergic rather than dopaminergic transmission. Both dopaminergic and noradrenergic transmission may be, however, involved in mediating the effects of Mel on the osmotically-activated OT and PRL release. (author). 48 refs, 3 figs.

  10. Effect of hypertonic saline solution on the left ventricular functions of isolated hearts from burned rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周继红; 刘大维; 王正国; 朱佩芳

    2002-01-01

    To study the effect of hypertonic saline solution on the left ventricular functions of isolated hearts from burned rats. Methods: Thirty-six Wistar rats were used and divided into 4 groups: (1) normal hearts perfused with isotonic Krebs-Henseleit solution; (2) normal hearts perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution which contained 215 mmol/L Na+; (3) hearts of rats suffered from 25% TBSA third degree burn and perfused with isotonic Krebs-Henseleit solution; (4) hearts of the burned rats perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution which contained 215 mmol/L Na+. The systolic and diastolic functions of the left ventricle were observed. Results: During perfusion, there were very short periods of decrease in heart systolic and diastolic functions at first, but they recovered very soon and even became stronger than normal both in the normal and burned rats. The systolic and diastolic functions of the hearts increased very significantly when the perfusion solution was changed to isotonic solution from the hypertonic solutions. The effect of the hypertonic saline solution on the ventricular systolic and diastolic improvements was stronger in the hearts of the burned rats than that in the normal hearts. Conclusions: Hypertonic saline solution can directly affect myocardium and significantly improve the ventricular systolic and diastolic functions, especially in the hearts of the burned rats.

  11. Experimental pain in human temporal muscle induced by hypertonic saline, potassium and acidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K; Norup, M

    1992-01-01

    chloride (n = 12) induced significantly more pain than isotonic saline (ANOVA, p less than 0.0001). Compared to control injections, hypertonic saline and potassium chloride induced a significant reduction in pressure-pain threshold (ANOVA, p less than 0.0001 and p less than 0.05). Forty-eight percent...

  12. Hypertonic fluid administration in patients with septic shock: a prospective randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haren, Frank M P; Sleigh, James; Boerma, E Christiaan; La Pine, Mary; Bahr, Mohamed; Pickkers, Peter; van der Hoeven, Johannes G

    2012-03-01

    We assessed the short-term effects of hypertonic fluid versus isotonic fluid administration in patients with septic shock. This was a double-blind, prospective randomized controlled trial in a 15-bed intensive care unit. Twenty-four patients with septic shock were randomized to receive 250 mL 7.2% NaCl/6% hydroxyethyl starch (HT group) or 500 mL 6% hydroxyethyl starch (IT group). Hemodynamic measurements included mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), central venous pressure, stroke volume index, stroke volume variation, intrathoracic blood volume index, gastric tonometry, and sublingual microcirculatory flow as assessed by sidestream dark field imaging. Systolic tissue Doppler imaging velocities of the medial mitral annulus were measured using echocardiography to assess left ventricular contractility. Log transformation of the ratio MAP divided by the norepinephrine infusion rate (log MAP/NE) quantified the combined effect on both parameters. Compared with the IT group, hypertonic solution treatment resulted in an improvement in log MAP/NE (P = 0.008), as well as an increase in systolic tissue Doppler imaging velocities (P = 0.03) and stroke volume index (P = 0.017). No differences between the groups were found for preload parameters (central venous pressure, stroke volume variation, intrathoracic blood volume index) or for afterload parameters (systemic vascular resistance index, MAP). Hypertonic solution treatment decreased the need for ongoing fluid resuscitation (P = 0.046). No differences between groups were observed regarding tonometry or the sublingual microvascular variables. In patients with septic shock, hypertonic fluid administration did not promote gastrointestinal mucosal perfusion or sublingual microcirculatory blood flow in comparison to isotonic fluid. Independent of changes in preload or afterload, hypertonic fluid administration improved the cardiac contractility and vascular tone compared with isotonic fluid. The need for ongoing fluid

  13. Hypertonic 3% Saline in Comparison with 0.9% (Normal Saline in Treatment of Acute Bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-karem Jasem Mohammed Al-bahadily

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBronchiolitis is the commonest cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infant. Respiratory syncytial virus is the commonest cause of bronchiolitis. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of nebulized 3% hypertonic saline and salbutamol in the treatment of acute bronchiolitis in comparison with nebulized 0.9% saline and salbutamol.Materials and MethodsA prospective case second multicenter study was done at two pediatric tertiary centers at the period from 1st of December 2014 to 31 of March 2015. A total of 100 previously well infant and children of age 1-24 months with clinical diagnoses of bronchiolitis who were admitted to the hospital were included. They were divided into two groups, the study group received 4 ml of nebulized hypertonic 3% saline (for 14 days, and second group received 4 ml of nebulized normal 0.9% saline (for 14 days, each co-administer with 0.5 ml salbutamol.ResultsAll patients with acute bronchiolitis having similar baseline characteristic, mean age 4.9 + Standard deviation (SD months, male gender constitutes 68% of the patients and the majority (67% of the cases were below 6 months. The mean of clinical severity score at admission was 6.4 for normal saline (NS group and 6.6 for hypertonic 3% saline (HS group. The mean length of hospital stay of normal saline group = 4.3 + Standard deviation (SD day and for hypertonic saline group was = 4.7 + Standard deviation (SD day.ConclusionWe didn’t find any advantage of hypertonic 3% saline over 0.9% normal saline in terms of length of hospital stay and clinical severity score.

  14. EFFICIENCY OF HYPERTONIC SOLUTION INHALATION IN CHILDREN WITH BRONCHITIS AND BRONCHIOLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Simonova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic bronchitis and bronchiolitis in children with congenital malformation are often characterized by the severe course of disease. The efficiency of treatment of those conditions can be increased through addition of sodium chloride (NaCl, hypertonic saline which takes a hydrostatic and osmotic effect on mucous membrane of the bronchial tree in broncholytic therapy. Aim: To evaluate the efficiency of 3% NaCl hypertonic solution inhalation in children with chronic bronchitis/bronchiolitis in the setting of bronchi congenital malformation (Kartagener's syndrome and primary ciliary dyskinesia. Patients and methods: The participantsof this study were 28 children in the age of 4–17.5 years with chronic bronchitis/bronchiolitis in the setting of Kartagener's syndrome and primary ciliary dyskinesia in the first days o facute exacerbation of the disease (15 patients in treatment group and 13 patients in control group. In the therapy scheme of treatment group the 3 NaCl hypertonic solution in administered dose of 2 ml was applied 2 times/day during 14 days besides other treatment methods. Results: In patients with chronic bronchiolitis 3% NaCl hypertonic saline inhalation in administered dose of 2 ml twice a day had improved the clinical presentation of disease; by the 14th day of studythe FEV-1 value improved from 70.0 ± 2.1 to 82 ± 3.2% (p = 0.024. The side effects in form of cough aggravation were registered in 13% cases. Among additional criteria of efficiency the improvement of MОС-75 from 52.1 ± 5.2 to 71.2 ± 1.4% (p = 0.011 was also marked in patients. The adverse experience, such as shivering, hypoexcitability and sleep disturbance, were registered in 7% of cases. Conclusion: Inhalation of 3% NaCl hypertonic saline allows the fast arresting of wheezing and eliminates the mycostasis in children with chronic bronchitis/bronchiolitis.

  15. Surprising characteristics of visual systems of invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín-Moro, J; Hernández-Verdejo, J L; Jiménez-Gahete, A E

    2017-01-01

    To communicate relevant and striking aspects about the visual system of some close invertebrates. Review of the related literature. The capacity of snails to regenerate a complete eye, the benefit of the oval shape of the compound eye of many flying insects as a way of stabilising the image during flight, the potential advantages related to the extreme refractive error that characterises the ocelli of many insects, as well as the ability to detect polarised light as a navigation system, are some of the surprising capabilities present in the small invertebrate eyes that are described in this work. The invertebrate eyes have capabilities and sensorial modalities that are not present in the human eye. The study of the eyes of these animals can help us to improve our understanding of our visual system, and inspire the development of optical devices. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Surprises from Saturn: Implications for Other Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, A. J.

    2014-05-01

    The exploration of Saturn by Cassini has provided many surprises regarding: Saturn's rapidly rotating magnetosphere, interactions with its diverse moons, and interactions with the solar wind. Enceladus, orbiting at 4 Saturn radii (RS), was found to have plumes of water vapour and ice which are the dominant source for the inner magnetosphere. Charged water clusters, charged dust and photoelectrons provide key populations in the 'dusty plasma' observed. Direct pickup is seen near Enceladus and field-aligned currents create a spot in Saturn's aurora. At Titan, orbiting at 20 RS, unexpected heavy negative and positive ions are seen in the ionosphere, which provide the source for Titan's haze. Ionospheric plasma is seen in Titan's tail, enabling ion escape to be estimated at 7 tonnes per day. Saturn's ring ionosphere was seen early in the mission and a return will be made in 2017. In addition, highly accelerated electrons are seen at Saturn's high Mach number (MA˜100) quasi-parallel bow shock. Here we review some of these key new results, and discuss the implications for other solar system objects.

  17. A Statistical Analysis of the Relationship between Harmonic Surprise and Preference in Popular Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Scott A; Rosen, David S; Grzywacz, Norberto M

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that some musical pieces may preferentially activate reward centers in the brain. Less is known, however, about the structural aspects of music that are associated with this activation. Based on the music cognition literature, we propose two hypotheses for why some musical pieces are preferred over others. The first, the Absolute-Surprise Hypothesis, states that unexpected events in music directly lead to pleasure. The second, the Contrastive-Surprise Hypothesis, proposes that the juxtaposition of unexpected events and subsequent expected events leads to an overall rewarding response. We tested these hypotheses within the framework of information theory, using the measure of "surprise." This information-theoretic variable mathematically describes how improbable an event is given a known distribution. We performed a statistical investigation of surprise in the harmonic structure of songs within a representative corpus of Western popular music, namely, the McGill Billboard Project corpus. We found that chords of songs in the top quartile of the Billboard chart showed greater average surprise than those in the bottom quartile. We also found that the different sections within top-quartile songs varied more in their average surprise than the sections within bottom-quartile songs. The results of this study are consistent with both the Absolute- and Contrastive-Surprise Hypotheses. Although these hypotheses seem contradictory to one another, we cannot yet discard the possibility that both absolute and contrastive types of surprise play roles in the enjoyment of popular music. We call this possibility the Hybrid-Surprise Hypothesis. The results of this statistical investigation have implications for both music cognition and the human neural mechanisms of esthetic judgments.

  18. Hypertonic saline is more effective than normal saline in seasonal allergic rhinitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchisio, P; Varricchio, A; Baggi, E; Bianchini, S; Capasso, M E; Torretta, S; Capaccio, P; Gasparini, C; Patria, F; Esposito, S; Principi, N

    2012-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a very common childhood disease that is associated with a significant reduction in the patients' quality of life. Its treatment combines educating the patients and their parents, immunotherapy and drug administration. However, even the best approach does not relieve the symptoms of a number of patients. Alternative therapies are particularly needed for children because the fear of adverse events frequently reduces parental compliance to the prescribed drugs, and immunotherapy is less easy to administer than in adults. In this prospective investigator-blinded study we evaluated whether children, with a documented history of seasonal grass pollen-related AR, benefit from nasal irrigation by assessing the effects on nasal signs and symptoms, on middle ear effusion and on adenoidal hypertrophy. We randomized children aged 5 to 9 years (median age 82 months) to normal saline or hypertonic saline (a 2.7% sodium chloride solution), administered twice-daily using a disposable 20 ml syringe, or no treatment. Nasal symptoms (rhinorrhea, itching, sneezing, nasal obstruction), swelling of turbinates, adenoid hypertrophy or middle ear effusion were assessed at baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment. Two hundred and twenty children (normal saline: 80; hypertonic saline: 80; no treatment: 60) completed the study. After four weeks, all the considered items were significantly reduced in the group receiving hypertonic saline (P < 0.0001), whereas in the group receiving normal saline only rhinorrhea (P = 0.0002) and sneezing (P = 0.002) were significantly reduced. There was no significant change in any of the items in the control group. The duration of oral antihistamines was significantly lower in the children receiving hypertonic saline than in those treated with normal saline or in controls. No adverse events were reported and parental satisfaction and compliance with the procedure were globally very good, regardless of the solution used. Using our

  19. A Shocking Surprise in Stephan's Quintet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This false-color composite image of the Stephan's Quintet galaxy cluster clearly shows one of the largest shock waves ever seen (green arc). The wave was produced by one galaxy falling toward another at speeds of more than one million miles per hour. The image is made up of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and a ground-based telescope in Spain. Four of the five galaxies in this picture are involved in a violent collision, which has already stripped most of the hydrogen gas from the interiors of the galaxies. The centers of the galaxies appear as bright yellow-pink knots inside a blue haze of stars, and the galaxy producing all the turmoil, NGC7318b, is the left of two small bright regions in the middle right of the image. One galaxy, the large spiral at the bottom left of the image, is a foreground object and is not associated with the cluster. The titanic shock wave, larger than our own Milky Way galaxy, was detected by the ground-based telescope using visible-light wavelengths. It consists of hot hydrogen gas. As NGC7318b collides with gas spread throughout the cluster, atoms of hydrogen are heated in the shock wave, producing the green glow. Spitzer pointed its infrared spectrograph at the peak of this shock wave (middle of green glow) to learn more about its inner workings. This instrument breaks light apart into its basic components. Data from the instrument are referred to as spectra and are displayed as curving lines that indicate the amount of light coming at each specific wavelength. The Spitzer spectrum showed a strong infrared signature for incredibly turbulent gas made up of hydrogen molecules. This gas is caused when atoms of hydrogen rapidly pair-up to form molecules in the wake of the shock wave. Molecular hydrogen, unlike atomic hydrogen, gives off most of its energy through vibrations that emit in the infrared. This highly disturbed gas is the most turbulent molecular hydrogen ever seen. Astronomers were surprised not only by the turbulence

  20. RADIOFREQUENCY ABLATION USING HYPERTONIC SALINE SOLUTION INSTILLATION: AN EX VIVO STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine whether radiofrequency ablation using hypertonic saline solution instillation can increase the extent of thermally mediated coagulation in ex vivo pig liver tissue. Methods Fifty-six radiofrequency ablation lesions were produced in fresh ex vivo pig's liver. According to different saline solutions, the lesions were divided into six groups: 25% acetic acid, 18% NaCl, 10% NaCl, 5% NaCl, 0.9% NaCl, and distilled water. After radiofrequency ablation, the lesions size and morphology were measured and compared.Results Using different instillation, the volume of coagulation necrosis was different: 25% acetic acid >18% NaCl >10% NaCl >5% NaCl >0.9% NaCl>distilled water. Conclusion Radiofrequency ablation using hypertonic saline solution instillation can increase the volume of radiofrequency ablation induced necrosis.

  1. Emergency anesthesia for evacuating a traumatic acute subdural hemorrhage in a child overdosed with hypertonic saline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulananda Goonasekera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy 1-year-old child with a traumatic acute subdural hemorrhage received 10 times higher dose of hypertonic saline inadvertently immediately before surgery. This case report describes deviations in fluid management needed to alleviate salt toxicity and its adverse effects during surgery under anesthesia perioperatively. The child made an uneventful recovery with no evident residual damage at follow-up.

  2. The role of the vagus nerve in hypertonic resuscitation of hemorrhagic shocked dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco I.T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested a critical role for the vagi during the hypertonic resuscitation of hemorrhagic shocked dogs. Vagal blockade prevented the full hemodynamic and metabolic recovery and increased mortality. This interpretation, however, was challenged on the grounds that the blockade also abolished critical compensatory mechanisms and therefore the animals would die regardless of treatment. To test this hypothesis, 29 dogs were bled (46.0 ± 6.2 ml/kg, enough to reduce the mean arterial pressure to 40 mmHg and held hypotensive for 45 min. After 40 min, vagal activity was blocked in a reversible manner (0ºC/15 min and animals were resuscitated with 7.5% NaCl (4 ml/kg, 0.9% NaCl (32 ml/kg, or the total volume of shed blood. In the vagal blocked isotonic saline group, 9 of 9 dogs, and in the vagal blocked replaced blood group, 11 of 11 dogs survived, with full hemodynamic and metabolic recovery. However, in the hypertonic vagal blocked group, 8 of 9 dogs died within 96 h. Survival of shocked dogs which received hypertonic saline solution was dependent on vagal integrity, while animals which received isotonic solution or blood did not need this neural component. Therefore, we conclude that hypertonic resuscitation is dependent on a neural component and not only on the transient plasma volume expansion or direct effects of hyperosmolarity on vascular reactivity or changes in myocardial contraction observed immediately after the beginning of infusion.

  3. The Use of Hypertonic Solutions to Resuscitate Animals from Hypovolemic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-18

    levels. The 30 minute time, in which only the hypertonic solutions were used, mimiced the ambulance transport time that a patient is likely to...givren normal cell: horizontal lines are means of all mesurements Open vertical arrowks indicate sampling of blhood and saline or no infusion, were at...volume chosen was small enough so that it could be easily administered in the field or during a short ambulance ride. After a simulated transport time of

  4. Investigating effects of hypertonic saline solutions on lipid monolayers at the air-water interface

    KAUST Repository

    Nava Ocampo, Maria F.

    2017-05-01

    More than 70,000 people worldwide suffer from cystic fibrosis, a genetic disease characterized by chronic accumulation of mucus in patients’ lungs provoking bacterial infections, and leading to respiratory failure. An employed age-old treatment to prevent the symptoms of the disease is inhalation of hypertonic saline solution, NaCl at concentrations higher than in the human body (~150 mM). This procedure clears the mucus in the lungs, bringing relief to the patient. However, the biophysical mechanisms underlying this process are not entirely clear. We undertook a new experimental approach to understand the effects of sprayed saline solutions on model lung surfactants towards understanding the mechanisms of the treatment. The surface of lungs contains mainly 1,2-Dipalmitol-sn-glycero-3-phosphocoline (DPPC). As previously assumed by others, we considered that monolayer of DPPC at the air-water interface serves as model system for the lungs surface; we employed a Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) trough and PM-IRRAS to measure surface-specific infrared spectra of the surfactant monolayers and effects on the interfacial tensions. We investigated spraying hyper-saline solutions onto surfactant monolayers at the airwater interface in two parts: (i) validation of our methodology and techniques with stearic acid and (ii) experiments with DPPC monolayers at the air-water interface. Remarkably, when micro-droplets of NaCl were sprayed to the monolayer of stearic acid, we observed enhanced organization of the surfactant, interpreted from the intensities of the CH2 peaks in the surface-specific IR spectra. However, our results with DPPC monolayers didn’t show an effect with the salt added as aerosol, possibly indicating that the experimental methodology proposed is not adequate for the phenomena studied. In parallel, we mimicked respiratory mucous by preparing salt solutions containing 1% (wt%) agar and measured effects on their viscosities. Interestingly, we found that NaCl was much

  5. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF HYPERTONIC SALINE AND NORMAL SALINE SOLUTIONS IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED ENDOTOXIC SHOCK IN DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. ZAFAR, G. MUHAMMAD, M. H. HUSSAIN, T. AHMAD, A. YOUSAF AND I. SARFARAZ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was contemplated to determine the comparative beneficial effects of hypertonic saline solution and sterile saline solution in induced endotoxic shock in dogs. For this purpose, 12 healthy Mongrel dogs were randomly divided into two equal groups (A and B. All the animals were induced endotoxaemia by slow intravenous administration of Escherichia coli endotoxins 0111:B4. Group A was treated with normal saline solution @ 90 ml/kg BW, while group B was given hypertonic saline solution @ 4 ml/kg BW, followed by normal saline solution @ 10 ml/kg BW. Different parameters were observed for evaluation of these fluids including clinical and haematological parameters, serum electrolytes, mean arterial pressure, and blood gases at different time intervals up to 24 hours post treatments. After infusion of respective fluids, all parameters returned to baseline values in both the groups but group B showed better results than group A except bicarbonates, which better recovered in group A. Thus, it was concluded that a small-volume of hypertonic saline solution could be effectively used in reversing the endotoxaemia. Moreover, it provides a rapid and inexpensive resuscitation from endotoxic shock.

  6. EXPERIENCE OF SEA WATER HYPERTONIC SOLUTION APPLICATION FOR TOPICAL TREATMENT OF CHRONIC TONSILLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.P. Karpova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effectiveness of sea water hypertonic solution (Aqua Maris troath and oral cavity spray, Jadran, Croatia medication to treat chronic tonsillitis of the compensated form on 84 children aged between 5 and 15. All children had their tonsil lacunae rinsed in a day № 6–8. 64 children had them rinsed with the sea water hypertonic solution (main group, while 20 children had them rinsed with the nitrofural solution (comparison group. Treatment effectiveness was determined according to dynamics of main symptoms (odynophagia, dysphagia, hyperemia and mucosa infiltration of pillars of the fauces, as well as the degree of tonsil bacterial number before and after treatment (by the 14th day. The dynamic analysis of subjective data during treatment revealed more significant and positive changes among the children of the main group if compared with patients from the comparison group. After treatment the researchers noticed reduction of tonsil bacterial number among 90,62% of children from the main group, whereas this rate made up 60% in the comparison group. Acquired data allowed recommending this medication for the multimodality therapy of infant adenoid disease.Key words: chronic tonsillitis, treatment, children, sea water hypertonic solution.

  7. The Influence of Negative Surprise on Hedonic Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Kieling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After some time using a product or service, the consumer tends to feel less pleasure with consumption. This reduction of pleasure is known as hedonic adaptation. One of the emotions that interfere in this process is surprise. Based on two experiments, we suggest that negative surprise – differently to positive – influences with the level of pleasure foreseen and experienced by the consumer. Study 1 analyzes the influence of negative (vs. positive surprise on the consumer’s post-purchase hedonic adaptation expectation. Results showed that negative surprise influences the intensity of adaptation, augmenting its strength. Study 2 verifies the influence of negative (vs positive surprise over hedonic adaptation. The findings suggested that negative surprise makes adaptation happen more intensively and faster as time goes by, which brings consequences to companies and consumers in the post-purchase process, such as satisfaction and loyalty.

  8. Effect of Nebulized Hypertonic Saline Treatment in Emergency Departments on the Hospitalization Rate for Acute Bronchiolitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angoulvant, François; Bellêttre, Xavier; Milcent, Karen; Teglas, Jean-Paul; Claudet, Isabelle; Le Guen, Christèle Gras; de Pontual, Loïc; Minodier, Philippe; Dubos, François; Brouard, Jacques; Soussan-Banini, Valérie; Degas-Bussiere, Vanessa; Gatin, Amélie; Schweitzer, Cyril; Epaud, Ralph; Ryckewaert, Amélie; Cros, Pierrick; Marot, Yves; Flahaut, Philippe; Saunier, Pascal; Babe, Philippe; Patteau, Géraldine; Delebarre, Mathilde; Titomanlio, Luigi; Vrignaud, Bénédicte; Trieu, Thanh-Van; Tahir, Abdelilah; Regnard, Delphine; Micheau, Pascale; Charara, Oussama; Henry, Simon; Ploin, Dominique; Panjo, Henri; Vabret, Astrid; Bouyer, Jean; Gajdos, Vincent

    2017-08-07

    Acute bronchiolitis is the leading cause of hospitalization among infants. Previous studies, underpowered to examine hospital admission, have found a limited benefit of nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) treatment in the pediatric emergency department (ED). To examine whether HS nebulization treatment would decrease the hospital admission rate among infants with a first episode of acute bronchiolitis. The Efficacy of 3% Hypertonic Saline in Acute Viral Bronchiolitis (GUERANDE) study was a multicenter, double-blind randomized clinical trial on 2 parallel groups conducted during 2 bronchiolitis seasons (October through March) from October 15, 2012, through April 15, 2014, at 24 French pediatric EDs. Among the 2445 infants (6 weeks to 12 months of age) assessed for inclusion, 777 with a first episode of acute bronchiolitis with respiratory distress and no chronic medical condition were included. Two 20-minute nebulization treatments of 4 mL of HS, 3%, or 4 mL of normal saline (NS), 0.9%, given 20 minutes apart. Hospital admission rate in the 24 hours after enrollment. Of the 777 infants included in the study (median age, 3 months; interquartile range, 2-5 months; 468 [60.2%] male), 385 (49.5%) were randomized to the HS group and 387 (49.8%) to the NS group (5 patients did not receive treatment). By 24 hours, 185 of 385 infants (48.1%) in the HS group were admitted compared with 202 of 387 infants (52.2%) in the NS group. The risk difference for hospitalizations was not significant according to the mixed-effects regression model (adjusted risk difference, -3.2%; 95% CI, -8.7% to 2.2%; P = .25). The mean (SD) Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument score improvement was greater in the HS group (-3.1 [3.2]) than in the NS group (-2.4 [3.3]) (adjusted difference, -0.7; 95% CI, -1.2 to -0.2; P = .006) and similarly for the Respiratory Assessment Change Score. Mild adverse events, such as worsening of cough, occurred more frequently among children in the HS group

  9. Computational surprisal analysis speeds-up genomic characterization of cancer processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko-Balasha, Nataly; Simon, Simcha; Levine, R D; Remacle, F; Exman, Iaakov

    2014-01-01

    Surprisal analysis is increasingly being applied for the examination of transcription levels in cellular processes, towards revealing inner network structures and predicting response. But to achieve its full potential, surprisal analysis should be integrated into a wider range computational tool. The purposes of this paper are to combine surprisal analysis with other important computation procedures, such as easy manipulation of the analysis results--e.g. to choose desirable result sub-sets for further inspection--, retrieval and comparison with relevant datasets from public databases, and flexible graphical displays for heuristic thinking. The whole set of computation procedures integrated into a single practical tool is what we call Computational Surprisal Analysis. This combined kind of analysis should facilitate significantly quantitative understanding of different cellular processes for researchers, including applications in proteomics and metabolomics. Beyond that, our vision is that Computational Surprisal Analysis has the potential to reach the status of a routine method of analysis for practitioners. The resolving power of Computational Surprisal Analysis is here demonstrated by its application to a variety of cellular cancer process transcription datasets, ours and from the literature. The results provide a compact biological picture of the thermodynamic significance of the leading gene expression phenotypes in every stage of the disease. For each transcript we characterize both its inherent steady state weight, its correlation with the other transcripts and its variation due to the disease. We present a dedicated website to facilitate the analysis for researchers and practitioners.

  10. Computational surprisal analysis speeds-up genomic characterization of cancer processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly Kravchenko-Balasha

    Full Text Available Surprisal analysis is increasingly being applied for the examination of transcription levels in cellular processes, towards revealing inner network structures and predicting response. But to achieve its full potential, surprisal analysis should be integrated into a wider range computational tool. The purposes of this paper are to combine surprisal analysis with other important computation procedures, such as easy manipulation of the analysis results--e.g. to choose desirable result sub-sets for further inspection--, retrieval and comparison with relevant datasets from public databases, and flexible graphical displays for heuristic thinking. The whole set of computation procedures integrated into a single practical tool is what we call Computational Surprisal Analysis. This combined kind of analysis should facilitate significantly quantitative understanding of different cellular processes for researchers, including applications in proteomics and metabolomics. Beyond that, our vision is that Computational Surprisal Analysis has the potential to reach the status of a routine method of analysis for practitioners. The resolving power of Computational Surprisal Analysis is here demonstrated by its application to a variety of cellular cancer process transcription datasets, ours and from the literature. The results provide a compact biological picture of the thermodynamic significance of the leading gene expression phenotypes in every stage of the disease. For each transcript we characterize both its inherent steady state weight, its correlation with the other transcripts and its variation due to the disease. We present a dedicated website to facilitate the analysis for researchers and practitioners.

  11. Efficacy of nebulised L-adrenaline with 3% hypertonic saline versus normal saline in bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Sharmin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bronchiolitis is one of the most common respiratory diseases requiring hospitalization. Nebulized epineph­rine and salbutamol therapy has been used in different centres with varying results. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of nebulised adrenaline diluted with 3% hypertonic saline with nebulised adrenaline diluted with normal saline in bronchiolitis. Methods: Fifty three infants and young children with bronchiolitis, age ranging from 2 months to 2 years, presenting in the emergency department of Manikganj Sadar Hospital were enrolled in the study. After initial evaluation, patients were randomized to receive either nebulized adrenaline I .5 ml ( 1.5 mg diluted with 2 ml of3% hypertonic saline (group I ornebulised adrenaline 1.5 ml (1.5 mg diluted with 2 ml of normal saline (group II. Patients were evaluated again 30 minutes after nebulization. Results: Twenty eight patients in the group I (hypertonic saline and twenty five in groupII (normal saline were included in the study. After nebulization, mean respiratory rate decreased from 63.7 to 48.1 (p<.01, mean clinical severity score decreased from 8.5 to 3.5 (p<.01 and mean oxygen satw·ation increased 94.7% to 96.9% (p<.01 in group I. In group II, mean respiratory rate decreased from 62.4 to 47.4 (p<.01, mean clinical severity score decreased from 7.2 to 4.1 (p<.01 and mean oxygen saturation increased from 94. 7% to 96. 7% (p<.01. Mean respiratory rate decreased by 16 in group I versus 14.8 (p>.05 in group 11, mean clinical severity score decreased by 4.6 in group versus 3 (p<.05 in group, and mean oxygen saturation increased by 2.2% and 1.9% in group and group respectively. Difference in reduction in clinical severity score was statistically significant , though the changes in respiratory rate and oxygen saturation were not statistically significant. Conclusion: The study concluded that both nebulised adrenaline diluted with 3% hypertonic saline and

  12. Effects of Surprisal and Locality on Danish Sentence Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Kizach, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    An eye-tracking experiment in Danish investigates two dominant accounts of sentence processing: locality-based theories that predict a processing advantage for sentences where the distance between the major syntactic heads is minimized, and the surprisal theory which predicts that processing time...... constructions with two postverbal NP-objects. An eye-tracking experiment showed a clear advantage for local syntactic relations, with only a marginal effect of lexicalised surprisal and no effect of syntactic surprisal. We conclude that surprisal has a relatively marginal effect, which may be clearest for verbs...

  13. Surprise and Sense Making: Undergraduate Placement Experiences in SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Andreas; Thomas, Rhodri; Jameson, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore undergraduate placement experiences in tourism and hospitality SMEs, focusing on the notions of surprise and sense making. It aims to argue that surprises and sense making are important elements not only of the adjustment process when entering new work environments, but also of the learning experience that…

  14. Neural Responses to Rapid Facial Expressions of Fear and Surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Facial expression recognition is mediated by a distributed neural system in humans that involves multiple, bilateral regions. There are six basic facial expressions that may be recognized in humans (fear, sadness, surprise, happiness, anger, and disgust; however, fearful faces and surprised faces are easily confused in rapid presentation. The functional organization of the facial expression recognition system embodies a distinction between these two emotions, which is investigated in the present study. A core system that includes the right parahippocampal gyrus (BA 30, fusiform gyrus, and amygdala mediates the visual recognition of fear and surprise. We found that fearful faces evoked greater activity in the left precuneus, middle temporal gyrus (MTG, middle frontal gyrus, and right lingual gyrus, whereas surprised faces were associated with greater activity in the right postcentral gyrus and left posterior insula. These findings indicate the importance of common and separate mechanisms of the neural activation that underlies the recognition of fearful and surprised faces.

  15. The Orion Nebula: Still Full of Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    , Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

  16. Aging-related Changes of Microglia and Astrocytes in Hypothalamus after Intraperitoneal Injection of Hypertonic Saline in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaoli; XU Yun; WANG Fang; TANG Lihua; LIU Zhilong; LI Honglian; LIU Shenghong

    2006-01-01

    To examine the aging-related changes of microglia and astrocytes in hypothalamus of rats after intraperitoneal injection of hypertonic saline in rats, old- and young-aged rats were injected with hypertonic saline solution into peritoneal cavity. Lectin histochemical techniques using Ricinus communis agglutinin-1 (RCA-1) and immunocytochemical method employing antibody against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were used to demonstrate microglia and astrocytes in the hypothalamus of the rats, and the positively-stained cells were analyzed by computer-assisted image analysis system. Our results showed that the numbers of microglia and astrocytes were significantly increased in the hypothalamus of old-aged rats. After intraperitoneal injection of hypertonic saline,the number of microglia was significantly decreased in the hypothalamus of both young- and oldaged groups. After introperitoneal injection of hypertonic saline, the number of GFAP positive cells was significantly increased in the hypothalamus of young rats, but the number of GFAP positive cells did not show significant change in the hypothalamus of old rats. It is concluded that in the hypothalamus of old-aged rats, the increase of microglia may be related with the aging or degeneration of neurons, and the increase of astrocytes may provide more nourishment required by the aged neurons. The microglia and astrocytes in the hypothalamus of the two group rats may be affected by hypertonic saline, and the response of these cells to the stimuli is characterized by some aging-related changes.

  17. Conference of “Uncertainty and Surprise: Questions on Working with the Unexpected and Unknowable”

    CERN Document Server

    McDaniel, Reuben R; Uncertainty and Surprise in Complex Systems : Questions on Working with the Unexpected

    2005-01-01

    Complexity science has been a source of new insight in physical and social systems and has demonstrated that unpredictability and surprise are fundamental aspects of the world around us. This book is the outcome of a discussion meeting of leading scholars and critical thinkers with expertise in complex systems sciences and leaders from a variety of organizations sponsored by the Prigogine Center at The University of Texas at Austin and the Plexus Institute to explore strategies for understanding uncertainty and surprise. Besides distributions to the conference it includes a key digest by the editors as well as a commentary by the late nobel laureat Ilya Prigogine, "Surprises in half of a century". The book is intended for researchers and scientists in complexity science as well as for a broad interdisciplinary audience of both practitioners and scholars. It will well serve those interested in the research issues and in the application of complexity science to physical and social systems.

  18. What is a surprise earthquake? The example of the 2002, San Giuliano (Italy event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mucciarelli

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Both in scientific literature and in the mass media, some earthquakes are defined as «surprise earthquakes». Based on his own judgment, probably any geologist, seismologist or engineer may have his own list of past «surprise earthquakes». This paper tries to quantify the underlying individual perception that may lead a scientist to apply such a definition to a seismic event. The meaning is different, depending on the disciplinary approach. For geologists, the Italian database of seismogenic sources is still too incomplete to allow for a quantitative estimate of the subjective degree of belief. For seismologists, quantification is possible defining the distance between an earthquake and its closest previous neighbor. Finally, for engineers, the San Giuliano quake could not be considered a surprise, since probabilistic site hazard estimates reveal that the change before and after the earthquake is just 4%.

  19. Modulation of jaw muscle spindle afferent activity following intramuscular injections with hypertonic saline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, J Y; Capra, N F

    2001-05-01

    Transient noxious chemical stimulation of small diameter muscle afferents modulates jaw movement-related responses of caudal brainstem neurons. While it is likely that the effect is mediated from the spindle afferents in the mesencephalic nucleus (Vmes) via the caudally projecting Probst's tract, the mechanisms of pain induced modulations of jaw muscle spindle afferents is not known. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that jaw muscle nociceptors gain access to muscle spindle afferents in the same muscle via central mechanisms and alter their sensitivity. Thirty-five neurons recorded from the Vmes were characterized as muscle spindle afferents based on their responses to passive jaw movements, muscle palpation, and electrical stimulation of the masseter nerve. Each cell was tested by injecting a small volume (250 microl) of either 5% hypertonic and/or isotonic saline into the receptor-bearing muscle. Twenty-nine units were tested with 5% hypertonic saline, of which 79% (23/29) showed significant modulation of mean firing rates (MFRs) during one or more phases of ramp-and-hold movements. Among the muscle spindle primary-like units (n = 12), MFRs of 4 units were facilitated, five reduced, two showed mixed responses and one unchanged. In secondary-like units (n = 17), MFRs of 9 were facilitated, three reduced and five unchanged. Thirteen units were tested with isotonic saline, of which 77% showed no significant changes of MFRs. Further analysis revealed that the hypertonic saline not only affected the overall output of muscle spindle afferents, but also increased the variability of firing and altered the relationship between afferent signal and muscle length. These results demonstrated that activation of muscle nociceptors significantly affects proprioceptive properties of jaw muscle spindles via central neural mechanisms. The changes can have deleterious effects on oral motor function as well as kinesthetic sensibility.

  20. In Vitro impairment of whole blood coagulation and platelet function by hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Görlinger Klaus

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch (HH has been recommended for first line treatment of hemorrhagic shock. Its effects on coagulation are unclear. We studied in vitro effects of HH dilution on whole blood coagulation and platelet function. Furthermore 7.2% hypertonic saline, 6% hydroxyethylstarch (as ingredients of HH, and 0.9% saline solution (as control were tested in comparable dilutions to estimate specific component effects of HH on coagulation. Methods The study was designed as experimental non-randomized comparative in vitro study. Following institutional review board approval and informed consent blood samples were taken from 10 healthy volunteers and diluted in vitro with either HH (HyperHaes®, Fresenius Kabi, Germany, hypertonic saline (HT, 7.2% NaCl, hydroxyethylstarch (HS, HAES6%, Fresenius Kabi, Germany or NaCl 0.9% (ISO in a proportion of 5%, 10%, 20% and 40%. Coagulation was studied in whole blood by rotation thrombelastometry (ROTEM after thromboplastin activation without (ExTEM and with inhibition of thrombocyte function by cytochalasin D (FibTEM, the latter was performed to determine fibrin polymerisation alone. Values are expressed as maximal clot firmness (MCF, [mm] and clotting time (CT, [s]. Platelet aggregation was determined by impedance aggregrometry (Multiplate after activation with thrombin receptor-activating peptide 6 (TRAP and quantified by the area under the aggregation curve (AUC [aggregation units (AU/min]. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to evaluate HyperHaes induced cell shape changes of thrombocytes. Statistics: 2-way ANOVA for repeated measurements, Bonferroni post hoc test, p Results Dilution impaired whole blood coagulation and thrombocyte aggregation in all dilutions in a dose dependent fashion. In contrast to dilution with ISO and HS, respectively, dilution with HH as well as HT almost abolished coagulation (MCFExTEM from 57.3 ± 4.9 mm (native to 1.7 ± 2.2 mm (HH 40

  1. In vitro impairment of whole blood coagulation and platelet function by hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Alexander A; Maschler, Stephanie; Schöchl, Herbert; Flöricke, Felix; Görlinger, Klaus; Zanger, Klaus; Kienbaum, Peter

    2011-02-10

    Hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch (HH) has been recommended for first line treatment of hemorrhagic shock. Its effects on coagulation are unclear. We studied in vitro effects of HH dilution on whole blood coagulation and platelet function. Furthermore 7.2% hypertonic saline, 6% hydroxyethylstarch (as ingredients of HH), and 0.9% saline solution (as control) were tested in comparable dilutions to estimate specific component effects of HH on coagulation. The study was designed as experimental non-randomized comparative in vitro study. Following institutional review board approval and informed consent blood samples were taken from 10 healthy volunteers and diluted in vitro with either HH (HyperHaes, Fresenius Kabi, Germany), hypertonic saline (HT, 7.2% NaCl), hydroxyethylstarch (HS, HAES6%, Fresenius Kabi, Germany) or NaCl 0.9% (ISO) in a proportion of 5%, 10%, 20% and 40%. Coagulation was studied in whole blood by rotation thrombelastometry (ROTEM) after thromboplastin activation without (ExTEM) and with inhibition of thrombocyte function by cytochalasin D (FibTEM), the latter was performed to determine fibrin polymerisation alone. Values are expressed as maximal clot firmness (MCF, [mm]) and clotting time (CT, [s]). Platelet aggregation was determined by impedance aggregrometry (Multiplate) after activation with thrombin receptor-activating peptide 6 (TRAP) and quantified by the area under the aggregation curve (AUC [aggregation units (AU)/min]). Scanning electron microscopy was performed to evaluate HyperHaes induced cell shape changes of thrombocytes. 2-way ANOVA for repeated measurements, Bonferroni post hoc test, p coagulation and thrombocyte aggregation in all dilutions in a dose dependent fashion. In contrast to dilution with ISO and HS, respectively, dilution with HH as well as HT almost abolished coagulation (MCFExTEM from 57.3 ± 4.9 mm (native) to 1.7 ± 2.2 mm (HH 40% dilution; p coagulation is significant after 10% dilution or more. This effect can

  2. Infusion of hypertonic saline (7.5%) does not change neutrophil oxidative burst or expression of endothelial adhesion molecules after abdominal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kølsen-Petersen, Jens Aage; Rasmussen, Torsten Bøgh; Krog, Jan

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies found hypertonicity to affect neutrophils in intact laboratory animals and in human blood cell cultures. We investigated whether infusion of hypertonic saline in a clinical relevant dose before hysterectomy affected peripheral blood neutrophils and their response to s...

  3. The transcription factor NFAT5 is required for cyclin expression and cell cycle progression in cells exposed to hypertonic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Drews-Elger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypertonicity can perturb cellular functions, induce DNA damage-like responses and inhibit proliferation. The transcription factor NFAT5 induces osmoprotective gene products that allow cells to adapt to sustained hypertonic conditions. Although it is known that NFAT5-deficient lymphocytes and renal medullary cells have reduced proliferative capacity and viability under hypertonic stress, less is understood about the contribution of this factor to DNA damage responses and cell cycle regulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have generated conditional knockout mice to obtain NFAT5(-/- T lymphocytes, which we used as a model of proliferating cells to study NFAT5-dependent responses. We show that hypertonicity triggered an early, NFAT5-independent, genotoxic stress-like response with induction of p53, p21 and GADD45, downregulation of cyclins, and cell cycle arrest. This was followed by an NFAT5-dependent adaptive phase in wild-type cells, which induced an osmoprotective gene expression program, downregulated stress markers, resumed cyclin expression and proliferation, and displayed enhanced NFAT5 transcriptional activity in S and G2/M. In contrast, NFAT5(-/- cells failed to induce osmoprotective genes and exhibited poorer viability. Although surviving NFAT5(-/- cells downregulated genotoxic stress markers, they underwent cell cycle arrest in G1/S and G2/M, which was associated with reduced expression of cyclins E1, A2 and B1. We also show that pathologic hypertonicity levels, as occurring in plasma of patients and animal models of osmoregulatory disorders, inhibited the induction of cyclins and aurora B kinase in response to T cell receptor stimulation in fresh NFAT5(-/- lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that NFAT5 facilitates cell proliferation under hypertonic conditions by inducing an osmoadaptive response that enables cells to express fundamental regulators needed for cell cycle progression.

  4. Resuscitation of traumatic hemorrhagic shock patients with hypertonic saline-without dextran-inhibits neutrophil and endothelial cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junger, Wolfgang G; Rhind, Shawn G; Rizoli, Sandro B; Cuschieri, Joseph; Shiu, Maria Y; Baker, Andrew J; Li, Linglin; Shek, Pang N; Hoyt, David B; Bulger, Eileen M

    2012-10-01

    Posttraumatic inflammation and excessive neutrophil activation cause multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), a major cause of death among hemorrhagic shock patients. Traditional resuscitation strategies may exacerbate inflammation; thus, novel fluid treatments are needed to reduce such posttraumatic complications. Hypertonic resuscitation fluids inhibit inflammation and reduce MODS in animal models. Here we studied the anti-inflammatory efficacy of hypertonic fluids in a controlled clinical trial. Trauma patients in hypovolemic shock were resuscitated in a prehospital setting with 250 mL of either 7.5% hypertonic saline (HS; n = 9), 7.5% hypertonic saline + 6% dextran 70 (HSD; n = 8), or 0.9% normal saline (NS; n = 17). Blood samples were collected on hospital admission and 12 and 24 h after resuscitation. Multicolor flow cytometry was used to quantify neutrophil expression of cell-surface activation/adhesion (CD11b, CD62L, CD64) and degranulation (CD63, CD66b, CD35) markers as well as oxidative burst activity. Circulating concentrations of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVACM-1), P- and E-selectins, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) were assessed by immunoassay. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, leukocytosis, and mortality were lower in the HS and HSD groups than in the NS group. However, these differences were not statistically significant. Hypertonic saline prevented priming and activation and neutrophil oxidative burst and CD11b and CD66b expression. Hypertonic saline also reduced circulating markers of neutrophil degranulation (MPO and MMP-9) and endothelial cell activation (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, soluble E-selectin, and soluble P-selectin). Hypertonic saline + 6% dextran 70 was less capable than HS of suppressing the upregulation of most of these activation markers. This study demonstrates that initial resuscitation with HS, but neither NS nor HSD, can attenuate

  5. Defense Science Board (DSB) Summer Study Report on Strategic Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    DSB Summer Study Report on Strategic Surprise July 2015 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden...SUBTITLE DSB Summer Study Report on Strategic Surprise 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Defense Science Board ( DSB ),The Pentagon ,OUSD(AT&L

  6. The effect of hypertonic saline dextran solutions on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in anaesthetised piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellezza, M; Kerbaul, F; Roussel, L; Imbert, M; Guidon, C

    2002-10-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is a regulatory mechanism by which blood is diverted from poorly ventilated to better ventilated areas of the lung. The aim of the present study was to assess the extent to which hypertonic saline dextran and dextran solutions modify the magnitude of HPV during isovolumic haemodilution in intact acutely instrumented piglets. Eighteen large white piglets were anesthetised and assigned to two groups. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) and cardiac output (Q), systemic arterial pressure and left arterial pressure (LAP) were measured. A decrease in Q was obtained by reducing venous return. This enabled measurement of transpulmonary pressures (mean PAP minus LAP) at four levels of Q in hyperoxia (inspiratory oxygen fraction (FiO2)=0.4) then in hypoxia (Fi,O2=0.1) in the two groups before blood soustraction (10 mL x kg(-1)) and after loading with sodium chloride (NaCl) 7.5% and dextran 6% or with dextran 6% alone. Dextran alone led to a decrease in mean PAP-LAP/Q values, and NaCl with dextran was associated with a significant shift of mean PAP-LAP/Q plots to higher pressures in hypoxia. Hypertonic saline dextran solution, as replacement fluid in isovolaemic haemodilution increased the magnitude of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, whereas dextran solution reduced it.

  7. Effect of hypertonic saline resuscitation on heme oxygenase-1 mRNA expression and apoptosis of the intestinal mucosa in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yuan-qiang; GU Lin-hui; HUANG Wei-dong; MOU Han-zhou

    2010-01-01

    Background Massive blood loss due to trauma is the leading cause of death in trauma patients and military combatants. The fluid category of resuscitation for hypotensive trauma patients is open to debate. This study was conducted to investigate the early effects of hypertonic and isotonic saline solutions on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA expression and apoptosis in the intestinal mucosa of rats with hemorrhagic shock.Methods A model of severe hemorrhagic shock was established in 21 Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were randomly divided into sham, normal saline resuscitation (NS), and hypertonic saline resuscitation (HTS) groups, with 7 in each group. We assessed and compared the HO-1 mRNA expression and apoptosis in the small intestinal mucosa of rats after hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation using the SYBR Green I fluorescence quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, fluorescein-iso-thiocyanate-annexin V/propidium iodide double staining, and flow cytometry.Results In the early stage of hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation, marked apoptosis occurred in the small intestinal mucosa from both the NS and HTS groups. The apoptotic rate in the NS group was higher than that in the HTS group (P <0.01). Among the three groups, HO-1 mRNA mucosa from the HTS group had the highest level of expression; however, the differences were not significant. There was a significant negative correlation between HO-1 mRNA expression and apoptosis in the small intestinal mucosa from the NS and HTS groups after hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation.Conclusions In this rat model of severe hemorrhagic shock, HTS resuscitation with a small volume is more effective than NS resuscitation in reducing apoptosis of the intestinal mucosa. Further, HO-1 mRNA over-expression in the intestinal mucosa may be one of the molecular mechanisms of HTS in the resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock.

  8. Hypertonic enhancement of transmitter release from frog motor nerve terminals: Ca2+ independence and role of integrins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, A. H.; Chen, B. M.; Grinnell, A. D.

    2001-01-01

    Hyperosmotic solutions cause markedly enhanced spontaneous quantal release of neurotransmitter from many nerve terminals. The mechanism of this enhancement is unknown. We have investigated this phenomenon at the frog neuromuscular junction with the aim of determining the degree to which it resembles the modulation of release by stretch, which has been shown to be mediated by mechanical tension on integrins.The hypertonicity enhancement, like the stretch effect, does not require Ca2+ influx or release from internal stores, although internal release may contribute to the effect. The hypertonicity effect is sharply reduced (but not eliminated) by peptides containing the RGD sequence, which compete with native ligands for integrin bonds.There is co-variance in the magnitude of the stretch and osmotic effects; that is, individual terminals exhibiting a large stretch effect also show strong enhancement by hypertonicity, and vice versa. The stretch and osmotic enhancements also can partially occlude each other.There remain some clear-cut differences between osmotic and stretch forms of modulation: the larger range of enhancement by hypertonic solutions, the relative lack of effect of osmolarity on evoked release, and the reported higher temperature sensitivity of osmotic enhancement. Nevertheless, our data strongly implicate integrins in a significant fraction of the osmotic enhancement, possibly acting via the same mechanism as stretch modulation.

  9. Resuscitation with a Bolus of Hypertonic Saline/Dextran Improves Renal Function Following Hemorrhage in Conscious Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-28

    is well-known that infusions of hypertonic salt solutions induce a diuresis and a natriuresis - this occurred in both the control as well as the...pressure), neither pigs (18) nor humans (19-21) responded with an excessive diuresis which would exacerbate hypovolemia. Sondeen et al -- 9 Although it

  10. Comparison of intranasal hypertonic dead sea saline spray and intranasal aqueous triamcinolone spray in seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordray, Scott; Harjo, Jim B; Miner, Linda

    2005-07-01

    Intranasal corticosteroids are well known to be efficacious in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Nasal irrigation with saline, including hypertonic saline, has long been recommended for the treatment of sinonasal disease, and it has been shown to have a positive effect on the physiology of the nasal mucosa. Until now, no study of the clinical efficacy of intranasal hypertonic Dead Sea saline as a monotherapy for seasonal allergic rhinitis has been reported. We conducted a prospective, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of intranasal hypertonic Dead Sea saline spray and intranasal aqueous triamcinolone spray in 15 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. Results were based on a 7-day regimen. Based on Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire scores, clinically and statistically significant (p Dead Sea saline solution can be an effective alternative in mild-to-moderate allergic rhinitis, particularly with respect to nasal and eye symptoms. The hypertonicity of the Dead Sea solution may have a positive effect on the physiology of the nasal mucosa by improving mucociliary clearance. In addition, the dominant cation in the Dead Sea solution--magnesium--probably exerts anti-inflammatory effects on the nasal mucosa and on the systemic immune response.

  11. Correction of Hemodynamics with Hypertonic Sodium Chloride Solution in Critical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Zhbannikov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the capabilities of small-volume hypertonic infusion in the context of early goal-directed therapy for critical conditions in surgical patients.Subjects and methods. Twenty-nine patients (SAPS II 47.5±6.81 scores operated on for generalized peritonitis (n=24 or severe concomitant injury with damages to chest and/or abdominal organs (n=5 who had the clinical and laboratory signs of a systemic inflammatory reaction were intravenously injected 4 ml/kg of 7.5% of hypertonic sodium chloride solution (HS and colloidal solution, followed by infusion and, if indicated, inotropic maintenance of hemodynamics for 6 hours in order to achieve the goal vales of mean blood pressure (BP, central venous pressure (CVP, central venous blood oxygen saturation (ScvO2, and diuresis. Plasma concentrations of sodium, chlorine, and lactate, acid-base balance, and osmotic blood pressure were monitored.Results. The patients were found to have infusion therapy-refractory critical arterial hypotension, low ScvO2, and oliguria before small-volume circulation maintenance. In all the patients, HS infusion originally caused a rapid rise in BP up to the goal value, with its further colloid infusion maintenance requiring additional dopamine infusion in 12 patients and red blood cell transfusion in 3. This could stabilize over 6 hours BP at the required level in 25 patients, in 9 of whom CVP only approximated the goal value. All the patients were found to have a significant increase in ScvO2 up to an average of 68% in response to HP infusion after 30—60 minutes; in 14 out of them ScvO2 exceeded 70%. By hour 6, ScvO2 stabilized at its goal level in 23 (79% examinees. Administration of HS caused a significantly increased diuresis. In patients with recovered renal function, the observed hypernatremia, hyperchloremia with hyperchloremic acidosis were transient.Conclusion. The results of the study show it possible to include small-volume hypertonic infusion at

  12. Hypertonic stress induces VEGF production in human colon cancer cell line Caco-2: inhibitory role of autocrine PGE₂.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana B Gentile

    Full Text Available Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF is a major regulator of angiogenesis. VEGF expression is up regulated in response to micro-environmental cues related to poor blood supply such as hypoxia. However, regulation of VEGF expression in cancer cells is not limited to the stress response due to increased volume of the tumor mass. Lipid mediators in particular arachidonic acid-derived prostaglandin (PGE₂ are regulators of VEGF expression and angiogenesis in colon cancer. In addition, increased osmolarity that is generated during colonic water absorption and feces consolidation seems to activate colon cancer cells and promote PGE₂ generation. Such physiological stimulation may provide signaling for cancer promotion. Here we investigated the effect of exposure to a hypertonic medium, to emulate colonic environment, on VEGF production by colon cancer cells. The role of concomitant PGE₂ generation and MAPK activation was addressed by specific pharmacological inhibition. Human colon cancer cell line Caco-2 exposed to a hypertonic environment responded with marked VEGF and PGE₂ production. VEGF production was inhibited by selective inhibitors of ERK 1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways. To address the regulatory role of PGE₂ on VEGF production, Caco-2 cells were treated with cPLA₂ (ATK and COX-2 (NS-398 inhibitors, that completely block PGE₂ generation. The Caco-2 cells were also treated with a non selective PGE₂ receptor antagonist. Each treatment significantly increased the hypertonic stress-induced VEGF production. Moreover, addition of PGE₂ or selective EP₂ receptor agonist to activated Caco-2 cells inhibited VEGF production. The autocrine inhibitory role for PGE₂ appears to be selective to hypertonic environment since VEGF production induced by exposure to CoCl₂ was decreased by inhibition of concomitant PGE₂ generation. Our results indicated that hypertonicity stimulates VEGF production in colon cancer cell lines. Also PGE

  13. [Nebulized hypertonic saline and acute viral bronchiolitis in infants: current aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvaget, E; David, M; Bresson, V; Retornaz, K; Bosdure, E; Dubus, J-C

    2012-06-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis affects infants, is frequent, and can be severe. Its treatment is only based on symptoms. Hypertonic saline (HS) may act favorably in this situation by fighting virus-induced dehydration of the airway liquid surface. Because of an osmotic action, HS attracts the water from the epithelial cells and improves mucociliary clearance. Five double-blind placebo-controlled studies concerning hospitalized infants with acute viral bronchiolitis showed that repeated nebulizations of 3% HS induce a 20% improvement in the clinical severity score and reduced the hospital length of stay by 24h. Tolerance is excellent. On the other hand, a few questions remain unresolved: what is the optimal salt concentration? What is the recommended nebulizer? What is the best frequency for nebulizer use? Can nebulized HS be used at home? What are the results with systematic physiotherapy when HS is used?

  14. The Surprising Power of Statistical Learning: When Fragment Knowledge Leads to False Memories of Unheard Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D.; Mehler, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Word-segmentation, that is, the extraction of words from fluent speech, is one of the first problems language learners have to master. It is generally believed that statistical processes, in particular those tracking "transitional probabilities" (TPs), are important to word-segmentation. However, there is evidence that word forms are stored in…

  15. Maternal grand mal seizure leads to a surprising diagnosis of Dandy-Walker variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Sherri G

    2011-01-01

    Pregnant women may present with abnormal symptoms that are assumed to be related to the pregnancy. The purpose of this case study is to examine an obstetric case that provides a wider view of a grand mal seizure in a perinatal patient with previously undiagnosed Dandy-Walker Variant. When a pregnant or newly postpartum woman has seizures, eclampsia may be the most the most likely diagnosis, but it may not be accurate.

  16. Avoiding surprises when implementing a single quality system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donawa, Maria

    2009-01-01

    European medical device manufacturers are sometimes surprised to learn that operating ISO 13485 alone is not sufficient to meet United States (US) quality system requirements. This article discusses important considerations for meeting US and European requirements when operating under a single quality system.

  17. Reconsiderations: Donald Murray and the Pedagogy of Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Toward the end of his life, Donald Murray felt that his approach to writing instruction was no longer appreciated by journals in his field. Nevertheless, his emphasis on encouraging students to surprise themselves through informal writing still has considerable value. (Contains 1 note.)

  18. Reconsiderations: Donald Murray and the Pedagogy of Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Toward the end of his life, Donald Murray felt that his approach to writing instruction was no longer appreciated by journals in his field. Nevertheless, his emphasis on encouraging students to surprise themselves through informal writing still has considerable value. (Contains 1 note.)

  19. Errors and surprise in patients with focal brain lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ullsperger, M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent theories of performance monitoring suggest that not only errors and negative action outcomes but also valence-free expectancy violations can trigger cognitive and behavioral adaptations. EEG and fMRI evidence suggests that monitoring of both errors and surprising but valence-free action

  20. The June surprises: balls, strikes, and the fog of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Charles

    2013-04-01

    At first, few constitutional experts took seriously the argument that the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act exceeded Congress's power under the commerce clause. The highly political opinions of two federal district judges - carefully chosen by challenging plaintiffs - of no particular distinction did not shake that confidence that the act was constitutional. This disdain for the challengers' arguments was only confirmed when the act was upheld by two highly respected conservative court of appeals judges in two separate circuits. But after the hostile, even mocking questioning of the government's advocate in the Supreme Court by the five Republican-appointed justices, the expectation was that the act would indeed be struck down on that ground. So it came as no surprise when the five opined the act did indeed exceed Congress's commerce clause power. But it came as a great surprise when Chief Justice John Roberts, joined by the four Democrat-appointed justices, ruled that the act could be sustained as an exercise of Congress's taxing power - a ground urged by the government almost as an afterthought. It was further surprising, even shocking, that Justices Antonin Scalia, Anthony Kennedy, Clarence Thomas, and Samuel Alito not only wrote a joint opinion on the commerce clause virtually identical to that of their chief, but that in writing it they did not refer to or even acknowledge his opinion. Finally surprising was the fact that Justices Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Stephen Breyer joined the chief in holding that aspects of the act's Medicaid expansion were unconstitutional. This essay ponders and tries to unravel some of these puzzles.

  1. [The influence of an isotonic solution containing benzalkonium chloride and a hypertonic seawater solution on the function of ciliary epithelium from the nasal cavity in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laberko, E L; Bogomil'sky, M R; Soldatsky, Yu L; Pogosova, I E

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of an isotonic saline solution containing benzalconium chloride and of a hypertonic seawater solution on the function of ciliary epithelium in the nasal cavity in vitro. To this effect, we investigated the cytological material obtained from 35 children presenting with adenoid tissue hypertrophy. The tissue samples were taken from the nasal cavity by the standard method. A cellular biopsy obtained from each patient was distributed between three tubes that contained isotonic saline solution supplemented by benzalconium chloride (0.1 mg/ml), a hypertonic seawater solution, and a standard physiological saline solution. It was shown that the number of the viable cells in both isotonic solutions was statistically comparable and significantly higher than in the hypertonic solution (p<0.05). The ciliary beat frequency of the cells embedded in the two isotonic solutions was not significantly different but considerably exceeded that in the hypertonic seawater solution (p<0.05). Thus, the present study has demonstrated the absence of the ciliotoxic influence of isotonic saline solution containing benzalconium chloride at a concentration of 0.1 mg/ml and the strong ciliotoxic effect of the hypertonic seawater solution. This finding gives reason to recommend isotonic solutions for the regular application whereas hypertonic solutions can be prescribed only during infectious and/or inflammatory ENT diseases.

  2. Effects of hypertonic sodium chloride solution on the electrophysiologic alterations caused by bupivacaine in the dog heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scalabrini A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various hypertonic solutions on the intraventricular conduction, ventricular repolarization and the arrhythmias caused by the intravenous (iv injection of bupivacaine (6.5 mg/kg were studied in sodium pentobarbital-anesthetized mongrel dogs. Hypertonic solutions, given iv 5 min before bupivacaine, were 7.5% (w/v NaCl, 5.4% (w/v LiCl, 50% (w/v glucose (2,400 mOsm/l, 5 ml/kg, or 20% (w/v mannitol (1,200 mOsm/l, 10 ml/kg. Bupivacaine induced severe arrhythmias and ventricular conduction and repolarization disturbances, as reflected by significant increases in QRS complex duration, HV interval, IV interval and monophasic action potential duration, as well as severe hemodynamic impairment. Significant prevention against ventricular electrophysiologic and hemodynamic disturbances and ventricular arrhythmias was observed with 7.5% NaCl (percent increase in QRS complex duration: 164.4 ± 21.8% in the non-pretreated group vs 74.7 ± 14.1% in the pretreated group, P<0.05; percent increase in HV interval: 131.4 ± 16.1% in the non-pretreated group vs 58.2 ± 7.5% in the pretreated group, P<0.05; percent increase in monophasic action potential duration: 22.7 ± 6.8% in the non-pretreated group vs 9.8 ± 6.3% in the pretreated group, P<0.05; percent decrease in cardiac index: -46 ± 6% in the non-pretreated group vs -28 ± 5% in the pretreated group, P<0.05. The other three hypertonic solutions were ineffective. These findings suggest an involvement of sodium ions in the mechanism of hypertonic protection.

  3. Hypertonic saline does not reverse the sodium channel blocking actions of lidocaine: evidence from electrophysiologic and defibrillation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujhelyi, M R; Schur, M; Frede, T; Bottorff, M B; Gabel, M; Markel, M L

    1997-01-01

    Studies have shown that increasing extracellular sodium concentration can partially reverse sodium channel blockade. However, there is conflicting in vitro evidence in this regard for lidocaine. The effects of lidocaine on cardiac electrophysiology and defibrillation were studied in a basal and hypernatremic state to determine reversibility of sodium channel blockade. Electrophysiologic studies measured right ventricular effective refractory period at 350 ms pacing cycle length and QRS interval, JT interval, and monophasic action potential duration during sinus rhythm and right ventricular pacing (350 ms cycle length) in 14 pentobarbital-anesthetized swine (25-30 kg). Defibrillation threshold (DFT) was measured by quantitating successful conversion of sustained ventricular fibrillation to normal sinus rhythm. Each pig was randomly assigned to a treatment group with three study phases; group 1 = baseline, lidocaine (20 mg/kg/h), and lidocaine plus placebo (D5W; n = 7); and group 2 = baseline, lidocaine, and lidocaine plus hypertonic saline (2-3 mM/kg/h; n = 7). In groups 1 and 2, lidocaine infused alone significantly (p Lidocaine alone reduced right ventricular action potential duration (APD) in groups 1 and 2 (214 +/- 18 to 206 +/- 20 ms; p lidocaine, DFT and QRS duration values were unaffected (14.7 +/- 5.4 to 16.1 +/- 3.7 J and 103 +/- 12 to 100 +/- 11 ms, respectively). However, APD and JT intervals returned to basal values when hypertonic saline was added to lidocaine (212 +/- 8 to 225 +/- 13; p Lidocaine slowed ventricular conduction velocity and reduced APD. The administration of hypertonic saline to increase extracellular sodium concentrations failed to reverse the effect of lidocaine on conduction-velocity slowing or elevated DFT values. Hypertonic saline did reverse the effects of lidocaine on repolarization parameters. These data suggest that shortening of repolarization is not a mechanism by which lidocaine makes it more difficult to defibrillate the

  4. ROC Trials Update on Prehospital Hypertonic Saline Resuscitation in the Aftermath of the US-Canadian Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    cardiac output and, most importantly, survival. Later experiments performed in sheep (10) and swine (11) added 6% dextran-70 to sustain these improved...requiring blood transfusions or surgery ) (14,30-34). In addition, in a trial by Vassar et al, (35), no differences were observed between patients who...Holcroft JW. A comparison of several hypertonic solutions for resuscitation of bled sheep . J Surg Res. 1985;39(6):517-28, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022

  5. Acute inhalation of hypertonic saline does not improve mucociliary clearance in all children with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Amber

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known of how mucociliary clearance (MCC in children with cystic fibrosis (CF and normal pulmonary function compares with healthy adults, or how an acute inhalation of 7% hypertonic saline (HS aerosol affects MCC in these same children. Methods We compared MCC in 12 children with CF and normal pulmonary function after an acute inhalation of 0.12% saline (placebo, or HS, admixed with the radioisotope 99 mtechnetium sulfur colloid in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over study. Mucociliary clearance on the placebo day in the children was also compared to MCC in 10 healthy, non-CF adults. Mucociliary clearance was quantified over a 90 min period, using gamma scintigraphy, and is reported as MCC at 60 min (MCC60 and 90 min (MCC90. Results Median [interquartile range] MCC60 and MCC90 in the children on the placebo visit were 15.4 [12.4-24.5]% and 19.3 [17.3-27.8%]%, respectively, which were similar to the adults with 17.8 [6.4-28.7]% and 29.6 [16.1-43.5]%, respectively. There was no significant improvement in MCC60 (2.2 [-6.2-11.8]% or MCC90 (2.3 [-1.2-10.5]% with HS, compared to placebo. In addition, 5/12 and 4/12 of the children showed a decrease in MCC60 and MCC90, respectively, after inhalation of HS. A post hoc subgroup analysis of the change in MCC90 after HS showed a significantly greater improvement in MCC in children with lower placebo MCC90 compared to those with higher placebo MCC90 (p = 0.045. Conclusions These data suggest that percent MCC varies significantly between children with CF lung disease and normal pulmonary functions, with some children demonstrating MCC values within the normal range and others showing MCC values that are below normal values. In addition, although MCC did not improve in all children after inhalation of HS, improvement did occur in children with relatively low MCC values after placebo. This finding suggests that acute inhalation of hypertonic saline may benefit a subset of

  6. Sensory findings after stimulation of the thoracolumbar fascia with hypertonic saline suggest its contribution to low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilder, Andreas; Hoheisel, Ulrich; Magerl, Walter; Benrath, Justus; Klein, Thomas; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

    2014-02-01

    Injection of hypertonic saline into deep tissues of the back (subcutis, muscle, or the surrounding fascia) can induce acute low back pain (LBP). So far, no study has analyzed differences in temporal, qualitative, and spatial pain characteristics originating from these tissues. The current study aimed to investigate the role of the thoracolumbar fascia as a potential source of LBP. In separate sessions, 12 healthy subjects received ultrasound-guided bolus injections of isotonic saline (0.9%) or hypertonic saline (5.8%) into the erector spinae muscle, the thoracolumbar fascia (posterior layer), and the overlying subcutis. Subjects were asked to rate pain intensity, duration, quality, and spatial extent. Pressure pain thresholds were determined pre and post injection. Injections of hypertonic saline into the fascia resulted in significantly larger area under the curve of pain intensity over time than injections into subcutis (Pfascia or subcutis. Pain radiation and pain affect evoked by fascia injection exceeded those of the muscle (Pfascia injection (burning, throbbing, and stinging) suggested innervation by both A- and C-fiber nociceptors. These findings show that the thoracolumbar fascia is the deep tissue of the back that is most sensitive to chemical stimulation, making it a prime candidate to contribute to nonspecific LBP but not to localized pressure hyperalgesia. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of a knee brace on gait parameters of hypertonic hemiplegic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Modisane

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the useof a knee brace on 15 subjects with hypertonic hemiparesis. The middlecerebral artery was involved in all subjects. The Ashworth scale was usedto screen for the presence of spasticity in the quadriceps muscles.Measurements of gait speed, step and stride length were taken in the middle 10 metres of a 15 metre paper walkway. A comparison of these gait parameters without and with the use of a knee brace was made. A ques-tionnaire was also used to evaluate how subjects responded to the use of aknee brace.The results showed that the mean speed for all 15 subjects increased withthe use of a brace, (p = 0.05. Step and stride length without and with the use of a brace showed no statistical differences.It was therefore concluded that the FECK brace appears to have an effect on the walking speed of subjects withhypertonic  hemiparesis

  8. Comparison of 3% and 7.5% Hypertonic Saline in Resuscitation After Traumatic Hypovolemic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Juan; Ren, Hui-Qin; Zhao, Qing-Bo; Wu, You-Liang; Qiao, Zhuo-Yi

    2015-03-01

    Hypertonic saline solutions (HSSs) (7.5%) are useful in the resuscitation of patients with hypovolemic shock because they provide immediate intravascular volume expansion via the delivery of a small volume of fluid, improving cardiac function. However, the effects of using 3% HSS in hypovolemic shock resuscitation are not well known. This study was designed to compare the effects of and complications associated with 3% HSS, 7.5% HSS, and standard fluid in resuscitation. In total, 294 severe trauma patients were enrolled from December 2008 to February 2012 and subjected to a double-blind randomized clinical trial. Individual patients were treated with 3% HSS (250 mL), 7.5% HSS (250 mL), or lactated Ringer's solution (LRS) (250 mL). Mean arterial pressure, blood pressure, and heart rate were monitored and recorded before fluid infusion and at 10, 30, 45, and 60 min after infusion, and the incidence of complications and survival rate were analyzed. The results indicate that 3% and 7.5% HSSs rapidly restored mean arterial pressure and led to the requirement of an approximately 50% lower total fluid volume compared with the LRS group (P shock.

  9. Equiosmolar Solutions of Hypertonic Saline and Mannitol Do Not Impair Blood Coagulation During Elective Intracranial Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Palazón, Joaquín; Fuentes-García, Diego; Doménech-Asensi, Paloma; Piqueras-Pérez, Claudio; Falcón-Araña, Luis; Burguillos-López, Sebastián

    2017-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of equiosmolar, equivolemic solutions of 3% hypertonic saline (HS) and 20% mannitol on blood coagulation assessed by rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and standard coagulation tests during elective craniotomy. In a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial, 40 patients undergoing elective craniotomy were randomized to receive 5 mL/kg of either 20% mannitol or 3% HS for intraoperative brain relaxation. Fibrinogen, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelet count were simultaneously measured intraoperatively with ROTEM for EXTEM, INTEM, and FIBTEM analysis. ROTEM parameters were: clotting time (CT), clot formation time (CFT), maximum clot firmness (MCF), and α-angle. No significant differences between groups were found in ROTEM variables CT, CFT, MCF, α-angle (EXTEM and INTEM), and MCF (FIBTEM) nor standard coagulation tests. ROTEM parameters did not show changes after administration of hyperosmolar solutions relating to basal values, except for an increase of CFT EXTEM (118±28 vs. 128±26 s) and decrease of CT INTEM (160±18 vs. 148±15 s) with values within normal range. Significant decreases from baseline levels were observed for hematocrit (-7%), platelet count (-10%), and fibrinogen (-13%) after HS infusion, and hematocrit (-9%), platelet count (-13%), and fibrinogen (-9%) after mannitol infusion, but remaining normal. The use of 5 mL/kg of equiosmolar solutions of 3% HS and 20% mannitol applied to reach a brain relaxation during elective craniotomy does not induce coagulation impairment as evidenced by ROTEM and standard coagulation tests.

  10. Estimations of expectedness and potential surprise in possibility theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prade, Henri; Yager, Ronald R.

    1992-01-01

    This note investigates how various ideas of 'expectedness' can be captured in the framework of possibility theory. Particularly, we are interested in trying to introduce estimates of the kind of lack of surprise expressed by people when saying 'I would not be surprised that...' before an event takes place, or by saying 'I knew it' after its realization. In possibility theory, a possibility distribution is supposed to model the relative levels of mutually exclusive alternatives in a set, or equivalently, the alternatives are assumed to be rank-ordered according to their level of possibility to take place. Four basic set-functions associated with a possibility distribution, including standard possibility and necessity measures, are discussed from the point of view of what they estimate when applied to potential events. Extensions of these estimates based on the notions of Q-projection or OWA operators are proposed when only significant parts of the possibility distribution are retained in the evaluation. The case of partially-known possibility distributions is also considered. Some potential applications are outlined.

  11. 10 years of surprises at Saturn: CAPS and INMS highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, A. J.; Waite, J. H.

    2014-04-01

    The Cassini mission at Saturn has provided many surprises on Saturn's rapidly rotating magnetosphere and its interaction with the diverse moons, as well as its interaction with the solar wind. One of the early discoveries was the water-rich composition of the magnetosphere. Its structure and dynamics indicate remarkable injections, periodicities and interchange events. Enceladus, orbiting at 4 RS, was found to have plumes of water vapour and ice which are the dominant source for the inner magnetosphere. Charged water clusters, charged dust and photoelectrons provide key populations in the 'dusty plasma' seen here, as well as chemical complexity in the plume material. Direct pickup is seen near Enceladus and field aligned currents create a spot in Saturn's aurora. At Titan, orbiting at 20 RS, heavy negative and positive ions are seen in the ionosphere, as well as neutrals, all of which have surprising chemical complexity. These provide the source for Titan's haze. Ionospheric plasma is seen in Titan's tail, enabling ion escape to be estimated at 7 tonnes per day. Saturn's ring ionosphere was seen early in the mission, which was oxygen rich and produced photoelectrons; a return will be made in 2017. At Rhea, pickup positive and negative ions indicated weak atmospheres sustained by energetic particle impact, seen in the neutrals also. A weak atmosphere was also seen at Dione. The exosphere production process operates at Jupiter's moons also. Here we review some of the key new results, and discuss the implications for other solar system contexts.

  12. Chandra Finds Surprising Black Hole Activity In Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Scientists at the Carnegie Observatories in Pasadena, California, have uncovered six times the expected number of active, supermassive black holes in a single viewing of a cluster of galaxies, a finding that has profound implications for theories as to how old galaxies fuel the growth of their central black holes. The finding suggests that voracious, central black holes might be as common in old, red galaxies as they are in younger, blue galaxies, a surprise to many astronomers. The team made this discovery with NASA'S Chandra X-ray Observatory. They also used Carnegie's 6.5-meter Walter Baade Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile for follow-up optical observations. "This changes our view of galaxy clusters as the retirement homes for old and quiet black holes," said Dr. Paul Martini, lead author on a paper describing the results that appears in the September 10 issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters. "The question now is, how do these black holes produce bright X-ray sources, similar to what we see from much younger galaxies?" Typical of the black hole phenomenon, the cores of these active galaxies are luminous in X-ray radiation. Yet, they are obscured, and thus essentially undetectable in the radio, infrared and optical wavebands. "X rays can penetrate obscuring gas and dust as easily as they penetrate the soft tissue of the human body to look for broken bones," said co-author Dr. Dan Kelson. "So, with Chandra, we can peer through the dust and we have found that even ancient galaxies with 10-billion-year-old stars can have central black holes still actively pulling in copious amounts of interstellar gas. This activity has simply been hidden from us all this time. This means these galaxies aren't over the hill after all and our theories need to be revised." Scientists say that supermassive black holes -- having the mass of millions to billions of suns squeezed into a region about the size of our Solar System -- are the engines in the cores of

  13. Measured Zero Net Energy Performance: Results, Lessons, and Surprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Carrie; LaRue, Anna; Pigman, Margaret; Roberts, Jon; Kaneda, David; Connelly, Dylan; Elliott, John; Pless, Shanti; Pande, Abhijeet; Dean, Edward; Anbarlilar, Can

    2016-08-26

    As more and more zero net energy (ZNE) buildings are built and monitored, we can learn from both careful case studies of individual projects as well as a broader perspective of trends over time. In a forum sponsored by Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E), eight expert speakers discussed: results and lessons from monitoring occupied ZNE buildings; best practices for setting performance targets and getting actionable performance information, and; things that have surprised them about monitored ZNE buildings. This paper distills the content of the forum by laying out the most common hurdles that are encountered in setting up monitoring projects, frequent performance issues that the monitoring uncovers, and lessons learned that can be applied to future projects.

  14. Surprising hair analysis results following acute carbofuran intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulaurent, S; Gaulier, J M; Zouaoui, K; Moesch, C; François, B; Lachâtre, G

    2011-10-10

    We present two non fatal cases of intoxication with carbofuran (CBF) documented by hair analysis. Carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran (OHCBF, its main metabolite) hair concentrations were determined using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The obtained results were surprising if we consider several hair analyses previously published and based on a theory of the presence of xenobiotic in the only segment that comprised its intake. Among the two intoxication cases, we noticed the presence of CBF and OHCBF in hair segments corresponding to 45 days before, and more than 100 days after, the day of intoxication. Additionally, repeated hair samplings and subsequent analysis revealed a decrease of the carbofuran's concentration during the hair life.

  15. Physics Nobel prize 2004: Surprising theory wins physics Nobel

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    From left to right: David Politzer, David Gross and Frank Wilczek. For their understanding of counter-intuitive aspects of the strong force, which governs quarks inside protons and neutrons, on 5 October three American physicists were awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics. David J. Gross (Kavli Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara), H. David Politzer (California Institute of Technology), and Frank Wilczek (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) made a key theoretical discovery with a surprising result: the closer quarks are together, the weaker the force - opposite to what is seen with electromagnetism and gravity. Rather, the strong force is analogous to a rubber band stretching, where the force increases as the quarks get farther apart. These physicists discovered this property of quarks, known as asymptotic freedom, in 1976. It later became a key part of the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the Standard Model, the current best theory to describe the interac...

  16. Probability and Surprisal in Auditory Comprehension of Morphologically Complex Words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Baayen, R. Harald

    2012-01-01

    Two auditory lexical decision experiments document for morphologically complex words two points at which the probability of a target word given the evidence shifts dramatically. The first point is reached when morphologically unrelated competitors are no longer compatible with the evidence....... Adapting terminology from Marslen-Wilson (1984), we refer to this as the word’s initial uniqueness point (UP1). The second point is the complex uniqueness point (CUP) introduced by Balling and Baayen (2008), at which morphologically related competitors become incompatible with the input. Later initial...... in the course of the word co-determines response latencies. The presence of effects of surprisal, both at the initial uniqueness point of complex words, and cumulatively throughout the word, challenges the Shortlist B model of Norris and McQueen (2008), and suggests that a Bayesian approach to auditory...

  17. 2014 Presidential elections in Romania – surprising result or strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Mihalache

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The presidential elections in Romania which took place in November 2014 were won by Klaus Iohannis, who clearly defeated the incumbent prime-minister Victor Ponta by 10%. The result was considered by many a surprise, as none of the opinion polls were able to predict it. This article reveals a part of the strategy of Klaus Iohannis’s campaign and it offers a few clues about how this is result was possible, without having the aim to explain it fully. As the authors were accountable for strategy and political message in the electoral campaign for Klaus Iohannis, the scientific approach is combined with the inside view, to provide the reader a better understanding of the November 2014 events.

  18. Soluções hipertônicas em pediatria Hypertonic solutions for pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werther Brunow de Carvalho

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o conhecimento atual e as possíveis aplicações de solução hipertônica em pediatria. FONTES DOS DADOS: As referências foram obtidas através do banco de dados Medline, artigos de revisão recentes e através do arquivo pessoal. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Inicialmente, fizemos uma revisão dos princípios fisiológicos básicos dos fluidos com a distribuição destes nos três compartimentos: intravascular, intersticial e intracelular. Revisamos os achados a respeito dos mecanismos responsáveis pela ação rápida cardiocirculatória, o efeito adicional do componente colóide, descrevemos os termos médicos em relação à ressuscitação de pequenos volumes, as indicações para a sua aplicação, as evidências das pesquisas clínicas (choque hemorrágico, etapa pré-hospitalar do trauma, choque séptico, trauma de crânio, as desvantagens e os efeitos potenciais adversos da ressuscitação com pequenos volumes. CONCLUSÕES: A ressuscitação através de solução salina hipertônica, associada ou não a soluções colóides, envolve um dos conceitos mais inovadores da última década para a ressuscitação primária no paciente com trauma e choque. Atualmente, o espectro de indicações potenciais envolve não apenas a etapa pré-hospitalar no trauma, mas também o período perioperatório e a terapêutica na unidade de cuidados intensivos. Entretanto, tanto para o paciente pediátrico quanto para o paciente adulto, existe a necessidade de pesquisas clínicas randomizadas duplo-cegas adicionais para confirmar as vantagens promissoras em termos de sobrevida.OBJECTIVE: To describe the current knowledge and indications for use of hypertonic saline solutions in pediatrics patients. SOURCE OF DATA: Medline recent review articles and personal files. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Basic physiologic principles were reviewed concerning the distribution of fluid inside the intravascular, interstitial and intracellular compartments. We also

  19. Advances toward the Elucidation of Hypertonic Saline Effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michon, Anne-Laure; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Chiron, Raphaël; Lamy, Brigitte; Marchandin, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Nebulized hypertonic saline (HTS) has beneficial effects including reducing pulmonary exacerbations in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients. Several mechanisms may explain these effects but antimicrobial activity of NaCl remains largely unexplored. We aimed to measure the antimicrobial effect of NaCl on Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from the respiratory tract in CF patients. Methods NaCl minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined for strains characterized for mucoidy, antimicrobial resistance, and ability to form biofilm using 0,9% to 15% NaCl solutions. NaCl effects on biofilm formation, preformed biofilm, and mobility were evaluated. Kinetics of antimicrobial effects was studied. Results The growth of all isolates (n = 85) from 34 patients was inhibited by 6% NaCl solution. A 10% concentration had a bactericidal activity on 90% of the isolates. Mucoid and multidrug resistant (MDR) isolates displayed lower MICs compared to non-mucoid and to non-MDR isolates, respectively. Time-kill kinetics showed that NaCl exhibited a rapid, dose and growth phase dependent bactericidal effect. Three percent or more of NaCl inhibited biofilm formation for 69% of strongly adherent isolates. A dose-dependent decrease of preformed biofilm viability and an inhibitory activity on bacterial motility were observed. Conclusions NaCl inhibited the growth of all isolates and killed 38% of tested isolates within concentration range currently used in therapeutics. Our results suggest that anti-pseudomonal activity is another mechanism of action of HTS to add to those already established. Clinical trials are needed to compare diverse HTS conditions of use (rhythm, dose and mode of delivery) to obtain efficient and optimized anti-P. aeruginosa effects. More generally, NaCl effect on other opportunistic pathogens as well as on global microbiotae recovered during polymicrobial diseases warrants further investigations. PMID

  20. Salt appetite is reduced by a single experience of drinking hypertonic saline in the adult rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Greenwood

    Full Text Available Salt appetite, the primordial instinct to favorably ingest salty substances, represents a vital evolutionary important drive to successfully maintain body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. This innate instinct was shown here in Sprague-Dawley rats by increased ingestion of isotonic saline (IS over water in fluid intake tests. However, this appetitive stimulus was fundamentally transformed into a powerfully aversive one by increasing the salt content of drinking fluid from IS to hypertonic saline (2% w/v NaCl, HS in intake tests. Rats ingested HS similar to IS when given no choice in one-bottle tests and previous studies have indicated that this may modify salt appetite. We thus investigated if a single 24 h experience of ingesting IS or HS, dehydration (DH or 4% high salt food (HSD altered salt preference. Here we show that 24 h of ingesting IS and HS solutions, but not DH or HSD, robustly transformed salt appetite in rats when tested 7 days and 35 days later. Using two-bottle tests rats previously exposed to IS preferred neither IS or water, whereas rats exposed to HS showed aversion to IS. Responses to sweet solutions (1% sucrose were not different in two-bottle tests with water, suggesting that salt was the primary aversive taste pathway recruited in this model. Inducing thirst by subcutaneous administration of angiotensin II did not overcome this salt aversion. We hypothesised that this behavior results from altered gene expression in brain structures important in thirst and salt appetite. Thus we also report here lasting changes in mRNAs for markers of neuronal activity, peptide hormones and neuronal plasticity in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus following rehydration after both DH and HS. These results indicate that a single experience of drinking HS is a memorable one, with long-term changes in gene expression accompanying this aversion to salty solutions.

  1. Attenuation of pancreatitis-induced pulmonary injury by aerosolized hypertonic saline.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shields, C J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The immunomodulatory effects of hypertonic saline (HTS) provide potential strategies to attenuate inappropriate inflammatory reactions. This study tested the hypothesis that administration of intratracheal aerosolized HTS modulates the development of lung injury in pancreatitis. METHODS: Pancreatitis was induced in 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection of 20% L-arginine (500 mg\\/100 g body weight). At 24 and 48 h, intratracheal aerosolized HTS (7.5% NaCl, 0.5 mL) was administered to 8 rats, while a further 8 received 0.5 mL of aerosolized normal saline (NS). At 72 hours, pulmonary neutrophil infiltration (myeloperoxidase activity) and endothelial permeability (bronchoalveolar lavage and wet:dry weight ratios) were assessed. In addition, histological assessment of representative lung tissue was performed by a blinded assessor. In a separate experiment, polymorphonucleocytes (PMN) were isolated from human donors, and exposed to increments of HTS. Neutrophil transmigration across an endothelial cell layer, VEGF release, and apoptosis at 1, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h were assessed. RESULTS: Histopathological lung injury scores were significantly reduced in the HTS group (4.78 +\\/- 1.43 vs. 8.64 +\\/- 0.86); p < 0.001). Pulmonary neutrophil sequestration (1.40 +\\/- 0.2) and increased endothelial permeability (6.77 +\\/- 1.14) were evident in the animals resuscitated with normal saline when compared with HTS (0.70 +\\/- 0.1 and 3.57 +\\/- 1.32), respectively; p < 0.04). HTS significantly reduced PMN transmigration (by 97.1, p = 0.002, and induced PMN apoptosis (p < 0.03). HTS did not impact significantly upon neutrophil VEGF release (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Intratracheal aerosolized HTS attenuates the neutrophil-mediated pulmonary insult subsequent to pancreatitis. This may represent a novel therapeutic strategy.

  2. Hypertonic saline (HTS versus standard (isotonic fluid therapy for traumatic brain injuries: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrit Lourens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI is one of the foremost causes of mortality secondary to trauma. Poorer outcomes are associated with secondary insults, after the initial brain injury occurred. The management goal of TBI is to prevent or minimise the effects of secondary brain injuries. The primary objective of this systematic review/meta-analysis was to assess the effects of Hypertonic Saline (HTS compared to Standard Fluid Therapy (SFT in the treatment and resuscitation of TBI patients. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE (from 1966, EBSCOhost, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Proquest Medical Library and EMBASE (from 1980 in May 2010 and updated searches in February 2011. Data were assessed and extracted by two independent authors. Risk ratios (RR with a 95% confidence interval (CI were used as the effect measure. The review included three RCTs (1184 participants of which two were of high to moderate quality (1005 participants. HTS was not found to be associated with a reduction in mortality (3 RCTs, 1184 participants, RR 0.91, 95%CI 0.76 to 1.09 and morbidity in TBI patients. No significant improvement in haemodynamical stability was found whereas insufficient data were available to indicate a reduction in the intracranial pressure (ICP. In the HTS group, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP (MD 3.83 mmHg, 95%CI 1.08 to 6.57 and serum sodium level (MD 8 mEq/L, 95%CI 7.47 to 8.53 were higher. Existing studies show no indication that HTS, in comparison to SFT, reduces mortality or morbidity after the occurrence of TBI. Against this backdrop, some uncertainties still exist in terms of the use of different concentrations and volumes of HTS, the timing of administration as well as the benefit in specific injury profiles. As a result, formulating conclusive recommendations is complex.

  3. Hypertonic saline solution and high-dose furosemide infusion in cardiorenal syndrome: our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ventrella

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Heart failure is frequently complicated by renal failure, and this association is a negative prognostic factor. These patients sometimes present oligo-/anuria and resistance to high-dose furosemide, a condition referred to as the cardiorenal syndrome (CRS. Acute or chronic reductions in left ventricular function result in decreased blood flow, with reduction of renal perfusion and activation of several neurohormonal systems, which cause resistance to diuretic therapy. This condition often requires ultrafiltration, which is an effective, but invasive and expensive procedure. Infusions of hypertonic saline solution (HSS and high-dose furosemide can be an effective alternative. Materials and methods From November 2009 through May 2010, our team treated 20 patients with CRS and resistance to iv boluses of high-dose furosemide. These patients were treated with small-volume (150-250 mL infusions of HSS (NaCl 1.57 – 4.5%, depending on serum Na values and high-dose furosemide twice a day. The aim of this treatment is to modify renal hemodynamics and the water-saline balance in the kidney by counteracting the extracellular fluid accumulation and eliminating symptoms of congestion. Results In 18 patients (90%, urine output was restored and renal function improved during the first hours of treatment. Clinical improvement was evident from the first day of therapy, and there were no adverse events. Two patients (10% did not respond to the treatment: one (who had been in critical condition since admission died; the other required regular sessions of ultrafiltration. Conclusions HSS combined with high-dose furosemide is a safe, effective, low-cost approach to the treatment of CRS that is resistant to diuretic therapy.

  4. Effects of hypertonic saline vs normal saline in lactate depuration after cardiovascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atehortúa-López, Luis Horacio; Mendoza-Franco, Ray; Escobar-Serna, José Fernando; Urrego, Luis Alejandro; Alzate, Fernando; Jaimes, Fabian

    2017-03-11

    The postoperative care of patients exposed to cardiac surgery frequently require a thorough reanimation with intravenous fluids but crystalloid solutions like normal saline may increase the interstitial edema, and also it is well known that fluid overload increases mortality. To compare the effect of 7.5% hypertonic saline (HS) with 0.9% normal saline (NS) in the lactate depuration and the hemodynamic response of patients during the first day after on-pump cardiovascular surgery. Patients who were 18 years of age and older with coronary artery disease and/or heart valve disease, and who went to bypass surgery and/or cardiac valve replacement were included and randomly allocated to receive 4mL/kg of HS or NS intravenously for 30min once were admitted to the ICU. We measured lactate, arterial blood gases, HR, CVP and PWP on 0, 6, 12 and 24h after being admitted to the ICU. The analysis was carried out with an intention-to-treat principle. A total of 494 patients were evaluated and 102 were included and assigned to the HS groups (51 patients) or NS (51 patients). Participants' average age was 59±14 years and 59.8% were men. We did not observe any statistically significant difference between two groups in the lactate depuration or in any of the secondary outcomes. Our study failed to show better lactate depuration using a dose of HS, and did not evidence a higher incidence of adverse effects in the HS group. Copyright © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. Exploring the concept of climate surprises. A review of the literature on the concept of surprise and how it is related to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, M.H.; Moore, C.M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Streets, D.G.; Bhatti, N.; Rosa, C.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Stewart, T.R. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report examines the concept of climate surprise and its implications for environmental policymaking. Although most integrated assessment models of climate change deal with average values of change, it is usually the extreme events or surprises that cause the most damage to human health and property. Current models do not help the policymaker decide how to deal with climate surprises. This report examines the literature of surprise in many aspects of human society: psychology, military, health care, humor, agriculture, etc. It draws together various ways to consider the concept of surprise and examines different taxonomies of surprise that have been proposed. In many ways, surprise is revealed to be a subjective concept, triggered by such factors as prior experience, belief system, and level of education. How policymakers have reacted to specific instances of climate change or climate surprise in the past is considered, particularly with regard to the choices they made between proactive and reactive measures. Finally, the report discusses techniques used in the current generation of assessment models and makes suggestions as to how climate surprises might be included in future models. The report concludes that some kinds of surprises are simply unpredictable, but there are several types that could in some way be anticipated and assessed, and their negative effects forestalled.

  6. [Metabolic evolution of hypertonic dehydration with combined treatment of fluidotherapy and peritoneal dialysis: revision of 22 infants (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, F; Ruza, F; Ferro, O; Segurado, E; Junco, E; Jara, P

    1979-01-01

    Metabolic evolution of osmolarity, natraemia, chloremia, kaliemia and uremia of 22 infants with severe hypertonic dehydration, treated with fluidotherapy and peritoneal dialysis, is revised. Peritoneal dialysis was prepared in accordance with a special method for this metabolic condition. The serie was divided into two groups, according to initial value of natraemia: more or less than 170 mEq./l. Average decreases per hour of osmolarity, natraemia and chloremia were evaluated, as well as the influence of peritoneal dialysis on body fluids composition. Indication of peritoneal dialysis specially prepared for severe cases is discussed.

  7. COMPARISON OF EFFICACY OF HYPERTONIC SALINE VERSUS NORMAL SALINE IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC RHINOSINUSITIS WITH THE HELP OF CT: PNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanal Mohan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis attending Department of Otorhinolaryngology both outpatient and inpatient at Travancore Medical College Hospital, Kollam, during the year 2013 to 2014. The study was conducted in fifty patients. The present prospective randomized comparative study “Comparison of efficacy of hypertonic saline versus normal saline in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis with the help of CT PNS.” Patients were divided into two Groups A and B; Group A included twenty five patients treated with 0.9% normal saline nasal drops and the remaining twenty five patients in Group B treated with 3% hypertonic saline nasal drops for a period of four weeks. Treatment outcome evaluated with pre- and post-treatment CT and scored according to Lund and Mackay staging system. The study showed hypertonic saline (3%, nasal solution is more efficacious than normal saline (0.9% in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis.

  8. Hypertonic and isotonic potassium solutions have different effects on vessel contractility resulting in differences in optimal resting tension in rat aorta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-feng GUAN; Ruo-hua CHEN; Pei WANG; Ye QIN; Ding-feng SU; Chao-yu MIAO

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To compare high K+-induced contraction and optimal resting tension mea-sured by two commonly used techniques of hypertonic and isotonic K+ in aortas with and without adventitial fat from various age rats. Methods: Three age groups of rats (15, 25, and 62 weeks) were used to prepare thoracic aortic rings in which adventitial fat was either removed or left intact. High K+ (30 mmol/L)-induced contractions were observed under increasing resting tensions of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5,3.0, and 3.5 g. Optimal resting tension was the resting tension at which the aorta showed a maximal contraction. Results: The contractions induced by 2 kinds of high K+ were significantly different. Hypertonic and isotonic K+ induced a differ-ent style of contraction, and the pattern varied with different ages. At the age of 15 weeks, isotonic K+-induced contractions were greater than hypertonic K+-in-duced contractions. However, at the age of 62 weeks, isotonic K+-induced con-tractions were smaller than hypertonic K+-induced contractions. Optimal resting tensions measured by 2 kinds of high K+ were inconsistent. Optimal resting tensions in different kinds of aortic preparations from various age rats were almost a constant of 2 g, determined by isotonic K+, but a variable, determined by hyper-tonic K+. The adventitial fat could delay the development of high K+-induced contractions at different resting tensions, but had little effect on the maximal contractions. Conclusion: Hypertonic and isotonic K+ may produce different contractions resulting in differences in optimal resting tension in rat aorta.

  9. The surprising diversity of clostridial hydrogenases: a comparative genomic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calusinska, Magdalena; Happe, Thomas; Joris, Bernard; Wilmotte, Annick

    2010-06-01

    Among the large variety of micro-organisms capable of fermentative hydrogen production, strict anaerobes such as members of the genus Clostridium are the most widely studied. They can produce hydrogen by a reversible reduction of protons accumulated during fermentation to dihydrogen, a reaction which is catalysed by hydrogenases. Sequenced genomes provide completely new insights into the diversity of clostridial hydrogenases. Building on previous reports, we found that [FeFe] hydrogenases are not a homogeneous group of enzymes, but exist in multiple forms with different modular structures and are especially abundant in members of the genus Clostridium. This unusual diversity seems to support the central role of hydrogenases in cell metabolism. In particular, the presence of multiple putative operons encoding multisubunit [FeFe] hydrogenases highlights the fact that hydrogen metabolism is very complex in this genus. In contrast with [FeFe] hydrogenases, their [NiFe] hydrogenase counterparts, widely represented in other bacteria and archaea, are found in only a few clostridial species. Surprisingly, a heteromultimeric Ech hydrogenase, known to be an energy-converting [NiFe] hydrogenase and previously described only in methanogenic archaea and some sulfur-reducing bacteria, was found to be encoded by the genomes of four cellulolytic strains: Clostridum cellulolyticum, Clostridum papyrosolvens, Clostridum thermocellum and Clostridum phytofermentans.

  10. Atom Surprise: Using Theatre in Primary Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Ran; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet

    2011-10-01

    Early exposure to science may have a lifelong effect on children's attitudes towards science and their motivation to learn science in later life. Out-of-class environments can play a significant role in creating favourable attitudes, while contributing to conceptual learning. Educational science theatre is one form of an out-of-class environment, which has received little research attention. This study aims to describe affective and cognitive learning outcomes of watching such a play and to point to connections between theatrical elements and specific outcomes. "Atom Surprise" is a play portraying several concepts on the topic of matter. A mixed methods approach was adopted to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of children (grades 1-6) from two different school settings who watched the play. Data were gathered using questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Analysis suggested that in both schools children's knowledge on the topic of matter increased after the play with younger children gaining more conceptual knowledge than their older peers. In the public school girls showed greater gains in conceptual knowledge than boys. No significant changes in students' general attitudes towards science were found, however, students demonstrated positive changes towards science learning. Theatrical elements that seemed to be important in children's recollection of the play were the narrative, props and stage effects, and characters. In the children's memory, science was intertwined with the theatrical elements. Nonetheless, children could distinguish well between scientific facts and the fictive narrative.

  11. Novelty biases attention and gaze in a surprise trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, Gernot; Herwig, Arvid

    2016-01-01

    While the classical distinction between task-driven and stimulus-driven biasing of attention appears to be a dichotomy at first sight, there seems to be a third category that depends on the contrast or discrepancy between active representations and the upcoming stimulus, and may be termed novelty, surprise, or prediction failure. For previous demonstrations of the discrepancy-attention link, stimulus-driven components (saliency) may have played a decisive role. The present study was conducted to evaluate the discrepancy-attention link in a display where novel and familiar stimuli are equated for saliency. Eye tracking was used to determine fixations on novel and familiar stimuli as a proxy for attention. Results show a prioritization of attention by the novel color, and a de-prioritization of the familiar color, which is clearly present at the second fixation, and spans over the next couple of fixations. Saliency, on the other hand, did not prioritize items in the display. The results thus reinforce the notion that novelty captures and binds attention.

  12. A Well-Known But Still Surprising Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2014-12-01

    The bicycle generator is often mentioned as an example of a method to produce electric energy. It is cheap and easily accessible, so it is a natural example to use in teaching. There are different types, but I prefer the old side-wall dynamo. The most common explanation of its working principle seems to be something like the illustration in Fig. 1. The illustration is taken from a popular textbook in the Norwegian junior high school.1 Typically it is explained as a system of a moving magnet or coils that directly results in a varying magnetic field through the coils. According to Faraday's law a voltage is induced in the coils. Simple and easy! A few times I have had a chance to glimpse into a bicycle generator, and I was somewhat surprised to sense that the magnet rotated parallel to the turns of the coil. How could the flux through the coil change and induce a voltage when the magnet rotated parallel to the turns of the coil? When teaching electromagnetic induction I have showed the students a dismantled generator and asked them how this could work. They naturally found that this was more difficult to understand than the principle illustrated in Fig. 1. Other authors in this journal have discussed even more challenging questions concerning electric generators.2,3

  13. Surprise disrupts cognition via a fronto-basal ganglia suppressive mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Jan R; Jenkinson, Ned; Brittain, John-Stuart; Voets, Sarah H E M; Aziz, Tipu Z; Aron, Adam R

    2016-04-18

    Surprising events markedly affect behaviour and cognition, yet the underlying mechanism is unclear. Surprise recruits a brain mechanism that globally suppresses motor activity, ostensibly via the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia. Here, we tested whether this suppressive mechanism extends beyond skeletomotor suppression and also affects cognition (here, verbal working memory, WM). We recorded scalp-EEG (electrophysiology) in healthy participants and STN local field potentials in Parkinson's patients during a task in which surprise disrupted WM. For scalp-EEG, surprising events engage the same independent neural signal component that indexes action stopping in a stop-signal task. Importantly, the degree of this recruitment mediates surprise-related WM decrements. Intracranially, STN activity is also increased post surprise, especially when WM is interrupted. These results suggest that surprise interrupts cognition via the same fronto-basal ganglia mechanism that interrupts action. This motivates a new neural theory of how cognition is interrupted, and how distraction arises after surprising events.

  14. Abnormal increase in urinary aquaporin-2 excretion in response to hypertonic saline in essential hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graffe Carolina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysregulation of the expression/shuttling of the aquaporin-2 water channel (AQP2 and the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC in renal collecting duct principal cells has been found in animal models of hypertension. We tested whether a similar dysregulation exists in essential hypertension. Methods We measured urinary excretion of AQP2 and ENaC β-subunit corrected for creatinine (u-AQP2CR, u-ENaCβ-CR, prostaglandin E2 (u-PGE2 and cyclic AMP (u-cAMP, fractional sodium excretion (FENa, free water clearance (CH2O, as well as plasma concentrations of vasopressin (AVP, renin (PRC, angiotensin II (Ang II, aldosterone (Aldo, and atrial and brain natriuretic peptide (ANP, BNP in 21 patients with essential hypertension and 20 normotensive controls during 24-h urine collection (baseline, and after hypertonic saline infusion on a 4-day high sodium (HS diet (300 mmol sodium/day and a 4-day low sodium (LS diet (30 mmol sodium/day. Results At baseline, no differences in u-AQP2CR or u-ENaCβ-CR were measured between patients and controls. U-AQP2CR increased significantly more after saline in patients than controls, whereas u-ENaCβ-CR increased similarly. The saline caused exaggerated natriuretic increases in patients during HS intake. Neither baseline levels of u-PGE2, u-cAMP, AVP, PRC, Ang II, Aldo, ANP, and BNP nor changes after saline could explain the abnormal u-AQP2CR response. Conclusions No differences were found in u-AQP2CR and u-ENaCβ-CR between patients and controls at baseline. However, in response to saline, u-AQP2CR was abnormally increased in patients, whereas the u-ENaCβ-CR response was normal. The mechanism behind the abnormal AQP2 regulation is not clarified, but it does not seem to be AVP-dependent. Clinicaltrial.gov identifier NCT00345124.

  15. The Effects of Hypertonic Dextrose Injection on Connective Tissue and Nerve Conduction through the Rabbit Carpal Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Yuichi; Zhao, Chunfeng; Schmelzer, James D.; Low, Phillip A.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of hypertonic dextrose injection on the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) in a rabbit model. We hypothesized that dextrose injection would induce proliferation of the SSCT, hinder median nerve conduction, and alter SSCT mechanical properties similar to what is observed in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Design Randomized, controlled prospective study. Setting Not applicable. Participants New Zealand white rabbits (N=28) weighing 4.0 to 4.5kg. Intervention One fore paw was randomly injected with 0.1ml of 10% dextrose solution. The contralateral paw was injected with a similar amount of 0.9% saline solution as a control. Animals were sacrificed at 12 weeks after injection. Main Outcome Measures Animals were evaluated by electrophysiology (EP), mechanical testing, and histology. EP was evaluated by distal motor latency and amplitude. Shear force was evaluated when the middle digit flexor digitorum superficialis tendon was pulled out from the carpal tunnel. The ultimate tensile load and the energy absorption were also measured. Tissue for histology was evaluated qualitatively. Results EP demonstrated significant prolongation of distal motor latency. The energy absorption and stiffness were also significantly increased in the dextrose group. Histologically, the dextrose group showed thickening of the collagen bundles and vascular proliferation within the SSCT compared to the saline group. Conclusions These results are consistent with the findings in CTS patients and suggest that hypertonic dextrose injection has the potential to create a novel animal model in which to study the evolution of CTS. PMID:19236989

  16. Hypertonic saline resuscitation maintains a more balanced profile of T-lymphocyte subpopulations in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yuan-qiang; CAI Xiu-jun; GU Lin-hui; MU Han-zhou; HUANG Wei-dong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the potential and early effect of hypertonic saline resuscitation on T-lymphocyte subpopulations in rats with hemorrhagic shock. Methods: A model of rat with severe hemorrhagic shock was established in 18 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The rats were randomly divided into Sham group, HTS group (hypertonic saline resuscitation group)and NS group (normal saline resuscitation group). Each group contained 6 rats. The CD4+ and CD8+ subpopulations of T-lymphocytes in peripheral blood were detected respectively before shock and after resuscitation by double antibody labelling and flow cytometry. Results: In the early stage after hemorrhagic shock, fluid resuscitation and emergency treatment, the CD4+ lymphocytes of peripheral blood in HTS and NS groups markedly increased. Small volume resuscitation with HTS also induced peripheral CD8+ lymphocytes to a certain extent, whereas NS resuscitation showed no effect in this respect. Consequently,compared with Sham and HTS groups, CD4+/CD8+ ratio of peripheral blood in NS group was obviously increased, and showed statistically differences. Conclusion: In this model of rat with severe hemorrhagic shock, small volume resuscitation with HTS is more effective than NS in reducing immunologic disorders and promoting a more balanced profile of T-lymphocyte subpopulations regulating network.

  17. Properties and Surprises of Solar Activity XXIII Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishkov, V. N.

    2010-12-01

    The main properties of the 23rd cycle match almost completely those of average-magnitude solar cycles, and some of the features of the cycle may indicate a change in the generation mode of magnetic fields in the solar convection zone. If this is the case, the Sun enters a period of intermediate and weak cycles of solar activity (SA) in terms of the Wolf number, which may last for 3 to 6 solar cycles. The main development stages of solar cycle 23 are the following: minimum of solar cycle 22: April 1996 (W* = 8.0); maximum of the smoothed relative sunspot number: April 2000; global polarity reversal of the general solar magnetic field: July to December 2000; secondary maximum of the relative sunspot number: November 2001; maximum of the 10.7-cm radio flux: February 2002; phase of the cycle maximum: October 1999 to June 2002; beginning of the decrease phase: July 2002; the point of minimum of the current SA cycle: December 2008. Solar cycle 23 has presented two powerful flare-active sunspot groups, in September 2005 and December 2006 (+5.5 and +6.6 years from the maximum) which by flare potential occupy 4th and 20th place among the most flare-active regions for the last four solar cycles. The unprecedented duration of the relative sunspot numbers fall that has led to already record duration of the last solar cycle among authentic cycles (since 1849) became the next surprise of development of solar activity during the last cycle. The phase of the minimum began in May 2005 and lasted for 4.5 years. Thus, the new solar cycle 24 has begun in January 2009.

  18. Dracunculiasis eradication - Finishing the job before surprises arise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin Jelle Visser

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dracunculiasis(Guinea worm disease) is a preventable waterborne parasitic disease that affects the poorest people living in remote rural areas in sub-SaharanAfrican countries, who do not have access to safe drinking water.The Guinea Worm Eradication Program, a25-year old campaign to rid the world ofGuineaWorm disease has now reached its final stage accelerating to zero cases in all endemic countries.During the19th and20th centuries, dracunculiasis was common in much ofSouthernAsia and theAfrican continent.The overall number of cases has been reduced tremendously by≥99%, from the3.32 million cases estimated to have occurred in1986 inAfrica to only1797 cases reported in2010 reported in only five countries(Sudan,Mali,Ethiopia,Chad andGhana) andAsia free of the disease.This achievement is unique in its kind - the only previously eradicated disease is smallpox, a viral infection for which vaccination was possible - and it has been achieved through primary community-based prevention and health education programs.Most efforts need to be taken in two countries,SouthSudan(comprising94% or1698 out of1797 of the cases reported world-wide in2010) andMali because of frequent movements of nomads in a vast area inside and outsideMali’s borders.All factors favourable to dracunculiasis eradication are available including adequate financial resources, community and political support and high levels of advocacy.Thus there is no reason that this disabling parasitic disease cannot be eradicated soon before surprises arise such as new civil conflicts in currently endemic countries.

  19. Surprising Sensitivities in Simulations of Radiative Convective Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drotos, Gabor; Becker, Tobias; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Stevens, Bjorn

    2017-04-01

    The climate and climate-sensitivity of a global model run in radiative equilibrium is explored. Results from simulations with ECHAM6.3 coupled to a slab ocean and run in a wide range of configurations are presented. Simulations both with and without a parameterised representation of deep convection are conducted for CO2 concentrations ranging from one eighth of present day values to thirty-two times the present day, and for variations in the solar constant of more than a factor of two. Very long simulations, in some case more than a thousand years, are performed to adequately sample the attractor of the different climate states of the model, and provide robust estimates of the system's climate sensitivity parameter. For the standard configuration of the model the climate sensitivity progressively decreases from very large values (6-7K) for the coldest climates to well below 1 K for the warmest climates. For very high CO2 levels (16 and 32 times the present value) fluctuations of globally averaged temperature as large as 10 K arise on decadal time-scales. These fluctuations manifest as quasi-period coolings, driven by large and persistent global scale decks of stratiform low clouds, so that for a period of several years global temperatures drop to levels below the lowest temperatures of the climate with present day values of CO2. The same configuration of the model has more modest sensitivities when the insolation is reduced, but runaway warming results for small (10%) increases. Simulations without parameterised convection have colder (by roughly 10K) climates and smaller (1K) sensitivities, allowing a stable climate with earth-like temperatures even for insolation much (50%) larger than the present day. Such values of insolation are possible because over a large range of the insolation the climate sensitivity parameter is very near zero. The surprising sensitivities of the system, and the limit-cycle like behaviour of the very CO2 rich climates, can be traced to

  20. Stars Form Surprisingly Close to Milky Way's Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way has surprisingly helped spawn a new generation of stars, according to observations from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This novel mode of star formation may solve several mysteries about the supermassive black holes that reside at the centers of nearly all galaxies. "Massive black holes are usually known for violence and destruction," said Sergei Nayakshin of the University of Leicester, United Kingdom, and coauthor of a paper on this research in an upcoming issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. "So it's remarkable that this black hole helped create new stars, not just destroy them." Black holes have earned their fearsome reputation because any material -- including stars -- that falls within the so-called event horizon is never seen again. However, these new results indicate that the immense disks of gas known to orbit many black holes at a "safe" distance from the event horizon can help nurture the formation of new stars. Animation of Stars Forming Around Black Hole Animation of Stars Forming Around Black Hole This conclusion came from new clues that could only be revealed in X-rays. Until the latest Chandra results, astronomers have disagreed about the origin of a mysterious group of massive stars discovered by infrared astronomers to be orbiting less than a light year from the Milky Way's central black hole, a.k.a. Sagittarius A*, or Sgr A*. At such close distances to Sgr A*, the standard model for star formation predicts that gas clouds from which stars form should have been ripped apart by tidal forces from the black hole. Two models to explain this puzzle have been proposed. In the disk model, the gravity of a dense disk of gas around Sgr A* offsets the tidal forces and allows stars to form; in the migration model, the stars formed in a star cluster far away from the black hole and migrated in to form the ring of massive stars. The migration scenario predicts about a

  1. Effects of Hypertonic Saline Solution on Clinical Parameters, Serum Electrolytes and Plasma Volume in the Treatment of Haemorrhagic Septicaemia in Buffaloes

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    M. Arif Zafar*, G. Muhammad, Zafar Iqbal1 and M. Riaz2

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of hypertonic saline solution (HSS along with antibiotic (ceftiofur HCl and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (ketoprofen in the treatment of haemorrhagic septicaemia in buffaloes. For this purpose, 50 buffaloes suffering from haemorrhagic septicaemia were randomly divided in two equal groups A and B. Group A served as control and was treated with ceftiofur HCl (IM and ketoprofen (IV @ 6 and 2 mg/Kg BW, respectively, for five days. Buffaloes of group B were administered with rapid intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline solution (7.5% NaCl @ 4 ml/Kg BW once in combination with ceftiofur HCl and ketoprofen. Animals were monitored for 24 hours after initiation of treatment. Clinical parameters, serum electrolytes, plasma volume and survival index were recorded at different intervals after treatment. Survival rate (80% in group B was significantly higher (P<0.05 than 48% in group A. The heart rate and respiration rate recovered more effectively in the buffaloes administered with treatment protocol B. Plasma volume was 98% which was almost normal within 24 hours after the infusion of hypertonic saline solution to the animals of group B. It was concluded from the study that hypertonic saline solution as an adjunct to antibiotic and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug more efficiently improved respiration and heart rates and effectively restored plasma volume in resuscitating the buffaloes from haemorrhagic septicaemia than the conventional treatment.

  2. Randomised clinical study comparing the effectiveness and physiological effects of hypertonic and isotonic polyethylene glycol solutions for bowel cleansing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Hiro-o; Matsushita, Hiro-o; Yoshikawa, Kenjiro; Takagi, Ryo; Harada, Eiji; Tanaka, Yoshihito; Nakaoka, Michiko; Himori, Ryogo; Yoshida, Yuko; Satou, Kentarou; Imai, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Bowel cleansing is necessary before colonoscopy, but is a burden to patients because of the long cleansing time and large dose volume. A low-volume (2 L) hypertonic polyethylene glycol-ascorbic acid solution (PEG-Asc) has been introduced, but its possible dehydration effects have not been quantitatively studied. We compared the efficacy and safety including the dehydration risk between hypertonic PEG-Asc and isotonic PEG regimens. Design This was an observer-blinded randomised study. Participants (n=310) were allocated to receive 1 of 3 regimens on the day of colonoscopy: PEG-Asc (1.5 L) and water (0.75 L) dosed with 1 split (PEG-Asc-S) or 4 splits (PEG-Asc-M), or PEG-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES; 2.25 L) dosed with no split. Dehydration was analysed by measuring haematocrit (Ht). Results The cleansing time using the hypertonic PEG-Asc-S (3.33±0.48 hours) was significantly longer than that with isotonic PEG-ES (3.05±0.56 hours; p<0.001). PEG-Asc-M (3.00±0.53 hours) did not have this same disadvantage. Successful cleansing was achieved in more than 94% of participants using each of the 3 regimens. The percentage changes in Ht from baseline (before dosing) to the end of dosing with PEG-Asc-S (3.53±3.32%) and PEG-Asc-M (4.11±3.07%) were significantly greater than that with PEG-ES (1.31±3.01%). Conclusions These 3 lower volume regimens were efficacious and had no serious adverse effects. Even patients cleansed with isotonic PEG-ES showed significant physiological dehydration at the end of dosing. The four-split PEG-Asc-M regimen is recommended because of its shorter cleansing time without causing serious nausea. Trial registration number UMIN000013103; Results. PMID:27547443

  3. Effect of equiosmolar solutions of hypertonic sodium lactate versus mannitol in craniectomy patients with moderate traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad R. Ahmad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brain relaxation and prevention from cerebral edema are essential in craniectomy. Osmotherapy with 20% mannitol are generally used to withdraw fluid from the brain parenchyma, however may cause hemodynamic fluctuation, due to increase diuresis. On the other hand 0.5 M hypertonic sodium lactate (HSL appeared as an alternative of osmotherapy. This study  aimed to observe the effect of hypertonic sodium lactate (HSL on brain relaxation, blood glucose level and hemodynamic variables in craniectomy due to moderate brain injury.Methods: A randomized controlled study of 42 cases with moderate brain injury, aged 18 - 65 years, ASA 1 - 3, between September-November 2012, was carried out. The patients were divided into group M (n = 21 that received 2.5 mL/kg 20% mannitol and group HSL that received 2.5 mL/kg 0.5M HSL. Mean arterial pressures (MAP, central venous pressures (CVP and urine output were measured after induction, and at 15, 30, 45, 60 min after infusion. Brain relaxation was assessed at a four-point scale after opening the duramater. Blood glucose levels were measured before induction and at 60 min after the infusion. Appropriate statistical tests were used for comparison. Unpaired t-test was used to compare hemodynamic and blood glucose level, and chi-square was used to compare brain relaxation.Results: MAP at 60 minute was significantly higher in HSL group than M group (81.66 ± 7.85 vs 74.33 ± 6.18 mmHg; p = 0.002. There was no difference in brain relaxation (p = 0.988. A significant increase in blood glucose level was observed in group HSL (17.95 ± 11.46 mg/dL; p = 0.001.Conclusion: Half-molar HSL was as effective as 20% mannitol in producing brain relaxation, with better hemodynamic stability and gave significant increase in blood glucose level.Keywords: brain relaxation, hemodynamic, hypertonic sodium lactate, mannitol, traumatic brain injury

  4. Carbon Dioxide: Surprising Effects on Decision Making and Neurocognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2013-01-01

    The occupants of modern submarines and the International Space Station (ISS) have much in common as far as their air quality is concerned. Air is polluted by materials offgassing, use of utility compounds, leaks of systems chemicals, and anthropogenic sources. The primary anthropogenic compound of concern to submariners and astronauts has been carbon dioxide (CO2). NASA and the US Navy rely on the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRC-COT) to help formulate exposure levels to CO2 that are thought to be safe for exposures of 3-6 months. NASA calls its limits Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs). Years of experience aboard the ISS and a recent publication on deficits in decision making in ground-based subjects exposed briefly to 0.25% CO2 suggest that exposure levels that have been presumed acceptable to preserve health and performance need to be reevaluated. The current CO2 exposure limits for 3-6 months set by NASA and the UK Navy are 0.7%, and the limit for US submariners is 0.5%, although the NRC-COT recommended a 90-day level of 0.8% as safe a few years ago. NASA has set a 1000-day SMAC at 0.5% for exploration-class missions. Anecdotal experience with ISS operations approaching the current 180-day SMAC of 0.7% suggest that this limit is too high. Temporarily, NASA has limited exposures to 0.5% until further peer-reviewed data become available. In the meantime, a study published last year in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives (Satish U, et al. 2012) demonstrated that complexdecision- making performance is somewhat affected at 0.1% CO2 and becomes "dysfunctional" for at least half of the 9 indices of performance at concentrations approaching 0.25% CO2. The investigators used the Strategic Management Simulation (SMS) method of testing for decisionmaking ability, and the results were so surprising to the investigators that they declared that their findings need to be independently confirmed. NASA has responded to the

  5. Are seismic hazard assessment errors and earthquake surprises unavoidable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Why earthquake occurrences bring us so many surprises? The answer seems evident if we review the relationships that are commonly used to assess seismic hazard. The time-span of physically reliable Seismic History is yet a small portion of a rupture recurrence cycle at an earthquake-prone site, which makes premature any kind of reliable probabilistic statements about narrowly localized seismic hazard. Moreover, seismic evidences accumulated to-date demonstrate clearly that most of the empirical relations commonly accepted in the early history of instrumental seismology can be proved erroneous when testing statistical significance is applied. Seismic events, including mega-earthquakes, cluster displaying behaviors that are far from independent or periodic. Their distribution in space is possibly fractal, definitely, far from uniform even in a single segment of a fault zone. Such a situation contradicts generally accepted assumptions used for analytically tractable or computer simulations and complicates design of reliable methodologies for realistic earthquake hazard assessment, as well as search and definition of precursory behaviors to be used for forecast/prediction purposes. As a result, the conclusions drawn from such simulations and analyses can MISLEAD TO SCIENTIFICALLY GROUNDLESS APPLICATION, which is unwise and extremely dangerous in assessing expected societal risks and losses. For example, a systematic comparison of the GSHAP peak ground acceleration estimates with those related to actual strong earthquakes, unfortunately, discloses gross inadequacy of this "probabilistic" product, which appears UNACCEPTABLE FOR ANY KIND OF RESPONSIBLE SEISMIC RISK EVALUATION AND KNOWLEDGEABLE DISASTER PREVENTION. The self-evident shortcomings and failures of GSHAP appeals to all earthquake scientists and engineers for an urgent revision of the global seismic hazard maps from the first principles including background methodologies involved, such that there becomes: (a) a

  6. The association of hypernatremia and hypertonic saline irrigation in hepatic hydatid cysts: A case report and retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Rujun; Wu, Renhua; Lv, Qingguo; Tong, Nanwei; Zhang, Yuwei

    2017-09-01

    Hypernatremia is a rare but fatal complication of hypertonic saline (HS) irrigation in hepatic hydatid disease. It needs careful monitoring and treatment. A 28-year-old woman with hepatic hydatid cysts who received operation treatment developed electrolyte disturbances. We also conducted a retrospective study about influence of HS application on electrolytes in patients with hepatic hydatid disease receiving surgery. Hypernatremia, developed after HS irrigation. Normal saline, 5% dextrose and other supportive treatment were administered. In the retrospective study, a comparison of electrolyte and glucose fluctuation was made among different HS application groups. The patient developed hypernatremia after irrigation with HS and died from severe complications. Although some cases of complications are found, no significant relationship between HS irrigation and hypernatremia was reported according to the retrospective study. Hypernatremia after HS irrigation remains rare but might cause severe complications. Monitoring and appropriate treatment are needed to improve prognosis.

  7. Supermagnetic Neutron Star Surprises Scientists, Forces Revision of Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    magnetars because their magnetic fields are 100-1,000 times stronger than those of typical pulsars. It is the decay of those incredibly strong fields that powers their strange X-ray emission. "The magnetic field from a magnetar would make an aircraft carrier spin around and point north quicker than a compass needle moves on Earth," said David Helfand, of Columbia University. A magnetar's field is 1,000 trillion times stronger than Earth's, Helfand pointed out. The new object -- named XTE J1810-197 -- was first discovered by NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer when it emitted a strong burst of X-rays in 2003. While the X-rays were fading in 2004, Jules Halpern of Columbia University and collaborators identified the magnetar as a radio-wave emitter using the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in New Mexico. Any radio emission is highly unusual for a magnetar. Because magnetars had not been seen to regularly emit radio waves, the scientists presumed that the radio emission was caused by a cloud of particles thrown off the neutron star at the time of its X-ray outburst, an idea they soon would realize was wrong. With knowledge that the magnetar emitted some form of radio waves, Camilo and his colleagues observed it with the Parkes radio telescope in Australia in March and immediately detected astonishingly strong radio pulsations every 5.5 seconds, corresponding to the previously-determined rotation rate of the neutron star. As they continued to observe XTE J1810-197, the scientists got more surprises. Whereas most pulsars become weaker at higher radio frequencies, XTE J1810-197 does not, remaining a strong emitter at frequencies up to 140 GHz, the highest frequency ever detected from a radio pulsar. In addition, unlike normal pulsars, the object's radio emission fluctuates in strength from day to day, and the shape of the pulsations changes as well. These variations likely indicate that the magnetic fields around the pulsar are changing

  8. Regulatory volume increase in astrocytes exposed to hypertonic medium requires β1 -adrenergic Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase stimulation and glycogenolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dan; Xu, Junnan; Hertz, Leif; Peng, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The cotransporter of Na(+) , K(+) , 2Cl(-) , and water, NKKC1, is activated under two conditions in the brain, exposure to highly elevated extracellular K(+) concentrations, causing astrocytic swelling, and regulatory volume increase in cells shrunk in response to exposure to hypertonic medium. NKCC1-mediated transport occurs as secondary active transport driven by Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase activity, which establishes a favorable ratio for NKCC1 operation between extracellular and intracellular products of the concentrations of Na(+) , K(+) , and Cl(-) × Cl(-) . In the adult brain, astrocytes are the main target for NKCC1 stimulation, and their Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase activity is stimulated by elevated K(+) or the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. Extracellular K(+) concentration is normal during regulatory volume increase, so this study investigated whether the volume increase occurred faster in the presence of isoproterenol. Measurement of cell volume via live cell microscopic imaging fluorescence to record fluorescence intensity of calcein showed that this was the case at isoproterenol concentrations of ≥1 µM in well-differentiated mouse astrocyte cultures incubated in isotonic medium with 100 mM sucrose added. This stimulation was abolished by the β1 -adrenergic antagonist betaxolol, but not by ICI118551, a β2 -adrenergic antagonist. A large part of the β1 -adrenergic signaling pathway in astrocytes is known. Inhibitors of this pathway as well as the glycogenolysis inhibitor 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol hydrochloride and the NKCC1 inhibitors bumetanide and furosemide abolished stimulation by isoproterenol, and it was weakened by the Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase inhibitor ouabain. These observations are of physiological relevance because extracellular hypertonicity occurs during intense neuronal activity. This might trigger a regulatory volume increase, associated with the post-excitatory undershoot.

  9. Trait Anxiety Is Associated with Negative Interpretations When Resolving Valence Ambiguity of Surprised Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gewnhi; Vasey, Michael W; Kim, Grace; Hu, Dixie D; Thayer, Julian F

    2016-01-01

    The current research examines whether trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretation bias when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces. To further isolate the neuro-cognitive mechanism, we presented angry, happy, and surprised faces at broad spatial frequency (BSF), high spatial frequency (HSF), and low spatial frequency (LSF) and asked participants to determine the valence of each face. High trait anxiety was associated with more negative interpretations of BSF (i.e., intact) surprised faces. However, the modulation of trait anxiety on the negative interpretation of surprised faces disappeared at HSF and LSF. The current study provides evidence that trait anxiety modulates negative interpretations of BSF surprised faces. However, the negative interpretation of LSF surprised faces appears to be a robust default response that occurs regardless of individual differences in trait anxiety.

  10. Trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretations when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gewnhi Park

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The current research examines whether trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretation bias when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces. To further isolate the neuro-cognitive mechanism, we presented angry, happy, and surprised faces at broad, high, and low spatial frequency and asked participants to determine the valence of each face. High trait anxiety was associated with more negative interpretations of broad spatial frequency (i.e., intact surprised faces. However, the modulation of trait anxiety on the negative interpretation of surprised faces disappeared at high and low spatial frequencies. The current study provides evidence that trait anxiety modulates negative interpretations of broad spatial frequency surprised faces. However, the negative interpretation of low spatial frequency surprised faces appears to be a robust default response that occurs regardless of individual differences in trait anxiety.

  11. Trait Anxiety Is Associated with Negative Interpretations When Resolving Valence Ambiguity of Surprised Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Gewnhi Park; Vasey, Michael W.; Grace Kim; Dixie D Hu; Thayer, Julian F

    2016-01-01

    The current research examines whether trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretation bias when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces. To further isolate the neuro-cognitive mechanism, we presented angry, happy, and surprised faces at broad, high, and low spatial frequency and asked participants to determine the valence of each face. High trait anxiety was associated with more negative interpretations of broad spatial frequency (i.e., intact) surprised faces. However, the mo...

  12. A Neural Mechanism for Surprise-related Interruptions of Visuospatial Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Jan R

    2016-11-30

    Surprising perceptual events recruit a fronto-basal ganglia mechanism for inhibition, which suppresses motor activity following surprise. A recent study found that this inhibitory mechanism also disrupts the maintenance of verbal working memory (WM) after surprising tones. However, it is unclear whether this same mechanism also relates to surprise-related interruptions of non-verbal WM. We tested this hypothesis using a change-detection task, in which surprising tones impaired visuospatial WM. Participants also performed a stop-signal task (SST). We used independent component analysis and single-trial scalp-electroencephalogram to test whether the same inhibitory mechanism that reflects motor inhibition in the SST relates to surprise-related visuospatial WM decrements, as was the case for verbal WM. As expected, surprising tones elicited activity of the inhibitory mechanism, and this activity correlated strongly with the trial-by-trial level of surprise. However, unlike for verbal WM, the activity of this mechanism was unrelated to visuospatial WM accuracy. Instead, inhibition-independent activity that immediately succeeded the inhibitory mechanism was increased when visuospatial WM was disrupted. This shows that surprise-related interruptions of visuospatial WM are not effected by the same inhibitory mechanism that interrupts verbal WM, and instead provides evidence for a 2-stage model of distraction.

  13. Leading healthcare in complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    Healthcare institutions and providers are in complexity. Networks of interconnections from relationships and technology create conditions in which interdependencies and non-linear dynamics lead to surprising, unpredictable outcomes. Previous effective approaches to leadership, focusing on top-down bureaucratic methods, are no longer effective. Leading in complexity requires leaders to accept the complexity, create an adaptive space in which innovation and creativity can flourish and then integrate the successful practices that emerge into the formal organizational structure. Several methods for doing adaptive space work will be discussed. Readers will be able to contrast traditional leadership approaches with leading in complexity. They will learn new behaviours that are required of complexity leaders, along with challenges they will face, often from other leaders within the organization.

  14. Surprising structures hiding in Penrose’s future null infinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Ezra T.

    2017-07-01

    Since the late1950s, almost all discussions of asymptotically flat (Einstein-Maxwell) space-times have taken place in the context of Penrose’s null infinity, I+. In addition, almost all calculations have used the Bondi coordinate and tetrad systems. Beginning with a known asymptotically flat solution to the Einstein-Maxwell equations, we show first, that there are other natural coordinate systems, near I+, (analogous to light-cones in flat-space) that are based on (asymptotically) shear-free null geodesic congruences (analogous to the flat-space case). Using these new coordinates and their associated tetrad, we define the complex dipole moment, (the mass dipole plus i times angular momentum), from the l  =  1 harmonic coefficient of a component of the asymptotic Weyl tensor. Second, from this definition, from the Bianchi identities and from the Bondi-Sachs mass and linear momentum, we show that there exists a large number of results—identifications and dynamics—identical to those of classical mechanics and electrodynamics. They include, among many others, {P}=M{v}+..., {L}= {r} × {P} , spin, Newton’s second law with the rocket force term (\\dotM v) and radiation reaction, angular momentum conservation and others. All these relations take place in the rather mysterious H-space rather than in space-time. This leads to the enigma: ‘why do these well known relations of classical mechanics take place in H-space?’ and ‘What is the physical meaning of H-space?’

  15. Cassini Science Highlights: Surprises in the Saturn System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, Linda J.

    2012-10-01

    Cassini’s exploration of the Saturn system has generated a treasure trove of scientific data on Saturn, Titan, Enceladus, and other diverse icy satellites, the rings, and magnetosphere. After eight years of close study of this exceptionally complex and dynamic environment, Cassini is still unveiling new scientific discoveries that continue to amaze us. Standout recent highlights include aftereffects from Saturn’s huge storm, a possible subsurface ocean on Titan, close flybys of icy satellites, migrating ring “propellers”, and unexpected variations in Saturn kilometric radiation periodicities. Current observations show seasonal changes including the formation of a polar vortex at Titan’s south pole. To date, Cassini has observed Saturn from just after northern winter solstice through northern spring equinox and now is observing the Saturn system in the previously unobserved period leading up to northern summer solstice. In the remaining five years of the on-going Solstice Mission, Cassini will continue to study seasonally and temporally dependent processes. Given the long Saturnian year ( 30 years) the longevity of Cassini is essential for elucidating seasonal change in the Saturn system. The grand finale of the mission occurs in 2017, when a series of inclined orbits brings Cassini between the innermost D ring and the upper regions of Saturn’s atmosphere. This geometry will offer unique opportunities for new discoveries and ground-breaking science, including Saturn interior structure science from otherwise unobtainable gravity and magnetic field measurements and unprecedented determination of the ring mass, currently uncertain by an order of magnitude. This Proximal orbit phase is similar to Juno’s mission at Jupiter. Comparing Jupiter and Saturn is the first step toward the next great leap in solar system origins research. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA

  16. Hypertonic/hyperoncotic solution in hypovolemic patients: experience in the emergency room Solução hipertônica hiperoncótica em pacientes com hipovolemia: experiência na sala de admissão

    OpenAIRE

    Riad N Younes; Dario Birolini

    2002-01-01

    Hypertonic solutions have been studied extensively in the treatment of hypovolemic shock, both in experimental and clinical models. Safety, efficacy, and long-term effects on animals and patients have been evaluated. The present article reviews indications, safety, mortality rates, and outcome in patients with hemorrhagic hypovolemic shock who were treated after admission with a hypertonic/hyperoncotic solution under strict observation in the emergency room.As soluções hipertônicas têm sido e...

  17. Surprisal-based comparison between a symbolic and a connectionist model of sentence processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, S.L.; Taatgen, N.; van Rijn, H.

    2009-01-01

    The 'unlexicalized surprisal' of a word in sentence context is defined as the negative logarithm of the probability of the word's part-of-speech given the sequence of previous parts-of-speech of the sentence. Unlexicalized surprisal is known to correlate with word reading time. Here, it is shown

  18. The role of surprising events in a math game on proportional reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, P.; Oostendorp, van H.; Vrugte, ter J.; Jong, de T.; Vandercruysse, S.; Elen, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether surprising events can be used to stimulate students’ playful learning in a GBL environment in the domain of proportional reasoning. The assumed effect of surprise is that unexpected events interrupt an expectation and therefore triggers the player to evaluate the new situ

  19. Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; LaBar, Kevin S; Adcock, R Alison

    2016-10-01

    Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal representations of the environment, and surprising events are indications for encoding new representations of the environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system, including the hippocampus and surrounding cortex, encodes surprising events and is influenced by motivational state. Because behavior reflects the goals of an individual, we investigated whether motivational valence (i.e., pursuing rewards versus avoiding punishments) also impacts neural and mnemonic encoding of surprising events. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants encountered perceptually unexpected events either during the pursuit of rewards or avoidance of punishments. Despite similar levels of motivation across groups, reward and punishment facilitated the processing of surprising events in different medial temporal lobe regions. Whereas during reward motivation, perceptual surprises enhanced activation in the hippocampus, during punishment motivation surprises instead enhanced activation in parahippocampal cortex. Further, we found that reward motivation facilitated hippocampal coupling with ventromedial PFC, whereas punishment motivation facilitated parahippocampal cortical coupling with orbitofrontal cortex. Behaviorally, post-scan testing revealed that reward, but not punishment, motivation resulted in greater memory selectivity for surprising events encountered during goal pursuit. Together these findings demonstrate that neuromodulatory systems engaged by anticipation of reward and punishment target separate components of the medial temporal lobe, modulating medial temporal lobe sensitivity and connectivity. Thus, reward and punishment motivation yield distinct neural contexts for learning, with distinct consequences for how surprises are incorporated into predictive mnemonic models of the environment.

  20. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead is a metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust. Lead can be found in all parts of our ... from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may ...

  1. Experimental mineralization of crustacean eggs leads to surprising tissue conservation: new implications for the fossilization of Precambrian-Cambrian embryos

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Phosphatized globular microfossils from the Ediacaran and Lower Cambrian of South China represent an impressive record of early animal evolution and development, however their affinity based on putative embryonic metazoan, bacterial and inorganic features is strongly debated. Understanding key processes and conditions that cause exceptional egg and embryo preservation and fossilization are therefore crucial for a reliable interpretation of their phylogenetic position. Taphonomic experime...

  2. Experimental mineralization of crustacean eggs leads to surprising tissue conservation: new implications for the fossilization of Precambrian-Cambrian embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippler, D.; Hu, N.; Steiner, M.; Scholtz, G.; Franz, G.

    2011-12-01

    Phosphatized globular microfossils from the Ediacaran and Lower Cambrian of South China represent an impressive record of early animal evolution and development, however their affinity based on putative embryonic metazoan, bacterial and inorganic features is strongly debated. Understanding key processes and conditions that cause exceptional egg and embryo preservation and fossilization are therefore crucial for a reliable interpretation of their phylogenetic position. Taphonomic experiments on eggs of the marbled crayfish indicate a close link between early mineralization and rapid anaerobic decay of the endochorional envelope, producing different preservational stages of degradation resembling the various decay stages observed in the fossil record. Stabilization of the spherical morphology was achieved by pre-heating of the eggs. Complete surface mineralization occurred under reduced conditions within one to two weeks, with fine-grained brushite (CaHPO4·2H2O) over calcite as the dominating mineral phase. Although the endochorional envelope was not preserved, experiments resulted in exceptional preservation of the embryonic tissue at the cellular level. Thus our findings suggest that the mechanisms of decay, preservation of surface structures, and mineral replacement in the experiment and during fossilization of Cambrian embryos were likely operating at a similar rationale.

  3. Experimental mineralization of crustacean eggs leads to surprising tissue conservation: new implications for the fossilization of Precambrian-Cambrian embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hippler

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphatized globular microfossils from the Ediacaran and Lower Cambrian of South China represent an impressive record of early animal evolution and development, however their affinity based on putative embryonic metazoan, bacterial and inorganic features is strongly debated. Understanding key processes and conditions that cause exceptional egg and embryo preservation and fossilization are therefore crucial for a reliable interpretation of their phylogenetic position. Taphonomic experiments on eggs of the marbled crayfish indicate a close link between early mineralization and rapid anaerobic decay of the endochorional envelope, producing different preservational stages of degradation resembling the various decay stages observed in the fossil record. Stabilization of the spherical morphology was achieved by pre-heating of the eggs. Complete surface mineralization occurred under reduced conditions within one to two weeks, with fine-grained brushite (CaHPO4·2H2O over calcite as the dominating mineral phase. Although the endochorional envelope was not preserved, experiments resulted in exceptional preservation of the embryonic tissue at the cellular level. Thus our findings suggest that the mechanisms of decay, preservation of surface structures, and mineral replacement in the experiment and during fossilization of Cambrian embryos were likely operating at a similar rationale.

  4. Selective response of human airway epithelia to luminal but not serosal solution hypertonicity. Possible role for proximal airway epithelia as an osmolality transducer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Niels J.; Davis, C.W.; Boucher, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    exposure (10 min) to 430 mosM luminal solution elicited no regulation of any parameter. Optical measurements revealed a reduction in the thickness of preparations only in response to luminal hypertonic solutions. We conclude that (a) airway epithelial cells exhibit asymmetric water transport properties......- secretion; and (d) cell volume loss increases the resistance of the paracellular path. We speculate that these properties configure human nasal epithelium to behave as an osmotic sensor, transducing information about luminal solutions to the airway wall....

  5. Role of permissive hypotension, hypertonic resuscitation and the global increased permeability syndrome in patients with severe hemorrhage: adjuncts to damage control resuscitation to prevent intra-abdominal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Juan C; Kaplan, Lewis J; Balogh, Zsolt J; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2015-01-01

    Secondary intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are closely related to fluid resuscitation. IAH causes major deterioration of the cardiac function by affecting preload, contractility and afterload. The aim of this review is to discuss the different interactions between IAH, ACS and resuscitation, and to explore a new hypothesis with regard to damage control resuscitation, permissive hypotension and global increased permeability syndrome. Review of the relevant literature via PubMed search. The recognition of the association between the development of ACS and resuscitation urged the need for new approach in traumatic shock management. Over a decade after wide spread application of damage control surgery damage control resuscitation was developed. DCR differs from previous resuscitation approaches by attempting an earlier and more aggressive correction of coagulopathy, as well as metabolic derangements like acidosis and hypothermia, often referred to as the 'deadly triad' or the 'bloody vicious cycle'. Permissive hypotension involves keeping the blood pressure low enough to avoid exacerbating uncontrolled haemorrhage while maintaining perfusion to vital end organs. The potential detrimental mechanisms of early, aggressive crystalloid resuscitation have been described. Limitation of fluid intake by using colloids, hypertonic saline (HTS) or hyperoncotic albumin solutions have been associated with favourable effects. HTS allows not only for rapid restoration of circulating intravascular volume with less administered fluid, but also attenuates post-injury oedema at the microcirculatory level and may improve microvascular perfusion. Capillary leak represents the maladaptive, often excessive, and undesirable loss of fluid and electrolytes with or without protein into the interstitium that generates oedema. The global increased permeability syndrome (GIPS) has been articulated in patients with persistent systemic inflammation failing

  6. Hypertonic saline enhances host response to bacterial challenge by augmenting receptor-independent neutrophil intracellular superoxide formation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shields, Conor J

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine whether hypertonic saline (HTS) infusion modulates the host response to bacterial challenge. METHODS: Sepsis was induced in 30 Balb-C mice by intraperitoneal injection of Escherichia coli (5 x 107 organisms per animal). In 10 mice, resuscitation was performed at 0 and 24 hours with a 4 mL\\/kg bolus of HTS (7.5% NaCl), 10 animals received 4 mL\\/kg of normal saline (0.9% NaCl), and the remaining animals received 30 mL\\/kg of normal saline. Samples of blood, spleen, and lung were cultured at 8 and 36 hours. Polymorphonucleocytes were incubated in isotonic or hypertonic medium before culture with E. coli. Phagocytosis was assessed by flow cytometry, whereas intracellular bacterial killing was measured after inhibition of phagocytosis with cytochalasin B. Intracellular formation of free radicals was assessed by the molecular probe CM-H(2)DCFDA. Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase p38 and ERK-1 phosphorylation, and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) activation were determined. Data are represented as means (SEM), and an analysis of variance test was performed to gauge statistical significance. RESULTS: Significantly reduced bacterial culture was observed in the animals resuscitated with HTS when compared with their NS counterparts, in blood (51.8 +\\/- 4.3 vs. 82.0 +\\/- 3.3 and 78.4 +\\/- 4.8, P = 0.005), lung (40.0 +\\/- 4.1 vs. 93.2 +\\/- 2.1 and 80.9 +\\/- 4.7, P = 0.002), and spleen (56.4 +\\/- 3.8 vs. 85.4 +\\/- 4.2 and 90.1 +\\/- 5.9, P = 0.05). Intracellular killing of bacteria increased markedly (P = 0.026) and superoxide generation was enhanced upon exposure to HTS (775.78 +\\/- 23.6 vs. 696.57 +\\/- 42.2, P = 0.017) despite inhibition of MAP kinase and NFkappaB activation. CONCLUSIONS: HTS significantly enhances intracellular killing of bacteria while attenuating receptor-mediated activation of proinflammatory cascades.

  7. Body water handling in response to hypertonic-saline induced diuresis in fasting northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rudy M.; Wade, Charles E.; Ortiz, C. Leo

    2003-01-01

    During natural fasting conditions in postweaned northern elephant seal (NES) (Mirounga angustirostris) pups, urinary water loss is minimized and percent total body water (TBW) is maintained constant. However, following infusion of hypertonic saline, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine output increased in fasting pups. Therefore, we quantified the magnitude of the hypernatremia-induced diuresis relative to the animal's total body water (TBW) pool and the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed. Following a 24 h control period, naturally fasting NES pups (n=7) were infused (4 ml min(-1)) with hypertonic saline (16.7%) at a dose of 3 mmol NaCl kg(-1) body mass. Total body water was estimated prior to infusion by tritium dilution, GFR was estimated by standard creatinine clearance, and urine output (V) was measured for 24 h during the control and post infusion periods. Percentage of filtered water reabsorbed was calculated as (1-(V/GFR))x100. Twenty-four hours following the infusion, GFR (control: 69+/-12 ml min(-1) and post-infusion: 118+/-19 ml min(-1); mean+/-S.E.) increased 77+/-28% above control and the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed was decreased 0.4+/-0.1%. The increase in urine output (control: 218+/-47 ml d(-1) and post-infusion: 883+/-92 ml d(-1)) accounted for 1.7+/-0.2% of the pups' TBW. The hypernatremia-induced diuresis was accompanied by the loss of body water indicating the lack of water retention. Although the 77% increase in GFR was only associated with a 0.4% decrease in the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed, this decrease was significant enough to result in a 4-fold increase in urine output. Despite the observed diuresis, fasting NES pups appear to possess an efficient water recycling mechanism requiring only a small percentage of body water to excrete an excess salt load. This water recycling mechanism may allow pups to avoid negative perturbations in body water as they initiate feeding in a marine environment following the

  8. Enhancement of meal-associated hypertonic NaCl intake by moxonidine into the lateral parabrachial nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Carina A F; De Luca, Laurival A; Colombari, Débora S A; Menani, José V

    2007-11-02

    alpha2-Adrenoceptor activation with moxonidine (alpha2-adrenergic/imidazoline receptor agonist) into the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) enhances angiotensin II/hypovolaemia-induced sodium intake and drives cell dehydrated rats to ingest hypertonic sodium solution besides water. Angiotensin II and osmotic signals are suggested to stimulate meal-induced water intake. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the effects of bilateral injections of moxonidine into the LPBN on food deprivation-induced food intake and on meal-associated water and 0.3M NaCl intake. Male Holtzman rats with cannulas implanted bilaterally into the LPBN were submitted to 14 or 24h of food deprivation with water and 0.3M NaCl available (n=6-14). Bilateral injections of moxonidine (0.5nmol/0.2microl) into the LPBN increased meal-associated 0.3M NaCl intake (11.4+/-3.0ml/120min versus vehicle: 2.2+/-0.9ml/120min), without changing food intake (11.1+/-1.2g/120min versus vehicle: 11.2+/-0.9g/120min) or water intake (10.2+/-1.5ml/120min versus vehicle: 10.4+/-1.2ml/120min) by 24h food deprived rats. When no food was available during the test, moxonidine (0.5nmol) into the LPBN of 24h food-deprived rats produced no change in 0.3M NaCl intake (1.0+/-0.6ml/120min versus vehicle: 1.8+/-1.1ml/120min), nor in water intake (0.2+/-0.1ml/120min versus vehicle: 0.6+/-0.3ml/120min). The results suggest that signals generated during a meal, like dehydration, for example, not hunger, induce hypertonic NaCl intake when moxonidine is acting in the LPBN. Thus, activation of LPBN inhibitory mechanisms seems necessary to restrain sodium intake during a meal.

  9. Body water handling in response to hypertonic-saline induced diuresis in fasting northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rudy M.; Wade, Charles E.; Ortiz, C. Leo

    2003-01-01

    During natural fasting conditions in postweaned northern elephant seal (NES) (Mirounga angustirostris) pups, urinary water loss is minimized and percent total body water (TBW) is maintained constant. However, following infusion of hypertonic saline, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine output increased in fasting pups. Therefore, we quantified the magnitude of the hypernatremia-induced diuresis relative to the animal's total body water (TBW) pool and the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed. Following a 24 h control period, naturally fasting NES pups (n=7) were infused (4 ml min(-1)) with hypertonic saline (16.7%) at a dose of 3 mmol NaCl kg(-1) body mass. Total body water was estimated prior to infusion by tritium dilution, GFR was estimated by standard creatinine clearance, and urine output (V) was measured for 24 h during the control and post infusion periods. Percentage of filtered water reabsorbed was calculated as (1-(V/GFR))x100. Twenty-four hours following the infusion, GFR (control: 69+/-12 ml min(-1) and post-infusion: 118+/-19 ml min(-1); mean+/-S.E.) increased 77+/-28% above control and the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed was decreased 0.4+/-0.1%. The increase in urine output (control: 218+/-47 ml d(-1) and post-infusion: 883+/-92 ml d(-1)) accounted for 1.7+/-0.2% of the pups' TBW. The hypernatremia-induced diuresis was accompanied by the loss of body water indicating the lack of water retention. Although the 77% increase in GFR was only associated with a 0.4% decrease in the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed, this decrease was significant enough to result in a 4-fold increase in urine output. Despite the observed diuresis, fasting NES pups appear to possess an efficient water recycling mechanism requiring only a small percentage of body water to excrete an excess salt load. This water recycling mechanism may allow pups to avoid negative perturbations in body water as they initiate feeding in a marine environment following the

  10. NKCC2A and NFAT5 regulate renal TNF production induced by hypertonic NaCl intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shoujin; Bellner, Lars; Ferreri, Nicholas R

    2013-03-01

    Pathways that contribute to TNF production by the kidney are not well defined. Mice given 1% NaCl in the drinking water for 3 days exhibited a 2.5-fold increase in urinary, but not plasma, TNF levels compared with mice given tap water. Since furosemide attenuated the increase in TNF levels, we hypothesized that hypertonic NaCl intake increases renal TNF production by a pathway involving the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC2). A 2.5-fold increase in NKCC2A mRNA accumulation was observed in medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL) tubules from mice given 1% NaCl; a concomitant 2-fold increase in nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5) mRNA and protein expression was observed in the outer medulla. Urinary TNF levels were reduced in mice given 1% NaCl after an intrarenal injection of a lentivirus construct designed to specifically knockdown NKCC2A (EGFP-N2A-ex4); plasma levels of TNF did not change after injection of EGFP-N2A-ex4. Intrarenal injection of EGFP-N2A-ex4 also inhibited the increase of NFAT5 mRNA abundance in the outer medulla of mice given 1% NaCl. TNF production by primary cultures of mTAL cells increased approximately sixfold in response to an increase in osmolality to 400 mosmol/kgH2O produced with NaCl and was inhibited in cells transiently transfected with a dnNFAT5 construct. Transduction of cells with EGFP-N2A-ex4 also prevented increases in TNF mRNA and protein production in response to high NaCl concentration and reduced transcriptional activity of a NFAT5 promoter construct. Since NKCC2A expression is restricted to the TAL, NKCC2A-dependent activation of NFAT5 is part of a pathway by which the TAL produces TNF in response to hypertonic NaCl intake.

  11. Lead Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including some imported jewelry. What are the health effects of lead? • More commonly, lower levels of lead in children over time may lead to reduced IQ, slow learning, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or behavioral issues. • Lead also affects other ...

  12. Requirement for the eIF4E binding proteins for the synergistic down-regulation of protein synthesis by hypertonic conditions and mTOR inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Michael J; Elia, Androulla; Morley, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    The protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates the phosphorylation and activity of several proteins that have the potential to control translation, including p70S6 kinase and the eIF4E binding proteins 4E-BP1 and 4E-BP2. In spite of this, in exponentially growing cells overall protein synthesis is often resistant to mTOR inhibitors. We report here that sensitivity of wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to mTOR inhibitors can be greatly increased when the cells are subjected to the physiological stress imposed by hypertonic conditions. In contrast, protein synthesis in MEFs with a double knockout of 4E-BP1 and 4E-BP2 remains resistant to mTOR inhibitors under these conditions. Phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase and protein kinase B (Akt) is blocked by the mTOR inhibitor Ku0063794 equally well in both wild-type and 4E-BP knockout cells, under both normal and hypertonic conditions. The response of protein synthesis to hypertonic stress itself does not require the 4E-BPs. These data suggest that under certain stress conditions: (i) translation has a greater requirement for mTOR activity and (ii) there is an absolute requirement for the 4E-BPs for regulation by mTOR. Importantly, dephosphorylation of p70S6 kinase and Akt is not sufficient to affect protein synthesis acutely.

  13. Pentoxifylline enhances the protective effects of hypertonic saline solution on liver ischemia reperfusion injury through inhibition of oxidative stress Pentoxifylline enhances the protective effects of hypertonic saline solution on liver ischemia reperfusion injury through inhibition of oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vinicius Rocha-Santos; Estela RR Figueira; Joel A Rocha-Filho; Ana MM Coelho; Rafael Soraes Pinheiro; Telesforo Bacchella; Marcel CC Machado; Luiz AC D'Albuquerque

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Liver ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury trig-gers a systemic inlfammatory response and is the main cause of organ dysfunction and adverse postoperative outcomes after liver surgery. Pentoxifylline (PTX) and hypertonic saline solution (HTS) have been identiifed to have beneifcial effects against IR injury. This study aimed to investigate if the addi-tion of PTX to HTS is superior to HTS alone for the preven-tion of liver IR injury. METHODS:Male Wistar rats were allocated into three groups. Control rats underwent 60 minutes of partial liver ischemia, HTS rats were treated with 0.4 mL/kg of intravenous 7.5%NaCl 15 minutes before reperfusion, and HPTX group were treated with 7.5% NaCl plus 25 mg/kg of PTX 15 minutes be-fore reperfusion. Samples were collected after reperfusion for determination of ALT, AST, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, mitochondrial respiration, lipid peroxidation, pulmonary permeability and myeloperoxidase. RESULTS:HPTX signiifcantly decreased TNF-α 30 minutes after reperfusion. HPTX and HTS signiifcantly decreased ALT, AST, IL-6, mitochondrial dysfunction and pulmonary myelo-peroxidase 4 hours after reperfusion. Compared with HTS only, HPTX signiifcantly decreased hepatic oxidative stress 4 hours after reperfusion and pulmonary permeability 4 and 12 hours after reperfusion. CONCLUSION:This study showed that PTX added the beneifcial effects of HTS on liver IR injury through decreases of hepatic oxidative stress and pulmonary permeability.

  14. Previously seen and expected stimuli elicit surprise in the context of visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retell, James D; Becker, Stefanie I; Remington, Roger W

    2016-04-01

    In the context of visual search, surprise is the phenomenon by which a previously unseen and unexpected stimulus exogenously attracts spatial attention. Capture by such a stimulus occurs, by definition, independent of task goals and is thought to be dependent on the extent to which the stimulus deviates from expectations. However, the relative contributions of prior-exposure and explicit knowledge of an unexpected event to the surprise response have not yet been systematically investigated. Here observers searched for a specific color while ignoring irrelevant cues of different colors presented prior to the target display. After a brief familiarization period, we presented an irrelevant motion cue to elicit surprise. Across conditions we varied prior exposure to the motion stimulus - seen versus unseen - and top-down expectations of occurrence - expected versus unexpected - to assess the extent to which each of these factors contributes to surprise. We found no attenuation of the surprise response when observers were pre-exposed to the motion cue and or had explicit knowledge of its occurrence. Our results show that it is neither sufficient nor necessary that a stimulus be new and unannounced to elicit surprise and suggest that the expectations that determine the surprise response are highly context specific.

  15. October Surprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Ushered in with the rampage of Hurricane Matthew, later days brightened in this month that has often been harbinger of both good and bad news for Cuba and the world. Hurricane Matthew ripped through Eastern Cuba, devastating the historic town of Baracoa (Cuba's first capital, founded in 1511) and the village of Maisí, where the morning sun first rises over Cuban territory. Wind and flood leveled hundreds of homes, brought down the power grid and destroyed crops. Yet there was no loss of human life, unlike in neighboring Haiti and other countries in Matthew's path, and unlike in Cuba in 1963, when Hurricane Flora caused more than 1200 deaths. In Haiti, efforts of health workers-including hundreds of Haitian graduates from Cuba's Latin American Medical School and 600 Cuban health professionals already there-were bolstered by dozens of specially trained Cuban disaster medical personnel in the wake of the storm.

  16. Surprising Resists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Stephie

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses an art adventure with her third, fourth, and fifth grade enrichment kids to the Fort Collins Museum of Contemporary Art in Colorado. The author demonstrates and teaches her students how to use the art tissue paper and oil pastel complementing the creative spirit of the Jaune Quick-to-See Smith work presented…

  17. Reposição de volume na sepse com solução salina hipertônica Sepsis volume reposition with hypertonic saline solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Friedman

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisão discute os efeitos hemodinâmicos e imunomoduladores da solução hipertônica em choque experimental e em pacientes com sepse. Comentamos sobre os mecanismos de ação da solução hipertônica, recorrendo a dados sobre choque hemorrágico e séptico. Atuações específicas da solução salina hipertônica aplicáveis a sepse grave e choque séptico são enfatizadas. Os dados disponíveis corroboram os benefícios em potencial da infusão de solução salina hipertônica em vários aspetos da fisiopatologia da sepse, inclusive hipoperfusão dos tecidos, consumo reduzido de oxigênio, disfunção endotelial, depressão miocárdica e presença de um amplo elenco de citocinas próinflamatórias e várias espécies de oxidantes. Uma terapia que, ao mesmo tempo, bloqueie os componentes prejudiciais da sepse terá um impacto no seu tratamento. Estudos prospectivos adequadamente desenhados poderão no futuro comprovar o papel benéfico da solução salina hipertônica.The present review discusses the hemodynamic and immune-modulatory effects of hypertonic saline in experimental shock and in patients with sepsis. We comment on the mechanisms of action of hypertonic saline, calling upon data in hemorrhagic and septic shock. Specific actions of hypertonic saline applicable to severe sepsis and septic shock are highlighted. Data available support potential benefits of hypertonic saline infusion in various aspects of the pathophysiology of sepsis, including tissue hypoperfusion, decreased oxygen consumption, endothelial dysfunction, cardiac depression, and the presence of a broad array of pro-inflammatory cytokines and various oxidant species. A therapy that simultaneously blocks the damaging components of sepsis will have an impact on the management of sepsis. Proper designed prospective studies may prove a beneficial role for hypertonic saline solution in the future.

  18. Hypertonic dextrose injections (prolotherapy) in the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Regina Ws; Chung, Vincent Ch; Reeves, Kenneth D; Rabago, David; Chan, Keith Kw; Chan, Dicken Cc; Wu, Xinyin; Ho, Robin St; Wong, Samuel Ys

    2016-05-05

    Hypertonic dextrose injections (prolotherapy) is an emerging treatment for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) but its efficacy is uncertain. We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis to synthesize clinical evidence on the effect of prolotherapy for knee OA. Fifteen electronic databases were searched from their inception to September 2015. The primary outcome of interest was score change on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC). Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of moderate risk of bias and one quasi-randomized trial were included, with data from a total of 258 patients. In the meta-analysis of two eligible studies, prolotherapy is superior to exercise alone by a standardized mean difference (SMD) of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.18 to 1.45, p = 0.012), 0.78 (95% CI: 0.25 to 1.30, p = 0.001) and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.04 to 1.20, p = 0.035) on the WOMAC composite scale; and WOMAC function and pain subscale scores respectively. Moderate heterogeneity exists in all cases. Overall, prolotherapy conferred a positive and significant beneficial effect in the treatment of knee OA. Adequately powered, longer-term trials with uniform end points are needed to better elucidate the efficacy of prolotherapy.

  19. G-CSF Administration after the Intraosseous Infusion of Hypertonic Hydroxyethyl Starches Accelerating Wound Healing Combined with Hemorrhagic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the therapeutic effects of G-CSF administration after intraosseous (IO resuscitation in hemorrhagic shock (HS combined with cutaneous injury rats. Methods. The rats were randomly divided into four groups: (1 HS with resuscitation (blank, (2 HS with resuscitation + G-CSF (G-CSF, 200 μg/kg body weight, subcutaneous injection, (3 HS with resuscitation + normal saline solution injection (normal saline, and (4 HS + G-CSF injection without resuscitation (Unres/G-CSF. To estimate the treatment effects, the vital signs of alteration were first evaluated, and then wound closure rates and homing of MSCs and EPCs to the wound skins and vasculogenesis were measured. Besides, inflammation and vasculogenesis related mRNA expressions were also examined. Results. IO infusion hypertonic hydroxyethyl starch (HHES exhibited beneficial volume expansion roles and G-CSF administration accelerated wound healing 3 days ahead of other groups under hemorrhagic shock. Circulating and the homing of MSCs and EPCs at wound skins were significantly elevated at 6 h after G-CSF treatment. Inflammation was declined since 3 d while angiogenesis was more obvious in G-CSF treated group on day 9. Conclusions. These results suggested that the synergistical application of HHES and G-CSF has life-saving effects and is beneficial for improving wound healing in HS combined with cutaneous injury rats.

  20. Regulation of the hypertonic stress response and other cellular functions by the Rel-like transcription factor NFAT5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramburu, José; Drews-Elger, Katherine; Estrada-Gelonch, Anaïs; Minguillón, Jordi; Morancho, Beatriz; Santiago, Verónica; López-Rodríguez, Cristina

    2006-11-30

    Stress, be it from environmental factors or intrinsic to the cell as result of growth and metabolism, can be harmful to cells. Mammalian cells have developed numerous mechanisms to respond to diverse forms of stress. These mechanisms combine signaling cascades and activation of gene expression programs to orchestrate an adaptive response that will allow the cell to survive and resume its normal functioning. In this review we will focus on the transcription factor NFAT5, a fundamental regulator of the response to osmotic stress in mammalian cells. Identified in 1999, NFAT5 is the latest addition to the Rel family, which comprises the NF-kappaB and NFATc proteins. Though in some of its structural and functional features NFAT5 is a hybrid between these two major groups of Rel proteins, it has unique characteristics that make it stand on its own as a third type of Rel transcription factor. Since its discovery, NFAT5 has been studied mostly in the context of the hypertonicity stress response. The advent of mouse models deficient in NFAT5 and other recent advances have confirmed a fundamental osmoprotective role for this factor in mammals, but also revealed features that suggest it may have a wider range of functions.

  1. The haemodynamic and metabolic effects of hypertonic-glucose and amino-acid-based peritoneal dialysis fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, Nicholas M; Fialova, Jana; Burton, James O; McIntyre, Christopher W

    2007-03-01

    Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) may exert significant effects on systemic haemodynamics. We have previously demonstrated that hypertonic glucose solutions are associated with higher blood pressure (BP) due to a rise in stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO). However, the mechanisms underlying these changes have not been established. Ten non-diabetic CAPD patients entered a randomized crossover study (eight completed) to compare conventional glucose-based fluid, biocompatible pH-neutral glucose-based fluid and 1.1% amino acid solution (lactate-buffered but completely free of glucose degradation products). BP and haemodynamic variables were measured using continuous arterial pulse wave analysis, and serial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were collected. Left ventricular (LV) diameters were measured at the start and end of each dwell period using M-mode echocardiography. BP was similar during 1.36% glucose and 1.1% amino acid dwells, but was significantly higher during 3.86% glucose dwells with both conventional and biocompatible fluids (P insulin levels did not differ from baseline during 1.36% and amino acid dwells, but increased significantly during 3.86% glucose dwells. Despite a significantly higher ultrafiltration volume with 3.86% glucose, LV diameters were similar throughout. In conclusion, we have confirmed our previous findings demonstrating higher BP and adverse haemodynamics during 3.86% glucose dwells. These changes are associated with hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, but are not related to differences in cardiac filling.

  2. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lead is of microscopic size, invisible to the naked eye. More often than not, children with elevated ... majority of the childhood lead poisoning cases we see today. Children and adults too can get seriously ...

  3. Relational Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This first chapter presents the exploratory and curious approach to leading as relational processes – an approach that pervades the entire book. We explore leading from a perspective that emphasises the unpredictable challenges and triviality of everyday life, which we consider an interesting......, relevant and realistic way to examine leading. The chapter brings up a number of concepts and contexts as formulated by researchers within the field, and in this way seeks to construct a first understanding of relational leading....

  4. The role of loudness in detection of surprising events in music recordings

    OpenAIRE

    Holonowicz, Piotr; Herrera, Perfecto; Purwins, Hendrik

    2009-01-01

    The abrupt change of loudness is a salient event that is not always expected by a music listener. Therefore loudness is an important cue when seeking for events in a music stream that could violate human expectations. The concept of expectation and surprise in music has become recently the subject of extensive research, however mostly using symbolic data. The aim of this work is to investigate the circumstances when a change of sound intensity could be surprising for a listener. Then, using t...

  5. Lymphocytic alveolitis: A surprising index of poor prognosis in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalavanga, Y A; Voulgari, P V; Georgiadis, A N; Leontaridi, C; Katsenos, S; Vassiliou, M; Drosos, A A; Constantopoulos, S H

    2006-07-01

    Twelve years ago we reported that lymphocytic alveolitis [or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) lymphocytosis] correlates with clinical pulmonary involvement in primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS). Our thesis was based on subtle clinical and functional evidence of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in pSS patients with "high lymphocytic alveolitis" (>15% lymphocytes in BAL). This report is a follow-up study of these patients. Basic clinical and functional re-evaluation of the 22 patients with pSS, studied in 1991, emphasized the differences between those with alveolitis and those without alveolitis. There was no significant functional decline. There were, however, two statistically significant differences between the two groups: (1) only patients with BAL lymphocytosis had to be treated with steroids (5/12 vs. 0/10, P < 0.05) and (2) only patients with BAL lymphocytosis had died in the mean time (6/12 vs. 0/10, P < 0.01). The causes of death were various. On only two occasions were they related to respiratory infections while there were no deaths from respiratory failure secondary to ILD. BAL lymphocytosis appears to be a surprisingly serious index of dismal prognosis in patients with pSS. We offer no unifying pathophysiologic mechanism for it and, therefore, all we propose is that BAL is performed early, in as many patients with pSS as possible. These patients should then be followed up systematically, in order to evaluate if BAL lymphocytosis has any pathophysiologic importance in the development of clinically serious pSS, which is serious enough to lead to death.

  6. Virtual Volatility, an Elementary New Concept with Surprising Stock Market Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prange, Richard; Silva, A. Christian

    2006-03-01

    Textbook investors start by predicting the future price distribution, PDF, of a candidate stock (or portfolio) at horizon T, e.g. a year hence. A (log)normal PDF with center (=drift =expected return) μT and width (=volatility) σT is often assumed on Central Limit Theorem grounds, i.e. by a random walk of daily (log)price increments δs. The standard deviation, stdev, of historical (ex post) δs `s is usually a fair predictor of the coming year's (ex ante) stdev(δs) = σdaily, but the historical mean E(δs) at best roughly limits the true, to be predicted, drift by μtrueT˜ μhistT ± σhistT. Textbooks take a PDF with σ ˜ σdaily and μ as somehow known, as if accurate predictions of μ were possible. It is elementary and presumably new to argue that an average of PDF's over a range of μ values should be taken, e.g. an average over forecasts by different analysts. We estimate that this leads to a PDF with a `virtual' volatility σ ˜ 1.3σdaily. It is indeed clear that uncertainty in the value of the expected gain parameter increases the risk of investment in that security by most measures, e. g. Sharpe's ratio μT/σT will be 30% smaller because of this effect. It is significant and surprising that there are investments which benefit from this 30% virtual increase in the volatility

  7. Surprising results from abiotic enzyme digestion of dissolved organic matter at the molecular scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, N. J.; Tfaily, M. M.; Heredia-Langnar, A.; Rodriguez, L.; Purvine, E.; Todd-Brown, K. E.

    2016-12-01

    Sometimes even the simplest of experiments leads to unexpected results and new understanding. We extract dissolved organic matter using water from peat soil obtained from the S1 bog at the Marcell Experimental Forest in northern Minnesota. We characterized the dissolved organic matter in the water extract before and after adding glucosidase, peroxidase and β-N-Acetylglucosaminidase enzymes using electrospray Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry in negative ion mode. Based on mass measurement accuracy of less than 1 ppm for singly charged ions, we assigned putative chemical formula to greater than 80% of the measured mass spectrometry features. For each enzyme tested we are able to easily distinguish between the types and composition of dissolved organic molecules that are susceptible to enzyme degradation - and those that are not - based on the presence new compounds in reacted extracts and loss of compounds from the initial water extract. Next, we created a consensus molecular network analysis based on the neutral mass loss between the measured compounds for each enzyme. The connectivity within these networks suggested a unique, distinctive chemistry for each enzyme. Some results were expected, like the nondiscriminatory oxidation of organic molecules by peroxidase and preferential loss of lignin and tannin-like molecules by glucosidase. However, surprising results include the apparent reactivity of glucosidase enzymatic products to reassemble, forming larger mass organic molecules. While these experiments were conducted abiotically, these molecular-resolved results suggest that biotic enzymatic processes may result in product compounds with unexpected chemistry and reactivity, implying that our current conceptual model of microbial enzymatic activity may be overly simplistic.

  8. Insulin and hypertonicity recruit GLUT4 to the plasma membrane of muscle cells by using N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-dependent SNARE mechanisms but different v-SNAREs: role of TI-VAMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Varinder K; Thong, Farah S L; Lim, Dawn Y; Li, Dailin; Garg, Rami R; Rudge, Rachel; Galli, Thierry; Rudich, Assaf; Klip, Amira

    2004-12-01

    Insulin and hypertonicity each increase the content of GLUT4 glucose transporters at the surface of muscle cells. Insulin enhances GLUT4 exocytosis without diminishing its endocytosis. The insulin but not the hypertonicity response is reduced by tetanus neurotoxin, which cleaves vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)2 and VAMP3, and is rescued upon introducing tetanus neurotoxin-resistant VAMP2. Here, we show that hypertonicity enhances GLUT4 recycling, compounding its previously shown ability to reduce GLUT4 endocytosis. To examine whether the canonical soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) mechanism is required for the plasma membrane fusion of the tetanus neurotoxin-insensitive GLUT4 vesicles, L6 myoblasts stably expressing myc-tagged GLUT4 (GLUT4myc) were transiently transfected with dominant negative N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) (DN-NSF) or small-interfering RNA to tetanus neurotoxin-insensitive VAMP (TI-VAMP siRNA). Both strategies markedly reduced the basal level of surface GLUT4myc and the surface gain of GLUT4myc in response to hypertonicity. The insulin effect was abolished by DN-NSF, but only partly reduced by TI-VAMP siRNA. We propose that insulin and hypertonicity recruit GLUT4myc from partly overlapping, but distinct sources defined by VAMP2 and TI-VAMP, respectively.

  9. LL-37 complexation with glycosaminoglycans in cystic fibrosis lungs inhibits antimicrobial activity, which can be restored by hypertonic saline.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bergsson, Gudmundur

    2009-07-01

    There is an abundance of antimicrobial peptides in cystic fibrosis (CF) lungs. Despite this, individuals with CF are susceptible to microbial colonization and infection. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial response within the CF lung, focusing on the human cathelicidin LL-37. We demonstrate the presence of the LL-37 precursor, human cathelicidin precursor protein designated 18-kDa cationic antimicrobial protein, in the CF lung along with evidence that it is processed to active LL-37 by proteinase-3. We demonstrate that despite supranormal levels of LL-37, the lung fluid from CF patients exhibits no demonstrable antimicrobial activity. Furthermore Pseudomonas killing by physiological concentrations of exogenous LL-37 is inhibited by CF bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid due to proteolytic degradation of LL-37 by neutrophil elastase and cathepsin D. The endogenous LL-37 in CF BAL fluid is protected from this proteolysis by interactions with glycosaminoglycans, but while this protects LL-37 from proteolysis it results in inactivation of LL-37 antimicrobial activity. By digesting glycosaminoglycans in CF BAL fluid, endogenous LL-37 is liberated and the antimicrobial properties of CF BAL fluid restored. High sodium concentrations also liberate LL-37 in CF BAL fluid in vitro. This is also seen in vivo in CF sputum where LL-37 is complexed to glycosaminoglycans but is liberated following nebulized hypertonic saline resulting in increased antimicrobial effect. These data suggest glycosaminoglycan-LL-37 complexes to be potential therapeutic targets. Factors that disrupt glycosaminoglycan-LL-37 aggregates promote the antimicrobial effects of LL-37 with the caveat that concomitant administration of antiproteases may be needed to protect the now liberated LL-37 from proteolytic cleavage.

  10. Unilateral fluid absorption and effects on peak power after ingestion of commercially available hypotonic, isotonic, and hypertonic sports drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, David S; Bonetti, Darrell L; Hopkins, Will G

    2011-12-01

    Isotonic sports drinks are often consumed to offset the effects of dehydration and improve endurance performance, but hypotonic drinks may be more advantageous. The purpose of the study was to compare absorption and effects on performance of a commercially available hypotonic sports drink (Mizone Rapid: 3.9% carbohydrate [CHO], 218 mOsmol/kg) with those of an isotonic drink (PowerAde: 7.6% CHO, 281 mOsmol/ kg), a hypertonic drink (Gatorade: 6% CHO, 327 mOsmol/kg), and a noncaloric placebo (8 mOsmol/kg). In a crossover, 11 cyclists consumed each drink on separate days at 250 ml/15 min during a 2-hr preload ride at 55% peak power followed by an incremental test to exhaustion. Small to moderate increases in deuterium oxide enrichment in the preload were observed with Mizone Rapid relative to PowerAde, Gatorade, and placebo (differences of 88, 45, and 42 parts per million, respectively; 90% confidence limits ±28). Serum osmolality was moderately lower with Mizone Rapid than with PowerAde and Gatorade (-1.9, -2.4; mOsmol/L; ±1.2 mOsmol/L) but not clearly different vs. placebo. Plasma volume reduction was small to moderate with Mizone Rapid, PowerAde, and Gatorade relative to placebo (-1.9%, -2.5%, -2.9%; ± 2.5%). Gut comfort was highest with Mizone Rapid but clearly different (8.4% ± 4.8%) only vs PowerAde. Peak power was highest with Mizone Rapid (380 W) vs. placebo and other drinks (1.2-3.0%; 99% confidence limits ±4.7%), but differences were inconclusive with reference to the smallest important effect (~1.2%). The outcomes are consistent with fastest fluid absorption with the hypotonic sports drink. Further research should determine whether the effect has a meaningful impact on performance.

  11. Effectiveness of 3% hypertonic saline nebulization in acute bronchiolitis among Indian children: A quasi-experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Harsh V.; Gupta, Vivek V.; Kaur, Gurmeet; Baidwan, Amitoz S.; George, Pardeep P.; Shah, Jay C.; Shinde, Kushal; Malik, Ruku; Chitkara, Neha; Bajaj, Krushnan V.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of 3% hypertonic saline (HS) and 0.9% normal saline with nebulized 0.9% normal saline with salbutamol in patients of acute viral bronchiolitis. Materials and Methods: Participants were divided into three groups, that is, 3% HS group, 0.9% normal saline group and 0.9% saline with salbutamol group. Four doses at interval of 6 h were given daily until discharge. Average CS score and length of hospital stay were compared. One-way analysis of variance paired t-test and Chi-square test were utilized for statistical analysis. Results: The mean ages of the patients in three groups were 6.03 ± 3.71, 5.69 ± 3.34 and 5.48 ± 3.35 respectively. The 3rd day CS scores for all the groups were 1.0 ± 1.1, 1.9 ± 1.1 and 3.3 ± 0.5 respectively (P = 0.000). The average length of hospital stay was 3.4 ± 1.7, 3.7 ± 1.9 and 4.9 ± 1.4 days respectively (P = 0.001). Conclusion: The present study concludes that 3% HS nebulization (without additional bronchodilators) is an effective and safe treatment for nonasthmatic, moderately ill patients of acute bronchiolitis. The economic benefit of this comparably priced modality of treatment can be enormous in terms of hospital costs with parents returning to work sooner. PMID:27141475

  12. Effectiveness of 3% hypertonic saline nebulization in acute bronchiolitis among Indian children: A quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh V Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the effects of 3% hypertonic saline (HS and 0.9% normal saline with nebulized 0.9% normal saline with salbutamol in patients of acute viral bronchiolitis. Materials and Methods: Participants were divided into three groups, that is, 3% HS group, 0.9% normal saline group and 0.9% saline with salbutamol group. Four doses at interval of 6 h were given daily until discharge. Average CS score and length of hospital stay were compared. One-way analysis of variance paired t-test and Chi-square test were utilized for statistical analysis. Results: The mean ages of the patients in three groups were 6.03 ± 3.71, 5.69 ± 3.34 and 5.48 ± 3.35 respectively. The 3rd day CS scores for all the groups were 1.0 ± 1.1, 1.9 ± 1.1 and 3.3 ± 0.5 respectively (P = 0.000. The average length of hospital stay was 3.4 ± 1.7, 3.7 ± 1.9 and 4.9 ± 1.4 days respectively (P = 0.001. Conclusion: The present study concludes that 3% HS nebulization (without additional bronchodilators is an effective and safe treatment for nonasthmatic, moderately ill patients of acute bronchiolitis. The economic benefit of this comparably priced modality of treatment can be enormous in terms of hospital costs with parents returning to work sooner.

  13. Lead Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... months, and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of age. A blood lead level test should be done only if the risk ... recommended if the person is symptomatic at any level below 70 mcg/dL. Because lead will pass through the blood to an unborn child, pregnant ...

  14. Efficient reduction of complex noise in passive millimeter-wavelength video utilizing Bayesian surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundhenk, T. Nathan; Baron, Josh; Matic, Roy M.

    2011-06-01

    Passive millimeter wavelength (PMMW) video holds great promise given its ability to see targets and obstacles through fog, smoke and rain. However, current imagers produce undesirable complex noise. This can come as a mixture of fast shot (snow like) noise and a slower forming circular fixed pattern. Shot noise can be removed by a simple gain style filter. However, this can produce blurring of objects in the scene. To alleviate this, we measure the amount of Bayesian surprise in videos. Bayesian surprise is feature change in time which is abrupt, but cannot be accounted for as shot noise. Surprise is used to attenuate the shot noise filter in locations of high surprise. Since high Bayesian surprise in videos is very salient to observers, this reduces blurring particularly in places where people visually attend. Fixed pattern noise is removed after the shot noise using a combination of Non-uniformity correction (NUC) and Eigen Image Wavelet Transformation. The combination allows for online removal of time varying fixed pattern noise even when background motion may be absent. It also allows for online adaptation to differing intensities of fixed pattern noise. The fixed pattern and shot noise filters are all efficient allowing for real time video processing of PMMW video. We show several examples of PMMW video with complex noise that is much cleaner as a result of the noise removal. Processed video clearly shows cars, houses, trees and utility poles at 20 frames per second.

  15. Early free access to hypertonic NaCl solution induces a long-term effect on drinking, brain cell activity and gene expression of adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchione, A F; Beas, C; Dadam, F M; Caeiro, X E; Godino, A; Ponce, L F; Amigone, J L; Vivas, L

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to an altered osmotic environment during a pre/postnatal period can differentially program the fluid intake and excretion pattern profile in a way that persists until adulthood. However, knowledge about the programming effects on the underlying brain neurochemical circuits of thirst and hydroelectrolyte balance, and its relation with behavioral outputs, is limited. We evaluated whether early voluntary intake of hypertonic NaCl solution may program adult offspring fluid balance, plasma vasopressin, neural activity, and brain vasopressin and angiotensinergic receptor type 1a (AT1a)-receptor gene expression. The manipulation (M) period covered dams from 1 week before conception until offspring turned 1-month-old. The experimental groups were (i) Free access to hypertonic NaCl solution (0.45 M NaCl), food (0.18% NaCl) and water [M-Na]; and (ii) Free access to food and water only [M-Ctrol]. Male offspring (2-month-old) were subjected to iv infusion (0.15 ml/min) of hypertonic (1.5M NaCl), isotonic (0.15M NaCl) or sham infusion during 20 min. Cumulative water intake (140 min) and drinking latency to the first lick were recorded from the start of the infusion. Our results indicate that, after systemic sodium overload, the M-Na group had increased water intake, and diminished neuronal activity (Fos-immunoreactivity) in the subfornical organ (SFO) and nucleus of the solitary tract. They also showed reduced relative vasopressin (AVP)-mRNA and AT1a-mRNA expression at the supraoptic nucleus and SFO, respectively. The data indicate that the availability of a rich source of sodium during the pre/postnatal period induces a long-term effect on drinking, neural activity, and brain gene expression implicated in the control of hydroelectrolyte balance.

  16. A comparative study on the efficacy of 10% hypertonic saline and equal volume of 20% mannitol in the treatment of experimentally induced cerebral edema in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Ming

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline and mannitol are commonly used in the treatment of cerebral edema and elevated intracranial pressure (ICP at present. In this connection, 10% hypertonic saline (HS alleviates cerebral edema more effectively than the equal volume of 20% mannitol. However, the exact underlying mechanism for this remains obscure. This study aimed to explore the possible mechanism whereby 10% hypertonic saline can ameliorate cerebral edema more effectively than mannitol. Results Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were subjected to permanent right-sided middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO and treated with a continuous intravenous infusion of 10% HS, 20% mannitol or D-[1-3H(N]-mannitol. Brain water content (BWC as analyzed by wet-to-dry ratios in the ischemic hemisphere of SD rats decreased more significantly after 10% HS treatment compared with 20% mannitol. Concentration of serum Na+ and plasma crystal osmotic pressure of the 10% HS group at 2, 6, 12 and 18 h following permanent MCAO increased significantly when compared with 20% mannitol treated group. Moreover, there was negative correlation between the BWC of the ipsilateral ischemic hemisphere and concentration of serum Na+, plasma crystal osmotic pressure and difference value of concentration of serum Na+ and concentration of brain Na+ in ipsilateral ischemic hemisphere in the 10% HS group at the various time points after MCAO. A remarkable finding was the progressive accumulation of mannitol in the ischemic brain tissue. Conclusions We conclude that 10% HS is more effective in alleviating cerebral edema than the equal volume of 20% mannitol. This is because 10% HS contributes to establish a higher osmotic gradient across BBB and, furthermore, the progressive accumulation of mannitol in the ischemic brain tissue counteracts its therapeutic efficacy on cerebral edema.

  17. International Conference on Hypertonic Resuscitation (6th) (SALT 6), Held in Teton Village, Wyoming on 2-3 Jun 1994. Program and Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-01

    compared to 7.5% NaCI used in conventional hypertonic saline formulations (HSD: 7.5% NaCl/6% dextran 70). With IsoSal resuscitation of hemorrhage, there...H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine before HS infusion, respectively. In Group, 4 the animals were pretreated with 2 mg/kg NG-nitro- L-arginine (NNA...to 41.7 mmHg/mm) occurred lasting about 30 min. The Hi-blocker tripelen- namine significantly inhibited the -S-stimulated LVC. Ranitidine pretreatment

  18. Complications Associated with Insertion of Intrauterine Pressure Catheters: An Unusual Case of Uterine Hypertonicity and Uterine Perforation Resulting in Fetal Distress after Insertion of an Intrauterine Pressure Catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara M. Rood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Insertion of intrauterine pressure catheters is a routine procedure performed in labor and delivery departments, with few associated complications. There are several reports of maternal and neonatal morbidity associated with the use of intrauterine pressure catheters and their rare adverse outcomes. We report an unusual case of uterine hypertonicity resulting in fetal distress, immediately after the placement of an intrauterine pressure catheter. An emergent Cesarean section was performed for fetal distress and revealed a 5 cm vertical rent in the posterior lower uterine segment. The uterine perforation was repaired intraoperatively. Mother and infant did well and were discharged home on postoperative day four.

  19. Complications associated with insertion of intrauterine pressure catheters: an unusual case of uterine hypertonicity and uterine perforation resulting in fetal distress after insertion of an intrauterine pressure catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Kara M

    2012-01-01

    Insertion of intrauterine pressure catheters is a routine procedure performed in labor and delivery departments, with few associated complications. There are several reports of maternal and neonatal morbidity associated with the use of intrauterine pressure catheters and their rare adverse outcomes. We report an unusual case of uterine hypertonicity resulting in fetal distress, immediately after the placement of an intrauterine pressure catheter. An emergent Cesarean section was performed for fetal distress and revealed a 5 cm vertical rent in the posterior lower uterine segment. The uterine perforation was repaired intraoperatively. Mother and infant did well and were discharged home on postoperative day four.

  20. Salience and Attention in Surprisal-Based Accounts of Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarcone, Alessandra; van Schijndel, Marten; Vogels, Jorrig; Demberg, Vera

    2016-01-01

    The notion of salience has been singled out as the explanatory factor for a diverse range of linguistic phenomena. In particular, perceptual salience (e.g., visual salience of objects in the world, acoustic prominence of linguistic sounds) and semantic-pragmatic salience (e.g., prominence of recently mentioned or topical referents) have been shown to influence language comprehension and production. A different line of research has sought to account for behavioral correlates of cognitive load during comprehension as well as for certain patterns in language usage using information-theoretic notions, such as surprisal. Surprisal and salience both affect language processing at different levels, but the relationship between the two has not been adequately elucidated, and the question of whether salience can be reduced to surprisal / predictability is still open. Our review identifies two main challenges in addressing this question: terminological inconsistency and lack of integration between high and low levels of representations in salience-based accounts and surprisal-based accounts. We capitalize upon work in visual cognition in order to orient ourselves in surveying the different facets of the notion of salience in linguistics and their relation with models of surprisal. We find that work on salience highlights aspects of linguistic communication that models of surprisal tend to overlook, namely the role of attention and relevance to current goals, and we argue that the Predictive Coding framework provides a unified view which can account for the role played by attention and predictability at different levels of processing and which can clarify the interplay between low and high levels of processes and between predictability-driven expectation and attention-driven focus. PMID:27375525

  1. Salience and attention in surprisal-based accounts of language processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eZarcone

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The notion of salience has been singled out as the explanatory factor for a diverse range oflinguistic phenomena. In particular, perceptual salience (e.g. visual salience of objects in the world,acoustic prominence of linguistic sounds and semantic-pragmatic salience (e.g. prominence ofrecently mentioned or topical referents have been shown to influence language comprehensionand production. A different line of research has sought to account for behavioral correlates ofcognitive load during comprehension as well as for certain patterns in language usage usinginformation-theoretic notions, such as surprisal. Surprisal and salience both affect languageprocessing at different levels, but the relationship between the two has not been adequatelyelucidated, and the question of whether salience can be reduced to surprisal / predictability isstill open. Our review identifies two main challenges in addressing this question: terminologicalinconsistency and lack of integration between high and low levels of representations in salience-based accounts and surprisal-based accounts. We capitalise upon work in visual cognition inorder to orient ourselves in surveying the different facets of the notion of salience in linguisticsand their relation with models of surprisal. We find that work on salience highlights aspects oflinguistic communication that models of surprisal tend to overlook, namely the role of attentionand relevance to current goals, and we argue that the Predictive Coding framework provides aunified view which can account for the role played by attention and predictability at different levelsof processing and which can clarify the interplay between low and high levels of processes andbetween predictability-driven expectation and attention-driven focus.

  2. Risk, surprises and black swans fundamental ideas and concepts in risk assessment and risk management

    CERN Document Server

    Aven, Terje

    2014-01-01

    Risk, Surprises and Black Swans provides an in depth analysis of the risk concept with a focus on the critical link to knowledge; and the lack of knowledge, that risk and probability judgements are based on.Based on technical scientific research, this book presents a new perspective to help you understand how to assess and manage surprising, extreme events, known as 'Black Swans'. This approach looks beyond the traditional probability-based principles to offer a broader insight into the important aspects of uncertain events and in doing so explores the ways to manage them.

  3. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ... OTHERS: Lead has recently been found in some plastic mini-blinds and vertical blinds which were made ...

  4. Did the FED Surprise the Markets in 2001? A Case Study for Vars with Sign Restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.

    2001-01-01

    In 2001, the Fed has lowered interest rates in a series of cuts, starting from 6.5 % at the end of 2000 to 2.0 % by early November.This paper asks, whether the Federal Reserve Bank has been surprising the markets, taking as given the conventional view about the effect of monetary policy shocks.New

  5. Surprise Gift” Purchases of Small Electric Appliances: A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vanhamme (Joëlle); C.J.P.M. de Bont (Cees)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractUnderstanding decision-making processes for gifts is of strategic importance for companies selling small electrical appliances as gifts account for a large part of their sales. Among all gifts, the ones that are surprising are the most valued by recipients. However, research about

  6. Surprising convergence of the Monte Carlo renormalization group for the three-dimensional Ising model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Dorit; Brandt, Achi; Swendsen, Robert H

    2017-05-01

    We present a surprisingly simple approach to high-accuracy calculations of the critical properties of the three-dimensional Ising model. The method uses a modified block-spin transformation with a tunable parameter to improve convergence in the Monte Carlo renormalization group. The block-spin parameter must be tuned differently for different exponents to produce optimal convergence.

  7. Bagpipes and Artichokes: Surprise as a Stimulus to Learning in the Elementary Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Bonnie Schaffhauser

    2016-01-01

    Incorporating surprise into music instruction can stimulate student attention, curiosity, and interest. Novelty focuses attention in the reticular activating system, increasing the potential for brain memory storage. Elementary ages are ideal for introducing novel instruments, pieces, composers, or styles of music. Young children have fewer…

  8. The Educational Philosophies of Mordecai Kaplan and Michael Rosenak: Surprising Similarities and Illuminating Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Jeffrey; Caplan, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The thoughts of Mordecai Kaplan and Michael Rosenak present surprising commonalities as well as illuminating differences. Similarities include the perception that Judaism and Jewish education are in crisis, the belief that Jewish peoplehood must include commitment to meaningful content, the need for teachers to teach from a position of…

  9. Surprise, Memory, and Retrospective Judgment Making: Testing Cognitive Reconstruction Theories of the Hindsight Bias Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Ivan K.

    2009-01-01

    Hindsight bias has been shown to be a pervasive and potentially harmful decision-making bias. A review of 4 competing cognitive reconstruction theories of hindsight bias revealed conflicting predictions about the role and effect of expectation or surprise in retrospective judgment formation. Two experiments tested these predictions examining the…

  10. Did the FED Surprise the Markets in 2001? A Case Study for Vars with Sign Restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.

    2001-01-01

    In 2001, the Fed has lowered interest rates in a series of cuts, starting from 6.5 % at the end of 2000 to 2.0 % by early November.This paper asks, whether the Federal Reserve Bank has been surprising the markets, taking as given the conventional view about the effect of monetary policy shocks.New e

  11. Combined radiofrequency ablation and acetic acid-hypertonic saline solution instillation: an in vivo study of rabbit liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong-Min; Han, Joon-Koo; Kim, Se-Hyung; Choi, Byung-Ihn [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Kon; Kim, Sang-Won [Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-15

    We wanted to determine whether combined radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and acetic acid-hypertonic saline solution (AHS) instillation can increase the extent of thermally mediated coagulation in in vivo rabbit liver tissue. We also wished to determine the optimal concentration of the solution in order to maximize its effect on extent of the RFA-induced coagulation. Forty thermal ablation zones were produced in 40 rabbits by using a 17-gauge internally cooled electrode with a 1-cm active tip under ultrasound guidance. The rabbits were assigned to one of four groups: group A: RFA alone (n=10); group B: RFA with 50% AHS instillation (n=10); group C: RFA with 25% AHS instillation (n=10); group D: RFA with 15% AHS instillation (n=10). A range of acetic acid concentrations diluted in 36% NaCl to a total volume of 2 mL were instilled into the liver before RFA. The RF energy (30W) was applied for three minutes. After RFA, in each group, the maximum diameters to the thermal ablation zones in the gross specimens were compared. Technical success and the complication that arose were evaluated by CT and on the basis of autopsy findings. All procedures are technically successful. There were six procedure-related complications (6/40; 15%); two localized perihepatic hematomas and four chemical peritonitis. The incidence of chemical peritonitis was highest for group B with the 50% AHS solution instillation (30%). With instillation of 15% AHS solution, a marked decrease of tissue impedance (24.5 {+-} 15.6 {omega}) and an increase of current (250 mA) occurred as compared to RFA alone. With instillation of the solutions before RFA (group B, C and D). this produced a greater mean diameter of coagulation necrosis than the diameters for rabbits not instilled with the solution (group A) ({rho}<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between group B, C, and D. Combined AHS instillation and RFA can increase the dimension of coagulation necrosis in the liver with a single

  12. Ecotoxicology: Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuhammer, A.M.; Beyer, W.N.; Schmitt, C.J.; Jorgensen, Sven Erik; Fath, Brian D.

    2008-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a naturally occurring metallic element; trace concentrations are found in all environmental media and in all living things. However, certain human activities, especially base metal mining and smelting; combustion of leaded gasoline; the use of Pb in hunting, target shooting, and recreational angling; the use of Pb-based paints; and the uncontrolled disposal of Pb-containing products such as old vehicle batteries and electronic devices have resulted in increased environmental levels of Pb, and have created risks for Pb exposure and toxicity in invertebrates, fish, and wildlife in some ecosystems.

  13. Influence of hypertonic sodium chloride hydroxyethyl starch 40 injection on cardiac and pulmonary function state of patients with radical surgery of esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Wang; Wen-Yun Xu; Juan Pu; Qing-Qing Zhang; Mou-Li Tian

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the influence degree of hypertonic sodium chloride hydroxyethyl starch 40 injection (HSH 40) for the cardiac and pulmonary function state of patients with radical surgery of esophageal cancer.Methods:A total of 60 patients with radical surgery of esophageal cancer in our hospital from January 2014 to January 2016 were divided into the control group and the observation group, and 30 cases in each group according to the method of random number table. The control group was treated with conventional treatment, and the observation group was treated with HSH 40 on the treatment of the control group. The cardiac and pulmonary function indexes of two groups before and after the treatment at different time after the treatment were compared.Results:The hemodynamic indexes, pulmonary circulation indexes, right heart function indexes and oxygenation indexes of the two groups before the treatment had no significant differences (allP>0.05), while the hemodynamic indexes, pulmonary circulation indexes, right heart function indexes and oxygenation indexes of the observation group at different time after treatment were all significantly better than those of the control group(allP>0.05).Conclusions:The influence of hypertonic sodium chloride hydroxyethyl starch 40 injection for the cardiac and pulmonary function state of patients with radical surgery of esophageal cancer is better, and the application effect for the surgical patients is better.

  14. A physiologically-motivated compartment-based model of the effect of inhaled hypertonic saline on mucociliary clearance and liquid transport in cystic fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Markovetz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cystic Fibrosis (CF lung disease is characterized by liquid hyperabsorption, airway surface dehydration, and impaired mucociliary clearance (MCC. Herein, we present a compartment-based mathematical model of the airway that extends the resolution of functional imaging data. METHODS: Using functional imaging data to inform our model, we developed a system of mechanism-motivated ordinary differential equations to describe the mucociliary clearance and absorption of aerosolized radiolabeled particle and small molecules probes from human subjects with and without CF. We also utilized a novel imaging metric in vitro to gauge the fraction of airway epithelial cells that have functional ciliary activity. RESULTS: This model, and its incorporated kinetic rate parameters, captures the MCC and liquid dynamics of the hyperabsorptive state in CF airways and the mitigation of that state by hypertonic saline treatment. CONCLUSIONS: We postulate, based on the model structure and its ability to capture clinical patient data, that patients with CF have regions of airway with diminished MCC function that can be recruited with hypertonic saline treatment. In so doing, this model structure not only makes a case for durable osmotic agents used in lung-region specific treatments, but also may provide a possible clinical endpoint, the fraction of functional ciliated airway.

  15. The Most Distant Mature Galaxy Cluster - Young, but surprisingly grown-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Astronomers have used an armada of telescopes on the ground and in space, including the Very Large Telescope at ESO's Paranal Observatory in Chile to discover and measure the distance to the most remote mature cluster of galaxies yet found. Although this cluster is seen when the Universe was less than one quarter of its current age it looks surprisingly similar to galaxy clusters in the current Universe. "We have measured the distance to the most distant mature cluster of galaxies ever found", says the lead author of the study in which the observations from ESO's VLT have been used, Raphael Gobat (CEA, Paris). "The surprising thing is that when we look closely at this galaxy cluster it doesn't look young - many of the galaxies have settled down and don't resemble the usual star-forming galaxies seen in the early Universe." Clusters of galaxies are the largest structures in the Universe that are held together by gravity. Astronomers expect these clusters to grow through time and hence that massive clusters would be rare in the early Universe. Although even more distant clusters have been seen, they appear to be young clusters in the process of formation and are not settled mature systems. The international team of astronomers used the powerful VIMOS and FORS2 instruments on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) to measure the distances to some of the blobs in a curious patch of very faint red objects first observed with the Spitzer space telescope. This grouping, named CL J1449+0856 [1], had all the hallmarks of being a very remote cluster of galaxies [2]. The results showed that we are indeed seeing a galaxy cluster as it was when the Universe was about three billion years old - less than one quarter of its current age [3]. Once the team knew the distance to this very rare object they looked carefully at the component galaxies using both the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based telescopes, including the VLT. They found evidence suggesting that most of the

  16. Leading men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    2016-01-01

    Through a systematic comparison of c. 50 careers leading to the koinarchate or high priesthood of Asia, Bithynia, Galatia, Lycia, Macedonia and coastal Pontus, as described in funeral or honorary inscriptions of individual koinarchs, it is possible to identify common denominators but also...

  17. Lead grids

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    One of the 150 lead grids used in the multiwire proportional chamber g-ray detector. The 0.75 mm diameter holes are spaced 1 mm centre to centre. The grids were made by chemical cutting techniques in the Godet Workshop of the SB Physics.

  18. Who Leads China's Leading Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Futao

    2017-01-01

    This study attempts to identify the major characteristics of two different groups of institutional leaders in China's leading universities. The study begins with a review of relevant literature and theory. Then, there is a brief introduction to the selection of party secretaries, deputy secretaries, presidents and vice presidents in leading…

  19. Surprising electronic structure of the BeH- dimer: a full-configuration-interaction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdicchio, Marco; Bendazzoli, Gian Luigi; Evangelisti, Stefano; Leininger, Thierry

    2013-01-10

    The electronic structure of the beryllium hydride anion, BeH(-), was investigated at valence full-configuration-interaction (FCI) level, using large cc-pV6Z basis sets. It appears that there is a deep change of the wave function nature as a function of the internuclear distance: the ion structure goes from a weakly bonded Be···H(-) complex, at long distance, to a rather strongly bonded system (more than 2 eV) at short distance, having a (:Be-H)(-) Lewis structure. In this case, it is the beryllium atom that formally bears the negative charge, a surprising result in view of the fact that it is the hydrogen atom that has a larger electronegativity. Even more surprisingly, at very short distances the average position of the total electronic charge is close to the beryllium atom but on the opposite side with respect to the hydrogen position.

  20. Investigating locality effects and surprisal in written English syntactic choice phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Rajakrishnan; van Schijndel, Marten; White, Michael; Schuler, William

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the extent to which syntactic choice in written English is influenced by processing considerations as predicted by Gibson's (2000) Dependency Locality Theory (DLT) and Surprisal Theory (Hale, 2001; Levy, 2008). A long line of previous work attests that languages display a tendency for shorter dependencies, and in a previous corpus study, Temperley (2007) provided evidence that this tendency exerts a strong influence on constituent ordering choices. However, Temperley's study included no frequency-based controls, and subsequent work on sentence comprehension with broad-coverage eye-tracking corpora found weak or negative effects of DLT-based measures when frequency effects were statistically controlled for (Demberg & Keller, 2008; van Schijndel, Nguyen, & Schuler 2013; van Schijndel & Schuler, 2013), calling into question the actual impact of dependency locality on syntactic choice phenomena. Going beyond Temperley's work, we show that DLT integration costs are indeed a significant predictor of syntactic choice in written English even in the presence of competing frequency-based and cognitively motivated control factors, including n-gram probability and PCFG surprisal as well as embedding depth (Wu, Bachrach, Cardenas, & Schuler, 2010; Yngve, 1960). Our study also shows that the predictions of dependency length and surprisal are only moderately correlated, a finding which mirrors Dember & Keller's (2008) results for sentence comprehension. Further, we demonstrate that the efficacy of dependency length in predicting the corpus choice increases with increasing head-dependent distances. At the same time, we find that the tendency towards dependency locality is not always observed, and with pre-verbal adjuncts in particular, non-locality cases are found more often than not. In contrast, surprisal is effective in these cases, and the embedding depth measures further increase prediction accuracy. We discuss the implications of our findings for theories of

  1. Surprise and sense making: what newcomers experience in entering unfamiliar organizational settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, M R

    1980-06-01

    Growing disillusionment among new members of organizations has been traced to inadequacies in approaches to organizational entry. Current directions of research on organizational entry and their limitations are described, and a new perspective is proposed. The new perspective identifies key features of newcomers' entry experiences, including surprise, contrast, and change, and describes the sense-making processes by which individuals cope with their entry experiences. Implications for research and practice on organizational entry are drawn.

  2. Each individual is a surprise: a conversation with Marianne Horney Eckardt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Jeffrey B

    2014-06-01

    "Each Individual is a Surprise" is a brief account of a dialogue between Marianne Horney Eckardt and myself about the state of psychoanalysis and the psychoanalytic process, the danger of idolatry, the damaging impact of psychoanalytic schools when they create a standardized and pathologizing approach to people, the value of curiosity and humility and retaining one's clinical creativity. The role of Rank, Horney, Sullivan, and Fromm in Dr. Eckardt's long life and rich work is touched upon.

  3. Leading Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogner, Karl-Heinz

    2017-01-01

    and technical engineering; Smart Cities) is very prominent in the traditional mass media discourse, in PR / PA of tech companies and traditional municipal administrations; whereas the second one (participation; Livable Cities) is mostly enacted in social media, (local) initiatives, movements, (virtual......) communities, new forms of urban governance in municipal administration and co-competitive city networks. Both forms seem to struggle for getting voice and power in the discourses, negotiations, struggles, and conflicts in Urban Governance about the question how to manage or lead (in) a city. Talking about...

  4. Surprise and Opportunity for Learning in Grand Canyon: the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore S. Melis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With a focus on resources of the Colorado River ecosystem below Glen Canyon Dam, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program has included a variety of experimental policy tests, ranging from manipulation of water releases from the dam to removal of non-native fish within Grand Canyon National Park. None of these field-scale experiments has yet produced unambiguous results in terms of management prescriptions. But there has been adaptive learning, mostly from unanticipated or surprising resource responses relative to predictions from ecosystem modeling. Surprise learning opportunities may often be viewed with dismay by some stakeholders who might not be clear about the purpose of science and modeling in adaptive management. However, the experimental results from the Glen Canyon Dam program actually represent scientific successes in terms of revealing new opportunities for developing better river management policies. A new long-term experimental management planning process for Glen Canyon Dam operations, started in 2011 by the U.S. Department of the Interior, provides an opportunity to refocus management objectives, identify and evaluate key uncertainties about the influence of dam releases, and refine monitoring for learning over the next several decades. Adaptive learning since 1995 is critical input to this long-term planning effort. Embracing uncertainty and surprise outcomes revealed by monitoring and ecosystem modeling will likely continue the advancement of resource objectives below the dam, and may also promote efficient learning in other complex programs.

  5. A COMPARATIVE STUDY TO ASSESS THE EFFE CTS OF NEBULISED 3% HYPERTONIC SALINE, 0.9% NORMAL SALINE AND SALBUTALMOL IN MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE BRONCHIOLITIS AMONG INDIAN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of nebulised 3% hypertonic saline , 0.9% saline and salbutamol in patients of acute bronchiolitis . DESIGN: R andomised controlled trial . SETTING: tertiary care teaching hospital . MATERIAL AND METHODS: 100 Children with age 1 to 24 months admitted in hospital with clinical diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis for 2 consecutive years were included in the study. Participants were divided into 3 groups – 3% hypertonic saline (HS , 0.9% norm al saline and salbutalmol. 4 doses of nebulisation at an interval of 6 hours were given daily in each group till discharge. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients in the study population was 5.7 ± 3.4 months. Maximum number of the patients i.e. 65.7% belong ed to the age group of 0 - 6 months. There was male preponderance in all 3 groups. Baseline Clinical Severity (CS scores in 3%HS , 0.9% Normal Saline and Salbutamol groups were 5.9±1.5 , 5.5±1.0 and 5.1±2.3 respectively (p=0.146. After treatment , the CS scor es dropped to 1.0±1.1 , 3.3±0.5 and 1.9±1.1 in 3%HS , 0.9% Normal Saline and Salbutamol groups respectively on the 3 rd day of treatment (p<0.01. Length of hospital stay in 3% HS , 0.9% Normal Saline and Salbutamol groups was 3.4±1.7 , 4.9±1.4 and 3.7±1.9 days respectively , which was found to be statistically significant (p= 0.001. CONCLUSION: 3% Hypertonic Saline nebulization (without additional bronchodilators is an effective and safe treatment in patients of acute bronchiolitis. It significantly reduces th e CS scores and length of hospital stay as compared to 0.9% Normal Saline and Salbutamol nebulizations.

  6. PGE(2) EP(3) receptor downregulates COX-2 expression in the medullary thick ascending limb induced by hypertonic NaCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shoujin; Hernandez, Alejandra; Quiroz-Munoz, Mariana; Cespedes, Carlos; Vio, Carlos P; Ferreri, Nicholas R

    2014-09-15

    We tested the hypothesis that inhibition of EP3 receptors enhances cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in the thick ascending limb (TAL) induced by hypertonic stimuli. COX-2 protein expression in the outer medulla increased approximately twofold in mice given free access to 1% NaCl in the drinking water for 3 days. The increase was associated with an approximate threefold elevation in COX-2 mRNA accumulation and an increase in PGE2 production by isolated medullary (m)TAL tubules from 77.3 ± 8.4 to 165.7 ± 10.8 pg/mg protein. Moreover, administration of NS-398 abolished the increase in PGE2 production induced by 1% NaCl. EP3 receptor mRNA levels also increased approximately twofold in the outer medulla of mice that ingested 1% NaCl. The selective EP3 receptor antagonist L-798106 increased COX-2 mRNA by twofold in mTAL tubules, and the elevation in COX-2 protein induced by 1% NaCl increased an additional 50% in mice given L-798106. COX-2 mRNA in primary mTAL cells increased twofold in response to media made hypertonic by the addition of NaCl (400 mosmol/kg H2O). L-798106 increased COX-2 mRNA twofold in isotonic media and fourfold in cells exposed to 400 mosmol/kg H2O. PGE2 production by mTAL cells increased from 79.3 ± 4.6 to 286.7 ± 6.3 pg/mg protein after challenge with 400 mosmol/kg H2O and was inhibited in cells transiently transfected with a lentivirus short hairpin RNA construct targeting exon 5 of COX-2 to silence COX-2. Collectively, the data suggest that local hypertonicity in the mTAL is associated with an increase in COX-2 expression concomitant with elevated EP3 receptor expression, which limits COX-2 activity in this segment of the nephron. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Surprise and Uncertainty—Framing Regional Geohazards in the Theory of Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate M. W. Ratter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the concepts of uncertainty and surprise as key variables of a socio-ecological system’s behavior in the context of the theory of complexity. Experiences from the past have shown that living with uncertainty is part of our daily life and surprises are only surprising because our perspective of system trajectories is basically linear and non-dynamic. The future of humanity is dependent on the understanding of the system’s behavior and needs a change in perspective of linearity to non-linearity and from the planning imperative to a management hedging uncertainty and surprise. In the context of humanity’s future, the theory of complexity offers a new perspective on system trajectories and their understanding of surprises and uncertainty. There is a need for a Gestaltwechsel—a change in perception—which helps to see things differently and fosters the search for new answers to emerging questions at the human-nature interface. Drawing on the case study of hazard management the paper will explain the necessity of analysis system’s behavior and the taking into account of multi-agent behavior on the micro level which led to emergent behavior on the macro-level of the system. Regional geohazards are explained as the regional impact of an uncontrolled risk based on a state of a natural feature that has a direct impact on a regional population being affected by the appearance of a hazard and its development into damage. By acting in space, time and connectivity, people construct hazardscapes and change risk into regional geohazards. This concept shows relevance for future mitigation and adaptation measures. The theory of complexity can help in engendering the necessary shift in perspective. What is non-linear dynamic thinking as suggested by the theory of complexity? Why is the consideration of the system’s behavior crucial and not just the number of system’s elements? What is the role of agents in these systems? In

  8. Influences of hypertonic and hypovolemic treatments on vasopressin response in propylthiouracil (PTU) induced hypothyroid rat and effect on supplementation with L-thyroxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Leyla; Mogulkoc, R; Baltaci, A K

    2010-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of L-thyroxine treatment on plasma vasopressin (AVP) levels in rats with hypothyroidism induced by propylthiouracil (PTU). Animals were separated into three groups each having 6 rats: control, PTU, PTU+L-thyroxine groups. Then, the groups were further divided into 3 sub-groups including 6 rats (a; basal, b; hypertonic stimulated and c; hypovolemic stimulated). At the end of the experiments all rats were decapitated in order to obtain plasma samples for analysis in terms of Hct, osmolality, TT 3 , TT 4 and vasopressin. Haematocrit (Hct) levels were the highest in hypovolemic stimulated sub-group (P PTU group and the highest in the L-thyroxine treated group (P PTU group (P PTU-induced hypothyroidism. However, L-thyroxine treatment following hypothyroidism prevents this reduction.

  9. Small volume hypertonic resuscitation of circulatory shock Soluções hipertônicas para reanimação de pacientes em choque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Rocha-e-Silva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Small volume hypertonic resuscitation is a relatively new conceptual approach to shock therapy. It was originally based on the idea that a relatively large blood volume expansion could be obtained by administering a relatively small volume of fluid, taking advantage of osmosis. It was soon realized that the physiological vasodilator property of hypertonicity was a useful byproduct of small volume resuscitation in that it induced reperfusion of previously ischemic territories, even though such an effect encroached upon the malefic effects of the ischemia-reperfusion process. Subsequent research disclosed a number of previously unsuspected properties of hypertonic resuscitation, amongst them the correction of endothelial and red cell edema with significant consequences in terms of capillary blood flow. A whole set of actions of hypertonicity upon the immune system are being gradually uncovered, but the full implication of these observations with regard to the clinical scenario are still under study. Small volume resuscitation for shock is in current clinical use in some parts of the world, in spite of objections raised concerning its safety under conditions of uncontrolled bleeding. These objections stem mainly from experimental studies, but there are few signs that they may be of real clinical significance. This review attempts to cover the earlier and the more recent developments in this field.O uso de soluções hipertônicas para reanimação de pacientes em choque é um conceito relativamente novo. Baseou-se originalmente na idéia de que uma expansão volêmica significativa podia ser obtida às custas de um volume relativamente diminuto de infusão, aproveitando a propriedade física de osmose. Logo ficou claro que a capacidade fisiológica de produzir vasodilatação, compartilhada por todas as soluções hipertônicas, seria valiosa para reperfundir territórios tornados isquêmicos pelo choque, embora os malefícios da seq

  10. Urea transporters UT-A1 and UT-A3 accumulate in the plasma membrane in response to increased hypertonicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blessing, Nathan W; Blount, Mitsi A; Sands, Jeff M; Martin, Christopher F; Klein, Janet D

    2008-11-01

    The UT-A1 and UT-A3 urea transporters are expressed in the terminal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) and play an important role in the production of concentrated urine. We showed that both hyperosmolarity and vasopressin increase urea permeability in perfused rat terminal IMCDs and that UT-A1 and UT-A3 accumulate in the plasma membrane in response to vasopressin. In this study, we investigated whether hyperosmolarity causes UT-A1 and/or UT-A3 to accumulate in the plasma membrane or represents a complimentary stimulatory pathway. Rat IMCD suspensions were incubated in 450 vs. 900 mosM solutions. We biotinylated the IMCD surface proteins, collected, and analyzed them. Membrane accumulation was assessed by Western blotting of the biotinylated protein pool probed with anti-UT-A1 or anti-UT-A3. We studied the effect of NaCl, urea, and sucrose as osmotic agents. Membrane-associated UT-A1 and UT-A3 increased relative to control levels when either NaCl (UT-A1 increased 37 +/- 6%; UT-A3 increased 46 +/- 13%) or sucrose (UT-A1 increased 81 +/- 13%; UT-A3 increased 60 +/- 8%) was used to increase osmolarity. There was no increase in membrane UT-A1 or UT-A3 when urea was added. Analogously, UT-A1 phosphorylation was increased in NaCl- and sucrose- but not in urea-based hyperosmolar solutions. Hypertonicity also increased UT-A3 phosphorylation. We conclude that the increase in the urea permeability in response to hyperosmolarity reflects both UT-A1 and UT-A3 movement to the plasma membrane and may be a direct response to tonicity. Furthermore, this movement is accompanied by, and may require, increased phosphorylation in response to hypertonicity.

  11. A strange and surprising debate: mountains, original sin and 'science' in seventeenth-century England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wragge-Morley, Alexander

    2009-06-01

    It could come as a shock to learn that some seventeenth-century men of science and learning thought that mountains were bad. Even more alarmingly, some thought that God had imposed them on the earth to punish man for his sins. By the end of the seventeenth century, surprisingly many English natural philosophers and theologians were engaged in a debate about whether mountains were 'good' or 'bad', useful or useless. At stake in this debate were not just the careers of its participants, but arguments about the best ways of looking at and reckoning with 'nature' itself.

  12. Expectation and surprise determine neural population responses in the ventral visual stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egner, Tobias; Monti, Jim M; Summerfield, Christopher

    2010-12-08

    Visual cortex is traditionally viewed as a hierarchy of neural feature detectors, with neural population responses being driven by bottom-up stimulus features. Conversely, "predictive coding" models propose that each stage of the visual hierarchy harbors two computationally distinct classes of processing unit: representational units that encode the conditional probability of a stimulus and provide predictions to the next lower level; and error units that encode the mismatch between predictions and bottom-up evidence, and forward prediction error to the next higher level. Predictive coding therefore suggests that neural population responses in category-selective visual regions, like the fusiform face area (FFA), reflect a summation of activity related to prediction ("face expectation") and prediction error ("face surprise"), rather than a homogenous feature detection response. We tested the rival hypotheses of the feature detection and predictive coding models by collecting functional magnetic resonance imaging data from the FFA while independently varying both stimulus features (faces vs houses) and subjects' perceptual expectations regarding those features (low vs medium vs high face expectation). The effects of stimulus and expectation factors interacted, whereby FFA activity elicited by face and house stimuli was indistinguishable under high face expectation and maximally differentiated under low face expectation. Using computational modeling, we show that these data can be explained by predictive coding but not by feature detection models, even when the latter are augmented with attentional mechanisms. Thus, population responses in the ventral visual stream appear to be determined by feature expectation and surprise rather than by stimulus features per se.

  13. Infants’ Looking to Surprising Events: When Eye-Tracking Reveals More than Looking Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, H. Henny; Denison, Stephanie; Johnson, Scott P.

    2016-01-01

    Research on infants’ reasoning abilities often rely on looking times, which are longer to surprising and unexpected visual scenes compared to unsurprising and expected ones. Few researchers have examined more precise visual scanning patterns in these scenes, and so, here, we recorded 8- to 11-month-olds’ gaze with an eye tracker as we presented a sampling event whose outcome was either surprising, neutral, or unsurprising: A red (or yellow) ball was drawn from one of three visible containers populated 0%, 50%, or 100% with identically colored balls. When measuring looking time to the whole scene, infants were insensitive to the likelihood of the sampling event, replicating failures in similar paradigms. Nevertheless, a new analysis of visual scanning showed that infants did spend more time fixating specific areas-of-interest as a function of the event likelihood. The drawn ball and its associated container attracted more looking than the other containers in the 0% condition, but this pattern was weaker in the 50% condition, and even less strong in the 100% condition. Results suggest that measuring where infants look may be more sensitive than simply how much looking there is to the whole scene. The advantages of eye tracking measures over traditional looking measures are discussed. PMID:27926920

  14. High concentrations of NaCl induce cell swelling leading to senescence in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakami, Yoshimi; Yonekura, Ryuzo; Matsumoto, Yuko; Takauji, Yuki; Miki, Kensuke; Fujii, Michihiko; Ayusawa, Dai

    2016-01-01

    Cell swelling and retardation in DNA replication are always observed in senescent cells. When DNA replication is slowed down with RNA and protein syntheses unchanged in proliferating cells, it causes a phenomenon known as unbalanced growth. The purpose of this study is to assess the role of cell swelling in unbalanced growth in terms of senescence and investigate the mechanism underlying this phenomenon. We tried to induce cell swelling with minimum damage to cells in this study. We perturbed the osmoregulatory functions to induce cell swelling under hypotonic and hypertonic conditions in normal human fibroblasts. Addition of excess NaCl was found to induce significant cell and nuclear swelling in dose- and time-dependent manners. Excess NaCl immediately retarded DNA replication, accumulated cells at G1 phase of the cell cycle, and eventually deprived division potential of the cells. Such cells showed typical senescent cell shape followed by expression of the typical senescence-associated genes. Excess NaCl also activated ERK1/2, p38, and JNK of the mitogen activated protein kinase family. Addition of U0126, an inhibitor of ERK1/2, prevented appearance of senescent features induced by excess NaCl. These results suggest that hypertonic conditions induce cell swelling due to unbalanced growth, thereby leading to cellular senescence.

  15. Central lead administration inhibits water intake and sodium appetite in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. De-Castro-e-Silva

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated that acute third ventricle injections of lead acetate (PbAc exert a powerful antidipsogenic effect and induce a significant increase in renal sodium excretion. In the present study we confirm the antidipsogenic effect of lead and demonstrate that central administration of this metal, in minute amounts, significantly reduces salt intake both during dehydration and after central angiotensinergic stimulation. Adult male Wistar rats had the third ventricle cannulated seven days before the experiments. During this period they had free access to distilled water and hypertonic saline solution (1.5%. After a 24-h period of fluid deprivation, experimental animals received third ventricle injections of PbAc (0.3, N = 8 and 3.0 nmol/rat, N = 14 while controls received sodium acetate (NaAc; 3.0 nmol/rat, N = 10. Rats treated with PbAc at the highest dose showed a significant reduction (P<0.05 both in water and hypertonic saline intake when compared to controls. When the effect of lead administration on angiotensin II-induced water and salt intake was studied, normohydrated animals received third ventricle injections of angiotensin II (9.6 nmol/rat after pretreatment with 3.0 nmol/rat of PbAc (experimental group, N = 10 or NaAc (controls, N = 8. The group pretreated with PbAc presented a significant reduction (P<0.05 in both water and salt intake compared to controls. Thus, this study confirms the antidipsogenic effect of central lead injections and demonstrates that the presence of lead in the brain exerts a significant inhibition of sodium appetite.

  16. Surprises from the resummation of ladders in the ABJ(M) cusp anomalous dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Bonini, Marisa; Preti, Michelangelo; Seminara, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    We study the cusp anomalous dimension in N=6 ABJ(M) theory, identifying a scaling limit in which the ladder diagrams dominate. The resummation is encoded into a Bethe-Salpeter equation that is mapped to a Schroedinger problem, exactly solvable due to the surprising supersymmetry of the effective Hamiltonian. In the ABJ case the solution implies the diagonalization of the U(N) and U(M) building blocks, suggesting the existence of two independent cusp anomalous dimensions and an unexpected exponentiation structure for the related Wilson loops. While consistent with previous perturbative analysis, the strong coupling limit of our result does not agree with the string theory computation, emphasizing a difference with the analogous resummation in the N=4 case.

  17. Probing Critical Point Energies of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Surprising Indirect Gap of Single Layer WSe 2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chendong

    2015-09-21

    By using a comprehensive form of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have revealed detailed quasi-particle electronic structures in transition metal dichalcogenides, including the quasi-particle gaps, critical point energy locations, and their origins in the Brillouin zones. We show that single layer WSe surprisingly has an indirect quasi-particle gap with the conduction band minimum located at the Q-point (instead of K), albeit the two states are nearly degenerate. We have further observed rich quasi-particle electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of atomic structures and spin-orbit couplings. Such a local probe for detailed electronic structures in conduction and valence bands will be ideal to investigate how electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides are influenced by variations of local environment.

  18. OCEAN CIRCULATION. Observing the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation yields a decade of inevitable surprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srokosz, M A; Bryden, H L

    2015-06-19

    The importance of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) heat transport for climate is well acknowledged. Climate models predict that the AMOC will slow down under global warming, with substantial impacts, but measurements of ocean circulation have been inadequate to evaluate these predictions. Observations over the past decade have changed that situation, providing a detailed picture of variations in the AMOC. These observations reveal a surprising degree of AMOC variability in terms of the intraannual range, the amplitude and phase of the seasonal cycle, the interannual changes in strength affecting the ocean heat content, and the decline of the AMOC over the decade, both of the latter two exceeding the variations seen in climate models. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation occurs often in cryptogenic ischaemic stroke. Final results from the SURPRISE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Louisa; Krieger, D W; Højberg, S;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke fourfold and is associated with a poor clinical outcome. Despite work-up in compliance with guidelines, up to one-third of patients have cryptogenic stroke (CS). The prevalence of asymptomatic paroxysmal atrial...... fibrillation (PAF) in CS remains unknown. The SURPRISE project aimed at determining this rate using long-term cardiac monitoring. METHODS: Patients with CS after protocolled work-up including electrocardiography (ECG) and telemetry were included after informed consent. An implantable loop recorder (ILR...... patients (16.1%). In three patients PAF was detected by other methods before or after monitoring and was undiscovered due to device sensitivity in one case. The first event of PAF was documented at a mean of 109 days (SD ±48) after stroke onset. PAF was asymptomatic in all cases and occurred in episodes...

  20. Probing Critical Point Energies of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Surprising Indirect Gap of Single Layer WSe2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chendong; Chen, Yuxuan; Johnson, Amber; Li, Ming-Yang; Li, Lain-Jong; Mende, Patrick C; Feenstra, Randall M; Shih, Chih-Kang

    2015-10-14

    By using a comprehensive form of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have revealed detailed quasi-particle electronic structures in transition metal dichalcogenides, including the quasi-particle gaps, critical point energy locations, and their origins in the Brillouin zones. We show that single layer WSe2 surprisingly has an indirect quasi-particle gap with the conduction band minimum located at the Q-point (instead of K), albeit the two states are nearly degenerate. We have further observed rich quasi-particle electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of atomic structures and spin-orbit couplings. Such a local probe for detailed electronic structures in conduction and valence bands will be ideal to investigate how electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides are influenced by variations of local environment.

  1. Beyond surprise: the puzzle of infants' expressive reactions to expectancy violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Klaus R; Zentner, Marcel R; Stern, Daniel

    2004-12-01

    The reactions of 58 infants to expectancy violation by digitally filtering the experimenter's voice were studied in a cross-sectional design for ages 5, 7, 9, 11-12, and 14 months. The results show that behavioral freezing and changes in gaze direction, but not facial or vocal expression, are reliable responses to expectancy violation. The pattern suggests that a transition in the infant's capacity for cognitive evaluation of novel and discrepant events may occur around age 9 months. These findings confirm the consistent failure to find prototypical facial surprise reactions in research on novel or impossible situations. Componential theories of emotion, which predict adaptive behavior patterns from appraisal processes, may provide clues for underlying mechanisms and generate hypotheses on age-related changes in emotional expression. copyright (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Surprising judgments about robot drivers: Experiments on rising expectations and blaming humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Danielson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available N-Reasons is an experimental Internet survey platform designed to enhance public participation in applied ethics and policy. N-Reasons encourages individuals to generate reasons to support their judgments, and groups to converge on a common set of reasons pro and con various issues.  In the Robot Ethics Survey some of the reasons contributed surprising judgments about autonomous machines. Presented with a version of the trolley problem with an autonomous train as the agent, participants gave unexpected answers, revealing high expectations for the autonomous machine and shifting blame from the automated device to the humans in the scenario. Further experiments with a standard pair of human-only trolley problems refine these results. While showing the high expectations even when no autonomous machine is involved, human bystanders are only blamed in the machine case. A third experiment explicitly aimed at responsibility for driverless cars confirms our findings about shifting blame in the case of autonomous machine agents. We conclude methodologically that both results point to the power of an experimental survey based approach to public participation to explore surprising assumptions and judgments in applied ethics. However, both results also support using caution when interpreting survey results in ethics, demonstrating the importance of qualitative data to provide further context for evaluating judgments revealed by surveys. On the ethics side, the result about shifting blame to humans interacting with autonomous machines suggests caution about the unintended consequences of intuitive principles requiring human responsibility.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v9i1.1727

  3. Osmolality and respiratory regulation in humans: respiratory compensation for hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis is absent after infusion of hypertonic saline in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Vibeke; Brudin, Lars; Rundgren, Mats; Irestedt, Lars

    2014-10-01

    Several animal studies show that changes in plasma osmolality may influence ventilation. Respiratory depression caused by increased plasma osmolality is interpreted as inhibition of water-dependent thermoregulation because conservation of body fluid predominates at the cost of increased core temperature. Respiratory alkalosis, on the other hand, is associated with a decrease in plasma osmolality and strong ion difference (SID) during human pregnancy. We investigated the hypothesis that osmolality would influence ventilation, so that increased osmolality will decrease ventilation and decreased osmolality will stimulate ventilation in both men and women. Our study participants were healthy volunteers of both sexes (ASA physical status I). Ten men (mean 28 years; range 20-40) and 9 women (mean 33 years; range 22-43) were included. All women participated in both the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Hyperosmolality was induced by IV infusion of hypertonic saline 3%, and hypoosmolality by drinking tap water. Arterial blood samples were collected for analysis of electrolytes, osmolality, and blood gases. Sensitivity to CO2 was determined by rebreathing tests performed before and after the fluid-loading procedures. Infusion of hypertonic saline caused hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis with decreased SID in all subjects. Analysis of pooled data showed absence of respiratory compensation. Baseline arterial PCO2 (PaCO2) mean (SD) 37.8 (2.9) mm Hg remained unaltered, with lowest PaCO2 37.8 (2.9) mm Hg after 100 minutes, P = 0.70, causing a decrease in pH from mean (SD) 7.42 (0.02) to 7.38 (0.02), P acidosis was also observed during water loading. Pooled results show that PaCO2 decreased from 38.2 (3.3) mm Hg at baseline to 35.7 (2.8) mm Hg after 80 minutes of drinking water, P = 0.002, and pH remained unaltered: pH 7.43 (0.02) at baseline to pH 7.42 (0.02), P = 0.14, mean difference (confidence interval) = pH -0.007 (-0.017 to 0.003). Our results indicate

  4. A new in vivo model of pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration reveals a surprising role for transcriptional regulation in pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun ePandey

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration (PKAN is a neurodegenerative disorder with a poorly understood molecular mechanism. It is caused by mutations in Pantothenate Kinase, the first enzyme in the Coenzyme A (CoA biosynthetic pathway. Here, we developed a Drosophila model of PKAN (tim-fbl flies that allows us to continuously monitor the modeled disease in the brain. In tim-fbl flies, downregulation of fumble, the Drosophila PanK homologue in the cells containing a circadian clock results in characteristic features of PKAN such as developmental lethality, hypersensitivity to oxidative stress, and diminished life span. Despite quasi-normal circadian transcriptional rhythms, tim-fbl flies display brain-specific aberrant circadian locomotor rhythms, and a unique transcriptional signature. Comparison with expression data from flies exposed to paraquat demonstrates that, as previously suggested, pathways others than oxidative stress are affected by PANK downregulation. Surprisingly we found a significant decrease in the expression of key components of the photoreceptor recycling pathways, which could lead to retinal degeneration, a hallmark of PKAN. Importantly, these defects are not accompanied by changes in structural components in eye genes suggesting that changes in gene expression in the eye precede and may cause the retinal degeneration. Indeed tim-fbl flies have diminished response to light transitions, and their altered day/night patterns of activity demonstrates defects in light perception. This suggest that retinal lesions are not solely due to oxidative stress and demonstrates a role for the transcriptional response to CoA deficiency underlying the defects observed in dPanK deficient flies. Moreover, in the present study we developed a new fly model that can be applied to other diseases and that allows the assessment of neurodegeneration in the brains of living flies.

  5. The Nucleus of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: Lots of Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Paul R.; Rosetta Science Working Team

    2016-10-01

    ESA's Rosetta mission has made many new and unexpected discoveries since its arrival at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in August 2014. The first of these was the unusual shape of the cometary nucleus. Although bilobate nuclei had been seen before, the extreme concavities on 67P were unexpected. Evidence gathered during the mission suggests that two independent bodies came together to form 67P, rather than the nucleus being a single body that was sculpted by sublimation and/or other processes. Although not a surprise, early observations showed that the nucleus rotation period had decreased by ~22 minutes since the previous aphelion passage. A similar rotation period decrease was seen post-perihelion during the encounter. These changes likely arise from asymmetric jetting forces from the irregular nucleus. Initially, Rosetta's instruments found little evidence for water ice on the surface; the presence of surface water ice increased substantially as the nucleus approached perihelion. The nucleus bulk density, 533 ± 6 kg/m3, was measured with Radio Science and OSIRIS imaging of the nucleus volume. This confirmed previous estimates based on indirect methods that the bulk density of cometary nuclei was on the order of 500-600 kg/m3 and on measurement of the density of 9P/Tempel 1's nucleus by Deep Impact. Nucleus topography proved to be highly varied, from smooth dust-covered plains to shallow circular basins, to the very rough terrain where the Philae lander came to rest. Evidence of thermal cracking is everywhere. The discovery of cylindrical pits on the surface, typically 100-200m in diameter with similar depths was a major surprise and has been interpreted as sinkholes. "Goose-bump" terrain consisting of apparently random piles of boulders 2-3 m in diameter was another unexpected discovery. Apparent layering with scales of meters to many tens of meters was seen but there was little or no evidence for impact features. Radar tomography of the interior of the "head

  6. Investigation of the heat source(s) of the Surprise Valley Geothermal System, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, N.; Holt, C. D.; Hawkes, S.; McClain, J. S.; Safford, L.; Mink, L. L.; Rose, C.; Zierenberg, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    Concerns about environmental impacts and energy security have led to an increased interest in sustainable and renewable energy resources, including geothermal systems. It is essential to know the permeability structure and possible heat source(s) of a geothermal area in order to assess the capacity and extent of the potential resource. We have undertaken geophysical surveys at the Surprise Valley Hot Springs in Cedarville, California to characterize essential parameters related to a fault-controlled geothermal system. At present, the heat source(s) for the system are unknown. Igneous bodies in the area are likely too old to have retained enough heat to supply the system, so it is probable that fracture networks provide heat from some deeper or more distributed heat sources. However, the fracture system and permeability structure remain enigmatic. The goal of our research is to identify the pathways for fluid transport within the Surprise Valley geothermal system using a combination of geophysical methods including active seismic surveys and short- and long-period magnetotelluric (MT) surveys. We have collected 14 spreads, consisting of 24 geophones each, of active-source seismic data. We used a "Betsy Gun" source at 8 to 12 locations along each spread and have collected and analyzed about 2800 shot-receiver pairs. Seismic velocities reveal shallow lake sediments, as well as velocities consistent with porous basalts. The latter, with velocities of greater than 3.0 km/s, lie along strike with known hot springs and faulted and tilted basalt outcrops outside our field area. This suggests that basalts may provide a permeable pathway through impermeable lake deposits. We conducted short-period (10Hz-60kHz) MT measurements at 33 stations. Our short-period MT models indicate shallow resistive blocks (>100Ωm) with a thin cover of more conductive sediments ( 10Ωm) at the surface. Hot springs are located in gaps between resistive blocks and are connected to deeper low

  7. Nebulized hypertonic saline treatment reduces both rate and duration of hospitalization for acute bronchiolitis in infants: an updated meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Ju; Lee, Wen-Li; Wang, Chuang-Ming; Chou, Hsin-Hsu

    2014-12-01

    Nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) treatment reduced the length of hospitalization in infants with acute bronchiolitis in a previous meta-analysis. However, there was no reduction in the admission rate. We hypothesized that nebulized HS treatment might significantly decrease both the duration and the rate of hospitalization if more randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) without a language restriction. A meta-analysis was performed based on the efficacy of nebulized HS treatment in infants with acute bronchiolitis. We used weighted mean difference (WMD) and risk ratio as effect size metrics. Eleven studies were identified that enrolled 1070 infants. Nebulized HS treatment significantly decreased the duration and rate of hospitalization compared with nebulized normal saline (NS) [duration of hospitalization: WMD = -0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -1.38 to -0.54, p bronchiolitis infants post-treatment (Day 1: WMD = -0.77, 95% CI = -1.30 to -0.24, p = 0.005; Day 2: WMD = -0.85, 95% CI = -1.30 to -0.39, p bronchiolitis in infants.

  8. Comparison of 7.2% hypertonic saline - 6% hydroxyethyl starch solution and 6% hydroxyethyl starch solution after the induction of anesthesia in patients undergoing elective neurosurgical procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liujiazi Shao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The ideal solution for fluid management during neurosurgical procedures remains controversial. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a 7.2% hypertonic saline - 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HS-HES solution and a 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES solution on clinical, hemodynamic and laboratory variables during elective neurosurgical procedures. METHODS: Forty patients scheduled for elective neurosurgical procedures were randomly assigned to the HS-HES group orthe HES group. Afterthe induction of anesthesia, patients in the HS-HES group received 250 mL of HS-HES (500 mL/h, whereas the patients in the HES group received 1,000 mL of HES (1000 mL/h. The monitored variables included clinical, hemodynamic and laboratory parameters. Chictr.org: ChiCTR-TRC-12002357 RESULTS: The patients who received the HS-HES solution had a significant decrease in the intraoperative total fluid input (p0.05. Moreover, compared with the HES group, the HS-HES group had significantly higher plasma concentrations of sodium and chloride, increasing the osmolality (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that HS-HES reduced the volume of intraoperative fluid required to maintain the patients undergoing surgery and led to a decrease in the intraoperative fluid balance. Moreover, HS-HES improved the dural tension scores and provided satisfactory brain relaxation. Our results indicate that HS-HES may represent a new avenue for volume therapy during elective neurosurgical procedures.

  9. Comparison of 7.2% hypertonic saline - 6% hydroxyethyl starch solution and 6% hydroxyethyl starch solution after the induction of anesthesia in patients undergoing elective neurosurgical procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liujiazi Shao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The ideal solution for fluid management during neurosurgical procedures remains controversial. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a 7.2% hypertonic saline - 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HS-HES solution and a 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES solution on clinical, hemodynamic and laboratory variables during elective neurosurgical procedures. METHODS: Forty patients scheduled for elective neurosurgical procedures were randomly assigned to the HS-HES group orthe HES group. Afterthe induction of anesthesia, patients in the HS-HES group received 250 mL of HS-HES (500 mL/h, whereas the patients in the HES group received 1,000 mL of HES (1000 mL/h. The monitored variables included clinical, hemodynamic and laboratory parameters. Chictr.org: ChiCTR-TRC-12002357 RESULTS: The patients who received the HS-HES solution had a significant decrease in the intraoperative total fluid input (p0.05. Moreover, compared with the HES group, the HS-HES group had significantly higher plasma concentrations of sodium and chloride, increasing the osmolality (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that HS-HES reduced the volume of intraoperative fluid required to maintain the patients undergoing surgery and led to a decrease in the intraoperative fluid balance. Moreover, HS-HES improved the dural tension scores and provided satisfactory brain relaxation. Our results indicate that HS-HES may represent a new avenue for volume therapy during elective neurosurgical procedures.

  10. Surprising results on phylogenetic tree building methods based on molecular sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonnet Gaston H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We analyze phylogenetic tree building methods from molecular sequences (PTMS. These are methods which base their construction solely on sequences, coding DNA or amino acids. Results Our first result is a statistically significant evaluation of 176 PTMSs done by comparing trees derived from 193138 orthologous groups of proteins using a new measure of quality between trees. This new measure, called the Intra measure, is very consistent between different groups of species and strong in the sense that it separates the methods with high confidence. The second result is the comparison of the trees against trees derived from accepted taxonomies, the Taxon measure. We consider the NCBI taxonomic classification and their derived topologies as the most accepted biological consensus on phylogenies, which are also available in electronic form. The correlation between the two measures is remarkably high, which supports both measures simultaneously. Conclusions The big surprise of the evaluation is that the maximum likelihood methods do not score well, minimal evolution distance methods over MSA-induced alignments score consistently better. This comparison also allows us to rank different components of the tree building methods, like MSAs, substitution matrices, ML tree builders, distance methods, etc. It is also clear that there is a difference between Metazoa and the rest, which points out to evolution leaving different molecular traces. We also think that these measures of quality of trees will motivate the design of new PTMSs as it is now easier to evaluate them with certainty.

  11. Pooling designs with surprisingly high degree of error correction in a finite vector space

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Pooling designs are standard experimental tools in many biotechnical applications. It is well-known that all famous pooling designs are constructed from mathematical structures by the "containment matrix" method. In particular, Macula's designs (resp. Ngo and Du's designs) are constructed by the containment relation of subsets (resp. subspaces) in a finite set (resp. vector space). Recently, we generalized Macula's designs and obtained a family of pooling designs with more high degree of error correction by subsets in a finite set. In this paper, as a generalization of Ngo and Du's designs, we study the corresponding problems in a finite vector space and obtain a family of pooling designs with surprisingly high degree of error correction. Our designs and Ngo and Du's designs have the same number of items and pools, respectively, but the error-tolerant property is much better than that of Ngo and Du's designs, which was given by D'yachkov et al. \\cite{DF}, when the dimension of the space is large enough.

  12. IP Eri: A surprising long-period binary system hosting a He white dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Merle, T; Masseron, T; Van Eck, S; Siess, L; Van Winckel, H

    2014-01-01

    We determine the orbital elements for the K0 IV + white dwarf (WD) system IP Eri, which appears to have a surprisingly long period of 1071 d and a significant eccentricity of 0.25. Previous spectroscopic analyses of the WD, based on a distance of 101 pc inferred from its Hipparcos parallax, yielded a mass of only 0.43 M$_\\odot$, implying it to be a helium-core WD. The orbital properties of IP Eri are similar to those of the newly discovered long-period subdwarf B star (sdB) binaries, which involve stars with He-burning cores surrounded by extremely thin H envelopes, and are therefore close relatives to He WDs. We performed a spectroscopic analysis of high-resolution spectra from the HERMES/Mercator spectrograph and concluded that the atmospheric parameters of the K0 component are $T_{\\rm eff} = 4960$ K, $\\log{g} = 3.3$, [Fe/H] = 0.09 and $\\xi = 1.5$ km/s. The detailed abundance analysis focuses on C, N, O abundances, carbon isotopic ratio, light (Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti) and s-process (Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, N...

  13. Surprising dissimilarities in a newly formed pair of 'identical twin' stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassun, Keivan G; Mathieu, Robert D; Cargile, Phillip A; Aarnio, Alicia N; Stempels, Eric; Geller, Aaron

    2008-06-19

    The mass and chemical composition of a star are the primary determinants of its basic physical properties-radius, temperature and luminosity-and how those properties evolve with time. Accordingly, two stars born at the same time, from the same natal material and with the same mass, are 'identical twins,' and as such might be expected to possess identical physical attributes. We have discovered in the Orion nebula a pair of stellar twins in a newborn binary star system. Each star in the binary has a mass of 0.41 +/- 0.01 solar masses, identical to within 2 per cent. Here we report that these twin stars have surface temperatures differing by approximately 300 K ( approximately 10 per cent) and luminosities differing by approximately 50 per cent, both at high confidence level. Preliminary results indicate that the stars' radii also differ, by 5-10 per cent. These surprising dissimilarities suggest that one of the twins may have been delayed by several hundred thousand years in its formation relative to its sibling. Such a delay could only have been detected in a very young, definitively equal-mass binary system. Our findings reveal cosmic limits on the age synchronization of young binary stars, often used as tests for the age calibrations of star-formation models.

  14. The Surprising Composition of the Salivary Proteome of Preterm Human Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnola, Massimo; Inzitari, Rosanna; Fanali, Chiara; Iavarone, Federica; Vitali, Alberto; Desiderio, Claudia; Vento, Giovanni; Tirone, Chiara; Romagnoli, Costantino; Cabras, Tiziana; Manconi, Barbara; Teresa Sanna, Maria; Boi, Roberto; Pisano, Elisabetta; Olianas, Alessandra; Pellegrini, Mariagiuseppina; Nemolato, Sonia; Wilhelm Heizmann, Claus; Faa, Gavino; Messana, Irene

    2011-01-01

    Saliva is a body fluid of a unique composition devoted to protect the mouth cavity and the digestive tract. Our high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-electrospray ionization-MS analysis of the acidic soluble fraction of saliva from preterm human newborn surprisingly revealed more than 40 protein masses often undetected in adult saliva. We were able to identify the following proteins: stefin A and stefin B, S100A7 (two isoforms), S100A8, S100A9 (four isoforms), S100A11, S100A12, small proline-rich protein 3 (two isoforms), lysozyme C, thymosins β4 and β10, antileukoproteinase, histone H1c, and α and γ globins. The average mass value reported in international data banks was often incongruent with our experimental results mostly because of post-translational modifications of the proteins, e.g. acetylation of the N-terminal residue. A quantitative label-free MS analysis showed protein levels altered in relation to the postconceptional age and suggested coordinate and hierarchical functions for these proteins during development. In summary, this study shows for the first time that analysis of these proteins in saliva of preterm newborns might represent a noninvasive way to obtain precious information of the molecular mechanisms of development of human fetal oral structures. PMID:20943598

  15. Marine Protected Areas, Multiple-Agency Management, and Monumental Surprise in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. Kittinger

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Large, regional-scale marine protected areas (MPAs and MPA networks face different challenges in governance systems than locally managed or community-based MPAs. An emerging theme in large-scale MPA management is the prevalence of governance structures that rely on institutional collaboration, presenting new challenges as agencies with differing mandates and cultures work together to implement ecosystem-based management. We analyzed qualitative interview data to investigate multi-level social interactions and institutional responses to the surprise establishment of the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (monument in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI. The governance arrangement for the monument represents a new model in US MPA management, requiring two federal agencies and the State of Hawai‘i to collaboratively manage the NWHI. We elucidate the principal barriers to institutional cotrusteeship, characterize institutional transformations that have occurred among the partner agencies in the transition to collaborative management, and evaluate the governance arrangement for the monument as a model for MPAs. The lessons learned from the NWHI governance arrangement are critical as large-scale MPAs requiring multiple-agency management become a prevalent feature on the global seascape.

  16. You'll Never Guess Who Wrote That: 78 Surprising Authors of Psychological Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2016-07-01

    One can find psychological authors in the most unexpected places. We present a capsule summary of scholarly publications of psychological interest authored or coauthored by 78 surprising individuals, most of whom are celebrities or relatives of celebrities, historical figures, or people who have otherwise achieved visibility in academic circles, politics, religion, art, and diverse realms of popular culture. Still other publications are authored by individuals who are far better known for their contributions to popular than to academic psychology. The publications, stretching across more than two centuries, encompass a wide swath of domains of psychological inquiry and highlight the intersection of psychology with fields that fall outside its traditional borders, including public health, economics, law, neurosurgery, and even magic. Many of these scholarly contributions have enriched psychology and its allied disciplines, such as psychiatry, in largely unappreciated ways, and they illustrate the penetration of psychological knowledge into multiple scientific disciplines and everyday life. At the same time, our author list demonstrates that remarkable intellectual accomplishments in one scientific domain, such as physics, do not necessarily translate into success in psychology and underscores the distinction between intelligence, on the one hand, and critical thinking and wisdom, on the other.

  17. Surprise responses in the human brain demonstrate statistical learning under high concurrent cognitive demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Marta Isabel; Teng, Chee Leong James; Taylor, Jeremy Alexander; Rowe, Elise Genevieve; Mattingley, Jason Brett

    2016-06-01

    The ability to learn about regularities in the environment and to make predictions about future events is fundamental for adaptive behaviour. We have previously shown that people can implicitly encode statistical regularities and detect violations therein, as reflected in neuronal responses to unpredictable events that carry a unique prediction error signature. In the real world, however, learning about regularities will often occur in the context of competing cognitive demands. Here we asked whether learning of statistical regularities is modulated by concurrent cognitive load. We compared electroencephalographic metrics associated with responses to pure-tone sounds with frequencies sampled from narrow or wide Gaussian distributions. We showed that outliers evoked a larger response than those in the centre of the stimulus distribution (i.e., an effect of surprise) and that this difference was greater for physically identical outliers in the narrow than in the broad distribution. These results demonstrate an early neurophysiological marker of the brain's ability to implicitly encode complex statistical structure in the environment. Moreover, we manipulated concurrent cognitive load by having participants perform a visual working memory task while listening to these streams of sounds. We again observed greater prediction error responses in the narrower distribution under both low and high cognitive load. Furthermore, there was no reliable reduction in prediction error magnitude under high-relative to low-cognitive load. Our findings suggest that statistical learning is not a capacity limited process, and that it proceeds automatically even when cognitive resources are taxed by concurrent demands.

  18. A surprisingly simple correlation between the classical and quantum structural networks in liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, Peter; Fanourgakis, George S.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2017-08-14

    Nuclear quantum effects in liquid water have profound implications for several of its macroscopic properties related to structure, dynamics, spectroscopy and transport. Although several of water’s macroscopic properties can be reproduced by classical descriptions of the nuclei using potentials effectively parameterized for a narrow range of its phase diagram, a proper account of the nuclear quantum effects is required in order to ensure that the underlying molecular interactions are transferable across a wide temperature range covering different regions of that diagram. When performing an analysis of the hydrogen bonded structural networks in liquid water resulting from the classical (class.) and quantum (q.m.) descriptions of the nuclei with the transferable, flexible, polarizable TTM3-F interaction potential, we found that the two results can be superimposed over the temperature range of T=270-350 K using a surprisingly simple, linear scaling of the two temperatures according to T(q.m.)=aT(class)- T , where a=1.2 and T=51 K. The linear scaling and constant shift of the temperature scale can be considered as a generalization of the previously reported temperature shifts (corresponding to structural changes and the melting T) induced by quantum effects in liquid water.

  19. Polar F-layer model-observation comparisons: a neutral wind surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Sojka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a month-long continuous database of incoherent scatter radar observations of the ionosphere from the EISCAT Savlbard Radar (ESR at Longyearbyen, Norway, provides an unprecedented opportunity for model/data comparisons. Physics-based ionospheric models, such as the Utah State University Time Dependent Ionospheric Model (TDIM, are usually only compared with observations over restricted one or two day events or against climatological averages. In this study, using the ESR observations, the daily weather, day-to-day variability, and month-long climatology can be simultaneously addressed to identify modeling shortcomings and successes. Since for this study the TDIM is driven by climatological representations of the magnetospheric convection, auroral oval, neutral atmosphere, and neutral winds, whose inputs are solar and geomagnetic indices, it is not surprising that the daily weather cannot be reproduced. What is unexpected is that the horizontal neutral wind has come to the forefront as a decisive model input parameter in matching the diurnal morphology of density structuring seen in the observations.

  20. Geophysical Investigation of the Lake City Fault Zone, Surprise Valley, California, and Implications for Geothermal Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, D. K.; Glen, J. M.; Egger, A. E.; Chuchel, B. A.

    2009-12-01

    New audiomagnetotelluric (AMT), gravity, and magnetic data were collected in Surprise Valley, northwestern Basin and Range, in order to investigate the role that the Lake City Fault Zone (LCFZ) may play in controlling geothermal circulation in the area. Surprise Valley hosts an extensional geothermal system currently undergoing exploration for development on several scales. The focus of much of that exploration has been the LCFZ, a set of NW-SE-trending structures that has been suggested on the basis of (1) low-relief scarps in the NW portion of the zone, (2) dissolved mineral-rich groundwater chemistry along its length, and (3) parallelism with a strong regional fabric that includes the Brothers Fault Zone. The LCFZ extends across the valley at a topographic high, intersecting the N-S-trending basin-bounding faults where major hot springs occur. This relationship suggests that the LCFZ may be a zone of permeability for flow of hydrothermal fluids. Previous potential field data indicate that there is no vertical offset along this fault zone, and little signature at all in either the gravity or magnetic data; along with the lack of surface expression along most of its length, the subsurface geometry of the LCFZ and its influence on geothermal fluid circulation remains enigmatic. The LCFZ therefore provides an ideal opportunity to utilize AMT data, which measures subsurface resistivity and therefore - unlike potential field data - is highly sensitive to the presence of saline fluids. AMT data and additional gravity and magnetic data were collected in 2009 along 3 profiles perpendicular to the LCFZ in order to define the subsurface geometry and conductivity of the fault zone down to depths of ~ 500 m. AMT soundings were collected using the Geometrics Stratagem EH4 system, a four channel, natural and controlled-source tensor system recording in the range of 10 to 92,000 Hz. To augment the low signal in the natural field a transmitter of two horizontal-magnetic dipoles

  1. Surprise and Opportunity for Learning in Grand Canyon: the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, T. S.; Walters, C. J.; Korman, J.

    2013-12-01

    With a focus on resources of the Colorado River ecosystem downstream of Glen Canyon Dam in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area (GCNRA) and Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) of northern Arizona, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program has evaluated experimental flow and nonflow policy tests since 1990. Flow experiments have consisted of a variety of water releases from the dam within pre-existing annual downstream delivery agreements. The daily experimental dam operation, termed the Modified Low Fluctuating Flow (MLFF), implemented in 1996 to increase daily low flows and decrease daily peaks were intended to limit daily flow range to conserve tributary sand inputs and improve navigation among other objectives, including hydropower energy. Other flow tests have included controlled floods with some larger releases bypassing the dam's hydropower plant to rebuild and maintain eroded sandbars in GCNP. Experimental daily hydropeaking tests beyond MLFF have also been evaluated for managing the exotic recreational rainbow trout fishery in the dam's GCNRA tailwater. Experimental nonflow policies, such as physical removal of exotic fish below the tailwater, and experimental translocation of endangered native humpback chub from spawning habitats in the Little Colorado River (the largest natal origin site for chub in the basin) to other tributaries within GCNP have also been monitored. None of these large-scale field experiments has yet produced unambiguous results in terms of management prescriptions, owing to inadequate monitoring programs and confounding of treatment effects with effects of ongoing natural changes; most notably, a persistent warming of the river resulting from reduced storage in the dam's reservoir after 2003. But there have been several surprising results relative to predictions from models developed to identify monitoring needs and evaluate experimental design options at the start of the adaptive ecosystem assessment and management program in 1997

  2. A post-genomic surprise. The molecular reinscription of race in science, law and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duster, Troy

    2015-03-01

    The completion of the first draft of the Human Genome Map in 2000 was widely heralded as the promise and future of genetics-based medicines and therapies - so much so that pundits began referring to the new century as 'The Century of Genetics'. Moreover, definitive assertions about the overwhelming similarities of all humans' DNA (99.9 per cent) by the leaders of the Human Genome Project were trumpeted as the end of racial thinking about racial taxonomies of human genetic differences. But the first decade of the new century brought unwelcomed surprises. First, gene therapies turned out to be far more complicated than any had anticipated - and instead the pharmaceutical industry turned to a focus on drugs that might be 'related' to population differences based upon genetic markers. While the language of 'personalized medicine' dominated this frame, research on racially and ethnically designated populations differential responsiveness to drugs dominated the empirical work in the field. Ancestry testing and 'admixture research' would play an important role in a new kind of molecular reification of racial categories. Moreover, the capacity of the super-computer to map differences reverberated into personal identification that would affect both the criminal justice system and forensic science, and generate new levels of concern about personal privacy. Social scientists in general, and sociologists in particular, have been caught short by these developments - relying mainly on assertions that racial categories are socially constructed, regionally and historically contingent, and politically arbitrary. While these assertions are true, the imprimatur of scientific legitimacy has shifted the burden, since now 'admixture research' can claim that its results get at the 'reality' of human differentiation, not the admittedly flawed social constructions of racial categories. Yet what was missing from this framing of the problem: 'admixture research' is itself based upon socially

  3. Explanatory models of health and disease: surprises from within the former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I Andreeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Extract The review of anthropological theories as applied to public health by Jennifer J. Carroll (Carroll, 2013 published in this issue of TCPHEE made me recollect my first and most surprising discoveries of how differently same things can be understood in different parts of the world. Probably less unexpectedly, these impressions concern substance abuse and addiction behaviors, similarly to many examples deployed by Jennifer J. Carroll. The first of these events happened soon after the break-up of the Soviet Union when some of the most active people from the West rushed to discover what was going on behind the opening iron curtain. A director of an addiction clinic, who had just come into contact with a Dutch counterpart, invited me to join the collaboration and the innovation process he planned to launch. Being a participant of the exchange program started within this collaboration, I had an opportunity to discover how addictive behaviors were understood and explained in books (English, 1961; Kooyman, 1992; Viorst, 1986 recommended by the colleagues in the Netherlands and, as I could observe with my own eyes, addressed in everyday practice. This was a jaw-dropping contrast to what I learnt at the soviet medical university and some post-graduate courses, where all the diseases related to alcohol, tobacco, or drug abuse were considered predominantly a result of the substance intake. In the Soviet discourse, the intake itself was understood as 'willful and deliberate' or immoral behavior which, in some cases, was to be rectified in prison-like treatment facilities. In the West, quite oppositely, substance abuse was seen rather as a consequence of a constellation of life-course adversities thoroughly considered by developmental psychology. This approach was obviously deeply ingrained in how practitioners diagnosed and treated their patients.

  4. The genome of Pelobacter carbinolicus reveals surprising metabolic capabilities and physiological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aklujkar Muktak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterium Pelobacter carbinolicus is able to grow by fermentation, syntrophic hydrogen/formate transfer, or electron transfer to sulfur from short-chain alcohols, hydrogen or formate; it does not oxidize acetate and is not known to ferment any sugars or grow autotrophically. The genome of P. carbinolicus was sequenced in order to understand its metabolic capabilities and physiological features in comparison with its relatives, acetate-oxidizing Geobacter species. Results Pathways were predicted for catabolism of known substrates: 2,3-butanediol, acetoin, glycerol, 1,2-ethanediol, ethanolamine, choline and ethanol. Multiple isozymes of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, ATP synthase and [FeFe]-hydrogenase were differentiated and assigned roles according to their structural properties and genomic contexts. The absence of asparagine synthetase and the presence of a mutant tRNA for asparagine encoded among RNA-active enzymes suggest that P. carbinolicus may make asparaginyl-tRNA in a novel way. Catabolic glutamate dehydrogenases were discovered, implying that the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle can function catabolically. A phosphotransferase system for uptake of sugars was discovered, along with enzymes that function in 2,3-butanediol production. Pyruvate:ferredoxin/flavodoxin oxidoreductase was identified as a potential bottleneck in both the supply of oxaloacetate for oxidation of acetate by the TCA cycle and the connection of glycolysis to production of ethanol. The P. carbinolicus genome was found to encode autotransporters and various appendages, including three proteins with similarity to the geopilin of electroconductive nanowires. Conclusions Several surprising metabolic capabilities and physiological features were predicted from the genome of P. carbinolicus, suggesting that it is more versatile than anticipated.

  5. The analysis of eight transcriptomes from all poriferan classes reveals surprising genetic complexity in sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesgo, Ana; Farrar, Nathan; Windsor, Pamela J; Giribet, Gonzalo; Leys, Sally P

    2014-05-01

    Sponges (Porifera) are among the earliest evolving metazoans. Their filter-feeding body plan based on choanocyte chambers organized into a complex aquiferous system is so unique among metazoans that it either reflects an early divergence from other animals prior to the evolution of features such as muscles and nerves, or that sponges lost these characters. Analyses of the Amphimedon and Oscarella genomes support this view of uniqueness-many key metazoan genes are absent in these sponges-but whether this is generally true of other sponges remains unknown. We studied the transcriptomes of eight sponge species in four classes (Hexactinellida, Demospongiae, Homoscleromorpha, and Calcarea) specifically seeking genes and pathways considered to be involved in animal complexity. For reference, we also sought these genes in transcriptomes and genomes of three unicellular opisthokonts, two sponges (A. queenslandica and O. carmela), and two bilaterian taxa. Our analyses showed that all sponge classes share an unexpectedly large complement of genes with other metazoans. Interestingly, hexactinellid, calcareous, and homoscleromorph sponges share more genes with bilaterians than with nonbilaterian metazoans. We were surprised to find representatives of most molecules involved in cell-cell communication, signaling, complex epithelia, immune recognition, and germ-lineage/sex, with only a few, but potentially key, absences. A noteworthy finding was that some important genes were absent from all demosponges (transcriptomes and the Amphimedon genome), which might reflect divergence from main-stem lineages including hexactinellids, calcareous sponges, and homoscleromorphs. Our results suggest that genetic complexity arose early in evolution as shown by the presence of these genes in most of the animal lineages, which suggests sponges either possess cryptic physiological and morphological complexity and/or have lost ancestral cell types or physiological processes.

  6. A conceptual review of the psychosocial genomics of expectancy and surprise: neuroscience perspectives about the deep psychobiology of therapeutic hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Ernest L

    2002-10-01

    This conceptual review explores some speculative associations between the neuroscience of expectancy and surprise during stress and therapeutic hypnosis. Current neuroscience is exploring how novel interactions between the organism and the environment initiate cascades of gene expression, protein synthesis, neurogenesis, and healing that operate via Darwinian principles of natural variation and selection on all levels from the molecular-genomic to the subjective states of consciousness. From a neuroscience perspective, the novel and surprising experiences of consciousness appear to have as important a role as expectancy in memory, learning and behavior change in the psychobiology of therapeutic hypnosis. This paper explores how we may integrate the psychosocial genomics of expectancy and surprise in therapeutic hypnosis as a complex system of creative adaptation on all levels of human experience from mind to gene expression.

  7. Crystal structure of di-μ-chlorido-bis[dichloridobis(methanol-κOiridium(III] dihydrate: a surprisingly simple chloridoiridium(III dinuclear complex with methanol ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph S. Merola

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The reaction between IrCl3·xH2O in methanol led to the formation of small amounts of the title compound, [Ir2Cl6(CH3OH4]·2H2O, which consists of two IrCl4O2 octahedra sharing an edge via chloride bridges. The molecule lies across an inversion center. Each octahedron can be envisioned as being comprised of four chloride ligands in the equatorial plane with methanol ligands in the axial positions. A lattice water molecule is strongly hydrogen-bonded to the coordinating methanol ligands and weak interactions with coordinating chloride ligands lead to the formation of a three-dimensional network. This is a surprising structure given that, while many reactions of iridium chloride hydrate are carried out in alcoholic solvents, especially methanol and ethanol, this is the first structure of a chloridoiridium compound with only methanol ligands.

  8. How to Produce a Surprise Ending for Readers---Writing Strategies in O. Henry’s The Last Leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚雪莹

    2014-01-01

    “Twist ending”is well used by writers in a novel in order to leave readers a strong impression. In this essay, the author will focus on the narrative strategies that produce such a surprise ending in a short story, using as the example O. Henry’s The Last Leaf (1907). The author gives each of strategies O. Henry used in the novel a name and explains how it is used to produce a surprise ending, standing at the readers’perspective.

  9. Glucose control in critically ill patients in 2009: no alarms and no surprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitrowsky, Melissa; Shinotsuka, Cassia Righy; Soares, Márcio; Salluh, Jorge Ibrain Figueira

    2009-08-01

    Glucose control is a major issue in critical care since landmark publications from the last decade leading to widespread use of strict glucose control in the clinical practice. Subsequent trials showed discordant results that lead to several questions and concerns about benefits and risks of implementing an intensive glucose control protocol. In the midst of all recent controversy, we propose that a new glycemic target -150mg/dl) should be aimed. This target glucose level could offer protection against the deleterious effects of hyperglycemia and at the same time keep patient's safety avoiding hypoglicemia. The article presents a critical review of the current literature on intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients.

  10. What is the mechanism of Ketamine's rapid-onset antidepressant effect? A concise overview of the surprisingly large number of possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, S E; Bhimani, P M; Kaabe, J H; Krysiak, J T; Nanchanatt, D L; Nguyen, T N; Pough, K A; Prince, T A; Ramsey, N S; Savsani, K H; Scandlen, L; Cavaretta, M J; Raffa, R B

    2017-04-01

    Abundant clinical data now confirm that ketamine produces a remarkable rapid-onset antidepressant effect - hours or days - in contrast to the delayed onset (typically weeks) of current antidepressant drugs. This surprising and revolutionary finding may lead to the development of life-saving pharmacotherapy for depressive illness by reducing the high suicide risk associated with the delayed onset of effect of current drugs. As ketamine has serious self-limiting drawbacks that restrict its widespread use for this purpose, a safer alternative is needed. Our objective is to review the proposed mechanism(s) of ketamine's rapid-onset antidepressant action for new insights into the physiological basis of depressive illness that may lead to new and novel targets for antidepressant drug discovery. A search was conducted on published literature (e.g. PubMed) and Internet sources to identify information relevant to ketamine's rapid-acting antidepressant action and, specifically, to the possible mechanism(s) of this action. Key search words included 'ketamine', 'antidepressant', 'mechanism of action', 'depression' and 'rapid acting', either individually or in combination. Information was sought that would include less well-known, as well as well-known, basic pharmacologic properties of ketamine and that identified and evaluated the several hypotheses about ketamine's mechanism of antidepressant action. Whether the mechanistic explanation for ketamine's rapid-onset antidepressant action is related to its well-known antagonism of the NMDA (N-Methyl-d-aspartate) subtype of glutamate receptor or to something else has not yet been fully elucidated. The evidence from pharmacologic, medicinal chemistry, animal model and drug-discovery sources reveals a wide variety of postulated mechanisms. The surprising discovery of ketamine's rapid-onset antidepressant effect is a game-changer for the understanding and treatment of depressive illness. There is some convergence on NMDA receptor

  11. Prehospital resuscitation with hypertonic saline-dextran modulates inflammatory, coagulation and endothelial activation marker profiles in severe traumatic brain injured patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison Laurie J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI initiates interrelated inflammatory and coagulation cascades characterized by wide-spread cellular activation, induction of leukocyte and endothelial cell adhesion molecules and release of soluble pro/antiinflammatory cytokines and thrombotic mediators. Resuscitative care is focused on optimizing cerebral perfusion and reducing secondary injury processes. Hypertonic saline is an effective osmotherapeutic agent for the treatment of intracranial hypertension and has immunomodulatory properties that may confer neuroprotection. This study examined the impact of hypertonic fluids on inflammatory/coagulation cascades in isolated head injury. Methods Using a prospective, randomized controlled trial we investigated the impact of prehospital resuscitation of severe TBI (GCS vs 0.9% normal saline (NS, on selected cellular and soluble inflammatory/coagulation markers. Serial blood samples were drawn from 65 patients (30 HSD, 35 NS at the time of hospital admission and at 12, 24, and 48-h post-resuscitation. Flow cytometry was used to analyze leukocyte cell-surface adhesion (CD62L, CD11b and degranulation (CD63, CD66b molecules. Circulating concentrations of soluble (sL- and sE-selectins (sL-, sE-selectins, vascular and intercellular adhesion molecules (sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, pro/antiinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-10], tissue factor (sTF, thrombomodulin (sTM and D-dimers (D-D were assessed by enzyme immunoassay. Twenty-five healthy subjects were studied as a control group. Results TBI provoked marked alterations in a majority of the inflammatory/coagulation markers assessed in all patients. Relative to control, NS patients showed up to a 2-fold higher surface expression of CD62L, CD11b and CD66b on polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs and monocytes that persisted for 48-h. HSD blunted the expression of these cell-surface activation/adhesion molecules at all time-points to

  12. Animal experimentation of reimplantation of hypertonic saline-induced devitalized bone%高渗盐水灭活自体骨再植的动物实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭长亮; 杨毅; 孙馨; 郭卫

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察高渗盐水灭活自体骨的愈合过程和生物力学强度的变化,以评价自体骨高渗盐水灭活再植手术的效果,为临床应用提供基础理论依据.方法:建立新西兰大白兔尺骨段高渗盐水灭活模型,以自身对侧尺骨段生理盐水浸泡后原位再植作为对照,分别于3、6、12、24周行X线检查、三点弯曲负荷实验检查和HE染色组织学检查,对两组间生物力学数据进行t检验分析,P<0.05为差异有统计学意义.结果:X线片显示灭活骨于12周达到骨性愈合;观察组织切片,愈合过程中成骨细胞逐渐增多,分泌类骨质,新骨形成;最大破坏载荷逐渐升高,24周后达到最高[对照侧(206.25±16.64)N,实验侧(196.88±8.24)N,P>0.05].结论:高渗盐水使灭活骨愈合过程减慢,但最终灭活骨通过膜内化骨和软骨内化骨达到愈合,其中以软骨内化骨为主,生物力学强度随时间的延长进行性的升高.%Objective: To observe the healing process and the change of biomechanical properties of hypertonic saline-induced devitalized bone segment, so as to provide fundamental theory for clinical treatment. Methods: A model of New Zealand rabbit ulnar segments devitalized by hypertonic saline was established and then reimplanted in situ. The ulnar specimens were taken for examination of X-rays, light microscope and three-point-bend test at the end of 3 , 6, 12, and 24 weeks postoperatively. Results; The devitalized bone healed at the end of 12 weeks in the X-ray film. The histological examination showed that osteoblast multiplied and secreted osteoid gradually. The maximal breaking load of the devitalized bone continuously increased and reached the top at the end of 24 weeks [ control group (206.25±16.64) N vs. devitalized group (196. 88±8. 24) N, P > 0. 05 ]. Conclusion; The devitalized bone healed through intramembranous and endochondral ossification, and the endochondral ossification predominated; the biomechanical

  13. Association of out-of-hospital advanced airway management with outcomes after traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock in the ROC hypertonic saline trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Henry E; Brown, Siobhan P; MacDonald, Russell D; Dowling, Shawn K; Lin, Steve; Davis, Daniel; Schreiber, Martin A; Powell, Judy; van Heest, Rardi; Daya, Mohamud

    2014-03-01

    Prior studies suggest adverse associations between out-of-hospital advanced airway management (AAM) and patient outcomes after major trauma. This secondary analysis of data from the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Hypertonic Saline Trial evaluated associations between out-of-hospital AAM and outcomes in patients suffering isolated severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) or haemorrhagic shock. This multicentre study included adults with severe TBI (GCS ≤8) or haemorrhagic shock (SBP ≤70 mm Hg, or (SBP 71-90 mm Hg and heart rate ≥108 bpm)). We compared patients receiving out-of-hospital AAM with those receiving emergency department AAM. We evaluated the associations between airway strategy and patient outcomes (28-day mortality, and 6-month poor neurologic or functional outcome) and airway strategy, adjusting for confounders. Analysis was stratified by (1) patients with isolated severe TBI and (2) patients with haemorrhagic shock with or without severe TBI. Of 2135 patients, we studied 1116 TBI and 528 shock; excluding 491 who died in the field, did not receive AAM or had missing data. In the shock cohort, out-of-hospital AAM was associated with increased 28-day mortality (adjusted OR 5.14; 95% CI 2.42 to 10.90). In TBI, out-of-hospital AAM showed a tendency towards increased 28-day mortality (adjusted OR 1.57; 95% CI 0.93 to 2.64) and 6-month poor functional outcome (1.63; 1.00 to 2.68), but these differences were not statistically significant. Out-of-hospital AAM was associated with poorer 6-month TBI neurologic outcome (1.80; 1.09 to 2.96). Out-of-hospital AAM was associated with increased mortality after haemorrhagic shock. The adverse association between out-of-hospital AAM and injury outcome is most pronounced in patients with haemorrhagic shock.

  14. Hypertonic saline protects brain endothelial cells against hypoxia correlated to the levels of estimated glomerular filtration rate and interleukin-1β

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Long; Deng, Yi-Yu; Wang, Qiao-Sheng; Han, Yong-Li; Jiang, Wen-Qiang; Fang, Ming; Hu, Bei; Wu, Zhi-Xin; Huang, Lin-Qiang; Zeng, Hong-Ke

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to verify the protective effect of hypertonic saline (HS) on brain endothelial cells under hypoxic conditions and the relevant underlying mechanism. Methods: bEnd.3 cells were treated with oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced injury. To measure HS performance, cell viability was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium salt assay, and cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase UTP nick-end labeling staining. RNA-seq was performed to assess the expression profiles and screen the candidate genes that participated in OGD-induced injury and the HS protective effect. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot analysis were used to confirm the expression of candidate genes, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the level of interleukin (IL)-1β. Overexpression analyses were performed to confirm the functions of the differentially expressed genes. Results: HS with a concentration of 40 mmol/L NaCl had an obvious protective effect on bEnd.3 cells after OGD-induced injury, resulting in increased cell viability and a smaller percentage of apoptotic cells. According to the RNA-seq results, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was chosen as the differentially expressed gene target in this study. The qPCR and western blot analyses further confirmed that the levels of EGFR/phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor and IL-1β were enhanced after OGD-induced injury, but attenuated after treatment with 40 mmol/L of NaCl HS. Overexpressed EGFR reversed the protective effect of HS that caused low viability and high rates of apoptosis in cells. Conclusion: HS can protect endothelial cells against OGD-induced injury, but is affected by the expression of EGFR/p-EGFR and IL-1β. PMID:28072729

  15. Immune-Inflammatory and Metabolic Effects of High Dose Furosemide plus Hypertonic Saline Solution (HSS) Treatment in Cirrhotic Subjects with Refractory Ascites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellia, Chiara; Clemente, Giuseppe; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Maida, Carlo; Simonetta, Irene; Vassallo, Valerio; Di Bona, Danilo; Gulotta, Eliana; Ciaccio, Marcello; Pinto, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Patients with chronic liver diseases are usually thin as a result of hypermetabolism and malnutrition expressed by reduced levels of leptin and impairment of other adyponectins such as visfatin. Aims We evaluated the metabolic and inflammatory effects of intravenous high-dose furosemide plus hypertonic saline solutions (HSS) compared with repeated paracentesis and a standard oral diuretic schedule, in patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites. Methods 59 consecutive cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites unresponsive to outpatient treatment. Enrolled subjects were randomized to treatment with intravenous infusion of furosemide (125–250mg⁄bid) plus small volumes of HSS from the first day after admission until 3 days before discharge (Group A, n:38), or repeated paracentesis from the first day after admission until 3 days before discharge (Group B, n: 21). Plasma levels of ANP, BNP, Leptin, visfatin, IL-1β, TNF-a, IL-6 were measured before and after the two type of treatment. Results Subjects in group A were observed to have a significant reduction of serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, ANP, BNP, and visfatin, thus regarding primary efficacy endpoints, in Group A vs. Group B we observed higher Δ-TNF-α, Δ-IL-1β, Δ-IL-6, Δ-ANP, Δ-BNP, Δ-visfatin, Δ-Leptin at discharge. Discussion Our findings underline the possible inflammatory and metabolic effect of saline overload correction in treatment of cirrhosis complications such as refractory ascites, suggesting a possible role of inflammatory and metabolic-nutritional variables as severity markers in these patients. PMID:27941973

  16. Improvement of Neuroenergetics by Hypertonic Lactate Therapy in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury Is Dependent on Baseline Cerebral Lactate/Pyruvate Ratio

    KAUST Repository

    Quintard, Hervé

    2015-09-30

    Energy dysfunction is associated with worse prognosis after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recent data suggest that hypertonic sodium lactate infusion (HL) improves energy metabolism after TBI. Here, we specifically examined whether the efficacy of HL (3h infusion, 30-40 μmol/kg/min) in improving brain energetics (using cerebral microdialysis [CMD] glucose as a main therapeutic end-point) was dependent on baseline cerebral metabolic state (assessed by CMD lactate/pyruvate ratio [LPR]) and cerebral blood flow (CBF, measured with perfusion computed tomography [PCT]). Using a prospective cohort of 24 severe TBI patients, we found CMD glucose increase during HL was significant only in the subgroup of patients with elevated CMD LPR >25 (n = 13; +0.13 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.19] mmol/L, p < 0.001; vs. +0.04 [-0.05-0.13] in those with normal LPR, p = 0.33, mixed-effects model). In contrast, CMD glucose increase was independent from baseline CBF (coefficient +0.13 [0.04-0.21] mmol/L when global CBF was <32.5 mL/100 g/min vs. +0.09 [0.04-0.14] mmol/L at normal CBF, both p < 0.005) and systemic glucose. Our data suggest that improvement of brain energetics upon HL seems predominantly dependent on baseline cerebral metabolic state and support the concept that CMD LPR - rather than CBF - could be used as a diagnostic indication for systemic lactate supplementation following TBI. Copyright © 2016 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  17. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or removed safely. How are children exposed to lead? Lead-based paint and lead contaminated dust are ... What can be done to prevent exposure to lead? It is important to determine the construction year ...

  18. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us As ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Lead Air Pollution Basics How does lead get ...

  19. Lead Aprons Are a Lead Exposure Hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kevin M; Shoag, Jamie M; Kahlon, Sukhraj S; Parsons, Patrick J; Bijur, Polly E; Taragin, Benjamin H; Markowitz, Morri

    2017-05-01

    To determine whether lead-containing shields have lead dust on the external surface. Institutional review board approval was obtained for this descriptive study of a convenience sample of 172 shields. Each shield was tested for external lead dust via a qualitative rapid on-site test and a laboratory-based quantitative dust wipe analysis, flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The χ(2) test was used to test the association with age, type of shield, lead sheet thickness, storage method, and visual and radiographic appearance. Sixty-three percent (95% confidence interval [CI]: 56%-70%) of the shields had detectable surface lead by FAAS and 50% (95% CI: 43%-57%) by the qualitative method. Lead dust by FAAS ranged from undetectable to 998 μg/ft(2). The quantitative detection of lead was significantly associated with the following: (1) visual appearance of the shield (1 = best, 3 = worst): 88% of shields that scored 3 had detectable dust lead; (2) type of shield: a greater proportion of the pediatric patient, full-body, and thyroid shields were positive than vests and skirts; (3) use of a hanger for storage: 27% of shields on a hanger were positive versus 67% not on hangers. Radiographic determination of shield intactness, thickness of interior lead sheets, and age of shield were unrelated to presence of surface dust lead. Sixty-three percent of shields had detectable surface lead that was associated with visual appearance, type of shield, and storage method. Lead-containing shields are a newly identified, potentially widespread source of lead exposure in the health industry. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Lead and the Romans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Aravind; Braun, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    Lead poisoning has been a problem since early history and continues into modern times. An appealing characteristic of lead is that many lead salts are sweet. In the absence of cane and beet sugars, early Romans used "sugar of lead" (lead acetate) to sweeten desserts, fruits, and sour wine. People most at risk would have been those who…

  1. Lead and the Romans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Aravind; Braun, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    Lead poisoning has been a problem since early history and continues into modern times. An appealing characteristic of lead is that many lead salts are sweet. In the absence of cane and beet sugars, early Romans used "sugar of lead" (lead acetate) to sweeten desserts, fruits, and sour wine. People most at risk would have been those who consumed the…

  2. Jinde Lead lead smelting project starts construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On Dec.20,the lead smelting project of Jiangxi Jinde Lead started construction in Dexin as a technical renovation project on environmental treatment of Jiangxi Metallurgical Group.The project is the one with the largest investment of Provincial Metallurgical Group in non-ferrous

  3. Hypertonic saline resuscitation contributes to early accumulation of circulating myeloid-derived suppressor cells in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yuan-qiang; GU Lin-hui; ZHANG Qin; JIANG Jiu-kun; MOU Han-zhou

    2013-01-01

    Background Hemorrhagic shock is usually associated with complicated immune and inflammatory responses,which are sometimes crucial for the prognosis.As regulators of the immune and inflammatory system; proliferation,migration,distribution and activation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are intimately linked to the inflammation cascade.Methods In a model of severe hemorrhagic shock,thirty-five rats were randomly divided into control,sham,normal saline resuscitation (NS),hypertonic saline resuscitation (HTS),and hydroxyethyl starch resuscitation (HES),with seven in each group.M DSCs were analyzed by flow cytometric staining of CD11b/c+Gra+ in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC),spleen cell suspensions,and bone marrow nucleated cells (BMNC).Simultaneously,the expressions of arginase-1 (ARG-1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA in MDSCs were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).Results In the early stage after hemorrhagic shock,fluid resuscitation and emergency treatment,the MDSCs in the PBMC of NS,HTS and HES groups markedly increased,and MDSCs in BMNC of these groups decreased accordingly,significantly different to the control group.In hemorrhagic shock rats infused with HTS at the early resuscitation stage,MDSCs in PBMC increased about 2 and 4 folds,and MDSCs in BMNC decreased about 1.3 and 1.6 folds,as compared to the sham group respectively,with statistically significant difference.Furthermore,compared to the NS and HES groups,the MDSCs in PBMC of HTS group increased 1.6 and 1.8 folds with statistically significant differences; the MDSCs decrease in BMNC was not significant.However,there was no statistically significant difference in MDSCs of spleen among the five groups.In addition,compared to the control,sham,NS and HES groups,the ARG-1 and iNOS mRNA of MDSCs in PBMC,spleen and BMNC in the HTS group had the highest level of expression,but no statistically significant differences were

  4. Nebulized Hypertonic Saline Treatment Reduces Both Rate and Duration of Hospitalization for Acute Bronchiolitis in Infants: An Updated Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ju Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nebulized hypertonic saline (HS treatment reduced the length of hospitalization in infants with acute bronchiolitis in a previous meta-analysis. However, there was no reduction in the admission rate. We hypothesized that nebulized HS treatment might significantly decrease both the duration and the rate of hospitalization if more randomized controlled trials (RCTs were included. We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL without a language restriction. A meta-analysis was performed based on the efficacy of nebulized HS treatment in infants with acute bronchiolitis. We used weighted mean difference (WMD and risk ratio as effect size metrics. Eleven studies were identified that enrolled 1070 infants. Nebulized HS treatment significantly decreased the duration and rate of hospitalization compared with nebulized normal saline (NS [duration of hospitalization: WMD = −0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI = −1.38 to −0.54, p < 0.001; rate of hospitalization: risk ratio = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.37–0.93, p = 0.02]. Furthermore, nebulized HS treatment had a beneficial effect in reducing the clinical severity (CS score of acute bronchiolitis infants post-treatment (Day 1: WMD = −0.77, 95% CI = −1.30 to −0.24, p = 0.005; Day 2: WMD = −0.85, 95% CI = −1.30 to −0.39, p < 0.001; Day 3: WMD = −1.14, 95% CI = −1.69 to −0.58, p < 0.001. There was no decrease in the rate of readmission (risk ratio = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.68–1.73, p = 0.74. Nebulized HS treatment significantly decreased both the rate and the duration of hospitalization. Due to the efficacy and cost-effectiveness, HS should be considered for the treatment of acute bronchiolitis in infants.

  5. Lead - nutritional considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead poisoning - nutritional considerations; Toxic metal - nutritional considerations ... Markowitz M. Lead poisoning. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, ... Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. ...

  6. Sermon and surprise: The meaning of scheduling in broadcast radio history - and - CBC Radio 3: A disquieting revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Sahota, Anu

    2006-01-01

    Essay 1 : 'Sermon & Surprise' explores the importance of scheduling to radio's communicative uses. The essay argues that its capacity for continuous transmission and promotion of shared listening is unique to terrestrial radio. The strengths of traditional radio relative to contemporary on-demand audio media are explored. Early Canadian and British broadcasting policies and scheduling practices demonstrate how radio's programming conceits may innovatively accommodate broadcasting philosop...

  7. Hypertonic/hyperoncotic solution in hypovolemic patients: experience in the emergency room Solução hipertônica hiperoncótica em pacientes com hipovolemia: experiência na sala de admissão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riad N. Younes

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypertonic solutions have been studied extensively in the treatment of hypovolemic shock, both in experimental and clinical models. Safety, efficacy, and long-term effects on animals and patients have been evaluated. The present article reviews indications, safety, mortality rates, and outcome in patients with hemorrhagic hypovolemic shock who were treated after admission with a hypertonic/hyperoncotic solution under strict observation in the emergency room.As soluções hipertônicas têm sido estudadas no tratamento de choque hipovolêmico, tanto em protocolos experimentais quanto clínicos. A eficácia, a segurança e os efeitos a longo prazo em animais e pacientes foram avaliados. O presente estudo apresenta uma revisão da literatura sobre as indicações, as taxas de morbidade e de mortalidade e a evolução de pacientes com choque hipovolêmico, admitidos e tratados com soluções hipertônicas/hiperoncóticas, admitidos e tratados sob observação contínua na sala de emergência do pronto socorro.

  8. Surprisal analysis characterizes the free energy time course of cancer cells undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadran, Sohila; Arumugam, Rameshkumar; Herschman, Harvey; Phelps, Michael E; Levine, R D

    2014-09-09

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) initiates the invasive and metastatic behavior of many epithelial cancers. Mechanisms underlying EMT are not fully known. Surprisal analysis of mRNA time course data from lung and pancreatic cancer cells stimulated to undergo TGF-β1-induced EMT identifies two phenotypes. Examination of the time course for these phenotypes reveals that EMT reprogramming is a multistep process characterized by initiation, maturation, and stabilization stages that correlate with changes in cell metabolism. Surprisal analysis characterizes the free energy time course of the expression levels throughout the transition in terms of two state variables. The landscape of the free energy changes during the EMT for the lung cancer cells shows a stable intermediate state. Existing data suggest this is the previously proposed maturation stage. Using a single-cell ATP assay, we demonstrate that the TGF-β1-induced EMT for lung cancer cells, particularly during the maturation stage, coincides with a metabolic shift resulting in increased cytosolic ATP levels. Surprisal analysis also characterizes the absolute expression levels of the mRNAs and thereby examines the homeostasis of the transcription system during EMT.

  9. Bimolecular Excited-State Electron Transfer with Surprisingly Long-Lived Radical Ions

    KAUST Repository

    Alsam, Amani Abdu

    2015-09-02

    We explored the excited-state interactions of bimolecular, non-covalent systems consisting of cationic poly[(9,9-di(3,3’-N,N’-trimethyl-ammonium) propyl fluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-co-(9,9-dioctyl-fluorenyl-2,7-diyl)] diiodide salt (PFN) and 1,4-dicyanobenzene (DCB) using steady-state and time-resolved techniques, including femto- and nanosecond transient absorption and femtosecond infrared spectroscopies with broadband capabilities. The experimental results demonstrated that photo-induced electron transfer from PFN to DCB occurs on the picosecond time scale, leading to the formation of PFN+• and DCB-• radical ions. Interestingly, real-time observations of the vibrational marker modes on the acceptor side provided direct evidence and insight into the electron transfer process indirectly inferred from UV-Vis experiments. The band narrowing on the picosecond time scale observed on the antisymmetric C-N stretching vibration of the DCB radical anion provides clear experimental evidence that a substantial part of the excess energy is channeled into vibrational modes of the electron transfer product and that the geminate ion pairs dissociate. More importantly, our nanosecond time-resolved data indicate that the charge-separated state is very long lived ( 30 ns) due to the dissociation of the contact radical ion pair into free ions. Finally, the fast electron transfer and slow charge recombination anticipate the current donor−acceptor system with potential applications in organic solar cells.

  10. Short- and long-lasting consequences of novelty, deviance and surprise on brain and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, J; Meeter, M

    2015-08-01

    When one encounters a novel stimulus this sets off a cascade of brain responses, activating several neuromodulatory systems. As a consequence novelty has a wide range of effects on cognition; improving perception and action, increasing motivation, eliciting exploratory behavior, and promoting learning. Here, we review these benefits and how they may arise in the brain. We propose a framework that organizes novelty's effects on brain and cognition into three groups. First, novelty can transiently enhance perception. This effect is proposed to be mediated by novel stimuli activating the amygdala and enhancing early sensory processing. Second, novel stimuli can increase arousal, leading to short-lived effects on action in the first hundreds of milliseconds after presentation. We argue that these effects are related to deviance, rather than to novelty per se, and link them to activation of the locus-coeruleus norepinephrine system. Third, spatial novelty may trigger the dopaminergic mesolimbic system, promoting dopamine release in the hippocampus, having longer-lasting effects, up to tens of minutes, on motivation, reward processing, and learning and memory.

  11. A marriage full of surprises: forty-five years living with glutamate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Paul C

    2011-09-01

    Detailed kinetic studies of bovine glutamate dehydrogenase [GDH] from the 1960s revealed complexities that remain to be fully explained. In the absence of heterotropic nucleotide regulators the enzyme follows a random pathway of substrate addition but saturation with ADP enforces a compulsory-order mechanism in which glutamate is the leading substrate. The rate dependence on NAD(P)(+) concentration is complex and is probably only partly explained by negative binding cooperativity. Bovine GDH eluded successful analysis by crystallographers for 30 years but the final structural solution presented in this symposium at last provides a comprehensible framework for much of the heterotropic regulation, focussing attention on an antenna region in the C-terminal tail, a structure that is missing in the slightly smaller hexameric GDHs of lower organisms. Nonetheless, our studies with one such smaller (clostridial) GDH reveal that even without the antenna the underlying core structure still mediates homotropic cooperativity, and the ability to generate a variety of mutants has made it possible to start to dissect this machinery. In addition, this short personal review discusses a number of unresolved issues such as the significance of phospholipid inhibition and of specific interaction with mRNA, and above all the question of why it is necessary to regulate an enzyme reputedly maintaining its reactants at equilibrium and whether this might be in some way related to its coexistence with an energy-linked transhydrogenase.

  12. Mx1 and Mx2 key antiviral proteins are surprisingly lost in toothed whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Benjamin A; Marcovitz, Amir; Camp, J Gray; Jia, Robin; Bejerano, Gill

    2015-06-30

    Viral outbreaks in dolphins and other Delphinoidea family members warrant investigation into the integrity of the cetacean immune system. The dynamin-like GTPase genes Myxovirus 1 (Mx1) and Mx2 defend mammals against a broad range of viral infections. Loss of Mx1 function in human and mice enhances infectivity by multiple RNA and DNA viruses, including orthomyxoviruses (influenza A), paramyxoviruses (measles), and hepadnaviruses (hepatitis B), whereas loss of Mx2 function leads to decreased resistance to HIV-1 and other viruses. Here we show that both Mx1 and Mx2 have been rendered nonfunctional in Odontoceti cetaceans (toothed whales, including dolphins and orcas). We discovered multiple exon deletions, frameshift mutations, premature stop codons, and transcriptional evidence of decay in the coding sequence of both Mx1 and Mx2 in four species of Odontocetes. We trace the likely loss event for both proteins to soon after the divergence of Odontocetes and Mystocetes (baleen whales) ∼33-37 Mya. Our data raise intriguing questions as to what drove the loss of both Mx1 and Mx2 genes in the Odontoceti lineage, a double loss seen in none of 56 other mammalian genomes, and suggests a hitherto unappreciated fundamental genetic difference in the way these magnificent mammals respond to viral infections.

  13. VICTÓRIA GROCERY: CHALLENGES AND SURPRISES IN THAT “BE ENTREPREUNER”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Afra Neitzke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The analytical framework outlined in the case at hand presents a business woman facing management decisions that impact business’ financial welfare. Lacking funds for both venture opening and short and long term support strategies, Amelia often resorts to family resources, and as a result, the financial crisis gets worse. Inasmuch, the case illustrates the importance of using financial controls in small businesses. However, it does not limit itself to this, since it describes everyday situations directly related to these businesses. The crime of embezzlement is also contextualized by the case, regarding the poor attitude of the accounting professional. The situation narrated actually happened with an entrepreneur who, while not possessing managerial skills, decided to open a business. Although centered in the perspective of a single subject, the case above fits into the story of many Brazilian entrepreneurs - since the lack of managerial expertise reveals one of the main reasons factors related to mortality in these businesses. Fateful situations in the context of failures in management process and insufficient working capital of small enterprise may lead to the early death of business.

  14. Benzene and Its Derivatives Adsorbed on Metal Surfaces: A Bag Full of Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Scheffler, Matthias; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2014-03-01

    The study of molecule/metal interfaces is important for fundamental and applied surface science, and the electronic properties of these interfaces can be tuned by controlling their geometries. In this regard, a particular challenge for electronic structure theory is to reliably model the structure and stability of such hybrid interfaces. Here, we demonstrate that our DFT+vdWsurf method is able to describe 25 systems [e.g., benzene on Au(111) and Pt(111), thiophene/Ag(111), and DIP/Ag(111)] with an accuracy of 0.1 Å in adsorption heights and 0.1 eV in binding energies wrt. reliable experimental data. In addition, our DFT+vdWsurf calculations lead to a few peculiar findings: (1) The vdW energy can contribute more to the binding of covalently bonded systems than it does in physisorbed interfaces; (2) the binding energies of similar molecules can be identical, despite significantly different adsorption heights; (3) the physically bound (precursor) state for aromatics on Pt(111) can be prominently stabilized and long-lived, making it potentially useful in molecular switches.

  15. Cryogenic current leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zizek, F.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical, technical and design questions are examined of cryogenic current leads for SP of magnetic systems. Simplified mathematical models are presented for the current leads. To illustrate modeling, the calculation is made of the real current leads for 500 A and three variants of current leads for 1500 A for the enterprise ''Shkoda.''

  16. Learn about Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... old and younger are most susceptible to the effects of lead. Children Even low levels of lead in the blood ... simple blood test to check you or your child for lead exposure. You may also want to test your home for sources ... and Technology Lead Laws and Regulations Outreach and Grants En ...

  17. Common 5' beta-globin RFLP haplotypes harbour a surprising level of ancestral sequence mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Matthew T; Clegg, John B; Harding, Rosalind M

    2003-07-01

    Blocks of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the human genome represent segments of ancestral chromosomes. To investigate the relationship between LD and genealogy, we analysed diversity associated with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) haplotypes of the 5' beta-globin gene complex. Genealogical analyses were based on sequence alleles that spanned a 12.2-kb interval, covering 3.1 kb around the psibeta gene and 6.2 kb of the delta-globin gene and its 5' flanking sequence known as the R/T region. Diversity was sampled from a Kenyan Luo population where recent malarial selection has contributed to substantial LD. A single common sequence allele spanning the 12.2-kb interval exclusively identified the ancestral chromosome bearing the "Bantu" beta(s) (sickle-cell) RFLP haplotype. Other common 5' RFLP haplotypes comprised interspersed segments from multiple ancestral chromosomes. Nucleotide diversity was similar between psibeta and R/T-delta-globin but was non-uniformly distributed within the R/T-delta-globin region. High diversity associated with the 5' R/T identified two ancestral lineages that probably date back more than 2 million years. Within this genealogy, variation has been introduced into the 3' R/T by gene conversion from other ancestral chromosomes. Diversity in delta-globin was found to lead through parts of the main genealogy but to coalesce in a more recent ancestor. The well-known recombination hotspot is clearly restricted to the region 3' of delta-globin. Our analyses show that, whereas one common haplotype in a block of high LD represents a long segment from a single ancestral chromosome, others are mosaics of short segments from multiple ancestors related in genealogies of unsuspected complexity.

  18. Nonlocal continuum electrostatic theory predicts surprisingly small energetic penalties for charge burial in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Jaydeep P

    2011-09-14

    We study the energetics of burying charges, ion pairs, and ionizable groups in a simple protein model using nonlocal continuum electrostatics. Our primary finding is that the nonlocal response leads to markedly reduced solvent screening, comparable to the use of application-specific protein dielectric constants. Employing the same parameters as used in other nonlocal studies, we find that for a sphere of radius 13.4 Å containing a single +1e charge, the nonlocal solvation free energy varies less than 18 kcal/mol as the charge moves from the surface to the center, whereas the difference in the local Poisson model is ∼35 kcal/mol. Because an ion pair (salt bridge) generates a comparatively more rapidly varying Coulomb potential, energetics for salt bridges are even more significantly reduced in the nonlocal model. By varying the central parameter in nonlocal theory, which is an effective length scale associated with correlations between solvent molecules, nonlocal-model energetics can be varied from the standard local results to essentially zero; however, the existence of the reduction in charge-burial penalties is quite robust to variations in the protein dielectric constant and the correlation length. Finally, as a simple exploratory test of the implications of nonlocal response, we calculate glutamate pK(a) shifts and find that using standard protein parameters (ε(protein) = 2-4), nonlocal results match local-model predictions with much higher dielectric constants. Nonlocality may, therefore, be one factor in resolving discrepancies between measured protein dielectric constants and the model parameters often used to match titration experiments. Nonlocal models may hold significant promise to deepen our understanding of macromolecular electrostatics without substantially increasing computational complexity.

  19. Lead Isotopes in Highway Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, M.; Lau, S.; Green, P. G.; Stenstrom, M. K.

    2011-12-01

    Lead (Pb) isotopes have been used extensively to study the provenance of lead pollution on air, water, and sediments. In this study, we measured Pb isotopes and Pb aqueous concentration in highway runoff in three west Los Angeles sites. Those three sites, part of a long-term study sponsored by the California Department of Transportation, represent small catchment areas, and host heavy traffic. In addition, there were no inputs of sand or salt to the highway because the sites are almost completely impervious and also due to the lack of snow to be controlled. Highway runoff from the three sites was collected for 7 storms during the 2004-2005 Winter. Grab samples were collected every 15 minutes during the first hour, and hourly afterwards. A total of 202 samples were collected and filtered into five size fractions (100μm). Aqueous concentration of Pb range from 0.08μg/L to 46.95μg/L (7.98±10.89μg/L) and it is not correlated with any of the lead isotope ratios. The 208Pb/206Pb ratio ranges from 1.983 to 2.075 (2.024±0.026) and there is no statistical difference for the mean value of the 208Pb/206Pb ratio for the four particulate size fractions (0.45-8μm, 8-20μm, 20-100μm, >100μm). However, the 208Pb/206Pb ratio of nearby soils yield 2.060±0.021 and it is statistically different from the ratios obtained for the highway runoff. This hints that the lead present in highway runoff does not come from local soils. The 207Pb/206Pb ratio ranges from 0.804 to 0.847 (0.827±0.011) and there is no statistical difference for the mean value of the 207Pb/206Pb ratio for the four particulate size fractions (0.45-8μm, 8-20μm, 20-100μm, >100μm). Surprisingly, there is also no statistical difference with the 207Pb/206Pb ratio of nearby soils (0.833±0.009).

  20. Corn Ethanol: The Surprisingly Effective Route for Natural Gas Consumption in the Transportation Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szybist, James P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Curran, Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Proven reserves and production of natural gas (NG) in the United States have increased dramatically in the last decade, due largely to the commercialization of hydraulic fracturing. This has led to a plentiful supply of NG, resulting in a significantly lower cost on a gallon of gasoline-equivalent (GGE) basis. Additionally, NG is a domestic, non-petroleum source of energy that is less carbon-intensive than coal or petroleum products, and thus can lead to lower greenhouse gas emissions. Because of these factors, there is a desire to increase the use of NG in the transportation sector in the United States (U.S.). However, using NG directly in the transportation sector requires that several non-trivial challenges be overcome. One of these issues is the fueling infrastructure. There are currently only 1,375 NG fueling stations in the U.S. compared to 152,995 fueling stations for gasoline in 2014. Additionally, there are very few light-duty vehicles that can consume this fuel directly as dedicated or bi-fuel options. For example, in model year 2013Honda was the only OEM to offer a dedicated CNG sedan while a number of others offered CNG options as a preparation package for LD trucks and vans. In total, there were a total of 11 vehicle models in 2013 that could be purchased that could use natural gas directly. There are additional potential issues associated with NG vehicles as well. Compared to commercial refueling stations, the at-home refueling time for NG vehicles is substantial – a result of the small compressors used for home refilling. Additionally, the methane emissions from both refueling (leakage) and from tailpipe emissions (slip) from these vehicles can add to their GHG footprint, and while these emissions are not currently regulated it could be a barrier in the future, especially in scenarios with broad scale adoption of CNG vehicles. However, NG consumption already plays a large role in other sectors of the economy, including some that are important to

  1. Communication Management and Trust: Their Role in Building Resilience to "Surprises" Such As Natural Disasters, Pandemic Flu, and Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. H. Longstaff

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In times of public danger such as natural disasters and health emergencies, a country's communication systems will be some of its most important assets because access to information will make individuals and groups more resilient. Communication by those charged with dealing with the situation is often critical. We analyzed reports from a wide variety of crisis incidents and found a direct correlation between trust and an organization's preparedness and internal coordination of crisis communication and the effectiveness of its leadership. Thus, trust is one of the most important variables in effective communication management in times of "surprise."

  2. Lead and tap water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water contaminated with lead ... The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitors drinking water in the United States. It requires water suppliers to produce annual water quality reports. These reports include information about lead amounts, and they ...

  3. Lead and Your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who works with lead, like in auto repair, construction or in a plant that makes paint, batteries, ... who works with lead, like in auto repair, construction or in a plant that makes paint, batteries, ...

  4. Exposures to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Anna C; Hinwood, Andrea L

    2011-01-01

    The Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health hosted a workshop on Exposures to Lead. Speakers from Australia and the United States of America addressed current research knowledge on lead exposures and health effects in children, risk assessment and communication issues in dealing with lead exposure sources, different methods for assessing exposure, and the variety of scenarios where lead still remains a pollutant of concern. Mining continues to be a source of lead for many communities, and approaches to reducing exposures in these settings present particular challenges. A Perth Declaration for the Global Reduction of Childhood Lead Exposure was signed by participants of the meeting and is aimed at increasing attention to the need to continue to assess lead in the environment and to develop strategies to reduce lead in the environment and exposure by communities.

  5. Rapid Lead Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vitro Diagnostics Tests Used In Clinical Care Rapid Lead Screening Test Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reducing the need for a follow-up visit. Lead Risk Links Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( ...

  6. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organs and tissues that need it, thus causing anemia. Most lead ends up in the bone, where it causes ... vomiting or nausea constipation pallor (pale skin) from ... look for lead poisoning or other health problems. Treatment Treatment for ...

  7. NA49: lead-lead collision

    CERN Multimedia

    1996-01-01

    This is an image of an actual lead ion collision taken from tracking detectors on the NA49 experiment, part of the heavy ion project at CERN. These collisions produce a very complicated array of hadrons as the heavy ions break up. It is hoped that one of these collisions will eventually create a new state of matter known as quark-gluon plasma.

  8. Occupational lead poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez, Augusto V; Médico del Trabajo. American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.

    2013-01-01

    Lead, a ubiquitous heavy metal, has been found in places as unlikely as Greenland’s fossil ice. Egyptians and Hebrews used it. In Spain, Phoenicians c. 2000 BC worked ores of lead. At the end of the XX century, occupational lead’s poisoning became a public health problem in developed countries. In non-developed countries occupational lead poisoning is still frequent. Diagnosis is directed to recognize lead existence at the labor environment and good clinical and occupational documentation. Di...

  9. 高渗盐水联合沙丁胺醇治疗毛细支气管炎%Hypertonic saline combined with salbutamol in the treatment of bronchiolitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石正英; 沈莉; 王正军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the curative effect of hypertonic saline combined with salbutamol in treatment of capillary bronchitis. Methods 82 cases were randomly divided into treatment group of 42 cases and control group of 40 cases. The two groups were the same comprehensive treatment, the treatment group is treated with inhalation of 3% hypertonic saline and salbutamol, and the control group was given saline inhalation and salbutamol. Observe two groups of symptoms, signs disappeared days and length of hospital stay and the curative effect. Results The length of time till the treatment group' s cough, wheeze, lung rales disappears and the average length of hospital stay is shorter than the control group; the difference was statistically significant ( P <0. 05 ). The treatment group total effective rate was 97. 6% higher than that of control group 90% , the difference was statistically significant ( P <0. 05 ). Conclusion Hypertonic saline combined with salbutamol in treatment of capillary bronchitis has good curative effect, less adverse reaction, is worthy of clinical use.%目的 观察高渗盐水联合沙丁胺醇治疗毛细支气管炎的疗效.方法 82例患儿随机分成治疗组42例和对照组40例.两组均采用相同综合治疗,治疗组给予吸入3%高渗盐水和沙丁胺醇,对照组给予吸入生理盐水和沙丁胺醇.观察两组症状、体征消失天数和住院天数以及疗效.结果 治疗组咳嗽、肺部哮鸣音、湿罗音消失天数及平均住院天数均短于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗组总有效率达97.6%高于对照组的90%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 高渗盐水联合沙丁胺醇治疗毛细支气管炎疗效确切,不良反应少,值得临床推广使用.

  10. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, A. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Early symptoms of lead poisoning in children are often overlooked. Lead poisoning has its greatest effects on the brain and nervous system. The obvious long-term solution to the lead poisoning problem is removal of harmful forms of the metal from the environment. (JN)

  11. Atrioventricular Pacemaker Lead Reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet K Aktas, MD

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During cardiac surgery temporary epicardial atrial and ventricular leads are placed in case cardiac pacing is required postoperatively. We present the first reported series of patients with reversal of atrioventricular electrodes in the temporary pacemaker without any consequent deleterious hemodynamic effect. We review the electrocardiographic findings and discuss the findings that lead to the discovery of atrioventricular lead reversal.

  12. ALICE: Simulated lead-lead collision

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This track is an example of simulated data modelled for the ALICE detector on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which will begin taking data in 2008. ALICE will focus on the study of collisions between nuclei of lead, a heavy element that produces many different particles when collided. It is hoped that these collisions will produce a new state of matter known as the quark-gluon plasma, which existed billionths of a second after the Big Bang.

  13. Clinical Observation of Hypertonic Saline in Treatment of Acute Massive Cerebral Infarction%高渗盐水治疗急性期大面积脑梗死的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄德; 谢向前; 蒙泽明; 李忠

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨高渗盐水治疗急性期大面积脑梗死脑水肿的临床疗效。方法:选取本院神经内科收治的急性期大面积脑梗死脑水肿患者46例,所有患者均经头颅CT或MRI检查确诊。按随机数字表法将患者分为两组,每组各23例。观察组(高渗盐水组)使用3%高渗盐水进行脱水治疗,对照组(甘露醇组)使用20%甘露醇进行脱水治疗,比较两组患者治疗前和治疗后神经功能缺损程度(MESSS评分)以及血钠、血钾、血肌酐、血浆渗透压的改变。结果:两组治疗后第3天和第5天后神经功能缺损程度均较前减轻(P0.05),对照组治疗5 d后出现血钾偏低4例,血肌酐升高伴少尿(急性肾功能不全)1例。结论:3%高渗盐水治疗急性期大面积脑梗死脑水肿疗效确切,不良反应少,值得临床进一步研究和推广应用。%Objective:To investigate the clinical efficacy of hypertonic saline in treatment of acute massive cerebral infarction.Method:46 patients with acute massive cerebral infarction treated in the neurology department of our hospital were selected,all patients were diagnosed by CT or MRI,and the 46 patients were randomly divided into two groups,23 in each group,the observation group(hypertonic saline group)using 3%hypertonic saline for dehydration treatment,the control group(mannitol group)with 20% mannitol dehydration treatment,the degree of neurological impairment(MESSS score )and the change of the blood sodium,potassium,creatinine ,plasma osmolality was observed in both groups of patients before treatment and after treatment. Result:Three and five days after treatment,the degree of neurological impairment(MESSS score)in both groups of patients were reduced(P0.05),while in the control group,four cases appear low potassium,one case of elevated serum creatinine with oliguria(acute renal failure). Conclusion:The efficacy of 3%hypertonic saline in treatment of acute massive

  14. Mechanism and progress of inhalation hypertonic saline in treatment of bronchiolitis%高渗盐水雾化治疗毛细支气管炎的机制及进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴艳萍; 庞随军; 李元霞

    2015-01-01

    在婴儿期,毛细支气管炎为常见的下呼吸道感染性疾病.多由呼吸道合胞病毒引起,且发病季节以冬季多见.目前对其治疗主要为支持治疗,但具体治疗方案仍存在争议.虽然现今临床上多采用了支气管扩张剂及皮质醇类,实际上却不应作为常规用药的推荐.随着治疗方案的研究,高渗盐水雾化引起了临床工作者足够的重视,且西班牙儿科协会将高渗盐水雾化作为治疗毛细支气管炎的唯一指定用药.故该文对高渗盐水雾化治疗毛细支气管炎的机制及进展等方面作一综述,希望对毛细支气管炎的临床治疗有所帮助.%In infancy,bronchiolitis is the most common acute infection of the lower respiratory tract.It is mainly caused by respiratory syncytial virus,it invades mostly in winter.The treatment is mainly the support therapy at present,but the current treatment of bronchiolitis is still controversial.Bronchodilators and cortieosteroids are widely used but not routinely recommended.Hypertonic saline is currently the only drug recommended by the Spanish Association of Pediatrics in treatment guidelines.Therefore,this article summarizes the atomization mechanism and progress of inhalation hypertonic saline.It is hoped that it can be helpful to the clinical treatment of bronchiolitis.

  15. Lead-Free Piezoelectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Nahm, Sahn

    2012-01-01

    Ecological restrictions in many parts of the world are demanding the elimination of Pb from all consumer items. At this moment in the piezoelectric ceramics industry, there is no issue of more importance than the transition to lead-free materials. The goal of Lead-Free Piezoelectrics is to provide a comprehensive overview of the fundamentals and developments in the field of lead-free materials and products to leading researchers in the world. The text presents chapters on demonstrated applications of the lead-free materials, which will allow readers to conceptualize the present possibilities and will be useful for both students and professionals conducting research on ferroelectrics, piezoelectrics, smart materials, lead-free materials, and a variety of applications including sensors, actuators, ultrasonic transducers and energy harvesters.

  16. No surprises, please!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Dena S

    2013-01-01

    This narrative symposium examines the relationship of bioethics practice to personal experiences of illness. A call for stories was developed by Tod Chambers, the symposium editor, and editorial staff and was sent to several commonly used bioethics listservs and posted on the Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics website. The call asked authors to relate a personal story of being ill or caring for a person who is ill, and to describe how this affected how they think about bioethical questions and the practice of medicine. Eighteen individuals were invited to submit full stories based on review of their proposals. Twelve stories are published in this symposium, and six supplemental stories are published online only through Project MUSE. Authors explore themes of vulnerability, suffering, communication, voluntariness, cultural barriers, and flaws in local healthcare systems through stories about their own illnesses or about caring for children, partners, parents and grandparents. Commentary articles by Arthur Frank, Bradley Lewis, and Carol Taylor follow the collection of personal narratives.

  17. Tohoku earthquake: a surprise?

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Yan Y

    2011-01-01

    We consider three issues related to the 2011 Tohoku mega-earthquake: (1) how to evaluate the earthquake maximum size in subduction zones, (2) what is the repeat time for the largest earthquakes in Tohoku area, and (3) what are the possibilities of short-term forecasts during the 2011 sequence. There are two quantitative methods which can be applied to estimate the maximum earthquake size: a statistical analysis of the available earthquake record and the moment conservation principle. The latter technique studies how much of the tectonic deformation rate is released by earthquakes. For the subduction zones, the seismic or historical record is not sufficient to provide a reliable statistical measure of the maximum earthquake. The moment conservation principle yields consistent estimates of maximum earthquake size: for all the subduction zones the magnitude is of the order 9.0--9.7, and for major subduction zones the maximum earthquake size is statistically indistinguishable. Starting in 1999 we have carried out...

  18. A Pleasant Goat Surprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING XIAOLEI

    2010-01-01

    @@ For decades,Chinese children have sat in front of television sets mesmerized as American cartoon cat Tom chased mouse rival Jerry,or as the Japanese manga robot feline Doraemon helped his schoolboy companion Nobita Nobi.Now,the animated tables are turning and foreign kids are able to enjoy Chinese cartoons from the comfort of their couches.

  19. More statistics, less surprise

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso & the LHCb collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration has recently announced new results for a parameter that measures the CP violation effect in particles containing charm quarks. The new values obtained with a larger data set and with a new independent method are showing that the effect is smaller than previous measurements had  suggested. The parameter is back into the Standard Model picture.   CP violation signals – in particles containing charm quarks, such as the D0 particle, is a powerful probe of new physics. Indeed, such effects could result in unexpected values of parameters whose expectation values in the Standard Model are known. Although less precise than similar approaches used in particles made of b quarks, the investigation of the charm system has proven  to be intriguing. The LHCb collaboration has reported new measurements of ΔACP, the difference in CP violation between the D0→K+K– and D0→π+π– decays. The results are ob...

  20. Monotony and Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolico, Alberto

    This paper reviews models and tools emerged in recent years in the author’s work in connection with the discovery of interesting or anomalous patterns in sequences. Whereas customary approaches to pattern discovery proceed from either a statistical or a syntactic characterization alone, the approaches described here present the unifying feature of combining these two descriptors in a solidly intertwined, composite paradigm, whereby both syntactic structure and occurrence lists concur to define and identify a pattern in a subject. In turn, this supports a natural notion of pattern saturation, which enables one to partition patterns into equivalence classes over intervals of monotonicity of commonly adopted scores, in such a way that the subset of class representatives, consisting solely of saturated patterns, suffices to account for all patterns in the subject. The benefits at the outset consist not only of an increased descriptive power, but especially of a mitigation of the often unmanageable roster of candidates unearthed in a discovery attempt, and of the daunting computational burden that goes with it.

  1. Surprised by selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Krijn P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06885580X

    2016-01-01

    Lower olefins, particularly ethylene (C2H4), propylene (C3H6), and butylene (C4H8), are important intermediates in the manufacture of products such as plastics, solvents, paints, and medicines. They are produced worldwide in amounts exceeding 200 million tons per year (see the photo) (1), mostly

  2. The surprising superconductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner Yildirim

    2002-04-01

    The serendipitous discovery by Akimitsu’s group1 of the superconductivity of MgB2 at Tc=39 K, almost twice the temperature of other simple intermetallic compounds, has sparked a race to uncover its basic properties and to find other related diborides with even higher Tcs. After the first announcement, the number of preprints appearing on the Los Alamos preprint server (Fig. 1 grew almost exponentially, reaching a maximum of about 60 studies in March (two papers a day, then decreasing linearly down to a paper every other day in August, and staying steady at about this rate until now. During the first year of the MgB2 era, more than 300 studies were published, exploring both fundamental and practical issues, such as the mechanism of the superconductivity; synthesis of MgB2 in the form of powder, thin films, wires, and tapes; the effect on Tc of substitution with various elements and on critical current and fields.

  3. Surprises in aperiodic diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Baake, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical diffraction theory is concerned with the diffraction image of a given structure and the corresponding inverse problem of structure determination. In recent years, the understanding of systems with continuous and mixed spectra has improved considerably. Moreover, the phenomenon of homometry shows various unexpected new facets. Here, we report on some of the recent results in an exemplary and informal fashion.

  4. Jordan: Surprisingly Stable

    OpenAIRE

    Ådnegard, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, research has demonstrated that conflict spreads to the host country as a consequence of massive influx of refugees. Most studies gathered empirical evidence from African countries and focused on cases where conflict had already spread. In contrast to this literature, the main objective of this thesis is to examine the absence of conflict in Jordan after receiving Syrian refugees that amount to about 10 percent of Jordan s original population over the past three years, 2011-201...

  5. Surprising quantum bounces

    CERN Document Server

    Nesvizhevsky, Valery

    2015-01-01

    This unique book demonstrates the undivided unity and infinite diversity of quantum mechanics using a single phenomenon: quantum bounces of ultra-cold particles. Various examples of such "quantum bounces" are: gravitational quantum states of ultra-cold neutrons (the first observed quantum states of matter in a gravitational field), the neutron whispering gallery (an observed matter-wave analog of the whispering gallery effect well known in acoustics and for electromagnetic waves), and gravitational and whispering gallery states for anti-matter atoms that remain to be observed. These quantum states are an invaluable tool in the search for additional fundamental short-range forces, for exploring the gravitational interaction and quantum effects of gravity, for probing physics beyond the standard model, and for furthering studies into the foundations of quantum mechanics, quantum optics, and surface science.

  6. No More Surprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrel, Amy

    2016-05-01

    Texas Medical Association research shows that health plans' shrinking networks, caps on payments for medical care, inaccurate directories, and other tactics - not physician billing - are bearing down on patients in the form of unexpected, out-of-network balance bills.

  7. Surprising radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Radiation doses received by the human body can be measured indirectly and retrospectively by counting the tracks left by particles in ordinary objects like pair of spectacles, glassware, compact disks...This method has been successfully applied to determine neutron radiation doses received 50 years ago on the Hiroshima site. Neutrons themselves do not leave tracks in bulk matter but glass contains atoms of uranium that may fission when hurt by a neutron, the recoil of the fission fragments generates a track that is detectable. The most difficult is to find adequate glass items and to evaluate the radiation shield they benefited at their initial place. The same method has been used to determine the radiation dose due to the pile-up of radon in houses. In that case the tracks left by alpha particles due to the radioactive decay of polonium-210 have been counted on the superficial layer of the window panes. Other materials like polycarbonate plastics have been used to determine the radiation dose due to heavy io...

  8. Neurotransmitter Switching? No Surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Nicholas C

    2015-06-03

    Among the many forms of brain plasticity, changes in synaptic strength and changes in synapse number are particularly prominent. However, evidence for neurotransmitter respecification or switching has been accumulating steadily, both in the developing nervous system and in the adult brain, with observations of transmitter addition, loss, or replacement of one transmitter with another. Natural stimuli can drive these changes in transmitter identity, with matching changes in postsynaptic transmitter receptors. Strikingly, they often convert the synapse from excitatory to inhibitory or vice versa, providing a basis for changes in behavior in those cases in which it has been examined. Progress has been made in identifying the factors that induce transmitter switching and in understanding the molecular mechanisms by which it is achieved. There are many intriguing questions to be addressed.

  9. Surprise Trips 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias; Kawash, Raghid; Andersen, Lisbet Møller

    2010-01-01

    Little treasures in nature often go unnoticed by visitors when roaming about in a national park. Ubiquitous technology with its less intrusive character may be apt to enhance this natural experience of exploration. In this paper, we report on a system that augments this experience. It builds on t...

  10. Lead Poison Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  11. Microhydrodynamics of deformable particles: surprising responses of drops and vesicles to uniform electric field or shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahovska, Petia

    2015-11-01

    Particle motion in a viscous fluid is a classic problem that continues to surprise researchers. In this talk, I will discuss some intriguing, experimentally-observed behaviors of droplets and giant vesicles (cell-size lipid membrane sacs) in electric or flow fields. In a uniform electric field, a droplet deforms into an ellipsoid that can either be steadily tilted relative to the applied field direction or undergo unsteady motions (periodic shape oscillations or irregular flipping); a spherical vesicle can adopt a transient square shape or reversibly porate. In a steady shear flow, a vesicle can tank-tread, tumble or swing. Theoretical models show that the nonlinear drop dynamics originates from the interplay of Quincke rotation and interface deformation, while the vesicle dynamics stems from the membrane inextensibility. The practical motivation for this research lies in an improved understanding of technologies that rely on the manipulation of drops and cells by flow or electric fields.

  12. Lead toxicity: Current concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyer, R.A. (Univ. of Western Ontario, London (Canada))

    1993-04-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. 97 refs.

  13. Lead Time Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    AD-A128 318 LEAD TIME STUDY (U) ARMY ARMAMENT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CDMMAND DOVER NJ SYSTEMS ANALYSIS DIV dI-T~~ CHU MAY 82 ARRAA 82- 3/ /l N...EhhEEE--E 1111.0 U 1 - I 1120 1.25I1,,-. 11.6 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TESI CHARI NATIONAL BUREAU 01 STANDARDt 19t,3 A co LEAD TIME STUDY c*A JULIE CHU MAY...188 D I.-f . . .... .. - r - .. " ’- -~ L - - _ _ __ ARRAA 82-3 LEAD TIME STUDY Prepared by:_ JL CHU Reviewed by:Li t’ ( LAWRENCE J. QWUNI Chief, Sys

  14. Lead effects on fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullino, M.L.; Fiussello, N.

    1976-01-01

    Addition of 0.01M lead nitrate to media caused complete inhibition of most of a group of 80 strains of fungi of several genera. Those which did grow at all had an extended lag period in comparison to controls. At 0.001M all the fungi grew, but had thinner-than-normal mycelia and delayed fruiting body formation. Fusarium species and members of Class Basidiomycetes were among the most sensitive, and Penicillium and Aspergillus species were the most tolerant. Lead uptake rates varied positively with lead nitrate concentration in the media. 9 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  15. Task-Irrelevant Expectation Violations in Sequential Manual Actions: Evidence for a "Check-after-Surprise" Mode of Visual Attention and Eye-Hand Decoupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Rebecca M

    2016-01-01

    When performing sequential manual actions (e.g., cooking), visual information is prioritized according to the task determining where and when to attend, look, and act. In well-practiced sequential actions, long-term memory (LTM)-based expectations specify which action targets might be found where and when. We have previously demonstrated (Foerster and Schneider, 2015b) that violations of such expectations that are task-relevant (e.g., target location change) cause a regression from a memory-based mode of attentional selection to visual search. How might task-irrelevant expectation violations in such well-practiced sequential manual actions modify attentional selection? This question was investigated by a computerized version of the number-connection test. Participants clicked on nine spatially distributed numbered target circles in ascending order while eye movements were recorded as proxy for covert attention. Target's visual features and locations stayed constant for 65 prechange-trials, allowing practicing the manual action sequence. Consecutively, a task-irrelevant expectation violation occurred and stayed for 20 change-trials. Specifically, action target number 4 appeared in a different font. In 15 reversion-trials, number 4 returned to the original font. During the first task-irrelevant change trial, manual clicking was slower and eye scanpaths were larger and contained more fixations. The additional fixations were mainly checking fixations on the changed target while acting on later targets. Whereas the eyes repeatedly revisited the task-irrelevant change, cursor-paths remained completely unaffected. Effects lasted for 2-3 change trials and did not reappear during reversion. In conclusion, an unexpected task-irrelevant change on a task-defining feature of a well-practiced manual sequence leads to eye-hand decoupling and a "check-after-surprise" mode of attentional selection.

  16. Lead levels - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  17. Lead User Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Larsen, Henry

    2015-01-01

    , deliver and capture the value of an innovatively new device together. From the perspective of the lead user, we show antecedents and effects of social interaction between organizational actors and the lead user on the development of social capital, especially trust and shared imagination. The second case......User innovation and especially the integration of lead users is a key topic in the innovation management literature of recent years. This paper contributes by providing a rare perspective into what easily could be seen as innovation failure, shown from two perspectives. We show how a lack of shared...... imagination hampers participation and kills innovation between interdependent stakeholders at the threshold between invention and innovation in practice. We present a first case in the fun-sport industry where an external lead user and diverse firm representatives in different functions fail to create...

  18. Lead-210 contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [Peter Gray and Associates, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Nearly all scrap dealers, smelters and other recyclers routinely monitor for radioactivity in shipments entering their facility. These sensitive radiation gate monitors easily detect radium-226 and most other radioactive nuclides. However, the type of detector normally used, sodium iodide scintillation crystals, will not detect the low energy gamma radiation emitted by lead-210 and its progeny. Since lead-210 is a common radioactive contaminant in certain industries, contaminated scrap metal from these industries may avoid detection at the recycler. Lead-210 is a decay product of radon-222 which is produced in small concentrations with natural gas. As the natural gas liquids, particularly ethane and propane, are separated from the natural gas, the radon concentrates in the ethane/propane fraction. The natural gas industry, particularly gas processing facilities and industries using ethane and propane as feed stocks can be significantly contaminated with the radon decay products, especially lead-210, bismuth-210 and polonium-210. Unless the scrap metal is decontaminated before sending to the recycler, the lead-210 contaminated scrap may be processed, resulting in some degree of radioactive contamination of the recycling facilities. Methods of detecting the low energy gamma radiation associated with lead-210 include the pancake G-M detector and the thin crystal-thin window scintillation detector.

  19. Magnesium Diboride Current Leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, John

    2010-01-01

    A recently discovered superconductor, magnesium diboride (MgB2), can be used to fabricate conducting leads used in cryogenic applications. Dis covered to be superconducting in 2001, MgB2 has the advantage of remaining superconducting at higher temperatures than the previously used material, NbTi. The purpose of these leads is to provide 2 A of electricity to motors located in a 1.3 K environment. The providing environment is a relatively warm 17 K. Requirements for these leads are to survive temperature fluctuations in the 5 K and 11 K heat sinks, and not conduct excessive heat into the 1.3 K environment. Test data showed that each lead in the assembly could conduct 5 A at 4 K, which, when scaled to 17 K, still provided more than the required 2 A. The lead assembly consists of 12 steelclad MgB2 wires, a tensioned Kevlar support, a thermal heat sink interface at 4 K, and base plates. The wires are soldered to heavy copper leads at the 17 K end, and to thin copper-clad NbTi leads at the 1.3 K end. The leads were designed, fabricated, and tested at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - Institut foer Technische Physik before inclusion in Goddard's XRS (X-Ray Spectrometer) instrument onboard the Astro-E2 spacecraft. A key factor is that MgB2 remains superconducting up to 30 K, which means that it does not introduce joule heating as a resistive wire would. Because the required temperature ranges are 1.3-17 K, this provides a large margin of safety. Previous designs lost superconductivity at around 8 K. The disadvantage to MgB2 is that it is a brittle ceramic, and making thin wires from it is challenging. The solution was to encase the leads in thin steel tubes for strength. Previous designs were so brittle as to risk instrument survival. MgB2 leads can be used in any cryogenic application where small currents need to be conducted at below 30 K. Because previous designs would superconduct only at up to 8 K, this new design would be ideal for the 8-30 K range.

  20. Organic Cation Rotation and Immobilization in Pure and Mixed Methylammonium Lead-Halide Perovskites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selig, Oleg; Sadhanala, Aditya; Muller, Christian; Lovrincic, Robert; Chen, Zhuoying; Rezus, Yves L. A.; Frost, Jarvist M.; Jansen, Thomas L. C.; Bakulin, Artem A.

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional lead-halide perovskites have attracted a lot of attention due to their ability to combine solution processing with outstanding optoelectronic properties. Despite their soft ionic nature these materials demonstrate a surprisingly low level of electronic disorder resulting in sharp b

  1. The plant host can affect the encapsidation of brome mosaic virus (BMV) RNA: BMV virions are surprisingly heterogeneous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Peng; Vaughan, Robert C; Tragesser, Brady; Hoover, Haley; Kao, C Cheng

    2014-03-01

    Brome mosaic virus (BMV) packages its genomic and subgenomic RNAs into three separate viral particles. BMV purified from barley, wheat, and tobacco have distinct relative abundances of the encapsidated RNAs. We seek to identify the basis for the host-dependent differences in viral RNA encapsidation. Sequencing of the viral RNAs revealed recombination events in the 3' untranslated region of RNA1 of BMV purified from barley and wheat, but not from tobacco. However, the relative amounts of the BMV RNAs that accumulated in barley and wheat are similar and RNA accumulation is not sufficient to account for the difference in RNA encapsidation. Virions purified from barley and wheat were found to differ in their isoelectric points, resistance to proteolysis, and contacts between the capsid residues and the RNA. Mass spectrometric analyses revealed that virions from the three hosts had different post-translational modifications that should impact the physiochemical properties of the virions. Another major source of variation in RNA encapsidation was due to the purification of BMV particles to homogeneity. Highly enriched BMV present in lysates had a surprising range of sizes, buoyant densities, and distinct relative amounts of encapsidated RNAs. These results show that the encapsidated BMV RNAs reflect a combination of host effects on the physiochemical properties of the viral capsids and the enrichment of a subset of virions. The previously unexpected heterogeneity in BMV should influence the timing of the infection and also the host innate immune responses.

  2. Benford's law predicted digit distribution of aggregated income taxes: the surprising conformity of Italian cities and regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Tariq Ahmad; Ausloos, Marcel; Cerqueti, Roy

    2014-11-01

    The yearly aggregated tax income data of all, more than 8000, Italian municipalities are analyzed for a period of five years, from 2007 to 2011, to search for conformity or not with Benford's law, a counter-intuitive phenomenon observed in large tabulated data where the occurrence of numbers having smaller initial digits is more favored than those with larger digits. This is done in anticipation that large deviations from Benford's law will be found in view of tax evasion supposedly being widespread across Italy. Contrary to expectations, we show that the overall tax income data for all these years is in excellent agreement with Benford's law. Furthermore, we also analyze the data of Calabria, Campania and Sicily, the three Italian regions known for strong presence of mafia, to see if there are any marked deviations from Benford's law. Again, we find that all yearly data sets for Calabria and Sicily agree with Benford's law whereas only the 2007 and 2008 yearly data show departures from the law for Campania. These results are again surprising in view of underground and illegal nature of economic activities of mafia which significantly contribute to tax evasion. Some hypothesis for the found conformity is presented.

  3. Medial superior olivary neurons receive surprisingly few excitatory and inhibitory inputs with balanced strength and short-term dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couchman, Kiri; Grothe, Benedikt; Felmy, Felix

    2010-12-15

    Neurons in the medial superior olive (MSO) process microsecond interaural time differences, the major cue for localizing low-frequency sounds, by comparing the relative arrival time of binaural, glutamatergic excitatory inputs. This coincidence detection mechanism is additionally shaped by highly specialized glycinergic inhibition. Traditionally, it is assumed that the binaural inputs are conveyed by many independent fibers, but such an anatomical arrangement may decrease temporal precision. Short-term depression on the other hand might enhance temporal fidelity during ongoing activity. For the first time we show that binaural coincidence detection in MSO neurons may require surprisingly few but strong inputs, challenging long-held assumptions about mammalian coincidence detection. This study exclusively uses adult gerbils for in vitro electrophysiology, single-cell electroporation and immunohistochemistry to characterize the size and short-term plasticity of inputs to the MSO. We find that the excitatory and inhibitory inputs to the MSO are well balanced both in strength and short-term dynamics, redefining this fastest of all mammalian coincidence detector circuits.

  4. 局部高渗环境对慢性创伤性窦道的治疗效果分析%Analysis of curative effect on local hypertonic environment improves healing of chronic traumatic wounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱颉; 罗自通; 曹亿; 于萌蕾; 曾兵; 彭吉才; 黄都平

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of hypertonic saline and isotonic saline solutions on the healing of chronic traumatic wounds. Methods Between March 2011 and March 2014, sixty-two patients with chronic traumatic wounds were randomized to 2 groups. Thirty-one cases were treated with 28%sodium chloride medical fiber/polyester non-woven dressing (group A) and the other 31 cases , with 0.9% sodium chloride medical gauze (group B). Series of wound cultures were performed, wound conditions were assessed, and the timing of wound healing and adverse reactions were recorded. Results The average healing time in group A was 18.6 days. The average healing time for group B patients was 22.5 days (P<0.05). No obvious adverse effects were observed in either group. Wound cultures showed that 80% of the patients with positive pre-treatment cultures became negative after 3 days of hypertonic saline treatment whereas only 10% turned negative in group B. Conclusion Local hypertonic environment may significantly reduce bacteria load in chronic wounds and improve wound healing.%目的:局部高渗引流及普通引流方法的比较,分析高渗环境下引流对慢性窦道的治疗效果。方法慢性创伤性窦道病例62例进行随机分成2组,其中31例伤口窦道内使用28%高渗氯化钠纤维/聚酯无纺布敷料进行引流,31例使用0.9%氯化钠纱条进行引流观察治疗效果及不良反应。结果28%高渗氯化钠纤维/聚酯无纺布敷料治疗组(高渗引流组)平均痊愈时间18.6天,0.9%氯化钠纱条组(等渗引流组)平均痊愈时间22.5天,两组慢性创面窦道痊愈时间差异有显著统计学意义(P<0.05);高渗引流组患者创面细菌培养阳性例数也明显低于等渗引流组。结论局部高渗压环境引流可显著抑制慢性创伤性窦道细菌微生物被膜的形成,对慢性窦道的愈合有显著的效果。

  5. 高渗氯化钠-羟乙基淀粉用于前列腺电切术的可行性%The feasibility of using hypertonic sodium chloride hetastarch in resection of prostate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛武德; 兰莲莲

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究前列腺肥大的患者在腰硬联合麻醉下行前列腺电切术时输注高渗氯化钠-羟乙基淀粉(hypertonic sodium chloride hetastarch,HSH)预防经尿道电切综合征的作用.方法:随机将60例前列腺肥大患者分为A组(观察组)和B组(对照组)各30例.观察组术前先输注复方氯化钠,手术开始后输注HSH 5ml/kg.对照组仅输注复方氯化钠.抽取静脉血检测手术开始前(T0)、开始后30min(T30)、60min(T60)、90min(T90)各时点的电解质、HCT的变化.结果:观察组血中的电解质、HCT变化不大.对照组同一时点与观察组相比,Na+、HCT明显降低.结论:腰硬联合麻醉行前列腺电切术时输注HSH安全有效,有一定预防经尿道电切综合征的作用.%Objective:To study whether hypertonic sodium chloride hetastarch (HSH) can prevent transurethral resection syndrome (TURS) in transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) for prostatic hypertrophy under combined spinal epidural anesthesia (CSEA). Methods:Sixty patients suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia were randomly divided into two groups:observation group (n= 30 ) and control group (n = 30). In observation group inlravenous compound sodium chloride was administered before operation,aud after the beginning of operation intravenous 5mL/kg HSH was administered in each patient. In control group only intravenous compound sodium chloride was given. Venous samples were taken before operation (T0 ), after 30 minutes (T30) ,60 minutes (T6o) ,90 minutes (T9o) of operation beginning, to detect the change of blood electrolyte and HCT. Results:The change of blood electrolyte and HCT in observation group was not obvious. At the same time points,Na+ and HCT were obviously lower in control group than in observation group. Conclusions:Intravenous infusion of HSH is safe in TURP under CSEA ,and effective in preventing TURS.

  6. Progress of inhaled hypertonic saline and epinephrine in the ictal treatment of patients with bronchiolitis%吸入高渗盐水及肾上腺素对毛细支气管炎患儿发作期治疗的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩

    2014-01-01

    该文回顾了雾化吸入高渗盐水及肾上腺素在临床上治疗患儿毛细支气管炎的应用.对在不同研究中使用雾化吸入高渗盐水及肾上腺素同其他雾化吸入药物治疗毛细支气管炎的疗效进行比较分析,证实雾化吸入高渗盐水及肾上腺素各自在治疗毛细支气管炎时,疗效显著,提示在小剂量高渗盐水及肾上腺素各自雾化吸入及联合使用对于临床治疗毛细支气管炎患儿起到重要的作用.%This paper reviews the application of nebulized hypertonic saline and adrenaline in the treatment of children with bronchiolitis.The efficacy of hypertonic saline and epinephrine in the treatment of bronchiolitis has been analyzed in different experiments.Confirming hypertonic saline and epinephrine respectively in the treatment of bronchiolitis has a significant effect.Prompted each inhalation and combined use of both play an important role in the treatment of bronchiolitis.

  7. Relational Perspectives on Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2015-01-01

    Relational Perspectives on Leading discusses leadership from a relational and social constructionism perspective as practiced on an everyday basis between people. The book pursues a fast growing, practice-based approach - particularly within the Anglo-Saxon parts of the world - to organization...... studies and organizational phenomena....

  8. lead glass brick

    CERN Multimedia

    As well as accelerators to boost particles up to high energy, physicists need detectors to see what happens when those particles collide. This lead glass block is part of a CERN detector called OPAL. OPAL uses some 12 000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies.

  9. Girls Leading Outward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Heather; Reyes, Jazmin; Moceri, Dominic C.; Morana, Laura; Elias, Maurice J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe a program implemented in Red Bank Middle School in New Jersey to help at-risk, minority middle school girls realize their leadership potential. The GLO (Girls Leading Outward) program was developed by the Developing Safe and Civil Schools Project at Rutgers University and is facilitated by university students. Selected middle…

  10. Leading by Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, Susan M.; Moss, Connie M.

    2013-01-01

    A lot has changed in the principalship since the principal was the head teacher in a school. Current principals are building administrators and that is likely to continue, the authors posit. Nonetheless, they report their study focusing on leadership's role in formative assessment concluded that in order to lead learning the principal must become…

  11. Change, Lead, Succeed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, Linda; von Frank, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Redefine leadership in your school, and create capacity through school leadership teams that successfully coordinate professional learning. "Change, Lead, Succeed" shows school leaders and teachers in leadership roles what they need to know to effectively create a culture for change. Find out what distinguishes a school leadership team from other…

  12. Food insecurity and mental health: surprising trends among community health volunteers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia during the 2008 food crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Kenneth C; Hadley, Craig; Tesfaye, Fikru; Shifferaw, Selamawit

    2010-05-01

    The 2008 food crisis may have increased household food insecurity and caused distress among impoverished populations in low-income countries. Policy researchers have attempted to quantify the impact that a sharp rise in food prices might have on population wellbeing by asking what proportion of households would drop below conventional poverty lines given a set increase in prices. Our understanding of the impact of food crises can be extended by conducting micro-level ethnographic studies. This study examined self-reported household food insecurity (FI) and common mental disorders (CMD) among 110 community health AIDS care volunteers living in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia during the height of the 2008 food crisis. We used generalized estimating equations that account for associations between responses given by the same participants over 3 survey rounds during 2008, to model the longitudinal response profiles of FI, CMD symptoms, and socio-behavioral and micro-economic covariates. To help explain the patterns observed in the response profiles and regression results, we examine qualitative data that contextualize the cognition and reporting behavior of AIDS care volunteers, as well as potential observation biases inherent in longitudinal, community-based research. Our data show that food insecurity is highly prevalent, that is it associated with household economic factors, and that it is linked to mental health. Surprisingly, the volunteers in this urban sample did not report increasingly severe FI or CMD during the peak of the 2008 food crisis. This is a counter-intuitive result that would not be predicted in analyses of population-level data such as those used in econometrics simulations. But when these results are linked to real people in specific urban ecologies, they can improve our understanding of the psychosocial consequences of food price shocks.

  13. Surprisingly low compliance to local guidelines for risk factor based screening for gestational diabetes mellitus - A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winkvist Anna

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is routine during pregnancy in many countries in the world. The screening programs are either based on general screening offered to all pregnant women or risk factor based screening stipulated in local clinical guidelines. The aims of this study were to investigate: 1 the compliance with local guidelines of screening for GDM and 2 the outcomes of pregnancy and birth in relation to risk factors of GDM and whether or not exposed to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. Methods This study design was a population-based retrospective cross-sectional study of 822 women. A combination of questionnaire data and data collected from medical records was applied. Compliance to the local guidelines of risk factor based screening for GDM was examined and a comparison of outcomes of pregnancy and delivery in relation to risk factor groups for GDM was performed. Results Of the 822 participants, 257 (31.3% women fulfilled at least one criterion for being exposed to screening for GDM according to the local clinical guidelines. However, only 79 (30.7% of these women were actually exposed to OGTT and of those correctly exposed for screening, seven women were diagnosed with GDM. Women developing risk factors for GDM during pregnancy had a substantially increased risk of giving birth to an infant with macrosomia. Conclusion Surprisingly low compliance with the local clinical guidelines for screening for GDM during pregnancy was found. Furthermore, the prevalence of the risk factors of GDM in our study was almost doubled compared to previous Swedish studies. Pregnant women developing risk factors of GDM during pregnancy were found to be at substantially increased risk of giving birth to an infant with macrosomia. There is a need of actions improving compliance to the local guidelines.

  14. CMS lead tungstate crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    These crystals are made from lead tungstate, a crystal that is as clear as glass yet with nearly four times the density. They have been produced in Russia to be used as scintillators in the electromagnetic calorimeter on the CMS experiment, part of the LHC project at CERN. When an electron, positron or photon passes through the calorimeter it will cause a cascade of particles that will then be absorbed by these scintillating crystals, allowing the particle's energy to be measured.

  15. Leading Generation Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    ensure the success of their child, failure is not often experienced. These successes and the ease of childhood lead to not only confidence but an...Messaging, chatting on the cell phone and working on homework is a common place scene for teens and college students. “The level of multiprocessing...to Gen Yers entering the workforce with unrealistic expectations and a sense of entitlement. Barbara Dwyer, CEO of the Job Journey, states that

  16. Superconductivity of lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boorse, H.A.; Cook, D.B.; Zemansky, W.M.

    1950-06-01

    Numerous determinations of the zero-field transition temperature of lead have been made. All of these observations except that of Daunt were made by the direct measurement of electrical resistance. Daunt`s method involved the shielding effect of persistent currents in a hollow cylinder. In the authors work on columbium to be described in a forthcoming paper an a.c. induction method was used for the measurement of superconducting transitions. The superconductor was mounted as a cylindrical core of a coil which functioned as the secondary of a mutual inductance. The primary coil was actuated by an oscillator which provided a maximum a.c. field within the secondary of 1.5 oersteds at a frequency of 1000 cycles per second. The secondary e.m.f. which was dependent for its magnitude on the permeability of the core was amplified, rectifie, and observed on a recording potentiometer. During the application of this method to the study of columbium it appeared that a further check on the zero-field transition temperature of lead would be worth while especially if agreement between results for very pure samples could be obtained using this method. Such result would help in establishing the lead transition temperature as a reasonably reproducible reference point in the region between 4 deg and 10 deg K.

  17. Hypodipsic hypernatremia leading to reversible renal failure following surgery for craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ah Reum; Ann, Jung-Min; Shin, Jae Il; Chae, Hyun Wook; Kim, Ho-Seong

    2012-01-01

    Thirst is stimulated by increases in effective plasma osmolality that are detected by cerebral osmoreceptors located in the vascular organ of the lamina terminalis. However, surgical destruction or organic lesions of the lamina terminalis decrease the sensation of thirst in response to increased plasma osmolality. A 17-year-old boy who was diagnosed with craniopharyngioma at the age of 10 years and underwent tumor resection and gamma knife surgery was admitted for non-symptomatic severe hypernatremia. Although the sodium level was 173 mmol/L and serum osmolality was also high (371 mOsm/kg), the patient did not report increased thirst. Laboratory analysis revealed hypertonic dehydration and acute non-oliguric renal failure due to dehydration. Treatment was based on correction of hypernatremia with hydration and education about regular, periodic water ingestion. The patient's hypernatremia and acute non-oliguric renal failure resolved with controlled daily fluid intake. To our knowledge, this is the first report of decreased thirst sensation secondary to craniopharyngioma and tumor resection leading to severe hypernatremia and non-oliguric renal failure in an adolescent.

  18. Clinical application of multislice CT enterography with hypertonic mannitol saline as oral contrast%口服高渗甘露醇盐水多层螺旋CT小肠造影的临床应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕桂新; 王海涛; 陈文静; 刘文亚

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价口服高渗甘露醇盐水对比剂行多层螺旋CT小肠造影(MSCTE)的可行性和临床价值.方法 81例消化道病变和有小肠疾患症状的病例纳入研究(男47例,女34例,年龄26~81岁),在90 min内口服约1500~3000 ml 高渗甘露醇盐水(2.5%甘露醇,1.5% NaCl)后,肌注20 mg山莨菪碱20 min后行CT三期扫描,并在工作站行冠状面、矢状面及任意斜面重组、多平面重组(MPR)、最大密度投影(MIP)和容积重建(VR).将胃、小肠和结肠充盈程度分为满意、较好、不满意;按小肠长短和重叠分布程度分为密集型、均匀型和离散型.测量十二指肠、空肠和回肠各段小肠的最大管外径和肠壁强化程度,在动、静脉期将肠壁强化分为明显强化(>90 HU)、中度强化(60~89 HU)和轻度强化(<60 HU).分析不同小肠病变的MSCTE表现.结果 除5例检查完成后出现腹泻外,其余患者均能顺利完成检查,未发现相关并发症.胃、小肠和结肠充盈满意46例,较好23例,不满意12例,十二指肠、空肠及回肠的充盈度经统计分析分别为(24±4.5)mm、(24±3.9)mm、(23±3.3)mm;小肠分布:小肠分布密集型7例,均匀型58例,离散型16例.小肠壁明显强化9例(动脉期明显强化有3例),中度强化60例(动脉期明显强化17例),轻度强化11例(动脉期明显强化3例).MSCTE清楚地显示了肿瘤、Crohn病、粘连性肠梗阻等多种消化道疾患的肠内、肠壁、肠外血管、系膜及腹内脏器情况.结论 高渗甘露醇盐水MSCTE是一种简便、全方位显示小肠疾病的方法.%Objective To assess the feasibility and value of multislice CT enterography (MSCTE) with large dose economy and convenience orally administered hypertonic mannitol salt water (2.5% mannitol and 1.5% NaCl salt water) as negative contrast in demonstrating normal and abnormal small bowel. Methods 81 patients suffered from digestive disease and suspected of various kinds of small intestinal

  19. A surprise at the bottom of the main sequence: Rapid rotation and NO H-alpha emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Gibor; Marcy, Geoffrey W.

    1995-01-01

    We report Kech Observatory high-resolution echelle spectra from 640-850 nm for eight stars near the faint end of the main sequence. These spectra are the highest resolution spectra of such late-type stars, and clearly resolve the TiO, VO, and atomic lines. The sample includes the field brown-dwarf candidate, BRI 0021-0214 (M9.5+). Very unexpectedly, it shows the most rapid rotation in the entire samples, v sin i approximately 40 km/s, which is 20x faster than typical field nonemission M stars. Equally surprising is that BRI 0021 exhibits no emission or absorptionat H-alpha. We argue that this absence is not simply due to its cool photosphere, but that stellar activity declines in a fundamental way at the end of the main sequence. As it is the first very late M dwarf observed at high spectral resolution, BRI 0021 may be signaling a qualitative change in the angular momentum loss rate among the lowest mass stars. Conventionally, its rapid rotation would have marked BRI 0021 as very young, consistent with the selection effect which arises if the latest-type dwarfs are really brown dwarfs on cooling curves. In any case, it is unprecedented to find no sign of stellar activity in such a rapidly rotating convective star. We also discuss the possible conflict between this observation and the extremely strong H-alpha seen in another very cool star, PC 0025+0447. Extrapolation of M-L relations for BRI 0021 yields M approximately 0.065 solar mass, and the other sample objects have expected masses near the H-burning limit. These include two Pleiades brown-dwarf candidates, four field M6 dwarfs and one late-type T Tauri star. The two Pleiades M6 dwarfs have v sin i of 26 and 37 km/s, H-alpha in emission, and radial velocities consistent with Pleiades M6 dwarfs have v sin i of 26 and 37 km/s, H-alpha in emission, and radial velocities consistent with Pleiades membership. Similarly, the late-type T Tauri star has v sin i approximately 30 km/s and H alpha emission indicate of its

  20. Optimization leads to symmetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenghong WANG; Yuqian GUO; Daizhan CHENG

    2004-01-01

    The science of complexity studies the behavior and properties of complex systems in nature and human society.Particular interest has been put on their certain simple common properties.Symmetry is one of such properties.Symmetric phenomena can be found in many complex systems.The purpose of this paper is to reveal the internal reason of the symmetry.Using some physical systems and geometric objects,the paper shows that many symmetries are caused by optimization under certain criteria.It has also been revealed that an evolutional process may lead to symmetry.

  1. Leading change: 2--planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, Joanna

    National initiatives have outlined the importance of involving frontline staff in service improvement, and the ability to influence and manage change has been identified as an essential skill for delivering new models of care. Nurses often have to take the lead in managing change in clinical practice. The second in a three-part series is designed to help nurses at all levels develop the knowledge and skills to function as change agents within their organisations. This article focuses on planning the change and dealing with resistance.

  2. lead glass brick

    CERN Multimedia

    When you look through the glass at a picture behind, the picture appears raised up because light is slowed down in the dense glass. It is this density (4.06 gcm-3) that makes lead glass attractive to physicists. The refractive index of the glass is 1.708 at 400nm (violet light), meaning that light travels in the glass at about 58% its normal speed. At CERN, the OPAL detector uses some 12000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies.

  3. Turning lead into gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    For years the field of entrepreneurship has been blinded by the alchemical promise of turning lead into gold, of finding the ones most likely to become the next Branson, Zuckerberg or Gates. The promise has been created in the midst of political and scientific agendas where certain individuals...... is not to accumulate state or market wealth, but for entrepreneurial skills to become tools towards the liberation of the individual from oppressive systems of control – essentially to add public value rather than economic value. In this presentation I will sketch an anarchist perspective on entrepreneurship, looking...

  4. Surprising Impact of Remote Groups on the Folding-Unfolding and Dimer-Chain Equilibria of Bifunctionl H-Bonding Unimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Rui; Cheng, Shuang; Baker, Erin Shammel; Smith, Richard D.; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Gong, Bing

    2016-01-28

    Oligoamide 1, consisting of two H-bonding units linked by a trimethylene linker, was previously found to form a very stable, folded dimer. In this work, replacing the side chains and end groups of 1 led to derivatives that show the surprising impact of end groups on the folding and dimer-chain equilibria of the resultant molecules.

  5. Probing critical point energies of transition metal dichalcogenides: surprising indirect gap of single layer $SL-WSe_2$

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chendong; CHEN, YUXUAN; Johnson, Amber; Li, Ming-Yang; Li, Lain-Jong; Mende, Patrick C.; Feenstra, Randall M.; Shih, Chih-Kang

    2014-01-01

    Understanding quasiparticle band structures of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) is critical for technological advances of these materials for atomic layer electronics and photonics. Although theoretical calculations to date have shown qualitatively similar features, there exist subtle differences which can lead to important consequences in the device characteristics. For example, most calculations have shown that all single layer (SL) TMDs have direct band gaps, while some have shown t...

  6. Cofilin takes the lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesMarais, Vera; Ghosh, Mousumi; Eddy, Robert; Condeelis, John

    2005-01-01

    Cofilin has emerged as a key regulator of actin dynamics at the leading edge of motile cells. Through its actin-severing activity, it creates new actin barbed ends for polymerization and also depolymerizes old actin filaments. Its function is tightly regulated in the cell. Spatially, its activity is restricted by other actin-binding proteins, such as tropomyosin, which compete for accessibility of actin filament populations in different regions of the cell. At the molecular level, it is regulated by phosphorylation, pH and phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate binding downstream of signaling cascades. In addition, it also appears to be regulated by interactions with 14-3-3zeta and cyclase-associated protein. In vivo, cofilin acts synergistically with the Arp2/3 complex to amplify local actin polymerization responses upon cell stimulation, which gives it a central role in setting the direction of motility in crawling cells.

  7. Lead telluride alloy thermoelectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron D. LaLonde

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity to use solid-state thermoelectrics for waste heat recovery has reinvigorated the field of thermoelectrics in tackling the challenges of energy sustainability. While thermoelectric generators have decades of proven reliability in space, from the 1960s to the present, terrestrial uses have so far been limited to niche applications on Earth because of a relatively low material efficiency. Lead telluride alloys were some of the first materials investigated and commercialized for generators but their full potential for thermoelectrics has only recently been revealed to be far greater than commonly believed. By reviewing some of the past and present successes of PbTe as a thermoelectric material we identify the issues for achieving maximum performance and successful band structure engineering strategies for further improvements that can be applied to other thermoelectric materials systems.

  8. Leading from the boardroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorsch, Jay W; Clark, Robert C

    2008-04-01

    These days, boards are working overtime to comply with Sarbanes-Oxley and other governance requirements meant to protect shareholders from executive wrongdoing. But as directors have become more hands-on with compliance, they've become more hands-off with long-range planning. That exposes corporations and their shareholders to another--perhaps even greater--risk, say professors Lorsch, of Harvard Business School, and Clark, of Harvard Law School. Boards are giving the long term short shrift for a number of reasons. Despite much heavier workloads, directors haven't rethought their patterns of operating - their meetings, committees, and other interactions. Compliance has changed their relationship with executives, however, turning directors into micromanagers who closely probe executives' actions instead of providing high-level guidance. Meanwhile, the pressure to meet quarterly expectations intensifies. Directors need to do a better job of balancing compliance with forward thinking. Boardroom effectiveness hinges most on the quality of directors and their interactions, the authors' research shows. Directors must apply their wisdom broadly, handling compliance work more efficiently and staying out of the weeds on strategic issues. Using their power with management to evangelize for long-term planning, they must take the lead on discussions about financial infrastructure, talent development, and strategy. Reserving sacrosanct time for such discussions, as Philips Electronics' board does at annual retreats, is an effective practice: After one recent retreat, Philips decided to exit the semiconductor business, where it was losing ground. Individual directors also must not shy away from asking tough questions and acting as catalysts on critical issues, such as grooming a successor to the CEO. In short, directors must learn to lead from the boardroom.

  9. Polymorphism of lead oxoborate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyulyupa, A.G. [Middle School, Sablinskoe, Stavropol region, 356322 (Russian Federation); Voronov, V.V. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute RAS, 38 Vavilov Street, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Fedorov, P.P., E-mail: ppfedorov@yandex.ru [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute RAS, 38 Vavilov Street, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-20

    Highlights: • Pb{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 7} melt undergoes statistical undercooling. • Orthorhombic nonlinear optical crystal Pb{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} is the metastable γ-polymorph. • Temperature of metastable melting of γ-Pb{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} is equal to 530 °C. - Abstract: The study of lead borate melt crystallization by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction analysis has shown that, for Pb{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (or 4PbO·B{sub 2}O{sub 3}) stoichiometric compound, its well-known orthorhombic modification (non-centrosymmetric Aba2 space symmetry group (SSG), a = 15.472(1), b = 10.802(1), c = 9.9486(6) Å unit cell parameters) is metastable. It forms from the undercooled melt and has a melting point of 530 ± 5 °C.

  10. Efeitos cardiovascular e metabólico da reposição volêmica com solução salina hipertônica 7,5% associada ou não ao hidroxietilamido 130/0,4 em gatas com hipovolemia induzida Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of volemic expansion with 7.5% hypertonic saline alone or in combination with hydroxyethylstarch 130/0.4 in cats with induced hypovolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doughlas Regalin

    2010-08-01

    Cl 7,5% isoladamente aumenta rapidamente a PAM, PAS e PAD em gatos com hipovolemia induzida, mantendo esse efeito por apenas 30 minutos, enquanto que a administração de hidroxietilamido 130/0,4 associado à NaCl 7,5% promove reestabelecimento mais tardio (após 30 minutos, porém mais duradouro (até 120 minutos da PAM, PAS e PAD em gatas com hipovolemia induzida. A administração de HES 130/0,4 associada à NaCl 7,5% promove aumento acentuado da PVC por até 60 minutos após a administração.Hypovolemia is characterized by body fluid loss leading to an inadequate circulatory flow and consequently tissue injury. The aim of this study was to compare the volume expansion using hypertonic saline solution (NaCl 7.5% alone or in combination with hydroxyethylstarch 130/0.4 (HES 130/0.4 in cats under general anesthesia with isoflurane and exposed to experimental hypovolemia. Twelve adult mixed breed cats, average weight of 3.07±0.56kg were used in this study. The queens were anesthetized using isoflurane and after surgical prepare, anesthesia were maintained with 1 MAC of isoflurane and the animals were mechanically ventilated. After waiting for anesthesia stabilization, baseline cardiovascular and hemogasometric parameters were recorded. Hypovolemia was induced by withdrawing 30mL kg-1 of blood from the femoral artery, after an hour, data were reassessed, and then, the animals were allocated into two groups: HSG (hypertonic saline group, n=6, which received 4mL kg-1 of 7.5% NaCl, and HSCG (hypertonic saline, associated to HES 130/0,4 group n=6 which received 4mL kg-1 of 7.5% NaCl associated to 30ml kg-1 of HES 130/0.4. After the treatments, cardiovascular and hemogasometric parameters were assessed for 120 minutes. Systolic blood pressure (SAP, diastolic blood pressure (DAP, mean arterial pressure (MAP were significantly higher after volemic expansion on HSG at T0. From T45 to T120, SAP, DAP and MAP were significantly higher in HSCG when compared to HSG. Central venous

  11. Drowning: a leading killer!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Domingos Garrido

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Drowning kills at least 372,000 people worldwide every year and is the 3rd leading cause of unintentional death, accounting for 7% of all deaths stemming from accidents (WHO, 2014. Conceptually, “drowning” is a complex and multi-faceted phenomenon, characterized as a chain of events (Bierens, 2006. Drowning is defined as the process of experiencing respiratory impairment from immersion or submersion in liquid. Research on drowning as a phenomenon presents several difficulties - most of all, that global data concerning the number of occurrences are not accurate. Nevertheless, detailed analysis of the registered incidents allows the identification of risk factors of drowning. An in-depth analysis of the risk factors is the basis for the creation of targeted and effective strategies to prevent drowning. Due to variability of situations which could lead to a drowning episode, experts suggest the adoption of a multi-layer prevention model, rather than opting for isolated measures, since no single measure can prevent all deaths and injuries caused by submersion. Among the preventive measures we would like to emphasize instruction in swimming and water safety. So, what does "knowing how to swim" really mean? Some authors define mastery of this competence as swimming a given distance, while others put the emphasis on how this/any given distance is swum (Stallman, Junge, & Blixt, 2008. It has long been realized that there is no contradiction between learning those competencies which make a person less susceptible to drowning and those competencies which prepare the path towards higher levels of performance and competition. Aquatic movement researchers and practitioners and drowning prevention researchers and practitioners, share in the responsibility for drowning prevention though they are often unaware of it. The question “What should be taught to children?” is too infrequently asked. There remains great variation in what is taught and programs

  12. Leading Your Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Wayne N.

    2008-01-01

    life is good. More often when an unbelievably difficult test fails, we are left with a very long discussion of why and what was wrong in the design or execution of the test. Make sure that the test is well defined. Even then, it is important to explain to your leaders what inherent accuracy (or error) the test conditions or equipment have and what the assumptions or initial conditions were for the test. Test results without a good understanding of the test's accuracy or the pedigree of the test assumptions are worth very little. Finally, there is flight test data. Always limited, never at the edge of the envelope, it still shows how the real hardware works in a combined environment. Flight experience is dangerous because it typically doesn't show how close to the edge of the cliff the equipment is operating, but it does demonstrate how the hardware really works. A flight test is the ultimate test, again taken with the knowledge that it is probably not the extreme but something more like the middle of the environmental and systems performance. Good understanding of a problem and its solution always relies on a combination of all these methods. Be sure to lead your leaders by using all the tools you have at your disposal. At the end of the day, decisions in space flight always come down to a risk trade. Our business is not remotely safe, not in the sense that the public, the media, or our legislators use the term. Everything we do has a risk, cost, schedule, or performance trade-off. For your leaders to make an appropriate decision, you need to educate them, lead them, talk with them, and engage them in the discussion until full understanding takes place. It's your job. *

  13. Uso de soluções hipertônicas para preservação hepática em ratos Use of hypertonic solutions for liver preservation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Nagai Yamaki

    2013-03-01

    preservation-rejection-infection. There are several specific components of preservation solutions that could prevent certain tissue damage. From these components, the osmotic factor has been highlighted as a factor in preventing edema and subsequent cell death, suggesting a possible advantage in the use of hypertonic solutions for organ preservation. AIM: To compare different hypertonic solutions as alternative to liver preservation. METHOD: A total of 105 Wistar rats were divided in Standard Group (GP, n=5 rats, to verify the normal range of the study, and five experimental groups of 20 rats each, according to the preservation solution used: Group Eurocollins (GE, Group Saline 0.9% (GF, Group Glucose 50% (GG, Group Mannitol 20% (GM, Group Salty - NaCl 7.5% (GS. All animals in experimental group were also divided into four subgroups according to the time of collection in: 0 h, 2 h, 6 h and 12 h. Was assessed cell viability by the reaction with Methyl Blue Thiazolyl (MTT and the dosages of lactate and alanine aminotransferase (ALT. RESULTS: Regarding the lactate level, was observed a relative improvement of hypertonic solutions compared to eurocollins, and in 12 h, the GE and GS showed no statistically significant difference (p> 0.05. When assessed cell viability, absorbance at MTT also demonstrated favorable results to the GS, since no statistically significant difference in relation to GE. CONCLUSION: The 7.5% NaCl solution showed promising results for organ preservation, presenting parameters and capability comparable to eurocollins preservation solution.

  14. A SURVEY ON LEAD INTOXICATION IN LEAD MINERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Meshgi

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey on lead intoxication in lead mine workers was carried out among Khanehsorme, lead miners in NajafAabad and also in Ab-bagh lead miners in Shahreza, both located in district of Esfahan, Iran. The studies were carried out on 62 miners out of 82 employees in Khanehsorme, 25 miners out of 27 employees in Ab-bagh lead miners and 47 rural inhabitants in the surroundings of mines were selected as the Control group. Clinical examinations were done. Age and sex group, working hours, type of work, and duration of service and previous occupation of workers were questioned. The determination of lead in urine was done according to Truhaut et Boudene's method and the content of blood Hemoglobin was performed according to Sali method. Results obtained in lead miners in comparison with the control group showed the absorption of lead and consequently lead intoxication was observed some extent.

  15. Feedback first: the surprisingly weak effects of magnetic fields, viscosity, conduction, and metal diffusion on galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Kung-Yi; Hayward, Christopher C; Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre; Keres, Dusan; Ma, Xiangcheng; Robles, Victor H

    2016-01-01

    Using high-resolution simulations with explicit treatment of stellar feedback physics based on the FIRE (Feedback in Realistic Environments) project, we study how galaxy formation and the interstellar medium (ISM) are affected by magnetic fields, anisotropic Spitzer-Braginskii conduction and viscosity, and sub-grid turbulent metal diffusion. We consider controlled simulations of isolated (non-cosmological) galaxies but also a limited set of cosmological "zoom-in" simulations. Although simulations have shown significant effects from these physics with weak or absent stellar feedback, the effects are much weaker than those of stellar feedback when the latter is modeled explicitly. The additional physics have no systematic effect on galactic star formation rates (SFRs). In contrast, removing stellar feedback leads to SFRs being over-predicted by factors of $\\sim 10 -100$. Without feedback, neither galactic winds nor volume filling hot-phase gas exist, and discs tend to runaway collapse to ultra-thin scale-height...

  16. Enlarged Multilocus Data set Provides Surprisingly Younger Time of Origin for the Plethodontidae, the Largest Family of Salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xing-Xing; Liang, Dan; Chen, Meng-Yun; Mao, Rong-Li; Wake, David B; Zhang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Deep phylogenetic relationships of the largest salamander family Plethodontidae have been difficult to resolve, probably reflecting a rapid diversification early in their evolutionary history. Here, data from 50 independent nuclear markers (total 48,582 bp) are used to reconstruct the phylogeny and divergence times for plethodontid salamanders, using both concatenation and coalescence-based species tree analyses. Our results robustly resolve the position of the enigmatic eastern North American four-toed salamander (Hemidactylium) as the sister taxon of Batrachoseps + Tribe Bolitoglossini, thus settling a long-standing question. Furthermore, we statistically reject sister taxon status of Karsenia and Hydromantes, the only plethodontids to occur outside the Americas, leading us to new biogeographic hypotheses. Contrary to previous long-standing arguments that plethodontid salamanders are an old lineage originating in the Cretaceous (more than 90 Ma), our analyses lead to the hypothesis that these salamanders are much younger, arising close to the K-T boundary (~66 Ma). These time estimates are highly stable using alternative calibration schemes and dating methods. Our data simulation highlights the potential risk of making strong arguments about phylogenetic timing based on inferences from a handful of nuclear genes, a common practice. Based on the newly obtained timetree and ancestral area reconstruction results, we argue that (i) the classic "Out of Appalachia" hypothesis of plethodontid origins is problematic; (ii) the common ancestor of extant plethodontids may have originated in northwestern North America in the early Paleocene; (iii) origins of Eurasian plethodontids likely result from two separate dispersal events from western North America via Beringia in the late Eocene (~42 Ma) and the early Miocene (~23 Ma), respectively.

  17. Current issues in human lead exposure and regulation of lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J M; Elias, R W; Grant, L D

    1993-01-01

    Concern about lead as a significant public health problem has increased as epidemiological and experimental evidence has mounted regarding adverse health effects at successively lower levels of lead exposure. This concern has led to downward revision of criteria for acceptable blood lead concentrations to the 10 micrograms/dL mark now designated by EPA as a target level for regulatory development and enforcement/clean-up purposes. Much progress has been made in reducing lead exposures during the past 10-15 years, with marked declines evident both in air lead and blood lead concentrations in parallel to the phase-down of lead in gasoline and notable decreases in food lead exposure due to elimination of lead soldered cans by U.S. food processors. With the lessening of exposure from these sources, the importance of other components of multimedia exposure pathways has grown and stimulated increasing regulatory attention and abatement efforts to reduce health risks associated with lead exposure from drinking water, from lead-based paint, and from household dust and soil contaminated by deteriorating paint, smelter emissions, or various other sources. Increasing attention is also being accorded to reduction of occupational lead exposures (including those related to lead abatement activities), with particular concern for protection of men and women during their reproductive years.

  18. Mouse Genetic Models Reveal Surprising Functions of IκB Kinase Alpha in Skin Development and Skin Carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Xiaojun [The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Park, Eunmi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Fischer, Susan M. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX 78967 (United States); Hu, Yinling, E-mail: huy2@mail.nih.gov [Cancer and Inflammation Program, Center for Cancer Research, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD 21701 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Gene knockout studies unexpectedly reveal a pivotal role for IκB kinase alpha (IKKα) in mouse embryonic skin development. Skin carcinogenesis experiments show that Ikkα heterozygous mice are highly susceptible to chemical carcinogen or ultraviolet B light (UVB) induced benign and malignant skin tumors in comparison to wild-type mice. IKKα deletion mediated by keratin 5 (K5).Cre or K15.Cre in keratinocytes induces epidermal hyperplasia and spontaneous skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in Ikkα floxed mice. On the other hand, transgenic mice overexpressing IKKα in the epidermis, under the control of a truncated loricrin promoter or K5 promoter, develop normal skin and show no defects in the formation of the epidermis and other epithelial organs, and the transgenic IKKα represses chemical carcinogen or UVB induced skin carcinogenesis. Moreover, IKKα deletion mediated by a mutation, which generates a stop codon in the Ikkα gene, has been reported in a human autosomal recessive lethal syndrome. Downregulated IKKα and Ikkα mutations and deletions are found in human skin SCCs. The collective evidence not only highlights the importance of IKKα in skin development, maintaining skin homeostasis, and preventing skin carcinogenesis, but also demonstrates that mouse models are extremely valuable tools for revealing the mechanisms underlying these biological events, leading our studies from bench side to bedside.

  19. Investigation into the Relaxation Dynamics of Polymer-Protein Conjugates Reveals Surprising Role of Polymer Solvation on Inherent Protein Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Daniela; Plazanet, Marie; Teixeira, José; Moulin, Martine; Härtlein, Michael; Wurm, Frederik R; Steinbach, Tobias

    2016-01-11

    Fully biodegradable protein-polymer conjugates, namely, MBP-PMeEP (maltose binding protein-poly methyl-ethylene phosphonate), have been investigated in order to understand the role of polymer solvation on protein flexibility. Using elastic and quasi-elastic incoherent neutron scattering, in combination with partially deuterated conjugate systems, we are able to disentangle the polymer dynamics from the protein dynamics and meaningfully address the coupling between both components. We highlight that, in the dry state, the protein-polymer conjugates lack any dynamical transition in accordance with the generally observed behavior for dry proteins. In addition, we observe a larger flexibility of the conjugated protein, compared to the native protein, as well as a lack of polymer-glass transition. Only upon water hydration does the conjugate recover its dynamical transition, leading to the conclusion that exclusive polymer solvation is insufficient to unfreeze fluctuations on the picosecond-nanosecond time scale in biomolecules. Our results also confirm the established coupling between polymer and protein dynamics in the conjugate.

  20. The Changing Way of Leading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytsma, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    This conceptual article explores the changing way of leading. It proposes that in contrast to the primarily outer actions that characterize educational change, the inner and outer dimensions of leaders are necessary to change what constitutes leading, thereby making it more appropriate to our times. The unfolding of leading actions and the…

  1. Lead in School Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    Lead levels in school drinking water merit special concern because children are more at risk than adults from exposure to lead. This manual provides ways in which school officials can minimize this risk. It assists administrators by providing: (1) general information on the significance of lead in school drinking water and its effects on children;…

  2. Lead exposure among lead-acid battery workers in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, T D; Figueroa, J P; Burr, G; Flesch, J P; Keenlyside, R A; Baker, E L

    1989-01-01

    To assess lead exposure in the Jamaican lead-acid battery industry, we surveyed three battery manufacturers (including 46 production workers) and 10 battery repair shops (including 23 battery repair workers). Engineering controls and respiratory protection were judged to be inadequate at battery manufacturers and battery repair shops. At manufacturers, 38 of 42 air samples for lead exceeded a work-shift time-weighted average concentration of 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.030-5.3 mg/m3), and nine samples exceeded 0.50 mg/m3. Only one of seven air samples at repair shops exceeded 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.003-0.066 mg/m3). Repair shop workers, however, had higher blood lead levels than manufacturing workers (65% vs. 28% with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl, respectively). Manufacturing workers had a higher prevalence of safe hygienic practices and a recent interval of minimal production had occurred at one of the battery manufacturers. Workers with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl tended to have higher prevalences of most symptoms of lead toxicity than did workers with lower blood lead levels, but this finding was not consistent or statistically significant. The relationship between zinc protoporphyrin concentrations and increasing blood lead concentrations was consistent with that described among workers in developed countries. The high risk of lead toxicity among Jamaican battery workers is consistent with studies of battery workers in other developing countries.

  3. Lead resistant bacteria: lead resistance mechanisms, their applications in lead bioremediation and biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Milind Mohan; Dubey, Santosh Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Lead (Pb) is non-bioessential, persistent and hazardous heavy metal pollutant of environmental concern. Bioremediation has become a potential alternative to the existing technologies for the removal and/or recovery of toxic lead from waste waters before releasing it into natural water bodies for environmental safety. To our best knowledge, this is a first review presenting different mechanisms employed by lead resistant bacteria to resist high levels of lead and their applications in cost effective and eco-friendly ways of lead bioremediation and biomonitoring. Various lead resistant mechanisms employed by lead resistant bacteria includes efflux mechanism, extracellular sequestration, biosorption, precipitation, alteration in cell morphology, enhanced siderophore production and intracellular lead bioaccumulation.

  4. Failure modes of lead/acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpin, B.; Rand, D. A. J.

    The delivery and storage of electrical energy in lead/acid batteries via the conversion of lead dioxide and lead to, and from, lead sulphate is deceptively simple. In fact, battery performance depends upon the cell design, the materials of construction, a complex interplay between the multitudinous parameters involved in plate preparation, the chemical composition/structure of the active materials, and the duty/conditions of battery operation. It is not surprising, therefore, that the factors responsible for the degradation of battery performance, and eventual failure, are many and varied. Apart from occasional field surveys of automotive batteries in the U.S.A., comprehensive failure analyses of units removed from service are rarely published. In general, the information is kept proprietary, or appears as a post mortem report that is subsidiary to some other topic of interest. By contrast, the literature abounds with detailed laboratory investigations of phenomena that are likely to contribute, wholly or in part, to the demise of batteries. In broad terms, this review draws together the fragmented and scattered data presently available on the failure mechanisms of lead/acid batteries in order to provide a platform for further exploration of the phenomena, and for the planning of remedial strategies. The approach taken is to classify, first, the different lead/acid technologies in terms of required duty (i.e., float, cycling and automotive applications), unit design (i.e., flat or tubular plate, flooded or immobilized electrolyte), and grid alloy (i.e., leadantimony or leadcalcium system). A distinction is then made between catastrophic failure, as characterized by a sudden inability of the battery to function, and progressive failure, as demonstrated by some more subtle deviation from optimum performance. Catastrophic failure is attributed to incorrect cell design, poor manufacturing practice, abuse, or misuse. These problems are obvious and, accordingly

  5. Lead levels of Culex mosquito larvae inhabiting lead utilizing factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kitvatanachai S; Apiwathnasorn C; Leemingsawat S; Wongwit W; Overgaard HJ

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine lead level primarily in Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus), and Culex gelidus (Cx. gelidus) larvae inhabiting lead consuming factories, and to putatively estimate eco-toxicological impact of effluents from the firms. Methods: Third instars larvae were sampled by standard dipping method and lead concentrations in the larvae and their respective surrounding factory aquatic environments were determined through standard atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Results: Cx. quinquefasciatus was the most abundant species followed by Cx. gelidus. The levels of lead were higher in the Cx. quinquefasciatus (1.08-47.47 μg/g), than in the wastewaters surface (0.01-0.78 μg/mL) from the factories or closer areas around factories. Other species were not reaching the criteria for lead determination. Conclusions: The Cx.quinquefasciatus larvae can bio-accumulate the metal and can potentially serve as a biomarker of lead contamination, to complemente conventional techniques.

  6. Prevalence of lead disease among secondary lead smelter workers and biological indicators of lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilis, R. (City Univ. of New York); Fischbein, A.; Eisinger, J.

    1977-10-01

    The report concerns itself primarily with the assessment of medical and biochemical effects of chronic lead exposure and comparing the usefulness of various biological screening parameters. In addition it appraises the effects of chelation therapy to control blood lead levels in lead workers, which have recently attracted critical attention. It is of considerable importance to ascertain whether such a therapeutic approach may, under some circumstances, in fact contribute to the deleterious effects of undue lead exposure.

  7. Moderate rates of late Quaternary slip along the northwestern margin of the Basin and Range Province, Surprise Valley fault, northeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personius, Stephen F.; Crone, Anthony J.; Machette, Michael N.; Mahan, Shannon; Lidke, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The 86-km-long Surprise Valley normal fault forms part of the active northwestern margin of the Basin and Range province in northeastern California. We use trench mapping and radiocarbon, luminescence, and tephra dating to estimate displacements and timing of the past five surface-rupturing earthquakes on the central part of the fault near Cedarville. A Bayesian OxCal analysis of timing constraints indicates earthquake times of 18.2 ± 2.6, 10.9 ± 3.2, 8.5 ± 0.5, 5.8 ± 1.5, and 1.2 ± 0.1 ka. These data yield recurrence intervals of 7.3 ± 4.1, 2.5 ± 3.2, 2.7 ± 1.6, and 4.5 ± 1.5 ka and an elapsed time of 1.2 ± 0.1 ka since the latest surface-rupturing earthquake. Our best estimate of latest Quaternary vertical slip rate is 0.6 ?? 0.1 mm/a. This late Quaternary rate is remarkably similar to long-term (8-14 Ma) minimum vertical slip rates (>0.4-0.5 ± 0.3 mm/a) calculated from recently acquired seismic reflection and chronologic and structural data in Surprise Valley and the adjacent Warner Mountains. However, our slip rate yields estimates of extension that are lower than recent campaign GPS determinations by factors of 1.5-4 unless the fault has an unusually shallow (30°-35°) dip as suggested by recently acquired seismic reflection data. Coseismic displacements of 2-4.5 ± 1 m documented in the trench and probable rupture lengths of 53-65 km indicate a history of latest Quaternary earthquakes of M 6.8-7.3 on the central part of the. Surprise Valley fault.

  8. Surprisal analysis of transcripts expression levels in the presence of noise: a reliable determination of the onset of a tumor phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelet Gross

    Full Text Available Towards a reliable identification of the onset in time of a cancer phenotype, changes in transcription levels in cell models were tested. Surprisal analysis, an information-theoretic approach grounded in thermodynamics, was used to characterize the expression level of mRNAs as time changed. Surprisal Analysis provides a very compact representation for the measured expression levels of many thousands of mRNAs in terms of very few - three, four - transcription patterns. The patterns, that are a collection of transcripts that respond together, can be assigned definite biological phenotypic role. We identify a transcription pattern that is a clear marker of eventual malignancy. The weight of each transcription pattern is determined by surprisal analysis. The weight of this pattern changes with time; it is never strictly zero but it is very low at early times and then rises rather suddenly. We suggest that the low weights at early time points are primarily due to experimental noise. We develop the necessary formalism to determine at what point in time the value of that pattern becomes reliable. Beyond the point in time when a pattern is deemed reliable the data shows that the pattern remain reliable. We suggest that this allows a determination of the presence of a cancer forewarning. We apply the same formalism to the weight of the transcription patterns that account for healthy cell pathways, such as apoptosis, that need to be switched off in cancer cells. We show that their weight eventually falls below the threshold. Lastly we discuss patient heterogeneity as an additional source of fluctuation and show how to incorporate it within the developed formalism.

  9. Chronic lead poisoning in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, H.D.; Burau, R.G.

    1973-05-01

    Chronic lead poisoning in horses was manifested as anorexia, loss of body weight, muscular weakness, anemia, laryngeal hemiplegia, and, terminally, inhalation pneumonia. Some deaths were sudden and unexplained. The lead content in liver specimens from 10 horses was greater than that considered indicative of lead intoxication; however, the lead content of blood was equivocal. The most conclusive laboratory finding was increased urine lead concentration after chelation therapy. The concentration of lead in a sample of vegetation considered to be representative of what a horse would eat if he was grazing in the area sampled was 325 ppM (oven-dry basis). It was determined that a 450-kg horse grazing grass of this lead content would consume 2.9 Gm of lead daily (6.4 mg/kg of body weight), an amount considered toxic for horses. Leaching lowered the calcium content of the forage but failed to reduce the lead concentration of the plants significantly, thus opening the possibility that winter rains might have influenced the onset of poisoning. Airborne fallout from a nearby lead smelter was proposed as the primary mode of pasture contamination.

  10. Lead Levels in Utah Eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Michelle

    2006-10-01

    Lead is a health hazard to most animals, causing adverse effects to the nervous and reproductive systems if in sufficient quantity. Found in most fishing jigs and sinkers, as well as some ammunition used in hunting, this metal can poison wildlife such as eagles. Eagles are raptors, or predatory birds, and their lead exposure would most likely comes from their food -- a fish which has swallowed a sinker or lead shot in carrion (dead animal matter). As part of an ongoing project to investigate the environment lead levels in Utah, the bone lead levels in the wing bones of eagles have been measured for eagle carcasses found throughout Utah. The noninvasive technique of x-ray fluorescence was used, consisting of a Cd-109 radioactive source to activate lead atoms and a HPGe detector with digital electronics to collect the gamma spectra. Preliminary results for the eagles measured to date will be presented.

  11. Combined processing of lead concentrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubasov, V. L.; Paretskii, V. M.; Sidorin, G. N.; Travkin, V. F.

    2013-06-01

    A combined scheme of processing of lead concentrates with the production of pure metallic lead and the important components containing in these concentrates is considered. This scheme includes sulfating roasting of the lead concentrates and two-stage leaching of the formed cinder with the formation of a sulfate solution and lead sulfate. When transformed into a carbonate form, lead sulfate is used for the production of pure metallic lead. Silver, indium, copper, cadmium, nickel, cobalt, and other important components are separately extracted from a solution. At the last stage, zinc is extracted by either extraction followed by electrolytic extraction of a metal or the return of the forming solution of sulfuric acid to cinder leaching.

  12. Taking the Lead : Gender, Social Context and Preference to Lead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, A.P.C.I.; Schaafsma, J.; van der Wijst, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that women tend to emerge as leaders less often than men. In the present study, we examined to what extent women's and men's preference to lead is influenced by social context. It was hypothesized that women have a less strong preference to lead than men in a compe

  13. Undue Lead Absorption and Lead Poisoning in Children: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin-Fu, J. S.

    The toxic effects of lead, a useful metal ubiquitous in the human environment, have long been known. The occupational hazards of lead poisoning were well established by the early 19th century, but plumbism in children caused by paint ingestion was not reported until the turn of the century. Even in 1924, the child was said to live in a "lead…

  14. Archives of Atmospheric Lead Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Dominik; Shotyk, William; Kempf, Oliver

    Environmental archives such as peat bogs, sediments, corals, trees, polar ice, plant material from herbarium collections, and human tissue material have greatly helped to assess both ancient and recent atmospheric lead deposition and its sources on a regional and global scale. In Europe detectable atmospheric lead pollution began as early as 6000years ago due to enhanced soil dust and agricultural activities, as studies of peat bogs reveal. Increased lead emissions during ancient Greek and Roman times have been recorded and identified in many long-term archives such as lake sediments in Sweden, ice cores in Greenland, and peat bogs in Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. For the period since the Industrial Revolution, other archives such as corals, trees, and herbarium collections provide similar chronologies of atmospheric lead pollution, with periods of enhanced lead deposition occurring at the turn of the century and since 1950. The main sources have been industry, including coal burning, ferrous and nonferrous smelting, and open waste incineration until c.1950 and leaded gasoline use since 1950. The greatest lead emissions to the atmosphere all over Europe occurred between 1950 and 1980 due to traffic exhaust. A marked drop in atmospheric lead fluxes found in most archives since the 1980s has been attributed to the phasing out of leaded gasoline. The isotope ratios of lead in the various archives show qualitatively similar temporal changes, for example, the immediate response to the introduction and phasing out of leaded gasoline. Isotope studies largely confirm source assessments based on lead emission inventories and allow the contributions of various anthropogenic sources to be calculated.

  15. Teratogen update: lead and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, David C

    2005-06-01

    This review focuses on the impacts of lead exposure on reproductive health and outcomes. High levels of paternal lead exposure (>40 microg/dl or >25 microg/dl for a period of years) appear to reduce fertility and to increase the risks of spontaneous abortion and reduced fetal growth (preterm delivery, low birth weight). Maternal blood lead levels of approximately 10 microg/dl have been linked to increased risks of pregnancy hypertension, spontaneous abortion, and reduced offspring neurobehavioral development. Somewhat higher maternal lead levels have been linked to reduced fetal growth. Some studies suggest a link between increased parental lead exposure and congenital malformations, although considerable uncertainty remains regarding the specific malformations and the dose-response relationships. Common methodological weaknesses of studies include potential exposure misclassifications due to the frequent unavailability of exposure biomarker measurements at biologically appropriate times and uncertainty regarding the best exposure biomarker(s) for the various outcomes. A special concern with regard to the pregnant woman is the possibility that a fetus might be exposed to lead mobilized from bone stores as a result of pregnancy-related metabolic changes, making fetal lead exposure the result of exposure to exogenous lead during pregnancy and exposure to endogenous lead accumulated by the woman prior to pregnancy. By reducing bone resorption, increased calcium intake during the second half of pregnancy might reduce the mobilization of lead from bone compartments, even at low blood lead levels. Subgroups of women who incurred substantial exposures to lead prior to pregnancy should be considered to be at increased risk.

  16. Experimental orofacial pain and sensory deprivation lead to perceptual distortion of the face in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsdóttir, Lilja Kristín; Skyt, Ina; Vase, Lene; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Castrillon, Eduardo; Svensson, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Patients suffering from persistent orofacial pain may sporadically report that the painful area feels "swollen" or "differently," a phenomenon that may be conceptualized as a perceptual distortion because there are no clinical signs of swelling present. Our aim was to investigate whether standardized experimental pain and sensory deprivation of specific orofacial test sites would lead to changes in the size perception of these face areas. Twenty-four healthy participants received either 0.2 mL hypertonic saline (HS) or local anesthetics (LA) into six regions (buccal, mental, lingual, masseter muscle, infraorbital and auriculotemporal nerve regions). Participants estimated the perceived size changes in percentage (0 % = no change, -100 % = half the size or +100 % = double the size), and somatosensory function was checked with tactile stimuli. The pain intensity was rated on a 0-10 Verbal Numerical Rating Scale (VNRS), and sets of psychological questionnaires were completed. HS and LA were associated with significant self-reported perceptual distortions as indicated by consistent increases in perceived size of the adjacent face areas (P ≤ 0.050). Perceptual distortion was most pronounced in the buccal region, and the smallest increase was observed in the auriculotemporal region. HS was associated with moderate levels of pain VNRS = 7.3 ± 0.6. Weak correlations were found between HS-evoked perceptual distortion and level of dissociation in two regions (P sensory deprivation evoked perceptual distortions in all face regions and overall demonstrated the importance of afferent inputs for the perception of the face. We propose that perceptual distortion may be an important phenomenon to consider in persistent orofacial pain conditions.

  17. Recovery of indium and lead from lead bullion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Lead and indium were recovered by electrolysis and nonequilibrium solvent extraction process from lead bullion.The effects of current density,electrolytic period and circle amnant of electrolyte on the electrochemical dissolution of lead and indium were investigated.The effects of extraction phase ratio and mixing time on solvent extraction of indium and striping phase ratio and stripping stage on the loaded organic phase stripping were also investigated.The experimental results indicate that under optimum conditions,the purity of lead deposited on cathode is 98.5% and the deposit rate of lead is 99.9%,the dissolution rate of indium is 94.28%,the extraction rate of indium is 98.69%,the stripping rate of indium is almost 100%,and the impurity elements,such as Zn,Fe and Sn can be removed.

  18. Safe Leads and Lead Changes in Competitive Team Sports

    CERN Document Server

    Clauset, A; Redner, S

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the time evolution of lead changes within individual games of competitive team sports. Exploiting ideas from the theory of random walks, the number of lead changes within a single game follows a Gaussian distribution. We show that the probability that the last lead change and the time of the largest lead size are governed by the same arcsine law, a bimodal distribution that diverges at the start and at the end of the game. We also determine the probability that a given lead is "safe" as a function of its size $L$ and game time $t$. Our predictions generally agree with comprehensive data on more than 1.25 million scoring events in roughly 40,000 games across four professional or semi-professional team sports, and are more accurate than popular heuristics currently used in sports analytics.

  19. High temperature superconductor current leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Poeppel, Roger B. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

    1995-01-01

    An electrical lead having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths.

  20. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  1. Aesthetic Surprise of Artistic Expression in Chinese Ancient Literature%审美惊奇在中国古代文学中的艺术表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李潇云

    2015-01-01

    Aesthetic surprise is an appreciation of wonder beauty of literature, art and natural beauty. It is related with ideological content of expression, prefers to the artistic form and artistic expression, but also closely related with the aesthetic psychology and aesthetic experience. With the main identifications as aesthetic psychological effects which appeared as "surprising" "astonishing""touched"and so on, its reason can be roughly analyzed from four aspects:imagery, artistic conception, rhetoric and language.%审美惊奇是对具有奇异之美的文学艺术甚至奇特自然美的一种激赏,它和表现的思想内容有关,偏重于艺术形式、艺术表现,也和审美心理和审美经验密不可分,其主要标识为审美心理效果,体现为“惊人”“惊心动魄”“动心惊耳”等,其原因大致可以从四个方面来分析:语言、修辞、意象、意境。

  2. Lead behavior in abalone shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirao, Yoshimitsu; Matsumoto, Akikazu; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Maeda, Masaru; Kimura, Kan

    1994-08-01

    In order to gain information about the behavior of heavy metals in biological assimilation processes in a marine food chain and to investigate the possibility that lead pollution in a marine environment can be estimated by measurement of a small number of key materials from such a food chain, muscle and shell were analyzed from abalone ( Haliotis) from a shallow water locality in a Japanese coastal region. Lead concentrations in muscle were about 26 ppb for abalone of approximately 3 years old and decreased systematically with increasing age of animals sampled, to about 3.3 ppb for a specimen approximately 8 years old. Lead concentrations in shell material gradually decreased also, from 150 ppb to 82 ppb in the oldest specimen. The decrease of concentration in tissues with increasing age indicates that a mechanism for exclusion of lead during tissue growth becomes more efficient with age. Along the food chain in which abalone is the final stage, lead was enriched at the first stage, from seawater to algae, by a factor of 100. Lead was diminished at all subsequent stages of the chain. Tissue of artificially cultured abalone had four times higher lead values compared to abalone grown in natural conditions, and this appears to reflect the fact that lead concentration was three times higher in seawater in the cultured environment.

  3. Lead-free primary explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, My Hang V.

    2010-06-22

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula (cat).sub.Y[M.sup.II(T).sub.X(H.sub.2O).sub.6-X].sub.Z, where T is 5-nitrotetrazolate, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  4. Leading change: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Brantley, Heather V; Ford, Debra J

    2017-04-01

    To report an analysis of the concept of leading change. Nurses have been called to lead change to advance the health of individuals, populations, and systems. Conceptual clarity about leading change in the context of nursing and healthcare systems provides an empirical direction for future research and theory development that can advance the science of leadership studies in nursing. Concept analysis. CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, Health Business Elite and Business Source Premier databases were searched using the terms: leading change, transformation, reform, leadership and change. Literature published in English from 2001 - 2015 in the fields of nursing, medicine, organizational studies, business, education, psychology or sociology were included. Walker and Avant's method was used to identify descriptions, antecedents, consequences and empirical referents of the concept. Model, related and contrary cases were developed. Five defining attributes of leading change were identified: (a) individual and collective leadership; (b) operational support; (c) fostering relationships; (d) organizational learning; and (e) balance. Antecedents were external or internal driving forces and organizational readiness. The consequences of leading change included improved organizational performance and outcomes and new organizational culture and values. A theoretical definition and conceptual model of leading change were developed. Future studies that use and test the model may contribute to the refinement of a middle-range theory to advance nursing leadership research and education. From this, empirically derived interventions that prepare and enable nurses to lead change to advance health may be realized. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Experience with intravascular lead extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jian; TANG Kai; WANG Fang-zheng; ZHANG Shu; HUANG Cong-xin

    2005-01-01

    @@ With the increase of clinical use of cardiac pacemaker, a certain kinds of severe leads-related complications (especially infection) have presented in a few patients who underwent pacemaker implantation. The best way to manage this problem is to remove the transvenous leads.1,2 The technique for percutaneous removal of transvenous leads have undergone considerable development in western countries over the past 2 decades. However, there was scarce data on the application of this technique in China. This article reports the results of transvenous extraction of 171 permanent pacemaker leads with the standard lead extraction devices and intravascular countertraction technique during the period from January 1996 to May 2005 in the Center of Arrhythmia Diagnosis and Treatment, Fu Wai Hospital, Beijing, China.

  6. Lead dodecanoate coatings for the protection of lead and lead-tin alloy artifacts: Two examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keersmaecker, Michel; Verbeken, Kim; Adriaens, Annemie

    2014-02-01

    In order to understand the corrosive and morphological characteristics of lead dodecanoate protective coatings on real samples, three pipe organ samples were studied using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The corrosion products and elemental composition of the top layer of the different pipe organ samples were investigated. The results indicate that the three pipe organ samples are made of an alloy composed mainly of lead and tin. After immersion and the deposition of the protective coating, only lead and no tin is detected, which indicates the formation of a thick coating containing lead dodecanoate complexes.

  7. Lead arthropathy: a cause of delayed onset lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peh, W.C.G. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital (Hong Kong); Reinus, W.R. [Mallinckrodt Inst. of Radiology, Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Patients who suffer gun shot wounds often have retained bullet fragments within their bodies. These are usually of no clinical consequence. We describe three patients with retained bullets within their hip joints. One of these patients, who had extensive ground intra-articular bullet fragments and secondary osteoarthritis of the hip, presented with signs, symptoms, and laboratory data consistent with lead intoxication. The bullet und metallic fragments were removed surgically with good clinical response. Two patients whose bullets were implanted entirely within the femoral head and whose joints showed smaller degrees of lead fragmentation had no symptoms of lead intoxication. The degree of intra-articular fragmentation of the bullet and the surface area of lead exposed to synovial fluid are emphasized as decisive factors with respect to appropriate therapy. (orig.)

  8. Lead levels of Culex mosquito larvae inhabiting lead utilizing factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kitvatanachai; S; Apiwathnasorn; C; Leemingsawat; S; Wongwit; W; Overgaard; HJ

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine lead level primarily in Culex quinquefasciatus(Cx.quinquefasciatus), and Culex gelidus(Cx.gelidus) larvae inhabiting lead consuming factories,and to putatively estimate eco-toxicological impact of effluents from the firms.Methods:Third instars larvae were sampled by standard dipping method and lead concentrations in the larvae and their respective surrounding factory aquatic environments were determined through standard atomic absorption spectrophotometry(AAS).Results:Cx.quinquefasciatus was the most abundant species followed by Cx.gelidus.The levels of lead were higher in the Cx.quinquefasciatus(1.08-47.47μg/g),than in the wastewaters surface(0.01-0.78 μg/mL) from the factories or closer areas around factories. Other species were not reaching the.criteria for lead determination.Conclusions:The Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae can bio-accumulate the metal and can potentially serve as a biomarker of lead contamination,to complemente conventional techniques.

  9. Small bowel obstruction- a surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Jeffrey Daniel; Cp, Ganesh Babu; M, Balachandar; M, Ramanathan

    2015-01-01

    Trans - omental hernia is very rare, accounting to 1-4% of all internal hernias which is an unusual cause of small bowel obstruction. Here we present a case report of a small bowel obstruction in a female due to trans - omental hernia presenting with central abdominal pain, distension and bilious vomiting. She had no previous history of trauma, surgery. Plain X-ray abdomen erect showed multiple air fluid levels with dilated small bowel loops. Emergency laparotomy revealed a segment of congested small bowel loop (ileum) through a defect in greater omentum. On table the herniated bowel loop was reduced and the defect in greater omentum was closed primarily. There was no necessity for bowel resection as it regained normal colour after reduction. Postoperative period was uneventful with complete resolution of symptoms. This case is presented for its rarity and its importance in clinical differential diagnosis of acute abdomen due to small bowel obstruction.

  10. Surprising Beauty in Technical Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidhazy, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The Imaging and Photographic Technology area, in which the author teaches, is an applications- and technology-oriented photography program designed to prepare students for work in technical, corporate, industrial, and scientific environments. One day, the author received an e-mail message from an editor who had found his Web site and thought he…

  11. Surprised by the Parimutuel Odds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottaviani, Marco; Sørensen, Peter Norman

    2009-01-01

    Empirical analyses of parimutuel betting markets have documented that market probabilities of favorites (longshots) tend to underestimate (overestimate) the corresponding empirical probabilities. We argue that this favorite-longshot bias is consistent with bettors taking simultaneous positions...... on the basis of private information about the likelihood of different outcomes. The ex post realization of a high market probability indicates favorable information about the occurrence of an outcome -- and the opposite is true for longshots. This explanation for the bias relies on the bettors' inability...

  12. Conversation Simulation and Sensible Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Jason L.

    I have entered the Loebner Prize five times, winning the "most humanlike program" category in 1996 with a surly ELIZA-clone named HeX, but failed to repeat the performance in subsequent years with more sophisticated techniques. Whether this is indicative of an unanticipated improvement in "conversation simulation" technology, or whether it highlights the strengths of ELIZA-style trickery, is as an exercise for the reader. In 2000, I was invited to assume the role of Chief Scientist at Artificial Intelligence Ltd. (Ai) on a project inspired by the advice given by Alan Turing in the final section of his classic paper - our quest was to build a "child machine" that could learn and use language from scratch. In this chapter, I will discuss both of these experiences, presenting my thoughts regarding the Chinese Room argument and Artificial Intelligence (AI) in between.

  13. Some new surprises in chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunimovich, Leonid A., E-mail: bunimovh@math.gatech.edu [ABC Program, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); School of Mathematics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Vela-Arevalo, Luz V., E-mail: luzvela@math.gatech.edu [School of Mathematics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    A brief review is presented of some recent findings in the theory of chaotic dynamics. We also prove a statement that could be naturally considered as a dual one to the Poincaré theorem on recurrences. Numerical results demonstrate that some parts of the phase space of chaotic systems are more likely to be visited earlier than other parts. A new class of chaotic focusing billiards is discussed that clearly violates the main condition considered to be necessary for chaos in focusing billiards.

  14. Surprising results from cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilk, G. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Wlodarczyk, Z. [Institute for Physics, Pedagogical University, Kielce (Poland)

    1996-10-01

    A number of seemingly exotic phenomena seen in the highest cosmic-ray experiments are briefly discussed. We argue that they indicate existence of non-statistical fluctuations and strong correlations in the fragmentation region of multiparticle production processes unaccessible to the present accelerators. (author) 12 refs, 3 figs

  15. Education in Japan: Surprising Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasy, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    Reports on an indepth probe of the Japanese educational system by American educators. This study shows that the United States cannot expect to achieve economic growth by copying the Japanese system, which has been shaped largely by its geography and culture and society. (MD)

  16. 高渗盐水联合特布他林雾化吸入佐治毛细支气管炎观察%Therapeutic effect of Hypertonic saline and Terbutaline of Bronchiolitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周月朋; 李晓东; 陈忠星

    2014-01-01

    Objective: It is to observe the clinical efficacy of hypertonic saline combined with terbutalin onbronchiolitis. Methods: 79 cases were randomly divided into observation and control groups.40 cases were in theobservation group, and 39 cases in the control group. Both groups were given comprehensivetreatment.Thenonthisbasis, in the observation group the children were given 3ml 3% hypertonic saline combined with 1ml terbutalinatomization; while the children in the control group were given 3ml 0.9% normal salinecombinedwith1mlterbutalinatomization, with aerosol inhalation treatment every 8 hours. The relief of sick children’s wheezing, time fordisappearance of lungs wheezing, time for disappearing the lung rales and days of hospitalization were observed. Re-sults: Inobservationgroupwheezingrelief,timefordisappearanceoflungswheezing,timefordisappearingthelungrales and days of hospitalization was shorter than those in the control group. The difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: 3%hypertonicsalinecombinedwithterbutalinforbronchiolitishasbetterefficacythannormalsalinecombined with terbutalin, which can obviously shorten wheezing relief, time for disappearance of lungs wheezing, time fordisappearingthelungralesanddaysofhospitalization.%目的:观察高渗盐水联合特布他林治疗毛细支气管炎临床疗效。方法:79例患儿随机分为两组,观察组40例,对照组39例,两组患儿均给予相同的综合治疗,在此基础上,观察组予3%高渗盐水3ml 联合特布他林雾化液1ml,对照组予0.9%氯化钠3ml 联合特布他林雾化液1ml,氧驱雾化吸入,每8h1次,观察两组患儿喘憋缓解、肺部哮鸣音消失时间、肺部湿啰音消失时间及住

  17. Lung Protection Effect of Hypertonic Saline for One-lung Ventilation Patients%高渗氯化钠溶液对术中单肺通气时肺保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金涛; 黎旭; 袁芳

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过观察单肺通气患者术中氧合指数(oxygenation index,OI)、呼吸指数(respiratory index,RI)及动态肺顺应性(dynamic lung compliance,Cdyn)的变化,探讨高渗氯化钠溶液对术中单肺通气患者的肺保护作用.方法 选择2009年12月-2011年2月完成的美国麻醉师协会分级为Ⅰ~Ⅲ级,心肺功能筛查、血常规、肝肾功能及凝血功能无明显异常,拟在全麻双腔气管插管下行开胸手术,术中需行单肺通气患者60例,随机分为高渗氯化钠组(A组)和对照组(B组),每组30例.A组在开始单肺通气后30 min快速输注7.5%高渗氯化钠溶液2 mL/㎏,15 min内输注完毕,B组输注等量生理盐水,分别记录输注前(T1)、输注完毕时(T2)、输注后30 min(T3)、输注后1h(T4)的OI,RI及Cdyn变化,并比较两组各时间点生命体征变化.结果 两组患者OI,RI及Cdyn在T1,T2时差异无统计学意义(P>0.05 );两组患者不同时间点平均动脉压、心率、脉搏血氧饱和度、中心静脉压、呼气末CO2分压比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05) ;A组患者在T3、T4时的OI和Cdyn较B组明显升高,RI明显降低(P0. 05). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), SpO2, central venous pressure (CVP), and PetCO2 were not significant different between the two groups at all time points (P>0. 05). OI and Cdyn of group A patients were significantly higher than those of group B, while RI was significantly lower at T3 and T4 (P<0. 05). Cdyn and OI of group A patients at T3 and T4 were significantly higher when compared with T1, and RI was significantly lower (P<0. 05). Conclusion Hypertonic saline has the lung protection effect in patients with one-lung ventilation by improving OI, RI and Cdyn.

  18. Lead- induced genotoxicity in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Truta

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The changes induced in cytogenetic parameters from root meristems of Triticum aestivum cv. Maruca seedlings have been studied after treatment with lead acetate and lead nitrate solutions, at four concentrations (10, 25, 50, 100 μM containing 2.07, 5.18, 10.36, respectively 20.72 μg ml-1 Pb2+. Lead induced mitosis disturbances in root meristematic cells of wheat seedlings, expressed mainly in decrease of mitotic index and changes in preponderance of division phases. This heavy metal has genotoxic effects, expressed in the occurrence of many chromosomal aberrations in all Pb2+ treated variants. Pb2+ nitrate shows a more pronounced genotoxic potential than lead acetate trihydrate.

  19. Lead outside your comfort zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisina, M E

    2001-11-01

    Successful leaders use their passion, values, and personal mission to create and maintain influence. Learn to define and develop a context that allows you to successfully lead nursing and non-nursing departments.

  20. Determination of Lead by Electrochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE YuFeng; ZHANG Zhang; MA YongJun; KANG JingWan

    2001-01-01

    @@ Lead is one of the poisonous trace element for human body. It is important to find a way for measuring content of lead. Deternination of lead by electrochemistry is one of a method[1]. In this paper, lead is determined by single-sweep polarography. The absorption behavior of meso-tetra (4-sulfonylphenyl) porphyrin (H2TPPS4) complex with lead ion has also been studied.In Na2B4O7-NaOH solution with pH=l 0.5, the reduction peaks of the ligand are P1 (Ep1=-0.38V), P2 (Ep2=-1.04V), which potentials are obtained vs. S.C.E. When lead ion has been added into above solution. The peak current of P1 and P2 decrease, and a new reduction peak P3 (Ep3=-1.10 V) appears. It shows that the TPPS4-Pb(Ⅱ) complex forms,and this method can be applied to study the complex.

  1. Determination of Lead by Electrochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; YuFeng

    2001-01-01

    Lead is one of the poisonous trace element for human body. It is important to find a way for measuring content of lead. Deternination of lead by electrochemistry is one of a method[1]. In this paper, lead is determined by single-sweep polarography. The absorption behavior of meso-tetra (4-sulfonylphenyl) porphyrin (H2TPPS4) complex with lead ion has also been studied.In Na2B4O7-NaOH solution with pH=l 0.5, the reduction peaks of the ligand are P1 (Ep1=-0.38V), P2 (Ep2=-1.04V), which potentials are obtained vs. S.C.E. When lead ion has been added into above solution. The peak current of P1 and P2 decrease, and a new reduction peak P3 (Ep3=-1.10 V) appears. It shows that the TPPS4-Pb(Ⅱ) complex forms,and this method can be applied to study the complex.……

  2. Leading to distraction: Driver distraction, lead car, and road environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kountouriotis, G K; Merat, N

    2016-04-01

    Driver distraction is strongly associated with crashes and near-misses, and despite the attention this topic has received in recent years, the effect of different types of distracting task on driving performance remains unclear. In the case of non-visual distractions, such as talking on the phone or other engaging verbal tasks that do not require a visual input, a common finding is reduced lateral variability in steering and gaze patterns where participants concentrate their gaze towards the centre of the road and their steering control is less variable. In the experiments presented here, we examined whether this finding is more pronounced in the presence of a lead car (which may provide a focus point for gaze) and whether the behaviour of the lead car has any influence on the driver's steering control. In addition, both visual and non-visual distraction tasks were used, and their effect on different road environments (straight and curved roadways) was assessed. Visual distraction was found to increase variability in both gaze patterns and steering control, non-visual distraction reduced gaze and steering variability in conditions without a lead car; in the conditions where a lead car was present there was no significant difference from baseline. The lateral behaviour of the lead car did not have an effect on steering performance, a finding which indicates that a lead car may not necessarily be used as an information point. Finally, the effects of driver distraction were different for straight and curved roadways, indicating a stronger influence of the road environment in steering than previously thought.

  3. Lead extraction. Indications and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, C L; Schwartz, S J; Hedin, N

    1992-11-01

    Each of the extraction techniques and their ancillary tools was reported as used successfully; however, until now, no technique has been successful when used in more than a few isolated instances. The technique for intravascular countertraction and the associated tools described in this paper were devised and selected in an attempt to develop one technique to be used on all patients, with all types of leads, and with a very low complication rate. Its versatility permitted single or multiple lead extractions combined with the precision of selecting and extracting a specific lead. In our experience, as well as the experience of others, the techniques described in this paper have proved to be superior by minimizing the inherent risk and morbidity, allowing us to expand the indications for lead removal beyond septicemia and free-floating leads, to include infection, abandonment of pockets, and replacement of malfunctioning or fractured leads. Intravascular countertraction was a consistently safe and efficacious method of removing transvenous pacemaker leads regardless of the duration of the implant, thus permitting extractions in patients not considered candidates for a more extensive surgical procedure. Intravascular countertraction encompasses surgical and fluoroscopic techniques possessed by most physicians experienced in pacemaker and automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator implants. However, there is a learning curve, predicating caution for the inexperienced physician. In addition, advanced surgical skills may be needed in handling associated conditions such as debridement and primary closure of chronically inflamed tissues, especially in submuscular pockets and sinus tracts in the neck. Although the potential for a cardiovascular complication is small, it does exist, and cardiovascular surgical backup is a recommended precaution.

  4. Efficient and lightweight current leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, L.; Dietz, A. J.; Michael, P. C.; Gold, C.; Cheadle, M.

    2014-01-01

    Current leads generate substantial cryogenic heat loads in short length High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) distribution systems. Thermal conduction, as well as Joule losses (I2R) along the current leads, comprises the largest cryogenic loads for short distribution systems. Current leads with two temperature stages have been designed, constructed and tested, with the goal of minimizing the electrical power consumption, and to provide thermal margin for the cable. We present the design of a two-stage current lead system, operating at 140 K and 55 K. This design is very attractive when implemented with a turbo-Brayton cycle refrigerator (two-stage), with substantial power and weight reduction. A heat exchanger is used at each temperature station, with conduction-cooled stages in-between. Compact, efficient heat exchangers are challenging, because of the gaseous coolant. Design, optimization and performance of the heat exchangers used for the current leads will be presented. We have made extensive use of CFD models for optimizing hydraulic and thermal performance of the heat exchangers. The methodology and the results of the optimization process will be discussed. The use of demountable connections between the cable and the terminations allows for ease of assembly, but require means of aggressively cooling the region of the joint. We will also discuss the cooling of the joint. We have fabricated a 7 m, 5 kA cable with second generation HTS tapes. The performance of the system will be described.

  5. Lead poisoning by contaminated flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershko, C; Eisenberg, A; Avni, A; Grauer, F; Acker, C; Hamdallah, M; Shahin, S; Moreb, J; Richter, E; Weissenberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Between October 1982 and June 1983, 43 patients were identified with symptomatic lead poisoning in three Arab villages of the Nablus district. Because of the clustering of clinical poisoning by household units, investigation was focussed on potential sources common to all members of the households. After excluding water, olive oil and a variety of foodstuff, lead in high concentrations was discovered in locally ground flour in all affected households. The source of poisoning was lead poured into the fissures between the metal housing and the driveshaft of the millstone. Significant lead contamination of freshly ground flour was demonstrated in 23% of the 146 community flour mills operating in West Bank villages. Since the completion of these studies, similar outbreaks of lead poisoning caused by contaminated flourmills have been identified in the Upper Galilee and in Spain. As the methods of milling in the Mediterranean area are similar, a coordinated international effort is needed in order to eliminate this health hazard from countries where similar community stone mills are still in use.

  6. Lead poisoning after gunshot wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto de Madureira

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Despite the absence of symptoms in the majority of patients carrying lead bullet fragments in their bodies, there needs to be an awareness of the possible signs and symptoms of lead intoxication when bullets are lodged in large joints like knees, hips and shoulders. Such patients merit closer follow-up, and even surgical procedure for removing the fragments. OBJECTIVE: To describe a patient who developed clinical lead intoxication several years after a gunshot wound. DESIGN: Case report. CASE REPORT: A single white 23-year-old male, regular job as a bricklayer, with a history of chronic alcohol abuse, showed up at the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain with colic, weakness, vomiting and diarrhea with black feces. All the symptoms had a duration of two to three weeks, and had been recurrent for the last two years, with calming during interval periods of two to three weeks. Abdominal radiograms showed a bullet lodged in the left hip, with a neat bursogram of the whole synovial capsule. A course of chelating treatment using calcium versenate (EDTACaNa2 intravenously was started. After the chelation therapy the patient had recurrence of his symptoms and a radical solution for the chronic mobilization of lead was considered. A hip arthroplasty procedure was performed, leading to complete substitution of the left hip.

  7. Chronic lead intoxication; Chronische Bleiintoxikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieseler, B.; Leng, G. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hygiene; Lenz, S.; Schultz, C. [Klinikum Remscheid GmbH, Remscheid (Germany); Wilhelm, M. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hygiene, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin

    1999-02-01

    The case of a female 68 years old patient is described. Here, a chronic lead intoxication was diagnosed after a two year old medical history with increasing attacks of colic-like abdominal pain often described as life-threatening. After repeated hospitalizations and intensive search for the cause of the symptoms, porphyria and anemia was found to be a sign of a chronic lead poisoning. The blood lead concentrations were always about a level of 600 {mu}g/L. The source of exposure could not be found by now. Neither home inspection nor environmental investigations have shown a recent source of lead intake by the patient. However, a possible occupational source of lead exposure at a blast furnace was established by anamnesis for 1952 to 1962. Thus, osteoporosis induced lead mobilisation was suspected. Noticeable are the results of the six abdominal survey radiographies taken during hospitalization within one year; three radiographies were taken following clinical admission and three before discharge of the patient. In comparison, the course shows a chronic relapsing alimentary supply from metallic particles of unknown genesis. The patient was treated with the sodium salt of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propansulfonic acid (DMPS, Dimaval{sup TM}). She was free of complain afterwards. Following therapy, the blood lead concentrations fell under a level of 400 {mu}m/L, but after several weeks the lead level raised up to the original level of 600 {mu}g/L. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird eine 68jaehrige Patientin vorgestellt, bei der nach fast zweijaehriger Krankengeschichte, die gekennzeichnet war durch rezidivierende, teils als lebensbedrohlich geschilderte Bauchkoliken, eine chronische Bleiintoxikation diagnostiziert wurde. Erst nach wiederholten stationaeren Krankenhausaufenthalten mit intensiver Suche nach der Krankheitsursache wurden das Krankheitsbild und die Laborwerte durch Zusatzuntersuchungen ergaenzt, so dass sich in der festgestellten Porphyrie und Anaemie die Diagnose der

  8. Relational Leading and Dialogic Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Hersted

    The Ph.D. thesis contributes to a relational orientation to leading, emphasizing leadership as a shared, collaborative and co-creative activity. In this paradigm major emphasis is put on dialogue and interaction. Inspired by social constructionist ideas, the thesis considers approaches to learning...... and knowledge building as related to relational leading. The practices developed in the thesis research demonstrate that it is possible to create organizational learning and development through collaborative, dialogic practices in groups and teams, for instance combined with the use of roleplaying. In the work...

  9. OPAL 96 Blocks Lead Glass

    CERN Multimedia

    This array of 96 lead glass bricks formed part of the OPAL electromagnetic calorimeter. One half of the complete calorimeter is shown in the picture above. There were 9440 lead glass counters in the OPAL electromagnetic calorimeter. These are made of Schott type SF57 glass and each block weighs about 25 kg and consists of 76% PbO by weight. Each block has a Hamamatsu R2238 photomultiplier glued on to it. The complete detector was in the form of a cylinder 7m long and 6m in diameter. It was used to measure the energy of electrons and photons produced in LEP interactions.

  10. Leading in a Technological Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadgir, Sheri A.

    2011-01-01

    Technology is advancing more rapidly than at any time in history since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. In fact, experts say that the world is leaving the Industrial Age of the 20th century and entering an Information Age that will lead into the future. These advances mean that important changes are being made in all areas of life--and…

  11. All Roads Lead To Rome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Thorsten Jørgen; Vomlel, Jiri

    2010-01-01

    the treewidth criterion for optimality of a triangulation. However, this criterion may lead to a somewhat harder inference problem than the total table size criterion. We therefore investigate new methods for depth-first search and best-first search for finding optimal total table size triangulations...

  12. How to lead complex situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Pingel

    2013-01-01

    The military leader is experiencing increasingly more complex situations, whether it is as leader in a foreign combat environment or in the home-based public administration. Complex situations like these call for a special set of managerial responses and a special way of leading organisations...

  13. All roads lead to Rome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Thorsten Jørgen; Vomlel, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    for existing methods to use the treewidth criterion for optimality of a triangulation. However, this criterion may lead to a somewhat harder inference problem than the total table size criterion. We therefore investigate new methods for depth-first search and best-first search for finding optimal total table...

  14. Blood Lead and Reading Readiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigators at the University of Maryland School of Nursing, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, and Department of Health, Providence, Rhode Island, evaluated the relationship between reading readiness test scores for children attending public kindergarten in Providence, RI, and state health department records of blood lead levels (BLLs.

  15. Privileged scaffolds in lead generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyu; Dietrich, Justin

    2015-07-01

    The term "privileged scaffold" was coined in 1988 and the strategy was to construct high-affinity ligands from core structures that can bind more than one receptor. Since then, the privileged scaffold-based design has evolved from a stand-alone technology to an integral component of various lead generation platforms. In this review, the authors discuss the applications of the privileged scaffold concept in current lead generation. Specifically, the authors cover the role that privileged scaffolds have played in the mass production of compounds to feed high-throughput screening (HTS) and its role in the design of ligands targeting protein-protein interactions, multiple ligands and warhead-based ligands. It is not the intention of the authors to review all privileged scaffolds known to date. Rather, the aim of this review is to highlight the strategic value of the concept of privileged scaffolds in various contemporary lead generation platforms. The privileged scaffolds as described by the original definition proved abundant in the available chemical space. HTS and other screening methods, in addition to greatly enhanced compound collections, make privileged scaffold-based design less relevant in finding high-affinity ligands than originally envisioned. However, the principle of privileged scaffolds has greatly enhanced and empowered current lead generation technologies.

  16. Current Leads, Links and Buses

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A

    2014-01-01

    Electrical transfer from a room temperature power source to a superconducting system is done via conventional or superconducting current leads and superconducting buses or links. The principles of optimization of these devices are presented, with emphasis on the cryogenic, electrical, and superconductor related aspects that drive choices for a system.

  17. OPAL Various Lead Glass Blocks

    CERN Multimedia

    These lead glass blocks were part of a CERN detector called OPAL (one of the four experiments at the LEP particle detector). OPAL uses some 12 000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies in the electromagnetic calorimeter. This detector measured the energy deposited when electrons and photons were slowed down and stopped.

  18. Fragment-based lead discovery: leads by design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Robin A E; Congreve, Miles; Murray, Christopher W; Rees, David C

    2005-07-15

    Fragment-based lead discovery (also referred to as needles, shapes, binding elements, seed templates or scaffolds) is a new lead discovery approach in which much lower molecular weight (120-250 Da) compounds are screened relative to HTS campaigns. Fragment-based hits are typically weak inhibitors (10 microM-mM), and therefore need to be screened at higher concentration using very sensitive biophysical detection techniques such as protein crystallography and NMR as the primary screening techniques, rather than bioassays. Compared with HTS hits, these fragments are simpler, less functionalized compounds with correspondingly lower affinity. However, fragment hits typically possess high 'ligand efficiency' (binding affinity per heavy atom) and so are highly suitable for optimization into clinical candidates with good drug-like properties.

  19. Electrokinetics removal of lead from lead-contaminated red soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云国; 李欣; 曾光明; 黄宝荣; 张慧智

    2003-01-01

    Ex-situ electroremediation tests were conducted on the lead-contaminated red soils to find out the optimum condition for the most efficient removal of lead pollution from the red soil,and to examine the relation of the pH of the soil with the electroremediation efficiency.The results show that the electroremediation technology is efficient to remedy Pb contaminated red soils,and the removal efficiency can be enhanced by controlling pH value in the cathode reservoir with HNO3.The average removal efficiency of Pb is enhanced from 24.5% to 79.5%,and the energy consumption reaches 285kW·h per m3 red soil.

  20. IMPORTANCE OF 15 LEAD ECG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargav

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Posterior wall myocardial infarction is not uncommon acute myocardial infarction and has got its own therapeutic and prognostic implications. Management of Posterior wall myocardial infarction differs from inferior wall myocardial infarction alone. The presence of posterior wall myocardial infarction is known to increase the incidence of cardiogenic shock, arrhythmias and conduction blocks in case of myocardial infarction. Hence the present study was taken up to find out the incidence, clinical profile and complications of posterior wall myocardial infarction in a rural hospital using simple non-invasive investigations like 15 lead electrocardiography and echocardiography. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted on 50 patients of inferior wall myocardial infarction out of 228 Acute Myocardial Infarction proved by ECG standard and posterior leads (v7, v8, v9 were taken at the time of admission and repeated as necessary. A detailed case history was taken and a detailed physical examination was done at the time of admission and during follow up. For recording ECG 12 lead (3 standard leads, 3 augmented limb leads, 6 precordial leads machine was used. The recordings were made at 25 mm/ sec. speed and 1mV=10mm. Posterior leads were taken by using 3 precordial leads fixing on the posterior axillary (v7, infrascapular (v8 and paraspinal (v9 regions all in a same line with the 5th ICS anteriorly. RESULTS: Out of 50 cases of inferior wall myocardial infarction (IWMI studied only 13 (26% had ST elevation in posterior leads indicating posterior wall myocardial infarction (PWMI. Our study showed that complications and mortality was higher in patients of IWMI with PWMI compared to IWMI without PWMI. Out of 50 patients 33 (66% were males indicating a male predominance. Syncope was present in 18% of PWMI and 14% in overall IWMI. Palpitation was seen in 53% of PWMI and 21% of IWMI without PWMI. Smoking history was present in 14% of

  1. Developments in lead-acid batteries: a lead producer's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, P. C.

    Rapid progress is being made in many aspects of materials, design and construction for lead-acid batteries. Much of this work has taken place under the auspices of the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC). From the general tone of the literature, it seems likely that several of these developments will be adopted in commercial products, and that there will be cross-fertilization between the emerging electric vehicle (EV) battery technology and the starting, lighting and ignition (SLI) battery. Given the impetus for improvement from several different factors, the development process appears to be accelerating. To those not intimately involved in the battery design and specification process, it is not clear which of the possible developments will make it from the laboratory to general commercial adoption. Some of the possible changes in materials, design and construction could have an impact on the recovery, recycling, smelting and refining of lead-acid batteries. Some of the possible developments are outlined and their possible impact is discussed. It is likely that negative effects may be minimized if battery developments are considered from other perspectives, largely based on the overall life-cycle, as early in the design phase of new products as possible. Three strategies for minimizing undesirable effects are advocated: first, improved communication between car manufacturers, battery manufacturers and lead producers second, use of life-cycle analysis (LCA) to identify and optimize all attributes of the product throughout its life-cycle third, concerted and coordinated action to deal with issues important to the industry once trends are identified.

  2. Deaths: leading causes for 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2012-10-26

    This report presents final 2009 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements the Division of Vital Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2009. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2009, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). These causes accounted for approximately 75% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2009 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods.

  3. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2016-02-16

    This report presents final 2013 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2013," the National Center for Health Statistics’ annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2013. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD–10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2013, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Cerebrovascular diseases; Alzheimer’s disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). They accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2013 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Sudden infant death syndrome; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as

  4. Deaths: leading causes for 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2013-12-20

    This report presents final 2010 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements the Division of Vital Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2010. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2010, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; Influenza and pneumonia; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). These 10 causes accounted for 75% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2010 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Necrotizing enterocolitis of newborn. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and post-neonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source

  5. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2015-08-31

    This report presents final 2012 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2012," the National Center for Health Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2012. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2012, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). These causes accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2012 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods.

  6. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2015-07-27

    This report presents final 2011 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements ‘‘Deaths: Final Data for 2011,’’ the National Center for Health Statistics’ annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2011. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD–10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2011, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer’s disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). They accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2011 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission

  7. Lead time TTO: leading to better health state valuations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attema, Arthur E; Versteegh, Matthijs M; Oppe, Mark; Brouwer, Werner B F; Stolk, Elly A

    2013-04-01

    Preference elicitation tasks for better than dead (BTD) and worse than dead (WTD) health states vary in the conventional time trade-off (TTO) procedure, casting doubt on uniformity of scale. 'Lead time TTO' (LT-TTO) was recently introduced to overcome the problem. We tested different specifications of LT-TTO in comparison with TTO in a within-subject design. We elicited preferences for six health states and employed an intertemporal ranking task as a benchmark to test the validity of the two methods. We also tested constant proportional trade-offs (CPTO), while correcting for discounting, and the effect of extending the lead time if a health state is considered substantially WTD. LT-TTO produced lower values for BTD states and higher values for WTD states. The validity of CPTO varied across tasks, but it was higher for LT-TTO than for TTO. Results indicate that the ratio of lead time to disease time has a greater impact on results than the total duration of the time frame. The intertemporal ranking task could not discriminate between TTO and LT-TTO.

  8. Golden age of RyR and GABA-R diamide and isoxazoline insecticides: common genesis, serendipity, surprises, selectivity, and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, John E

    2015-04-20

    The serendipitous observation of the insecticidal activity of a candidate herbicide was the first in a series of surprises that changed the course of insecticide research and opened the "Golden Age of Diamide and Isoxazoline Insecticides" which have a common genesis. Two novel modes of action were discovered, one involving the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor of the chloride channel and the other the ryanodine receptor (RyR) of the calcium-activated calcium channel. These are old insecticide targets, but physiological assays and radioligand binding studies reveal that the new diamides and isoxazolines act at previously unrecognized sites without cross-resistance to other chemotypes and more important differing between insects and mammals resulting in selective toxicity and mechanistically based safety. The phthalic diamide flubendiamide and anthranilic diamides chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole act at an allosteric site of the RyR to activate calcium release in insects but not mammals. They are the most important insecticide introductions of the past decade. Isoxazoline and meta-diamide insecticides and their previously unrecognized GABA-R target are more recent discoveries. Isoxazolines are currently important in flea and tick control in dogs and cats, and meta-diamides show promise for pest management and crop protection. These 21st century RyR and GABA-R diamides and isoxazolines were serendipitous discoveries and developments showing the importance of mechanism studies in maintaining the arsenal of safe and effective insecticides.

  9. A surprisingly poor correlation between in vitro and in vivo testing of biomaterials for bone regeneration: results of a multicentre analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsart-Billström, G; Dawson, J I; Hofmann, S; Müller, R; Stoddart, M J; Alini, M; Redl, H; El Haj, A; Brown, R; Salih, V; Hilborn, J; Larsson, S; Oreffo, R O

    2016-05-24

    New regenerative materials and approaches need to be assessed through reliable and comparable methods for rapid translation to the clinic. There is a considerable need for proven in vitro assays that are able to reduce the burden on animal testing, by allowing assessment of biomaterial utility predictive of the results currently obtained through in vivo studies. The purpose of this multicentre review was to investigate the correlation between existing in vitro results with in vivo outcomes observed for a range of biomaterials. Members from the European consortium BioDesign, comprising 8 universities in a European multicentre study, provided data from 36 in vivo studies and 47 in vitro assays testing 93 different biomaterials. The outcomes of the in vitro and in vivo experiments were scored according to commonly recognised measures of success relevant to each experiment. The correlation of in vitro with in vivo scores for each assay alone and in combination was assessed. A surprisingly poor correlation between in vitro and in vivo assessments of biomaterials was revealed indicating a clear need for further development of relevant in vitro assays. There was no significant overall correlation between in vitro and in vivo outcome. The mean in vitro scores revealed a trend of covariance to in vivo score with 58 %. The inadequacies of the current in vitro assessments highlighted here further stress the need for the development of novel approaches to in vitro biomaterial testing and validated pre-clinical pipelines.

  10. Collaborative Resilience to Episodic Shocks and Surprises: A Very Long-Term Case Study of Zanjera Irrigation in the Philippines 1979–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Yabes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This thirty-year case study uses surveys, semi-structured interviews, and content analysis to examine the adaptive capacity of Zanjera San Marcelino, an indigenous irrigation management system in the northern Philippines. This common pool resource (CPR system exists within a turbulent social-ecological system (SES characterized by episodic shocks such as large typhoons as well as novel surprises, such as national political regime change and the construction of large dams. The Zanjera nimbly responded to these challenges, although sometimes in ways that left its structure and function substantially altered. While a partial integration with the Philippine National Irrigation Agency was critical to the Zanjera’s success, this relationship required on-going improvisation and renegotiation. Over time, the Zanjera showed an increasing capacity to learn and adapt. A core contribution of this analysis is the integration of a CPR study within an SES framework to examine resilience, made possible the occurrence of a wide range of challenges to the Zanjera’s function and survival over the long period of study. Long-term analyses like this one, however rare, are particularly useful for understanding the adaptive and transformative dimensions of resilience.

  11. Leading Hadron Production at HERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buniatyan Armen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Data from the recent measurements of very forward baryon and photon production with the H1 and ZEUS detectors at electron-proton collider HERA are presented and compared to the theoretical calculations and Monte Carlo models. Results are presented of the production of leading protons, neutrons and photons in deep inelastic scattering (ep → e' pX, ep → e'nX, ep → e'γX as well as the leading neutron production in the photoproduction of dijets (ep → ejjXn. The forward baryon and photon results from the H1 and ZEUS Experiments are compared also with the models of the hadronic interactions of high energy Cosmic Rays. The sensitivity of the HERA data to the differences between the models is demonstrated.

  12. The treatment of hypertonic sodium chloride hydroxyethyl starch 40 injection for craniocerebral injury accompanied with hypovolemic sock%高渗盐复合液抗颅脑损伤并低血容量性休克

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙怡; 李辉; 曾红科

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨高渗盐复合液(高渗盐水羟乙基淀粉 HSH)在颅脑损伤合并低血容量性休克中的疗效及对颅内压(ICP)的影响.方法 为前瞻、对照性研究.选择2007年9月至2008年7月入住广东省人民医院ICU及脑外科颅脑损伤且平均动脉压(MAP)低于60 mmHg的患者60例,其中男51例,女9例,年龄18~69岁,平均(41.5±9.5)岁.排除标准:年龄70岁的患者;孕妇、月经期妇女;严重肝肾功能障碍;高血压、冠心病、糖尿病病史者;大出血未止住;治疗前数小时内应用过其它血管活性物质;受伤超过24 h者;脑死亡.随机分成3组(每组加例),3组年龄性别构成具可比性,分别以平衡液(平衡液LR组)500 ml、5%氯化钠(高渗盐水HIS组)4 ml/kg、HSH(HSH组)4 ml/kg进行液体复苏,记录复苏前及复苏30、60、120 min时的血压、呼吸、心率、尿量等,抽静脉血检测凝血功能、电解质,应用颅内压无创检测分析仪测量ICP.采用SPSS 13.0统计软件进行统计学处理数据,各组复苏前后指标应用重复测量设计资料的方差检验分析,组间比较应用(one_way analysis of variance ANOVA)检验分析,以P0.05).结论 在颅脑损伤合并低血容量性休克的救治中HSH复苏效果及降低颅内压作用显著且持久,有利于保护脑功能.%Objective To investigate the effect of hypertonic sodium chloride hydroxyethyl 40 injection (HSH)on craniocerebral injury accompanied with hypovolemic shock and ICP.Method Sixty patients suffering from craniecerebral injury accompanied with the hypovolemic shock and admitted to ICU and Neurosurgical Department of Guang dong General Hospital from September 2007 to June 2008,were chosen into the study prospectively.Those who was younger than 18years or older than 70 years,and those who were pregnant or meustruous women,or serious hepatic and renal insufficiency,hypertension,coronaxy artery disease,diabets mellitue,uncontrolled bleeding,brain death,erc were excluded

  13. Leading Edge Device Aerodynamic Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Gabriel COJOCARU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Leading edge devices are conventionally used as aerodynamic devices that enhance performances during landing and in some cases during takeoff. The need to increase the efficiency of the aircrafts has brought the idea of maintaining as much as possible a laminar flow over the wings. This is possible only when the leading edge of the wings is free from contamination, therefore using the leading edge devices with the additional role of shielding during takeoff. Such a device based on the Krueger flap design is aerodynamically analyzed and optimized. The optimization comprises three steps: first, the positioning of the flap such that the shielding criterion is kept, second, the analysis of the flap size and third, the optimization of the flap shape. The first step is subject of a gradient based optimization process of the position described by two parameters, the position along the line and the deflection angle. For the third step the Adjoint method is used to gain insight on the shape of the Krueger flap that will extend the most the stall limit. All these steps have been numerically performed using Ansys Fluent and the results are presented for the optimized shape in comparison with the baseline configuration.

  14. Effects of Aromatic Ammoniums on Methyl Ammonium Lead Iodide Hybrid Perovskite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of bulky ammoniums into methyl ammonium lead iodide hybrid perovskites (MAPbI3 has emerged as a promising strategy to improve the properties of these materials. In the present work, we studied the effects of several aromatic ammoniums onto the structural, electronic, and optical properties of MAPbI3. Although powder XRD data suggest that the bulky cations are not involved in the bulk phase of the MAPbI3, a surprisingly large effect of the bulky cations onto the photoluminescence properties was observed.

  15. Syntheses and surprising regioselectivity of 5- and 6-substituted decaboranyl ethers via the nucleophilic attack of alcohols on 6- and 5-halodecaboranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, William C; Carroll, Patrick J; Sneddon, Larry G

    2011-05-02

    The selective syntheses of new classes of decaboranyl ethers containing a range of functional groups substituted at the B5 or B6 positions were achieved through the reaction of alcohols with halodecaboranes. The surprising regioselectivity of the reaction, where the reaction of the 6-halodecaboranes (6-X-B(10)H(13)) with alcohols yielded the 5-substituted decaboranyl ethers (5-RO-B(10)H(13)) and the reaction with 5-halodecaboranes (5-X-B(10)H(13)) gave the 6-substituted decaboranyl ethers (6-RO-B(10)H(13)), was confirmed by NMR and X-ray crystallographic analyses. The crystallographic determinations also showed that the decaboranyl ethers had shortened B-O bonds and apparent sp(2) hybridization at oxygen indicating significant π-backbonding from oxygen to the cage boron. A possible substitution mechanism was computationally identified involving: (1) initial nucleophilic attack by the alcohol-oxygen at a site adjacent to the 5- or 6-halo-substituted boron, (2) movement of the terminal hydrogen at the point of attack to a bridging position, (3) formation of a 5-membered (B-O-H-Cl-B) cyclic transition state allowing the acidic methanolic-hydrogen to bond to the halogen, (4) release of HX, and finally (5) movement of a bridging hydrogen into the vacated terminal position. Deuterium labeling studies confirmed the movement of hydrogen from a bridging position of the halodecaborane into the halogen-vacated terminal position on the decaboranyl ether product. The relative reaction rates of the 6-X-B(10)H(13) compounds (X = F, Cl, Br, I) with alcohols were likewise found to be consistent with this mechanism.

  16. Accurate reaction barrier heights of pericyclic reactions: Surprisingly large deviations for the CBS-QB3 composite method and their consequences in DFT benchmark studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karton, Amir; Goerigk, Lars

    2015-04-05

    Accurate barrier heights are obtained for the 26 pericyclic reactions in the BHPERI dataset by means of the high-level Wn-F12 thermochemical protocols. Very often, the complete basis set (CBS)-type composite methods are used in similar situations, but herein it is shown that they in fact result in surprisingly large errors with root mean square deviations (RMSDs) of about 2.5 kcal mol(-1). In comparison, other composite methods, particularly G4-type and estimated coupled cluster with singles, doubles, and quasiperturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)/CBS] approaches, show deviations well below the chemical-accuracy threshold of 1 kcal mol(-1). With the exception of SCS-MP2 and the herein newly introduced MP3.5 approach, all other tested Møller-Plesset perturbative procedures give poor performance with RMSDs of up to 8.0 kcal mol(-1). The finding that CBS-type methods fail for barrier heights of these reactions is unexpected and it is particularly troublesome given that they are often used to obtain reference values for benchmark studies. Significant differences are identified in the interpretation and final ranking of density functional theory (DFT) methods when using the original CBS-QB3 rather than the new Wn-F12 reference values for BHPERI. In particular, it is observed that the more accurate Wn-F12 benchmark results in lower statistical errors for those methods that are generally considered to be robust and accurate. Two examples are the PW6B95-D3(BJ) hybrid-meta-general-gradient approximation and the PWPB95-D3(BJ) double-hybrid functionals, which result in the lowest RMSDs of the entire DFT study (1.3 and 1.0 kcal mol(-1), respectively). These results indicate that CBS-QB3 should be applied with caution in computational modeling and benchmark studies involving related systems.

  17. The surprising negative correlation of gene length and optimal codon use--disentangling translational selection from GC-biased gene conversion in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoletzki, Nina

    2011-04-11

    Surprisingly, in several multi-cellular eukaryotes optimal codon use correlates negatively with gene length. This contrasts with the expectation under selection for translational accuracy. While suggested explanations focus on variation in strength and efficiency of translational selection, it has rarely been noticed that the negative correlation is reported only in organisms whose optimal codons are biased towards codons that end with G or C (-GC). This raises the question whether forces that affect base composition--such as GC-biased gene conversion--contribute to the negative correlation between optimal codon use and gene length. Yeast is a good organism to study this as equal numbers of optimal codons end in -GC and -AT and one may hence compare frequencies of optimal GC- with optimal AT-ending codons to disentangle the forces. Results of this study demonstrate in yeast frequencies of GC-ending (optimal AND non-optimal) codons decrease with gene length and increase with recombination. A decrease of GC-ending codons along genes contributes to the negative correlation with gene length. Correlations with recombination and gene expression differentiate between GC-ending and optimal codons, and also substitution patterns support effects of GC-biased gene conversion. While the general effect of GC-biased gene conversion is well known, the negative correlation of optimal codon use with gene length has not been considered in this context before. Initiation of gene conversion events in promoter regions and the presence of a gene conversion gradient most likely explain the observed decrease of GC-ending codons with gene length and gene position.

  18. ‘Surprise’: Outbreak of Campylobacter infection associated with chicken liver pâté at a surprise birthday party, Adelaide, Australia, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Denehy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In July 2012, an outbreak of Campylobacter infection was investigated by the South Australian Communicable Disease Control Branch and Food Policy and Programs Branch. The initial notification identified illness at a surprise birthday party held at a restaurant on 14 July 2012. The objective of the investigation was to identify the potential source of infection and institute appropriate intervention strategies to prevent further illness.Methods: A guest list was obtained and a retrospective cohort study undertaken. A combination of paper-based and telephone questionnaires were used to collect exposure and outcome information. An environmental investigation was conducted by Food Policy and Programs Branch at the implicated premises.Results: All 57 guests completed the questionnaire (100% response rate, and 15 met the case definition. Analysis showed a significant association between illness and consumption of chicken liver pâté (relative risk: 16.7, 95% confidence interval: 2.4–118.6. No other food or beverage served at the party was associated with illness. Three guests submitted stool samples; all were positive for Campylobacter. The environmental investigation identified that the cooking process used in the preparation of chicken liver pâté may have been inconsistent, resulting in some portions not cooked adequately to inactivate potential Campylobacter contamination.Discussion: Chicken liver products are a known source of Campylobacter infection; therefore, education of food handlers remains a high priority. To better identify outbreaks among the large number of Campylobacter notifications, routine typing of Campylobacter isolates is recommended.

  19. Current leads and magnetic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, J. R.

    1993-10-01

    Since the discovery of high temperature superconductors (HTS's), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has been active in a broad spectrum of activities in developing these materials for applications. Work at every stage of development has involved industrial collaboration in order to accelerate commercialization. While most of the development work has been devoted to improving the properties of current-carrying wires, some effort has been devoted to applications that can utilize HTS's with properties available now or in the near future. In this paper, advances made in the area of current leads and magnetic bearings are discussed.

  20. All Roads Lead To Rome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Thorsten Jørgen; Vomlel, Jiri

    2010-01-01

    the treewidth criterion for optimality of a triangulation. However, this criterion may lead to a somewhat harder inference problem than the total table size criterion. We therefore investigate new methods for depth-first search and best-first search for finding optimal total table size triangulations....... The search methods are made faster by eficient dynamic maintenance of the cliques of a graph. The algorithms are mainly sup- posed to be off-line methods, but they may form the basis for ecient any-time heuristics. Furthermore, the methods make it possible to evaluate the quality of heuristics precisely....