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Sample records for surprisingly frequent urinary

  1. Ontological Surprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leahu, Lucian

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how we might rethink design as the technological crafting of human-machine relations in the context of a machine learning technique called neural networks. It analyzes Google’s Inceptionism project, which uses neural networks for image recognition. The surprising output of...... a hybrid approach where machine learning algorithms are used to identify objects as well as connections between them; finally, it argues for remaining open to ontological surprises in machine learning as they may enable the crafting of different relations with and through technologies....

  2. Surprise Trips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias; Kawash, Raghid; Andersen, Lisbet Møller

    We report on a platform that augments the natural experience of exploration in diverse indoor and outdoor environments. The system builds on the theme of surprises in terms of user expectations and finding points of interest. It utilizes physical icons as representations of users' interests and a...

  3. Charming surprise

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2011-01-01

    The CP violation in charm quarks has always been thought to be extremely small. So, looking at particle decays involving matter and antimatter, the LHCb experiment has recently been surprised to observe that things might be different. Theorists are on the case.   The study of the physics of the charm quark was not in the initial plans of the LHCb experiment, whose letter “b” stands for “beauty quark”. However, already one year ago, the Collaboration decided to look into a wider spectrum of processes that involve charm quarks among other things. The LHCb trigger allows a lot of these processes to be selected, and, among them, one has recently shown interesting features. Other experiments at b-factories have already performed the same measurement but this is the first time that it has been possible to achieve such high precision, thanks to the huge amount of data provided by the very high luminosity of the LHC. “We have observed the decay modes of t...

  4. Charming surprise

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2011-01-01

    The CP violation in charm quarks has always been thought to be extremely small. So, looking at particle decays involving matter and antimatter, the LHCb experiment has recently been surprised to observe that things might be different. Theorists are on the case. The study of the physics of the charm quark was not in the initial plans of the LHCb experiment, whose letter “b” stands for “beauty quark”. However, already one year ago, the Collaboration decided to look into a wider spectrum of processes that involve charm quarks among other things. The LHCb trigger allows a lot of these processes to be selected, and, among them, one has recently shown interesting features. Other experiments at b-factories have already performed the same measurement but this is the first time that it has been possible to achieve such high precision, thanks to the huge amount of data provided by the very high luminosity of the LHC. “We have observed the decay modes of the D0, a pa...

  5. More Supernova Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    SEP 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE More Supernova Surprises 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...PERSPECTIVES More Supernova Surprises ASTRONOMY J. Martin Laming Spectroscopic observations of the supernova SN1987A are providing a new window into high...a core-collapse supernova ) have stretched and motivated research that has expanded our knowledge of astrophysics. The brightest such event in

  6. Surprises with Nonrelativistic Naturalness

    CERN Document Server

    Horava, Petr

    2016-01-01

    We explore the landscape of technical naturalness for nonrelativistic systems, finding surprises which challenge and enrich our relativistic intuition already in the simplest case of a single scalar field. While the immediate applications are expected in condensed matter and perhaps in cosmology, the study is motivated by the leading puzzles of fundamental physics involving gravity: The cosmological constant problem and the Higgs mass hierarchy problem.

  7. Surprises in astrophysical gasdynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Balbus, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Much of astrophysics consists of the study of ionised gas under the influence of gravitational and magnetic fields. Thus, it is not possible to understand the astrophysical universe without a detailed knowledge of the dynamics of magnetised fluids. Fluid dynamics is, however, a notoriously tricky subject, in which it is all too easy for one's a priori intuition to go astray. In this review, we seek to guide the reader through a series of illuminating yet deceptive problems, all with an enlightening twist. We cover a broad range of topics including the instabilities acting in accretion discs, the hydrodynamics governing the convective zone of the Sun, the magnetic shielding of a cooling galaxy cluster, and the behaviour of thermal instabilities and evaporating clouds. The aim of this review is to surprise and intrigue even veteran astrophysical theorists with an idiosynchratic choice of problems and counterintuitive results. At the same time, we endeavour to bring forth the fundamental ideas, to set out import...

  8. Surprises in astrophysical gasdynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbus, Steven A.; Potter, William J.

    2016-06-01

    Much of astrophysics consists of the study of ionized gas under the influence of gravitational and magnetic fields. Thus, it is not possible to understand the astrophysical universe without a detailed knowledge of the dynamics of magnetized fluids. Fluid dynamics is, however, a notoriously tricky subject, in which it is all too easy for one’s a priori intuition to go astray. In this review, we seek to guide the reader through a series of illuminating yet deceptive problems, all with an enlightening twist. We cover a broad range of topics including the instabilities acting in accretion discs, the hydrodynamics governing the convective zone of the Sun, the magnetic shielding of a cooling galaxy cluster, and the behaviour of thermal instabilities and evaporating clouds. The aim of this review is to surprise and intrigue even veteran astrophysical theorists with an idiosyncratic choice of problems and counterintuitive results. At the same time, we endeavour to bring forth the fundamental ideas, to set out important assumptions, and to describe carefully whatever novel techniques may be appropriate to the problem at hand. By beginning at the beginning, and analysing a wide variety of astrophysical settings, we seek not only to make this review suitable for fluid dynamic veterans, but to engage novice recruits as well with what we hope will be an unusual and instructive introduction to the subject.

  9. Surprises in astrophysical gasdynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbus, Steven A; Potter, William J

    2016-06-01

    Much of astrophysics consists of the study of ionized gas under the influence of gravitational and magnetic fields. Thus, it is not possible to understand the astrophysical universe without a detailed knowledge of the dynamics of magnetized fluids. Fluid dynamics is, however, a notoriously tricky subject, in which it is all too easy for one's a priori intuition to go astray. In this review, we seek to guide the reader through a series of illuminating yet deceptive problems, all with an enlightening twist. We cover a broad range of topics including the instabilities acting in accretion discs, the hydrodynamics governing the convective zone of the Sun, the magnetic shielding of a cooling galaxy cluster, and the behaviour of thermal instabilities and evaporating clouds. The aim of this review is to surprise and intrigue even veteran astrophysical theorists with an idiosyncratic choice of problems and counterintuitive results. At the same time, we endeavour to bring forth the fundamental ideas, to set out important assumptions, and to describe carefully whatever novel techniques may be appropriate to the problem at hand. By beginning at the beginning, and analysing a wide variety of astrophysical settings, we seek not only to make this review suitable for fluid dynamic veterans, but to engage novice recruits as well with what we hope will be an unusual and instructive introduction to the subject.

  10. Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button Frequently Asked Questions about Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What is ... an incision above the pubis. What is a urinary tract infection? A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection ...

  11. Surprise... Surprise..., An Empirical Investigation on How Surprise is Connected to Customer Satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vanhamme (Joëlle)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis research investigates the specific influence of the emotion of surprise on customer transaction-specific satisfaction. Four empirical studies-two field studies (a diary study and a cross section survey) and two experiments-were conducted. The results show that surprise positively

  12. Surprise... Surprise..., An Empirical Investigation on How Surprise is Connected to Customer Satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vanhamme (Joëlle)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis research investigates the specific influence of the emotion of surprise on customer transaction-specific satisfaction. Four empirical studies-two field studies (a diary study and a cross section survey) and two experiments-were conducted. The results show that surprise positively [n

  13. Surprise as a design strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, G.D.S.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Imagine yourself queuing for the cashier’s desk in a supermarket. Naturally, you have picked the wrong line, the one that does not seem to move at all. Soon, you get tired of waiting. Now, how would you feel if the cashier suddenly started to sing? Many of us would be surprised and, regardless of

  14. Surprise as a design strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, G.D.S.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Imagine yourself queuing for the cashier’s desk in a supermarket. Naturally, you have picked the wrong line, the one that does not seem to move at all. Soon, you get tired of waiting. Now, how would you feel if the cashier suddenly started to sing? Many of us would be surprised and, regardless of th

  15. Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It may begin around the time of menopause. Urgency urinary incontinence happens when people have a sudden need ... urinary incontinence is a mix of stress and urgency urinary incontinence. You may leak urine with a laugh ...

  16. Brazilian rescue plan sparks surprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to Financial Times,when Guido Mantega,Brazil's finance minister,suddenly proposed a “Bric” rescue package for the eurozone this week,he caught not only other world leaders by surprise but also many of his fellow countrymen.Even as officials from other members of the so-called Bric grouping,Russia,India and China,said it was the first they heard of the idea,many ordinary Brazilians expressed shock at the notion of bailing out the world's richest trading bloc.

  17. Urinary Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerklund Johansen, Truls E.; Naber, Kurt G.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most frequently acquired infections in the community, but also in hospitals and other health care institutions, causing a huge amount of antibiotic consumption. During the last decade we have seen significant changes in the field of urinary tract infections regarding causative pathogens and antibiotic treatment calling for an update of current trends. The worldwide increase of uropathogens resistant to former first line antibiotics, such as cotrim...

  18. Some Surprises in Relativistic Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, N O

    2016-01-01

    General Relativity has had tremendous success both on the theoretical and the experimental fronts for over a century now. However, the contents of the theory are far from exhausted. Only very recently, with the detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes, we have started probing the behavior of gravity in the strongly non-linear regime. Even today, the studies of black holes keep revealing more and more paradoxes and bizarre results. In this paper, inspired by David Hilbert's startling observation, we show that, contrary to the conventional wisdom, a freely falling test particle feels gravitational repulsion by a black hole as seen by the asymptotic observer. We dig deeper into this surprising behavior of relativistic gravity and offer some explanations.

  19. Urinary Exosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Dimov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are nanovesicles of endocytic origin that are secreted into the extracellular space or body fluids when a multivesicular body (MVB fuses with the cell membrane. Interest in exosomes intensified after their description in antigen-presenting cells and the observation that they can significantly moderate immune responses in vivo. In the past few years, several groups have reported on the secretion of exosomes by almost all cell types in an organism. In addition to a common set of membrane and cytosolic molecules, exosomes harbor unique subsets of proteins, reflecting their cellular source. Major research efforts were put into their surprisingly various biological functions and in translating knowledge into clinical practice. Urine provides an exciting noninvasive alternative to blood or tissue samples as a potential source of disease biomarkers. Urinary exosomes (UE became the subject of serious studies just a few years ago. A recent large-scale proteomics-based study of normal UE revealed a myriad of proteins, including disease-related gene products. Thus, UE have valuable potential as a source of biomarkers for early detection of various types of diseases, monitoring the disease evolution and/or response to therapy. As a relatively new field of research, it still faces many challenges, but UE have already shown some straightforward potential.

  20. Some Surprising Introductory Physics Facts and Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallmann, A. James

    2016-01-01

    In the entertainment world, people usually like, and find memorable, novels, short stories, and movies with surprise endings. This suggests that classroom teachers might want to present to their students examples of surprising facts associated with principles of physics. Possible benefits of finding surprising facts about principles of physics are…

  1. Urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformations in children: A retrospective study of 34 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Chahed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the association of urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation is not rare, their management poses challenges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between urolithiasis and malformations of the urinary system. There were 34 patients (19 males and 15 females with a mean age of 4.8 years (range, 2 months to 14 years. All patients had urinary lithiasis with a urinary tract malformation. Abdominal pain was the most frequent clinical symptom (38%. Urinary infection was found in 7 patients (21% and macroscopic haematuria was present in 10 patients (29%. The most frequent urinary tract malformations were megaureter (8 cases, uretero-pelvic junction obstruction (7 cases and vesico-ureteric reflux (8 cases, but its malformative origin could not be confirmed. Treatment consisted of lithiasis extraction in 32 cases associated with specific treatment of the uropathy in 27 cases. Postoperative outcome was uneventful in all cases. In fact, urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation association is not rare. Indeed, 9-34% of urinary lithiasis are noted to be associated with urinary tract malformation. Positive diagnosis relies specifically on kidney ultrasound, intravenous urography, and urethrocystography. Treatment depends on the type of urinary tract malformation, localisation and size of the urinary lithiasis. Conclusion: In conclusion, urinary lithiasis and urinary tract malformation association is a frequent eventuality. Surgical intervention is the usual mode of treatment.

  2. Young Galaxy's Magnetism Surprises Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Astronomers have made the first direct measurement of the magnetic field in a young, distant galaxy, and the result is a big surprise. Looking at a faraway protogalaxy seen as it was 6.5 billion years ago, the scientists measured a magnetic field at least 10 times stronger than that of our own Milky Way. They had expected just the opposite. The GBT Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF The scientists made the discovery using the National Science Foundation's ultra-sensitive Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. "This new measurement indicates that magnetic fields may play a more important role in the formation and evolution of galaxies than we have realized," said Arthur Wolfe, of the University of California-San Diego (UCSD). At its great distance, the protogalaxy is seen as it was when the Universe was about half its current age. According to the leading theory, cosmic magnetic fields are generated by the dynamos of rotating galaxies -- a process that would produce stronger fields with the passage of time. In this scenario, the magnetic fields should be weaker in the earlier Universe, not stronger. The new, direct magnetic-field measurement comes on the heels of a July report by Swiss and American astronomers who made indirect measurements that also implied strong magnetic fields in the early Universe. "Our results present a challenge to the dynamo model, but they do not rule it out," Wolfe said. There are other possible explanations for the strong magnetic field seen in the one protogalaxy Wolfe's team studied. "We may be seeing the field close to the central region of a massive galaxy, and we know such fields are stronger toward the centers of nearby galaxies. Also, the field we see may have been amplified by a shock wave caused by the collision of two galaxies," he said. The protogalaxy studied with the GBT, called DLA-3C286, consists of gas with little or no star formation occurring in it. The astronomers suspect that

  3. [Complications of urinary calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joual, A; Fekak, H; Rabii, R; el Moussasoui, A; Benjelloun, S

    1996-01-01

    Urinary stones is a frequent disease whose renal complications can engage both functional and vital prognosis. We report 769 complicated cases observed 10 years. The diagnosis was made by intravenous urography and ultrasonography. 607 cases were mechanical complications, 582 hydronephrosis, 25 anuria, 262 were infectious complications, 82 chronic pyelonephritis, 60 pyonephrosis, 10 perinephric abscess. Treatment included adapted antibiotic therapy, ureteral catheter in case of anuria ; surgical extraction of the stone nephrectomy was performed in 100 patients. Results were generally good. 9 patients had endstage chronic renal failure. The high frequency of urinary stone complications is due to the fact that most patients consult late. The diagnosis must obviously be made.

  4. Evaluative Appraisals of Environmental Mystery and Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Jack L.; Cubukcu, Ebru

    2011-01-01

    This study used a desktop virtual environment (VE) of 15 large-scale residential streets to test the effects of environmental mystery and surprise on response. In theory, mystery and surprise should increase interest and visual appeal. For each VE, participants walked through an approach street and turned right onto a post-turn street. We designed…

  5. Evaluative Appraisals of Environmental Mystery and Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Jack L.; Cubukcu, Ebru

    2011-01-01

    This study used a desktop virtual environment (VE) of 15 large-scale residential streets to test the effects of environmental mystery and surprise on response. In theory, mystery and surprise should increase interest and visual appeal. For each VE, participants walked through an approach street and turned right onto a post-turn street. We designed…

  6. Analyst Information Precision and Small Earnings Surprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Bissessur; D. Veenman

    2014-01-01

    Prior research attributes zero and small positive earnings surprises to managers’ incentives for earnings management. In contrast, this study introduces and empirically tests an explanation for zero and small positive earnings surprises based on predictable variation in analyst forecast errors. We a

  7. Cognitive and Social Perspectives on Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhami, Mundler

    2007-01-01

    Meanings of "surprise" are wide and include uplifting and engaging facets like wonder and amazement on the one hand as well as ones that may be of the opposite nature like interruption and disrupt on the other. Pedagogically, educators who use surprise in class activities are focusing on students being "taken aback" by a situation, hopefully…

  8. A toolkit for detecting technical surprise.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, Michael Wayne; Foehse, Mark C.

    2010-10-01

    The detection of a scientific or technological surprise within a secretive country or institute is very difficult. The ability to detect such surprises would allow analysts to identify the capabilities that could be a military or economic threat to national security. Sandia's current approach utilizing ThreatView has been successful in revealing potential technological surprises. However, as data sets become larger, it becomes critical to use algorithms as filters along with the visualization environments. Our two-year LDRD had two primary goals. First, we developed a tool, a Self-Organizing Map (SOM), to extend ThreatView and improve our understanding of the issues involved in working with textual data sets. Second, we developed a toolkit for detecting indicators of technical surprise in textual data sets. Our toolkit has been successfully used to perform technology assessments for the Science & Technology Intelligence (S&TI) program.

  9. Deciphering network community structure by surprise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aldecoa, Rodrigo; Marín, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    .... A fundamental, unsolved problem is how to characterize the community structure of a network. Here, using both standard and novel benchmarks, we show that maximization of a simple global parameter, which we call Surprise...

  10. A Surprising Culprit Behind Celiac Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_164503.html A Surprising Culprit Behind Celiac Disease? Study suggests harmless viruses may set stage ... typically harmless type of virus might sometimes trigger celiac disease, a new study suggests. Celiac disease is ...

  11. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Taskesen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in children with urinary abnormalities such as neurogenic bladder, vesicourethral reflux or those with very poor toilet and hygiene habits. This article reviews the diagnostic approach and presents the current data related to the roles of radiologic imaging, surgical correction and antibiotic prophylaxis of UTIs in children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 57-69

  12. how frequent should we investigate for urinary tract infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-03

    Aug 3, 2015 ... from the Institution's Health Research and Ethics Com- mittee. All children who presented ... laboratory investigations, environmental and weather conditions. For instance, in .... Duguid JP, Marmaion BP, Swain. RH. Medical ...

  13. Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you to restrict your activities and limit your social interactions Increase the risk of falls in older adults ... increase your risk of developing urinary incontinence include: Gender. Women are more likely to have stress incontinence. ...

  14. Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Caffeine Decaffeinated tea and coffee Carbonated drinks Artificial sweeteners Corn syrup Foods that are high in spice, sugar or acid, especially citrus fruits Heart and blood pressure ... surgery. Artificial urinary sphincter. In men, a small, fluid-filled ...

  15. Surprises in numerical expressions of physical constants

    CERN Document Server

    Amir, Ariel; Tokieda, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    In science, as in life, `surprises' can be adequately appreciated only in the presence of a null model, what we expect a priori. In physics, theories sometimes express the values of dimensionless physical constants as combinations of mathematical constants like pi or e. The inverse problem also arises, whereby the measured value of a physical constant admits a `surprisingly' simple approximation in terms of well-known mathematical constants. Can we estimate the probability for this to be a mere coincidence, rather than an inkling of some theory? We answer the question in the most naive form.

  16. Gram-Positive Uropathogens, Polymicrobial Urinary Tract Infection, and the Emerging Microbiota of the Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Kimberly A.; Lewis, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria are a common cause of urinary tract infection (UTI), particularly among individuals who are elderly, pregnant, or who have other risk factors for UTI. Here we review the epidemiology, virulence mechanisms, and host response to the most frequently isolated Gram-positive uropathogens: Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus agalactiae. We also review several emerging, rare, misclassified, and otherwise underreported Gram-positive pathogens of the urinary tract including Aerococcus, Corynebacterium, Actinobaculum, and Gardnerella. The literature strongly suggests that urologic diseases involving Gram-positive bacteria may be easily overlooked due to limited culture-based assays typically utilized for urine in hospital microbiology laboratories. Some UTIs are polymicrobial in nature, often involving one or more Gram-positive bacteria. We herein review the risk factors and recent evidence for mechanisms of bacterial synergy in experimental models of polymicrobial UTI. Recent experimental data has demonstrated that, despite being cleared quickly from the bladder, some Gram-positive bacteria can impact pathogenic outcomes of co-infecting organisms. When taken together, the available evidence argues that Gram-positive bacteria are important uropathogens in their own right, but that some can be easily overlooked because they are missed by routine diagnostic methods. Finally, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that a surprising variety of fastidious Gram-positive bacteria may either reside in or be regularly exposed to the urinary tract and further suggests that their presence is widespread among women, as well as men. Experimental studies in this area are needed; however, there is a growing appreciation that the composition of bacteria found in the bladder could be a potentially important determinant in urologic disease, including susceptibility to UTI. PMID:27227294

  17. Surprising Connections between Partitions and Divisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Thomas J.; Hassen, Abdulkadir; Chandrupatla, Tirupathi R.

    2007-01-01

    The sum of the divisors of a positive integer is one of the most interesting concepts in multiplicative number theory, while the number of ways of expressing a number as a sum is a primary topic in additive number theory. In this article, we describe some of the surprising connections between and similarities of these two concepts.

  18. Surprises from extragalactic propagation of UHECRs

    CERN Document Server

    Boncioli, Denise; Grillo, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-high energy cosmic ray experimental data are now of very good statistical significance even in the region of the expected GZK feature. The identification of their sources requires sophisticate analysis of their propagation in the extragalactic space. When looking at the details of this propagation some unforeseen features emerge. We will discuss some of these "surprises".

  19. Radar Design to Protect Against Surprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Technological and doctrinal surprise is about rendering preparations for conflict as irrelevant or ineffective . For a sensor, this means essentially rendering the sensor as irrelevant or ineffective in its ability to help determine truth. Recovery from this sort of surprise is facilitated by flexibility in our own technology and doctrine. For a sensor, this mean s flexibility in its architecture, design, tactics, and the designing organizations ' processes. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory manage d and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000.

  20. Surprise Leads to Noisier Perceptual Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta I Garrido

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Surprising events in the environment can impair task performance. This might be due to complete distraction, leading to lapses during which performance is reduced to guessing. Alternatively, unpredictability might cause a graded withdrawal of perceptual resources from the task at hand and thereby reduce sensitivity. Here we attempt to distinguish between these two mechanisms. Listeners performed a novel auditory pitch—duration discrimination, where stimulus loudness changed occasionally and incidentally to the task. Responses were slower and less accurate in the surprising condition, where loudness changed unpredictably, than in the predictable condition, where the loudness was held constant. By explicitly modelling both lapses and changes in sensitivity, we found that unpredictable changes diminished sensitivity but did not increase the rate of lapses. These findings suggest that background environmental uncertainty can disrupt goal-directed behaviour. This graded processing strategy might be adaptive in potentially threatening contexts, and reflect a flexible system for automatic allocation of perceptual resources.

  1. Radar Design to Protect Against Surprise.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2015-02-01

    Technological and doctrinal surprise is about rendering preparations for conflict as irrelevant or ineffective . For a sensor, this means essentially rendering the sensor as irrelevant or ineffective in its ability to help determine truth. Recovery from this sort of surprise is facilitated by flexibility in our own technology and doctrine. For a sensor, this mean s flexibility in its architecture, design, tactics, and the designing organizations ' processes. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory manage d and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000.

  2. [Nosocomial urinary infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butreau-Lemaire, M; Botto, H

    1997-09-01

    The concept of nosocomial urinary tract infection now corresponds to a precise definition. It is generally related to bladder catheterization, constitutes the most frequent form of nosocomial infection (30 to 50% of infections), and represents the third most frequent portal of entry of bacteraemia. The organism most frequently isolated is Escherichia coli; but the flora is changing and the ecological distribution is continually modified. Despite their usually benign nature, these nosocomial infections can nevertheless influence hospital mortality; they increase the hospital stay by an average of 2.5 days and their treatment represents a large share of the antibiotic budget. Prevention of these infections is therefore essential, with particular emphasis on simple and universally accessible measures: very precise indications for vesical catheterization, use of closed circuit drainage, maximal asepsis when handling catheters, after washing the hands.

  3. Surprise-Based Learning for Autonomous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-28

    for scientific theories containing recursive theoretical terms". British Journal of Philosophy of Science, 44. 641-652, 1993. Piaget J.. "The Origins...paradigm stems from Piaget’s theory of Developmental Psychology [5], Herben Simon’s theory on dual-space search for knowledge and problem solving [6...34, Twenty-First Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, Edinburgh, Scotland, July 2005. [34] Itti L., Baldi P., "A Surprising Theory of

  4. Frequently used, highly appreciated?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swart, Joëlle; Peters, Chris; Schrøder, Kim Christian

    Digitalization has made patterns of news consumption immensely more varied than before, complicating industry attempts to adapt to changing user habits. In such a rapidly changing landscape, it is unclear how news audiences negotiate this environment and what impact this may have on the possible......, gender, region and educational level. It finds that the news media perceived most important to consumers’ everyday lives are not necessarily those consumed most frequently, challenging the notion that frequency of use and appreciation of a medium necessarily relate. In terms of the rise of social media...... news mediums become valuable in everyday life and what factors underlie this sense of value for different members of the public....

  5. Urinary catheters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... incontinence. There is no tube placed inside the penis. Instead, a condom-like device is placed over the penis. A tube leads from this device to a ... too small Bladder spasms Constipation The wrong balloon size Urinary tract infections POSSIBLE COMPLICATIONS Complications of catheter ...

  6. [Urinary tract infections in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Adel Ben; Bagnis, Corinne Isnard

    2014-09-01

    Urinary tract infections in adults are frequent and can induce several septic situations. Their economic cost (drugs, microbiologic samples, consultations and/or hospitalizations and stop working) and ecologic cost (second reasons of antibiotic prescription in winter and first in the rest of the year) are important. A better respect of recommendations can improve the outcome of this different infections and decrease their cost.

  7. Pupil size tracks perceptual content and surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Niels A; Meindertsma, Thomas; van Loon, Anouk M; Lamme, Victor A F; Bonneh, Yoram S; Donner, Tobias H

    2015-04-01

    Changes in pupil size at constant light levels reflect the activity of neuromodulatory brainstem centers that control global brain state. These endogenously driven pupil dynamics can be synchronized with cognitive acts. For example, the pupil dilates during the spontaneous switches of perception of a constant sensory input in bistable perceptual illusions. It is unknown whether this pupil dilation only indicates the occurrence of perceptual switches, or also their content. Here, we measured pupil diameter in human subjects reporting the subjective disappearance and re-appearance of a physically constant visual target surrounded by a moving pattern ('motion-induced blindness' illusion). We show that the pupil dilates during the perceptual switches in the illusion and a stimulus-evoked 'replay' of that illusion. Critically, the switch-related pupil dilation encodes perceptual content, with larger amplitude for disappearance than re-appearance. This difference in pupil response amplitude enables prediction of the type of report (disappearance vs. re-appearance) on individual switches (receiver-operating characteristic: 61%). The amplitude difference is independent of the relative durations of target-visible and target-invisible intervals and subjects' overt behavioral report of the perceptual switches. Further, we show that pupil dilation during the replay also scales with the level of surprise about the timing of switches, but there is no evidence for an interaction between the effects of surprise and perceptual content on the pupil response. Taken together, our results suggest that pupil-linked brain systems track both the content of, and surprise about, perceptual events.

  8. Measured Zero Net Energy Performance: Results, Lessons, and Surprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Carrie; LaRue, Anna; Pigman, Margaret; Roberts, Jon; Kaneda, David; Connelly, Dylan; Elliott, John; Pless, Shanti; Pande, Abhijeet; Dean, Edward; Anbarlilar, Can

    2016-08-26

    As more and more zero net energy (ZNE) buildings are built and monitored, we can learn from both careful case studies of individual projects as well as a broader perspective of trends over time. In a forum sponsored by Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E), eight expert speakers discussed: results and lessons from monitoring occupied ZNE buildings; best practices for setting performance targets and getting actionable performance information, and; things that have surprised them about monitored ZNE buildings. This paper distills the content of the forum by laying out the most common hurdles that are encountered in setting up monitoring projects, frequent performance issues that the monitoring uncovers, and lessons learned that can be applied to future projects.

  9. Scalable Frequent Subgraph Mining

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhamid, Ehab

    2017-06-19

    A graph is a data structure that contains a set of nodes and a set of edges connecting these nodes. Nodes represent objects while edges model relationships among these objects. Graphs are used in various domains due to their ability to model complex relations among several objects. Given an input graph, the Frequent Subgraph Mining (FSM) task finds all subgraphs with frequencies exceeding a given threshold. FSM is crucial for graph analysis, and it is an essential building block in a variety of applications, such as graph clustering and indexing. FSM is computationally expensive, and its existing solutions are extremely slow. Consequently, these solutions are incapable of mining modern large graphs. This slowness is caused by the underlying approaches of these solutions which require finding and storing an excessive amount of subgraph matches. This dissertation proposes a scalable solution for FSM that avoids the limitations of previous work. This solution is composed of four components. The first component is a single-threaded technique which, for each candidate subgraph, needs to find only a minimal number of matches. The second component is a scalable parallel FSM technique that utilizes a novel two-phase approach. The first phase quickly builds an approximate search space, which is then used by the second phase to optimize and balance the workload of the FSM task. The third component focuses on accelerating frequency evaluation, which is a critical step in FSM. To do so, a machine learning model is employed to predict the type of each graph node, and accordingly, an optimized method is selected to evaluate that node. The fourth component focuses on mining dynamic graphs, such as social networks. To this end, an incremental index is maintained during the dynamic updates. Only this index is processed and updated for the majority of graph updates. Consequently, search space is significantly pruned and efficiency is improved. The empirical evaluation shows that the

  10. Some surprising facts about (the problem of) surprising facts (from the Dusseldorf Conference, February 2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, D

    2014-03-01

    A common intuition about evidence is that if data x have been used to construct a hypothesis H, then x should not be used again in support of H. It is no surprise that x fits H, if H was deliberately constructed to accord with x. The question of when and why we should avoid such "double-counting" continues to be debated in philosophy and statistics. It arises as a prohibition against data mining, hunting for significance, tuning on the signal, and ad hoc hypotheses, and as a preference for predesignated hypotheses and "surprising" predictions. I have argued that it is the severity or probativeness of the test--or lack of it--that should determine whether a double-use of data is admissible. I examine a number of surprising ambiguities and unexpected facts that continue to bedevil this debate.

  11. Stroke Recovery: Surprising Influences and Residual Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argye E. Hillis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is startling individual variability in the degree to which people recover from stroke and the duration of time over which recovery of some symptoms occurs. There are a variety of mechanisms of recovery from stroke which take place at distinct time points after stroke and are influenced by different variables. We review recent studies from our laboratory that unveil some surprising findings, such as the role of education in chronic recovery. We also report data showing that the consequences that most plague survivors of stroke and their caregivers are loss of high level cortical functions, such as empathy or written language. These results have implications for rehabilitation and management of stroke.

  12. Surprises and mysteries in urban soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groffman, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the Baltimore Ecosystem Study, one of two urban long-term ecological research (LTER) projects funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, we are using "the watershed approach" to integrate ecological, physical and social sciences. Urban and suburban watershed input/output budgets for nitrogen have shown surprisingly high retention which has led to detailed analysis of sources and sinks in soils these watersheds. Home lawns, thought to be major sources of reactive nitrogen in suburban watersheds, have more complex coupled carbon and nitrogen dynamics than previously thought, and are likely the site of much nitrogen retention. Riparian zones, thought to be an important sink for reactive nitrogen in many watersheds, have turned out be nitrogen sources in urban watersheds due to hydrologic changes that disconnect streams from their surrounding landscape. Urban effects on atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and nitrogen deposition have strong effects on soil nitrogen cycling processes and soil:atmosphere fluxes of nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane. Efforts to manage urban soils and watersheds through geomorphic stream restoration, creation of stormwater management features and changes in lawn and forest management can have significant effects on watershed carbon and nitrogen dynamics. Urban soils present a basic and applied science frontier that challenges our understanding of biological, physical, chemical and social science processes. The watershed approach provides an effective platform for integrating these disciplines and for articulating critical questions that arise from surprising results. This approach can help us to meet the challenge of urban soils, which is critical to achieving sustainability goals in cities across the world.

  13. [Urinary tract infections and chronic renal failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotová, D

    2011-01-01

    The paper briefly summarizes issues related to urinary tract infections in adults: predispositions and risk factors, classification, assessment of pathogenicity of bacterial agents, the role of bacteriuria and leucocyturia, interpretation of findings, treatment principles and an association with chronic renal failure. Urinary tract infections are the second most frequent infectious disease in the population. They most often affect women of childbearing potential and then seniors of both sexes who have multiple risk factors. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus are the most pathogenic towards urinary tract; they are responsible for 85% and 10-15% of cases of acute uncomplicated urinary infections, respectively. Chronic pyelonephritis, a chronic interstitial nephritis, is the fourth most frequent cause of chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure is a risk factor for the development of urinary infections due to metabolic disorders resulting in secondary immunodeficiencywith a disorder of all components of immunity. In patients with chronic renal failure, urinary tract infections occur most frequently after kidney transplantation when graft pyelonephritis is a life-threatening complication. Therefore, urinary tract infection prevention with co-trimoxazole once daily over at least 6 months is recommended in renal allograft recipients.

  14. Urinary tract infection - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000521.htm Urinary tract infection - adults To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is an infection of the urinary ...

  15. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000505.htm Urinary tract infection - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urinary tract infection is an infection of the urinary tract. This ...

  16. Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection in any part of ... UTI spreads to your kidneys. Doctors typically treat urinary tract infections with antibiotics. But you can take steps to ...

  17. The conceptualization model problem—surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, John

    2005-03-01

    The foundation of model analysis is the conceptual model. Surprise is defined as new data that renders the prevailing conceptual model invalid; as defined here it represents a paradigm shift. Limited empirical data indicate that surprises occur in 20-30% of model analyses. These data suggest that groundwater analysts have difficulty selecting the appropriate conceptual model. There is no ready remedy to the conceptual model problem other than (1) to collect as much data as is feasible, using all applicable methods—a complementary data collection methodology can lead to new information that changes the prevailing conceptual model, and (2) for the analyst to remain open to the fact that the conceptual model can change dramatically as more information is collected. In the final analysis, the hydrogeologist makes a subjective decision on the appropriate conceptual model. The conceptualization problem does not render models unusable. The problem introduces an uncertainty that often is not widely recognized. Conceptual model uncertainty is exacerbated in making long-term predictions of system performance. C'est le modèle conceptuel qui se trouve à base d'une analyse sur un modèle. On considère comme une surprise lorsque le modèle est invalidé par des données nouvelles; dans les termes définis ici la surprise est équivalente à un change de paradigme. Des données empiriques limitées indiquent que les surprises apparaissent dans 20 à 30% des analyses effectuées sur les modèles. Ces données suggèrent que l'analyse des eaux souterraines présente des difficultés lorsqu'il s'agit de choisir le modèle conceptuel approprié. Il n'existe pas un autre remède au problème du modèle conceptuel que: (1) rassembler autant des données que possible en utilisant toutes les méthodes applicables—la méthode des données complémentaires peut conduire aux nouvelles informations qui vont changer le modèle conceptuel, et (2) l'analyste doit rester ouvert au fait

  18. Surprising characteristics of visual systems of invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín-Moro, J; Hernández-Verdejo, J L; Jiménez-Gahete, A E

    2017-01-01

    To communicate relevant and striking aspects about the visual system of some close invertebrates. Review of the related literature. The capacity of snails to regenerate a complete eye, the benefit of the oval shape of the compound eye of many flying insects as a way of stabilising the image during flight, the potential advantages related to the extreme refractive error that characterises the ocelli of many insects, as well as the ability to detect polarised light as a navigation system, are some of the surprising capabilities present in the small invertebrate eyes that are described in this work. The invertebrate eyes have capabilities and sensorial modalities that are not present in the human eye. The study of the eyes of these animals can help us to improve our understanding of our visual system, and inspire the development of optical devices. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Surprises from Saturn: Implications for Other Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, A. J.

    2014-05-01

    The exploration of Saturn by Cassini has provided many surprises regarding: Saturn's rapidly rotating magnetosphere, interactions with its diverse moons, and interactions with the solar wind. Enceladus, orbiting at 4 Saturn radii (RS), was found to have plumes of water vapour and ice which are the dominant source for the inner magnetosphere. Charged water clusters, charged dust and photoelectrons provide key populations in the 'dusty plasma' observed. Direct pickup is seen near Enceladus and field-aligned currents create a spot in Saturn's aurora. At Titan, orbiting at 20 RS, unexpected heavy negative and positive ions are seen in the ionosphere, which provide the source for Titan's haze. Ionospheric plasma is seen in Titan's tail, enabling ion escape to be estimated at 7 tonnes per day. Saturn's ring ionosphere was seen early in the mission and a return will be made in 2017. In addition, highly accelerated electrons are seen at Saturn's high Mach number (MA˜100) quasi-parallel bow shock. Here we review some of these key new results, and discuss the implications for other solar system objects.

  20. [Conservative treatment in male urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner-Hermanns, R; Anding, R

    2014-03-01

    Prevalence, pathophysiology, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches of urinary incontinence are well studied in women; however, studies on male urinary incontinence focus on incontinence following surgery of the bladder or prostate, predominantly incontinence after radical prostatectomy. Aging men suffer from incontinence, most frequently urge incontinence (overactive bladder, OAB), nearly as often as women do.The domain of conservative therapy of urinary stress incontinence in men is pelvic floor training. It remains unclear whether biofeedback procedures, electrostimulation therapy, or magnetic stimulation therapy can enhance pelvic floor training. There are data suggesting that an off-label therapy with Duloxetin®, a selective serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SSNRI), improves urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy. Antimuscarinic agents in combination with bladder training have been proven as safe and effective treatment in men with OAB. Data, however, suggest that men with OAB are far less frequently treated than women.

  1. [Urinary tract infection in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herráiz, Miguel Angel; Hernández, Antonio; Asenjo, Eloy; Herráiz, Ignacio

    2005-12-01

    Urinary tract infections, asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB), acute cystitis (AC) and acute pyelonephritis (AP), are favored by the morphological and functional changes involved in pregnancy. AB increases the risk of preterm labor, low birth weight and AP. AB should be detected by uroculture (other methods are not sufficiently effective) and treated early. Approximately 80% of cases are caused by Escherichia coli. The risks and effectiveness of the distinct antibiotic regimens should be evaluated: fosfomycin trometamol in monotherapy or as short course therapy is safe and effective for the treatment of AB and AC. AP is the most frequent cause of hospital admission for medical reasons in pregnant women and can lead to complications in 10% of cases, putting the lives of the mother and fetus at risk. Currently outpatient treatment of AP is recommended in selected cases. Adequate follow-up of pregnant women with urinary tract infections is required due to frequent recurrence.

  2. [Imaging in urinary tract infections in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puech, P; Lagard, D; Leroy, C; Dracon, M; Biserte, J; Lemaître, L

    2004-02-01

    Uncomplicated infection of the urinary tract is frequent and usually resolves rapidly with treatment and imaging is unnecessary. Progression to complex infection often occurs in patients with predisposing factors. Imaging assists in evaluating the extent of disease, plays a role in directing therapy and guides interventional procedures if necessary. This pictorial essay reviews the role of imaging and intervention in infections of the urinary tract.

  3. Bariatric Surgery and Urinary Stone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevahir Ozer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major public health problem and has been suggested to play a role in the etiology of urinary tract stone disease. Furthermore, the increasingly widespread use of surgery in the treatment of obesity also is related with urinary stone disease. In daily practice, patients to whom obesity surgery has been planned or who have undergone obesity surgery are seen more frequently. This review aims to highlight the urological evaluation and management of this patient group.

  4. A Shocking Surprise in Stephan's Quintet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This false-color composite image of the Stephan's Quintet galaxy cluster clearly shows one of the largest shock waves ever seen (green arc). The wave was produced by one galaxy falling toward another at speeds of more than one million miles per hour. The image is made up of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and a ground-based telescope in Spain. Four of the five galaxies in this picture are involved in a violent collision, which has already stripped most of the hydrogen gas from the interiors of the galaxies. The centers of the galaxies appear as bright yellow-pink knots inside a blue haze of stars, and the galaxy producing all the turmoil, NGC7318b, is the left of two small bright regions in the middle right of the image. One galaxy, the large spiral at the bottom left of the image, is a foreground object and is not associated with the cluster. The titanic shock wave, larger than our own Milky Way galaxy, was detected by the ground-based telescope using visible-light wavelengths. It consists of hot hydrogen gas. As NGC7318b collides with gas spread throughout the cluster, atoms of hydrogen are heated in the shock wave, producing the green glow. Spitzer pointed its infrared spectrograph at the peak of this shock wave (middle of green glow) to learn more about its inner workings. This instrument breaks light apart into its basic components. Data from the instrument are referred to as spectra and are displayed as curving lines that indicate the amount of light coming at each specific wavelength. The Spitzer spectrum showed a strong infrared signature for incredibly turbulent gas made up of hydrogen molecules. This gas is caused when atoms of hydrogen rapidly pair-up to form molecules in the wake of the shock wave. Molecular hydrogen, unlike atomic hydrogen, gives off most of its energy through vibrations that emit in the infrared. This highly disturbed gas is the most turbulent molecular hydrogen ever seen. Astronomers were surprised not only by the turbulence

  5. URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sivalingam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections frequently affect pregnant mothers. This problem causes significant morbidity and healthcare expenditure. Three common clinical manifestations of UTIs in pregnancy are: asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute cystitis and acute pyelonephritis. Escherichia coli remains the most frequent organism isolated in UTIs. All pregnant mothers should be screened for UTIs in pregnancy and antibiotics should be commenced without delay. Urine culture and sensitivity is the gold standard in diagnosing UTIs. Without treatment, asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy is associated with preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, maternal hypertension, pre-eclampsia and anaemia. Acute pyelonephritis can lead to maternal sepsis. Recurrent UTIs in pregnancy require prophylactic antibiotic treatment.

  6. Frequent Itemset Hiding Algorithm Using Frequent Pattern Tree Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnatsheh, Rami

    2012-01-01

    A problem that has been the focus of much recent research in privacy preserving data-mining is the frequent itemset hiding (FIH) problem. Identifying itemsets that appear together frequently in customer transactions is a common task in association rule mining. Organizations that share data with business partners may consider some of the frequent…

  7. Frequent Itemset Hiding Algorithm Using Frequent Pattern Tree Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnatsheh, Rami

    2012-01-01

    A problem that has been the focus of much recent research in privacy preserving data-mining is the frequent itemset hiding (FIH) problem. Identifying itemsets that appear together frequently in customer transactions is a common task in association rule mining. Organizations that share data with business partners may consider some of the frequent…

  8. The Influence of Negative Surprise on Hedonic Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Kieling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After some time using a product or service, the consumer tends to feel less pleasure with consumption. This reduction of pleasure is known as hedonic adaptation. One of the emotions that interfere in this process is surprise. Based on two experiments, we suggest that negative surprise – differently to positive – influences with the level of pleasure foreseen and experienced by the consumer. Study 1 analyzes the influence of negative (vs. positive surprise on the consumer’s post-purchase hedonic adaptation expectation. Results showed that negative surprise influences the intensity of adaptation, augmenting its strength. Study 2 verifies the influence of negative (vs positive surprise over hedonic adaptation. The findings suggested that negative surprise makes adaptation happen more intensively and faster as time goes by, which brings consequences to companies and consumers in the post-purchase process, such as satisfaction and loyalty.

  9. Effects of Surprisal and Locality on Danish Sentence Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Kizach, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    An eye-tracking experiment in Danish investigates two dominant accounts of sentence processing: locality-based theories that predict a processing advantage for sentences where the distance between the major syntactic heads is minimized, and the surprisal theory which predicts that processing time...... constructions with two postverbal NP-objects. An eye-tracking experiment showed a clear advantage for local syntactic relations, with only a marginal effect of lexicalised surprisal and no effect of syntactic surprisal. We conclude that surprisal has a relatively marginal effect, which may be clearest for verbs...

  10. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ... ON THIS TOPIC Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting Contact Us Print Resources ...

  11. [Male urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, TA de; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2008-01-01

    *Urinary incontinence in males is gaining increasingly more attention. *Male urinary incontinence can be classified as storage incontinence due to overactive bladder syndrome or stress incontinence due to urethral sphincter dysfunction. *Most patients benefit from the currently available treatment o

  12. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, A B

    2001-04-01

    Urinary tract infection is one of the most frequently seen 'medical' complications in pregnancy. The pioneering work of Edward Kass discovered that 6% of pregnant women had asymptomatic bacteriuria associated with increased prematurity and perinatal mortality compared to women with sterile urine. Screening for bacteriuria in pregnancy has become routine. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria as well as the associated complications described by Kass in 1962 are higher compared to most data collected in the 1980s and late 1990s in different populations in various parts of the world. Other factors such as vaginal colonization have been recognized as important contributors to preterm labour. The value of screening for bacteriuria has to be re-addressed considering methods, significance and costs. Treatment of urinary tract infection in pregnancy is critically reviewed.

  13. LGBT Caregiving: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FCA - A A + A You are here Home LGBT Caregiving: Frequently Asked Questions Order this publication Printer- ... service or organization is open to working with LGBT families? Kudos to you for managing to “go ...

  14. Frequent Questions About Universal Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frequent questions such as Who is affected by the universal waste regulations? What is “mercury-containing equipment”? How are waste batteries managed under universal waste? How are waste pesticides managed under universal waste?

  15. Climate Leadership Awards Frequent Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides answers to frequently asked questions regarding the Climate Leadership Awards, sponsored by EPA's Center for Corporate Climate Leadership with co-sponsorship from the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions and The Climate Registry.

  16. Frequently Asked Questions about Pharmacogenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Specific Genetic Disorders Frequently Asked Questions About Pharmacogenomics Enlarge What is pharmacogenomics? What might pharmacogenomics mean ... page, you will need Adobe Reader. What is pharmacogenomics? Pharmacogenomics uses information about a person's genetic makeup, ...

  17. Surprise and Sense Making: Undergraduate Placement Experiences in SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Andreas; Thomas, Rhodri; Jameson, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore undergraduate placement experiences in tourism and hospitality SMEs, focusing on the notions of surprise and sense making. It aims to argue that surprises and sense making are important elements not only of the adjustment process when entering new work environments, but also of the learning experience that…

  18. Neural Responses to Rapid Facial Expressions of Fear and Surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Facial expression recognition is mediated by a distributed neural system in humans that involves multiple, bilateral regions. There are six basic facial expressions that may be recognized in humans (fear, sadness, surprise, happiness, anger, and disgust; however, fearful faces and surprised faces are easily confused in rapid presentation. The functional organization of the facial expression recognition system embodies a distinction between these two emotions, which is investigated in the present study. A core system that includes the right parahippocampal gyrus (BA 30, fusiform gyrus, and amygdala mediates the visual recognition of fear and surprise. We found that fearful faces evoked greater activity in the left precuneus, middle temporal gyrus (MTG, middle frontal gyrus, and right lingual gyrus, whereas surprised faces were associated with greater activity in the right postcentral gyrus and left posterior insula. These findings indicate the importance of common and separate mechanisms of the neural activation that underlies the recognition of fearful and surprised faces.

  19. Dracunculiasis eradication - Finishing the job before surprises arise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin Jelle Visser

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dracunculiasis(Guinea worm disease) is a preventable waterborne parasitic disease that affects the poorest people living in remote rural areas in sub-SaharanAfrican countries, who do not have access to safe drinking water.The Guinea Worm Eradication Program, a25-year old campaign to rid the world ofGuineaWorm disease has now reached its final stage accelerating to zero cases in all endemic countries.During the19th and20th centuries, dracunculiasis was common in much ofSouthernAsia and theAfrican continent.The overall number of cases has been reduced tremendously by≥99%, from the3.32 million cases estimated to have occurred in1986 inAfrica to only1797 cases reported in2010 reported in only five countries(Sudan,Mali,Ethiopia,Chad andGhana) andAsia free of the disease.This achievement is unique in its kind - the only previously eradicated disease is smallpox, a viral infection for which vaccination was possible - and it has been achieved through primary community-based prevention and health education programs.Most efforts need to be taken in two countries,SouthSudan(comprising94% or1698 out of1797 of the cases reported world-wide in2010) andMali because of frequent movements of nomads in a vast area inside and outsideMali’s borders.All factors favourable to dracunculiasis eradication are available including adequate financial resources, community and political support and high levels of advocacy.Thus there is no reason that this disabling parasitic disease cannot be eradicated soon before surprises arise such as new civil conflicts in currently endemic countries.

  20. Efficient Frequent Pattern Tree Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Bujji Babu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Association rule learning is a popular and well researched technique for discovering interesting relations between variables in large databases in the area of data mining. The association rules are a part of intelligent systems. Association rules are usually required to satisfy a user-specified minimum support and a user-specified minimum confidence at the same time. Apriori and FP-Growth algorithms are very familiar algorithms for association rule mining. In this paper we are more concentrated on the Construction of efficient frequent pattern trees. Here, we present the novel frequent pattern trees and the performance issues. The proposed trees are fast and efficient trees helps to extract the frequent patterns. This paper provides the major advantages in the FP-Growth algorithm for association rule mining with using the newly proposed approach.

  1. [Leiomyoma of the urinary tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekkak, H; Moufid, K; Joual, A; Bennani, S; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    2001-01-01

    Leiomyomas of the urinary tract are benign and uncommon forms of tumor. In the present study, two cases have been described of leiomyomas situated in the bladder. Following this description, the pathological characteristics and the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of these lesions have been examined. The clinical symptomatology depends on the tumor site, and this type of lesion is more frequently found in women.. Treatment mainly consists of endoscopic resection, but may involve cystectomy. The prognosis for patients with this type of tumor is invariably favorable.

  2. The Most Frequent English Homonyms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This article distinguishes homonymy, homophony, homography and polysemy, and provides a list of the most frequent homonyms using corpus-derived data. For most of the homonyms, the most common meaning accounts for 90% or more of the total uses of the form. The pedagogical and research implications of these findings are discussed. (Contains 5…

  3. How to find frequent patterns?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); W.A. Koster

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAn improved version of DF, the depth-first implementation of Apriori, is presented. Given a database of (e.g., supermarket) transactions, the DF algorithm builds a so-called trie that contains all frequent itemsets, i.e., all itemsets that are contained in at least `minsup' transacti

  4. Macrophages Subvert Adaptive Immunity to Urinary Tract Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Mora-Bau

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common bacterial infections with frequent recurrence being a major medical challenge. Development of effective therapies has been impeded by the lack of knowledge of events leading to adaptive immunity. Here, we establish conclusive evidence that an adaptive immune response is generated during UTI, yet this response does not establish sterilizing immunity. To investigate the underlying deficiency, we delineated the naïve bladder immune cell compartment, identifying resident macrophages as the most populous immune cell. To evaluate their impact on the establishment of adaptive immune responses following infection, we measured bacterial clearance in mice depleted of either circulating monocytes, which give rise to macrophages, or bladder resident macrophages. Surprisingly, mice depleted of resident macrophages, prior to primary infection, exhibited a nearly 2-log reduction in bacterial burden following secondary challenge compared to untreated animals. This increased bacterial clearance, in the context of a challenge infection, was dependent on lymphocytes. Macrophages were the predominant antigen presenting cell to acquire bacteria post-infection and in their absence, bacterial uptake by dendritic cells was increased almost 2-fold. These data suggest that bacterial uptake by tissue macrophages impedes development of adaptive immune responses during UTI, revealing a novel target for enhancing host responses to bacterial infection of the bladder.

  5. Urinary tract infections in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, A; Levancini, M

    2001-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are very common during pregnancy. Escherichia coli is the most common pathogen isolated from pregnant women. Ampicillin should not be used because of its high resistance to Escherichia coli. Pyelonephritis can cause morbidity and can be life-threatening to both mother and fetus. Second and third-generation cephalosporins are recommended for treatment, administered initially intravenously during hospitalization. Cultures and the study of virulence factors of uropathogenic Escherichia coli are recommended for the adequate management of pyelonephritis. The lower genital tract infection associated with pyelonephritis is responsible for the failure of antibiotic treatment. Asymptomatic bacteriuria can evolve into cystitis or pyelonephritis. All pregnant women should be routinely screened for bacteriuria using urine culture, and should be treated with nitrofurantoin, sulfixosazole or first-generation cephalosporins. Recurrent urinary infection should be treated with prophylactic antibiotics. Pregnant women who develop urinary tract infections with group B streptococcal infection should be treated with prophylactic antibiotics during labour to prevent neonatal sepsis. Preterm delivery is frequent. Evidence suggests that infection plays a role in the pathogenesis of preterm labour. Experimental models in pregnant mice support the theory that Escherichia coli propagated by the transplacental route, involving bacterial adhesins, induces preterm delivery, but this has not been demonstrated in humans. Ascending lower genital tract infections are the most probable cause of preterm delivery, but this remains to be proved.

  6. Defense Science Board (DSB) Summer Study Report on Strategic Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    DSB Summer Study Report on Strategic Surprise July 2015 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden...SUBTITLE DSB Summer Study Report on Strategic Surprise 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Defense Science Board ( DSB ),The Pentagon ,OUSD(AT&L

  7. The female urinary microbiota, urinary health and common urinary disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Alan J.

    2017-01-01

    This review provides the clinical context and updated information regarding the female urinary microbiota (FUM), a resident microbial community within the female bladder of many adult women. Microbial communities have variability and distinct characteristics in health, as well as during community disruption (dysbiosis). Information concerning characteristics of the FUM in health and disease is emerging. Sufficient data confirms that the microbes that compose the FUM are not contaminants and are cultivatable under appropriate conditions. Common clinical conditions, including urinary tract infection (UTI) and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI), a common form of urinary incontinence (UI), may be usefully reconsidered to determine the role of the FUM. Knowledge of FUM characteristics may help advance prevention, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions and other common lower urinary disorders in women. The FUM appears related to UTI and UUI in adult women. The specific role of the FUM remains to be clarified and requires significant additional work in describing FUM variability and resilience in health. Unique aspects of the FUM prompt re-evaluation of existing nomenclature to more appropriately define health and disease; the concept of dysbiosis may be useful for understanding the interaction of the FUM with other aspects of lower urinary tract physiology, including urothelial signaling. Clinicians, through their clinical laboratories, can adopt enhanced urine culture techniques that more fully describe the living microbes within the FUM. This additional information may provide clinicians and their patients an opportunity to impact clinical care without antibiotic use, if the FUM can be appropriately modified to improve treatment precision for UTI and UUI. PMID:28217699

  8. Urinary incontinence in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Peggy; Brubaker, Linda

    2006-01-07

    Urinary incontinence is common in women, but is under-reported and under-treated. Urine storage and emptying is a complex coordination between the bladder and urethra, and disturbances in the system due to childbirth, aging, or other medical conditions can lead to urinary incontinence. The two main types of incontinence in women, stress urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence, can be evaluated by history and simple clinical assessment available to most primary care physicians. There is a wide range of therapeutic options, but the recent proliferation of new drug treatments and surgical devices for urinary incontinence have had mixed results; direct-to-consumer advertising has increased public awareness of the problem of urinary incontinence, but many new products are being introduced without long-term assessment of their safety and efficacy.

  9. Imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dacher, Jean-Nicolas [University of Rouen, Quant-IF Laboratory, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rouen (France); Rouen University Hospital Charles Nicolle, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); UFR Medecine Pharmacie de Rouen, Laboratoire Quant-If, Rouen (France); Hitzel, Anne; Vera, Pierre [University of Rouen, Quant-IF Laboratory, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rouen (France); CRLCC Henri Becquerel, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rouen (France); Avni, Fred E. [Free University of Brussels, Department of Radiology, Erasmus Hospital, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    This article is focused on the controversial topic of imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection. A review of the recent literature illustrates the complementary roles of ultrasound, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. The authors stress the key role of ultrasound which has recently been debated. The commonly associated vesicoureteric reflux has to be classified as congenital or secondary due to voiding dysfunction. A series of frequently asked questions are addressed in a second section. The proposed answers are not the product of a consensus but should rather be considered as proposals to enrich the ongoing debate concerning the evaluation of urinary tract infection in children. (orig.)

  10. Urinary Tract Infection and Neurogenic Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Maxim J; Seed, Patrick; Ross, Sherry S; Borawski, Kristy M

    2015-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequent, recurrent, and lifelong for patients with neurogenic bladder and present challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Patients often present without classic symptoms of UTI but with abdominal or back pain, increased spasticity, and urinary incontinence. Failure to recognize and treat infections can quickly lead to life-threatening autonomic dysreflexia or sepsis, whereas overtreatment contributes to antibiotic resistance, thus limiting future treatment options. Multiple prevention methods are used but evidence-based practices are few. Prevention and treatment of symptomatic UTI requires a multimodal approach that focuses on bladder management as well as accurate diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Calcifying nanoparticles associated encrusted urinary bladder cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelic, Tomislav M; Roque, Rod; Yasar, Uzay; Tomchin, Shayna B; Serrato, Jose M; Deem, Samuel G; Tierney, James P; Chang, Ho-Huang

    2008-01-01

    Encrusted cystitis is a subtype of chronic cystitis characterized by multiple calcifications in the form of plaques located in the interstitium of the urinary bladder mucosa and frequently associated with mucosal ulcers. It is a very rare disease of controversial etiology. Our transmission electron microscopy of the calcified plaques of encrusted cystitis has revealed that the smallest formed particles (elementary units) of these calcifications are electron-dense shells surrounding an electron lucent core, diagnostic of calcifying nanoparticles (previously called nanobacteria). We pioneer the notion that calcifying nanoparticles are the causative agents of encrusted urinary bladder cystitis.

  12. Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence Home For Patients Search ... Stress Urinary Incontinence FAQ166, July 2014 PDF Format Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence Special Procedures What is ...

  13. Traditionally used medicinal plants against uncomplicated urinary tract infections: Are unusual, flavan-4-ol- and derhamnosylmaysin derivatives responsible for the antiadhesive activity of extracts obtained from stigmata of Zea mays L. against uropathogenic E. coli and Benzethonium chloride as frequent contaminant faking potential antibacterial activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafsanjany, Nasli; Sendker, Jandirk; Lechtenberg, Matthias; Petereit, Frank; Scharf, Birte; Hensel, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    The dried stigmata from Zea mays L. are used traditionally for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections. A recent screening has indicated that hydroalcoholic extract of the herbal material inhibits the adhesion of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) to T24 bladder cells. For verification of these data EtOH-water (1:1) extracts from 4 different batches of Maydis stigmata were investigated. Within an in vitro adhesion assay (UPEC strain 2980 and human T24 bladder cells) a dose-dependent antiadhesive activity against UPEC was verified (IC50 1040μg/mL). Bioassay guided fractionation of M. stigmata, batch S1, by EtOH-water extraction, followed by chromatography on Sephadex LH20 revealed two active fractions (I and XI). Further purification of fraction I and structure elucidation of the isolated compound revealed the presence of significant amounts of the biocide benzethonium chloride as contaminant. Benzethonium chloride was also identified in subsequent investigations in 2 different batches of M. stigmata. The presence of such nondeclared and illegal contaminants in the herbal raw material market has to be discussed intensively. From benzethonium-free raw material (batch S2) as well as from batch S1 fraction XI was further fractionated by MPLC and preparative HPLC, leading to a still complex subfraction XIG, which was analyzed by UHPLC/+ESI-QTOF-MS analysis. Advanced data processing and species-metabolite relationship database revealed the tentatively existence of the unusual C-glycosidic flavones derhamnosylmaysin (6), 3'-deoxyrhamnosylmaysin (4), 3'-O-methylderhamnosylmaysin (3), apiferol (2) and alternanthin (8) which might be related to the antiadhesive activity of this subfraction against UPEC.

  14. Infezioni delle vie urinarie: appropriatezza in antibioticoterapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetti, Matteo; Carnelutti, Alessia

    2014-12-01

    Adequacy of antimicrobial therapy in urinary tract infections (UTI)Urinary tract infections are one of the most common reasons for antimicrobial prescriptions, however urine cultures are often unavailable and the choice of antibiotics is therefore empiric. The ideal antimicrobial agent must have specific pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics and an adequate spectrum of activity in order to obtain the potential eradication of the pathogen from the site of infection, minimizing the risk of recurrences and ensuring the best safety profile. There are several factors to be considered in the therapy choice: the type of infection, the increasing presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria showing resistance to most antibiotics and the problem of the bacterial internalization, that is a frequent cause of treatment failure and early recurrences. Prulifloxacin is a recent oral fluoroquinolone antibiotic approved in several European countries for the treatment of lower urinary tract infections and shows some interesting advantages in comparison with other antibiotics.

  15. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and ... To protect the kidneys from damage – By preventing urinary tract infections (UTI) – By identifying and treating vesicoureteral remux (VUR). ...

  16. Urinary symptoms in Parkinson's disease: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos-Sousa Raimundo Nonato

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a cross-sectional study involving 61 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD who were consecutively examined and compared to a control group with 74 subjects. Only patients who fulfilled the standard diagnostic criteria for PD and whose brain magnetic resonance imaging was normal were included. The objective of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of inferior urinary tract symptoms in PD and to study the possible association between clinical factors to urinary dysfunction. ln the patient group, 39.3% presented urinary symptoms when compared to 10.8% in the control group. All symptomatic patients presented irritative symptoms. The most common irritative symptom PD was nocturia, followed by frequency and urinary incontinence. Around 25% of the patients presented functional obstructive symptoms determined by the disease. The most frequent obstructive symptom was incomplete emptying of the bladder. Only the age of the patients and control group were correlated with urinary dysfunction.

  17. Detecting the presence of an indwelling urinary catheter and urinary symptoms in hospitalized patients using natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundlapalli, Adi V; Divita, Guy; Redd, Andrew; Carter, Marjorie E; Ko, Danette; Rubin, Michael; Samore, Matthew; Strymish, Judith; Krein, Sarah; Gupta, Kalpana; Sales, Anne; Trautner, Barbara W

    2017-07-01

    To develop a natural language processing pipeline to extract positively asserted concepts related to the presence of an indwelling urinary catheter in hospitalized patients from the free text of the electronic medical note. The goal is to assist infection preventionists and other healthcare professionals in determining whether a patient has an indwelling urinary catheter when a catheter-associated urinary tract infection is suspected. Currently, data on indwelling urinary catheters is not consistently captured in the electronic medical record in structured format and thus cannot be reliably extracted for clinical and research purposes. We developed a lexicon of terms related to indwelling urinary catheters and urinary symptoms based on domain knowledge, prior experience in the field, and review of medical notes. A reference standard of 1595 randomly selected documents from inpatient admissions was annotated by human reviewers to identify all positively and negatively asserted concepts related to indwelling urinary catheters. We trained a natural language processing pipeline based on the V3NLP framework using 1050 documents and tested on 545 documents to determine agreement with the human reference standard. Metrics reported are positive predictive value and recall. The lexicon contained 590 terms related to the presence of an indwelling urinary catheter in various categories including insertion, care, change, and removal of urinary catheters and 67 terms for urinary symptoms. Nursing notes were the most frequent inpatient note titles in the reference standard document corpus; these also yielded the highest number of positively asserted concepts with respect to urinary catheters. Comparing the performance of the natural language processing pipeline against the human reference standard, the overall recall was 75% and positive predictive value was 99% on the training set; on the testing set, the recall was 72% and positive predictive value was 98%. The performance on

  18. Frequently Asked Questions about Surgical Site Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infection FAQs about SSIs Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infection FAQs about CAUTI Ventilator-associated Pneumonia FAQs about VAP Diseases and Organisms Acinetobacter Burkholderia cepacia Clostridium difficile Patients Clinicians FAQs about ...

  19. Avoiding surprises when implementing a single quality system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donawa, Maria

    2009-01-01

    European medical device manufacturers are sometimes surprised to learn that operating ISO 13485 alone is not sufficient to meet United States (US) quality system requirements. This article discusses important considerations for meeting US and European requirements when operating under a single quality system.

  20. Reconsiderations: Donald Murray and the Pedagogy of Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Toward the end of his life, Donald Murray felt that his approach to writing instruction was no longer appreciated by journals in his field. Nevertheless, his emphasis on encouraging students to surprise themselves through informal writing still has considerable value. (Contains 1 note.)

  1. Reconsiderations: Donald Murray and the Pedagogy of Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Toward the end of his life, Donald Murray felt that his approach to writing instruction was no longer appreciated by journals in his field. Nevertheless, his emphasis on encouraging students to surprise themselves through informal writing still has considerable value. (Contains 1 note.)

  2. Errors and surprise in patients with focal brain lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ullsperger, M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent theories of performance monitoring suggest that not only errors and negative action outcomes but also valence-free expectancy violations can trigger cognitive and behavioral adaptations. EEG and fMRI evidence suggests that monitoring of both errors and surprising but valence-free action

  3. Fault Tolerant Frequent Pattern Mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shohdy, Sameh; Vishnu, Abhinav; Agrawal, Gagan

    2016-12-19

    FP-Growth algorithm is a Frequent Pattern Mining (FPM) algorithm that has been extensively used to study correlations and patterns in large scale datasets. While several researchers have designed distributed memory FP-Growth algorithms, it is pivotal to consider fault tolerant FP-Growth, which can address the increasing fault rates in large scale systems. In this work, we propose a novel parallel, algorithm-level fault-tolerant FP-Growth algorithm. We leverage algorithmic properties and MPI advanced features to guarantee an O(1) space complexity, achieved by using the dataset memory space itself for checkpointing. We also propose a recovery algorithm that can use in-memory and disk-based checkpointing, though in many cases the recovery can be completed without any disk access, and incurring no memory overhead for checkpointing. We evaluate our FT algorithm on a large scale InfiniBand cluster with several large datasets using up to 2K cores. Our evaluation demonstrates excellent efficiency for checkpointing and recovery in comparison to the disk-based approach. We have also observed 20x average speed-up in comparison to Spark, establishing that a well designed algorithm can easily outperform a solution based on a general fault-tolerant programming model.

  4. [Osmolality of frequently consumed beverages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Elizabeth; De Abreu, Jorge; López, Emeris

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the osmolality of beverages frequently consumed by children and adolescents due to the scarce information available in our country. The samples were grouped as follows: milks; refreshments; beverages based on fruits, vegetables, cereals, and tubers; sport drinks; energizing drinks; oral rehydrating solutions; reconstituted drinks and infusions. A vapor pressure digital osmometer was used, five samples of each beverage from different lots were analyzed. Four osmolality determinations were made on each sample and the average of such values was calculated. When the variation coefficient of the osmolality measurements of the five samples was higher than 10%, five additional samples were analyzed. As many samples as possible were used with breast milk in the time period of the study. Osmolality averages, standard deviation, and the osmolality confidence intervals (95% reliability) were calculated. The osmolality (mmol/kg) of breast milk and that of cow milk were between 273 and 389; refreshments, white, black and flavored colas, and malts ranged between 479-811; and soda and light drinks: 44-62; fresh fruit and commercial drinks (coconut, peach, apple, orange, pear, pineapple, grape, plum, tamarind): 257-1152 and light juices: 274; sports beverages: 367; energizing drinks: 740; drinks based on vegetables and cereals: 213-516; oral rehydrating solutions: 236-397; reconstituted drinks: 145; infusions: 25. Beverages with adequate osmolality levels for children were: milks, light refreshments, soda, fresh and light juices, oral rehydrating, soy, and reconstituted drinks and infusions.

  5. The frequent occurrence of MIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graff, Matthias [Gesellschaft fuer Technische Mikrobiologie und Hygieneueberwachung - Dr. Graff und Partner, Stadtweg 9, D-38176 Wendeburg (Germany); Neubert, Volkmar [Institut fuer Materialpruefung und Werkstofftechnik Dr. Doelling und Dr. Neubert GmbH, Freiberger Strasse 1, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Microbial induced corrosion (MIC) is not as rare as many materials scientist and corrosion practitioners do believe. It is not an exotic and scarce event, but can be found frequently in many fields of corrosion research, provided that it is looked for. The reason for the relatively few descriptions of MIC cases seems to be the fact, that the microbiological approach is not widely known and applied in the world of materials science. MIC is not so much a corrosion mechanism on its own, but it enhances the corrosion rates of the 'normal' mechanisms to such an extent, that in some cases 'incredible' fast corrosion progress can be observed. The reason is the microorganisms' function as bio-catalysts: Chemical reactions, which are very slow under normal chemical conditions can be highly accelerated by living organisms. Besides that, several microorganisms do produce very corrosive substances which in natural environments do not occur without the activity of microorganisms, e. g. sulfuric or nitric acid. We want to point out, that it can be very worthy to take microbial induced corrosion into account. MIC is not the general answer for all unsolved corrosion problems, but to think about it helps in many corrosion cases as the authors had to experience. The initial indication for the presence of MIC are markedly increased corrosion rates. In the following, some of our 'lessons' are presented as short case studies: Two of them deal with steel corrosion characterized by increased corrosion rates. The third example presents corrosion damage of aluminium structures, where from a technical point of view corrosion was not expected, least of all microbial induced corrosion. (authors)

  6. Urinary Tract Infections (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Urinary Tract Infections KidsHealth > For Teens > Urinary Tract Infections Print A ... especially girls — visit a doctor. What Is a Urinary Tract Infection? A bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is the ...

  7. Bacteriuria is associated with urge urinary incontinence in older women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhe, Nils; Englund, Lars; Mölstad, Sigvard; Samuelsson, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between bacteriuria and frequency and type of urinary incontinence in elderly people living in the community. Bacteriuria and urinary incontinence are common conditions and often coexisting in this population; the authors have previously reported the prevalence of bacteriuria to be 22.4% in women and 9.4% in men. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The catchment area of a primary healthcare centre in a Swedish middle-sized town. Subjects Residents, except for those in nursing homes, aged 80 and over. Participation rate: 80.3% (431/537). Main outcome measures Urinary cultures and questionnaire data on urinary incontinence. Results In women the OR for having bacteriuria increased with increasing frequency of urinary incontinence; the OR was 2.83 (95% CI 1.35–5.94) for women who were incontinent daily as compared with continent women. Reporting urge urinary incontinence increased the risk of having bacteriuria: 3.36 (95% CI 1.49–7.58) in comparison with continent women while there was no significant association between stress urinary incontinence and bacteriuria. The prevalence of bacteriuria among men was too low to make any meaningful calculations about the association between bacteriuria and frequency and type of incontinence. Conclusion Bacteriuria is associated with more frequent leakage and predominantly with urge urinary incontinence. The causes of this association and their clinical implications remain unclear. There might be some individuals who would benefit from antibiotic treatment, but further studies are warranted. PMID:18297561

  8. Urinary incontinence - collagen implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/007373.htm Urinary incontinence - injectable implant To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Injectable implants are injections of material into the urethra to ...

  9. Sleeping beauties in theoretical physics 26 surprising insights

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Thanu

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses a fascinating set of questions in theoretical physics which will both entertain and enlighten all students, teachers and researchers and other physics aficionados. These range from Newtonian mechanics to quantum field theory and cover several puzzling issues that do not appear in standard textbooks. Some topics cover conceptual conundrums, the solutions to which lead to surprising insights; some correct popular misconceptions in the textbook discussion of certain topics; others illustrate deep connections between apparently unconnected domains of theoretical physics; and a few provide remarkably simple derivations of results which are not often appreciated. The connoisseur of theoretical physics will enjoy a feast of pleasant surprises skilfully prepared by an internationally acclaimed theoretical physicist. Each topic is introduced with proper background discussion and special effort is taken to make the discussion self-contained, clear and comprehensible to anyone with an undergraduate e...

  10. The June surprises: balls, strikes, and the fog of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Charles

    2013-04-01

    At first, few constitutional experts took seriously the argument that the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act exceeded Congress's power under the commerce clause. The highly political opinions of two federal district judges - carefully chosen by challenging plaintiffs - of no particular distinction did not shake that confidence that the act was constitutional. This disdain for the challengers' arguments was only confirmed when the act was upheld by two highly respected conservative court of appeals judges in two separate circuits. But after the hostile, even mocking questioning of the government's advocate in the Supreme Court by the five Republican-appointed justices, the expectation was that the act would indeed be struck down on that ground. So it came as no surprise when the five opined the act did indeed exceed Congress's commerce clause power. But it came as a great surprise when Chief Justice John Roberts, joined by the four Democrat-appointed justices, ruled that the act could be sustained as an exercise of Congress's taxing power - a ground urged by the government almost as an afterthought. It was further surprising, even shocking, that Justices Antonin Scalia, Anthony Kennedy, Clarence Thomas, and Samuel Alito not only wrote a joint opinion on the commerce clause virtually identical to that of their chief, but that in writing it they did not refer to or even acknowledge his opinion. Finally surprising was the fact that Justices Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Stephen Breyer joined the chief in holding that aspects of the act's Medicaid expansion were unconstitutional. This essay ponders and tries to unravel some of these puzzles.

  11. Post-operative urinary retention in a general surgical population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreijer, Bjørn; Møller, Morten H; Bartholdy, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Post-operative urine retention is a frequent and serious complication. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of post-operative urinary retention in a general surgical population and to identify the perioperative risk factors for developing this condition.......Post-operative urine retention is a frequent and serious complication. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of post-operative urinary retention in a general surgical population and to identify the perioperative risk factors for developing this condition....

  12. A Rare Cause of Acute Urinary Retention: Retroperitoneal Ganglioneuroma and Concurrent Mediastineal Schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Budak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The underlying prior cause at the old male patients refered with acute urinary retention is frequently benign prostatic hypertrophy and urethral pathologies. Acute urinary retention can develop with obstruction as well as neurogenic causes. Neurogenic tumors develops from the cells which takes its origin from the neural crest and they can be seen every neural tissue. In this study rarely seen retroperitoneal ganglioneuroma which causes acute urinary retention and coexisting asymptomatic mediastineal schwannoma case is presented.

  13. Fasting and Urinary Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results: The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  14. Fasting and urinary stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods:Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field  of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results:The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  15. Pediatric urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blickman, J.G.

    1991-02-06

    Acute urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important cause of morbidity in children and may be complicated by congenital urinary tract abnormalities of a functional or anatomic nature which, predispose to recurrent UTI's that in turn may lead to renal failure and hypertension. Early radiologic and ultrasonographic investigations may reveal these anatomic anomalies in particular because the urinary tract, specifically in children, is not readily accessible to adequate clinical examinations Excretory urography (EU) has been considered as the 'gold standard' of upper urinary tract visualization, while the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) was thought to be the preferential method of imaging of the lower urinary tract. Recently, major technical advances have altered this commonly accepted diagnostic workup. Although ultrasonography, radio-nuclide scanning and urodynamics have become important contributors to the understanding of pathophysiology of UTI's their value and place in assessment of the sequence of imaging has not been comprehensively studied. This thesis deals about the optimization of the choice and the order of the different imaging techniques used in the evaluation of children, younger than six year with UTI. (author). 243 refs.; 23 figs.; 8 tabs.

  16. Urinary p75ECD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepheard, Stephanie R.; Wuu, Joanne; Cardoso, Michell; Wiklendt, Luke; Dinning, Phil G.; Chataway, Tim; Schultz, David

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate urinary neurotrophin receptor p75 extracellular domain (p75ECD) levels as disease progression and prognostic biomarkers in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods: The population in this study comprised 45 healthy controls and 54 people with ALS, 31 of whom were sampled longitudinally. Urinary p75ECD was measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay and validation included intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation, effect of circadian rhythm, and stability over time at room temperature, 4°C, and repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Longitudinal changes in urinary p75ECD were examined by mixed model analysis, and the prognostic value of baseline p75ECD was explored by survival analysis. Results: Confirming our previous findings, p75ECD was higher in patients with ALS (5.6 ± 2.2 ng/mg creatinine) compared to controls (3.6 ± 1.4 ng/mg creatinine, p analysis, bulbar onset (hazard ratio [HR] 3.0, p = 0.0035), rate of disease progression from onset to baseline (HR 4.4, p survival. Conclusions: The assay for urinary p75ECD is analytically robust and shows promise as an ALS biomarker with prognostic, disease progression, and potential pharmacodynamic application. Baseline urinary p75ECD provides prognostic information and is currently the only biological fluid–based biomarker of disease progression. PMID:28228570

  17. Prevalence and psychosocial impact of lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, H.A.R.; Messelink, B.J.; Heijnen, L.; Groot, I.J.M. de

    2009-01-01

    Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) frequently report lower urinary tract symptoms at the outpatient rehabilitation clinic. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms in the Dutch male DMD population and their effect on quality of life. A po

  18. Prevalence and psychosocial impact of lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, Evaline; Messelink, Bert J.; Heijnen, Lily; de Groot, Imelda J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) frequently report lower urinary tract symptoms at the outpatient rehabilitation clinic. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms in the Dutch male DMD population and their effect on quality of life. A po

  19. URINARY-TRACT INJURIES IN MULTIPLY-INJURED PATIENTS - A RATIONAL GUIDELINE FOR THE INITIAL ASSESSMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WERKMAN, HA; JANSEN, C; KLEIN, JP; TENDUIS, HJ

    1991-01-01

    In a retrospective study involving 866 multiply-injured patients we demonstrated urinary tract injuries in 72 patients (8.3 per cent), 17 (2 per cent) of which were serious. Haematuria was a frequent finding in multiply-injured patients. In patients with serious lesions of the urinary tract, more th

  20. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence.

  1. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence. PMID:28124522

  2. Upper urinary tract tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Nordling, Jørgen; Balslev, Ingegerd

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomography urography (CTU) is used widely in the work-up of patients with symptoms of urinary tract lesions. Preoperative knowledge of whether a tumor is invasive or non-invasive is important for the choice of surgery. So far there are no studies about the distinction...... of invasive and non-invasive tumors in ureter and renal pelvis based on the enhancement measured with Hounsfield Units. PURPOSE: To examine the value of CTU using split-bolus technique to distinguish non-invasive from invasive urothelial carcinomas in the upper urinary tract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients...... obtained at CTU could distinguish between invasive and non-invasive lesions. No patients had a CTU within the last year before the examination that resulted in surgery. CONCLUSION: A split-bolus CTU cannot distinguish between invasive and non-invasive urothelial tumors in the upper urinary tract...

  3. Estimations of expectedness and potential surprise in possibility theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prade, Henri; Yager, Ronald R.

    1992-01-01

    This note investigates how various ideas of 'expectedness' can be captured in the framework of possibility theory. Particularly, we are interested in trying to introduce estimates of the kind of lack of surprise expressed by people when saying 'I would not be surprised that...' before an event takes place, or by saying 'I knew it' after its realization. In possibility theory, a possibility distribution is supposed to model the relative levels of mutually exclusive alternatives in a set, or equivalently, the alternatives are assumed to be rank-ordered according to their level of possibility to take place. Four basic set-functions associated with a possibility distribution, including standard possibility and necessity measures, are discussed from the point of view of what they estimate when applied to potential events. Extensions of these estimates based on the notions of Q-projection or OWA operators are proposed when only significant parts of the possibility distribution are retained in the evaluation. The case of partially-known possibility distributions is also considered. Some potential applications are outlined.

  4. 10 years of surprises at Saturn: CAPS and INMS highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, A. J.; Waite, J. H.

    2014-04-01

    The Cassini mission at Saturn has provided many surprises on Saturn's rapidly rotating magnetosphere and its interaction with the diverse moons, as well as its interaction with the solar wind. One of the early discoveries was the water-rich composition of the magnetosphere. Its structure and dynamics indicate remarkable injections, periodicities and interchange events. Enceladus, orbiting at 4 RS, was found to have plumes of water vapour and ice which are the dominant source for the inner magnetosphere. Charged water clusters, charged dust and photoelectrons provide key populations in the 'dusty plasma' seen here, as well as chemical complexity in the plume material. Direct pickup is seen near Enceladus and field aligned currents create a spot in Saturn's aurora. At Titan, orbiting at 20 RS, heavy negative and positive ions are seen in the ionosphere, as well as neutrals, all of which have surprising chemical complexity. These provide the source for Titan's haze. Ionospheric plasma is seen in Titan's tail, enabling ion escape to be estimated at 7 tonnes per day. Saturn's ring ionosphere was seen early in the mission, which was oxygen rich and produced photoelectrons; a return will be made in 2017. At Rhea, pickup positive and negative ions indicated weak atmospheres sustained by energetic particle impact, seen in the neutrals also. A weak atmosphere was also seen at Dione. The exosphere production process operates at Jupiter's moons also. Here we review some of the key new results, and discuss the implications for other solar system contexts.

  5. Frequently Asked Questions about Bunion Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A | Print | Share Frequently Asked Questions About Bunion Surgery Here are some frequently asked questions (FAQs) and ... best for you. 5. How can I avoid surgery? Sometimes observation of the bunion is all that ...

  6. Paraganglioma of urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Priyadarshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraganglioma of the urinary bladder are tumors of chromaffin tissue originating from the sympathetic innervations of the urinary bladder wall and are extremely rare. Being functional, in most of the cases they are recognized by their characteristic presentation of hypertensive crisis and postmicturition syncope. A silent presentation of a bladder paraganglioma is very unusual but quite dangerous as they are easily misdiagnosed and adequate peri-operative attention is not provided. Here, we are presenting one such silent paraganglioma in adult women who presented with only a single episode of hematuria and severe hypertensive crisis occur during its trans-urethral resection.

  7. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting ... Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  8. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting ... Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  9. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the urethra. Wear cotton underwear. Nylon underwear traps moisture near your body, especially when it's hot outside. Bacteria love to grow in warm, moist places. ... Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting Contact ...

  10. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You'll also want to stay away from foods and drinks that contain caffeine , such as cola ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting Contact ...

  11. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tract Infections (UTIs) Print A A A What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? ... happen because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What ...

  12. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting ... of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  13. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ready to pee, you relax a set of muscles at the bottom of your bladder. That lets ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting Contact ...

  14. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... send the urine sample to a lab for testing. If it turns out you have a bladder ... ON THIS TOPIC Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting Contact Us Print Resources ...

  15. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibi...

  16. Urinary albumin in space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2002-01-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...... radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....

  17. Hyperammonemia in Urinary Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuneaki Kenzaka; Ken Kato; Akihito Kitao; Koki Kosami; Kensuke Minami; Shinsuke Yahata; Miho Fukui; Masanobu Okayama

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study investigated the incidence of hyperammonemia in urinary tract infections and explored the utility of urinary obstruction relief and antimicrobial administration to improve hyperammonemia. Methods This was an observational study. Subjects were patients who were diagnosed with urinary tract infection and hospitalized between June 2008 and June 2009. We measured plasma ammonia levels on admission in patients who were clinically diagnosed with urinary tract infection ...

  18. Urinary albumin in space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2002-01-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...... radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....

  19. Ethiology of urinary tract infections in male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Pirali

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on data from 4317 positive urine cultures collected at S. Orsola, Fondazione Poliambulanza Hospital of Brescia (Italy from 2007 to 2009.The patient group was heterogeneous and included in- and outpatients of both gender, ranging in age from 1 to 99 years. E. coli was the most frequently pathogen isolated in all the urine cultures independently from age or sex. Our findings differ from those of a similar study made in the U.S.A., where Enterococcus (Group D Streptococcus was the most frequently isolated pathogen in the urine cultures of the male subjects. These results suggest to maintain an identical empirical therapy in male and female because the most frequently isolated bacteria responsible of urinary tract infections are Gram negative.

  20. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... urinary tract. Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main ... to the bladder. When it's empty, your bladder is about the same size as an empty balloon. ...

  1. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  2. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  3. KIDNEY AND URINARY TRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    10.1 Kidney function2004116 Measurement of urinary neutral endopeptid-ase and its significance in diagnosing renal tubular injury. ZHANG Zhi (张智), et al. Div Nephrol, Ruijin Hosp, Shanghai 2nd Med Univ, Shanghai 200025. Chin J Nephrol 2003; 19(6) :392-396.

  4. Reoperation for urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss Hansen, Margrethe; Lose, Gunnar; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    on a nationwide population. STUDY DESIGN: We used the Danish National Patient Registry to identify women who had surgery for urinary incontinence from 1998 through 2007 and the outcome was a reoperation within 5 years. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to estimate the rate of reoperation for 6 types of surgery...

  5. Surprising hair analysis results following acute carbofuran intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulaurent, S; Gaulier, J M; Zouaoui, K; Moesch, C; François, B; Lachâtre, G

    2011-10-10

    We present two non fatal cases of intoxication with carbofuran (CBF) documented by hair analysis. Carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran (OHCBF, its main metabolite) hair concentrations were determined using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The obtained results were surprising if we consider several hair analyses previously published and based on a theory of the presence of xenobiotic in the only segment that comprised its intake. Among the two intoxication cases, we noticed the presence of CBF and OHCBF in hair segments corresponding to 45 days before, and more than 100 days after, the day of intoxication. Additionally, repeated hair samplings and subsequent analysis revealed a decrease of the carbofuran's concentration during the hair life.

  6. Physics Nobel prize 2004: Surprising theory wins physics Nobel

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    From left to right: David Politzer, David Gross and Frank Wilczek. For their understanding of counter-intuitive aspects of the strong force, which governs quarks inside protons and neutrons, on 5 October three American physicists were awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics. David J. Gross (Kavli Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara), H. David Politzer (California Institute of Technology), and Frank Wilczek (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) made a key theoretical discovery with a surprising result: the closer quarks are together, the weaker the force - opposite to what is seen with electromagnetism and gravity. Rather, the strong force is analogous to a rubber band stretching, where the force increases as the quarks get farther apart. These physicists discovered this property of quarks, known as asymptotic freedom, in 1976. It later became a key part of the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the Standard Model, the current best theory to describe the interac...

  7. Probability and Surprisal in Auditory Comprehension of Morphologically Complex Words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Baayen, R. Harald

    2012-01-01

    Two auditory lexical decision experiments document for morphologically complex words two points at which the probability of a target word given the evidence shifts dramatically. The first point is reached when morphologically unrelated competitors are no longer compatible with the evidence....... Adapting terminology from Marslen-Wilson (1984), we refer to this as the word’s initial uniqueness point (UP1). The second point is the complex uniqueness point (CUP) introduced by Balling and Baayen (2008), at which morphologically related competitors become incompatible with the input. Later initial...... in the course of the word co-determines response latencies. The presence of effects of surprisal, both at the initial uniqueness point of complex words, and cumulatively throughout the word, challenges the Shortlist B model of Norris and McQueen (2008), and suggests that a Bayesian approach to auditory...

  8. 2014 Presidential elections in Romania – surprising result or strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Mihalache

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The presidential elections in Romania which took place in November 2014 were won by Klaus Iohannis, who clearly defeated the incumbent prime-minister Victor Ponta by 10%. The result was considered by many a surprise, as none of the opinion polls were able to predict it. This article reveals a part of the strategy of Klaus Iohannis’s campaign and it offers a few clues about how this is result was possible, without having the aim to explain it fully. As the authors were accountable for strategy and political message in the electoral campaign for Klaus Iohannis, the scientific approach is combined with the inside view, to provide the reader a better understanding of the November 2014 events.

  9. Urinary tract infections: children are not little adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K L

    1996-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a commonly diagnosed condition in pediatric practice caused by a wide variety of organisms and conditions. Presenting with multiple signs and symptoms, UTI is frequently unrecognized and has the potential to cause permanent renal damage if recurrent or untreated. Nurses have a unique opportunity to prevent this condition, assist in the diagnosis, and contribute to management.

  10. Maximal Frequent Itemset Generation Using Segmentation Apporach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Rajalakshmi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Finding frequent itemsets in a data source is a fundamental operation behind Association Rule Mining.Generally, many algorithms use either the bottom-up or top-down approaches for finding these frequentitemsets. When the length of frequent itemsets to be found is large, the traditional algorithms find all thefrequent itemsets from 1-length to n-length, which is a difficult process. This problem can be solved bymining only the Maximal Frequent Itemsets (MFS. Maximal Frequent Itemsets are frequent itemsets whichhave no proper frequent superset. Thus, the generation of only maximal frequent itemsets reduces thenumber of itemsets and also time needed for the generation of all frequent itemsets as each maximal itemsetof length m implies the presence of 2m-2 frequent itemsets. Furthermore, mining only maximal frequentitemset is sufficient in many data mining applications like minimal key discovery and theory extraction. Inthis paper, we suggest a novel method for finding the maximal frequent itemset from huge data sourcesusing the concept of segmentation of data source and prioritization of segments. Empirical evaluationshows that this method outperforms various other known methods.

  11. Exploring the concept of climate surprises. A review of the literature on the concept of surprise and how it is related to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, M.H.; Moore, C.M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Streets, D.G.; Bhatti, N.; Rosa, C.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Stewart, T.R. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report examines the concept of climate surprise and its implications for environmental policymaking. Although most integrated assessment models of climate change deal with average values of change, it is usually the extreme events or surprises that cause the most damage to human health and property. Current models do not help the policymaker decide how to deal with climate surprises. This report examines the literature of surprise in many aspects of human society: psychology, military, health care, humor, agriculture, etc. It draws together various ways to consider the concept of surprise and examines different taxonomies of surprise that have been proposed. In many ways, surprise is revealed to be a subjective concept, triggered by such factors as prior experience, belief system, and level of education. How policymakers have reacted to specific instances of climate change or climate surprise in the past is considered, particularly with regard to the choices they made between proactive and reactive measures. Finally, the report discusses techniques used in the current generation of assessment models and makes suggestions as to how climate surprises might be included in future models. The report concludes that some kinds of surprises are simply unpredictable, but there are several types that could in some way be anticipated and assessed, and their negative effects forestalled.

  12. Motherhood in the teens and twenties: some surprises.

    OpenAIRE

    Cupples, M.E.; Bradley, T; Irvine, H.; McCann, B.; Wilson-Davis, K.

    2000-01-01

    We report a study of the association of health and social support variables with motherhood in teenagers and older mothers. Both teenage and older mothers reported poorer physical and mental health and fewer and less frequent social contacts than their nulliparous peers. Contrary to expectation, however, older mothers reported less extensive and less adequate social support networks than did teenagers.

  13. The Reduction in Urinary Glutamate Excretion Is Responsible for Lowering Urinary pH in Pink Urine Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Susumu; Takiguchi, Junko; Shimizu, Manami; Nako, Kazuhiro; Okamura, Masashi; Kinouchi, Yoshitaka; Ito, Sadayoshi

    2016-06-01

    We frequently encounter brownish-red, cloudy urine in some obese subjects, which occurs due to pink urine syndrome (PUS). PUS is a phenomenon in which uric acid precipitates into the urine due to reduced urinary pH (UpH). The mechanism underlying urinary acidification has not been elucidated so far. UpH level is adjusted by urinary excretion of ammonia synthesized from glutamate or glutamine, suggesting that renal synthesis of ammonia from glutamate or glutamine is decreased in PUS. However, this hypothesis has not been examined yet. We therefore examined the changes in the urinary excretion of these amino acids in PUS. One-hundred-fifty male students who had undergone a physical examination were enrolled. To determine the presence [PUS (+), n = 72] or absence [PUS (-), n = 78] of PUS, urinary amino acid excretion and UpH were evaluated. Independent risk factors of lower UpH were determined using multiple regression analyses. The PUS (+) subjects, who had lower UpH values than PUS (-) subjects, showed lower urinary excretion of glutamate and some other glucogenic amino acids. Thus, UpH correlated positively with the urinary excretion of glutamate in the PUS (+) subjects. A reduction in urinary glutamate but not in glutamine excretion proved to be an independent risk factor for reduced UpH. In conclusion, PUS appears to occur when a reduction in the synthesis of ammonia from glutamate causes a decrease in UpH. Our results showed that urinary glutamate excretion was reduced in PUS because renal glutamate was consumed by a reaction different from ammonia production.

  14. The prevalence of stress urinary incontinence in women studying nursing and related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Józef; Czerwińska-Opara, Wioletta Ewa

    2014-03-01

    Urinary incontinence is a growing problem that affects millions of people worldwide. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women studying nursing. Respondents completed a questionnaire assessing urinary incontinence, severity of symptoms and quality of life. Short forms to assess symptoms of distress for urinary incontinence and quality of life: UDI-6 and IIQ-7 have been used. The study's conclusions are as follows: 1) among the 113 interviewed women, stress urinary incontinence (SUI) was observed in 25% of respondents; this prevalence is similar to the age-matched population; 2) among the triggering factors mentioned in stress urinary incontinence the most frequent were: coughing, laughing and sneezing; 3) moderate impact of incontinence on quality of life has been shown, but this effect was not statistically significant.

  15. Female stress and urge incontinence in family practice: insight into the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktrup, L

    2002-11-01

    As many as 25% of all women are affected by urinary incontinence, but only a few are treated. This frequent, often medically unrecognised, condition occurs in women of all ages. The continence mechanism is based on bladder detrusor control, intact anatomical structures in and around the urethra, correct positioning of the bladder neck and a comprehensive innervation of the lower urinary tract. Age and childbearing are established risk factors for the development of urinary incontinence, but other factors are currently suggested. The evaluation of urinary incontinence should include history, gynaecological examination, urine test, frequency-volume diary and a pad-weighing test. Female urinary incontinence can be treated in general practice by simple means, e.g. pelvic floor muscle training, bladder training, electrostimulation, drug therapy, or a combination of these approaches. This review updates the knowledge of the continence mechanism and summarises the epidemiology, risk factors, assessment and treatment of urinary incontinence in general practice.

  16. [Epidemiology of urinary lithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joual, A; Rais, H; Rabii, R; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the epidemiological profile of urinary stones based on one thousand cases observed in our institution over a 10-year period. The mean age of the patients was 45 years and two-thirds of patients were males. The kidney was the commonest site of stones, in 57.8% of cases. The stone was radiopaque in 86.4% of cases and was a staghorn calculus in 12.2% of cases. An associated renal malformation was observed in 10.4% of cases. Urinary stones is therefore a common disease, essentially observed in a young population and characterized by recurrence. It therefore constitutes a public health problem and prevention consists of detecting recurrences and treating stone-inducing factors.

  17. Postcircumcision urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, H A; Drucker, M M; Vainer, S; Ashkenasi, A; Amir, J; Frydman, M; Varsano, I

    1992-06-01

    The possible association of urinary tract infection (UTI) with ritual circumcision on the eighth day of life was studied by analyzing the epidemiology of urinary tract infections during the first year of life in 169 children with UTI (56 males and 113 females) born in Israel from 1979 to 1984. Forty-eight percent of the episodes of UTI occurring in males appeared during the 12 days following circumcision, and the increased incidence during that period was highly significant. The median age of the males at the time of the UTI was 16 days, compared with seven months in females. Ritual Jewish circumcision as practiced in Israel may be a predisposing factor for UTI during the 12-day period following that procedure.

  18. Urinary Incontinence in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Neki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary Incontinence (UI is dened any involuntary leakage of urine. It is twice as common in women as in men and affects at least 1 in 3 older women. It is not a normal result of aging. Rather it is a medical problem that is often curable and should be treated. Urine is stored in the bladder and emptied via the urethra. During urination, muscles of the bladder wall contract, forcing urine from the bladder into the urethra. Sphincter muscles surrounding the urethra relax thus releasing urine from the body. Incontinence occurs if bladder muscles suddenly contract or sphincter muscles are not strong enough to contain urine. The diagnosis of geriatric urinary incontinence includes evaluation for overow incontinence, functional incontinence and stress incontinence. The treatment goal should be realistic and aim to improve the patient's functional status and quality of life. Best treatment outcomes can only be achieved by a holistic treatment approach.

  19. Managing urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Saadeh, Sermin A.; Mattoo, Tej K.

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. Presence of pyuria and bacteriuria in an appropriately collected urine sample are diagnostic of UTI. The risk of UTI is increased with an underlying urological abnormality such as vesicoureteral reflux, constipation, and voiding dysfunction. Patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-sta...

  20. Optimal management of urinary tract infections in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beveridge L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Louise A Beveridge1, Peter G Davey2, Gabby Phillips3, Marion ET McMurdo11Ageing and Health, Division of Medical Sciences, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, 2Health Informatics Centre, University of Dundee, 3Medical Microbiology Department, NHS TaysideAbstract: Urinary tract infections (UTI occur frequently in older people. Unfortunately, UTI is commonly overdiagnosed and overtreated on the basis of nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms. The diagnosis of a UTI in the older patient requires the presence of new urinary symptoms, with or without systemic symptoms. Urinalysis is commonly used to diagnose infection in this population, however, the evidence for its use is limited. There is overwhelming evidence that asymptomatic bacteriuria should not be treated. Catheter associated urinary tract infection accounts for a significant amount of hospital-associated infection. Indwelling urinary catheters should be avoided where possible and alternatives sought. The use of narrow spectrum antimicrobial agents for urinary tract infection is advocated. Local guidelines are now widely used to reflect local resistance patterns and available agents. Guidelines need to be updated to reflect changes in antimicrobial prescribing and a move from broad to narrow spectrum antimicrobials.Keywords: urinary tract infection, elderly, review

  1. Development of the lower urinary tract and its functional disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peco-Antić Amira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A normal development of lower urinary tract function control evolves from involuntary bladder empting (incontinence during infancy to daytime urinary continence, and finally a successful day and night continence that is generally achieved by the 5th to 7th year of age. This gradual process primarily depends on the progressive maturation of the neural control of the lower urinary tract, but it is also influenced by behavioral training that evolves through social support. Functional voiding disorders (bladder dysfunction are common problems during childhood. They are present in 5-15 % of general pediatric population, and in one-fifth of school-age children or in over one-third of patients of the pediatric urologist or nephrologist. More than half of children with bladder dysfunction have vesicoureteral reflux, and more than two-thirds have recurrent urinary tract infections. There is also a frequent association of bladder dysfunction with constipation and encopresis (dysfunctional elimination syndrome. Bladder dysfunction may cause a permanent damage to the upper urinary tract and kidneys. In addition, urinary incontinence, as the most common manifestation of bladder dysfunction can be the cause of major stress in schoolage children and have a negative effect on the child’s feeling of self-esteem. Thus, a timely detection and treatment of this group of disorders in children is highly significant.

  2. The surprising diversity of clostridial hydrogenases: a comparative genomic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calusinska, Magdalena; Happe, Thomas; Joris, Bernard; Wilmotte, Annick

    2010-06-01

    Among the large variety of micro-organisms capable of fermentative hydrogen production, strict anaerobes such as members of the genus Clostridium are the most widely studied. They can produce hydrogen by a reversible reduction of protons accumulated during fermentation to dihydrogen, a reaction which is catalysed by hydrogenases. Sequenced genomes provide completely new insights into the diversity of clostridial hydrogenases. Building on previous reports, we found that [FeFe] hydrogenases are not a homogeneous group of enzymes, but exist in multiple forms with different modular structures and are especially abundant in members of the genus Clostridium. This unusual diversity seems to support the central role of hydrogenases in cell metabolism. In particular, the presence of multiple putative operons encoding multisubunit [FeFe] hydrogenases highlights the fact that hydrogen metabolism is very complex in this genus. In contrast with [FeFe] hydrogenases, their [NiFe] hydrogenase counterparts, widely represented in other bacteria and archaea, are found in only a few clostridial species. Surprisingly, a heteromultimeric Ech hydrogenase, known to be an energy-converting [NiFe] hydrogenase and previously described only in methanogenic archaea and some sulfur-reducing bacteria, was found to be encoded by the genomes of four cellulolytic strains: Clostridum cellulolyticum, Clostridum papyrosolvens, Clostridum thermocellum and Clostridum phytofermentans.

  3. Atom Surprise: Using Theatre in Primary Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Ran; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet

    2011-10-01

    Early exposure to science may have a lifelong effect on children's attitudes towards science and their motivation to learn science in later life. Out-of-class environments can play a significant role in creating favourable attitudes, while contributing to conceptual learning. Educational science theatre is one form of an out-of-class environment, which has received little research attention. This study aims to describe affective and cognitive learning outcomes of watching such a play and to point to connections between theatrical elements and specific outcomes. "Atom Surprise" is a play portraying several concepts on the topic of matter. A mixed methods approach was adopted to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of children (grades 1-6) from two different school settings who watched the play. Data were gathered using questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Analysis suggested that in both schools children's knowledge on the topic of matter increased after the play with younger children gaining more conceptual knowledge than their older peers. In the public school girls showed greater gains in conceptual knowledge than boys. No significant changes in students' general attitudes towards science were found, however, students demonstrated positive changes towards science learning. Theatrical elements that seemed to be important in children's recollection of the play were the narrative, props and stage effects, and characters. In the children's memory, science was intertwined with the theatrical elements. Nonetheless, children could distinguish well between scientific facts and the fictive narrative.

  4. Novelty biases attention and gaze in a surprise trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, Gernot; Herwig, Arvid

    2016-01-01

    While the classical distinction between task-driven and stimulus-driven biasing of attention appears to be a dichotomy at first sight, there seems to be a third category that depends on the contrast or discrepancy between active representations and the upcoming stimulus, and may be termed novelty, surprise, or prediction failure. For previous demonstrations of the discrepancy-attention link, stimulus-driven components (saliency) may have played a decisive role. The present study was conducted to evaluate the discrepancy-attention link in a display where novel and familiar stimuli are equated for saliency. Eye tracking was used to determine fixations on novel and familiar stimuli as a proxy for attention. Results show a prioritization of attention by the novel color, and a de-prioritization of the familiar color, which is clearly present at the second fixation, and spans over the next couple of fixations. Saliency, on the other hand, did not prioritize items in the display. The results thus reinforce the notion that novelty captures and binds attention.

  5. A Well-Known But Still Surprising Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2014-12-01

    The bicycle generator is often mentioned as an example of a method to produce electric energy. It is cheap and easily accessible, so it is a natural example to use in teaching. There are different types, but I prefer the old side-wall dynamo. The most common explanation of its working principle seems to be something like the illustration in Fig. 1. The illustration is taken from a popular textbook in the Norwegian junior high school.1 Typically it is explained as a system of a moving magnet or coils that directly results in a varying magnetic field through the coils. According to Faraday's law a voltage is induced in the coils. Simple and easy! A few times I have had a chance to glimpse into a bicycle generator, and I was somewhat surprised to sense that the magnet rotated parallel to the turns of the coil. How could the flux through the coil change and induce a voltage when the magnet rotated parallel to the turns of the coil? When teaching electromagnetic induction I have showed the students a dismantled generator and asked them how this could work. They naturally found that this was more difficult to understand than the principle illustrated in Fig. 1. Other authors in this journal have discussed even more challenging questions concerning electric generators.2,3

  6. Agalactiae in uncomplicated urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Jermakow

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background . Urinary tract infections (UTIs represent 10-20% of all community-acquired infections. Escherichia coli remains the most commonly isolated microorganism. Because of the dominance of these bacteria, routine laboratory tests are not recommended in making the first UTI diagnosis. However, careful monitoring of all etiological agents of ncomplicated UTIs should be an important strategy for empirical therapy. Objectives . A determination of the incidence of UTI bacterial etiological agents in outpatients. Material and methods. The results of urine cultures were analyzed. The samples were obtained in the period from 01.2011 to 03.2013 from outpatients of all age groups. Results . The rods of Escherichia coli were the most frequently identified microorganisms responsible for uncomplicated UTIs. They were isolated from 52% of infected patients. Every fourth case of UTI indicated the participation of Enterococcus spp. And Streptococcus agalactiae . The next 21% of infections were caused by Gram-negative bacteria other than E. coli . The role of coagulase-negative staphylococci was insignificant and equaled less than 2%. Conclusions . Despite the dominant role of E. coli in urinary tract infections, there has been a decrease in the frequency of its isolation. However, the natural resistance of Enterococcus spp. to antibiotics increases the number of urinary tract infections caused by these bacteria. Streptococcus agalactiae is a UTI cause with similar frequency in women of reproductive age and postmenopausal women. Monitoring of the incidence of uncomplicated infections facilitates empirical treatment and prevents UTI recurrence.

  7. Proteus mirabilis and Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Jessica N.; Pearson, Melanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative bacterium which is well-known for its ability to robustly swarm across surfaces in a striking bulls’-eye pattern. Clinically, this organism is most frequently a pathogen of the urinary tract, particularly in patients undergoing long-term catheterization. This review covers P. mirabilis with a focus on urinary tract infections (UTI), including disease models, vaccine development efforts, and clinical perspectives. Flagella-mediated motility, both swimming and swarming, is a central facet of this organism. The regulation of this complex process and its contribution to virulence is discussed, along with the type VI-secretion system-dependent intra-strain competition which occurs during swarming. P. mirabilis uses a diverse set of virulence factors to access and colonize the host urinary tract, including urease and stone formation, fimbriae and other adhesins, iron and zinc acquisition, proteases and toxins, biofilm formation, and regulation of pathogenesis. While significant advances in this field have been made, challenges remain to combatting complicated UTI and deciphering P. mirabilis pathogenesis. PMID:26542036

  8. Mining Frequent Itemsets in Correlated Uncertain Databases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童咏昕; 陈雷; 佘洁莹

    2015-01-01

    Recently, with the growing popularity of Internet of Things (IoT) and pervasive computing, a large amount of uncertain data, e.g., RFID data, sensor data, real-time video data, has been collected. As one of the most fundamental issues of uncertain data mining, uncertain frequent pattern mining has attracted much attention in database and data mining communities. Although there have been some solutions for uncertain frequent pattern mining, most of them assume that the data is independent, which is not true in most real-world scenarios. Therefore, current methods that are based on the independent assumption may generate inaccurate results for correlated uncertain data. In this paper, we focus on the problem of mining frequent itemsets over correlated uncertain data, where correlation can exist in any pair of uncertain data objects (transactions). We propose a novel probabilistic model, called Correlated Frequent Probability model (CFP model) to represent the probability distribution of support in a given correlated uncertain dataset. Based on the distribution of support derived from the CFP model, we observe that some probabilistic frequent itemsets are only frequent in several transactions with high positive correlation. In particular, the itemsets, which are global probabilistic frequent, have more significance in eliminating the influence of the existing noise and correlation in data. In order to reduce redundant frequent itemsets, we further propose a new type of patterns, called global probabilistic frequent itemsets, to identify itemsets that are always frequent in each group of transactions if the whole correlated uncertain database is divided into disjoint groups based on their correlation. To speed up the mining process, we also design a dynamic programming solution, as well as two pruning and bounding techniques. Extensive experiments on both real and synthetic datasets verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed model and algorithms.

  9. Surprise disrupts cognition via a fronto-basal ganglia suppressive mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Jan R; Jenkinson, Ned; Brittain, John-Stuart; Voets, Sarah H E M; Aziz, Tipu Z; Aron, Adam R

    2016-04-18

    Surprising events markedly affect behaviour and cognition, yet the underlying mechanism is unclear. Surprise recruits a brain mechanism that globally suppresses motor activity, ostensibly via the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia. Here, we tested whether this suppressive mechanism extends beyond skeletomotor suppression and also affects cognition (here, verbal working memory, WM). We recorded scalp-EEG (electrophysiology) in healthy participants and STN local field potentials in Parkinson's patients during a task in which surprise disrupted WM. For scalp-EEG, surprising events engage the same independent neural signal component that indexes action stopping in a stop-signal task. Importantly, the degree of this recruitment mediates surprise-related WM decrements. Intracranially, STN activity is also increased post surprise, especially when WM is interrupted. These results suggest that surprise interrupts cognition via the same fronto-basal ganglia mechanism that interrupts action. This motivates a new neural theory of how cognition is interrupted, and how distraction arises after surprising events.

  10. [Urinary calculi and infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchieri, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Infection urinary stones resulting from urease-producing bacteria are composed by struvite and/or carbonate apatite. Bacterial urease splits urea and promotes the formation of ammonia and carbon dioxide leading to urine alkalinization and formation of phosphate salts. Proteus species are urease-producers, whereas a limited number of strains of other Gram negative and positive species may produce urease. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Corynebacterium urealyticum are urease-producers that are not isolated by conventional urine cultures, but require specific tests for identification. Primary treatment requires surgical removal of stones as complete as possible. Extracorporeal and endoscopic treatments are usually preferred, while open surgery is actually limited to few selected cases. Residual stones or fragments should be treated by chemolysis via ureteral catheter or nephrostomy or administration of citrate salts in order to achieve a stone-free renal unit. Postoperatively, recurrent urinary tract infection should be treated with appropriate antibiotic treatment although long-term antibiotic prophylaxis can cause resistance. Urinary acidification has been proposed for the prophylaxis of infection stones, but long-term acidification is difficult to achieve in urine infected by urease-producing bacteria. Urease inhibitors lead to prevention and/or dissolution of stones and encrustations in patients with infection by urea-splitting bacteria, but their use is limited by their toxicity. The administration of citrate salts involves an increase of the value of nucleation pH (pHn), that is the pH value at which calcium and magnesium phosphate crystallization occurs, in a greater way than the corresponding increase in the urinary pH due to its alkalinizing effect and resulting in a reduction of the risk of struvite crystallization. In conclusion prevention of the recurrence of infection stones can be achieved by an integrated approach tailored on the single patient. Complete

  11. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications.

  12. Properties and Surprises of Solar Activity XXIII Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishkov, V. N.

    2010-12-01

    The main properties of the 23rd cycle match almost completely those of average-magnitude solar cycles, and some of the features of the cycle may indicate a change in the generation mode of magnetic fields in the solar convection zone. If this is the case, the Sun enters a period of intermediate and weak cycles of solar activity (SA) in terms of the Wolf number, which may last for 3 to 6 solar cycles. The main development stages of solar cycle 23 are the following: minimum of solar cycle 22: April 1996 (W* = 8.0); maximum of the smoothed relative sunspot number: April 2000; global polarity reversal of the general solar magnetic field: July to December 2000; secondary maximum of the relative sunspot number: November 2001; maximum of the 10.7-cm radio flux: February 2002; phase of the cycle maximum: October 1999 to June 2002; beginning of the decrease phase: July 2002; the point of minimum of the current SA cycle: December 2008. Solar cycle 23 has presented two powerful flare-active sunspot groups, in September 2005 and December 2006 (+5.5 and +6.6 years from the maximum) which by flare potential occupy 4th and 20th place among the most flare-active regions for the last four solar cycles. The unprecedented duration of the relative sunspot numbers fall that has led to already record duration of the last solar cycle among authentic cycles (since 1849) became the next surprise of development of solar activity during the last cycle. The phase of the minimum began in May 2005 and lasted for 4.5 years. Thus, the new solar cycle 24 has begun in January 2009.

  13. [Urinary tract infections in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsaidov, N; Wagenlehner, F M E

    2016-04-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) and asymptomatic bacteriuria are frequent in elderly patients. Distinguishing UTI from asymptomatic bacteriuria in older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, might be a challenge for physicians due to the presence of confounding factors, such as an overactive bladder, prostate enlargement, and an indwelling bladder catheter. The absence of standards in the definition and treatment of UTI in the elderly frequently leads to overtreatment. Consequently, antibiotic selection pressure increases and as a result multidrug-resistant organisms might arise. On the other hand, insufficient treatment can result in prolonged and complicated courses of infections or increased morbidity. This review covers the definition, prevalence, diagnosis and management of UTI in older adults.

  14. Prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenlehner, F M E; Vahlensieck, W; Bauer, H W; Weidner, W; Piechota, H J; Naber, K G

    2013-03-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most frequent bacterial infections in the community and health care setting. Mostly young and, to some extent, postmenopausal women are affected by recurrent UTI (rUTI) defined as ≥3 UTI/year or ≥2 UTI/half year. In contrast, rUTI is rare in healthy men. On the other hand, rUTI are frequently found in female and male patients with complicating urological factors, e.g. urinary catheters, infection stones. Remediable predisposing factors in uncomplicated rUTI in women are rare. In complicated rUTI the success depends mainly on the possibility to eliminate or at leastimprove the complicating risk factors. Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis or postcoital prophylaxis, if there is close correlation with sexual intercourse, are most effective to prevent rUTI. Nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim (or cotrimoxazole), and fosfomycin trometamol are available as first-line drugs. Oral cephalosporins and quinolones should be restricted to specific indications. Antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the number of uropathogens in the gut and/or vaginal flora and reduces bacterial "fitness". Given the correct indication, the recurrence rate of rUTI can be reduced by about 90%. Due to possible adverse events and the concern of selecting resistant pathogens, according to the guidelines of the European Association of Urology antimicrobial prophylaxis should be considered only after counselling, behavioural modification and non-antimicrobial measures have been attempted. In postmenopausal patients vaginal substitution of oestriol should be started first. Oral or parenteral immunoprophylaxis is another option in patients with rUTI. Other possibilities with varying scientific evidence are prophylaxis with cranberry products, specific plant combinations or probiotics. The prophylaxis of catheter-associated UTI should employ strategies which result in a reduction of frequency and duration of catheter drainage of the urinary tract. The currently available

  15. Frequently Asked Questions on Potassium Iodide (KI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bioterrorism and Drug Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions on Potassium Iodide (KI) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Drug Administration (FDA) issued a final Guidance on Potassium Iodide as a Thyroid Blocking Agent in Radiation Emergencies) ( ...

  16. Frequent Pattern Mining Algorithms for Data Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimek, Arthur; Assent, Ira; Vreeken, Jilles

    2014-01-01

    that frequent pattern mining was at the cradle of subspace clustering—yet, it quickly developed into an independent research field. In this chapter, we discuss how frequent pattern mining algorithms have been extended and generalized towards the discovery of local clusters in high-dimensional data......Discovering clusters in subspaces, or subspace clustering and related clustering paradigms, is a research field where we find many frequent pattern mining related influences. In fact, as the first algorithms for subspace clustering were based on frequent pattern mining algorithms, it is fair to say....... In particular, we discuss several example algorithms for subspace clustering or projected clustering as well as point out recent research questions and open topics in this area relevant to researchers in either clustering or pattern mining...

  17. Frequently Asked Questions about Digital Mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Information (MQSA) Frequently Asked Questions About Digital Mammography Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... mammography exams, such as DBT? What is digital mammography? Full field digital mammography (FFDM, also known simply ...

  18. Frequently Asked Questions about Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Specific Genetic Disorders Frequently Asked Questions About Genetic Testing What is genetic testing? What can I learn ... find more information about genetic testing? What is genetic testing? Genetic testing uses laboratory methods to look at ...

  19. Frequently Asked Questions about Genetic Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on this page Frequently Asked Questions About Genetic Counseling What are genetic professionals and what do they ... genetics nurses. Top of page What is genetic counseling and evaluation? Genetic professionals work as members of ...

  20. Surprising Sensitivities in Simulations of Radiative Convective Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drotos, Gabor; Becker, Tobias; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Stevens, Bjorn

    2017-04-01

    The climate and climate-sensitivity of a global model run in radiative equilibrium is explored. Results from simulations with ECHAM6.3 coupled to a slab ocean and run in a wide range of configurations are presented. Simulations both with and without a parameterised representation of deep convection are conducted for CO2 concentrations ranging from one eighth of present day values to thirty-two times the present day, and for variations in the solar constant of more than a factor of two. Very long simulations, in some case more than a thousand years, are performed to adequately sample the attractor of the different climate states of the model, and provide robust estimates of the system's climate sensitivity parameter. For the standard configuration of the model the climate sensitivity progressively decreases from very large values (6-7K) for the coldest climates to well below 1 K for the warmest climates. For very high CO2 levels (16 and 32 times the present value) fluctuations of globally averaged temperature as large as 10 K arise on decadal time-scales. These fluctuations manifest as quasi-period coolings, driven by large and persistent global scale decks of stratiform low clouds, so that for a period of several years global temperatures drop to levels below the lowest temperatures of the climate with present day values of CO2. The same configuration of the model has more modest sensitivities when the insolation is reduced, but runaway warming results for small (10%) increases. Simulations without parameterised convection have colder (by roughly 10K) climates and smaller (1K) sensitivities, allowing a stable climate with earth-like temperatures even for insolation much (50%) larger than the present day. Such values of insolation are possible because over a large range of the insolation the climate sensitivity parameter is very near zero. The surprising sensitivities of the system, and the limit-cycle like behaviour of the very CO2 rich climates, can be traced to

  1. Primary enteric-type adenocarcinomas of the urinary bladder are histogenetically analogous to colorectal carcinomas: Immunohistochemical evaluation of 109 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad S. Eissa

    2010-04-01

    In conclusion, primary non-urachal enteric-type adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder is morphologically and immunophenotypically similar – if not identical – to colonic adenocarcinoma. The frequent association of enteric carcinomas of the urinary bladder with intestinal metaplasia and/or colonic-type adenomas with dysplasia suggests possible carcinogenetic pathways similar to that observed in colorectal carcinomas.

  2. Stars Form Surprisingly Close to Milky Way's Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way has surprisingly helped spawn a new generation of stars, according to observations from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This novel mode of star formation may solve several mysteries about the supermassive black holes that reside at the centers of nearly all galaxies. "Massive black holes are usually known for violence and destruction," said Sergei Nayakshin of the University of Leicester, United Kingdom, and coauthor of a paper on this research in an upcoming issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. "So it's remarkable that this black hole helped create new stars, not just destroy them." Black holes have earned their fearsome reputation because any material -- including stars -- that falls within the so-called event horizon is never seen again. However, these new results indicate that the immense disks of gas known to orbit many black holes at a "safe" distance from the event horizon can help nurture the formation of new stars. Animation of Stars Forming Around Black Hole Animation of Stars Forming Around Black Hole This conclusion came from new clues that could only be revealed in X-rays. Until the latest Chandra results, astronomers have disagreed about the origin of a mysterious group of massive stars discovered by infrared astronomers to be orbiting less than a light year from the Milky Way's central black hole, a.k.a. Sagittarius A*, or Sgr A*. At such close distances to Sgr A*, the standard model for star formation predicts that gas clouds from which stars form should have been ripped apart by tidal forces from the black hole. Two models to explain this puzzle have been proposed. In the disk model, the gravity of a dense disk of gas around Sgr A* offsets the tidal forces and allows stars to form; in the migration model, the stars formed in a star cluster far away from the black hole and migrated in to form the ring of massive stars. The migration scenario predicts about a

  3. Female urethral diverticulum associated with a large urinary calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Oliveira Rodrigues

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The diverticula of female urethra are very uncommon, but more frequently found between the third and fifth decade of life. Diverticula area mostly relate to repeated urinary infections of the periurethral glands or urethra’s trauma. The diverticula may cause infection, calculus formation and rarely endometriosis or cancer. A case of a 65-year old Caucasian female with vaginal mass over six months is herein reported. There was no urinary loss, urethral secretion or urinary symptoms.    A cystourethrography showed diverticula with calculus inside. The patient was submitted to surgery and dismissed from the hospital on the first postoperative day. The pathologic examination revealed no malignancy. In six months of follow-up, the patient was continent with no complaints.

  4. Managing therapeutic competition in patients with heart failure, lower urinary tract symptoms and incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Cara; Johnell, Kristina

    2014-02-01

    Up to 50% of heart failure patients suffer from lower urinary tract symptoms. Urinary incontinence has been associated with worse functional status in patients with heart failure, occurring three times more frequently in patients with New York Heart Association Class III and IV symptoms compared with those with milder disease. The association between heart failure and urinary symptoms may be directly attributable to worsening heart failure pathophysiology; however, medications used to treat heart failure may also indirectly provoke or exacerbate urinary symptoms. This type of drug-disease interaction, in which the treatment for heart failure precipitates incontinence, and removal of medications to relieve incontinence worsens heart failure, can be termed therapeutic competition. The mechanisms by which heart failure medication such as diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and β-blockers aggravate lower urinary tract symptoms are discussed. Initiation of a prescribing cascade, whereby antimuscarinic agents or β3-agonists are added to treat symptoms of urinary urgency and incontinence, is best avoided. Recommendations and practical tips are provided that outline more judicious management of heart failure patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. Compelling strategies to improve urinary outcomes include titrating diuretics, switching ACE inhibitors, treating lower urinary tract infections, appropriate fluid management, daily weighing, and uptake of pelvic floor muscle exercises.

  5. Frequent visitors to psychiatric emergency services: staff attitudes and temporal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia; Zeman, Lori Lackman; Yeager, Lindsay; Mischel, Edward; Amirsadri, Alireza

    2002-11-01

    Providing quality psychiatric emergency services is becoming more difficult as utilization rates soar, especially by individuals who are frequent visitors. To address this issue, a staff survey and analysis of admission patterns were conducted. Staff were more likely to believe that frequent visitors sought care because they had difficulty accessing alternative services, had basic needs unmet, were substance abusers, wanted inpatient admission, and were noncompliant with treatment plans. The 1999 temporal admission pattern documented that frequent visitors' admissions were higher during the first week of the month and inclement weather. Surprisingly, the infrequent visitors' admissions also were higher during the first week of the month. Together, these findings suggest that, in this urban location, frequent visitors are disadvantaged individuals lacking support and alternative treatment settings who use psychiatric emergency services to meet basic needs.

  6. Urinary incontinence: the basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, K L; Steidle, C P; Letizia, T M

    1995-08-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is a widely prevalent problem that affects people of all ages and levels of physical health, both in healthcare settings and in the community. Contributing to the problem are that many practitioners remain uneducated about this condition, individuals are often too ashamed or embarrassed to seek professional help, and there are significant variations in diagnostic and treatment practices. Five types of UI are stress, urge, overflow, functional and manufactured incontinence. Stress, urge and overflow are caused by factors within the urinary tract and will be concentrated on in this article. To diagnose UI a three-part assessment should be conducted, including the patient history, physical examination, and urinalysis. A behavioral program should be designed which incorporates identification and education for both patient and clinician. Treatment options include pelvic floor exercises (Kegel), vaginal cones, bladder training (retraining), habit training (timed voiding), electrostimulation and biofeedback, clean intermittent catheterization, indwelling catheters, medications, collagen injections, surgery, and absorption products. Most patients can be helped dramatically or cured with the appropriate treatment.

  7. Performance Evaluation of Frequent Subgraph Discovery Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Ur Rehman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid development of the Internet technology and new scientific advances, the number of applications that model the data as graphs increases, because graphs have highly expressive power to model a complicated structure. Graph mining is a well-explored area of research which is gaining popularity in the data mining community. A graph is a general model to represent data and has been used in many domains such as cheminformatics, web information management system, computer network, and bioinformatics, to name a few. In graph mining the frequent subgraph discovery is a challenging task. Frequent subgraph mining is concerned with discovery of those subgraphs from graph dataset which have frequent or multiple instances within the given graph dataset. In the literature a large number of frequent subgraph mining algorithms have been proposed; these included FSG, AGM, gSpan, CloseGraph, SPIN, Gaston, and Mofa. The objective of this research work is to perform quantitative comparison of the above listed techniques. The performances of these techniques have been evaluated through a number of experiments based on three different state-of-the-art graph datasets. This novel work will provide base for anyone who is working to design a new frequent subgraph discovery technique.

  8. Parallel Frequent Pattern Discovery: Challenges and Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Parallel frequent pattern discovery algorithms exploit parallel and distributed computing resources to relieve the sequential bottlenecks of current frequent pattern mining (FPM) algorithms. Thus, parallel FPM algorithms achieve better scalability and performance, so they are attracting much attention in the data mining research community. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the state-of-the-art parallel and distributed frequent pattern mining algorithms with more emphasis on pattern discovery from complex data (e.g., sequences and graphs) on various platforms. A review of typical parallel FPM algorithms uncovers the major challenges, methodologies, and research problems in the field of parallel frequent pattern discovery,such as work-load balancing, finding good data layouts, and data decomposition. This survey also indicates a dramatic shift of the research interest in the field from the simple parallel frequent itemset mining on traditional parallel and distributed platforms to parallel pattern mining of more complex data on emerging architectures, such as multi-core systems and the increasingly mature grid infrastructure.

  9. Urinary markers in bladder cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrooman, O.P.; Witjes, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Many markers for the detection of bladder cancers have been tested. Almost all urinary markers reported are better than cytology with regard to sensitivity, but they score lower in specificity. The purpose of this review is to highlight the most important urinary biomarkers studied and

  10. Carbon Dioxide: Surprising Effects on Decision Making and Neurocognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2013-01-01

    The occupants of modern submarines and the International Space Station (ISS) have much in common as far as their air quality is concerned. Air is polluted by materials offgassing, use of utility compounds, leaks of systems chemicals, and anthropogenic sources. The primary anthropogenic compound of concern to submariners and astronauts has been carbon dioxide (CO2). NASA and the US Navy rely on the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRC-COT) to help formulate exposure levels to CO2 that are thought to be safe for exposures of 3-6 months. NASA calls its limits Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs). Years of experience aboard the ISS and a recent publication on deficits in decision making in ground-based subjects exposed briefly to 0.25% CO2 suggest that exposure levels that have been presumed acceptable to preserve health and performance need to be reevaluated. The current CO2 exposure limits for 3-6 months set by NASA and the UK Navy are 0.7%, and the limit for US submariners is 0.5%, although the NRC-COT recommended a 90-day level of 0.8% as safe a few years ago. NASA has set a 1000-day SMAC at 0.5% for exploration-class missions. Anecdotal experience with ISS operations approaching the current 180-day SMAC of 0.7% suggest that this limit is too high. Temporarily, NASA has limited exposures to 0.5% until further peer-reviewed data become available. In the meantime, a study published last year in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives (Satish U, et al. 2012) demonstrated that complexdecision- making performance is somewhat affected at 0.1% CO2 and becomes "dysfunctional" for at least half of the 9 indices of performance at concentrations approaching 0.25% CO2. The investigators used the Strategic Management Simulation (SMS) method of testing for decisionmaking ability, and the results were so surprising to the investigators that they declared that their findings need to be independently confirmed. NASA has responded to the

  11. Are seismic hazard assessment errors and earthquake surprises unavoidable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Why earthquake occurrences bring us so many surprises? The answer seems evident if we review the relationships that are commonly used to assess seismic hazard. The time-span of physically reliable Seismic History is yet a small portion of a rupture recurrence cycle at an earthquake-prone site, which makes premature any kind of reliable probabilistic statements about narrowly localized seismic hazard. Moreover, seismic evidences accumulated to-date demonstrate clearly that most of the empirical relations commonly accepted in the early history of instrumental seismology can be proved erroneous when testing statistical significance is applied. Seismic events, including mega-earthquakes, cluster displaying behaviors that are far from independent or periodic. Their distribution in space is possibly fractal, definitely, far from uniform even in a single segment of a fault zone. Such a situation contradicts generally accepted assumptions used for analytically tractable or computer simulations and complicates design of reliable methodologies for realistic earthquake hazard assessment, as well as search and definition of precursory behaviors to be used for forecast/prediction purposes. As a result, the conclusions drawn from such simulations and analyses can MISLEAD TO SCIENTIFICALLY GROUNDLESS APPLICATION, which is unwise and extremely dangerous in assessing expected societal risks and losses. For example, a systematic comparison of the GSHAP peak ground acceleration estimates with those related to actual strong earthquakes, unfortunately, discloses gross inadequacy of this "probabilistic" product, which appears UNACCEPTABLE FOR ANY KIND OF RESPONSIBLE SEISMIC RISK EVALUATION AND KNOWLEDGEABLE DISASTER PREVENTION. The self-evident shortcomings and failures of GSHAP appeals to all earthquake scientists and engineers for an urgent revision of the global seismic hazard maps from the first principles including background methodologies involved, such that there becomes: (a) a

  12. Post-operative urinary retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steggall, Martin; Treacy, Colm; Jones, Mark

    Urinary retention is a common complication of surgery and anaesthesia. The risk of post-operative urinary retention is increased following certain surgical procedures and anaesthetic modalities, and with patients' advancing age. Patients at increased risk of post-operative urinary retention should be identified before surgery or the condition should be identified and treated in a timely manner following surgery. If conservative measures do not help the patient to pass urine, the bladder will need to be drained using either an intermittent catheter or an indwelling urethral catheter, which can result in catheter-associated urinary tract infections. This article provides an overview of normal bladder function, risk factors for developing post-operative urinary retention, and treatment options. Guidance drawn from the literature aims to assist nurses in identifying at-risk patients and inform patient care.

  13. Text Classification Using Sentential Frequent Itemsets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Zhu Liu; He-Ping Hu

    2007-01-01

    Text classification techniques mostly rely on single term analysis of the document data set, while more concepts,especially the specific ones, are usually conveyed by set of terms. To achieve more accurate text classifier, more informative feature including frequent co-occurring words in the same sentence and their weights are particularly important in such scenarios. In this paper, we propose a novel approach using sentential frequent itemset, a concept comes from association rule mining, for text classification, which views a sentence rather than a document as a transaction, and uses a variable precision rough set based method to evaluate each sentential frequent itemset's contribution to the classification. Experiments over the Reuters and newsgroup corpus are carried out, which validate the practicability of the proposed system.

  14. Frequently cited journals in forensic psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Steve

    2012-02-01

    Works cited in six forensic psychology journals published 2008-2010 were counted to identify the most frequently cited journals. The sample of works cited (N = 21,776) was not a definitive ranked list of important journals in forensic psychology, but was large enough to indicate high-impact journals. The list of frequently cited publications included more general psychiatry and psychology journals than titles specific to forensic psychology. The implications of the proportion of general versus specific titles for collections supporting research in forensic psychology were discussed.

  15. Frequent price changes under menu costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Svejstrup

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of uncertainty on a single firm's pricing behaviour in a dynamic menu cost model that results in (S,s)-rules where the price is fixed inside a band. It will be demonstrated that even though the band of inaction widens in response to increased uncertainty......, the price may be changed more frequent in the short run, and in the long run it definitely will. Hence, observing frequent price changes is not necessarily inconsistent with a firm operating under menu costs. This paper relies on an article by Dixit (1991), (Review of Economic studies, 58, 141...

  16. [Investigation and management of genito-urinary tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillion, A; Koutlidis, N; Froissart, A; Fantin, B

    2014-12-01

    Genito-urinary tuberculosis is the fourth most common manifestation of the disease, but it is often underestimated by clinicians because of few and non-specific symptoms and insidious disease course. The most common urinary findings are multiple ureteral stenosis. The most common genital involvement is an epididymal nodule for men and a chronic salpingitis for women. The definite diagnosis of genito-urinary tuberculosis is obtained on the basis of culture studies. Due to the paucibacillary nature of the disease, especially of genital location in woman, a probable or presumptive diagnosis is frequently considered with several parameters including radiological imaging (abdominal CT-scan, pelvic ultrasound, pelvic MRI). Endoscopic and surgical procedures are frequently required to obtain specimens for histopathologic and bacteriological studies. Medical treatment is the method of choice, with a combination of four drugs, namely isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide, followed by a two-drug regimen, for a total of six month duration. Surgery might be indicated in complicated genito-urinary tuberculosis (decreased renal function, infertility, urologic complaints). Copyright © 2014 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel Strategies in the Prevention and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüthje, Petra; Brauner, Annelie

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are one of the most common bacterial infections, especially in women and children, frequently treated with antibiotics. The alarming increase in antibiotic resistance is a global threat to future treatment of infections. Therefore, alternative strategies are urgently needed. The innate immune system plays a fundamental role in protecting the urinary tract from infections. Antimicrobial peptides form an important part of the innate immunity. They are produced by epithelial cells and neutrophils and defend the urinary tract against invading bacteria. Since efficient resistance mechanisms have not evolved among bacterial pathogens, much effort has been put into exploring the role of antimicrobial peptides and possibilities to utilize them in clinical practice. Here, we describe the impact of antimicrobial peptides in the urinary tract and ways to enhance the production by hormones like vitamin D and estrogen. We also discuss the potential of medicinal herbs to be used in the prophylaxis and the treatment of urinary tract infections. PMID:26828523

  18. Novel Strategies in the Prevention and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Lüthje

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections are one of the most common bacterial infections, especially in women and children, frequently treated with antibiotics. The alarming increase in antibiotic resistance is a global threat to future treatment of infections. Therefore, alternative strategies are urgently needed. The innate immune system plays a fundamental role in protecting the urinary tract from infections. Antimicrobial peptides form an important part of the innate immunity. They are produced by epithelial cells and neutrophils and defend the urinary tract against invading bacteria. Since efficient resistance mechanisms have not evolved among bacterial pathogens, much effort has been put into exploring the role of antimicrobial peptides and possibilities to utilize them in clinical practice. Here, we describe the impact of antimicrobial peptides in the urinary tract and ways to enhance the production by hormones like vitamin D and estrogen. We also discuss the potential of medicinal herbs to be used in the prophylaxis and the treatment of urinary tract infections.

  19. Intra Luminal Metastasis to Duodenum: A Histological Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroul, Tirou; Kuppusamy, Sasikumar; Gunashekaran, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma cervix is one of the most common malignancies seen in women worldwide and more so in the Indian subcontinent. Carcinoma cervix is known for its orderly lymphatic spread. Skip metastasis or intraluminal metastasis is not a frequent occurrence. A 50-year-old diabetic and hypertensive female patient who was diagnosed to have carcinoma cervix (stage II A 2) Grade II to III and post radiotherapy (3 years back) presented to the surgical outpatient with dyspeptic symptoms and vague abdominal pain. On examination she was found to have a 1x1cm hard, fixed, left supraclavicular node and a palpable liver. Ultrasound abdomen revealed multiple retro peritoneal lymphadenopathy and Contrast Enhanced Computerised Tomography (CECT) abdomen revealed secondary deposits in the pancreatico-duodenal groove infiltrating the duodenal C-loop and pancreatic head, with multiple retroperitoneal nodes with necrosis. Fine needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) from left supraclavicular node revealed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy showed 2 sessile lesions in the anterior wall of duodenum with mucosa stretched and central umbilication with almost complete luminal obstruction. Biopsy from the duodenal lesion also turned out positive for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Gynaecological examination was negative for any local recurrence. Patient was managed symptomatically for dyspepsia and is currently undergoing chemotherapy. She is at present on regular follow-up and is asymptomatic for the bowel metastasis. Given the frequency of cancer cervix and the rarity of intra luminal metastasis, this case report serves to reiterate the fact that the abdomen is truly a pandora’s box. PMID:27790514

  20. IMS Learning Design Frequently Asked Questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tattersall, Colin; Manderveld, Jocelyn; Hummel, Hans; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob; De Vries, Fred

    2004-01-01

    This list of frequently asked questions was composed on the basis of questions asked of the Educational Technology Expertise Centrum. The questions addessed are: Where can I find the IMS Learning Design Specification? What is meant by the phrase “Learning Design”? What is the IMS LD Specification ab

  1. On finding frequent patterns in event sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campagna, Andrea; Pagh, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    on the size of the graph, and on the frequency $\\varepsilon$ of the most frequent traces. In addition, we apply techniques from streaming algorithms to achieve space usage that depends only on $\\varepsilon$, and not on the number of distinct traces. The abstract problem considered models a variety of tasks...

  2. Auditory Training with Frequent Communication Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tye-Murray, Nancy; Spehar, Brent; Sommers, Mitchell; Barcroft, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals with hearing loss engage in auditory training to improve their speech recognition. They typically practice listening to utterances spoken by unfamiliar talkers but never to utterances spoken by their most frequent communication partner (FCP)--speech they most likely desire to recognize--under the assumption that familiarity…

  3. Treatment of Anthrax Disease Frequently Asked Questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Young, Joan E.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Malone, John D.

    2010-05-14

    This document provides a summary of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the treatment of anthrax disease caused by a wide-area release of Bacillus anthracis spores as an act bioterrorism. These FAQs are intended to provide the public health and medical community, as well as others, with guidance and communications to support the response and long-term recovery from an anthrax event.

  4. Research Discovers Frequent Mutations of Chromatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With the support of National Natural Science Foundation of China, BGI, the largest genomics organization in the world, and Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, published online in Nature Geneticsics that the study on frequent mutations of chromatin remodeling genes in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of thebladder on August 8th, 2011. Their study provides a valuable genetic basis for future studies on TCC,

  5. Chronic frequent headache in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiendels, Natalie Janette

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of a large questionnaire-based study on the epidemiology of chronic frequent headache (CFH) in the Dutch adult population. It also includes information on triptan (over)use from the Drug Information Project (GIP database) and the results of a withdrawal trial in

  6. Chronic frequent headache in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiendels, Natalie Janette

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of a large questionnaire-based study on the epidemiology of chronic frequent headache (CFH) in the Dutch adult population. It also includes information on triptan (over)use from the Drug Information Project (GIP database) and the results of a withdrawal trial in Gen

  7. Design Improvements for Frequently Misrecognized Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie; Larson, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    To enhance typeface legibility we studied how to improve the design of individual letters. Three diff erent fonts were created, each containing several variations of the most frequently misrecognized letters. These variations were tested both with distance and short exposure methodologies. Creati...

  8. Supermagnetic Neutron Star Surprises Scientists, Forces Revision of Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    magnetars because their magnetic fields are 100-1,000 times stronger than those of typical pulsars. It is the decay of those incredibly strong fields that powers their strange X-ray emission. "The magnetic field from a magnetar would make an aircraft carrier spin around and point north quicker than a compass needle moves on Earth," said David Helfand, of Columbia University. A magnetar's field is 1,000 trillion times stronger than Earth's, Helfand pointed out. The new object -- named XTE J1810-197 -- was first discovered by NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer when it emitted a strong burst of X-rays in 2003. While the X-rays were fading in 2004, Jules Halpern of Columbia University and collaborators identified the magnetar as a radio-wave emitter using the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in New Mexico. Any radio emission is highly unusual for a magnetar. Because magnetars had not been seen to regularly emit radio waves, the scientists presumed that the radio emission was caused by a cloud of particles thrown off the neutron star at the time of its X-ray outburst, an idea they soon would realize was wrong. With knowledge that the magnetar emitted some form of radio waves, Camilo and his colleagues observed it with the Parkes radio telescope in Australia in March and immediately detected astonishingly strong radio pulsations every 5.5 seconds, corresponding to the previously-determined rotation rate of the neutron star. As they continued to observe XTE J1810-197, the scientists got more surprises. Whereas most pulsars become weaker at higher radio frequencies, XTE J1810-197 does not, remaining a strong emitter at frequencies up to 140 GHz, the highest frequency ever detected from a radio pulsar. In addition, unlike normal pulsars, the object's radio emission fluctuates in strength from day to day, and the shape of the pulsations changes as well. These variations likely indicate that the magnetic fields around the pulsar are changing

  9. Chandra Finds Surprising Black Hole Activity In Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Scientists at the Carnegie Observatories in Pasadena, California, have uncovered six times the expected number of active, supermassive black holes in a single viewing of a cluster of galaxies, a finding that has profound implications for theories as to how old galaxies fuel the growth of their central black holes. The finding suggests that voracious, central black holes might be as common in old, red galaxies as they are in younger, blue galaxies, a surprise to many astronomers. The team made this discovery with NASA'S Chandra X-ray Observatory. They also used Carnegie's 6.5-meter Walter Baade Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile for follow-up optical observations. "This changes our view of galaxy clusters as the retirement homes for old and quiet black holes," said Dr. Paul Martini, lead author on a paper describing the results that appears in the September 10 issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters. "The question now is, how do these black holes produce bright X-ray sources, similar to what we see from much younger galaxies?" Typical of the black hole phenomenon, the cores of these active galaxies are luminous in X-ray radiation. Yet, they are obscured, and thus essentially undetectable in the radio, infrared and optical wavebands. "X rays can penetrate obscuring gas and dust as easily as they penetrate the soft tissue of the human body to look for broken bones," said co-author Dr. Dan Kelson. "So, with Chandra, we can peer through the dust and we have found that even ancient galaxies with 10-billion-year-old stars can have central black holes still actively pulling in copious amounts of interstellar gas. This activity has simply been hidden from us all this time. This means these galaxies aren't over the hill after all and our theories need to be revised." Scientists say that supermassive black holes -- having the mass of millions to billions of suns squeezed into a region about the size of our Solar System -- are the engines in the cores of

  10. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, M S; Iversen, K; Larsen, C T

    2009-01-01

    , impaired left ventricular function and endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 41 patients with type 2 diabetes (17 patients with normal UOER and 24 with increased UOER) with no history of cardiovascular disease and 21 healthy...... controls. Urinary orosomucoid was measured using a particle-enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay. Plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM) were measured using ELISA. Endothelial function measured as vasodilatory capacity...... of the brachial artery and echocardiography were done in all participants. RESULTS: Patients with diabetes and increased UOER had subclinically increased serum orosomucoid (pprotein (CRP) (p

  11. Managing urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadeh, Sermin A; Mattoo, Tej K

    2011-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. Presence of pyuria and bacteriuria in an appropriately collected urine sample are diagnostic of UTI. The risk of UTI is increased with an underlying urological abnormality such as vesicoureteral reflux, constipation, and voiding dysfunction. Patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-stage renal failure. The relevance and the sequence of the renal imaging following initial UTI, and the role of antimicrobial prophylaxis and surgical intervention are currently undergoing an intense debate. Prompt treatment of UTI and appropriate follow-up of those at increased risk of recurrence and/or renal scarring are important.

  12. Trait Anxiety Is Associated with Negative Interpretations When Resolving Valence Ambiguity of Surprised Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gewnhi; Vasey, Michael W; Kim, Grace; Hu, Dixie D; Thayer, Julian F

    2016-01-01

    The current research examines whether trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretation bias when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces. To further isolate the neuro-cognitive mechanism, we presented angry, happy, and surprised faces at broad spatial frequency (BSF), high spatial frequency (HSF), and low spatial frequency (LSF) and asked participants to determine the valence of each face. High trait anxiety was associated with more negative interpretations of BSF (i.e., intact) surprised faces. However, the modulation of trait anxiety on the negative interpretation of surprised faces disappeared at HSF and LSF. The current study provides evidence that trait anxiety modulates negative interpretations of BSF surprised faces. However, the negative interpretation of LSF surprised faces appears to be a robust default response that occurs regardless of individual differences in trait anxiety.

  13. Trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretations when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gewnhi Park

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The current research examines whether trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretation bias when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces. To further isolate the neuro-cognitive mechanism, we presented angry, happy, and surprised faces at broad, high, and low spatial frequency and asked participants to determine the valence of each face. High trait anxiety was associated with more negative interpretations of broad spatial frequency (i.e., intact surprised faces. However, the modulation of trait anxiety on the negative interpretation of surprised faces disappeared at high and low spatial frequencies. The current study provides evidence that trait anxiety modulates negative interpretations of broad spatial frequency surprised faces. However, the negative interpretation of low spatial frequency surprised faces appears to be a robust default response that occurs regardless of individual differences in trait anxiety.

  14. Effects of Surprisal and Locality on Danish Sentence Processing: An Eye-Tracking Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Kizach, Johannes

    2017-03-22

    An eye-tracking experiment in Danish investigates two dominant accounts of sentence processing: locality-based theories that predict a processing advantage for sentences where the distance between the major syntactic heads is minimized, and the surprisal theory which predicts that processing time increases with big changes in the relative entropy of possible parses, sometimes leading to anti-locality effects. We consider both lexicalised surprisal, expressed in conditional trigram probabilities, and syntactic surprisal expressed in the manipulation of the expectedness of the second NP in Danish constructions with two postverbal NP-objects. An eye-tracking experiment showed a clear advantage for local syntactic relations, with only a marginal effect of lexicalised surprisal and no effect of syntactic surprisal. We conclude that surprisal has a relatively marginal effect, which may be clearest for verbs in verb-final languages, while locality is a robust predictor of sentence processing.

  15. Urinary System anomalies at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharada B. Menasinkai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital anomalies of urinary system are common and are found in 3-4% of population, and lethal urinary anomalies account for 10% of termination of pregnancy. Methods: A study was done to know the incidence of congenital anomalies at birth for the period of 4 months from May 99 - Sept 99 at Cheluvamba hospital attached to Mysore medical college. Congenital anomalies in the still births, live births and aborted fetuses >20 weeks were studied along with the case history and ultrasound reports. Aborted fetuses and still born babies were collected for autopsy after the consent of parents. These babies were fixed in 10% formalin and autopsy was done after fixing, and anomalies were noted. Results: Total births during study period were 3000. There were 61 babies with congenital anomalies and 6 babies had anomalies of urinary system. Among the urinary system anomalies 1 baby had bilateral renal agenesis, 1 baby had unilateral renal agenesis with anophthalmia (Fraser syndrome, 2 babies had Multicystic dysplastic kidney disease (MCDK and 1 live baby had hydronephrosis due to obstruction at pelvi ureteric junction, and 1 live female baby had polycystic kidneys. Conclusion: Incidence of urinary system anomalies in the present study was 2 per 1000 births. U/S detection of urinary anomalies varies with period of gestation, amniotic fluid volume and visualisation of urinary bladder. Autopsy helps to detect renal agenesis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 743-748

  16. Trait Anxiety Is Associated with Negative Interpretations When Resolving Valence Ambiguity of Surprised Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Gewnhi Park; Vasey, Michael W.; Grace Kim; Dixie D Hu; Thayer, Julian F

    2016-01-01

    The current research examines whether trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretation bias when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces. To further isolate the neuro-cognitive mechanism, we presented angry, happy, and surprised faces at broad, high, and low spatial frequency and asked participants to determine the valence of each face. High trait anxiety was associated with more negative interpretations of broad spatial frequency (i.e., intact) surprised faces. However, the mo...

  17. Assessment of lower urinary tract symptoms in different stages of menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, Larissa Ramalho Dantas; Bezerra da Silva, Rossânia; Eugênia de Oliveira, Maria Clara; Melo, Priscylla Hellouyse Angelo; Maranhão, Técia Maria de Oliveira; Micussi, Maria Thereza Albuquerque Barbosa Cabral

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] To assess lower urinary tract symptoms in different stages of menopause and the quality of life of females with incontinence. [Subjects and Methods] The sample consisted of 302 females, aged between 40 and 56 years, divided into three groups: PRE (n= 81), PERI (n= 108) and POST (n= 113). This was a cross-sectional, analytical, observational study. Data were collected by assessment chart and conducting the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form. [Results] Most of the women had less than 10 years of schooling and were married. In PERI and POST menopause, the most frequent lower urinary tract symptoms were urinary urgency and stress incontinence. The PRE group did not exhibit nocturia, urge incontinence or urinary urgency, and had the lowest symptoms frequency. In the three stages, stress incontinence was the most prevalent symptom. Of the three menopause stages, PERI had a greater impact on urinary incontinence according to the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire. [Conclusion] The presence of lower urinary tract symptoms can vary across the different stages of menopause and the urinary incontinence was the most frequent complaint. Moreover, it was observed that quality of life was more affected in the perimenopause stage.

  18. A Neural Mechanism for Surprise-related Interruptions of Visuospatial Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Jan R

    2016-11-30

    Surprising perceptual events recruit a fronto-basal ganglia mechanism for inhibition, which suppresses motor activity following surprise. A recent study found that this inhibitory mechanism also disrupts the maintenance of verbal working memory (WM) after surprising tones. However, it is unclear whether this same mechanism also relates to surprise-related interruptions of non-verbal WM. We tested this hypothesis using a change-detection task, in which surprising tones impaired visuospatial WM. Participants also performed a stop-signal task (SST). We used independent component analysis and single-trial scalp-electroencephalogram to test whether the same inhibitory mechanism that reflects motor inhibition in the SST relates to surprise-related visuospatial WM decrements, as was the case for verbal WM. As expected, surprising tones elicited activity of the inhibitory mechanism, and this activity correlated strongly with the trial-by-trial level of surprise. However, unlike for verbal WM, the activity of this mechanism was unrelated to visuospatial WM accuracy. Instead, inhibition-independent activity that immediately succeeded the inhibitory mechanism was increased when visuospatial WM was disrupted. This shows that surprise-related interruptions of visuospatial WM are not effected by the same inhibitory mechanism that interrupts verbal WM, and instead provides evidence for a 2-stage model of distraction.

  19. [Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. A vision for the paediatrician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios Loro, M L; Segura Ramírez, D K; Ordoñez Álvarez, F A; Santos Rodríguez, F

    2015-12-01

    The congenital abnormalities of kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are disorders with a high prevalence in the general population, with urinary tract dilations being the most frequent. CAKUT also account for the most important cause of chronic kidney disease in childhood. This paper focuses on the role of the primary care paediatrician in the diagnosis, assessment, and follow-up of children with CAKUT, with special emphasis on the associated urinary tract infections, the progression toward chronic renal failure, and the genetic basis. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Stem cells for stress urinary incontinence: the adipose promise

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, Régis; Festy, Franck; Fritel, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Stress urinary incontinence (SUI), the most common type of incontinence in women, is a frequent and costly ailment responsible for an alteration in the quality of life. Although medical treatment gives some rather deceiving results, surgical techniques that include colposuspension or tension-free vaginal tape, employed in cases of urethral support defect, give a 5-year cure rate of more than 80%. However, these techniques could lead to complications or recurrence of symptoms. Recentl...

  1. The Pediatric Urinary Tract and Medical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    The pediatric urinary tract often is assessed with medical imaging. Consequently, it is essential for medical imaging professionals to have a fundamental understanding of pediatric anatomy, physiology, and common pathology of the urinary tract to provide optimal patient care. This article provides an overview of fetal development, pediatric urinary anatomy and physiology, and common diseases and conditions of the pediatric urinary tract.

  2. Discovering More Accurate Frequent Web Usage Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Bayir, Murat Ali; Cosar, Ahmet; Fidan, Guven

    2008-01-01

    Web usage mining is a type of web mining, which exploits data mining techniques to discover valuable information from navigation behavior of World Wide Web users. As in classical data mining, data preparation and pattern discovery are the main issues in web usage mining. The first phase of web usage mining is the data processing phase, which includes the session reconstruction operation from server logs. Session reconstruction success directly affects the quality of the frequent patterns discovered in the next phase. In reactive web usage mining techniques, the source data is web server logs and the topology of the web pages served by the web server domain. Other kinds of information collected during the interactive browsing of web site by user, such as cookies or web logs containing similar information, are not used. The next phase of web usage mining is discovering frequent user navigation patterns. In this phase, pattern discovery methods are applied on the reconstructed sessions obtained in the first phas...

  3. Frequent users of the pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Jade; Osmanlliu, Esli; Zhang, Xun; Clavel, Virginie; Eisman, Harley; Rodrigues, Robert; Oskoui, Maryam

    2017-04-06

    Emergency department (ED) crowding is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Its etiology is multifactorial, and frequent ED use (defined as more or equal to five visits per year) is a major contributor to high patient volumes. Our primary objective is to characterize the frequent user population. Our secondary objective is to examine risk factors for frequent emergency use. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pediatric emergency department (PED) visits at the Montreal Children's Hospital using the Système Informatique Urgence (SIURGE), electronic medical record database. We analysed the relation between patient's characteristics and the number of PED visits over a 1-year period following the index visit. Patients totalling 52,088 accounted for 94,155 visits. Of those, 2,474 (4.7%) patients had five and more recurrent visits and accounted for 16.6% (15,612 visits) of the total PED visits. Lower level of acuity at index visit (odds ratio [OR] 0.85) was associated with a lower number of recurrent visits. Lower socioeconomic status (social deprivation index OR 1.09, material deprivation index OR 1.08) was associated with a higher number of recurrent visits. Asthma (OR 1.57); infectious ear, nose, and sinus disorders (OR 1.33); and other respiratory disorders (OR 1.56) were independently associated with a higher incidence of a recurrent visit within the year following the first visit. Our study is the first Canadian study to assess risk factors of frequent pediatric emergency use. The identified risk factors and diagnoses highlight the need for future evidence-based, targeted innovative research evaluating strategies to minimize ED crowding, to improve health outcomes and to improve patient satisfaction.

  4. Botulism: A Frequently Forgotten Old Malady

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Thajeb

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A frequently forgotten old malady called botulism has been recognized for more than a century. This ailment occurs worldwide, afflicts human of all age groups from infants to elderly and affects Oriental people more often in several regions of China. Occurrence in Taiwan is uncommon, and therefore, it is often overlooked. The outbreaks of human botulism in various regions of the world, the clinical types, the molecular mechanisms, and the electrophysiologic findings will be highlighted.

  5. The risk factors of recurrent urinary tract infection in infants with normal urinary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Yoon Hee; Lee, Jung Won; Lee, Seung Joo

    2009-02-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) frequently recurs and increases the risk of renal scarring even in infants with normal urinary tracts. Our study was aimed to find preventive measures for recurrent UTI in these infants. One-hundred ninety infants, who were diagnosed with their first febrile UTI and were proven to have normal urinary systems, were enrolled. We investigated the incidence of recurrent UTI during the following year and the following risk factors: gender, young age, phimosis, vaginal reflux, and acute pyelonephritis (APN) diagnosed by 99m-technetium dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m)Tc-DMSA)(+) scintigraphy. The incidence of recurrent UTI was 21.1%. The difference in recurrence rate according to gender was not significant. The recurrence rate in infants less than 6 months of age was 25.8%, which was significantly higher than the 7.7% in older infants (P = 0.045). In male infants with persistent non-retractile prepuces, recurrent UTI developed in 34.0%, which was significantly higher than the 17.6% in male infants with retractile prepuces (P = 0.022). The presence of APN in male infants increased the likelihood of recurrent UTI when analyzed by multivariate logistic regression [odds ratio 4.6, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.6-13.0, P = 0.003]. The presence of vaginal reflux and APN in female infants gave no significant difference to the incidence of recurrent UTI. In infants with normal urinary systems, age less than 6 months, non-retractile prepuces and APN in male infants, were the most important risk factors for recurrent UTIs. It is suggested that non-retractile prepuces should be adequately treated to become retractile in young male infants with APN.

  6. A New Algorithm for Mining Frequent Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李力; 靳蕃

    2002-01-01

    Mining frequent pattern in transaction database, time-series databases, and many other kinds of databases have been studied popularly in data mining research. Most of the previous studies adopt Apriori-like candidate set generation-and-test approach. However, candidate set generation is very costly. Han J. proposed a novel algorithm FP-growth that could generate frequent pattern without candidate set. Based on the analysis of the algorithm FP-growth, this paper proposes a concept of equivalent FP-tree and proposes an improved algorithm, denoted as FP-growth*, which is much faster in speed, and easy to realize. FP-growth* adopts a modified structure of FP-tree and header table, and only generates a header table in each recursive operation and projects the tree to the original FP-tree. The two algorithms get the same frequent pattern set in the same transaction database, but the performance study on computer shows that the speed of the improved algorithm, FP-growth*, is at least two times as fast as that of FP-growth.

  7. Prevention and control of catheter-associated urinary tract infections – implementation of the recommendations of the Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO) in nursing homes for the elderly in Frankfurt am Main, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Heudorf, U; Gasteyer, S.; Müller, M.; Samoiski, Y; Serra, N.; Westphal, T

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Urinary tract infections range among the most frequent infections not only in hospital patients but also in residents of long-term care facilities for the elderly. Urinary catheters are the greatest risk factor for urinary tract infections. In the guidance paper on the "prevention of infections in nursing homes" (2005) as well as in the updated recommendations for the "prevention and control of catheter-associated urinary tract infections" (2015), the Commission for Hospital Hy...

  8. [Recurrent urinary tract infection in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdevenito S, Juan Pablo

    2008-08-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (R-UTI) are common among women even though they generally have a normal urinary tract. Women with R-UTI have an increased susceptibility to vaginal colonization with uropathogens due to a greater propensity for them to adhere to their epithelial cells. Risk factors include frequent sexual intercourse, spermicide use, first UTI at an early age and maternal history of UTI. Prevention of recurrences can be done with low-dose continuous antimicrobial prophylaxis or with post-coital antimicrobial prophylaxis, a method that may be more efficient and acceptable. Estrogen replacement therapy using a vaginal administration in postmenopausal women is also effective in preventing R-UTI. The vaginal vaccine only diminishes percentage of women with Escherichia coli UTI. The oral vaccine reduces R-UTI with inferior results than antimicrobial prophylaxis; Cranberry intake shows some evidence in favor, although further trials are needed. Finally R-UTI can also be effectively managed with self-start antimicrobial therapy.

  9. [Kidney and urinary tract diseases in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulser, T; John, H; Zimmermann, R

    1999-10-01

    Management of urologic disorders in pregnant patients often increases the anxiety of all involved. Based on a thorough understanding of the physiologic changes seen in various organ systems the urologist has to assume the responsibility for the well-being of the mother and the fetus. Apart from the urinary tract infection, which occurs as frequent as in non-pregnant patients but has a significantly higher risk of acute bacterial pyelonephritis, it is mainly the pregnancy-associated symptomatic hydronephrosis and the urolithiasis which are complicating approximately 1 of every 1000-1500 pregnancies. Urinary tract infections should be treated in any case by antibiotics according to a antibiogram. High risk patients with history of vesicoureteral reflux or recurrent pyelonephritis should be treated prophylactically. Following parturition these patients should be investigated urologically to exclude structural abnormalities of the genitourinary system. In case of symptomatic hydronephrosis and calculous disease the first approach should be a watchful conservatism with symptomatic relief. If the symptoms persist insertion of a double-J-stent or in case of live-threatening situations (e.g. urosepsis) when urgent decompression and rapid evacuation is mandatory a percutaneous nephrostomy can be brought in place under sonographic monitoring completely thereby avoiding any radiation exposure.

  10. Calcifying nanoparticles associated encrusted urinary bladder cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav M Jelic

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Tomislav M Jelic1, Rod Roque1, Uzay Yasar2, Shayna B Tomchin1, Jose M Serrato2, Samuel G Deem3, James P Tierney3, Ho-Huang Chang11Department of Pathology Charleston Area Medical Center, Charleston WV, USA; 2Urology Center of Charleston, Charleston WV, USA; 3Urologic-Surgical Assoc. of Charleston, Charleston WV, USAAbstract: Encrusted cystitis is a subtype of chronic cystitis characterized by multiple calcifications in the form of plaques located in the interstitium of the urinary bladder mucosa and frequently associated with mucosal ulcers. It is a very rare disease of controversial etiology. Our transmission electron microscopy of the calcified plaques of encrusted cystitis has revealed that the smallest formed particles (elementary units of these calcifications are electron-dense shells surrounding an electron lucent core, diagnostic of calcifying nanoparticles (previously called nanobacteria. We pioneer the notion that calcifying nanoparticles are the causative agents of encrusted urinary bladder cystitis.Keywords: calcifying nanoparticles, nanobacteria, encrusted cystitis

  11. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Kids for Teens Kids Home How the Body Works Puberty & Growing Up Staying Healthy Recipes & Cooking ... that leads from your bladder out of your body. Ahhh! That feels better. continue Urinary Tract Troubles ...

  12. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These things happen because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary ... shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get up into the bladder more easily ...

  13. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ahhh! That feels better. continue Urinary Tract Troubles Girls are more likely than boys to get a ... away properly, they stay on your skin. In girls, this means they can grow near the opening ...

  14. Candida Urinary Tract Infection: Pathogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John F. Fisher; Kevin Kavanagh; Jack D. Sobel; Carol A. Kauffman; Cheryl A. Newman

    2011-01-01

    Candida species are unusual causes of urinary tract infection (UTI) in healthy individuals, but common in the hospital setting or among patients with predisposing diseases and structural abnormalities of the kidney and collecting system...

  15. URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN ADULTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Uncomplicated UTI describes infection where the urinary tract is entirely nor- mal. ... Asymptomatic UTI is identified when organisms can be isolated in appropriate numbers from urine in ..... which can lead to preterm labour, pre- maturity and ...

  16. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These things happen because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary ... shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get up into the bladder more easily ...

  17. Urinary Tract Infections in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Palermo JJ, Schilling JD, et al. Intracellular bacterial biofilm-like pods in urinary tract infections. Science. 2003; ... for questions about any medications, contact the U.S. Food and Drug Administration toll-free at 1-888- ...

  18. Renal vein thrombosis mimicking urinary calculus: a dilemma of diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yimin; Chen, Shanwen; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jianyong; Jin, Baiye

    2015-07-02

    Renal vein thrombosis (RVT) with flank pain, and hematuria, is often mistaken with renal colic originating from ureteric or renal calculus. Especially in young and otherwise healthy patients, clinicians are easily misled by clinical presentation and calcified RVT. A 38-year-old woman presented with flank pain and hematuria suggestive of renal calculus on ultrasound. She underwent extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy that failed, leading to the recommendation that percutaneous lithotomy was necessary to remove the renal calculus. In preoperative view of the unusual shape of the calculus without hydronephrosis, noncontrast computed tomography was taken and demonstrated left ureteric calculus. However computed tomography angiography revealed, to our surprise, a calcified RVT that was initially thought to be a urinary calculus. This case shows that a calcified RVT might mimic a urinary calculus on conventional ultrasonography and ureteric calculus on noncontrast computed tomography. Subsequent computed tomography angiography disclosed that a calcified RVT caused the imaging findings, thus creating a potentially dangerous clinical pitfall. Hence, it is suggested that the possibility of a RVT needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis whenever one detects an uncommon shape for a urinary calculus.

  19. Six methods for determining urinary protein compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilena, B A; Penberthy, L A; Fraser, C G

    1983-03-01

    Inter-laboratory surveys have shown that "routine methods" of urinary protein determination are often unsatisfactory. Therefore, we compared six frequently used methods for determination of protein in urine with respect to linearity, within-batch and between-batch precision, comparative bias, and practicability. We assayed dilutions of human and bovine albumin and serum, and fresh and lyophilized human urine. We find that the AACC Selected Method has poor practicability and poor precision under routine conditions, but good linearity. The sulfosalicylic acid/biuret technique is also impracticable, requires a large sample, and is not linear at low concentrations of urine protein. The Coomassie Brilliant Blue technique has a narrow range of linearity and poor precision. The sulfosalicylic acid/sodium sulfate turbidimetric method is not precise and cannot be standardized with bovine materials. The Ponceau-S technique has good performance characteristics and practicability, and we recommend it for routine laboratory use.

  20. [Urinary albumin fragmentation and immunoreactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Yuriko; Nishimaki, Junichi; Nakajima, Toshie; Ida, Takashi; Shiba, Kiyoko

    2009-02-01

    Urinary albumin (ALB) has been measured as a marker for the early detection of diabetic nephropathy. In 2004, Comper et al. developed a gel-filtration high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure for the determination of urinary ALB. They demonstrated the presence in its albumin fraction of non immunoreactive ALB with the total molecular weight of a monomeric ALB that was non-reactive with the existing anti-ALB antibody, and reported that the level of urinary non-immunoreactive ALB was higher in diabetic patients than in normal subjects. In this study, we isolated urinary ALB from diabetic patients using an anti-ALB antibody-coupled affinity column to test its immunoreactivity. In some diabetic patients, the results of HPLC and turbidimetric immunoassay for urinary ALB were discrepant. Western blot analysis showed that ALB samples from such patients were contaminated with proteins other than ALB, and contained ALB, whose molecular weight became lower using a reductive procedure. In addition, the reactivity of ALB with anti-ALB antibody differed depending on whether it was in a reduced or non-reduced state. These results indicate that ALB in such patients is susceptible to structural changes due to disease-induced urinary factors and, thus, their urine contains ALB with an altered reactivity to antibody.

  1. Surprisal-based comparison between a symbolic and a connectionist model of sentence processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, S.L.; Taatgen, N.; van Rijn, H.

    2009-01-01

    The 'unlexicalized surprisal' of a word in sentence context is defined as the negative logarithm of the probability of the word's part-of-speech given the sequence of previous parts-of-speech of the sentence. Unlexicalized surprisal is known to correlate with word reading time. Here, it is shown

  2. The role of surprising events in a math game on proportional reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, P.; Oostendorp, van H.; Vrugte, ter J.; Jong, de T.; Vandercruysse, S.; Elen, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether surprising events can be used to stimulate students’ playful learning in a GBL environment in the domain of proportional reasoning. The assumed effect of surprise is that unexpected events interrupt an expectation and therefore triggers the player to evaluate the new situ

  3. Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; LaBar, Kevin S; Adcock, R Alison

    2016-10-01

    Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal representations of the environment, and surprising events are indications for encoding new representations of the environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system, including the hippocampus and surrounding cortex, encodes surprising events and is influenced by motivational state. Because behavior reflects the goals of an individual, we investigated whether motivational valence (i.e., pursuing rewards versus avoiding punishments) also impacts neural and mnemonic encoding of surprising events. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants encountered perceptually unexpected events either during the pursuit of rewards or avoidance of punishments. Despite similar levels of motivation across groups, reward and punishment facilitated the processing of surprising events in different medial temporal lobe regions. Whereas during reward motivation, perceptual surprises enhanced activation in the hippocampus, during punishment motivation surprises instead enhanced activation in parahippocampal cortex. Further, we found that reward motivation facilitated hippocampal coupling with ventromedial PFC, whereas punishment motivation facilitated parahippocampal cortical coupling with orbitofrontal cortex. Behaviorally, post-scan testing revealed that reward, but not punishment, motivation resulted in greater memory selectivity for surprising events encountered during goal pursuit. Together these findings demonstrate that neuromodulatory systems engaged by anticipation of reward and punishment target separate components of the medial temporal lobe, modulating medial temporal lobe sensitivity and connectivity. Thus, reward and punishment motivation yield distinct neural contexts for learning, with distinct consequences for how surprises are incorporated into predictive mnemonic models of the environment.

  4. Frequent video game players resist perceptual interference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron V Berard

    Full Text Available Playing certain types of video games for a long time can improve a wide range of mental processes, from visual acuity to cognitive control. Frequent gamers have also displayed generalized improvements in perceptual learning. In the Texture Discrimination Task (TDT, a widely used perceptual learning paradigm, participants report the orientation of a target embedded in a field of lines and demonstrate robust over-night improvement. However, changing the orientation of the background lines midway through TDT training interferes with overnight improvements in overall performance on TDT. Interestingly, prior research has suggested that this effect will not occur if a one-hour break is allowed in between the changes. These results have suggested that after training is over, it may take some time for learning to become stabilized and resilient against interference. Here, we tested whether frequent gamers have faster stabilization of perceptual learning compared to non-gamers and examined the effect of daily video game playing on interference of training of TDT with one background orientation on perceptual learning of TDT with a different background orientation. As a result, we found that non-gamers showed overnight performance improvement only on one background orientation, replicating previous results with the interference in TDT. In contrast, frequent gamers demonstrated overnight improvements in performance with both background orientations, suggesting that they are better able to overcome interference in perceptual learning. This resistance to interference suggests that video game playing not only enhances the amplitude and speed of perceptual learning but also leads to faster and/or more robust stabilization of perceptual learning.

  5. Dental Management of Frequent Childhood Hemoglobinopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    iffet Yazicioglu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobinopaties are important in the context of childhood chronical disease due to their potential of being the most frequent genetical diseases. Abnormal hemoglobins are in general harmless however in some situations oxygen instabillity can occur. Those instabilities can effect dental health negatively or dental helath can stimulate the symptoms of the genetical disease. With the consultation of Medical doctor Dentist with adequit knowledge would apply dental treatment safely and eliminate the inconvinience of children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(3.000: 469-483

  6. Optimal growth of frequently hypercyclic entire functions

    CERN Document Server

    Drasin, David

    2011-01-01

    We solve a problem posed by A. Bonilla and K.-G. Grosse-Erdmann by constructing an entire function $f$ that is frequently hypercyclic with respect to the differentiation operator, and satisfies $M_f(r)\\leq\\displaystyle ce^r r^{-1/4}$, where $c>0$ be chosen arbirarily small. The obtained growth rate is sharp. We also obtain optimal results for the growth when measured in terms of average $L^p$-norms. Among other things, the proof applies Rudin-Shapiro polynomials and heat kernel estimates.

  7. [Urinary incontinence and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, G; Fritel, X; Capmas, P; Pourcelot, A-G; Fernandez, H

    2012-06-01

    Obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI) more than or equal to 30kg/m(2), promotes pelvic floor disorders such as urinary incontinence (UI) and genital prolapse. Datas from cohort studies found an association between high BMI and the onset of UI. This association seems to be predominant with for mixed UI and stress UI. For the urge UI and overactive bladder syndrome, the analysis of the literature found a weaker association. The weight is therefore the only modifiable risk factor. Thus, the weight loss by a hypocaloric diet associated with pelvic floor muscle training should be the front line treatment in the obese patient suffering from UI. Bariatric surgery can be discussed in the most obese patient, even if the risk/benefit balance should be weighed because of significant morbidity of this surgery. The results of sub urethral sling (by retropubic tension-free vaginal tape or transobturator sling) in obese patients appear to be equivalent to those obtained in patients of normal weight. Datas on per- and postoperative complications for suburethral slings are reassuring.

  8. Genitourinary tuberculosis - a rare presentation of a still frequent infection in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Jardim Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Abstract Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in renal transplant recipients is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Genitourinary tuberculosis is a less frequent presentation and a high level of suspicion is needed to avoid treatment delay. Management is challenging due to the interaction of calcineurin inhibitors with antituberculous medications and the known side effects of these drugs, with higher prevalence in this population. The authors present a case of a renal transplant recipient with urinary and constitutional symptoms whom is diagnosed with tuberculosis after a prostatic biopsy in an already disseminated stage and develops hepatotoxicity to antituberculous therapy.

  9. Frequent external focus feedback enhances motor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele eWulf

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the hypothesis that feedback inducing an external focus of attention enhances motor learning if it is provided frequently (i.e., 100% rather than less frequently. Children (10-12 year olds practiced a soccer throw-in task and were provided feedback about movement form. The feedback statements, provided either after every (100% or every third (33% practice trial, were similar in content but induced either an internal focus (body-movement related or external focus (movement-effect related. The results demonstrated that learning of the movement form was enhanced by external-focus feedback after every trial (100% relative to external-focus feedback after every third trial (33% or internal-focus feedback (100%, 33%, as demonstrated by immediate and delayed transfer tests without feedback. There was no difference between the two internal-focus feedback groups. These findings indicate that the attentional focus induced by feedback is an important factor in determining the effectiveness of different feedback frequencies. We argue that the informational properties of feedback cannot sufficiently account for these and related findings, and suggest that the attentional role of feedback be given greater consideration in future studies.

  10. Frequent MAGE mutations in human melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otavia L Caballero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cancer/testis (CT genes are expressed only in the germ line and certain tumors and are most frequently located on the X-chromosome (the CT-X genes. Amongst the best studied CT-X genes are those encoding several MAGE protein families. The function of MAGE proteins is not well understood, but several have been shown to potentially influence the tumorigenic phenotype. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We undertook a mutational analysis of coding regions of four CT-X MAGE genes, MAGEA1, MAGEA4, MAGEC1, MAGEC2 and the ubiquitously expressed MAGEE1 in human melanoma samples. We first examined cell lines established from tumors and matching blood samples from 27 melanoma patients. We found that melanoma cell lines from 37% of patients contained at least one mutated MAGE gene. The frequency of mutations in the coding regions of individual MAGE genes varied from 3.7% for MAGEA1 and MAGEA4 to 14.8% for MAGEC2. We also examined 111 fresh melanoma samples collected from 86 patients. In this case, samples from 32% of the patients exhibited mutations in one or more MAGE genes with the frequency of mutations in individual MAGE genes ranging from 6% in MAGEA1 to 16% in MAGEC1. SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate for the first time that the MAGE gene family is frequently mutated in melanoma.

  11. La incontinencia urinaria Urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Robles

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available La incontinencia urinaria, entendida como cualquier pérdida involuntaria de orina, constituye un problema médico y social importante. Puede clasificarse en incontinencia urinaria de esfuerzo, incontinencia urinaria de urgencia e incontinencia urinaria mixta, principalmente. Las proporciones de estos tres tipos principales de incontinencia urinaria son difíciles de establecer y varían notablemente según las fuentes, pero, podrían estar en torno a 40, 33 y 20%, respectivamente. Su diagnóstico requiere una correcta historia clínica y exploración física, junto con algunas exploraciones complementarias. El primer escalón terapéutico lo constituyen las medidas higiénico-dietéticas y las técnicas de modificación de la conducta. El tratamiento farmacológico es específico para cada tipo de incontinencia urinaria, utilizándose anticolinérgicos e inhibidores de la recaptación de serotonina. Por último, las diferentes técnicas quirúrgicas tienen su papel ante el fracaso de los tratamientos conservadores o frente a incontinencia urinaria severa.Urinary incontinence, understood as any involuntary loss of urine, constitutes an important medical and social problem. It can be classified as stress urinary incontinence, urgent urinary incontinence or mixed urinary incontinence. The proportions of these three types of urinary incontinence are difficult to establish and vary notably between sources, but they might be about 40, 33 and 20% respectively. Its diagnosis requires a correct clinical history and physical exploration, together with some complementary explorations. The first therapeutic step consists of hygienic-dietary measures and behaviour modification techniques. Pharmacological treatment is specific for each type of urinary incontinence, using anticholinergics and inhibitors of serotonin reuptake. Finally, different surgical techniques have a role in cases where conservative treatments fail or when dealing with severe urinary

  12. Frequently asked questions about global modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letellier, Christophe; Aguirre, Luis A.; Freitas, U. S.

    2009-06-01

    When a global model is attempted from experimental data, some preprocessing might be required. Therefore it is only natural to wonder what kind of effects the preprocessing might have on the modeling procedure. This concern is manifested in the form of recurrent frequently asked questions, such as "how does the preprocessing affect the underlying dynamics?" This paper aims at providing answers to important questions related to (i) data interpolation, (ii) data smoothing, (iii) data-estimated derivatives, (iv) model structure selection, and (v) model validation. The answers provided will hopefully remove some of those doubts and one shall be more confident not only on global modeling but also on various data analyses which may be also dependent on data preprocessing.

  13. Bladder injuries frequently missed in polytrauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanweer Karim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Tanweer Karim, Margaret Topno, Vinod Sharma, Raymond Picardo, Ankur HastirSurgery, MGM Medical College, Kamothe, Navi Mumbai, IndiaAbstract: Bladder injuries are very common in patients who have had road traffic accidents. The method of diagnosis and management of such injuries is well established and accepted. However, trauma to the bladder can be associated with other life-threatening injuries which are frequently missed, and often diagnosed during laparotomy for other reasons. The aim of this study was to diagnose bladder injury in polytrauma patients as early as possible, taking into consideration the fact that these patients are hemodynamically unstable and require rapid evaluation and management. In order to achieve our objective, we used bedside sonography with retrograde instillation of normal saline to diagnose bladder injury in addition to use of the conventional retrograde cystogram.Keywords: bladder injury, bladder rupture, retrograde cystogram

  14. LGM: Mining Frequent Subgraphs from Linear Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Tabei, Yasuo; Hirose, Shuichi; Tsuda, Koji

    2011-01-01

    A linear graph is a graph whose vertices are totally ordered. Biological and linguistic sequences with interactions among symbols are naturally represented as linear graphs. Examples include protein contact maps, RNA secondary structures and predicate-argument structures. Our algorithm, linear graph miner (LGM), leverages the vertex order for efficient enumeration of frequent subgraphs. Based on the reverse search principle, the pattern space is systematically traversed without expensive duplication checking. Disconnected subgraph patterns are particularly important in linear graphs due to their sequential nature. Unlike conventional graph mining algorithms detecting connected patterns only, LGM can detect disconnected patterns as well. The utility and efficiency of LGM are demonstrated in experiments on protein contact maps.

  15. Frequent activation of EGFR in advanced chordomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewaele Barbara

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chordomas are rare neoplasms, arising from notochordal remnants in the midline skeletal axis, for which the current treatment is limited to surgery and radiotherapy. Recent reports suggest that receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK might be essential for the survival or proliferation of chordoma cells, providing a rationale for RTK targeted therapy. Nevertheless, the reported data are conflicting, most likely due to the assorted tumor specimens used for the studies and the heterogeneous methodological approaches. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive characterization of this rare entity using a wide range of assays in search for relevant therapeutic targets. Methods Histopathological features of 42 chordoma specimens, 21 primary and 21 advanced, were assessed by immunohistochemistry and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH using PDGFRB, CSF1R, and EGFR probes. Twenty-two of these cases, for which frozen material was available (nine primary and 13 advanced tumors, were selectively analyzed using the whole-genome 4.3 K TK-CGH-array, phospho-kinase antibody array or Western immunoblotting. The study was supplemented by direct sequencing of KIT, PDGFRB, CSF1R and EGFR. Results We demonstrated that EGFR is frequently and the most significantly activated RTK in chordomas. Furthermore, concurrent to EGFR activation, the tumors commonly reveal co-activation of alternative RTK. The consistent activation of AKT, the frequent loss of the tumor suppressor PTEN allele, the recurrent activation of upstream RTK and of downstream effectors like p70S6K and mTOR, all indicate the PI3K/AKT pathway as an important mediator of transformation in chordomas. Conclusions Given the complexity of the signaling in chordomas, combined treatment regimens targeting multiple RTK and downstream effectors are likely to be the most effective in these tumors. Personalized therapy with careful selection of the patients, based on the molecular profile of

  16. MR imaging of pelvic floor in stress urinary incontinence=20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Rae; Park, Heung Jae; Kook, Shin Ho; Chung, Eun Chul [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, College of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-04-01

    To demonstrate the anatomy of the female pelvic floor and to determine the anatomic differences between normal controls and women with stress urinary incontinence, using MRI. Five healthy, young, nulliparous women and 12 with stress urinary incontinence underwent MR imaging. We obtained FSE T2-weighted axial images, 3mm thick, of the region extending from the urethroversical junction to the perineal membrane. The following parameters were determined : angle, asymmetry and signal intensity of the levator ani muscles, the distance between the urethra and symphysis, and the presence, shape and angulation of urethropelvic ligament. In contrast to normal controls, frequent findings in women with stress incontinence were as follows : increased angle (43%), asymmetry (43%) and higher signal intensity (67%) of the levator ani muscles; increased distance between the urethra and symphysis; loss (43%), discontinuity (60%) and dorsal angulation (43%) of the urethropelvic ligament. In women with stress urinary incontinence, MRI clearly demonstrates the anatomy of the female pelvic floor, changes in the levator ani muscles, the distance between the urethra and symphysis, and the urethropelvic ligament. The modality can therefore be used to evaluate the anatomical changes occurring in cases of stress urinary incontinence. (author)

  17. Previously seen and expected stimuli elicit surprise in the context of visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retell, James D; Becker, Stefanie I; Remington, Roger W

    2016-04-01

    In the context of visual search, surprise is the phenomenon by which a previously unseen and unexpected stimulus exogenously attracts spatial attention. Capture by such a stimulus occurs, by definition, independent of task goals and is thought to be dependent on the extent to which the stimulus deviates from expectations. However, the relative contributions of prior-exposure and explicit knowledge of an unexpected event to the surprise response have not yet been systematically investigated. Here observers searched for a specific color while ignoring irrelevant cues of different colors presented prior to the target display. After a brief familiarization period, we presented an irrelevant motion cue to elicit surprise. Across conditions we varied prior exposure to the motion stimulus - seen versus unseen - and top-down expectations of occurrence - expected versus unexpected - to assess the extent to which each of these factors contributes to surprise. We found no attenuation of the surprise response when observers were pre-exposed to the motion cue and or had explicit knowledge of its occurrence. Our results show that it is neither sufficient nor necessary that a stimulus be new and unannounced to elicit surprise and suggest that the expectations that determine the surprise response are highly context specific.

  18. [URINARY DISCOMFORTS IN PATIENTS AFTER RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al'-Shukri, S Kh; Ananiĭ, I A; Amdiĭ, R E; Kuz'min, I V

    2015-01-01

    The authors showed the result of complication treatment of lower urinary tracts in 128 patients with localized prostate cancer. The patients underwent radical prostatectomy. Urinary discomforts included enuresis, urinary incontinence in postoperative period. Abnormalities of urine outflow due to urethral stricture were revealed in 6 (4,6%) patients by the 6 month after operation. These complications required surgical treatment. Urinary incontinence was noted in 20 (15,6%) patients in this period. It was stressful urinary incontinence in 16 (12,6%) and urgent - in 4 (3%). Patents with stressful urinary difficulty were advised to use the conservative treatment (pelvic floor muscle training and electrostimulation), but in case of inefficiency - surgical treatment.

  19. A Statistical Analysis of the Relationship between Harmonic Surprise and Preference in Popular Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Scott A; Rosen, David S; Grzywacz, Norberto M

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that some musical pieces may preferentially activate reward centers in the brain. Less is known, however, about the structural aspects of music that are associated with this activation. Based on the music cognition literature, we propose two hypotheses for why some musical pieces are preferred over others. The first, the Absolute-Surprise Hypothesis, states that unexpected events in music directly lead to pleasure. The second, the Contrastive-Surprise Hypothesis, proposes that the juxtaposition of unexpected events and subsequent expected events leads to an overall rewarding response. We tested these hypotheses within the framework of information theory, using the measure of "surprise." This information-theoretic variable mathematically describes how improbable an event is given a known distribution. We performed a statistical investigation of surprise in the harmonic structure of songs within a representative corpus of Western popular music, namely, the McGill Billboard Project corpus. We found that chords of songs in the top quartile of the Billboard chart showed greater average surprise than those in the bottom quartile. We also found that the different sections within top-quartile songs varied more in their average surprise than the sections within bottom-quartile songs. The results of this study are consistent with both the Absolute- and Contrastive-Surprise Hypotheses. Although these hypotheses seem contradictory to one another, we cannot yet discard the possibility that both absolute and contrastive types of surprise play roles in the enjoyment of popular music. We call this possibility the Hybrid-Surprise Hypothesis. The results of this statistical investigation have implications for both music cognition and the human neural mechanisms of esthetic judgments.

  20. October Surprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Ushered in with the rampage of Hurricane Matthew, later days brightened in this month that has often been harbinger of both good and bad news for Cuba and the world. Hurricane Matthew ripped through Eastern Cuba, devastating the historic town of Baracoa (Cuba's first capital, founded in 1511) and the village of Maisí, where the morning sun first rises over Cuban territory. Wind and flood leveled hundreds of homes, brought down the power grid and destroyed crops. Yet there was no loss of human life, unlike in neighboring Haiti and other countries in Matthew's path, and unlike in Cuba in 1963, when Hurricane Flora caused more than 1200 deaths. In Haiti, efforts of health workers-including hundreds of Haitian graduates from Cuba's Latin American Medical School and 600 Cuban health professionals already there-were bolstered by dozens of specially trained Cuban disaster medical personnel in the wake of the storm.

  1. Surprising Resists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Stephie

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses an art adventure with her third, fourth, and fifth grade enrichment kids to the Fort Collins Museum of Contemporary Art in Colorado. The author demonstrates and teaches her students how to use the art tissue paper and oil pastel complementing the creative spirit of the Jaune Quick-to-See Smith work presented…

  2. Polypharmacy in older adults: Association Rule and Frequent-Set Analysis to evaluate concomitant medication use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Fabian; Le Couteur, David G; Blyth, Fiona M; Hirani, Vasant; Naganathan, Vasi; Waite, Louise M; Seibel, Markus J; Handelsman, David J; Cumming, Robert G; Allore, Heather G; Gnjidic, Danijela

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to apply Association Rule and Frequent-Set analysis, and novel means of data visualisation to ascertain patterns of medication use and medication combinations contributing to medication group clusters according to geriatric syndrome status in older adults. Participants were community-dwelling men (aged ≥70 years, n=1686), Sydney, Australia. Medication exposure was categorised at medication class level and data were analysed according to geriatric syndrome status (presence of at least one syndrome including frailty, falls, cognitive impairment and urinary incontinence). Association Rule and Frequent-Set analysis were performed to identify "interesting" patterns of medication combinations that occur together. This analysis involves advanced computer algorithms that investigated all possible combinations of medications in the dataset in order to identify those which are observed more or much less frequently than expected. Frequent-Set Analysis demonstrated one unexpected medication combination, antiulcer and antidiabetic medications (3.5% of participants) in the overall population (n=1687). Frequency of medication combinations was similar in participants with (n=666) and without (n=1020) geriatric syndromes. Among participants with geriatric syndromes, the most frequent combinations included antigout with lipid-lowering agents (5.7%) followed by angiotensin II and diuretics combination (22%). This novel methodology can be used to detect common medication combinations overall by data visualisation, and against specific adverse drug reactions such as geriatric syndromes. This methodology may be a valuable pharmacovigilance approach to monitor large databases for the safety of medications.

  3. Kidney and Urinary Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    12.1 Kidney function2007244 Short-and long-term outcome of the kidney after acute ischemia-reperfusion injury. JIANG suhua(蒋素华), et al. Dept Nephrol, Zhongshan Hosp, Fudan Univ, Shanghai 200032. Chin J Nephrol 2007;23(4):246-250. Objective To investigate short-and long-term outcome of the kidney after acute ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Methods Rat model of renal IR was established by clamping both pedicles for 40 min followed by reperfusion. Blood sample and kidneys were collected at indicated times. Serum creatinine levels, mortality and histological change were observed throughout the study. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe tubular ultra-structure. Apoptosis was confirmed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The extent of tubulointerstitial fibrosis was evaluated by Masson trichome staining. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was determined by Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. Results Extensive proximal tubular necrosis, functional impairment and high mortality (32%, 8/25) were found in the early phase after renal IR injury, accompanied by a small number of apoptotic cells. Patchy tubulointerstitial fibrosis was obvious at 5th and 10th week postischemia in correlation with renal hypertrophy and increased urinary output. Moreover, the expression of a-SMA and TGF-β1 increased significantly at first, 5th and 10th week in the kidneys of IR group compared to sham-operated group. The expression mentioned above was localized mainly in the injured tubulointerstitium, consistent with the distribution of renal fibrosis. Conclusion Severe renal IR injury may lead to acute tubular necrosis, functional disorder and high mortality in short term. The initial structural injury in the kidney is irreversible and tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the final outcome. Increased myofibrolasts (s-SMA positive) and

  4. [Proteomic analysis of urinary exosomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Aki

    2014-07-01

    Exosomes are 40-100-nm membrane vesicles secreted into the extracellular space by various types of cell in many biological fluids, including serum, saliva, breast milk, amniotic fluid, and urine. Exosomes, which contain several key proteins, lipids, mRNAs, and microRNAs, were considered as an alternative secretion pathway. In addition, recent findings suggest that the exosome itself is a functional biomolecule involved in intracellular communication; thus, its components can be transferred to recipient cells by fusion, changing the function of the target cell. Recently, urinary exosomes have attracted much attention because some of their proteins have been identified as biomarkers related to certain physiological events and disease-related metabolism of the kidney. This review provides an overview of urinary exosomes, including methods of isolation and associated problems, and focuses on urinary exosomes as protein biomarker sources involved in numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes.

  5. NCL Disorders: Frequent Causes of Childhood Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfried KOHLSCHÜTTER

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia in children or young adults is most frequently caused by neuronal ceroidlipofuscinoses (NCL, a group of incurable lysosomal storage disorders linked by the accumulation of a characteristic intracellular storage material and progressive clinical deterioration, usually in combination with visual loss, epilepsy, and motor decline. The clinical characteristics can vary and the age at disease onset ranges from birth to over 30 years. Diagnosis of an NCL is difficult because of genetic heterogeneity with14 NCL forms (CLN1- CLN14 identified and a high phenotype variability. A new classification of the disorders is based on the affected gene and the age at disease onset and allows a precise and practicable delineation of every NCL disease. We present a clear diagnostic algorithm to identify each NCL form. A precise diagnosis is essential for genetic counseling of affected families and for optimizing palliative care. As patient management profits from recognizing characteristic complications, care supported by a specialized team of NCL clinicians is recommended. The development of curative therapies remains difficult as the underlying pathophysiological mechanism remains unclear for all NCL forms.

  6. Frequently asked questions in hypoxia research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenger RH

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Roland H Wenger,1,2 Vartan Kurtcuoglu,1,2 Carsten C Scholz,1,2 Hugo H Marti,3 David Hoogewijs1,2,4 1Institute of Physiology and Zurich Center for Human Physiology (ZIHP, University of Zurich, 2National Center of Competence in Research “Kidney.CH”, Zurich, Switzerland; 3Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, 4Institute of Physiology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany Abstract: “What is the O2 concentration in a normoxic cell culture incubator?” This and other frequently asked questions in hypoxia research will be answered in this review. Our intention is to give a simple introduction to the physics of gases that would be helpful for newcomers to the field of hypoxia research. We will provide background knowledge about questions often asked, but without straightforward answers. What is O2 concentration, and what is O2 partial pressure? What is normoxia, and what is hypoxia? How much O2 is experienced by a cell residing in a culture dish in vitro vs in a tissue in vivo? By the way, the O2 concentration in a normoxic incubator is 18.6%, rather than 20.9% or 20%, as commonly stated in research publications. And this is strictly only valid for incubators at sea level. Keywords: gas laws, hypoxia-inducible factor, Krogh tissue cylinder, oxygen diffusion, partial pressure, tissue oxygen levels

  7. Most frequent calf diseases in industrial breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Sava

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to conduct an analysis of the incidence of viral diseases in calves if these diseases are divided into two basic groups. One group comprises diseases of respiratory organs which are manifested by symptoms of a respiratory syndrome, and the second group comprises diseases of digestive tract organs in the form of a gastrointestinal syndrome. It is considered that viruses have the dominant role in the complex etiology of the respiratory syndrome, primarily the IBR virus or the Bovine Herpes Virus-1 (BHV-1, followed by the parainfluenza 3 virus (RSV, the Bovine Viral Diahrrea Virus (BVDV, the bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV, but also other viruses, such as adenoviruses, rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, can also influence the appearance of the respiratory syndrome. The respiratory syndrome is rarely caused by a single viral agent, but most frequently by mixed viruses, but also by bacterial infections. Mixed viral infections often have a lethal outcome. Investigations of the etiology of the gastrointestinal syndrome so far indicate that, in addition to bacteria, viruses can also be a significant etiological factor. Rotaviruses, coronaviruses, adenoviruses parvoviruses, herpesviruses (the IBR virus, pestiviruses (BVDV, can be the causes of a gastrointestinal syndrome. It is believed that viruses can be the cause in about 10% cases in the ethiopathogenesis of this syndrome. The paper describes the etiopathogenesis of calf diseases of viral etiology which are most often found in the local conditions of industrial breeding of calves.

  8. Febrile urinary tract infections: pyelonephritis and urosepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; Holleman, Frits; Geerlings, Suzanne E

    2016-02-01

    Complicated infections of the urinary tract (UTI) including pyelonephritis and urosepsis are also called febrile UTI. This review describes insights from the literature on this topic since July 2014. Recent studies regarding risk factors and consequences of febrile UTI confirmed existing knowledge. It remains difficult to obtain insight into the epidemiology of febrile UTI because urine and blood cultures are frequently missing. The relationship between host and virulence factors of Escherichia coli was further explored showing that less virulent strains can cause infection in immunocompromised patients. In contrast to obstructive uropathy, diabetes, and being older, neutropenia was not a risk factor for lower UTI or urosepsis. A randomized controlled trial revealed that ceftolozane-tazobactam was marginally superior to levofloxacin as treatment for complicated UTI. Case series supported the notion that xanthogranulomatous and emphysematous pyelonephritis are more common in diabetic patients and that drainage or surgery is often required. Neutropenia was not a risk factor for lower UTI or urosepsis. When local resistance percentages to the frequently prescribed fluoroquinolones are high, the combination of ceftolozane-tazobactam may be an alternative as treatment for complicated UTI. Xanthogranulomatous and emphysematous pyelonephritis need to be considered in diabetic patients presenting with UTI symptoms.

  9. Urinary tract infections in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Tan, Chee; Chlebicki, Maciej Piotr

    2016-01-01

    A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a collective term for infections that involve any part of the urinary tract. It is one of the most common infections in local primary care. The incidence of UTIs in adult males aged under 50 years is low, with adult women being 30 times more likely than men to develop a UTI. Appropriate classification of UTI into simple or complicated forms guides its management and the ORENUC classification can be used. Diagnosis of a UTI is based on a focused history, with...

  10. Urinary Tract Infections in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan B. Cohn

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is an exceedingly common problem prompting seven million office visits and one million hospitalizations in the United States each year (1. Advances in the understanding of both host and bacterial factors involved in UTI have led to many improvements in therapy. While there have also been advances in the realm of antimicrobials, there have been numerous problems with multiple drug resistant organisms. Providing economical care while minimizing drug resistance requires appropriate diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of urinary tract infections.

  11. Urinary tract infections during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilstrap, L C; Ramin, S M

    2001-09-01

    Urinary tract infections are relatively common in pregnancy and may result in significant morbidity for the pregnant woman and fetus. The authors recommend that all pregnant women be screened for the presence of bacteriuria at their first prenatal visit. Failure to treat bacteriuria during pregnancy may result in as many as 25% of women experiencing acute pyelonephritis. Women with acute pyelonephritis may sustain significant complications, such as preterm labor, transient renal failure, ARDS, sepsis and shock, and hematologic abnormalities. Pregnant women with urinary tract infections should be followed up closely after treatment because as many as one third will experience a recurrence.

  12. Urinary tract infection in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Theresa A; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2013-10-01

    Urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria are common in older adults. Unlike in younger adults, distinguishing symptomatic urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria is problematic, as older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, are less likely to present with localized genitourinary symptoms. Consensus guidelines have been published to assist clinicians with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection; however, a single evidence-based approach to diagnosis of urinary tract infection does not exist. In the absence of a gold standard definition of urinary tract infection that clinicians agree upon, overtreatment with antibiotics for suspected urinary tract infection remains a significant problem, and leads to a variety of negative consequences including the development of multidrug-resistant organisms. Future studies improving the diagnostic accuracy of urinary tract infections are needed. This review will cover the prevalence, diagnosis and diagnostic challenges, management, and prevention of urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria in older adults.

  13. Urinary tract infection in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Theresa A; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria are common in older adults. Unlike in younger adults, distinguishing symptomatic urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria is problematic, as older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, are less likely to present with localized genitourinary symptoms. Consensus guidelines have been published to assist clinicians with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection; however, a single evidence-based approach to diagnosis of urinary tract infection does not exist. In the absence of a gold standard definition of urinary tract infection that clinicians agree upon, overtreatment with antibiotics for suspected urinary tract infection remains a significant problem, and leads to a variety of negative consequences including the development of multidrug-resistant organisms. Future studies improving the diagnostic accuracy of urinary tract infections are needed. This review will cover the prevalence, diagnosis and diagnostic challenges, management, and prevention of urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria in older adults. PMID:24391677

  14. Urinary incontinence - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to help with my urinary incontinence? What are Kegel exercises? What can I do when I want ... tape Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Self catheterization - female Self catheterization - ...

  15. The role of loudness in detection of surprising events in music recordings

    OpenAIRE

    Holonowicz, Piotr; Herrera, Perfecto; Purwins, Hendrik

    2009-01-01

    The abrupt change of loudness is a salient event that is not always expected by a music listener. Therefore loudness is an important cue when seeking for events in a music stream that could violate human expectations. The concept of expectation and surprise in music has become recently the subject of extensive research, however mostly using symbolic data. The aim of this work is to investigate the circumstances when a change of sound intensity could be surprising for a listener. Then, using t...

  16. Urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick in acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novovic, Srdan; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad

    2010-01-01

    In acute pancreatitis (AP), rapid diagnosis and early treatment are of importance for clinical outcome. Urinary trypsinogen-2 has been suggested as a promising diagnostic marker; however, studies using the urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick test (UTDT) have provided varying results.......In acute pancreatitis (AP), rapid diagnosis and early treatment are of importance for clinical outcome. Urinary trypsinogen-2 has been suggested as a promising diagnostic marker; however, studies using the urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick test (UTDT) have provided varying results....

  17. Computational surprisal analysis speeds-up genomic characterization of cancer processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko-Balasha, Nataly; Simon, Simcha; Levine, R D; Remacle, F; Exman, Iaakov

    2014-01-01

    Surprisal analysis is increasingly being applied for the examination of transcription levels in cellular processes, towards revealing inner network structures and predicting response. But to achieve its full potential, surprisal analysis should be integrated into a wider range computational tool. The purposes of this paper are to combine surprisal analysis with other important computation procedures, such as easy manipulation of the analysis results--e.g. to choose desirable result sub-sets for further inspection--, retrieval and comparison with relevant datasets from public databases, and flexible graphical displays for heuristic thinking. The whole set of computation procedures integrated into a single practical tool is what we call Computational Surprisal Analysis. This combined kind of analysis should facilitate significantly quantitative understanding of different cellular processes for researchers, including applications in proteomics and metabolomics. Beyond that, our vision is that Computational Surprisal Analysis has the potential to reach the status of a routine method of analysis for practitioners. The resolving power of Computational Surprisal Analysis is here demonstrated by its application to a variety of cellular cancer process transcription datasets, ours and from the literature. The results provide a compact biological picture of the thermodynamic significance of the leading gene expression phenotypes in every stage of the disease. For each transcript we characterize both its inherent steady state weight, its correlation with the other transcripts and its variation due to the disease. We present a dedicated website to facilitate the analysis for researchers and practitioners.

  18. Computational surprisal analysis speeds-up genomic characterization of cancer processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly Kravchenko-Balasha

    Full Text Available Surprisal analysis is increasingly being applied for the examination of transcription levels in cellular processes, towards revealing inner network structures and predicting response. But to achieve its full potential, surprisal analysis should be integrated into a wider range computational tool. The purposes of this paper are to combine surprisal analysis with other important computation procedures, such as easy manipulation of the analysis results--e.g. to choose desirable result sub-sets for further inspection--, retrieval and comparison with relevant datasets from public databases, and flexible graphical displays for heuristic thinking. The whole set of computation procedures integrated into a single practical tool is what we call Computational Surprisal Analysis. This combined kind of analysis should facilitate significantly quantitative understanding of different cellular processes for researchers, including applications in proteomics and metabolomics. Beyond that, our vision is that Computational Surprisal Analysis has the potential to reach the status of a routine method of analysis for practitioners. The resolving power of Computational Surprisal Analysis is here demonstrated by its application to a variety of cellular cancer process transcription datasets, ours and from the literature. The results provide a compact biological picture of the thermodynamic significance of the leading gene expression phenotypes in every stage of the disease. For each transcript we characterize both its inherent steady state weight, its correlation with the other transcripts and its variation due to the disease. We present a dedicated website to facilitate the analysis for researchers and practitioners.

  19. Meningeal carcinomatosis: an extremely rare involvement of urinary bladder carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncu, Dogan; Arpaci, Fikret; Beyzadeoglu, Murat; Gunal, Armagan; Surenkok, Serdar; Ozturk, Mustafa; Ozet, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    Meningeal carcinomatosis (MC) is a rare presentation of solid tumors, particularly breast cancer, lung cancer, and malignant melanoma. Recently, the incidence of MC has been reported to be increasing. It has a bad prognosis despite aggressive therapy. The usual clinical presentation is multifocal involvement of the neuraxis, with headache and radicular pain being the most common initial symptoms. The most frequent signs are motor deficits, altered mental status, and cranial nerve involvement. The treatment of MC remains controversial and no straightforward guidelines exist in the literature. MC from urinary bladder tumors is rare. In this case report, we present a 52-year-old male patient with meningeal metastasis from a primary urinary bladder carcinoma along with a review of the related literature. Free full text available at www.tumorionline.it

  20. [Conservative therapy of female urinary incontinence--potential and effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horcicka, L; Chmel, R; Novácková, M

    2005-01-01

    Non-surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence is not as effective as surgical methods but it is very successful in indicated cases. Rehabilitation of the pelvic floor muscles (Kegel exercises, vaginal cones, and electrostimulation of the pelvic floor muscles), drug treatment (alfa-mimetics, tricyclic antidepressives, estrogens, duloxetin), pessarotherapy and uretral obturator devices represent possibilities of conservative therapy of the stress incontinence. Conservative therapy is the method of choice in the treatment of urge incontinence. The most successful are anticholinergic drugs but they have very frequent serious side effects (dryness of the mucous membranes, accommodation disorders, constipation). Spasmolytics, estrogens and tricyclic antidepressives are the other popular used drugs. Life style modification, bladder training and electrostimulation represent very important parts of the conservative treatment. Effectiveness of the non-surgical treatment of both urge and stress urinary incontinence can not reach 100 percent but it helps very much in the quality of life improvement of incontinent women.

  1. Best practices in urinary catheter care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herter, Rebecca; Kazer, Meredith Wallace

    2010-06-01

    Urinary catheterization is a common healthcare intervention used to manage urinary dysfunction that poses serious associated risks and complications. This article discusses methods of urinary catheterization and their indications, catheter-associated complications, and assessment and management strategies that home healthcare practitioners can employ to ensure best patient outcomes and minimize complications.

  2. Lower urinary tract dysfunction in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, AJ

    2016-01-01

    Lower urinary tract dysfunction in children can have many faces. It can present with incontinenece for urine, urinary tract infections or even constipation or loosing stools. All kinds of factors influencing the function of the pelvic floor muscle tension can have an impact on the lower urinary trac

  3. Clinical Observation on Electroacupuncture Against Urinary Incontinence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文洁; 胡昌东; 王洁茹; 洪珏

    2009-01-01

    @@ Urinary incontinence is a common problem, usually classified as stress incontinence or urge incontinence[1]. With the development of medical science, people have got more and more profound knowledge towards urinary incontinence. We treated urinary incontinence with electroacupuncture since 2006, and now reported it as follows.

  4. [Urinary catheters prevalence study in a university hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrouget, J; Legeay, C; Poirier, A; Azzouzi, A-R; Zahar, J-R; Bigot, P

    2017-04-01

    Urinary tract infection is the most common healthcare-association infection, especially because of urinary catheter. We evaluated our practices concerning catheter insertion and management in our institution. We conducted a single-centre descriptive cross-sectional study during 1 week in September 2014 in all adult departments. We noted prevalence, indications, length, management of urinary catheter (UC) and symptomatic catheter-associated urinary tract infections (SCAUTI). Amongst 1046 patients audited, 125 (12%) had UC. The mean age was 72 years (64.8-79.2). UC prevalence was higher in surgical (88%) and medical (87%) intensive care, urology (50%), geriatrics (18%) and long-term care (18%) departments. The average catheterisation length was 7.8 days (3.8-11.8); it was shorter in surgery than in medicine departments (3.6 vs 9.7 days, P<0.001). Catheters were present for more than 4 days in 60% of the cases. Acute urinary retention was the most frequent indication (59%), significantly more in medical than surgical departments (75% vs 26%). Others indications were perioperative (17%), diuresis monitoring (12%), strict immobilization (4%) and unnecessary indications or staff comfort (4%). A SCAUTI was present in 10% of cases, mostly in medicine department (30% vs 8%). The prevalence of our institution is higher than the national prevalence (8.1%), but still below the European average (17.2%). Control of the risk of CAUTI requires compliance with UC appropriate indications, UC management, and prompt removal of unnecessary UC. 4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. [Neurogenic urinary incontinence. Value of surgical management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzenberger, J

    2008-06-01

    Damage to the CNS, the cauda equina, and the pelvic nerval structures causes neurogenic bladder dysfunction with neurogenic urinary incontinence (NUI). The definitive diagnosis of NUI is made with urodynamic examination methods. The most frequent cause of NUI is neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO). The treatment concept must take into account the physical and emotional restrictions. The treatment of NUI due to NDO is a domain of conservative therapy, i.e., mostly antimuscarinics and intermittent catheterization (IC). In about 30%, there is a good chance for therapy failures. An advancement in therapy is the injection of BTX-A into the detrusor. The missing drug approval is a disadvantage.Operative treatments are considered if conservative and minimally invasive therapies are unsuccessful. Sacral deafferentation (SDAF) and sacral anterior root stimulator implantation (SARSI) are available as organ-preserving techniques only for paraplegics with NDO and reflex urinary incontinence and neuromodulation for the other forms of NDO provided that a successful percutaneous nerve evaluation (PNE) test has previously taken place. Augmentation cystoplasty is indicated if SDAF and neuromodulation cannot be used and the bladder wall is damaged irreversibly by fibrosis. Kidney function of at least 25% and acceptance of IC are prerequisites. Myectomy (autoaugmentation) has an indication similar to augmentation cystoplasty but there must not be any fibrosis. Bladder neck insufficiency (BNI) caused by paralysis or iatrogenically can be treated by the implantation of an alloplastic sphincter high at the bladder neck. A stable reservoir function is required. If not all methods are possible, the ileum conduit or the suprapubic bladder fistula can be the last resort.

  6. Risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia da Silva Leroy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence (UI and its characteristics. METHOD: This was a case-control study with 344 puerperal women (77 cases and 267 controls with up to 90 days postpartum. In a single session, participants were given a questionnaire with sociodemographic and clinical data and two others that assessed urine leakage, leakage situations, and type of UI. RESULTS: Stress UI was present in 45.5% of the women, incidents of urine leakage several times a day in 44.2%, of which 71.4% were in small amounts and 57.1% when coughing or sneezing. In 70.1% of cases, UI began during pregnancy and remained through the postpartum period. After running a binary logistic regression model, the following factors remained in the final model: UI during pregnancy (OR 12.82, CI 95% 6.94 - 23.81, p<0.0001, multiparity (OR 2.26, CI 95% 1.22 - 4.19, p=0.009, gestational age at birth greater or equal to 37 weeks (OR 2.52, CI 95% 1.16 - 5.46, p=0.02 and constipation (OR 1.94, CI 95% 1.05 - 5.46, p=0.035. CONCLUSION: Most often, UI first appeared during pregnancy and remained through the postpartum period. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy, multiparity, gestational age at birth greater or equal to 37 weeks, and constipation were presented as risk factors. In the studied group, stress UI was more frequent.

  7. Congenital Upper Urinary Tract Obstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-10-10

    Oct 10, 2007 ... 1110-5704 179-187. Review Arllele Role of Urinary Biomarkers in the Diagnosis of .... plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate in rats subjected to ..... Chemical characterization and biological properties. J.Biol.Chem. 1990 ...

  8. [Conservative treatment of urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soljanik, I; Schorsch, I; Stanislaus, P; Bauer, R; Mayer, M; Hocaoglu, Y; Becker, A; May, F

    2007-09-20

    Urinary incontinence can be treated with medicinal products in addition to active pelvic floor muscle training and electrostimulation. A local hormone therapy should be first discussed with the gynaecologist. The active substance duloxetine has been used for a few years for treating stress incontinence. Several older and newer active substances are available for treating irritable bladder and stress incontinence.

  9. Indiana continent catheterizable urinary reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, O A; Aranguren, G; Campos-Juanatey, F

    2014-01-01

    Radical pelvic surgery requires continent or incontinent urinary diversion. There are many techniques, but the orthotopic neobladder is the most used. A continent catheterizable urinary reservoir is sometimes a good alternative when this derivation is not possible or not indicated. This paper has aimed to present our experience with the Indiana pouch continent urinary reservoir. The series is made up of 85 patients, 66 women and 19 men, with a mean age of 56 years (31-77 years). Variables analyzed were operating time, estimated blood loss, transfusion rate, hospital stay and peri-operatory complications. The main indication in 49 cases was resolution of complications related to the treatment of cervical cancer. Average operation time was 110.5 minutes (range 80-130 minutes). Mean blood loss was 450 cc (100-1000 cc). Immediate postoperative complications, all of which were treated medically, occurred in 16 patients (18.85%). One patient suffered anastomotic leakage. Hospital stay was 19 days (range 5-60 days) and there was no mortality in the series. Late complications occurred in 26 patients (32%), these being ureteral anastomotic stenosis in 11 cases, cutaneous stoma stenosis in 9 cases and reservoir stones in 6 cases. The Indiana continent catheterizable urinary reservoir is a valid option for the treatment of both urological and gynecological malignancies as well as for the management of pelvic morbidity related to the treatment of pelvic cancers. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Chinese Herbal Medicine and Acupuncture Used for Rehabilitation of the Impaired Urinary System in Patients with Paraplegia -A Report of 52 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹颖; 周文艳

    2005-01-01

    @@ Infection of the urinary system is frequently seen in the paraplegic patients with urinary complications,which is one of the main reasons for the late death in such cases. The effects of the therapeutic method adopted for the urinary rehabilitation are directly related to the life quality and survival time of the paraplegic patients. Since 1999-2002, the authors had applied Chinese herbal medicine combined with acupuncture for the urinary rehabilitation in 52 paraplegic patients, with quite good therapeuticresults as reported in the following.

  11. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Nurse-Focused Computerized Clinical Decision Support on Urinary Catheter Practice Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Robin Lynn Neal

    2012-01-01

    A growing national emphasis has been placed on health information technology (HIT) with robust computerized clinical decision support (CCDS) integration into health care delivery. Catheter-associated urinary tract infection is the most frequent health care-associated infection in the United States and is associated with high cost, high volumes and…

  12. Behavioral Intervention to Eliminate Socially Mediated Urinary Incontinence in a Child with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Joseph N.; Luiselli, James K.

    2003-01-01

    We report the case of an 11-year-old boy with autism who demonstrated urinary incontinence that appeared to be maintained by social contingencies (adult attention and escape from activity "demands"). Although he wet himself frequently, he also used the bathroom appropriately and made many self-initiated toileting requests. Intervention was…

  13. Prevention of clinical urinary tract infections in vulnerable very old persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caljouw, Monique Adriana Anna

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most frequently reported infections among older persons. UTI not only causes several days of illness but may have more severe consequences, such as a decline in functioning, as well as delirium, dehydration, urosepsis, hospitalization, or even death. Annu

  14. [Urinary tract dysfunction in older patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo, Carlos; Méndez, Santiago; Salinas, Jesús

    2016-11-18

    Urinary tract dysfunction in older patients has a multifactorial aetiology and is not a uniform clinical condition. Changes due to physiological ageing as well as comorbidity and polypharmacy, can produce several dynamic conditions such as urinary incontinence and urinary retention. Lower urinary tract symptoms increase with age in both sexes and are a major problem in older patients due to their medical and psychosocial consequences. For these reasons, in assessing urinary dysfunction in older patients, we should consider external circumstances such as polypharmacy, poor mobility, affective and cognitive disorders and also accessibility to housing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging in lower urinary tract endometriosis: iconographic essay; Ressonancia magnetica na endometriose do trato urinario baixo: ensaio iconografico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Claudio Marcio Amaral de Oliveira; Coutinho, Elisa Pompeu Dias; Ribeiro, Erica Barreiros; Domingues, Marisa Nassar Aidar; Junqueira, Flavia Pegado; Coutinho Junior, Antonio Carlos [Clinicas de Diagnostico Por Imagem (CDPI) e Multi-Imagem, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: cmaol@br.inter.net, e-mail: cmaolima@gmail.com

    2009-05-15

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of functional endometrial tissue outside the endometrial cavity and myometrium. Although this is a frequent disease with multifactorial causes, involvement of the lower urinary tract is rare. Magnetic resonance imaging is highly sensitive, specific and accurate in the diagnosis of endometriosis in the lower urinary tract, especially for allowing the identification of lesions obscured by adhesions or with subperitoneal extension. The present iconographic essay presents the main magnetic resonance imaging findings of the lower urinary tract involvement by endometriosis. (author)

  16. Efficient reduction of complex noise in passive millimeter-wavelength video utilizing Bayesian surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundhenk, T. Nathan; Baron, Josh; Matic, Roy M.

    2011-06-01

    Passive millimeter wavelength (PMMW) video holds great promise given its ability to see targets and obstacles through fog, smoke and rain. However, current imagers produce undesirable complex noise. This can come as a mixture of fast shot (snow like) noise and a slower forming circular fixed pattern. Shot noise can be removed by a simple gain style filter. However, this can produce blurring of objects in the scene. To alleviate this, we measure the amount of Bayesian surprise in videos. Bayesian surprise is feature change in time which is abrupt, but cannot be accounted for as shot noise. Surprise is used to attenuate the shot noise filter in locations of high surprise. Since high Bayesian surprise in videos is very salient to observers, this reduces blurring particularly in places where people visually attend. Fixed pattern noise is removed after the shot noise using a combination of Non-uniformity correction (NUC) and Eigen Image Wavelet Transformation. The combination allows for online removal of time varying fixed pattern noise even when background motion may be absent. It also allows for online adaptation to differing intensities of fixed pattern noise. The fixed pattern and shot noise filters are all efficient allowing for real time video processing of PMMW video. We show several examples of PMMW video with complex noise that is much cleaner as a result of the noise removal. Processed video clearly shows cars, houses, trees and utility poles at 20 frames per second.

  17. Antibiotic prophylaxis in children with relapsing urinary tract infections: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiarotti, P; Pizzini, C; Fanos, V

    2000-04-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are observed in 30-50% of children after the first UTI. Of these, approximately 90% occur within 3 months of the initial episode. The basic aim of antibiotic prophylaxis in children with malformative uropathy and/or recurrent UTIs, is to reduce the frequency of UTIs. The bacteria most frequently responsible for UTI are gram-negative organisms, with Escherichia coli accounting for 80% of urinary tract pathogens. In children with recurrent UTIs and in those treated with antibiotic prophylaxis there is a greater incidence of UTI due to Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp. and Enterobacter spp., whereas Pseudomonas spp., Serratia spp. and Candida spp. are more frequent in children with urogenital abnormalities and/or undergoing invasive instrumental investigations. Several factors are involved in the pathogenesis of UTI, the main ones being circumcision, periurethral flora, micturition disorders, bowel disorders, local factors and hygienic measures. Several factors facilitate UTI relapse: malformative uropathies, particularly of the obstructive type; vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR); previous repeated episodes of cystitis and/or pyelonephritis (3 or more episodes a year), even in the absence of urinary tract abnormalities; a frequently catheterized neurogenic bladder; kidney transplant. The precise mechanism of action of low-dose antibiotics is not yet fully known. The characteristics of the ideal prophylactic agent are presented in this review, as well as indications, dosages, side effects, clinical data of all molecules. While inappropriate use of antibiotic prophylaxis encourages the emergence of microbial resistance, its proper use may be of great value in clinical practice, by reducing the frequency and clinical expression of UTIs and, in some cases such as VUR, significantly helping to resolve the underlying pathology.

  18. Urinary tract infections in healthy women: a revolution in management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Mar Chris

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary infection in otherwise healthy women has largely been a straightforward matter of diagnosis by identifying bacteria in the urine, and then cure by appropriate antibiotics. Recent research has shown this to be over-simplified. Evaluation of methods of self-management of symptoms has been neglected. Discussion Firstly trial data show that women with what used to called 'urethral syndrome' (urinary symptoms but sterile urine obtain relief from antibiotics. Other trial data have shown a surprisingly large placebo effect from the resolution of symptoms among women who feel their care has been 'positive'. In addition, data published this month in BMC Medicine show that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID drugs provide symptom relief to women with conventional infections (positive urine bacteriology as much as antibiotics. Conclusions These recent findings provide an opportunity to consider how clinicians might change practice, and sets a new research agenda. We need to know (1 whether the effect of NSAIDs is replicable; (2 why some women in previous trials have had more symptoms if not treated with antibiotics sooner; (3 whether NSAIDs and antibiotics have an additive effect on relieving symptoms; (4 how we can harness the placebo effect better to assist out patients with this distressing and common complaint. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/8/30

  19. Defective urinary crystallization inhibition and urinary stone formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Carvalho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nephrocalcin (NC is a glycoprotein produced in the kidney and inhibits calcium oxalate crystal formation. It has been separated into 4 isoforms (A, B, C, and D and found that (A + B are more abundant than (C + D in urine of healthy subjects, but the reverse is seen in human urine of kidney stone patients. To further examine the role of this protein in inhibition of urinary crystallization, nephrocalcin isoforms were purified from 2 genetically pure dog species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied healthy Beagles, known to be non-stone forming dogs, and Mini-Schnauzers, known to be calcium oxalate stone formers. NC was isolated and purified from each group. Urinary biochemistry and calcium oxalate crystal growth inhibition were measured. RESULTS: Specific crystal growth inhibition activity was significantly higher in non-stone forming dogs (9.79 ± 2.25 in Beagles vs. 2.75 ± 1.34 of Mini-Schnauzers, p < 0.005. Dissociation constants toward calcium oxalate monohydrate were 10-fold different, with Beagles' isoforms being 10 times stronger inhibitors compare to those of Mini-Schnauzers'. Isoforms C + D of NC were the main isoforms isolated in stone-forming dogs. CONCLUSION: NC of these two species of dogs differently affects calcium oxalate crystallization and might have a role in determining ulterior urinary stone formation.

  20. Post-mortem whole body computed tomography of opioid (heroin and methadone) fatalities: frequent findings and comparison to autopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winklhofer, Sebastian; Stolzmann, Paul [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Surer, Eddie; Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Thali, Michael; Schweitzer, Wolf [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Ruder, Thomas [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Bern, Institute of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); Elliott, Marina [Simon Fraser University, Department of Archaeology, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Oestreich, Andrea; Kraemer, Thomas [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Pharmacology and Toxicology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-06-15

    To investigate frequent findings in cases of fatal opioid intoxication in whole-body post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT). PMCT of 55 cases in which heroin and/or methadone had been found responsible for death were retrospectively evaluated (study group), and were compared with PMCT images of an age- and sex-matched control group. Imaging results were compared with conventional autopsy. The most common findings in the study group were: pulmonary oedema (95 %), aspiration (66 %), distended urinary bladder (42 %), cerebral oedema (49 %), pulmonary emphysema (38 %) and fatty liver disease (36 %). These PMCT findings occurred significantly more often in the study group than in the control group (p < 0.05). The combination of lung oedema, brain oedema and distended urinary bladder was seen in 26 % of the cases in the study group but never in the control group (0 %). This triad, as indicator of opioid-related deaths, had a specificity of 100 %, as confirmed by autopsy and toxicological analysis. Frequent findings in cases of fatal opioid intoxication were demonstrated. The triad of brain oedema, lung oedema and a distended urinary bladder on PMCT was highly specific for drug-associated cases of death. (orig.)

  1. Conference of “Uncertainty and Surprise: Questions on Working with the Unexpected and Unknowable”

    CERN Document Server

    McDaniel, Reuben R; Uncertainty and Surprise in Complex Systems : Questions on Working with the Unexpected

    2005-01-01

    Complexity science has been a source of new insight in physical and social systems and has demonstrated that unpredictability and surprise are fundamental aspects of the world around us. This book is the outcome of a discussion meeting of leading scholars and critical thinkers with expertise in complex systems sciences and leaders from a variety of organizations sponsored by the Prigogine Center at The University of Texas at Austin and the Plexus Institute to explore strategies for understanding uncertainty and surprise. Besides distributions to the conference it includes a key digest by the editors as well as a commentary by the late nobel laureat Ilya Prigogine, "Surprises in half of a century". The book is intended for researchers and scientists in complexity science as well as for a broad interdisciplinary audience of both practitioners and scholars. It will well serve those interested in the research issues and in the application of complexity science to physical and social systems.

  2. What is a surprise earthquake? The example of the 2002, San Giuliano (Italy event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mucciarelli

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Both in scientific literature and in the mass media, some earthquakes are defined as «surprise earthquakes». Based on his own judgment, probably any geologist, seismologist or engineer may have his own list of past «surprise earthquakes». This paper tries to quantify the underlying individual perception that may lead a scientist to apply such a definition to a seismic event. The meaning is different, depending on the disciplinary approach. For geologists, the Italian database of seismogenic sources is still too incomplete to allow for a quantitative estimate of the subjective degree of belief. For seismologists, quantification is possible defining the distance between an earthquake and its closest previous neighbor. Finally, for engineers, the San Giuliano quake could not be considered a surprise, since probabilistic site hazard estimates reveal that the change before and after the earthquake is just 4%.

  3. Management of recurrent urinary tract infections in healthy adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling, Duane R; Nitti, Victor W

    2013-01-01

    Recurrence after urinary tract infection (rUTI) is common in adult women. The majority of recurrences are believed to be reinfection from extraurinary sources such as the rectum or vagina. However, uropathogenic Escherichia coli are now known to invade urothelial cells and form quiescent intracellular bacterial reservoirs. Management of women with frequent symptomatic rUTI can be particularly vexing for both patients and their treating physicians. This review addresses available and promising management strategies for rUTI in healthy adult women.

  4. Prevalence of hypercalciuria and urinary calcium excretion in school-aged children in the province of Tokat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Ali; Özer, Samet; Yılmaz, Resul; Sönmezgöz, Ergün; Kasap, Tuba; Takçı, Şahin; Karaaslan, Erhan; Önder, Yalçın; Çıtıl, Rıza; Bütün, İlknur; Demir, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Aim Hypercalciuria is an important cause of urinary tract symptoms, and also frequently results in urolithiasis. Urinary calcium excretion varies for geographic areas. We aimed to assess percentiles of urinary calcium excretion and prevalence of hypercalciuria for school-aged children in Tokat (city located in inner northern region of Turkey). Material and Methods One thousand three hundred seventy-five children aged 6 to 18 years were enrolled in the study. Urine samples were obtained randomly. The children’s variables as sex, age, length, and weight were recorded. Urinary calcium and creatinine determined from the urine samples and urinary calcium/creatinine ratios (mg/mg) were calculated. Percentiles of urinary calcium/creatinine ratios were also assessed for each age of the children. Results Six hundred eighty-three of the 1 375 children were girls and 692 were boys. The mean age of the children was 11.68±3.43 years. Some 23.9% of the children were living in rural regions and 76.1% were were living in urban regions. The mean urinary calcium/creatinine ratio was 0.080±0.24 and the 95th percentile value of the urinary calcium/creatinine ratio was 0.278. The hypercalciuria prevalence for school-aged children was 4.7% when the urinary calcium/creatinine ratio value for hypercalciuria was accepted as ≥0.21. The prevalence of hypercalciuria in rural and urban regions was 7.60% and 3.82%, respectively (p0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of hypercalciuria and urinary calcium excretion vary for different geographic areas, not only for countries. The percentiles of urinary calcium excretion should be assesed for every geographic region and the prevalance of hypercalciuria should be determined with these values. There is controversy as to whether obesity is a risk factor for hypercalciuria. PMID:28123331

  5. Salience and Attention in Surprisal-Based Accounts of Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarcone, Alessandra; van Schijndel, Marten; Vogels, Jorrig; Demberg, Vera

    2016-01-01

    The notion of salience has been singled out as the explanatory factor for a diverse range of linguistic phenomena. In particular, perceptual salience (e.g., visual salience of objects in the world, acoustic prominence of linguistic sounds) and semantic-pragmatic salience (e.g., prominence of recently mentioned or topical referents) have been shown to influence language comprehension and production. A different line of research has sought to account for behavioral correlates of cognitive load during comprehension as well as for certain patterns in language usage using information-theoretic notions, such as surprisal. Surprisal and salience both affect language processing at different levels, but the relationship between the two has not been adequately elucidated, and the question of whether salience can be reduced to surprisal / predictability is still open. Our review identifies two main challenges in addressing this question: terminological inconsistency and lack of integration between high and low levels of representations in salience-based accounts and surprisal-based accounts. We capitalize upon work in visual cognition in order to orient ourselves in surveying the different facets of the notion of salience in linguistics and their relation with models of surprisal. We find that work on salience highlights aspects of linguistic communication that models of surprisal tend to overlook, namely the role of attention and relevance to current goals, and we argue that the Predictive Coding framework provides a unified view which can account for the role played by attention and predictability at different levels of processing and which can clarify the interplay between low and high levels of processes and between predictability-driven expectation and attention-driven focus. PMID:27375525

  6. Salience and attention in surprisal-based accounts of language processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eZarcone

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The notion of salience has been singled out as the explanatory factor for a diverse range oflinguistic phenomena. In particular, perceptual salience (e.g. visual salience of objects in the world,acoustic prominence of linguistic sounds and semantic-pragmatic salience (e.g. prominence ofrecently mentioned or topical referents have been shown to influence language comprehensionand production. A different line of research has sought to account for behavioral correlates ofcognitive load during comprehension as well as for certain patterns in language usage usinginformation-theoretic notions, such as surprisal. Surprisal and salience both affect languageprocessing at different levels, but the relationship between the two has not been adequatelyelucidated, and the question of whether salience can be reduced to surprisal / predictability isstill open. Our review identifies two main challenges in addressing this question: terminologicalinconsistency and lack of integration between high and low levels of representations in salience-based accounts and surprisal-based accounts. We capitalise upon work in visual cognition inorder to orient ourselves in surveying the different facets of the notion of salience in linguisticsand their relation with models of surprisal. We find that work on salience highlights aspects oflinguistic communication that models of surprisal tend to overlook, namely the role of attentionand relevance to current goals, and we argue that the Predictive Coding framework provides aunified view which can account for the role played by attention and predictability at different levelsof processing and which can clarify the interplay between low and high levels of processes andbetween predictability-driven expectation and attention-driven focus.

  7. Artificial urinary sphincters for male stress urinary incontinence: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordon BH

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Billy H Cordon,1 Nirmish Singla,1 Ajay K Singla2 1Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, 2Department of Urology, University of Toledo College of Medicine, Toledo, OH, USA Abstract: The artificial urinary sphincter (AUS, which has evolved over many years, has become a safe and reliable treatment for stress urinary incontinence and is currently the gold standard. After 4 decades of existence, there is substantial experience with the AUS. Today AUS is most commonly placed for postprostatectomy stress urinary incontinence. Only a small proportion of urologists routinely place AUS. In a survey in 2005, only 4% of urologists were considered high-volume AUS implanters, performing >20 per year. Globally, ~11,500 AUSs are placed annually. Over 400 articles have been published regarding the outcomes of AUS, with a wide variance in success rates ranging from 61% to 100%. Generally speaking, the AUS has good long-term outcomes, with social continence rates of ~79% and high patient satisfaction usually between 80% and 90%. Despite good outcomes, a substantial proportion of patients, generally ~25%, will require revision surgery, with the rate of revision increasing with time. Complications requiring revision include infection, urethral atrophy, erosion, and mechanical failure. Most infections are gram-positive skin flora. Urethral atrophy and erosion lie on a spectrum resulting from the same problem, constant urethral compression. However, these two complications are managed differently. Mechanical failure is usually a late complication occurring on average later than infection, atrophy, or erosions. Various techniques may be used during revisions, including cuff relocation, downsizing, transcorporal cuff placement, or tandem cuff placement. Patient satisfaction does not appear to be affected by the need for revision as long as continence is restored. Additionally, AUS following prior sling surgery has comparable

  8. One In Five Inpatient Emergency Department Cases May Lead To Surprise Bills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmon, Christopher; Chartock, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    A surprise medical bill is a bill from an out-of-network provider that was not expected by the patient or that came from an out-of-network provider not chosen by the patient. In 2014, 20 percent of hospital inpatient admissions that originated in the emergency department (ED), 14 percent of outpatient visits to the ED, and 9 percent of elective inpatient admissions likely led to a surprise medical bill. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  9. Risk, surprises and black swans fundamental ideas and concepts in risk assessment and risk management

    CERN Document Server

    Aven, Terje

    2014-01-01

    Risk, Surprises and Black Swans provides an in depth analysis of the risk concept with a focus on the critical link to knowledge; and the lack of knowledge, that risk and probability judgements are based on.Based on technical scientific research, this book presents a new perspective to help you understand how to assess and manage surprising, extreme events, known as 'Black Swans'. This approach looks beyond the traditional probability-based principles to offer a broader insight into the important aspects of uncertain events and in doing so explores the ways to manage them.

  10. [Urinary tract infections in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lellig, E; Apfelbeck, M; Straub, J; Karl, A; Tritschler, S; Stief, C G; Riccabona, M

    2017-02-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common bacterial infections in children. The symptoms are not very specific and range from abdominal pain, poor feeding to nocturnal urinary incontinence. The technique of collecting urine plays an important role for securing the diagnosis. The best way to obtain urine in non-toilet-trained children is catheterization or suprapubic bladder aspiration. In toilet-trained children midstream urine is an acceptable alternative after cleaning the foreskin or labia. In the case of an infection a prompt empirical antibiotic therapy is necessary to reduce the risk of parenchymal scarring of the kidneys. There are different approaches to diagnose vesicoureteral reflux in different countries. The commonly used standard approach in Germany is voiding cystourethrography. In the case of reflux dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy should be performed additionally to exclude renal scarring (bottom-up approach).

  11. Curriculum integration of urinary system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min WANG; Li WANG; Wen-xie XU

    2015-01-01

    As the organ-system oriented integration of medical education has been carried out in many domestic medical schools for years,an urgent need of discussions on various problems of integrated medical education emerges.This paper reviews the urinary integrated educational work in Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine(SJTU-MS)and introduces the contents of the integrated curriculum of urinary system.We focus on whether we should apply the single cycle integration mode or dual cycle mode,and compare the vocational medical education and elite medical education,and demonstrate the importance of inter-system integration and the ideal integrated textbooks.Multifarious teaching methods and other issues are also mentioned.The future development of integrated medical education is prospected positively.

  12. Simple cyst of urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Yang

    2014-07-01

    Simple cysts are rare in the urinary bladder and can pose a diagnostic dilemma to both the urologist and the histopathologist. No case study was found in the database of Elsevier Science Direct, Spring-Link, or PubMed. We present two cases of subserous cyst in the bladder and discuss the diagnosis and treatment of the condition. The cystic lesion at bladder dome was detected by radiologic examination and confirmed by cystoscopy. In case 1, transurethral resection was first performed which was followed by partial cystectomy; In case 2, the cyst was removed with the urachus using laparoscopic surgery. The patients recovered uneventfully and the histopathology showed cysts in subserous layer of urinary bladder. The bladder cyst should be distinguished from urachal tumor, and laparoscopic partial cystectomy is the preferred operative procedure.

  13. The menopause and urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders; Mommsen, Søren

    1994-01-01

    The objective was to study the possible role of the menopause in adult female urinary incontinence (UI) etiology, using a cross-sectional population study comprising a random sample of adult females and self-reported data based on postal questionnaires. The study group comprised 915 women who...... prevalence in 1987 of episodes of stress and urge urinary incontinence; prevalence of menopause and exposure to childbirth, gynecologic surgery, cystitis and obesity as indicated by body mass index more than 29; prevalence relative risks, as indicated by odds ratio of UI conditional on menopause and other...... the year of final menstruation. The findings suggest perimenopausal processes rather than the menopause in general to be responsible for an increased risk of developing UI. The elevation of UI prevalence in the perimenopause may reflect the adjustment of the female continence mechanism to function...

  14. Children with atopic dermatitis and frequent emollient use have increased urinary levels of low molecular weight phthalate metabolites and parabens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Line E K; Main, Katharina M; Frederiksen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parabens may be added to cosmetic and personal care products for preservation purposes. Low-molecular weight (LMW) phthalate diesters function as plasticizers, fixatives or solvents in such products, but may also be found in small quantities as contaminants from plastic containers...

  15. Urinary Tract Infections in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Cohn, Evan B.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an exceedingly common problem prompting seven million office visits and one million hospitalizations in the United States each year (1). Advances in the understanding of both host and bacterial factors involved in UTI have led to many improvements in therapy. While there have also been advances in the realm of antimicrobials, there have been numerous problems with multiple drug resistant organisms. Providing economical care while minimizing drug resistance req...

  16. Epitheloid hemangioendothelioma of urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narmada P Gupta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Epitheloid hemangioendothelioma is an uncommon vascular neoplasm and has an unpredictable clinical behavior. It is characterized by round or spindle-shaped endothelial cells with cytoplasmic vacuolation. Most often, epitheloid hemangioendothelioma arise from the soft tissues of the upper and lower extremities and it has borderline malignant potential. We describe the first reported case of epitheloid hemangioendothelioma in the urinary bladder, which was treated by transurethral resection. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry.

  17. Occurrence rates and predictors of lower urinary tract symptoms and incontinence in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeone, C; Moroni, A; Pettenò, A; Antonelli, A; Zani, D; Orizio, C; Cosciani Cunico, S

    2010-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and incontinence in female athletes and to determine the etiological factors. An anonymous self-questionnaire was collected from 623 casual female athletes aged 18 to 56 years, who were involved in 12 different sports. The surveys were distributed by hand to the athletes, during their sports fitness tests, in a sports center. We investigated the relationship between urinary disorders and factors such as age, body mass index (BMI), parity, duration of physical exercise, and type of sport. The prevalence of LUTS was 54.7%, and 30% for urinary incontinence. Changes in urinary frequency were detected in 91 (14.6%) women. Prevalence of dysuria was 13.3%, urinary straining was present in 173 (27.8%) athletes, whereas urinary urgency had an estimated prevalence of 37.2% with 232 athletes suffering from this disorder. Urgency was very common in volleyball players, as was dysuria among hockey and basketball players, whereas straining mainly affected aerobic participants and cyclists. Long training hours and competitive practices were correlated with the onset of LUTS. High-impact sports were more frequently associated with incontinence, while low-impact sports with LUTS. The sport with the main number of incontinent people was football. Urge incontinence affected a lot of athletes, mainly cyclists and football players. Stress incontinence was more frequent in hockey and volleyball players. LUTS and incontinence are prevalent in female athletes. In many cases, the disorders were present only during sports activities. In this sample, the presence of urinary disorders did not seem to be a barrier during sports or exercise.

  18. URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Margieva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of diagnosing and treating urinary tract infections and their role in development of renal injury are being actively discussed by scientists and practicing pediatricians. The article presents the most recent data on etiological factors, pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of this disease. It provides recommendations on diagnosis and management of patients depending on their age. The article presents a discussion of antibacterial therapy course duration and indications for anti-relapse treatment. The study demonstrates that intravenous antibacterial therapy must be launched immediately in neonates in the event of pyretic fever; empirical antibacterial therapy must be launched immediately in older children after diagnosis of the urinary tract infection has been confirmed; subsequently, treatment ought to be corrected depending on the results of a bacteriological trial, sensitivity to antibiotics and effectiveness of the prescribed antibiotic. Along with normalization of urination rhythm and water intake schedule, antibacterial preventive therapy might be considered, if effective, in the event of recurrent nature of the urinary tract infection. 

  19. Catheter-associated urinary tract infection: antimicrobial sensitivity profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Kelie Souza de Almeida Barros

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive quantitative study aimed to analyze the prevalence of microorganisms and the antimicrobial sensitivity profile from urine cultures of patients with catheter-associated urinary tract infection. We reviewed 394 medical records of adults hospitalized in the Intensive Care Units of the University Hospital of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil, from April to December 2011. The prevalence of catheter-associated urinary tract infection was of 34.0% (134 and 2.2% (3 of these patients developed sepsis. The most common microorganisms found in the urine cultures were Candida sp (44.4%, Acinetobacter baumannii (9.7% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.2%. This last one showed resistance of 86.7% to third-generation cephalosporins and the Acinetobacter baumannii showed resistance of 83.3% to carbapenems. Klebsiella pneumonia had 87.5% of resistance to third and fourth generation cephalosporins and 75.0% to carbapenems. We concluded that bacterial resistance is frequent in catheter-associated urinary tract infection and that we should emphasize the control measures.

  20. Fast Discovering Frequent Patterns for Incremental XML Queries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Dun-lu; QIU Yang

    2004-01-01

    It is nontrivial to maintain such discovered frequent query patterns in real XML-DBMS because the transaction database of queries may allow frequent updates and such updates may not only invalidate some existing frequent query patterns but also generate some new frequent query patterns.In this paper, two incremental updating algorithms, FUXQMiner and FUFXQMiner, are proposed for efficient maintenance of discovered frequent query patterns and generation the new frequent query patterns when new XML queries are added into the database.Experimental results from our implementation show that the proposed algorithms have good performance.

  1. How frequent are overactive bladder symptoms in women with urodynamic verification of an overactive bladder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeniel, Ahmet Özgür; Ergenoğlu, Mete Ahmet; Meseri, Reci; Aşkar, Niyazi; Itil, Ismail Mete

    2012-01-01

    To determine the relationship between overactive bladder symptoms and urodynamic verification of overactive bladder. Between June 2011 and November 2011, 159 patients underwent urodynamics (UDS) at our urogynecology unit in the Ege University Hospital. Of these, 95 patients who complained of urgency, did not have any overt neurological diseases, bladder outlet obstruction and did not take any medication affecting the lower urinary tract function were evaluated. SPSS (ver. 15.0) was used to evaluate the data and the chi-square test and t test for independent samples were used for analysis. The mean age was found to be 54.5±12. Frequency was the most frequent symptom in women with overactive bladder (OAB) (82.1%), nocturia (57.8%) and (57.8%) urgency urinary incontinence followed in frequency. Detrusor over activity incidence was found to be 38.9%. There was no significant relationship between the presence of detrusor over activity (DOA) and OAB symptoms. Leak at urodynamics was found in 46.3% and there is no significant association with detrusor overactivity. Total bladder capacity was found to be significantly lower in women who had DOA (p=0.000). It appears that overactive bladder symptoms do not predict detrusor over activity. Urodynamic investigation is not mandatory in the initial management of women with only OAB symptoms.

  2. Risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Lígia da Silva; Lúcio, Adélia; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence (UI) and its characteristics. This was a case-control study with 344 puerperal women (77 cases and 267 controls) with up to 90 days postpartum. In a single session, participants were given a questionnaire with sociodemographic and clinical data and two others that assessed urine leakage, leakage situations, and type of UI. Stress UI was present in 45.5% of the women, incidents of urine leakage several times a day in 44.2%, of which 71.4% were in small amounts and 57.1% when coughing or sneezing. In 70.1% of cases, UI began during pregnancy and remained through the postpartum period. After running a binary logistic regression model, the following factors remained in the final model: UI during pregnancy (OR 12.82, CI 95% 6.94 - 23.81, pmodelo de regressão logística binária, apenas IU na gestação (OR 12,82, IC 95% 6,94 - 23,81, pmodelo final. A IU iniciou-se frequentemente na gestação e permaneceu no puerpério. A presença de IU na gestação, multiparidade, idade gestacional no parto maior ou igual a 37 semanas e constipação foram fatores de risco. No grupo estudado a IU de esforço foi a mais frequente.

  3. Common bacterial urinary tract infections in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, J E

    1976-09-01

    Unfortunately, there is no general consensus as to how long patients with bacteriuria or urinary tract infections should be monitored and certainly there is no agreement on how long recurrent episodes should be treated beyond ten days to two weeks. The most important points to remember are: 1. Culture the urine both at the time of therapy and during follow-up. The patient should be examined periodically for the presence of bacteruria. If bacteria cannot be eradicated, at least the physician is aware of the organism most likely causing the patient's symptoms. 2. Do not subject the patient with frequent recurrent (chronic) and complicated infections to continual antibacterial therapy, but rather, manage the acute episodes. 3. Use prophylaxis, particularly single bed-time doses for dysuria and frequency symptoms. 4. Screen for bacteriuria during pregnancy. 5. Avoid the use of catheters except where absolutely necessary. 6. Avoid systemic prophylaxis of infection in patients with catheters; rather, use closed-system drainage with antibacteri-irrigation. It is to be hoped within the next few years, studies now underway will allow specific recommendations regarding the management of asymptomatic bacteruria, the duration of therapy for recurrent infections, the prevention and treatment of L-form bacterial infections, and indications for urologic procedures.

  4. Changes in aetiological determinants of urinary fistula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prosper E. Gharoro; Chukwunwendu A. Okonkwo

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Objective: To investigate the localization and aetiological factors associated with urinary fistulae at the University Teaching Hospital in Benin-City, Nigeria. Methods: Records on 96 patients treated by the authors at the gynaecological ward of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin-City, Nigeria between January 1997 and December 2006 were analyzed. Information extracted and analyzed included data on socio-biological, demographic, and obstetric event of the antecedent pregnancy. Results: The average age of patients with vesico-vaginal fistula(VVF) was 34 years with a mean parity of 3. The various mean values for patients' height, weight and body mass index (BMI) were 1.58m, 58.29kg and 24.13 respectively. The majority (92.7%) of fistulas are obstetric in origin. While 5.21% were due to total abdominal hysterectomy and 2.08% due to post irradiation for advanced gynecological malignancy. 53(55.21%) patients had obstetric operative interventions (Forceps or vacuum extraction, and or caesarean section). Caesarean section contributed 23.96% to the total figure. Juxta-cervical fistula was the most frequent, next mid vagina and followed by vesico-uterine (32. 98%, 24.4% and 19.15% respectively).Conclusion: Obstetric surgical intervention by care providers is a major cause of VVF formation with particular reference to Caesarean section. Vesico-uterine fistulas are on the increase.

  5. The problems of urinary tract infections with Candida spp. aetiology in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczak, Hanna; Szałek, Edyta; Grześkowiak, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) in women are a growing clinical concern. The most frequent risk factors of UTIs with fungal aetiology in women are: antibiotic therapy (especially broad-spectrum antibiotics), immunosuppressive therapy, diabetes, malnutrition, pregnancy, and frequent intercourse. The aim of the study was to analyse urinary tract infections with Candida spp. aetiology in women hospitalised at the Clinical Hospital in Poznań, Poland, between 2009 and 2011. The investigations revealed that as many as 71% of positive urine cultures with Candida fungi came from women. The following fungi were most frequently isolated from the patients under analysis: C. albicans (47%), C. glabrata (31%), C. tropicalis (6%), C. krusei (3%). In order to diagnose a UTI the diagnosis cannot be based on a single result of a urine culture. Due to the small number of antifungal drugs and high costs of treatment, antifungal drugs should be applied with due consideration and care.

  6. Did the FED Surprise the Markets in 2001? A Case Study for Vars with Sign Restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.

    2001-01-01

    In 2001, the Fed has lowered interest rates in a series of cuts, starting from 6.5 % at the end of 2000 to 2.0 % by early November.This paper asks, whether the Federal Reserve Bank has been surprising the markets, taking as given the conventional view about the effect of monetary policy shocks.New

  7. Surprise Gift” Purchases of Small Electric Appliances: A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vanhamme (Joëlle); C.J.P.M. de Bont (Cees)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractUnderstanding decision-making processes for gifts is of strategic importance for companies selling small electrical appliances as gifts account for a large part of their sales. Among all gifts, the ones that are surprising are the most valued by recipients. However, research about

  8. Surprising convergence of the Monte Carlo renormalization group for the three-dimensional Ising model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Dorit; Brandt, Achi; Swendsen, Robert H

    2017-05-01

    We present a surprisingly simple approach to high-accuracy calculations of the critical properties of the three-dimensional Ising model. The method uses a modified block-spin transformation with a tunable parameter to improve convergence in the Monte Carlo renormalization group. The block-spin parameter must be tuned differently for different exponents to produce optimal convergence.

  9. Bagpipes and Artichokes: Surprise as a Stimulus to Learning in the Elementary Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Bonnie Schaffhauser

    2016-01-01

    Incorporating surprise into music instruction can stimulate student attention, curiosity, and interest. Novelty focuses attention in the reticular activating system, increasing the potential for brain memory storage. Elementary ages are ideal for introducing novel instruments, pieces, composers, or styles of music. Young children have fewer…

  10. The Educational Philosophies of Mordecai Kaplan and Michael Rosenak: Surprising Similarities and Illuminating Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Jeffrey; Caplan, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The thoughts of Mordecai Kaplan and Michael Rosenak present surprising commonalities as well as illuminating differences. Similarities include the perception that Judaism and Jewish education are in crisis, the belief that Jewish peoplehood must include commitment to meaningful content, the need for teachers to teach from a position of…

  11. Surprise, Memory, and Retrospective Judgment Making: Testing Cognitive Reconstruction Theories of the Hindsight Bias Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Ivan K.

    2009-01-01

    Hindsight bias has been shown to be a pervasive and potentially harmful decision-making bias. A review of 4 competing cognitive reconstruction theories of hindsight bias revealed conflicting predictions about the role and effect of expectation or surprise in retrospective judgment formation. Two experiments tested these predictions examining the…

  12. Did the FED Surprise the Markets in 2001? A Case Study for Vars with Sign Restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.

    2001-01-01

    In 2001, the Fed has lowered interest rates in a series of cuts, starting from 6.5 % at the end of 2000 to 2.0 % by early November.This paper asks, whether the Federal Reserve Bank has been surprising the markets, taking as given the conventional view about the effect of monetary policy shocks.New e

  13. Research for the Agents of the Urinary Infection Resistant to Multiple Antibiotics and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokcen Gurkok Budak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In our study, we aimed to determine the risk factors of multiple antibiotics resistant urinary system infections which are found in urology clinics. Material and Method: In this study, 255 cases in Ižzmir Bozyaka Education and Research Hospital Urology clinic from January 2007 to December 2009 in whose urine cultures urinary infection agents (multi-drug resistance bacteria have grown, were investigated and the patient files were examined retrospectively. The patients whose asymptomatic bacteriuria in culture samples was accepted as contamination or the ones with asymptomatic candiduria or the ones younger than 18 were not included. Results: From their urine cultures, 255 multiple resistant microorganisms were isolated. In 219 of the cultures gram negative (86% and in 36 (14% gram positive agents were isolated. The mean age of the cases accepted to the study was 69 (between 18 and 82. 66% of the cases were male, 34% were female. Most of the patients histories were significant with several urological diagnoses (Benign prostatic hyperplasia, urinary tract stone disease etc. In more than half of the cases, there was a history of urinary tract infection diagnosed in the last six months (71%; and there was antibiotic use history in 86% of the patients in the last six months. In 89% of the patients urinary catheter was applied. The mostly applied catheterizations to patients were bladder catheterization with 81%. Discussion: In our study, all the patients who have got multiple antibiotic resistances in their urine cultures, had at least two of followings: Frequent hospital admissions and hospitalization, urinary catheterization and repeated urological surgical intervention history. We found out existence of urinary catheter and recent use of antibiotics, as the highest risk factor for resistant urinary infection development.

  14. An in vitro urinary tract catheter system to investigate biofilm development in catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohnt, Katrin; Sauer, Marie; Müller, Maren; Atallah, Karin; Weidemann, Marina; Gronemeyer, Petra; Rasch, Detlev; Tielen, Petra; Krull, Rainer

    2011-12-01

    Biofilm development in urinary tract catheters is an often underestimated problem. However, this form of infection leads to high mortality rates and causes significant costs in health care. Therefore, it is important to analyze these biofilms and establish avoiding strategies. In this study a continuous flow-through system for the cultivation of biofilms under catheter-associated urinary tract infection conditions was established and validated. The in vitro urinary tract catheter system implies the composition of urine (artificial urine medium), the mean volume of urine of adults (1 mL min(-1)), the frequently used silicone catheter (foley silicon catheter) as well as the infection with uropathogenic microorganisms like Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Three clinical isolates from urine of catheterized patients were chosen due to their ability to form biofilms, their mobility and their cell surface hydrophobicity. As reference strain P. aeruginosa PA14 has been used. Characteristic parameters as biofilm thickness, specific biofilm growth rate and substrate consumption were observed. Biofilm thicknesses varied from 105±16 μm up to 246±67 μm for the different isolates. The specific biofilm growth rate could be determined with a non invasive optical biomass sensor. This sensor allows online monitoring of the biofilm growth in the progress of the cultivation.

  15. Undiagnosed nephrogenic diabetes insipidus as a cause of acute urinary retention in a young soldier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Jin; Shin, Y S; Choi, H; Kim, M K; Jeong, Y B; Park, J K

    2016-10-01

    We present a case of undiagnosed nephrogenic diabetes insipidus as a cause of acute urinary retention in a 21-year-old male soldier. Soldiers live in close quarters, and have a regimented lifestyle that may not allow for frequent voiding; therefore, undiagnosed nephrogenic diabetes insipidus may result in acute urinary retention. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Parabens as Urinary Biomarkers of Exposure in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoyun; Bishop, Amber M.; Reidy, John A.; Needham, Larry L.; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2006-01-01

    Background Parabens appear frequently as antimicrobial preservatives in cosmetic products, in pharmaceuticals, and in food and beverage processing. In vivo and in vitro studies have revealed weak estrogenic activity of some parabens. Widespread use has raised concerns about the potential human health risks associated with paraben exposure. Objectives Assessing human exposure to parabens usually involves measuring in urine the conjugated or free species of parabens or their metabolites. In animals, parabens are mostly hydrolyzed to p-hydroxybenzoic acid and excreted in the urine as conjugates. Still, monitoring urinary concentrations of p-hydroxybenzoic acid is not necessarily the best way to assess exposure to parabens. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid is a nonspecific biomarker, and the varying estrogenic bioactivities of parabens require specific biomarkers. Therefore, we evaluated the use of free and conjugated parent parabens as new biomarkers for human exposure to these compounds. Results We measured the urinary concentrations of methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, butyl (n- and iso-), and benzyl parabens in a demographically diverse group of 100 anonymous adults. We detected methyl and n-propyl parabens at the highest median concentrations (43.9 ng/mL and 9.05 ng/mL, respectively) in nearly all (> 96%) of the samples. We also detected other parabens in more than half of the samples (ethyl, 58%; butyl, 69%). Most important, however, we found that parabens in urine appear predominantly in their conjugated forms. Conclusions The results, demonstrating the presence of urinary conjugates of parabens in humans, suggest that such conjugated parabens could be used as exposure biomarkers. Additionally, the fact that conjugates appear to be the main urinary products of parabens may be important for risk assessment. PMID:17185273

  17. Urinary tract infections: etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Laneve

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections are a serious health problem affecting millions of people each year.They are the second most common type of infection in the body.The objective of study was to determine the etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of urinary tract infections pathogens isolated in our Patology Clinic laboratory. Materials and Methods: During the period July 2007- July 2008,were analysed 1422 urine samples.The determination of the total microbe load were acquire with an kit of the BIO-DETECTOR while the identification of germs with Apy sistem. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were assaied with the ATB UR strip. Results: About the total of samples analysed, 320 (22% had significant bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most common etiologic agent isolated (62%, followed by Klebsiella ssp. (10%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5,95% and Proteus mirabilis (5%. Gram-positive bacteria accounted for only 7.32% , with prevalence of Staphylococcus ssp (5,32 and Enterococcus spp (2%. The most effective antibiotics for Gram- were: Imipenem, Amikacin, Ceftazidime and Cefotaxim, while for Gram+ were: Minocyclin,Vancomycin and Oxacillin. Conclusion: Escherichia coli was the microrganism more frequently isolated between Gram negative bacteria with very susceptible to Amoxicillin. Currently, the empirical use of Cotrimoxazole and Amoxicillin is not recommended for Enterobacteriaceae. Urinary tract infections are more common in women than in men. Men are more likely to get a UTI once past the age of 65. Current data on the prevalence of multidrug resistance among urinary tract isolates should be a consideration to change the current empiric treatment of IVU.

  18. The DMSA scan in paediatric urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditchfield, M.R.; Nadel, H.R. [British Columbia`s Children`s Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    1998-11-01

    The objective of the present paper was to review the use of the dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan in urinary tract infection at British Columbia`s Children`s Hospital to determine the frequency of cortical defects and the association between vesico-ureteric reflux and the presence of cortical defects in children with urinary tract infection. A total of 129 consecutive children with a urinary tract infection referred for a DMSA scan in a 2-year period (January 1992-January 1994) were retrospectively studied. The results were analysed in terms of kidneys, and the incidence of cortical defects was determined. Eighty-eight patients (68%) had a radiographic micturating cysto-urethrogram within 6 months of the DMSA scan, and in this group the relationship of defects with vesico-ureteric reflux was determined. Overall, 81/258 (31%) of kidneys had a cortical defect on a DMSA scan. Of those who had a micturating cysto-urethrogram, 53/176 (30%) kidneys had vesico-ureteric reflux, and of those that had reflux, 21/53 (40%) had a cortical defect on a DMSA scan. In the group of children without reflux, 38/123 (31%) had a cortical defect. Renal cortical scan defects are common findings in paediatric urinary infection, and frequently occur in the absence of vesico-ureteric reflux. These defects represent either established scars or acute pyelonephritis that can proceed to scarring. The micturating cysto-urethro-gram alone is insufficient as a screening modality to identify those kidneys at risk of renal scarring. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 20 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  19. Influence of Frequent Nocturnal Home Hemodialysis on Food Preference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ipema, Karin; Franssen, Casper; van der Schans, Cees; Smit, Lianne; Noordman, Sabine; Haisma, Hinke

    Objective: Dialysis patients frequently report a change of taste that is reversible after renal transplantation, suggesting that uremic toxins may negatively influence taste. Currently, frequent nocturnal home hemodialysis (NHHD) is the most effective method of hemodialysis, and is associated with

  20. Urinary tract infection in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Theresa A; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria are common in older adults. Unlike in younger adults, distinguishing symptomatic urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria is problematic, as older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, are less likely to present with localized genitourinary symptoms. Consensus guidelines have been published to assist clinicians with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection; however, a single evidence-based ap...

  1. Urinary pH and renal lithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, F; Costa-Bauzá, A; Gomila, I; Ramis, M; García-Raja, A; Prieto, R M

    2012-02-01

    Formation of calcium oxalate crystals, either as monohydrate or dihydrate, is apparently unrelated to urinary pH because the solubilities of these salts are practically unaltered at physiologic urinary pH values. However, a urinary pH 6.0 may induce uric acid or calcium phosphate crystals formation, respectively, which under appropriate conditions may induce the development of the calcium oxalate calculi. We assessed the relationship between the urinary pH and the formation of different types of calculi. A retrospective study in 1,478 patients was done. We determined the composition, macrostructure, and microstructure of the calculi and the urinary pH, 50.9% of calcium oxalate monohydrate unattached calculi were present in patients with urinary pH 6.0, respectively. Infectious calculi were found primarily in patients with urinary pH >6.0 (50.7%). Only calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi were associated with urinary pH between 5.5 and 6.0 (43.1%). Urine of pH 6.0 has an increased capacity to develop calcium phosphate crystals, which can act as a heterogeneous nuclei of calcium oxalate crystals. Oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi were associated to pH between 5.5 and 6.0 because the injured papilla acts as a heterogeneous nucleant. Consequently, measurement of urinary pH may be used to evaluate the lithogen risk of given urine.

  2. NASA Astronaut Urinary Conditions Associated with Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jennifer; Cole, Richard; Young, Millennia H.; Mason, Sara

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Spaceflight is associated with many factors which may promote kidney stone formation, urinary retention, and/or Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). According to ISS mission predictions supplied by NASA's Integrated Medical Model, kidney stone is the second and sepsis (urosepsis as primary driver) the third most likely reason for emergent medical evacuation from the International Space Station (ISS). METHODS: Inflight and postflight medical records of NASA astronauts were reviewed for urinary retention, UTI and kidney stones during Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Mir, Shuttle, and ISS expeditions 1-38. RESULTS: NASA astronauts have had 7 cases of kidney stones in the 12 months after flight. Three of these cases occurred within 90 to 180 days after landing and one of the seven cases occurred in the first 90 days after flight. There have been a total of 16 cases (0.018 events per person-flights) of urinary retention during flight. The event rates per mission are nearly identical between Shuttle and ISS flights (0.019 vs 0.021 events per person-flights). In 12 of the 16 cases, astronauts had taken at least one space motion sickness medication. Upon further analysis, it was determined that the odds of developing urinary retention in spaceflight is 3 times higher among astronauts who took promethazine. The female to male odds ratio for inflight urinary retention is 11:14. An astronaut with urinary retention is 25 times more likely to have a UTI with a 17% infection rate per mission. There have been 9 reported UTIs during spaceflight. DISCUSSION: It is unclear if spaceflight carries an increased post-flight risk of kidney stones. Regarding urinary retention, the female to male odds ratio is higher during flight compared to the general population where older males comprise almost all cases due to prostatic hypertrophy. This female prevalence in spaceflight is even more concerning given the fact that there have been many more males in space than females. Terrestrial

  3. Etiologic study of urinary tract infection in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Mery Kogika

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections were documented in 51 dogs. Several factors such as etiologic agents, localization of the infection, predisposing factors, sex, age, and breed were considered. The diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI was based on bacteriological investigation and it was considered positive when urine sample collected by catheterization contained more than 105 bacteria/ml. Mixed infection was found in 4 of the infected dogs, totallizing 55 isolates. Among them, Escherichia coli (35.3% was the most frequently isolated, followed by Staphylococcus sp. (23.5%, Proteus mirabilis (15.7%, Streptococcus sp. (13.7%, Klebsiella sp. (9.8%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3.9%, Enterobacter cloacae (2.0%, Citrobacter freundii (2.0% and Providencia rettgeri (2.0%. As to antimicrobial susceptibility, norfloxacin and gentamicin were successful for the treatment of gram-negative microorganisms, while the most effective drugs for gram-positive bacteria were cephalothin and nitrofurantoin. UTI was observed more frequently in Cocker Spaniel and German Shepherd; male dogs were more involved, and pyelonephritis was the predominant disease observed. Infection was seen in all ages, but the frequency was higher in middle aged dogs. Urolithiasis were observed as common predisposing or underlying factors to UTI being, cither Staphylococcus sp. or Proteus mirabilis isolated in those cases which alkaline urine pH was observed.

  4. EAU guidelines on urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thüroff, Joachim W; Abrams, Paul; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Artibani, Walter; Chapple, Christopher R; Drake, Marcus J; Hampel, Christian; Neisius, Andreas; Schröder, Annette; Tubaro, Andrea

    2011-03-01

    The first European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines on incontinence were published in 2001. These guidelines were periodically updated in past years. The aim of this paper is to present a summary of the 2009 update of the EAU guidelines on urinary incontinence (UI). The EAU working panel was part of the 4th International Consultation on Incontinence (ICI) and, with permission of the ICI, extracted the relevant data. The methodology of the 4th ICI was a comprehensive literature review by international experts and consensus formation. In addition, level of evidence was rated according to a modified Oxford system and grades of recommendation were given accordingly. A full version of the EAU guidelines on urinary incontinence is available as a printed document (extended and short form) and as a CD-ROM from the EAU office or online from the EAU Web site (http://www.uroweb.org/guidelines/online-guidelines/). The extent and invasiveness of assessment of UI depends on severity and/or complexity of symptoms and clinical signs and is different for men, women, frail older persons, children, and patients with neuropathy. At the level of initial management, basic diagnostic tests are applied to exclude an underlying disease or condition such as urinary tract infection. Treatment is mostly conservative (lifestyle interventions, physiotherapy, physical therapy, pharmacotherapy) and is of an empirical nature. At the level of specialised management (when primary therapy failed, diagnosis is unclear, or symptoms and/or signs are complex/severe), more elaborate assessment is generally required, including imaging, endoscopy, and urodynamics. Treatment options include invasive interventions and surgery. Treatment options for UI are rapidly expanding. These EAU guidelines provide ratings of the evidence (guided by evidence-based medicine) and graded recommendations for the appropriate assessment and according treatment options and put them into clinical perspective. Copyright

  5. [EAU Guidelines on Urinary Incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thüroff, J W; Abrams, P; Andersson, K-E; Artibani, W; Chapple, C R; Drake, M J; Hampel, C; Neisius, A; Schröder, A; Tubaro, A

    2011-01-01

    The first European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines on incontinence were published in 2001. These guidelines were periodically updated in past years. The aim of this paper is to present a summary of the 2009 update of the EAU guidelines on urinary incontinence (UI). The EAU working panel was part of the 4th International Consultation on Incontinence (ICI) and, with permission of the ICI, extracted the relevant data. The methodology of the 4th ICI was a comprehensive literature review by international experts and consensus formation. In addition, level of evidence was rated according to a modified Oxford system and grades of recommendation were given accordingly. A full version of the EAU guidelines on urinary incontinence is available as a printed document (extended and short form) and as a CD-ROM from the EAU office or online from the EAU Web site (http://www.uroweb.org/guidelines/online-guidelines/). The extent and invasiveness of assessment of UI depends on severity and/or complexity of symptoms and clinical signs and is different for men, women, frail older persons, children, and patients with neuropathy. At the level of initial management, basic diagnostic tests are applied to exclude an underlying disease or condition such as urinary tract infection. Treatment is mostly conservative (lifestyle interventions, physiotherapy, physical therapy, pharmacotherapy) and is of an empirical nature. At the level of specialised management (when primary therapy failed, diagnosis is unclear, or symptoms and/or signs are complex/severe),more elaborate assessment is generally required, including imaging, endoscopy, and urodynamics. Treatment options include invasive interventions and surgery. Treatment options for UI are rapidly expanding. These EAU guidelines provide ratings of the evidence (guided by evidence-based medicine) and graded recommendations for the appropriate assessment and according treatment options and put them into clinical perspective. Copyright

  6. Bladder Infection (Urinary Tract Infection - UTI) in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It Works Urologic Diseases A-Z Bladder Infection (Urinary Tract Infection—UTI) in Adults View or Print All Sections ... Bladder infections are the most common type of urinary tract infection (UTI), but any part of your urinary tract ...

  7. Analysing risk factors for urinary tract infection based on automated monitoring of hospital-acquired infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redder, J D; Leth, R A; Møller, J K

    2016-04-01

    Urinary tract infections account for as much as one-third of all nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was to examine previously reported characteristics of patients with hospital-acquired urinary tract infections (HA-UTI) using an automated infection monitoring system (Hospital-Acquired Infection Registry: HAIR). A matched case-control study was conducted to investigate the association of risk factors with HA-UTI. Patients with HA-UTI more frequently had indwelling urinary catheters or a disease in the genitourinary or nervous system than the controls. Automated hospital-acquired infection monitoring enables documentation of key risk factors to better evaluate infection control interventions in general or for selected groups of patients.

  8. Surprising electronic structure of the BeH- dimer: a full-configuration-interaction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdicchio, Marco; Bendazzoli, Gian Luigi; Evangelisti, Stefano; Leininger, Thierry

    2013-01-10

    The electronic structure of the beryllium hydride anion, BeH(-), was investigated at valence full-configuration-interaction (FCI) level, using large cc-pV6Z basis sets. It appears that there is a deep change of the wave function nature as a function of the internuclear distance: the ion structure goes from a weakly bonded Be···H(-) complex, at long distance, to a rather strongly bonded system (more than 2 eV) at short distance, having a (:Be-H)(-) Lewis structure. In this case, it is the beryllium atom that formally bears the negative charge, a surprising result in view of the fact that it is the hydrogen atom that has a larger electronegativity. Even more surprisingly, at very short distances the average position of the total electronic charge is close to the beryllium atom but on the opposite side with respect to the hydrogen position.

  9. [Utilization of antibiotics according to most frequent indications at Hungarian hospitals and results of surveys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternák, G; Almási, I

    1997-05-25

    Antibiotic utilisation of 8 Hungarian hospitals was analyzed examining the case histories of patients who were discharged between January 1 and 31, 1995. Usage of antibiotics in the most frequent indications is reported in this paper. Majority of the prescriptions for the treatment of upper and lower respiratory tract infections were broad spectrum beta lactams. Higher rate of penicillin usage was found only in tonsillitis cases. Besides II. generation cephalosporins (22.7% of 730 prescriptions), beta-lactamase inhibitor + aminopenicillin combinations (13.4%) and III. generation cephalosporins (9.5%) considerable quantity of aminoglycosides (14.9%) and quinolones (9.5%) were found in pneumonia. Relatively high rate of aminoglycosides in the treatment of lower respiratory infections is inconsistent with therapeutic guidelines in force. Co-trimoxazol and quinolones were most frequently prescribed for the treatment of lower urinary tract infections. Traditional urodesinficients were on the first place only at one hospital. Treatment of frequently occurring nosocomial infections was compared with those of community acquired at the same site. There was not significant difference in the utilisation rates of the most of antibiotic groups regarding place of disease acquisition. 44% of the 1373 prescriptions for perioperative profilaxis was indicated for clean operations where benefit of antibiotic administration is questionable. Duration of antibiotic profilaxis was more than 48 hours in 59% of prescriptions. Drugs most frequently used for perioperative profilaxis were II. generation cephalosporins (23.7%), metronidazol (16.7%), aminoglycosides (9.6%) and III. generation cephalosporines (9.6%). The authors compare their results to the literature. They suggest the setting up of "infection control committees" to organise the antibiotic policies in hospitals.

  10. Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Oil and Its Active Constituent Linalyl Acetate Alleviate Pain and Urinary Residual Sense after Colorectal Cancer Surgery: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, So Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Pain and urinary symptoms following colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery are frequent and carry a poor recovery. This study tested the effects of inhalation of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender) oil or linalyl acetate on pain relief and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) following the removal of indwelling urinary catheters from patients after CRC surgery. This randomised control study recruited 66 subjects with indwelling urinary catheters after undergoing CRC surgery who later underwent catheter removal. Patients inhaled 1% lavender, 1% linalyl acetate, or vehicle (control group) for 20 minutes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate, LUTS, and visual analog scales of pain magnitude and quality of life (QoL) regarding urinary symptoms were measured before and after inhalation. Systolic BP, diastolic BP, heart rate, LUTS, and QoL satisfaction with urinary symptoms were similar in the three groups. Significant differences in pain magnitude and urinary residual sense of indwelling catheters were observed among the three groups, with inhalation of linalyl acetate being significantly more effective than inhalation of lavender or vehicle. Inhalation of linalyl acetate is an effective nursing intervention to relieve pain and urinary residual sense of indwelling urinary catheters following their removal from patients who underwent CRC surgery. PMID:28154606

  11. Investigating locality effects and surprisal in written English syntactic choice phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Rajakrishnan; van Schijndel, Marten; White, Michael; Schuler, William

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the extent to which syntactic choice in written English is influenced by processing considerations as predicted by Gibson's (2000) Dependency Locality Theory (DLT) and Surprisal Theory (Hale, 2001; Levy, 2008). A long line of previous work attests that languages display a tendency for shorter dependencies, and in a previous corpus study, Temperley (2007) provided evidence that this tendency exerts a strong influence on constituent ordering choices. However, Temperley's study included no frequency-based controls, and subsequent work on sentence comprehension with broad-coverage eye-tracking corpora found weak or negative effects of DLT-based measures when frequency effects were statistically controlled for (Demberg & Keller, 2008; van Schijndel, Nguyen, & Schuler 2013; van Schijndel & Schuler, 2013), calling into question the actual impact of dependency locality on syntactic choice phenomena. Going beyond Temperley's work, we show that DLT integration costs are indeed a significant predictor of syntactic choice in written English even in the presence of competing frequency-based and cognitively motivated control factors, including n-gram probability and PCFG surprisal as well as embedding depth (Wu, Bachrach, Cardenas, & Schuler, 2010; Yngve, 1960). Our study also shows that the predictions of dependency length and surprisal are only moderately correlated, a finding which mirrors Dember & Keller's (2008) results for sentence comprehension. Further, we demonstrate that the efficacy of dependency length in predicting the corpus choice increases with increasing head-dependent distances. At the same time, we find that the tendency towards dependency locality is not always observed, and with pre-verbal adjuncts in particular, non-locality cases are found more often than not. In contrast, surprisal is effective in these cases, and the embedding depth measures further increase prediction accuracy. We discuss the implications of our findings for theories of

  12. Surprise and sense making: what newcomers experience in entering unfamiliar organizational settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, M R

    1980-06-01

    Growing disillusionment among new members of organizations has been traced to inadequacies in approaches to organizational entry. Current directions of research on organizational entry and their limitations are described, and a new perspective is proposed. The new perspective identifies key features of newcomers' entry experiences, including surprise, contrast, and change, and describes the sense-making processes by which individuals cope with their entry experiences. Implications for research and practice on organizational entry are drawn.

  13. Each individual is a surprise: a conversation with Marianne Horney Eckardt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Jeffrey B

    2014-06-01

    "Each Individual is a Surprise" is a brief account of a dialogue between Marianne Horney Eckardt and myself about the state of psychoanalysis and the psychoanalytic process, the danger of idolatry, the damaging impact of psychoanalytic schools when they create a standardized and pathologizing approach to people, the value of curiosity and humility and retaining one's clinical creativity. The role of Rank, Horney, Sullivan, and Fromm in Dr. Eckardt's long life and rich work is touched upon.

  14. Bladder Dysfunction and Urinary Incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. faizi

    2009-01-01

    , the internal pressure of the urethra should also increase. In women, the internal pressure of the urethra is short, and even if it has poorly developed they wet themselves when they cough. "nThe causes of BD: "nAs you see there are 17 causes, which 11 are related to the bladder. The bladder is responsible for retaining the urine and voiding. "nPathophysiology: "nThe bladder and sphincter should work in a coordinated manner: "nDuring the course of a day, an average person will void approximately 4-8 times. The urinary bladder is in storage mode for most of the day, allowing an individual to engage in more important activities than urination. "nNormal bladder function consists of 2 phases—filling and emptying. The normal micturition cycle requires the urinary bladder and the urethral sphincter working together as a coordinated unit to store and empty urine. During urinary storage, the bladder acts as a low-pressure receptacle, while the urinary sphincter maintains high resistance to urinary flow to keep the bladder outlet closed. During urine elimination, the bladder contracts to expel urine while the urinary sphincter opens (low resistance to allow unobstructed urinary flow and bladder emptying. "nFilling phase: "nDuring the filling phase, the bladder accumulates increasing volumes of urine while the pressure inside the bladder remains low. The pressure within the bladder must be lower than the urethral pressure during the filling phase. If the bladder pressure is greater than the urethral pressure (resistance, urine will leak out. "nThe filling of the urinary bladder depends on the intrinsic viscoelastic properties of the bladder and the inhibition of the parasympathetic nerves. Thus, bladder filling is primarily a passive event. "nSympathetic nerves also facilitate urine storage in the following ways: "nSympathetic nerves inhibit the parasympathetic nerves from triggering bladder contractions. "

  15. Urinary tract infections in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chee Wei; Chlebicki, Maciej Piotr

    2016-09-01

    A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a collective term for infections that involve any part of the urinary tract. It is one of the most common infections in local primary care. The incidence of UTIs in adult males aged under 50 years is low, with adult women being 30 times more likely than men to develop a UTI. Appropriate classification of UTI into simple or complicated forms guides its management and the ORENUC classification can be used. Diagnosis of a UTI is based on a focused history, with appropriate investigations depending on individual risk factors. Simple uncomplicated cystitis responds very well to oral antibiotics, but complicated UTIs may require early imaging, and referral to the emergency department or hospitalisation to prevent urosepsis may be warranted. Escherichia coli remains the predominant uropathogen in acute community-acquired uncomplicated UTIs and amoxicillin-clavulanate is useful as a first-line antibiotic. Family physicians are capable of managing most UTIs if guided by appropriate history, investigations and appropriate antibiotics to achieve good outcomes and minimise antibiotic resistance. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  16. Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder

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    Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lymphoma of the urinary bladder (LUB is rare. Aims. To review the literature on LUB. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results. LUB can be either primary or secondary. The tumour has female predominance; most cases occur in middle-age women. Secondary LUB occurs in 10% to 25% of leukemias/lymphomas and in advanced-stage systemic lymphoma. Less than 100 cases have been reported. MALT typically affects adults older than 60 years; 75% are female. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is also common and may arise from transformation of MALT. LUB presents with haematuria, dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia, and abdominal or back pain. Macroscopic examination of LUBs show large discrete tumours centred in the dome or lateral walls of the bladder. Positive staining of LUB varies by the subtype of lymphoma; B-cell lymphomas are CD20 positive. MALT lymphoma is positively stained for CD20, CD19, and FMC7 and negatively stained for CD5, CD10, and CD11c. LUB stains negatively with Pan-keratin, vimentin, CK20, and CK7. MALT lymphoma exhibits t(11; 18(q21: 21. Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the MALT type of LUB with no recurrence. Conclusions. LUB is diagnosed by its characteristic morphology and immunohistochemical characteristics. Radiotherapy is a useful treatment.

  17. Surprise and Opportunity for Learning in Grand Canyon: the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program

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    Theodore S. Melis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With a focus on resources of the Colorado River ecosystem below Glen Canyon Dam, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program has included a variety of experimental policy tests, ranging from manipulation of water releases from the dam to removal of non-native fish within Grand Canyon National Park. None of these field-scale experiments has yet produced unambiguous results in terms of management prescriptions. But there has been adaptive learning, mostly from unanticipated or surprising resource responses relative to predictions from ecosystem modeling. Surprise learning opportunities may often be viewed with dismay by some stakeholders who might not be clear about the purpose of science and modeling in adaptive management. However, the experimental results from the Glen Canyon Dam program actually represent scientific successes in terms of revealing new opportunities for developing better river management policies. A new long-term experimental management planning process for Glen Canyon Dam operations, started in 2011 by the U.S. Department of the Interior, provides an opportunity to refocus management objectives, identify and evaluate key uncertainties about the influence of dam releases, and refine monitoring for learning over the next several decades. Adaptive learning since 1995 is critical input to this long-term planning effort. Embracing uncertainty and surprise outcomes revealed by monitoring and ecosystem modeling will likely continue the advancement of resource objectives below the dam, and may also promote efficient learning in other complex programs.

  18. Evaluation of the urinary microbiota of women with uncomplicated stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-White, Krystal J; Kliethermes, Stephanie; Rickey, Leslie; Lukacz, Emily S; Richter, Holly E; Moalli, Pamela; Zimmern, Philippe; Norton, Peggy; Kusek, John W; Wolfe, Alan J; Brubaker, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Female urinary microbiota are associated with urgency urinary incontinence and response to medication. The urinary microbiota of women with stress urinary incontinence has not been described. We sought to study the cross-sectional relationships between urinary microbiota features and demographic and clinical characteristics of women undergoing stress urinary incontinence surgery. Preoperative urine specimens were collected from women without urinary tract infection and were available from 197 women (174 voided, 23 catheterized) enrolled in a multicenter prospective randomized trial, the Value of Urodynamic Evaluation study. Demographic and clinical variables were obtained including stress and urgency urinary incontinence symptoms, menopausal status, and hormone use. The bacterial composition of the urine was qualitatively assessed by sequencing the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Phylogenetic relatedness and microbial alpha diversity were compared to demographics and symptoms using generalized estimating equation models. The majority of 197 urine samples (86%) had detectable bacterial DNA. Bacterial diversity was significantly associated with higher body mass index (P = .02); increased Medical, Epidemiologic, and Social Aspects of Aging urge index score (P = .04); and hormonal status (P microbiota. This cross-sectional analysis revealed that increased diversity of the microbiota was associated with urgency urinary incontinence symptoms, hormonal status, and body mass index. In contrast, the female urinary microbiota were not associated with stress urinary incontinence symptoms. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Sexually acquired Salmonella Typhi urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielding, Sally; Scott, Gordon

    2016-05-01

    We report a case of isolated urinary Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi in an HIV-positive man who has sex with men. He was clinically well and blood and stool cultures were negative, indicating that this may have been a sexually acquired urinary tract infection.

  20. Urinary tract infection in girls - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI) should begin to improve within 1 to 2 days in most girls. The advice below may not ... Elder JS. Urinary tract infections. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ... NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  1. Urinary Incontinence: Management and Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebling, Tomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Urinary incontinence, defined as the involuntary leakage of urine, is a common health problem in both women and men. Children may also suffer from this condition. Management and treatment of urinary incontinence depends primarily on the specific type of incontinence and the underlying problem causing the leakage for a given patient. Because…

  2. Undertreatment of urinary incontinence in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning-van Beest, F.J.A.; Sturkenboom, M.C.; Bemelmans, B.L.H.; Herings, R.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the urinary incontinence guidelines that are issued by the Dutch College of General Practitioners, treatment guidelines are related to the type of incontinence. It is unknown whether treatment of urinary incontinence in general practice complies with these guidelines. OBJECTIVE: To de

  3. Hypercalciuria in children with urinary tract symptoms

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    Fallahzadeh M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed this prospective study to determine the urinary calcium to creatinine ratio (Ca/Cr in children with different urinary symptoms. We studied 523 children in our neph-rology clinic with an age range of 3 to 14 years (mean= 8 and male to female ratio of 0.61. All the children had at least one of the urinary tract symptoms (dysuria, frequency, urgency, abdo-minal and/or flank pain, diurnal incontinence or enuresis, microscopic hematuria, urinary tract infection or urolithiasis. Fasting urine was collected for measuring calcium and creatinine and the results were compared to the values for the normal Iranian children. Ca/Cr ratio of more than 0.2 (mg/mg was considered as hypercalciuria. Of all the patients, 166 (31.3% were hypercalciuric. Urine Ca/Cr ratio was significantly higher in all the subgroups with one or more of the urinary symptoms (P< 0.001. We conclude that urine Ca/Cr ratio is significantly increased in children with all types of urinary symptoms. We recommend measuring urinary calcium in all children with urinary tract symptoms, especially if unexplained.

  4. Urinary calprotectin and posttransplant renal allograft injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepel, Martin; Borst, Christoffer; Bistrup, Claus

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Current methods do not predict the acute renal allograft injury immediately after kidney transplantation. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of urinary calprotectin for predicting immediate posttransplant allograft injury. METHODS: In a multicenter, prospective-cohort study of 144...... incipient renal transplant recipients, we postoperatively measured urinary calprotectin using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after 4 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. RESULTS: We observed a significant inverse association of urinary calprotectin...... regression showed that higher urinary calprotectin concentrations and older donor age predicted lower eGFR four weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary calprotectin is an early, noninvasive predictor of immediate renal allograft injury after kidney transplantation....

  5. Spinal morphine anesthesia and urinary retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, K T; Wang, J

    1993-11-01

    Spinal anesthetic is a common form of surgical anesthetic used in foot and ankle surgery. Spinal morphine anesthetic is less common, but has the advantage of providing postoperative analgesia for 12 to 24 hr. A number of complications can occur with spinal anesthesia, including urinary retention that may be a source of severe and often prolonged discomfort and pain for the patient. Management of this problem may require repeated bladder catheterization, which may lead to urinary tract infections or impairment of urethrovesicular function. This study reviews the incidence of urinary retention in 80 patients (40 after general anesthesia and 40 after spinal anesthesia) who underwent foot and ankle surgery at Saint Joseph's Hospital, Philadelphia, PA. Twenty-five percent of the patients who had spinal anesthesia experienced urinary retention, while only 7 1/2% of the group who had general anesthesia had this complication. Predisposing factors, treatment regimen, and recommendations for the prevention and management of urinary retention are presented.

  6. STUDY OF URINARY CALCIUM AND URINARY CREATININE LEVELS AND URINARY CALCIUM/CREATININE RATIO IN GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS

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    Swapna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gestational hypertension (BP>140/90mmHg or pregnancy induced hypertension usually precedes pre - eclampsia (BP>140/90mmHg associated with proteniuria. Many tests to predict pre - eclampsia are coming up on the horizon. Hypocalciuria is one such test to predict pre - eclampsia which may be present before other clinical signs and symptoms. AIM: To determine urinary calcium, urinary creatinine and urinary calcium/creatinine ratio in pregnancy induced hypertension and in normal pregnant women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 100 subjects with gestational age between 24 - 38 weeks and divided into two groups’ viz. control group and study group . The control group included 50 subjects who were normal pregnant women and study group included 50 subjects who were gestational hypertensive patients. Urinary calcium was estimated by Ortho - Cresolphthalein Complexone (CPC method, urinary creatinine was estimated by Jaffe’s method in all the subjects. RESULTS: The estimated mean levels (Mean±SD of urinary calcium, creatinine in control group were 263.0±80.3, 0.95±0.16 respectively and in patients with gestational hypertension they were 86.2±19.5, 1.21±0. 37 respectively. The statistical analysis by unpaired t - test shows that the levels of urinary calcium were significantly decreased (p<0.001 and the urinary creatinine were significantly increased (p <0.001 in gestational hypertensive patients when compar ed to healthy controls. The mean urinary calcium/creatinine ratio in control group were 0.28±0.08 and in gestational hypertensive patients were 0.07±0.03.The statistical analysis by unpaired t - test shows that the levels of urinary calcium/creatinine ratio were significantly decreased (p<0.001 in gestational hypertensive patients when compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that a regular evaluation of urinary calcium/creatinine ratio after 20wks of gestation may be an effective screen ing method for

  7. Prevalence of urinary tract infection and vesicoureteral reflux in children with lower urinary tract dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Batavia, Jason P; Ahn, Jennifer J; Fast, Angela M; Combs, Andrew J; Glassberg, Kenneth I

    2013-10-01

    Lower urinary tract dysfunction is a common pediatric urological problem that is often associated with urinary tract infection. We determined the prevalence of a urinary tract infection history in children with lower urinary tract dysfunction and its association, if any, with gender, bowel dysfunction, vesicoureteral reflux and specific lower urinary tract conditions. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of children diagnosed with and treated for lower urinary tract dysfunction, noting a history of urinary tract infection with or without fever, gender, bowel dysfunction and vesicoureteral reflux in association with specific lower urinary tract conditions. Of the 257 boys and 366 girls with a mean age of 9.1 years 207 (33%) had a urinary tract infection history, including 88 with at least 1 febrile infection. A total of 64 patients underwent voiding cystourethrogram/videourodynamics, which revealed reflux in 44 (69%). In 119 of the 207 patients all infections were afebrile and 18 underwent voiding cystourethrogram/videourodynamics, which revealed reflux in 5 (28%). A urinary tract infection history was noted in 53% of girls but only 5% of boys (p infection history than patients with idiopathic detrusor overactivity disorder or primary bladder neck dysfunction (each p urinary tract dysfunction have a much higher urinary tract infection incidence than males. This association was most often noted for lower urinary tract conditions in which urinary stasis occurs, including detrusor underutilization disorder and dysfunctional voiding. Reflux was found in most girls with a history of febrile infections. Since reflux was identified in more than a quarter of girls with only afebrile infections who were evaluated for reflux, it may be reasonable to perform voiding cystourethrogram or videourodynamics in some of them to identify reflux. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Surprise and Uncertainty—Framing Regional Geohazards in the Theory of Complexity

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    Beate M. W. Ratter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the concepts of uncertainty and surprise as key variables of a socio-ecological system’s behavior in the context of the theory of complexity. Experiences from the past have shown that living with uncertainty is part of our daily life and surprises are only surprising because our perspective of system trajectories is basically linear and non-dynamic. The future of humanity is dependent on the understanding of the system’s behavior and needs a change in perspective of linearity to non-linearity and from the planning imperative to a management hedging uncertainty and surprise. In the context of humanity’s future, the theory of complexity offers a new perspective on system trajectories and their understanding of surprises and uncertainty. There is a need for a Gestaltwechsel—a change in perception—which helps to see things differently and fosters the search for new answers to emerging questions at the human-nature interface. Drawing on the case study of hazard management the paper will explain the necessity of analysis system’s behavior and the taking into account of multi-agent behavior on the micro level which led to emergent behavior on the macro-level of the system. Regional geohazards are explained as the regional impact of an uncontrolled risk based on a state of a natural feature that has a direct impact on a regional population being affected by the appearance of a hazard and its development into damage. By acting in space, time and connectivity, people construct hazardscapes and change risk into regional geohazards. This concept shows relevance for future mitigation and adaptation measures. The theory of complexity can help in engendering the necessary shift in perspective. What is non-linear dynamic thinking as suggested by the theory of complexity? Why is the consideration of the system’s behavior crucial and not just the number of system’s elements? What is the role of agents in these systems? In

  9. Urinary calprotectin and posttransplant renal allograft injury.

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    Martin Tepel

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Current methods do not predict the acute renal allograft injury immediately after kidney transplantation. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of urinary calprotectin for predicting immediate posttransplant allograft injury. METHODS: In a multicenter, prospective-cohort study of 144 incipient renal transplant recipients, we postoperatively measured urinary calprotectin using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR after 4 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. RESULTS: We observed a significant inverse association of urinary calprotectin concentrations and eGFR 4 weeks after transplantation (Spearman r =  -0.33; P<0.001. Compared to the lowest quartile, patients in the highest quartile of urinary calprotectin had an increased risk for an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2 four weeks after transplantation (relative risk, 4.3; P<0.001; sensitivity, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.98; specificity, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.66. Higher urinary calprotectin concentrations predicted impaired kidney function 4 weeks after transplantation, as well as 6 months and 12 months after transplantation. When data were analyzed using the urinary calprotectin/creatinine-ratio similar results were obtained. Urinary calprotectin was superior to current use of absolute change of plasma creatinine to predict allograft function 12 months after transplantation. Urinary calprotectin predicted an increased risk both in transplants from living and deceased donors. Multivariate linear regression showed that higher urinary calprotectin concentrations and older donor age predicted lower eGFR four weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary calprotectin is an early, noninvasive predictor of immediate renal allograft injury after kidney transplantation.

  10. Cross-sectional imaging of complicated urinary infections affecting the lower tract and male genital organs

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    Massimo Tonolini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complicated urinary tract infections (C-UTIs are those associated with structural or functional genitourinary abnormalities or with conditions that impair the host defence mechanisms, leading to an increased risk of acquiring infection or failing therapy. C-UTIs occur in patients with risk factors such as neurogenic dysfunction, bladder outlet obstruction, obstructive uropathy, bladder catheterisation, urologic instrumentation or indwelling stent, urinary tract post-surgical modifications, chemotherapy- or radiation-induced damage, renal impairment, diabetes and immunodeficiency. Multidetector CT and MRI allow comprehensive investigation of C-UTIs and systemic infection from an unknown source. Based upon personal experience at a tertiary care hospital focused on the treatment of infectious illnesses, this pictorial essay reviews with examples the clinical features and cross-sectional imaging findings of C-UTIs affecting the lower urinary tract and male genital organs. The disorders presented include acute infectious cystitis, bladder mural abscesses, infections of the prostate and seminal vesicles, acute urethritis and related perineal abscesses, funiculitis, epididymo-orchitis and scrotal abscesses. Emphasis is placed on the possible differential diagnoses of lower C-UTIs. The aim is to provide radiologists greater familiarity with these potentially severe disorders which frequently require intensive in-hospital antibiotic therapy, percutaneous drainage or surgery. Teaching Points • Complicated urinary tract infections occur in patients with structural or functional risk factors. • CT and MRI comprehensively investigate complicated urinary infections and sepsis from unknown sources. • Infections of the urinary bladder, prostate, seminal vesicles, urethra and scrotum are presented. • Emphasis is placed on differential diagnoses of complicated lower urogenital infections. • Unsuspected urinary infections may be detected on CT

  11. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is a biomarker of delayed graft function after kidney transplantation

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    Capelli I

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Irene Capelli, Olga Baraldi, Giorgia Comai, Elisa Sala, Maria Cappuccilli, Chiara Donadei, Vania Cuna, Maria Laura Angelini, Gabriele Donati, Gaetano La Manna Department of Experimental Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine (DIMES, Nephrology, Dialysis and Renal Transplant Unit, St Orsola Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy Background: Acute kidney injury occurring after kidney transplantation frequently leads to delayed graft function with detrimental long-term effects on graft survival. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL has been validated as a biomarker for posttransplant acute kidney injury. This observational study aimed to assess the effectiveness of urinary NGAL as a predictive marker of delayed graft function.Materials and methods: Forty-three consecutive patients who received renal transplant were included in the study. Urine samples were collected before transplant (if available and at days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 30 after transplant, and urinary NGAL levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: Urinary NGAL progressively decreased after transplant in patients with both delayed and immediate graft function. However, urinary NGAL concentration remained significantly higher in the presence of delayed graft function in the first 14 days after transplant. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the ability of urinary NGAL to predict delayed graft function was accurate at 1st and 3rd days after transplant.Conclusion: The relative decrease of urinary NGAL concentration rather than its absolute value may be relevant to predict delayed graft function after renal transplant. In particular, urinary NGAL area under the curve for 3 days seems to be a more valuable parameter of decision making in the early posttransplant period. Keywords: area under the curve, delayed graft function, immediate graft function, kidney transplant, NGAL, acute kidney injury

  12. Female Functional Constipation Is Associated with Overactive Bladder Symptoms and Urinary Incontinence

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    Takahiro Maeda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This noninterventional cross-sectional study aims to assess the association between functional constipation (FC and urinary symptoms in female patients with no treatment for urination and defecation. The Rome III criteria for evaluation of defecation, Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS for evaluation of urinary symptoms, and clinical features were investigated in 145 female patients. Latent FC and moderate to severe overactive bladder (OAB were defined on the basis of positivity for two or more of the Rome III criteria and an OABSS ≥ 6 with OABSS Q3 ≥ 2, respectively. In 60 latent FC patients, the OABSS was higher (5.0 versus 3.2, p=0.001, and concurrent moderate to severe OAB symptoms and OAB with urinary incontinence were more frequent than those in 85 nonlatent FC patients (33.3 versus 10.6%, p=0.001, and 31.7 versus 7.1%, p<0.001. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that moderate to severe OAB symptoms were a significant associated factor of latent FC (odds ratio (OR = 4.125, p=0.005, while latent FC was the only associated factor of moderate to severe OAB and OAB with urinary incontinence (OR = 4.227, p=0.005 and OR = 4.753, p=0.004. In conclusion, moderate to severe OAB symptoms are correlated with FC. Moreover, FC is related to moderate to severe OAB symptoms and to OAB with urinary incontinence.

  13. Mineralogical Composition of Urinary Stones and Their Frequency in Patients: Relationship to Gender and Age

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    Behnam Keshavarzi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This investigation reports the mineralogy and possible pathological significance of urinary stones removed from patients in Fars province, Iran. X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and polarizing microscope (PM techniques were used to investigate the mineralogical compositions of urinary stones. The identified mineral components include whewellite, weddellite, hydroxyapatite, uricite and cystine. These techniques revealed that the whewellite and uricite were the most common mineral phases. Platy-like/monoclinic whewellite, prismatic/monoclinic uric acid and hexagonal cystine crystals were revealed by SEM. Biominerals (calcium carbonate and quartz were also identified in PM images. Of the variables determining the type of precipitated minerals, the effects of pH on depositional conditions proved to be the most apparent parameter, as shown by occurrences and relationships among the studied minerals. Our results revealed the importance of detailed knowledge of mineralogical composition in assessing the effects of age and sex. The highest incidence of urinary stones was observed in the 40–60 age group. Calcium oxalate and uric acid stones are more frequent in men than women. Finally, the study concluded that knowledge of the mineralogical composition of urinary stones is important as it helps the scientific community to explain the chemistry and the etiology of the calculi in the urinary system.

  14. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Notenbomer

    Full Text Available Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves.We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed with the Graneheim method using the Job Demands Resources (JD-R model as theoretical framework.Many participants were not aware of their frequent sickness absence and the risk of future long-term sickness absence. As determinants, participants mentioned job demands, job resources, home demands, poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Managing these factors and improving communication (skills were regarded as solutions to reduce frequent sickness absence.The JD-R model provided a framework for determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence. Additional determinants were poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Frequent sickness absence should be regarded as a signal that something is wrong. Managers, supervisors, and occupational health care providers should advise and support frequent absentees to accommodate job demands, increase both job and personal resources, and improve health rather than express disapproval of frequent sickness absence and apply pressure regarding work attendance.

  15. Correlation between urinary incontinence and localization of brain lesion and severity of neurological lesion caused by a stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetra A.

    2012-10-01

    disorders. Urinary incontinence develops more frequently among patients with anterior circulation of the brain and subcortical brain lesion. There is a reliable correlation between severity of neurological lesion and urinary incontinence.

  16. Inguinal Herniation of the Urinary Bladder Presenting as Recurrent Urinary Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Frenkel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herniation of the urinary bladder into the inguinal canal is an uncommon finding, observed in 0.5–4% of inguinal hernias (Curry (2000. It is usually associated with other conditions that increase intra-abdominal pressure such as bladder neck obstruction due to prostatic hypertrophy. Consequently, in men, it is usually associated with some degree of urinary retention. We present a 42-year-old man in whom herniation of the urinary bladder was the cause of urinary retention, and not vice versa. The patient was on tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist (TNFA (Etanercept for severe Ankylosing spondylitis. Initially, the urinary retention was thought to be a side effect of the medication, but after the drug was discontinued, urinary retention persisted. CT and MRI demonstrated huge herniation of the urinary bladder into the inguinal canal. Immediately after the hernia was repaired, bladder function was restored. TNF treatment was restarted, and no further urinary symptoms were observed in the next two years of follow-up. In this case, the primary illness and its treatment were distracting barriers to early diagnosis and treatment. In younger patients with a large hernia who develop unexpected urinary retention, herniation of the urinary bladder should be highly considered in the differential diagnosis.

  17. Sacral nerve stimulation for urinary urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness, safety, and cost of sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) to treat urinary urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence. CONDITION AND TARGET POPULATION Urinary urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence are prevalent, yet rarely discussed, conditions. They are rarely discussed because patients may be uncomfortable disclosing their symptoms to a health professional or may be unaware that there are treatment options for these conditions. Briefly, urge incontinence is an involuntary loss of urine upon a sudden urge. Urgency-frequency is an uncontrollable urge to void, which results in frequent, small-volume voids. People with urgency-frequency may or may not also experience chronic pelvic pain. Urinary retention refers to the inability to void despite having the urge to void. It can be caused by a hypocontractile detrusor (weak or no bladder muscle contraction) or obstruction due to urethral overactivity. Fecal incontinence is a loss of voluntary bowel control. The prevalence of urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, and urinary retention in the general population is 3.3% to 8.2%, and the prevalence of fecal incontinence is 1.4% to 1.9%. About three-quarters of these people will be successfully treated by behaviour and/or drug therapy. For those who do not respond to these therapies, the options for treatment are management with diapers or pads, or surgery. The surgical procedures are generally quite invasive, permanent, and are associated with complications. Pads and/or diapers are used throughout the course of treatment as different therapies are tried. Patients who respond successfully to treatment may still require pads or diapers, but to a lesser extent. SACRAL NERVE STIMULATION Sacral nerve stimulation is a procedure where a small device attached to an electrode is implanted in the abdomen or buttock to stimulate the sacral nerves in an

  18. Urinary Biomarkers of Brain Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manxia An

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers are the measurable changes associated with a physiological or pathophysiological process. Unlike blood, urine is not subject to homeostatic mechanisms. Therefore, greater fluctuations could occur in urine than in blood, better reflecting the changes in human body. The roadmap of urine biomarker era was proposed. Although urine analysis has been attempted for clinical diagnosis, and urine has been monitored during the progression of many diseases, particularly urinary system diseases, whether urine can reflect brain disease status remains uncertain. As some biomarkers of brain diseases can be detected in the body fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and blood, there is a possibility that urine also contain biomarkers of brain diseases. This review summarizes the clues of brain diseases reflected in the urine proteome and metabolome.

  19. Treatment of stress urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Rasmussen, W

    1990-01-01

    is unlikely to offer more than a placebo effect. Studies of a single surgical procedure usually report high cure rates. In making the appropriate choice of operation the best guidelines are the cure rates from comparative or prospective randomized reports. From such studies an abdominal retropubic suspension......This review presents reported cure and improvement rates of stress urinary incontinence in women obtained by different treatment modalities. Apart from the urodynamic findings, histological and histochemical changes of the pelvic floor may be clinically relevant to treatment in the future. Long......-term cure and improvement rates achieved by non-surgical treatment (physiotherapy, biofeedback, bladder training, electrostimulation) are commented on. These rates range from 40-60% for physiotherapy and electrostimulation but are considerably less after biofeedback and bladder training. Pharmacotherapy...

  20. Urinary biomarkers in pediatric appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salö, Martin; Roth, Bodil; Stenström, Pernilla; Arnbjörnsson, Einar; Ohlsson, Bodil

    2016-08-01

    The diagnosis of pediatric appendicitis is still a challenge, resulting in perforation and negative appendectomies. The aim of this study was to evaluate novel biomarkers in urine and to use the most promising biomarkers in conjunction with the Pediatric Appendicitis Score (PAS), to see whether this could improve the accuracy of diagnosing appendicitis. A prospective study of children with suspected appendicitis was conducted with assessment of PAS, routine blood tests, and measurements of four novel urinary biomarkers: leucine-rich α-2-glycoprotein (LRG), calprotectin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and substance P. The biomarkers were blindly determined with commercial ELISAs. Urine creatinine was used to adjust for dehydration. The diagnosis of appendicitis was based on histopathological analysis. Forty-four children with suspected appendicitis were included, of which twenty-two (50 %) had confirmed appendicitis. LRG in urine was elevated in children with appendicitis compared to children without (p appendicitis compared to those with phlegmonous appendicitis (p = 0.003). No statistical significances between groups were found for calprotectin, IL-6 or substance P. LRG had a receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.86 (95 % CI 0.79-0.99), and a better diagnostic performance than all routine blood tests. LRG in conjunction with PAS showed 95 % sensitivity, 90 % specificity, 91 % positive predictive value, and 95 % negative predictive value. LRG, adjusted for dehydration, is a promising novel urinary biomarker for appendicitis in children. LRG in combination with PAS has a high diagnostic performance.

  1. Urinary Bladder Cancer in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Samawi, Abdullah Saleh; Aulaqi, Saleh Mansoor

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study are to highlight the clinicopathological features of urinary bladder cancer in Yemen, and to describe the histological grading of urothelial neoplasms according to the World Health Organization and International Society of Urologic pathology (WHO/ISUP 1998) classification. Methods This is a descriptive record-based study of 316 cases of bladder cancer diagnosed by two pathologists at the Department of pathology, Sana'a University from 1st January 2005 to 30th April 2009. The diagnoses were made on hematoxylin and eosin stained sections and categorized according to WHO/ISUP 1998 classification. Results Out of 316 urinary bladder cancers, 248 (78%) were urothelial neoplasms, 53 (17%) were squamous cell carcinoma, 7 (2%) were adenocarcinoma, and 3 (1%) were rhabdomyosarcoma. The remaining cases were metastatic carcinomas (n=3), small cell carcinoma (n=1), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=1). The urothelial neoplasms observed were carcinoma in situ 4 (2%), papilloma 7 (3%), papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential 26 (11%), papillary urothelial carcinoma of low grade 107 (43%), papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade 18 (7%), and non-papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade 85 (34%), with 60 years mean age for males and 58 years for females; along with a male to female ratio of 4:1. The peak incidence was observed in the 61-70 years age group. Conclusion This study documents a high frequency of urothelial neoplasms, mostly papillary urothelial carcinoma of low grade and non-papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade with male preponderance and peak incidence in 6th decade of age. PMID:24044060

  2. Urinary Bladder Cancer in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Saleh Al-Samawi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of this study are to highlight the clinicopathological features of urinary bladder cancer in Yemen, and to describe the histological grading of urothelial neoplasms according to the World Health Organization and International Society of Urologic pathology (WHO/ISUP 1998 classification.Methods: This is a descriptive record-based study of 316 cases of bladder cancer diagnosed by two pathologists at the Department of pathology, Sana'a University from 1st January 2005 to 30th April 2009. The diagnoses were made on hematoxylin and eosin stained sections and categorized according to WHO/ISUP 1998 classification.Results: Out of 316 urinary bladder cancers, 248 (78% were urothelial neoplasms, 53 (17% were squamous cell carcinoma, 7 (2% were adenocarcinoma, and 3 (1% were rhabdomyosarcoma. The remaining cases were metastatic carcinomas (n=3, small cell carcinoma (n=1, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=1. The urothelial neoplasms observed were carcinoma in situ 4 (2%, papilloma 7 (3%, papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential 26 (11%, papillary urothelial carcinoma of low grade 107 (43%, papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade 18 (7%, and non-papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade 85 (34%, with 60 years mean age for males and 58 years for females; along with a male to female ratio of 4:1. The peak incidence was observed in the 61-70 years age group.Conclusion: This study documents a high frequency of urothelial neoplasms, mostly papillary urothelial carcinoma of low grade and non-papillary urothelial carcinoma of high grade with male preponderance and peak incidence in 6th decade of age.

  3. Constructing Projection Frequent Pattern Tree for Efficient Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiangJian-wen; HeYan-xiang; KokichiFutatsugi; KongWei-qiang

    2003-01-01

    Frequent Pattern mining plays an essential role in data mining.Most of the previous studies adopt an Apriori-like candidate set generation-and-test approach. However, candidate set generation is still costly, especially when there exist prolific patterns and/or long patterns. In this study, we introduce a novel frequent pattern growth (FP-growth)method, which is efficient and scalable for mining both long and short frequent patterns without candidate generation. And build a new projection frequent pattern tree (PFP-tree) algorithm on this study, which not only heirs all the advantages in the FP-growth method, but also avoids it's bottleneck in database size dependence when constructing the frequent pattern tree (FP-tree). Efficiency of mining is achieved by introducing the projection technique, which avoid serial scan each frequent item in the database, the cost is mainly related to the depth of the tree, namely the number of frequent items of the longest transaction in the database, not the sum of all the frequent items in the database,which hugely shortens the time of tree-construction. Our performance study shows that the PFP-tree method is efficient and scalable for mining large databases or data warehouses, and is even about an order of magnitude faster than the FP-growth method.

  4. Constructing Projection Frequent Pattern Tree for Efficient Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Jian-wen; He Yan-xiang; Kokichi Futatsugi; Kong Wei-qiang

    2003-01-01

    Frequent Pattern mining plays an essential role in data mining.Most of the previous studies adopt an Apriori-like candidate set generation-and-test approach. However, candidate set generation is still costly, especially when there exist prolific patterns and/or long patterns.In this study, we introduce a novel frequent pattern growth (FP-growth)method, which is efficient and scalable for mining both long and short frequent patterns without candidate generation. And build a new projection frequent pat-tern tree (PFP-tree) algorithm on this study, which not only heirs all the ad-vantages in the FP-growth method, but also avoids it's bottleneck in database size dependence when constructing the frequent pattern tree (FP-tree). Effi-ciency of mining is achieved by introducing the projection technique, which avoid serial scan each frequent item in the database, the cost is mainly related to the depth of the tree, namely the number of frequent items of the longest trans-action in the database, not the sum of all the frequent items in the database,which hugely shortens the time of tree-construction. Our performance study shows that the PFP-tree method is efficient and scalable for mining large databas-es or data warehouses, and is even about an order of magnitude faster than the FP-growth method.

  5. Social environment and frequent attendance in Danish general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

    2005-01-01

    of 1423 (73.7%) frequent attenders and 1103 (74.9%) infrequent attenders responded. Male frequent attendance was associated, with statistical significance, with living alone and being without work or on a disability pension. Among women, lack of professional education or being without work tended...

  6. Classification and Target Group Selection Based Upon Frequent Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); R. Potharst (Rob)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this technical report , two new algorithms based upon frequent patterns are proposed. One algorithm is a classification method. The other one is an algorithm for target group selection. In both algorithms, first of all, the collection of frequent patterns in the training set is constr

  7. An Efficient Algorithm for Mining Maximal Frequent Item Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M.J.M.Z. Rahman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: In today's life, the mining of frequent patterns is a basic problem in data mining applications. The algorithms which are used to generate these frequent patterns must perform efficiently. The objective was to propose an effective algorithm which generates frequent patterns in less time. Approach: We proposed an algorithm which was based on hashing technique and combines a vertical tidset representation of the database with effective pruning mechanisms. It removes all the non-maximal frequent item-sets to get exact set of MFI directly. It worked efficiently when the number of item-sets and tid-sets is more. Results: The performance of our algorithm had been compared with recently developed MAFIA algorithm and the results show how our algorithm gives better performance. Conclusions: Hence, the proposed algorithm performs effectively and generates frequent patterns faster.

  8. Pushing Multiple Convertible Constrains into Frequent Itemsets Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Baoli; QIN Zheng

    2006-01-01

    Constraint pushing techniques have been developed for mining frequent patterns and association rules. However, multiple constraints cannot be handled with existing techniques in frequent pattern mining. In this paper, a new algorithm MCFMC (mining complete set of frequent itemsets with multiple constraints) is introduced. The algorithm takes advantage of the fact that a convertible constraint can be pushed into mining algorithm to reduce mining research spaces. By using a sample database, the algorithm develops techniques which select an optimal method based on a sample database to convert multiple constraints into multiple convertible constraints, disjoined by conjunction and/or, and then partition these constraints into two parts. One part is pushed deep inside the mining process to reduce the research spaces for frequent itemsets, the other part that cannot be pushed in algorithm is used to filter the complete set of frequent itemsets and get the final result. Results from our detailed experiment show the feasibility and effectiveness of the algorithm.

  9. Predictors of Frequent Emergency Room Visits among a Homeless Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinna Thakarar

    Full Text Available Homelessness, HIV, and substance use are interwoven problems. Furthermore, homeless individuals are frequent users of emergency services. The main purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for frequent emergency room (ER visits and to examine the effects of housing status and HIV serostatus on ER utilization. The second purpose was to identify risk factors for frequent ER visits in patients with a history of illicit drug use.A retrospective analysis was performed on 412 patients enrolled in a Boston-based health care for the homeless program (HCH. This study population was selected as a 2:1 HIV seronegative versus HIV seropositive match based on age, sex, and housing status. A subgroup analysis was performed on 287 patients with history of illicit drug use. Chart data were analyzed to compare demographics, health characteristics, and health service utilization. Results were stratified by housing status. Logistic models using generalized estimating equations were used to predict frequent ER visits.In homeless patients, hepatitis C was the only predictor of frequent ER visits (OR 4.49, p<0.01. HIV seropositivity was not predictive of frequent ER visits. In patients with history of illicit drug use, mental health (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.07-5.95 and hepatitis C (OR 2.85, 95% CI 1.37-5.93 were predictors of frequent ER use. HIV seropositivity did not predict ER use (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.21 - 0.97.In a HCH population, hepatitis C predicted frequent ER visits in homeless patients. HIV seropositivity did not predict frequent ER visits, likely because HIV seropositive HCH patients are engaged in care. In patients with history of illicit drug use, hepatitis C and mental health disorders predicted frequent ER visits. Supportive housing for patients with mental health disorders and hepatitis C may help prevent unnecessary ER visits in this population.

  10. A strange and surprising debate: mountains, original sin and 'science' in seventeenth-century England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wragge-Morley, Alexander

    2009-06-01

    It could come as a shock to learn that some seventeenth-century men of science and learning thought that mountains were bad. Even more alarmingly, some thought that God had imposed them on the earth to punish man for his sins. By the end of the seventeenth century, surprisingly many English natural philosophers and theologians were engaged in a debate about whether mountains were 'good' or 'bad', useful or useless. At stake in this debate were not just the careers of its participants, but arguments about the best ways of looking at and reckoning with 'nature' itself.

  11. Urinary Tract Infections in the Older Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2016-08-01

    Urinary infection is the most common bacterial infection in elderly populations. The high prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in both men and women is benign and should not be treated. A diagnosis of symptomatic infection for elderly residents of long-term care facilities without catheters requires localizing genitourinary findings. Symptomatic urinary infection is overdiagnosed in elderly bacteriuric persons with nonlocalizing clinical presentations, with substantial inappropriate antimicrobial use. Residents with chronic indwelling catheters experience increased morbidity from urinary tract infection. Antimicrobial therapy is selected based on clinical presentation, patient tolerance, and urine culture results.

  12. Obesity and female stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, David James; Strain, Matthew; Gomelsky, Alex; Rothschild, Jennifer; Dmochowski, Roger

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this article was to review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment options for stress urinary incontinence in the obese female patient and draw conclusions regarding the optimal treatment of this condition in this unique patient population. Obesity results in increased intra-abdominal pressure and this leads to weakening of the pelvic floor innervation and musculature. Weight loss through lifestyle modification and bariatric surgery improves stress urinary incontinence. Success of stress urinary incontinence surgery in obese women is similar to nonobese patients. Obese women should not be excluded from potentially curative surgery based on their body mass index (BMI) alone.

  13. Prevalence and risk factor analysis of resistant Escherichia coli urinary tract infections in the emergency department.

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey AM; Weant KA; Baker SN

    2013-01-01

    Background: Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a frequent uropathogen in urinary tract infections (UTI). Widespread resistance to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP) and increasing resistance to fluoroquinolones amongst these isolates has been recognized. There are limited data demonstrating risk factors for resistance to both SMX-TMP and fluoroquinolones.Objectives: This study was conducted to assess for the prevalence of community resistance amongst E. coli isolates to SMX-TMP and levofloxac...

  14. 21 CFR 876.5270 - Implanted electrical urinary continence device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted electrical urinary continence device... Implanted electrical urinary continence device. (a) Identification. An implanted electrical urinary device is a device intended for treatment of urinary incontinence that consists of a receiver implanted...

  15. Urinary acidification and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate in women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Mathiasen, Helle; Hansen, A B

    1994-01-01

    Urinary acidification ability, acid-base status and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney (MSK) and in 10 healthy women. Patients with MSK had higher fasting urine pH compared to normal controls (p ....32 +/- 1.45 mmol) compared to patients with normal urinary acidification (3.83 +/- 0.12 mmol) (p normal urinary acidification (23.8 +/- 0.8) and healthy women (22.7 +/- 0.......6) (p urinary excretion of citrate (0.93 +/- 0.25 mmol) compared to patients with normal urinary acidification (3.58 +/- 0.51) and healthy women (2.78 +/- 0.49) (p

  16. Efficient Mining of Frequent Closed XML Query Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Hua Feng; Qian Qian; Jian-Yong Wang; Li-Zhu Zhou

    2007-01-01

    Previous research works have presented convincing arguments that a frequent pattern mining algorithm should not mine all frequent but only the closed ones because the latter leads to not only more compact yet complete result set but also better efficiency. Upon discovery of frequent closed XML query patterns, indexing and caching can be effectively adopted for query performance enhancement. Most of the previous algorithms for finding frequent patterns basically introduced a straightforward generate-and-test strategy. In this paper, we present SOLARIA*, an efficient algorithm for mining frequent closed XML query patterns without candidate maintenance and costly tree-containment checking. Efficient algorithm of sequence mining is involved in discovering frequent tree-structured patterns, which aims at replacing expensive containment testing with cheap parent-child checking in sequences. SOLARIA* deeply prunes unrelated search space for frequent pattern enumeration by parent-child relationship constraint. By a thorough experimental study on various real-life data, we demonstrate the efficiency and scalability of SOLARIA* over the previous known alternative. SOLARIA* is also linearly scalable in terms of XML queries' size.

  17. Expectation and surprise determine neural population responses in the ventral visual stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egner, Tobias; Monti, Jim M; Summerfield, Christopher

    2010-12-08

    Visual cortex is traditionally viewed as a hierarchy of neural feature detectors, with neural population responses being driven by bottom-up stimulus features. Conversely, "predictive coding" models propose that each stage of the visual hierarchy harbors two computationally distinct classes of processing unit: representational units that encode the conditional probability of a stimulus and provide predictions to the next lower level; and error units that encode the mismatch between predictions and bottom-up evidence, and forward prediction error to the next higher level. Predictive coding therefore suggests that neural population responses in category-selective visual regions, like the fusiform face area (FFA), reflect a summation of activity related to prediction ("face expectation") and prediction error ("face surprise"), rather than a homogenous feature detection response. We tested the rival hypotheses of the feature detection and predictive coding models by collecting functional magnetic resonance imaging data from the FFA while independently varying both stimulus features (faces vs houses) and subjects' perceptual expectations regarding those features (low vs medium vs high face expectation). The effects of stimulus and expectation factors interacted, whereby FFA activity elicited by face and house stimuli was indistinguishable under high face expectation and maximally differentiated under low face expectation. Using computational modeling, we show that these data can be explained by predictive coding but not by feature detection models, even when the latter are augmented with attentional mechanisms. Thus, population responses in the ventral visual stream appear to be determined by feature expectation and surprise rather than by stimulus features per se.

  18. Infants’ Looking to Surprising Events: When Eye-Tracking Reveals More than Looking Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, H. Henny; Denison, Stephanie; Johnson, Scott P.

    2016-01-01

    Research on infants’ reasoning abilities often rely on looking times, which are longer to surprising and unexpected visual scenes compared to unsurprising and expected ones. Few researchers have examined more precise visual scanning patterns in these scenes, and so, here, we recorded 8- to 11-month-olds’ gaze with an eye tracker as we presented a sampling event whose outcome was either surprising, neutral, or unsurprising: A red (or yellow) ball was drawn from one of three visible containers populated 0%, 50%, or 100% with identically colored balls. When measuring looking time to the whole scene, infants were insensitive to the likelihood of the sampling event, replicating failures in similar paradigms. Nevertheless, a new analysis of visual scanning showed that infants did spend more time fixating specific areas-of-interest as a function of the event likelihood. The drawn ball and its associated container attracted more looking than the other containers in the 0% condition, but this pattern was weaker in the 50% condition, and even less strong in the 100% condition. Results suggest that measuring where infants look may be more sensitive than simply how much looking there is to the whole scene. The advantages of eye tracking measures over traditional looking measures are discussed. PMID:27926920

  19. EFFICIENT ALGORITHM FOR MINING FREQUENT ITEMSETS USING CLUSTERING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Kerana Hanirex

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Now a days, Association rule plays an important role. The purchasing of one product when another product is purchased represents an association rule. The Apriori algorithm is the basic algorithm for mining association rules. This paper presents an efficient Partition Algorithm for Mining Frequent Itemsets(PAFI using clustering. This algorithm finds the frequent itemsets by partitioning the database transactions into clusters. Clusters are formed based on the imilarity measures between the transactions. Then it finds the frequent itemsets with the transactions in the clusters directly using improved Apriori algorithm which further reduces the number of scans in the database and hence improve the efficiency.

  20. Frequent Trajectory Patterns Mining for Intelligent Visual Surveillance System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Lin; CHEN Yao-wu

    2009-01-01

    A frequent trajectory patterns mining algorithm is proposed to learn the object activities and classify the trajectories in intelligent visual surveillance system. The distribution patterns of the trajectories were generated by an Apriori based frequent patterns mining algorithm and the trajectories were classified by the frequent trajectory patterns generated. In addition, a fuzzy c-mcans (FCM) based learning algorithm and a mean shift based clustering procedure were used to construct the representation of trajectories. The algorithm can be further used to describe activities and identify anomalies. The experiments on two real scenes show that the algorithm is effective.

  1. Prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Gard, Gunvor; Klarskov, Peter

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: The aims of this study were primarily to investigate the prevalence, severity and impact on daily life of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) in a clinical sample of stroke patients and secondly to identify factors associated with LUTS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, hos......AIMS: The aims of this study were primarily to investigate the prevalence, severity and impact on daily life of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) in a clinical sample of stroke patients and secondly to identify factors associated with LUTS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross......-sectional, hospital based survey whereby stroke patients were invited by letter to complete The Danish Prostatic Symptom Score (DAN-PSS-1) questionnaire at least 1 month following their stroke. Subjects were asked to report the frequency and severity of their symptoms (symptom score) and the impact of each symptom...... on their daily life (bother score) over the previous fortnight. Of 519 stroke patients invited, 482 subjects were eligible. RESULTS: The response rate was 84%. The period prevalence of at least one symptom was 94%; the most frequent symptom was nocturia (76%) followed by urgency (70%) and daytime frequency (59...

  2. Prognostic indicator by urinary microglobulin after renal stenting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weifeng SHEN; Jun NI; Ruiyan ZHANG; Jian HU; Qi ZHANG; Jingyuan XIE

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of revascularization of the renal artery on urinary microglobulin in patients with coronaryartery disease and significant renal artery stenosis (RAS). Methods Forty-four patients with coronary artery disease and severe RAS (luminal narrowing>70%) underwent percutaneous transluminal renal artery angioplasty (PTRA) and stenting, as well as percutaneous coronary intervention. The urine -microglobulin (α1-MG) and β2-Cmicroglobulin (β2-MG) at baseline and at 3 months after the procedures were measured. Procedural success rate, procedural complications, serum creatinine concentration at baseline and at 3-months were also recorded. Results At 3-months after the renal revascularization therapy, there was no significant change of urine α1-MG ompared with that of the baseline, however, the urine β2-MG decreased significantly 3-months after the treatment (237±187μg/L vs 377±173 μg/L, P<0.01). Multivariate analysis revealed that persistent elevation of urine was an independent predictor of severe events (including re-admission and renal failure) after renal revascularization therapy in patients with severe RAS (OR=3.01,95% CI 1.01-8.95, P=0.036). Conclusions In patients with coronary artery disease and severe RAS, revascularization with PTRA and stenting may improve renal tubular function, but a continuous high level of urinary microglobulins after intervention is associated with more frequent re-hospitalization and renal failure.

  3. Trends in cancer of the urinary bladder and urinary tract in elderly in Denmark, 2008-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thor Knak; Jensen, Niels Viggo; Jørgensen, Simon Møller

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the trends in incidence, mortality, survival, and prevalence of cancers of the urinary bladder and urinary tract in Denmark from 1980 to 2012 with particular focus on elderly patients over age 70 years. Design Cancer of the urinary bladder and urinary...

  4. Genetic Risk for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Humans: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    M. Zaffanello; Malerba, G.; Cataldi, L; Antoniazzi, F.; M. Franchini; Monti, E.; Fanos, V.

    2010-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a frequent cause of morbidity in children and adults and affect up to 10% of children; its recurrence rate is estimated at 30–40%. UTI may occur in up to 50% of all women in their lifetimes and frequently require medication. Recent advances have suggested that a deregulation of candidate genes in humans may predispose patients to recurrent UTI. The identification of a genetic component of UTI recurrences will make it possible to diagnose at-risk adults and ...

  5. Diagnosis, treatment and registration of urinary tract infections in geriatric patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Møller, Alice; Lüneborg-Nielsen, Margrethe

    2002-01-01

    Bacteriuria (> or = 10(5) CFU/ml) is a very common phenomenon in elderly people, occurring twice as frequently in women than in men. There are symptomatic and asymptomatic types of bacteriuria. Risk factors include: a decrease in the estrogen level in women after the menopause, catheterisation......, urinary bladder dysfunction, hypertrophy of the prostate gland, diabetes, neurological illnesses. The diagnosis of bacteriuria is based on quantitative urine culture (positive result--> or = 10(5) CFU/ml bacteriae). The most frequent pathogens are: E. coli, enterococci, staphylococci, Pseudomonas...

  6. Kidneys and Urinary Tract (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the kidney, the medulla, has 10 to 15 fan-shaped structures called pyramids. These drain urine into ... 6 years old and affects more boys than girls. It's often treated with steroids. Urinary tract infections ( ...

  7. Adult female urinary incontinence and childhood bedwetting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders; Mommsen, S.

    1994-01-01

    A cross-sectional random population sample of women 30 to 59 years old was sent a questionnaire on urinary incontinence and, among other things, childhood bedwetting. Among 2,613 responders 17.0% reported prevalent urinary incontinence (14.7% stress provoked, 8.3% associated with urge, 6.8% stress...... and urge overlap, 2.2% occurring especially during sleep and 3.9% occurring especially when anxious), and 6.5% reported childhood bedwetting after age 5 years and 3.3% after age 10 years. Childhood bedwetting was associated with prevalent urge urinary incontinence (p incontinence occurring...... during sleep (p urinary incontinence occurring in situations of anxiety (p

  8. Medical management of common urinary calculi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas. Correspondence to: Dr ... visualized on plain film radiography. Many calculi .... pain have urinary calculi, so an impor- tant aspect of ..... stones in spinal cord injury patients. J Urol 1988 ...

  9. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Moments Radio Broadcast Clinical Trials For Health Professionals Community Outreach and Health Fairs Health ... Infection (Urinary Tract Infections—UTI) in Children English English Español Related ...

  10. Diagnostic performance of screening methods for urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conducted using various indirect diagnostic tests such as interview ... haematuria and dysuria, visual examination of urine specimen ... Abstract. Background: Indirect diagnostic methods in urinary schistosomiasis are widely used for screening.

  11. Primary liquid intake and urinary stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, J; Finlayson, B; Scheaffer, R L; Sierakowski, R; Zoltek, J; Dzegede, S

    1985-01-01

    This investigation indicates that there are important associations between urinary stone disease and a person's primary liquid intake. Based on data collected from 2295 caucasian male patients from two geographical regions, the Carolinas (both North and South) and the Rockies (including Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, Montana, Utah and Wyoming) an important (p less than 0.01) positive association was found between urinary stone disease and soda (carbonated beverage) consumption within both geographical regions. It was also found that negative associations exist between urinary stone disease and both beer consumption and coffee consumption in the Rockies and that no important associations exist between urinary stone disease and any of milk, water, or tea, when these beverages represent a person's primary liquid intake. Moreover, soda can be viewed almost synonymously as sugared cola, since few subjects had diet sodas or sugared non-cola soda as primary fluid. No cause/effect relationships are implied in this paper.

  12. Is ciprofloxacin safe in patients with solitary kidney and upper urinary tract infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluhovschi, Gheorghe; Gadalean, Florica; Gluhovschi, Cristina; Velciov, Silvia; Petrica, Ligia; Bob, Flaviu; Bozdog, Gheorghe; Kaycsa, Adriana

    2016-12-01

    The solitary kidney (SK) undergoes adaptive phenomena of hyperfunction and hyperfiltration. These secondary adaptive phenomena can make it more vulnerable to potentially nephrotoxic therapies. Adverse reactions of the kidneys to ciprofloxacin are rare, but sometimes severe. Therefore, our study sought to assess the reactions to ciprofloxacin of patients with solitary kidney (SK) and urinary tract infection (UTI) by means of urinary biomarkers. We studied 19 patients with SK and urinary tract infection (UTI) who had been administered a 7-day treatment with intravenous ciprofloxacin. Urinary N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase, alpha 1-microglobulin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of these patients were measured at the initiation and at the end of treatment. In 47.37% patients NAG diminished under ciprofloxacin treatment. This observation has the significance of favourable evolution of the tubulointerstitial lesions caused by UTI and lack of nephrotoxic effects; 52.63% cases presented an increase of urinary NAG, a fact that suggests a nephrotoxic effect of ciprofloxacin. The evolution of urinary alpha 1-microglobulin was similar to that one of urinary NAG. Only one of three cases with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5 presented acute kidney injury, associated with increase in the tubular markers. In spite of the high variability of the urinary biomarkers, UTI evolved favourably in these cases; eGFR increased in 16 out of 19 patients, a fact which is indicative of a good outcome of renal function, even in patients with elevated levels of the tubular damage biomarkers. This observation supports the hypothesis that eGFR may be dissociated from the biomarkers which assess tubular injury. In SK patients the occurrence of AKI is not frequent, although the urinary biomarkers rise in some patients treated with ciprofloxacin. This is related not only to the nephrotoxic effect of the drug, but probably to the association of other factors (allergy, individual

  13. Clinical and economic implications of urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Samantha N; Comito, Rachel R; Nicolau, David P

    2017-08-01

    Urinary tract infections represent one of the most frequent reasons for hospitalization. As a result of their prevalence from community-based origins as well as those which develop in hospital setting, this constellation of infections represents a tremendous burden to the global healthcare system. Areas covered: Over the last several decades the management of these infections has become more complicated due to the underlying comorbid conditions of the patients as well as escalating antimicrobial resistance to many of the most frequently used oral and parenteral agents. One such example is the emergence of extend spectrum β-lactamase-producing (ESBL) bacteria that render many of the most frequently utilized oral and parenteral penicillin and cephalosporin based regimens of little clinical utility. As such new treatment strategies are required to effectively manage the growing population of patients with multi-drug resistant bacteria. Expert commentary: Herein, we review some of the current literature which reveals the challenges associated with the contemporary management of UTIs, while presenting strategies such as the implementation of clinical pathways that have the potential to enhance the quality and efficiency of care while reducing the overall cost of care.

  14. [Urinary tract infection in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Geraldo; Marcolin, Alessandra Cristina; Quintana, Silvana Maria; Cavalli, Ricardo Carvalho

    2008-02-01

    Several factors cause urinary tract infection (UTI) to be a relevant complication of the gestational period, aggravating both the maternal and perinatal prognosis. For many years, pregnancy has been considered to be a factor predisposing to all forms of UTI. Today, it is known that pregnancy, as an isolated event, is not responsible for a higher incidence of UTI, but that the anatomical and physiological changes imposed on the urinary tract by pregnancy predispose women with asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) to become pregnant women with symptomatic UTI. AB affects 2 to 10% of all pregnant women and approximately 30% of these will develop pyelonephritis if not properly treated. However, a difficult-to-understand resistance against the identification of AB during this period is observed among prenatalists. The diagnosis of UTI is microbiological and it is based on two urine cultures presenting more than 10(5) colonies/mL urine of the same germ. Treatment is facilitated by the fact that it is based on an antibiogram, with no scientific foundation for the notion that a pre-established therapeutic scheme is an adequate measure. For the treatment of pyelonephritis, it is not possible to wait for the result of culture and previous knowledge of the resistance profile of the antibacterial agents available for the treatment of pregnant women would be the best measure. Another important variable is the use of an intravenous bactericidal antibiotic during the acute phase, with the possibility of oral administration at home after clinical improvement of the patient. At our hospital, the drug that best satisfies all of these requirements is cefuroxime, administered for 10-14 days. Third-generation cephalosporins do not exist in the oral form, all of them involving the inconvenience of parenteral administration. In view of their side effects, aminoglycosides are considered to be inadequate for administration to pregnant women. The inconsistent insinuation of contraindication of

  15. Unsupervised mining of frequent tags for clinical eligibility text indexing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miotto, Riccardo; Weng, Chunhua

    2013-01-01

    .... This paper proposes a novel methodology to derive a semantic index for clinical eligibility documents based on a controlled vocabulary of frequent tags, which are automatically mined from the text...

  16. Frequently Asked Questions about Measles in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pan American Health Organization Frequently Asked Questions about Measles in the U.S. Language: English (US) Español ( ... I’ve been exposed to someone who has measles. What should I do? A: Immediately call your ...

  17. Stability of the frequent COPD exacerbator in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reilev, Mette; Lykkegaard, Jesper; Halling, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Exacerbation frequency is central in treatment strategies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, whether chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients from the general population with frequent exacerbations continue to have frequent exacerbations over an extended period of time...... no additional years as frequent exacerbators, while the minority (6%) remained in this category each year. In conclusion, the rate of exacerbations shows considerable variation over time among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in the general population. This might hold implications for chronic...... is currently unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the stability of the frequent exacerbator in a population-based setting. To this end, we conducted a nationwide register-based descriptive study with a 10-year follow-up period of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with at least one...

  18. Perceived Quality of Social Relations and Frequent Drunkenness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Thora M; Rivera, Francisco; Jiménez-Iglesias, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study was to examine, for female and male students separately, whether perceived quality of relationships with peers and parents and relations in school predict self-reported frequent drunkenness among Spanish adolescents. METHODS: The Spanish data from the Health Behaviour...... in School-aged Children Study (HBSC) 2010 survey were used including 1177 female and 1126 male students aged between 15 and 16 years. RESULTS: For both genders, students reporting low school satisfaction had increased odds of frequent drunkenness. Among females, low and medium levels of classmate support...... odds of frequent drunkenness compared with those with high level of satisfaction with friendships. CONCLUSION: We found different associations between perceived quality of social relations and frequent drunkenness among male and female students. Results showed that social relations seemed to better...

  19. Deranged Wnt signaling is frequent in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isinger-Ekstrand, Anna; Therkildsen, Christina; Bernstein, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is frequently deranged in colorectal cancer and is a key target for future preventive and therapeutic approaches. Colorectal cancers associated with the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome are characterized by wide-spread microsatellite instability...

  20. Frequently Asked Questions about Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button Frequently Asked Questions about Ventilator-associated Pneumonia Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What is a Ventilator-associated Pneumonia (VAP)? Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a lung ...

  1. THE FREQUENT SKIN DISEASES DIAGNOSED AT UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesim KAYMAK

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of some skin diseases are increasing at adolescent and early adulthood period. The most frequent disease at this period is acne vulgaris whereas fungal diseases, dermatitis, dermatosis which are due to stress and other reasons, oral mucosal lesions and herpetic lesions of perioral region are also frequent. In this research we aim to determine the frequent dermatologic diseases of university students and 147 female, 74 male, a total of 221 students are included. We questioned the dermatologic complaints of students, then examined dermatologically in detail and registered ages, sexes, findings of the dermatological examination and dermatological diagnostic informations. As a result it is found out that the most frequent diseases are acne vulgaris (34.1%, allergic and pruritic dermatosis (16.6%, fungal diseases ( 13.0%, and eritamatous-squamous disease (8.3%. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(6.000: 313-320

  2. A NEW ASSOCIATION RULE MINING BASED ON FREQUENT ITEM SET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Sanober Shaikh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new mining algorithm is defined based on frequent item set. Apriori Algorithm scans the database every time when it finds the frequent item set so it is very time consuming and at each step it generates candidate item set. So for large databases it takes lots of space to store candidate item set. The defined algorithm scans the database at the start only once and then makes the undirected item set graph. From this graph by considering minimum support it finds the frequent item set and by considering the minimum confidence it generates the association rule. If database and minimum support is changed, the new algorithm finds the new frequent items by scanning undirected item set graph. That is why it’s executing efficiency is improved distinctly compared to traditional algorithm.

  3. Frequently Asked Questions for Parents of Children with PH

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions for Parents of Children with PH What causes pulmonary hypertension in children? I’ve ... of what I read is about adults with PH. What are the primary differences between PH in ...

  4. Urinary excretion of parabens in pregnant Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Sayaka; Suzuki, Yayoi; Yoshinaga, Jun; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Urinary excretion of free and total (free plus conjugated) forms of methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl parabens (MP, EP, PP and BP, respectively) and their metabolite p-hydroxybenzoic acid were measured for 111 pregnant Japanese women. Frequent detection of parabens and their metabolite indicated that exposure takes place daily for pregnant Japanese women. The estrogenic potency of PP was 20 times higher than those of the other 3 parabens for the present subjects when both abundance in the urine and the relative estrogenic activity of each compound was considered. Detection of free parabens suggested dermal exposure, probably from their inclusion in personal care products. No statistical association was found between the anogenital index (birth weight-adjusted AGD) of male offspring and the concentrations of any parabens in the urine of the mothers suggesting that the parabens were not apparently estrogenically active at the exposure level of the present subjects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevention of bacterial resistance in urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, E J

    1991-01-01

    Recurrences of urinary tract infection (UTI) are frequent in many segments of the population. Most women with recurrent UTI have normal genitourinary tracts, and infection is thought to emanate from the fecal bacterial reservoir, with subsequent vaginal and periurethral colonization. The fluoroquinolones, e.g., norfloxacin, work by inhibiting the A-subunit of DNA gyrase, an essential bacterial enzyme. Plasmid-mediated resistance to the fluoroquinolones has not been reported to occur, but bacterial persistence, which is often an unstable form of resistance, may occur. Norfloxacin is able to decontaminate the anal area selectively and, while being administered, remove potential pathogens from the periurethral area for periods of up to 1 year. Additionally, preliminary data suggest that norfloxacin may prevent catheter-associated gram-negative bacilluria for an average of 17 days. Data concerning 1,130 infected patients treated with norfloxacin showed the development of resistance to be infrequent (1.7%).

  6. Predictors of frequent visits to a psychiatric emergency room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Jørgen; Aagaard, Andreas; Buus, Niels

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of the psychiatric emergency services has undergone extensive changes following a significant downsizing of the number of psychiatric hospital beds during the past decades. A relatively small number of "frequent visitors" accounts for a disproportionately large amount of visi...... deinstitutionalising of the Danish mental health services and a radical health care reform. A basic multiplicative model was designed for the early detection of individual frequent visitors....

  7. Excess Frequent Insufficient Sleep in American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Chapman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Frequent insufficient sleep, defined as ≥14 days/past 30 days in which an adult did not get enough rest or sleep, is associated with adverse mental and physical health outcomes. Little is known about the prevalence of frequent insufficient sleep among American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN. Methods. We assessed racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of frequent insufficient sleep from the combined 2009-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey among 810,168 respondents who self-identified as non-Hispanic white (NHW, , non-Hispanic black (NHB, , Hispanic (, or AI/AN (. Results. We found significantly higher unadjusted prevalences (95% CI of frequent insufficient sleep among AI/AN (34.2% [32.1–36.4] compared to NHW (27.4% [27.1–27.6]. However, the age-adjusted excess prevalence of frequent insufficient sleep in AI/AN compared to NHW was decreased but remained significant with the addition of sex, education, and employment status; this latter relationship was further attenuated by the separate additions of obesity and lifestyle indicators, but was no longer significant with the addition of frequent mental distress to the model (PR  =  1.05; 95% CI : 0.99–1.13. This is the first report of a high prevalence of frequent insufficient sleep among AI/AN. These results further suggest that investigation of sleep health interventions addressing frequent mental distress may benefit AI/AN populations.

  8. Nosocomial urinary tract infections: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovelli, Valerio; Gaziev, Gabriele; Topazio, Luca; Bove, Pierluigi; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Finazzi Agrò, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Nosocomial urinary tract infections are a common complication in healthcare systems worldwide. A review of the literature was performed in June 2014 using the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) database, through either PubMed or Ovid as a search engine, to identify publications regarding nosocomial urinary tract infections (NUTIs) definition, epidemiology, etiology and treatment.According to current definitions, more than 30% of nosocomial infections are urinary tract infections (UTIs). A UTI is defined 'nosocomial' (NUTI) when it is acquired in any healthcare institution or, more generally, when it is related to patient management. The origin of nosocomial bacteria is endogenous (the patient's flora) in two thirds of the cases. Patients with indwelling urinary catheters, those undergoing urological surgery and manipulations, long-stay elderly male patients and patients with debilitating diseases are at high risk of developing NUTIs. All bacterial NUTIs should be treated, whether the patient is harboring a urinary catheter or not. The length of treatment depends on the infection site. There is abundance of important guidance which should be considered to reduce the risk of NUTIs (hand disinfection with instant hand sanitizer, wearing non-sterile gloves permanently, isolation of infected or colonized catheterized patients). Patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria can generally be treated initially with catheter removal or catheter exchange, and do not necessarily need antimicrobial therapy. Symptomatic patients should receive antibiotic therapy. Resistance of urinary pathogens to common antibiotics is currently a topic of concern.

  9. Urinary incontinence: the role of menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trutnovsky, Gerda; Rojas, Rodrigo Guzman; Mann, Kristy Pamela; Dietz, Hans P

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of menopause and hormone therapy on the symptoms and signs of stress urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. Records of women who attended a tertiary urogynecological unit were reviewed retrospectively. A standardized interview included evaluations of symptoms, menopause age (ie, time since last menstrual period or onset of menopausal symptoms), current or previous hormone use, and visual analogue scales for bother. Multichannel urodynamics, including urethral pressure profilometry and determination of abdominal leak point pressure, was performed. Of 382 women seen during the inclusion period, 62% were postmenopausal. Current systemic or local hormone use was reported by 7% and 6%, respectively. Two hundred eighty-eight women (76%) reported symptoms of stress urinary incontinence, with a mean bother of 5.7, and 273 women (72%) reported symptoms of urge urinary incontinence, with a mean bother of 6.4. On univariate analysis, symptoms and bother of urge incontinence were significantly related to menopause age, whereas this relationship was not found for stress incontinence. After calendar age was controlled for, length of menopause showed no significant relationship with any symptom or sign of urinary incontinence. Hormone deficiency after menopause is unlikely to play a major role in urinary incontinence.

  10. Incremental Mining for Regular Frequent Patterns in Vertical Format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar G

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the real world database updates continuously in several online applications like super market, network monitoring, web administration, stock market etc. Frequent pattern mining is afundamental and essential area in data mining research. Not only occurrence frequency of a pattern but also occurrence behaviour of a pattern may be treated as important criteria to measure the interestingness of a pattern. A frequent pattern is said to be regular frequent if the occurrence behaviour is less than or equal to the user given regularity threshold. In incremental transactional databases the occurrence frequency and the occurrence behaviour of a pattern changes whenever a small set of new transactions are added to the database. It is undesirable to mine regular frequent patterns from the scratch. Thus proposes a new algorithm called RFPID (Regular Frequent Pattern Mining in Incremental Databases to mine regular frequent patterns in incremental transactional databases using vertical data format which requires only one database scan. The experimental results show our algorithm is efficient in both memory utilization and execution.

  11. Maintaining Discovered Frequent Itemsets: Cases for Changeable Database and Support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU XiaoPing(杜孝平); TANG ShiWei(唐世渭); Akifumi Makinouchi(牧之内顕文)

    2003-01-01

    Mining frequent itemsets from large databases has played an essential role inmany data mining tasks. It is also important to maintain the discovered frequent itemsets forthese data mining tasks when the database is updated. All algorithms proposed so far for the maintenance of discovered frequent itemsets are only performed with a fixed minimum support,which is the same as that used to obtain the discovered frequent itemsets. That is, users cannot change the minimum support even if the new results are unsatisfactory to the users. In thispaper two new complementary algorithms, FMP (First Maintaining Process) and RMP (Repeated Maintaining Process), are proposed to maintain discovered frequent itemsets in the case that new transaction data are added to a transaction database. Both algorithms allow users to change theminimum support for the maintenance processes. FMP is used for the first maintaining process, andwhen the result derived from the FMP is unsatisfactory, RMP will be performed repeatedly untilsatisfactory results are obtained. The proposed algorithms re-use the previous results to cut downthe cost of maintenance. Extensive experiments have been conducted to assess the performance of the algorithms. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithms are very resultful compared with the previous mining and maintenance algorithms for maintenance of discovered frequent itemsets.

  12. Mining Maximal Frequent Patterns in a Unidirectional FP-tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jing-jing; LIU Rui-xin; WANG Yan; JIANG Bao-qing

    2006-01-01

    Becausemining complete set of frequent patterns from dense database could be impractical, an interesting alternative has been proposed recently. Instead of mining the complete set of frequent patterns, the new model only finds out the maximal frequent patterns, which can generate all frequent patterns. FP-growth algorithm is one of the most efficient frequent-pattern mining methods published so far. However,because FP-tree and conditional FP-trees must be two-way traversable, a great deal memory is needed in process of mining. This paper proposes an efficient algorithm Unid_FP-Max for mining maximal frequent patterns based on unidirectional FP-tree. Because of generation method of unidirectional FP-tree and conditional unidirectional FP-trees, the algorithm reduces the space consumption to the fullest extent. With the development of two techniques:single path pruning and header table pruning which can cut down many conditional unidirectional FP-trees generated recursively in mining process, Unid_ FP-Max further lowers the expense of time and space.

  13. Treatment of stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Rasmussen, W

    1990-12-01

    This review presents reported cure and improvement rates of stress urinary incontinence in women obtained by different treatment modalities. Apart from the urodynamic findings, histological and histochemical changes of the pelvic floor may be clinically relevant to treatment in the future. Long-term cure and improvement rates achieved by non-surgical treatment (physiotherapy, biofeedback, bladder training, electrostimulation) are commented on. These rates range from 40-60% for physiotherapy and electrostimulation but are considerably less after biofeedback and bladder training. Pharmacotherapy is unlikely to offer more than a placebo effect. Studies of a single surgical procedure usually report high cure rates. In making the appropriate choice of operation the best guidelines are the cure rates from comparative or prospective randomized reports. From such studies an abdominal retropubic suspension operation (cure rates after five years 57-78 %) is more likely to help the patient than an anterior colporrhaphy (cure rates 31-70 %) or a transvaginal needle bladder neck suspension (cure rates 39-61 %). In selected patients sling procedures or the use of artificial sphincters may produce excellent results (70-80 %). To estimate the results of different treatments urine loss should be assessed objectively and physical restrictions and hygienic and social implications taken into account. A method of pre- and post-treatment "performance scores" should be developed.

  14. Urinary tract infection in full-term newborn infants: risk factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falcão Mário Cícero

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the correlation of risk factors to the occurrence of urinary tract infection in full-term newborn infants. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective study (1997 including full-term infants having a positive urine culture by bag specimen. Urine collection was based on: fever, weight loss > 10% of birth weight, nonspecific symptoms (feeding intolerance, failure to thrive, hypoactivity, debilitate suction, irritability, or renal and urinary tract malformations. In these cases, another urine culture by suprapubic bladder aspiration was collected to confirm the diagnosis. To compare and validate the risk factors in each group, the selected cases were divided into two groups: Group I - positive urine culture by bag specimen collection and negative urine culture by suprapubic aspiration, and Group II - positive urine culture by bag specimen collection and positive urine culture by suprapubic aspiration . RESULTS: Sixty one infants were studied, Group I, n = 42 (68.9% and Group II, n = 19 (31.1%. The selected risk factors (associated infectious diseases, use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, renal and urinary tract malformations, mechanical ventilation, parenteral nutrition and intravascular catheter were more frequent in Group II (p<0.05. Through relative risk analysis, risk factors were, in decreasing importance: parenteral nutrition, intravascular catheter, associated infectious diseases, use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, mechanical ventilation, and renal and urinary tract malformations. CONCLUSION: The results showed that parenteral nutrition, intravascular catheter, and associated infectious diseases contributed to increase the frequency of neonatal urinary tract infection, and in the presence of more than one risk factor, the occurrence of urinary tract infection rose up to 11 times.

  15. Surprises from the resummation of ladders in the ABJ(M) cusp anomalous dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Bonini, Marisa; Preti, Michelangelo; Seminara, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    We study the cusp anomalous dimension in N=6 ABJ(M) theory, identifying a scaling limit in which the ladder diagrams dominate. The resummation is encoded into a Bethe-Salpeter equation that is mapped to a Schroedinger problem, exactly solvable due to the surprising supersymmetry of the effective Hamiltonian. In the ABJ case the solution implies the diagonalization of the U(N) and U(M) building blocks, suggesting the existence of two independent cusp anomalous dimensions and an unexpected exponentiation structure for the related Wilson loops. While consistent with previous perturbative analysis, the strong coupling limit of our result does not agree with the string theory computation, emphasizing a difference with the analogous resummation in the N=4 case.

  16. Probing Critical Point Energies of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Surprising Indirect Gap of Single Layer WSe 2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chendong

    2015-09-21

    By using a comprehensive form of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have revealed detailed quasi-particle electronic structures in transition metal dichalcogenides, including the quasi-particle gaps, critical point energy locations, and their origins in the Brillouin zones. We show that single layer WSe surprisingly has an indirect quasi-particle gap with the conduction band minimum located at the Q-point (instead of K), albeit the two states are nearly degenerate. We have further observed rich quasi-particle electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of atomic structures and spin-orbit couplings. Such a local probe for detailed electronic structures in conduction and valence bands will be ideal to investigate how electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides are influenced by variations of local environment.

  17. OCEAN CIRCULATION. Observing the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation yields a decade of inevitable surprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srokosz, M A; Bryden, H L

    2015-06-19

    The importance of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) heat transport for climate is well acknowledged. Climate models predict that the AMOC will slow down under global warming, with substantial impacts, but measurements of ocean circulation have been inadequate to evaluate these predictions. Observations over the past decade have changed that situation, providing a detailed picture of variations in the AMOC. These observations reveal a surprising degree of AMOC variability in terms of the intraannual range, the amplitude and phase of the seasonal cycle, the interannual changes in strength affecting the ocean heat content, and the decline of the AMOC over the decade, both of the latter two exceeding the variations seen in climate models. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation occurs often in cryptogenic ischaemic stroke. Final results from the SURPRISE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Louisa; Krieger, D W; Højberg, S;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke fourfold and is associated with a poor clinical outcome. Despite work-up in compliance with guidelines, up to one-third of patients have cryptogenic stroke (CS). The prevalence of asymptomatic paroxysmal atrial...... fibrillation (PAF) in CS remains unknown. The SURPRISE project aimed at determining this rate using long-term cardiac monitoring. METHODS: Patients with CS after protocolled work-up including electrocardiography (ECG) and telemetry were included after informed consent. An implantable loop recorder (ILR...... patients (16.1%). In three patients PAF was detected by other methods before or after monitoring and was undiscovered due to device sensitivity in one case. The first event of PAF was documented at a mean of 109 days (SD ±48) after stroke onset. PAF was asymptomatic in all cases and occurred in episodes...

  19. Probing Critical Point Energies of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Surprising Indirect Gap of Single Layer WSe2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chendong; Chen, Yuxuan; Johnson, Amber; Li, Ming-Yang; Li, Lain-Jong; Mende, Patrick C; Feenstra, Randall M; Shih, Chih-Kang

    2015-10-14

    By using a comprehensive form of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have revealed detailed quasi-particle electronic structures in transition metal dichalcogenides, including the quasi-particle gaps, critical point energy locations, and their origins in the Brillouin zones. We show that single layer WSe2 surprisingly has an indirect quasi-particle gap with the conduction band minimum located at the Q-point (instead of K), albeit the two states are nearly degenerate. We have further observed rich quasi-particle electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of atomic structures and spin-orbit couplings. Such a local probe for detailed electronic structures in conduction and valence bands will be ideal to investigate how electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides are influenced by variations of local environment.

  20. Beyond surprise: the puzzle of infants' expressive reactions to expectancy violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Klaus R; Zentner, Marcel R; Stern, Daniel

    2004-12-01

    The reactions of 58 infants to expectancy violation by digitally filtering the experimenter's voice were studied in a cross-sectional design for ages 5, 7, 9, 11-12, and 14 months. The results show that behavioral freezing and changes in gaze direction, but not facial or vocal expression, are reliable responses to expectancy violation. The pattern suggests that a transition in the infant's capacity for cognitive evaluation of novel and discrepant events may occur around age 9 months. These findings confirm the consistent failure to find prototypical facial surprise reactions in research on novel or impossible situations. Componential theories of emotion, which predict adaptive behavior patterns from appraisal processes, may provide clues for underlying mechanisms and generate hypotheses on age-related changes in emotional expression. copyright (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Surprising judgments about robot drivers: Experiments on rising expectations and blaming humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Danielson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available N-Reasons is an experimental Internet survey platform designed to enhance public participation in applied ethics and policy. N-Reasons encourages individuals to generate reasons to support their judgments, and groups to converge on a common set of reasons pro and con various issues.  In the Robot Ethics Survey some of the reasons contributed surprising judgments about autonomous machines. Presented with a version of the trolley problem with an autonomous train as the agent, participants gave unexpected answers, revealing high expectations for the autonomous machine and shifting blame from the automated device to the humans in the scenario. Further experiments with a standard pair of human-only trolley problems refine these results. While showing the high expectations even when no autonomous machine is involved, human bystanders are only blamed in the machine case. A third experiment explicitly aimed at responsibility for driverless cars confirms our findings about shifting blame in the case of autonomous machine agents. We conclude methodologically that both results point to the power of an experimental survey based approach to public participation to explore surprising assumptions and judgments in applied ethics. However, both results also support using caution when interpreting survey results in ethics, demonstrating the importance of qualitative data to provide further context for evaluating judgments revealed by surveys. On the ethics side, the result about shifting blame to humans interacting with autonomous machines suggests caution about the unintended consequences of intuitive principles requiring human responsibility.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v9i1.1727

  2. Use of antibiotics for urinary tract infection in women undergoing surgery for urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldberg, Rikke; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Brostrøm, Søren

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of antibiotics for urinary tract infection (UTI) before and after surgery for urinary incontinence (UI); and for those with use of antibiotics before surgery, to estimate the risk of treatment for a postoperative UTI, relative to those without use of antibiotics...

  3. Urinary acidification and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate in women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Mathiasen, Helle; Hansen, A B

    1994-01-01

    Urinary acidification ability, acid-base status and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney (MSK) and in 10 healthy women. Patients with MSK had higher fasting urine pH compared to normal controls (p ... in the mechanism of hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia in patients with medullary sponge kidney.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  4. Mining Frequent Generalized Itemsets and Generalized Association Rules Without Redundancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel Kunkle; Donghui Zhang; Gene Cooperman

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some new algorithms to efficiently mine max frequent generalized itemsets (g-itemsets) and essential generalized association rules (g-rules). These are compact and general representations for all frequent patterns and all strong association rules in the generalized environment. Our results fill an important gap among algorithms for frequent patterns and association rules by combining two concepts. First, generalized itemsets employ a taxonomy of items, rather than a fiat list of items. This produces more natural frequent itemsets and associations such as (meat, milk) instead of (beef, milk), (chicken, milk), etc. Second, compact representations of frequent itemsets and strong rules, whose result size is exponentially smaller, can solve a standard dilemma in mining patterns: with small threshold values for support and confidence, the user is overwhelmed by the extraordinary number of identified patterns and associations; but with large threshold values, some interesting patterns and associations fail to be identified. Our algorithms can also expand those max frequent g-itemsets and essential g-rules into the much larger set of ordinary frequent g-itemsets and strong g-rules. While that expansion is not recommended in most practical cases, we do so in order to present a comparison with existing algorithms that only handle ordinary frequent g-itemsets. In this case, the new algorithm is shown to be thousands, and in some cases millions, of the time faster than previous algorithms. Further, the new algorithm succeeds in analyzing deeper taxonomies, with the depths of seven or more. Experimental results for previous algorithms limited themselves to taxonomies with depth at most three or four. In each of the two problems, a straightforward lattice-based approach is briefly discussed and then a classificationbased algorithm is developed. In particular, the two classification-based algorithms are MFGI_class for mining max frequent g-itemsets and EGR

  5. Drug and Vaccine Development for the Treatment and Prevention of Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Valerie P.; Hannan, Thomas J.; Nielsen, Hailyn V.; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most common bacterial infections in humans, affecting millions of people every year. UTI cause significant morbidity in women throughout their lifespan, in infant boys, in older men, in individuals with underlying urinary tract abnormalities, and in those that require long-term urethral catheterization, such as patients with spinal cord injuries or incapacitated individuals living in nursing homes. Serious sequelae include frequent recurrences, pyelonephritis with sepsis, renal damage in young children, pre-term birth, and complications of frequent antimicrobial use including high-level antibiotic resistance and Clostridium difficile colitis. Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) cause the vast majority of UTI, but less common pathogens such as Enterococcus faecalis and other enterococci frequently take advantage of an abnormal or catheterized urinary tract to cause opportunistic infections. While antibiotic therapy has historically been very successful in controlling UTI, the high rate of recurrence remains a major problem, and many individuals suffer from chronically recurring UTI, requiring long-term prophylactic antibiotic regimens to prevent recurrent UTI. Furthermore, the global emergence of multi-drug resistant UPEC in the past ten years spotlights the need for alternative therapeutic and preventative strategies to combat UTI, including anti-infective drug therapies and vaccines. In this chapter, we review recent advances in the field of UTI pathogenesis, with an emphasis on the identification of promising drug and vaccine targets. We then discuss the development of new UTI drugs and vaccines, highlighting the challenges these approaches face and the need for a greater understanding of urinary tract mucosal immunity. PMID:26999391

  6. Urinary Peptide Levels in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mungli Prakash

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peptide levels in urine are found to be decreased in renal failure. In the current study urinary peptide levels were determined in chronic renal failure (CRF patients. Method: 86 CRF patients and 80 healthy controls were selected for the study. Urinary proteins and peptide levels were determined by spectrophotometer based Lowry and Bradford methods. Urinary creatinine levels were determined by clinical chemistry analyzer. Results: There was significant decrease in urinary peptide levels in CRF patients and Urinary % peptides were significantly decreased in CRF patients as compared to healthy controls. Urinary % peptides correlated negatively with proteinuria. Conclusion: we have found decrease in urinary peptides and % urinary peptides in CRF patients and possibly measurement of % urinary peptides may possibly serve as better indicator in early detection of impairment in renal function.

  7. Efficient Incremental Maintenance of Frequent Patterns with FP-Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Li Ma; Yun-Hai Tong; Shi-Wei Tang; Dong-Qing Yang

    2004-01-01

    Mining frequent patterns has been studied popularly in data mining area. However, little work has been done on mining patterns when the database has an influx of fresh data constantly. In these dynamic scenarios, efficient maintenance of the discovered patterns is crucial. Most existing methods need to scan the entire database repeatedly, which is an obvious disadvantage. In this paper, an efficient incremental mining algorithm, Incremental-Mining (IM), is proposed for maintenance of the frequent patterns when new incremental data come. Based on the frequent pattern tree (FP-tree) structure, IM gives a way to make the most of the things from the previous mining process, and requires scanning the original data once at most. Furthermore, IM can identify directly the differential set of frequent patterns, which may be more informative to users. Moreover, IM can deal with changing thresholds as well as changing data, thus provide a full maintenance scheme. IM has been implemented and the performance study shows it outperforms three other incremental algorithms: FUP, DB-tree and re-running frequent pattern growth (FP-growth).

  8. Nine Facts about the SAT That Might Surprise You. Statistical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letukas, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify and dispel rumors that are frequently cited about the SAT. The following is a compilation of nine popular rumors organized into three areas: "Student Demographics," "Test Preparation/Test Prediction," and "Test Utilization."

  9. [Urinary urgency and reflex incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madersbacher, H

    1991-07-01

    Urge and reflex incontinence are caused by detrusor dysfunction:urgency may be due to hyperactivity or hypersensitivity of the bladder. Neurogenic hyperactivity of the detrusor is called detrusor hyperreflexia: the neurogenic uninhibited bladder is caused by incomplete, and the so-called reflex bladder by complete, suprasacral lesions. The pathophysiology of symptomatic and idiopathic detrusor hyperactivity and the therapeutic armentarium are described. Bladder drill together with biofeedback and pharmacotherapy with spasmolytic drugs - several potent spasmolytic drugs with different modes of action are available - are the basis of treatment for hyperactivity and hypersensitivity of the detrusor. An alternative is electrostimulation: stimulation of the afferents of the pudendal nerve, via the pelvic floor (anal, vaginal), percutaneously (dorsal nerve of the penis, clitoric nerve) or by the implantation of electrodes results in inhibition of the detrusor. Most (80-90%) patients can be treated successfully by conservative means. Operative measurements comprise bladder denervation and bladder augmentation. The results of bladder denervation by transtrigonal phenolization of the pelvic plexus are highly controversial. In patients with uncontrollable hyperactivity of the detrusor, augmentation of the bladder (e.g. clam ileocystoplasty) is the method of choice, while for those with uncontrollable hypersensitivity of the detrusor, cystectomy followed by bladder substitution should be performed as a last resort. Treatment for urinary incontinence due to detrusor hyperreflexia must be selected bearing in mind that bladder emptying is inadequate, in most cases because of dyssynergia between detrusor and external sphincter. Therapy is basically aimed at transforming hyperreflexia of the detrusor into hyporeflexia, primarily by potent spasmolytic drugs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Extracting Frequent Connected Subgraphs from Large Graph Sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang; Qing-Qing Yuan; Hao-Feng Zhou; Ming-Sheng Hong; Bai-Le Shi

    2004-01-01

    Mining frequent patterns from datasets is one of the key success of data mining research. Currently, most of the studies focus on the data sets in which the elements are independent, such as the items in the marketing basket.. However, the objects in the real world often have close relationship with each other. How to extract frequent patterns from these relations is the objective of this paper. The authors use graphs to model the relations, and select a simple type for analysis. Combining the graph theory and algorithms to generate frequent patterns, a new algorithm called Topology, which can mine these graphs efficiently, has been proposed. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated by doing experiments with synthetic datasets and real data. The experimental results show that Topology can do the job well. At the end of this paper, the potential improvement is mentioned.

  11. Significant Interval and Frequent Pattern Discovery in Web Log Data

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Kanak

    2010-01-01

    There is a considerable body of work on sequence mining of Web Log Data. We are using One Pass frequent Episode discovery (or FED) algorithm, takes a different approach than the traditional apriori class of pattern detection algorithms. In this approach significant intervals for each Website are computed first (independently) and these interval used for detecting frequent patterns/Episode and then the Analysis is performed on Significant Intervals and frequent patterns That can be used to forecast the user's behavior using previous trends and this can be also used for advertising purpose. This type of applications predicts the Website interest. In this approach, time-series data are folded over a periodicity (day, week, etc.) Which are used to form the Interval? Significant intervals are discovered from these time points that satisfy the criteria of minimum confidence and maximum interval length specified by the user.

  12. Discovering Frequent Subtrees from XML Data Using Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    By rapid progress of network and storage technologies, a huge amount of electronic data such as Web pages and XML has been available on Internet. In this paper, we study a data-mining problem of discovering frequent ordered sub-trees in a large collection of XML data, where both of the patterns and the data are modeled by labeled ordered trees. We present an efficient algorithm of Ordered Subtree Miner(OSTMiner) based on two- layer neural networks with Hebb rule, that computes all ordered sub-trees appearing in a collection of XML trees with frequent above a user-specified threshold using a special structure EM-tree. In this algorithm, EM-tree is used as an extended merging tree to supply scheme information for efficient pruning and mining frequent sub-trees. Experiments results showed that OSTMiner has good response time and scales well.

  13. Rotavirus is frequent among adults hospitalised for acute gastroenteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausch, Karen Rokkedal; Westh, Lena; Kristensen, Lena Hagelskjær;

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus infection is the most common aetiology of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) among young children. In adults, diagnostics focus mainly on bacterial causes, though recent studies suggest that rotavirus is a frequent agent. The aim of this study was to examine the proportion...... culture for bacterial pathogens. RESULTS: A total of 265 adult patients were included. 9.4% tested positive for rotavirus. Enteropathogenic bacteria were found in 24.5% of the cases. In the majority of cases (62.3%), no pathogen was found. Overall, rotavirus was the second-most frequent pathogen, exceeded...... only by Campylobacter spp. Immunosuppression and a C-reactive protein (CRP) below 50 mg/l (0-8 mg/l) were associated with rotavirus. The seasonality of rotavirus differed markedly from that of bacterial gastroenteritis. CONCLUSION: Rotavirus is the second-most frequently identified pathogen in adults...

  14. A Cost-Benefit and Accurate Method for Assessing Microalbuminuria: Single versus Frequent Urine Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roholla Hemmati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study was to answer the question whether a single testing for microalbuminuria results in a reliable conclusion leading costs saving. Methods. This current cross-sectional study included a total of 126 consecutive persons. Microalbuminuria was assessed by collection of two fasting random urine specimens on arrival to the clinic as well as one week later in the morning. Results. In overall, 17 out of 126 participants suffered from microalbuminuria that, among them, 12 subjects were also diagnosed as microalbuminuria once assessing this factor with a sensitivity of 70.6%, a specificity of 100%, a PPV of 100%, a NPV of 95.6%, and an accuracy of 96.0%. The measured sensitivity, specificity, PVV, NPV, and accuracy in hypertensive patients were 73.3%, 100%, 100%, 94.8%, and 95.5%, respectively. Also, these rates in nonhypertensive groups were 50.0%, 100%, 100%, 97.3%, and 97.4%, respectively. According to the ROC curve analysis, a single measurement of UACR had a high value for discriminating defected from normal renal function state (c=0.989. Urinary albumin concentration in a single measurement had also high discriminative value for diagnosis of damaged kidney (c=0.995. Conclusion. The single testing of both UACR and urine albumin level rather frequent testing leads to high diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy as well as high predictive values in total population and also in hypertensive subgroups.

  15. A Frame Work for Frequent Pattern Mining Using Dynamic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Joshi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Discovering frequent objects (item sets, sequential patterns is one of the most vital fields in data mining. It is well understood that it require running time and memory for defining candidates and this is the motivation for developing large number of algorithm. Frequent patterns mining is the paying attention research issue in association rules analysis. Apriori algorithm is a standard algorithm of association rules mining. Plenty of algorithms for mining association rules and their mutations are projected on the foundation of Apriori Algorithm. Most of the earlier studies adopted Apriori-like algorithms which are based on generate-and-test candidates theme and improving algorithm approach and formation but no one give attention to the structure of database. Several modifications on apriori algorithms are focused on algorithm Strategy but no one-algorithm emphasis on least transaction and more attribute representation of database. We presented a new research trend on frequent pattern mining in which generate Transaction pair to lighten current methods from the traditional blockage, providing scalability to massive data sets and improving response time. In order to mine patterns in database with more columns than rows, we proposed a complete framework for the frequent pattern mining. A simple approach is if we generate pair of transaction instead of item id where attributes are much larger then transaction so result is very fast. Newly, different works anticipated a new way to mine patterns in transposed databases where there is a database with thousands of attributes but merely tens of stuff. We suggest a novel dynamic algorithm for frequent pattern mining in which generate transaction pair and for generating frequent pattern we find out by longest common subsequence using dynamic function. Our solutions give result more rapidly. A quantitative investigation of these tradeoffs is conducted through a wide investigational study on artificial and

  16. [Prevalence of urinary and anal incontinence in women from metropolitan area of Guadalajara].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Espinoza, Claudia Josefina; Flores Carreras, Oscar; García de Alba García, Javier E; Velázquez Castellanos, Patricia Inés; González Ruiz, María Isabel; Márquez Allegre, René

    2006-06-01

    Female urinary and anal incontinence are common entities in pelvic floor dysfunction. The most frequently age affected range from 45 to 69 years. Previous studies performed in the United States report a prevalence of 24-62% for urinary incontinence and 3-60% for anal incontinence. To determine the prevalence of these disorders in the Guadalajara metropolitan area because we do not know it. A transversal and various stage study was performed recollecting blocks first, then houses, finally interviewing women and applying a structured questionnaire with somatometric and social-demographic data and also clinical-pathological antecedents. The data obtained was registered and processed first manually then using Excel and Epi-Info software. The group of women interviewed (n = 352) were between 15-85 years. The majority were married, housewives, 33% with grammar school, 23% finished high school, 25% professionists and 19% did not finish school; with an average of three pregnancies and with a body mass index (BMI) positive for overweight and obesity. The prevalence for urinary incontinence was 27.8% and anal incontinence of 3.4%. These are results compatible with those reported in the United States. Women living in Guadalajara have the same behavior that European and American women about prevalence of urinary incontinence. We recommend the performance of this type of studies in other states of this country in order to enrich the present information.

  17. Chemical diplomacy in male tilapia: urinary signal increases sex hormone and decreases aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, João L; Keller-Costa, Tina; Hubbard, Peter C; Rato, Ana; Canário, Adelino V M

    2017-08-09

    Androgens, namely 11-ketotestosterone (11KT), have a central role in male fish reproductive physiology and are thought to be involved in both aggression and social signalling. Aggressive encounters occur frequently in social species, and fights may cause energy depletion, injury and loss of social status. Signalling for social dominance and fighting ability in an agonistic context can minimize these costs. Here, we test the hypothesis of a 'chemical diplomacy' mechanism through urinary signals that avoids aggression and evokes an androgen response in receiver males of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). We show a decoupling between aggression and the androgen response; males fighting their mirror image experience an unresolved interaction and a severe drop in urinary 11KT. However, if concurrently exposed to dominant male urine, aggression drops but urinary 11KT levels remain high. Furthermore, 11KT increases in males exposed to dominant male urine in the absence of a visual stimulus. The use of a urinary signal to lower aggression may be an adaptive mechanism to resolve disputes and avoid the costs of fighting. As dominance is linked to nest building and mating with females, the 11KT response of subordinate males suggests chemical eavesdropping, possibly in preparation for parasitic fertilizations.

  18. [Usefulness of urinary antigen and sputum Gram stain for rapid diagnosis of pneumococcal respiratory infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanuki, Yuji; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Ogura, Takashi; Miyazawa, Naoki; Tomioka, Toshiaki; Odagiri, Shigeki

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of a rapid urinary antigen detection kit (Binax NOW) to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae in the early diagnosis of pneumococcal respiratory tract infections in 313 patients with presumptive respiratory tract infections. We compared results of this test with those of sputum Gram staining. Urinary antigen and sputum Gram staining were respectively positive in 37 and 36 of 57 patients with pneumococcal respiratory infections. The urinary antigen showed moderate positive rate of 64.9% and low false positive rate of 2.3%. The sputum Gram staining also showed moderate positive rate of 64.3% and low false positive rate of 3.5%. Pneumococcal antigen was more frequently detected in patients with severe pneumococcal infections (6/6) than those with mild (5/10) and moderate (26/41) infections. Of the 9 patients who had received antibiotics before testing, antigen was detected in 8 but positive results of sputum Gram stain were in 4. In conclusion, urinary antigen test is a useful test for early diagnosis of pneumococcal respiratory infections especially in adult patients with moderate or severe infections for whom demonstrative results of a sputum Gram stain is unavailable, even after commencement of antibiotic treatment.

  19. A Rare Cause of Acute Abdomen: Urinary Bladder Rupture due to Foley Catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Engin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Urinary bladder rupture is usually found due to blunt or penetrating traumas and iatrogenic injuries, and spontaneous intraperitoneal perforation is very rare. 57 years old male patient was consulted to general surgery department due to abdominal pain, nausia-vomiting and fever. He had Diabetes Mellitus, Multiple Sclerosis, Leriche Syndrome and operation for benign prostatic hypertrophy 5 years ago on his medical history which the case catheterised him urinary bladder himself frequently in nonsterile conditions. He did not care about sterility. On physical examination, suprapubic defence and rebound was noted more prominently on right lower quadrant. He was taken to operating room with the diagnosis of acute abdomen. On exploration, infection was seen on all layers of the whole urinary bladder, abscess formation and necrosis causing a microperforation which is detected by methylene blue was also present. Intraabdominal abscess drainage, cystostomy and primary suturing of the urinary bladder was performed. Patient died due to sepsis at the 9.th post operative day.

  20. Whole genome sequence of Staphylococcus saprophyticus reveals the pathogenesis of uncomplicated urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Makoto; Yamashita, Atsushi; Hirakawa, Hideki; Kumano, Miyuki; Morikawa, Kazuya; Higashide, Masato; Maruyama, Atsushi; Inose, Yumiko; Matoba, Kimio; Toh, Hidehiro; Kuhara, Satoru; Hattori, Masahira; Ohta, Toshiko

    2005-09-13

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a uropathogenic Staphylococcus frequently isolated from young female outpatients presenting with uncomplicated urinary tract infections. We sequenced the whole genome of S. saprophyticus type strain ATCC 15305, which harbors a circular chromosome of 2,516,575 bp with 2,446 ORFs and two plasmids. Comparative genomic analyses with the strains of two other species, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, as well as experimental data, revealed the following characteristics of the S. saprophyticus genome. S. saprophyticus does not possess any virulence factors found in S. aureus, such as coagulase, enterotoxins, exoenzymes, and extracellular matrix-binding proteins, although it does have a remarkable paralog expansion of transport systems related to highly variable ion contents in the urinary environment. A further unique feature is that only a single ORF is predictable as a cell wall-anchored protein, and it shows positive hemagglutination and adherence to human bladder cell associated with initial colonization in the urinary tract. It also shows significantly high urease activity in S. saprophyticus. The uropathogenicity of S. saprophyticus can be attributed to its genome that is needed for its survival in the human urinary tract by means of novel cell wall-anchored adhesin and redundant uro-adaptive transport systems, together with urease.

  1. Social environment and frequent attendance in Danish general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

    2005-01-01

    inequalities in health or whether social factors in themselves determine the use of general practice. AIM: To examine if social factors are associated with frequent attendance in general practice after adjusting for physical and psychological health variables. DESIGN OF STUDY: Population-based cross...... during the period November 1997-October 1998. A questionnaire about physical, psychological and social factors was sent to the patients. The associations between social factors and frequent attendance were adjusted for physical and psychological health and tendency towards somatisation. RESULTS: A total...

  2. Examination of Operation Quality for High-frequent Railway Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.

    2009-01-01

    The examination of operation quality for high-frequent operation requires other approaches than the typical evaluation of punctuality (trains on time) and reliability (operated trains). This is because passengers in high-frequent railway systems do not necessarily notice train delays as they just...... measurement. However, if an even more accurate measurement is wanted, the article recommends using the passenger delay approach. For the passenger delay approach, the article recommends using a 3rd generation passenger delay model since it is the most accurate type of model and it can be combined with railway...

  3. An Efficient Hybrid Algorithm for Mining Web Frequent Access Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Li-qiang; LIU Da-xin

    2004-01-01

    We propose an efficient hybrid algorithm WDHP in this paper for mining frequent access patterns.WDHP adopts the techniques of DHP to optimize its performance, which is using hash table to filter candidate set and trimming database.Whenever the database is trimmed to a size less than a specified threshold, the algorithm puts the database into main memory by constructing a tree, and finds frequent patterns on the tree.The experiment shows that WDHP outperform algorithm DHP and main memory based algorithm WAP in execution efficiency.

  4. Mining Frequent Itemsets from Online Data Streams: Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HebaTallah Mohamed Nabil

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Online mining of data streams poses many new challenges more than mining static databases. In addition to the one-scan nature, the unbounded memory requirement, the high data arrival rate of data streams and the combinatorial explosion of itemsets exacerbate the mining task. The high complexity of the frequent itemsets mining problem hinders the application of the stream mining techniques. In this review, we present a comparative study among almost all, as we are acquainted, the algorithms for mining frequent itemsets from online data streams. All those techniques immolate with the accuracy of the results due to the relatively limited storage, leading, at all times, to approximated results.

  5. Frequent rhabdomyolysis in anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Soon-Tae; Kim, Tae-Joon; Moon, Jangsup; Sunwoo, Jun-Sang; Byun, Jung-Ick; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Jung, Ki-Young; Chu, Kon; Lee, Sang Kun

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical presentation and provocation factors of rhabdomyolysis in anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Among the 16 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis in our institutional cohort, nine patients had elevated CK enzyme levels and clinical evidence of rhabdomyolysis. Rhabdomyolysis was more frequent after immunotherapy. The use of dopamine receptor blocker (DRB) increased the risk of rhabdomyolysis. None of the patients without rhabdomyolysis received DRBs. Rhabdomyolysis is a frequent complication in anti-NMDAR encephalitis and more common after immunotherapy and the use of DRBs increases the risk. Therefore, DRBs should be administered carefully in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis.

  6. [Pseudotumor form of urinary tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabii, Redouane; Moufid, Kamal; Joual, Abdenbi; Maani, Ahmed; Bennani, Saad; el Mrini, Mohamed

    2002-12-01

    Urogenital tuberculosis is an increasingly frequent serious disease. The diagnosis is often delayed due to the marked clinical polymorphism, leading to serious sequelae. The diagnosis of typical forms is easy, but some forms are misleading and can lead to an incorrect diagnosis. The authors report a pseudoneoplastic form of urogenital tuberculosis in a young patient that was initially diagnosed as lymphoma. In the light of this case and a review of the literature, the authors emphasize the diagnostic difficulties of these forms and the treatment modalities.

  7. Immunohistochemical diagnosis of urinary bladder tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Semenov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostics of urinary bladder tuberculosis bases on pathological verification. Standard histological staining (hematoxylin–eosin reveals glaucomatous inflammation, but cannot estimate its etiology.Aim of our study was to evaluate the role of complex immunohistochemical method in diagnostic of tuberculosis infection in bladder. Our study included 21 histological specimen of the resected bladder in case of nephrotuberculosis. Standard histological examination revealed specific changes in bladder tissue only in 2 cases, while immunohistochemical method with antibodies to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT demonstrated positive reaction at 5 patients. Investigation of lower urinary tract function in late postoperative period showed that patients with positive anti-MBT reaction had clinically significant chronic urinary retention, as well as their degree of urinary disorders assessed using a questionnaire IPSS-Qol was higher. Thus, the use of IHC method in combination with standard histological examination improves diagnostics of urinary bladder tuberculosis, and it may serve the predictor of long-term results of surgical treatment of microcystis.

  8. Urinary infection before and after prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourmand Gholamreza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of pre and post prostatectomy related urinary tract in-fection and its correlation with peri-operative events, we studied 120 patients who underwent pros-tatectomy due to benign prostatic hypertrophy from September 2005 to September 2006. Urine cultures were performed before the operations, after a week, and three months later. Data including prostate volume, prostatic specific antigen (PSA, post voiding residue (PVR and histopathological reports as well as the duration of urinary leak, bladder irrigation, hospitalization, and catheterization were studied. The mean age of the studied patients was 70.5 ± 8 years. Significant preoperative bac-teriuria was revealed in 18 (15% patients of whom 14(77% patients developed negative cultures following the operation. Postoperative bacteriuria was detected in 9(7.5% patients who negative urine cultures preoperatively. Pre and post operative micro-organisms were different in the majority of the cases. The mean PSA was higher in patients with a positive history of infection. Following prostatectomy, patients with positive urine cultures had significantly longer urinary leakage, cathe-terization, and hospital stays compared with those who remained culture negative. We conclude that the incidence of positive urine culture pri-prostatectomy for BPH can be improved by appropriate antibiotic therapy, and the risk factors for postoperative urinary infection include preoperative infec-tion, prolonged urinary leakage, catheterization, and hospital stay. The elevated PSA may be a risk factor.

  9. Biofabrication and biomaterials for urinary tract reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsawy MM

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Moustafa M Elsawy,1–3 Achala de Mel1 1Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, Royal Free Hospital, NHS Trust, University College London (UCL, 2Division of Reconstructive Urology, University College London Hospitals (uclh, London, UK; 3Urology Department, School of Medicine, Alexandria, University, Alexandria, EgyptAbstract: Reconstructive urologists are constantly facing diverse and complex pathologies that require structural and functional restoration of urinary organs. There is always a demand for a biocompatible material to repair or substitute the urinary tract instead of using patient’s autologous tissues with its associated morbidity. Biomimetic approaches are tissue-engineering tactics aiming to tailor the material physical and biological properties to behave physiologically similar to the urinary system. This review highlights the different strategies to mimic urinary tissues including modifications in structure, surface chemistry, and cellular response of a range of biological and synthetic materials. The article also outlines the measures to minimize infectious complications, which might lead to graft failure. Relevant experimental and preclinical studies are discussed, as well as promising biomimetic approaches such as three-dimensional bioprinting. Keywords: reconstruction, biofunctionalization, tissue engineering, urinary tract

  10. The Nucleus of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: Lots of Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Paul R.; Rosetta Science Working Team

    2016-10-01

    ESA's Rosetta mission has made many new and unexpected discoveries since its arrival at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in August 2014. The first of these was the unusual shape of the cometary nucleus. Although bilobate nuclei had been seen before, the extreme concavities on 67P were unexpected. Evidence gathered during the mission suggests that two independent bodies came together to form 67P, rather than the nucleus being a single body that was sculpted by sublimation and/or other processes. Although not a surprise, early observations showed that the nucleus rotation period had decreased by ~22 minutes since the previous aphelion passage. A similar rotation period decrease was seen post-perihelion during the encounter. These changes likely arise from asymmetric jetting forces from the irregular nucleus. Initially, Rosetta's instruments found little evidence for water ice on the surface; the presence of surface water ice increased substantially as the nucleus approached perihelion. The nucleus bulk density, 533 ± 6 kg/m3, was measured with Radio Science and OSIRIS imaging of the nucleus volume. This confirmed previous estimates based on indirect methods that the bulk density of cometary nuclei was on the order of 500-600 kg/m3 and on measurement of the density of 9P/Tempel 1's nucleus by Deep Impact. Nucleus topography proved to be highly varied, from smooth dust-covered plains to shallow circular basins, to the very rough terrain where the Philae lander came to rest. Evidence of thermal cracking is everywhere. The discovery of cylindrical pits on the surface, typically 100-200m in diameter with similar depths was a major surprise and has been interpreted as sinkholes. "Goose-bump" terrain consisting of apparently random piles of boulders 2-3 m in diameter was another unexpected discovery. Apparent layering with scales of meters to many tens of meters was seen but there was little or no evidence for impact features. Radar tomography of the interior of the "head

  11. Investigation of the heat source(s) of the Surprise Valley Geothermal System, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, N.; Holt, C. D.; Hawkes, S.; McClain, J. S.; Safford, L.; Mink, L. L.; Rose, C.; Zierenberg, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    Concerns about environmental impacts and energy security have led to an increased interest in sustainable and renewable energy resources, including geothermal systems. It is essential to know the permeability structure and possible heat source(s) of a geothermal area in order to assess the capacity and extent of the potential resource. We have undertaken geophysical surveys at the Surprise Valley Hot Springs in Cedarville, California to characterize essential parameters related to a fault-controlled geothermal system. At present, the heat source(s) for the system are unknown. Igneous bodies in the area are likely too old to have retained enough heat to supply the system, so it is probable that fracture networks provide heat from some deeper or more distributed heat sources. However, the fracture system and permeability structure remain enigmatic. The goal of our research is to identify the pathways for fluid transport within the Surprise Valley geothermal system using a combination of geophysical methods including active seismic surveys and short- and long-period magnetotelluric (MT) surveys. We have collected 14 spreads, consisting of 24 geophones each, of active-source seismic data. We used a "Betsy Gun" source at 8 to 12 locations along each spread and have collected and analyzed about 2800 shot-receiver pairs. Seismic velocities reveal shallow lake sediments, as well as velocities consistent with porous basalts. The latter, with velocities of greater than 3.0 km/s, lie along strike with known hot springs and faulted and tilted basalt outcrops outside our field area. This suggests that basalts may provide a permeable pathway through impermeable lake deposits. We conducted short-period (10Hz-60kHz) MT measurements at 33 stations. Our short-period MT models indicate shallow resistive blocks (>100Ωm) with a thin cover of more conductive sediments ( 10Ωm) at the surface. Hot springs are located in gaps between resistive blocks and are connected to deeper low

  12. Fraternity Membership & Frequent Drinking. NBER Working Paper No. 16291

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimone, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Reinforcing earlier findings from other data, college senior fraternity/sorority members are more likely to consume alcohol frequently. Large reductions in estimates upon controlling for time spent partying, and to a lesser extent cigarette use and intramural sports involvement, suggest considerable unobserved heterogeneity in the relationship.…

  13. Hybrid Recommendation System Memanfaatkan Penggalian Frequent Itemset dan Perbandingan Keyword

    OpenAIRE

    Suka Parwita, Wayan Gede; Winarko, Edi

    2015-01-01

    AbstrakRecommendation system sering dibangun dengan memanfaatkan data peringkat item dan data identitas pengguna. Data peringkat item merupakan data yang langka pada sistem yang baru dibangun. Sedangkan, pemberian data identitas pada recommendation system dapat menimbulkan kekhawatiran penyalahgunaan data identitas.Hybrid recommendation system memanfaatkan algoritma penggalian frequent itemset dan perbandingan keyword dapat memberikan daftar rekomendasi tanpa menggunakan data identitas penggu...

  14. Competence-Based Education and Training– about Frequently Asked Questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M.

    2012-01-01

    This article follows the author's previous piece on practical guidelines for the development of comprehensive competence-based education and training (Mulder, 2012). It is about the questions that have been and are still frequently asked in presentations, workshops and classes about the introduction

  15. Frequent Errors in Chinese EFL Learners' Topic-Based Writings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Huifang

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated a large number of errors found in the topic-based writings of Chinese EFL learners, especially provided an analysis on frequent errors, to find useful pedagogical implications for English grammar teaching and writing instruction in Chinese EFL setting. Students' topic-based writings were examined by the author. The findings…

  16. Readiness Assessment Tests versus Frequent Quizzes: Student Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Suzanne E.; Wu, Shao-Wei

    2009-01-01

    This study compares the effectiveness of two different assessment techniques; readiness assessment tests (RATs) and frequent quizzing. We report student perceptions of the impact of these techniques on the number of readings done prior to the class period, thorough reading of assignments, ability to follow class discussions, ability to participate…

  17. Injury patterns in children with frequent emergency department visits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, B

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare injury patterns in children with many and few emergency department (ED) visits in order to reveal the causes for the frequent visits. METHODS: Three cohorts of Danish children (total 579 721 children) were followed for three years when their ages were 0-2, 6-8, and 12...

  18. Ban the Book Report: Promoting Frequent and Enthusiastic Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Teachers recognize that frequent independent reading increases student knowledge on a wide range of topics, enhances vocabulary, and improves comprehension. "Ban the Book Report" inspires teachers to go beyond narrow and analytical book reports by exploring the potential of book talks, alternate book covers, identifying features of informational…

  19. An Adaptive Algorithm for Finding Frequent Sets in Landmark Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Xuan-Hong; Ong, Kok-Leong; Lee, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    We consider a CPU constrained environment for finding approximation of frequent sets in data streams using the landmark window. Our algorithm can detect overload situations, i.e., breaching the CPU capacity, and sheds data in the stream to “keep up”. This is done within a controlled error thresho...

  20. Most frequent location of the sentinel lymph nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiao Lo

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: The area between these four landmarks is the most frequent location of the sentinel lymph node identified using the radioisotope method. We suggest that this area should be carefully evaluated preoperatively by ultrasound for appropriate surgical planning. A skin incision in this area is also recommended when sentinel lymph node dissection is guided by blue dye.

  1. Frequent visitors at the psychiatric emergency room - A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Manuela

    2017-03-29

    Frequent visitors at the psychiatric emergency room (PER) constitute a small subgroup of patients, yet they are responsible for a disproportionate number of visits and thus claim considerable resources. Their needs are often left unmet and their repetitive visits reflect their dissatisfaction as well as that of PERs' staff. Motivated by these dilemmas, this study systematically reviews the literature about frequent visitors at PER and seeks to answer two questions: What characterizes frequent visitors at PER in the literature? and What characterizes PER in the literature? Based on 29 studies, this paper offers answers to the two questions based on a strength weakness opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis. The results of the review and subsequent analysis of the literature revealed the multiplicity and complexity of frequent visitors' characteristics and how they appear to converge. Commonalities were more difficult to identify in PER characteristics. In some cases, this happened because the characteristics were poorly described or were context specific. As a result, it was not easy to compare the studies on PER. Based on SWOT and the findings of the analysis, the paper proposes new venues of research and suggests how the field of mental health might develop by taking into account its opportunities and threats.

  2. GRAMI: Generalized Frequent Subgraph Mining in Large Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    El Saeedy, Mohammed El Sayed

    2011-07-24

    Mining frequent subgraphs is an important operation on graphs. Most existing work assumes a database of many small graphs, but modern applications, such as social networks, citation graphs or protein-protein interaction in bioinformatics, are modeled as a single large graph. Interesting interactions in such applications may be transitive (e.g., friend of a friend). Existing methods, however, search for frequent isomorphic (i.e., exact match) subgraphs and cannot discover many useful patterns. In this paper we propose GRAMI, a framework that generalizes frequent subgraph mining in a large single graph. GRAMI discovers frequent patterns. A pattern is a graph where edges are generalized to distance-constrained paths. Depending on the definition of the distance function, many instantiations of the framework are possible. Both directed and undirected graphs, as well as multiple labels per vertex, are supported. We developed an efficient implementation of the framework that models the frequency resolution phase as a constraint satisfaction problem, in order to avoid the costly enumeration of all instances of each pattern in the graph. We also implemented CGRAMI, a version that supports structural and semantic constraints; and AGRAMI, an approximate version that supports very large graphs. Our experiments on real data demonstrate that our framework is up to 3 orders of magnitude faster and discovers more interesting patterns than existing approaches.

  3. Follow-up after infants younger than 2 months of age with urinary tract infection in Southern Israel: epidemiologic, microbiologic and disease recurrence characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Gurevich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The timing of most recurrences after neonatal urinary tract infection is during the first year of life, with peak incidence 2–6 months after the initial infection. Information on the microbiologic characteristics of recurrent urinary tract infection episodes in relation to the microbiology of the initial episodes is limited. Objectives To analyze the epidemiologic/microbiological characteristics of 1st and recurrent urinary tract infection in infants <2 months of age. Methods A retrospective study including all infants <2 months of age with urinary tract infection admitted during 2005–2009 and followed till the age of 1 year. Results 151 neonates were enrolled (2.7% of all 5617 febrile infants <2 months of age admitted. The overall incidence of urinary tract infection occurring during the first 2 months of life was 151/73,480 (0.2% live births during 2005–2009 in southern Israel (2.1 cases/1000 live births. One pathogen was isolated in 133 (88.1%; Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterococcus spp., Morganella morganii, Proteus spp., and Enterobacter spp. represented the most common pathogens (57.9%, 12.2%, 7.9%, 6.7%, 6.1%, and 5%, respectively. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, and cefuroxime-axetil were the most commonly recommended prophylactic antibiotics (45%, 13.2%, and 8%, respectively. Twenty-three recurrent urinary tract infection episodes were recorded in 20 (13.2% patients; 6/23 (26% were diagnosed within one month following 1st episode. E. coli was the most frequent recurrent urinary tract infection pathogen (12/23, 52.2%. No differences were recorded in E. coli distribution between first urinary tract infection vs. recurrent urinary tract infection. Seventeen (74% recurrent urinary tract infection episodes were caused by pathogens different (phenotypically from those isolated in 1st episode. Recurrent urinary tract infection occurred in 25.0%, 8.3%, and 0 patients recommended trimethoprim

  4. Understanding women's hesitancy to undergo less frequent cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerend, Mary A; Shepherd, Melissa A; Kaltz, Emily A; Davis, Whitney J; Shepherd, Janet E

    2017-02-01

    Inappropriate cervical cancer screening (e.g., screening too often) can result in unnecessary medical procedures, treatment, and psychological distress. To balance the benefits and harms, cervical cancer screening guidelines were recently modified in favor of less frequent screening (i.e., every 3 to 5 years). This study investigated women's acceptance of less frequent cervical cancer screening and their primary concerns about extending the screening interval beyond one year. A national sample of 376 U.S. women ages 21-65 completed an online survey in 2014. Predictors of willingness to get a Pap test every 3 to 5 years were identified using logistic regression. We also examined perceived consequences of less frequent screening. Over two thirds were willing to undergo less frequent screening if it was recommended by their healthcare provider. Nevertheless, nearly 20% expressed discomfort with less frequent screening and 45% were either in opposition or unsure whether they would be comfortable replacing Pap testing with primary HPV testing. Women whose most recent Pap test was (vs. was not) within the past year and women who ever (vs. never) had an abnormal Pap test were less willing to extend the screening interval. Additionally, women who typically saw an obstetrician/gynecologist or nurse practitioner for their Pap test (vs. a family physician) were less accepting of the guidelines. Hesitancy about the longer screening interval appears to stem from concern about developing cancer between screenings. Findings contribute to the growing body of research on cancer overscreening and may inform interventions for improving adherence to cancer screening guidelines.

  5. Quality Assessment of Urinary Stone Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siener, Roswitha; Buchholz, Noor; Daudon, Michel;

    2016-01-01

    After stone removal, accurate analysis of urinary stone composition is the most crucial laboratory diagnostic procedure for the treatment and recurrence prevention in the stone-forming patient. The most common techniques for routine analysis of stones are infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction...... and chemical analysis. The aim of the present study was to assess the quality of urinary stone analysis of laboratories in Europe. Nine laboratories from eight European countries participated in six quality control surveys for urinary calculi analyses of the Reference Institute for Bioanalytics, Bonn, Germany......, between 2010 and 2014. Each participant received the same blinded test samples for stone analysis. A total of 24 samples, comprising pure substances and mixtures of two or three components, were analysed. The evaluation of the quality of the laboratory in the present study was based on the attainment...

  6. New drug treatments for urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Dudley; Cardozo, Linda

    2010-04-01

    Urinary incontinence remains a common and distressing condition affecting many women and is known to have a significant effect on quality of life (QoL). Whilst conservative and behavioural therapy are important in the management of women with both stress incontinence and overactive bladder (OAB) ultimately many may benefit from pharmacological therapy. Antimuscarinic drugs are the commonly used agents in the treatment of OAB although often compliance and persistence are affected by adverse effects. Consequently many newer agents remain under investigation. In addition duloxetine has recently been introduced for the management of women with stress incontinence and may offer an alternative to surgery in selected cases. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current and new developments in the management of women with urinary incontinence as well as reviewing the role of oestrogen therapy in relation to lower urinary tract dysfunction.

  7. Mathematical modelling of the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paya, Antonio Soriano; Fernandez, Daniel Ruiz; Gil, David; Garcia Chamizo, Juan Manuel; Perez, Francisco Macia

    2013-03-01

    The lower urinary tract is one of the most complex biological systems of the human body as it involved hydrodynamic properties of urine and muscle. Moreover, its complexity is increased to be managed by voluntary and involuntary neural systems. In this paper, a mathematical model of the lower urinary tract it is proposed as a preliminary study to better understand its functioning. Furthermore, another goal of that mathematical model proposal is to provide a basis for developing artificial control systems. Lower urinary tract is comprised of two interacting systems: the mechanical system and the neural regulator. The latter has the function of controlling the mechanical system to perform the voiding process. The results of the tests reproduce experimental data with high degree of accuracy. Also, these results indicate that simulations not only with healthy patients but also of patients with dysfunctions with neurological etiology present urodynamic curves very similar to those obtained in clinical studies.

  8. Differences in urinary trichloroethylene metabolites of animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogata,Masana

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available Differences in urinary excretion of trichloroethylene were studied in rabbits, rats and mice. Trichloretylene (1 m mole/kg was injected intra-peritoneally, then urinary trichloroacetic acid and trichloroethanol glucuronide were measured. The results were: 1. The ratio of total excretion of trichloroethylene metabolites to the administered trichloroethylene decreased in the order of mice, rats and rabbits. 2. The ratio of total trichloroethanol to trichloroacetic acid in urine decreased in the order of rabbits (69.2, mice (12.8 and rats (2.3. The high ratio in rabbits was due to the extremely small amount of trichloroacetic acid in the urine. 3. Differences in these two urinary metabolites in the three kinds of animals and in human subjects were discussed.

  9. Urinary Bother as a Predictor of Postsurgical Changes in Urinary Function After Robotic Radical Prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gregory; Haddock, Peter; Doak, Hoyt; Jackson, Max; Dorin, Ryan; Meraney, Anoop; Kesler, Stuart; Staff, Ilene; Wagner, Joseph R

    2015-10-01

    To characterize changes in indices of urinary function in prostatectomy patients with presurgical voiding symptoms. A retrospective analysis of our prostate cancer database identified robot-assisted radical prostatectomy patients between April 2007 and December 2011 who completed pre- and postsurgical (24 months) Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite-26 surveys. Gleason score, margins, D'Amico risk, prostate-specific antigen, radiotherapy, and nerve-sparing status were tabulated. Survey questions addressed urinary irritation/obstruction, incontinence, and overall bother. Responses were averaged to calculate a urinary sum (US) score. Patients were stratified according to the severity of their baseline urinary bother (UB), and changes in urinary indices determined at 24 months. A total of 737 patients were included. Postsurgical improvement in urinary obstruction, bother, and sum score was related to baseline UB (P function. These data are helpful when counseling a subset of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy patients with severe preoperative urinary symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Surprising results on phylogenetic tree building methods based on molecular sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonnet Gaston H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We analyze phylogenetic tree building methods from molecular sequences (PTMS. These are methods which base their construction solely on sequences, coding DNA or amino acids. Results Our first result is a statistically significant evaluation of 176 PTMSs done by comparing trees derived from 193138 orthologous groups of proteins using a new measure of quality between trees. This new measure, called the Intra measure, is very consistent between different groups of species and strong in the sense that it separates the methods with high confidence. The second result is the comparison of the trees against trees derived from accepted taxonomies, the Taxon measure. We consider the NCBI taxonomic classification and their derived topologies as the most accepted biological consensus on phylogenies, which are also available in electronic form. The correlation between the two measures is remarkably high, which supports both measures simultaneously. Conclusions The big surprise of the evaluation is that the maximum likelihood methods do not score well, minimal evolution distance methods over MSA-induced alignments score consistently better. This comparison also allows us to rank different components of the tree building methods, like MSAs, substitution matrices, ML tree builders, distance methods, etc. It is also clear that there is a difference between Metazoa and the rest, which points out to evolution leaving different molecular traces. We also think that these measures of quality of trees will motivate the design of new PTMSs as it is now easier to evaluate them with certainty.

  11. Pooling designs with surprisingly high degree of error correction in a finite vector space

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Pooling designs are standard experimental tools in many biotechnical applications. It is well-known that all famous pooling designs are constructed from mathematical structures by the "containment matrix" method. In particular, Macula's designs (resp. Ngo and Du's designs) are constructed by the containment relation of subsets (resp. subspaces) in a finite set (resp. vector space). Recently, we generalized Macula's designs and obtained a family of pooling designs with more high degree of error correction by subsets in a finite set. In this paper, as a generalization of Ngo and Du's designs, we study the corresponding problems in a finite vector space and obtain a family of pooling designs with surprisingly high degree of error correction. Our designs and Ngo and Du's designs have the same number of items and pools, respectively, but the error-tolerant property is much better than that of Ngo and Du's designs, which was given by D'yachkov et al. \\cite{DF}, when the dimension of the space is large enough.

  12. IP Eri: A surprising long-period binary system hosting a He white dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Merle, T; Masseron, T; Van Eck, S; Siess, L; Van Winckel, H

    2014-01-01

    We determine the orbital elements for the K0 IV + white dwarf (WD) system IP Eri, which appears to have a surprisingly long period of 1071 d and a significant eccentricity of 0.25. Previous spectroscopic analyses of the WD, based on a distance of 101 pc inferred from its Hipparcos parallax, yielded a mass of only 0.43 M$_\\odot$, implying it to be a helium-core WD. The orbital properties of IP Eri are similar to those of the newly discovered long-period subdwarf B star (sdB) binaries, which involve stars with He-burning cores surrounded by extremely thin H envelopes, and are therefore close relatives to He WDs. We performed a spectroscopic analysis of high-resolution spectra from the HERMES/Mercator spectrograph and concluded that the atmospheric parameters of the K0 component are $T_{\\rm eff} = 4960$ K, $\\log{g} = 3.3$, [Fe/H] = 0.09 and $\\xi = 1.5$ km/s. The detailed abundance analysis focuses on C, N, O abundances, carbon isotopic ratio, light (Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti) and s-process (Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, N...

  13. Surprising dissimilarities in a newly formed pair of 'identical twin' stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassun, Keivan G; Mathieu, Robert D; Cargile, Phillip A; Aarnio, Alicia N; Stempels, Eric; Geller, Aaron

    2008-06-19

    The mass and chemical composition of a star are the primary determinants of its basic physical properties-radius, temperature and luminosity-and how those properties evolve with time. Accordingly, two stars born at the same time, from the same natal material and with the same mass, are 'identical twins,' and as such might be expected to possess identical physical attributes. We have discovered in the Orion nebula a pair of stellar twins in a newborn binary star system. Each star in the binary has a mass of 0.41 +/- 0.01 solar masses, identical to within 2 per cent. Here we report that these twin stars have surface temperatures differing by approximately 300 K ( approximately 10 per cent) and luminosities differing by approximately 50 per cent, both at high confidence level. Preliminary results indicate that the stars' radii also differ, by 5-10 per cent. These surprising dissimilarities suggest that one of the twins may have been delayed by several hundred thousand years in its formation relative to its sibling. Such a delay could only have been detected in a very young, definitively equal-mass binary system. Our findings reveal cosmic limits on the age synchronization of young binary stars, often used as tests for the age calibrations of star-formation models.

  14. The Surprising Composition of the Salivary Proteome of Preterm Human Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnola, Massimo; Inzitari, Rosanna; Fanali, Chiara; Iavarone, Federica; Vitali, Alberto; Desiderio, Claudia; Vento, Giovanni; Tirone, Chiara; Romagnoli, Costantino; Cabras, Tiziana; Manconi, Barbara; Teresa Sanna, Maria; Boi, Roberto; Pisano, Elisabetta; Olianas, Alessandra; Pellegrini, Mariagiuseppina; Nemolato, Sonia; Wilhelm Heizmann, Claus; Faa, Gavino; Messana, Irene

    2011-01-01

    Saliva is a body fluid of a unique composition devoted to protect the mouth cavity and the digestive tract. Our high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-electrospray ionization-MS analysis of the acidic soluble fraction of saliva from preterm human newborn surprisingly revealed more than 40 protein masses often undetected in adult saliva. We were able to identify the following proteins: stefin A and stefin B, S100A7 (two isoforms), S100A8, S100A9 (four isoforms), S100A11, S100A12, small proline-rich protein 3 (two isoforms), lysozyme C, thymosins β4 and β10, antileukoproteinase, histone H1c, and α and γ globins. The average mass value reported in international data banks was often incongruent with our experimental results mostly because of post-translational modifications of the proteins, e.g. acetylation of the N-terminal residue. A quantitative label-free MS analysis showed protein levels altered in relation to the postconceptional age and suggested coordinate and hierarchical functions for these proteins during development. In summary, this study shows for the first time that analysis of these proteins in saliva of preterm newborns might represent a noninvasive way to obtain precious information of the molecular mechanisms of development of human fetal oral structures. PMID:20943598

  15. Marine Protected Areas, Multiple-Agency Management, and Monumental Surprise in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. Kittinger

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Large, regional-scale marine protected areas (MPAs and MPA networks face different challenges in governance systems than locally managed or community-based MPAs. An emerging theme in large-scale MPA management is the prevalence of governance structures that rely on institutional collaboration, presenting new challenges as agencies with differing mandates and cultures work together to implement ecosystem-based management. We analyzed qualitative interview data to investigate multi-level social interactions and institutional responses to the surprise establishment of the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (monument in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI. The governance arrangement for the monument represents a new model in US MPA management, requiring two federal agencies and the State of Hawai‘i to collaboratively manage the NWHI. We elucidate the principal barriers to institutional cotrusteeship, characterize institutional transformations that have occurred among the partner agencies in the transition to collaborative management, and evaluate the governance arrangement for the monument as a model for MPAs. The lessons learned from the NWHI governance arrangement are critical as large-scale MPAs requiring multiple-agency management become a prevalent feature on the global seascape.

  16. You'll Never Guess Who Wrote That: 78 Surprising Authors of Psychological Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2016-07-01

    One can find psychological authors in the most unexpected places. We present a capsule summary of scholarly publications of psychological interest authored or coauthored by 78 surprising individuals, most of whom are celebrities or relatives of celebrities, historical figures, or people who have otherwise achieved visibility in academic circles, politics, religion, art, and diverse realms of popular culture. Still other publications are authored by individuals who are far better known for their contributions to popular than to academic psychology. The publications, stretching across more than two centuries, encompass a wide swath of domains of psychological inquiry and highlight the intersection of psychology with fields that fall outside its traditional borders, including public health, economics, law, neurosurgery, and even magic. Many of these scholarly contributions have enriched psychology and its allied disciplines, such as psychiatry, in largely unappreciated ways, and they illustrate the penetration of psychological knowledge into multiple scientific disciplines and everyday life. At the same time, our author list demonstrates that remarkable intellectual accomplishments in one scientific domain, such as physics, do not necessarily translate into success in psychology and underscores the distinction between intelligence, on the one hand, and critical thinking and wisdom, on the other.

  17. Surprise responses in the human brain demonstrate statistical learning under high concurrent cognitive demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Marta Isabel; Teng, Chee Leong James; Taylor, Jeremy Alexander; Rowe, Elise Genevieve; Mattingley, Jason Brett

    2016-06-01

    The ability to learn about regularities in the environment and to make predictions about future events is fundamental for adaptive behaviour. We have previously shown that people can implicitly encode statistical regularities and detect violations therein, as reflected in neuronal responses to unpredictable events that carry a unique prediction error signature. In the real world, however, learning about regularities will often occur in the context of competing cognitive demands. Here we asked whether learning of statistical regularities is modulated by concurrent cognitive load. We compared electroencephalographic metrics associated with responses to pure-tone sounds with frequencies sampled from narrow or wide Gaussian distributions. We showed that outliers evoked a larger response than those in the centre of the stimulus distribution (i.e., an effect of surprise) and that this difference was greater for physically identical outliers in the narrow than in the broad distribution. These results demonstrate an early neurophysiological marker of the brain's ability to implicitly encode complex statistical structure in the environment. Moreover, we manipulated concurrent cognitive load by having participants perform a visual working memory task while listening to these streams of sounds. We again observed greater prediction error responses in the narrower distribution under both low and high cognitive load. Furthermore, there was no reliable reduction in prediction error magnitude under high-relative to low-cognitive load. Our findings suggest that statistical learning is not a capacity limited process, and that it proceeds automatically even when cognitive resources are taxed by concurrent demands.

  18. A surprisingly simple correlation between the classical and quantum structural networks in liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, Peter; Fanourgakis, George S.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2017-08-14

    Nuclear quantum effects in liquid water have profound implications for several of its macroscopic properties related to structure, dynamics, spectroscopy and transport. Although several of water’s macroscopic properties can be reproduced by classical descriptions of the nuclei using potentials effectively parameterized for a narrow range of its phase diagram, a proper account of the nuclear quantum effects is required in order to ensure that the underlying molecular interactions are transferable across a wide temperature range covering different regions of that diagram. When performing an analysis of the hydrogen bonded structural networks in liquid water resulting from the classical (class.) and quantum (q.m.) descriptions of the nuclei with the transferable, flexible, polarizable TTM3-F interaction potential, we found that the two results can be superimposed over the temperature range of T=270-350 K using a surprisingly simple, linear scaling of the two temperatures according to T(q.m.)=aT(class)- T , where a=1.2 and T=51 K. The linear scaling and constant shift of the temperature scale can be considered as a generalization of the previously reported temperature shifts (corresponding to structural changes and the melting T) induced by quantum effects in liquid water.

  19. Polar F-layer model-observation comparisons: a neutral wind surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Sojka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a month-long continuous database of incoherent scatter radar observations of the ionosphere from the EISCAT Savlbard Radar (ESR at Longyearbyen, Norway, provides an unprecedented opportunity for model/data comparisons. Physics-based ionospheric models, such as the Utah State University Time Dependent Ionospheric Model (TDIM, are usually only compared with observations over restricted one or two day events or against climatological averages. In this study, using the ESR observations, the daily weather, day-to-day variability, and month-long climatology can be simultaneously addressed to identify modeling shortcomings and successes. Since for this study the TDIM is driven by climatological representations of the magnetospheric convection, auroral oval, neutral atmosphere, and neutral winds, whose inputs are solar and geomagnetic indices, it is not surprising that the daily weather cannot be reproduced. What is unexpected is that the horizontal neutral wind has come to the forefront as a decisive model input parameter in matching the diurnal morphology of density structuring seen in the observations.

  20. Effectiveness of Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment-Based Intervention to Reduce Frequent Emergency Department Visits: A Report of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Chen Liao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A small number of clustered visits by emergency department frequent users (EDFUs may over-consume emergency care resources. We report the effectiveness of comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA-based multidisciplinary team (MDT care for four EDFUs, in reducing ED visits. Case 1 had visited the ED twice/month due to chest discomfort. Her ED visits were significantly reduced to 0.2 visits/month following CGA-based MDT care. Case 2 had failed back surgery syndrome and bipolar disorder. His ED visit was reduced from 2.8 visits to 0.8 visits/month following CGA-based MDT intervention. Case 3 had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, and urinary incontinence, with a urinary catheter in place. He made 31 ED visits (5.1 visits/month before his lung cancer and depression were discovered by CGA. He died 2 months later. Case 4 made 27 ED visits (2.7 visits/month due to dizziness. His problems of early dementia and neglect were identified by CGA, and he visited the ED only once following MDT intervention. In conclusion, CGA-based MDT intervention successfully reduced ED visits among these EDFUs, but further investigation is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of geriatric services in the ED.