WorldWideScience

Sample records for surprisingly efficient application

  1. Efficient reduction of complex noise in passive millimeter-wavelength video utilizing Bayesian surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundhenk, T. Nathan; Baron, Josh; Matic, Roy M.

    2011-06-01

    Passive millimeter wavelength (PMMW) video holds great promise given its ability to see targets and obstacles through fog, smoke and rain. However, current imagers produce undesirable complex noise. This can come as a mixture of fast shot (snow like) noise and a slower forming circular fixed pattern. Shot noise can be removed by a simple gain style filter. However, this can produce blurring of objects in the scene. To alleviate this, we measure the amount of Bayesian surprise in videos. Bayesian surprise is feature change in time which is abrupt, but cannot be accounted for as shot noise. Surprise is used to attenuate the shot noise filter in locations of high surprise. Since high Bayesian surprise in videos is very salient to observers, this reduces blurring particularly in places where people visually attend. Fixed pattern noise is removed after the shot noise using a combination of Non-uniformity correction (NUC) and Eigen Image Wavelet Transformation. The combination allows for online removal of time varying fixed pattern noise even when background motion may be absent. It also allows for online adaptation to differing intensities of fixed pattern noise. The fixed pattern and shot noise filters are all efficient allowing for real time video processing of PMMW video. We show several examples of PMMW video with complex noise that is much cleaner as a result of the noise removal. Processed video clearly shows cars, houses, trees and utility poles at 20 frames per second.

  2. Ontological Surprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leahu, Lucian

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how we might rethink design as the technological crafting of human-machine relations in the context of a machine learning technique called neural networks. It analyzes Google’s Inceptionism project, which uses neural networks for image recognition. The surprising output of...... a hybrid approach where machine learning algorithms are used to identify objects as well as connections between them; finally, it argues for remaining open to ontological surprises in machine learning as they may enable the crafting of different relations with and through technologies....

  3. Surprise Trips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias; Kawash, Raghid; Andersen, Lisbet Møller

    We report on a platform that augments the natural experience of exploration in diverse indoor and outdoor environments. The system builds on the theme of surprises in terms of user expectations and finding points of interest. It utilizes physical icons as representations of users' interests and a...

  4. Charming surprise

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2011-01-01

    The CP violation in charm quarks has always been thought to be extremely small. So, looking at particle decays involving matter and antimatter, the LHCb experiment has recently been surprised to observe that things might be different. Theorists are on the case.   The study of the physics of the charm quark was not in the initial plans of the LHCb experiment, whose letter “b” stands for “beauty quark”. However, already one year ago, the Collaboration decided to look into a wider spectrum of processes that involve charm quarks among other things. The LHCb trigger allows a lot of these processes to be selected, and, among them, one has recently shown interesting features. Other experiments at b-factories have already performed the same measurement but this is the first time that it has been possible to achieve such high precision, thanks to the huge amount of data provided by the very high luminosity of the LHC. “We have observed the decay modes of t...

  5. Charming surprise

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2011-01-01

    The CP violation in charm quarks has always been thought to be extremely small. So, looking at particle decays involving matter and antimatter, the LHCb experiment has recently been surprised to observe that things might be different. Theorists are on the case. The study of the physics of the charm quark was not in the initial plans of the LHCb experiment, whose letter “b” stands for “beauty quark”. However, already one year ago, the Collaboration decided to look into a wider spectrum of processes that involve charm quarks among other things. The LHCb trigger allows a lot of these processes to be selected, and, among them, one has recently shown interesting features. Other experiments at b-factories have already performed the same measurement but this is the first time that it has been possible to achieve such high precision, thanks to the huge amount of data provided by the very high luminosity of the LHC. “We have observed the decay modes of the D0, a pa...

  6. Surprises with Nonrelativistic Naturalness

    CERN Document Server

    Horava, Petr

    2016-01-01

    We explore the landscape of technical naturalness for nonrelativistic systems, finding surprises which challenge and enrich our relativistic intuition already in the simplest case of a single scalar field. While the immediate applications are expected in condensed matter and perhaps in cosmology, the study is motivated by the leading puzzles of fundamental physics involving gravity: The cosmological constant problem and the Higgs mass hierarchy problem.

  7. More Supernova Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    SEP 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE More Supernova Surprises 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...PERSPECTIVES More Supernova Surprises ASTRONOMY J. Martin Laming Spectroscopic observations of the supernova SN1987A are providing a new window into high...a core-collapse supernova ) have stretched and motivated research that has expanded our knowledge of astrophysics. The brightest such event in

  8. Surprises in astrophysical gasdynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Balbus, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Much of astrophysics consists of the study of ionised gas under the influence of gravitational and magnetic fields. Thus, it is not possible to understand the astrophysical universe without a detailed knowledge of the dynamics of magnetised fluids. Fluid dynamics is, however, a notoriously tricky subject, in which it is all too easy for one's a priori intuition to go astray. In this review, we seek to guide the reader through a series of illuminating yet deceptive problems, all with an enlightening twist. We cover a broad range of topics including the instabilities acting in accretion discs, the hydrodynamics governing the convective zone of the Sun, the magnetic shielding of a cooling galaxy cluster, and the behaviour of thermal instabilities and evaporating clouds. The aim of this review is to surprise and intrigue even veteran astrophysical theorists with an idiosynchratic choice of problems and counterintuitive results. At the same time, we endeavour to bring forth the fundamental ideas, to set out import...

  9. Surprises in astrophysical gasdynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbus, Steven A.; Potter, William J.

    2016-06-01

    Much of astrophysics consists of the study of ionized gas under the influence of gravitational and magnetic fields. Thus, it is not possible to understand the astrophysical universe without a detailed knowledge of the dynamics of magnetized fluids. Fluid dynamics is, however, a notoriously tricky subject, in which it is all too easy for one’s a priori intuition to go astray. In this review, we seek to guide the reader through a series of illuminating yet deceptive problems, all with an enlightening twist. We cover a broad range of topics including the instabilities acting in accretion discs, the hydrodynamics governing the convective zone of the Sun, the magnetic shielding of a cooling galaxy cluster, and the behaviour of thermal instabilities and evaporating clouds. The aim of this review is to surprise and intrigue even veteran astrophysical theorists with an idiosyncratic choice of problems and counterintuitive results. At the same time, we endeavour to bring forth the fundamental ideas, to set out important assumptions, and to describe carefully whatever novel techniques may be appropriate to the problem at hand. By beginning at the beginning, and analysing a wide variety of astrophysical settings, we seek not only to make this review suitable for fluid dynamic veterans, but to engage novice recruits as well with what we hope will be an unusual and instructive introduction to the subject.

  10. Surprises in astrophysical gasdynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbus, Steven A; Potter, William J

    2016-06-01

    Much of astrophysics consists of the study of ionized gas under the influence of gravitational and magnetic fields. Thus, it is not possible to understand the astrophysical universe without a detailed knowledge of the dynamics of magnetized fluids. Fluid dynamics is, however, a notoriously tricky subject, in which it is all too easy for one's a priori intuition to go astray. In this review, we seek to guide the reader through a series of illuminating yet deceptive problems, all with an enlightening twist. We cover a broad range of topics including the instabilities acting in accretion discs, the hydrodynamics governing the convective zone of the Sun, the magnetic shielding of a cooling galaxy cluster, and the behaviour of thermal instabilities and evaporating clouds. The aim of this review is to surprise and intrigue even veteran astrophysical theorists with an idiosyncratic choice of problems and counterintuitive results. At the same time, we endeavour to bring forth the fundamental ideas, to set out important assumptions, and to describe carefully whatever novel techniques may be appropriate to the problem at hand. By beginning at the beginning, and analysing a wide variety of astrophysical settings, we seek not only to make this review suitable for fluid dynamic veterans, but to engage novice recruits as well with what we hope will be an unusual and instructive introduction to the subject.

  11. Efficient architectures for streaming applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerard J.M.; Kokkeler, André B.J.; Wolkotte, Pascal T.; Burgwal, van de Marcel D.; Heysters, Paul M.; Athanas, P.; Becker, J.; Brebner, G.; Teich, J.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation will focus on algorithms and reconfigurable tiled architectures for streaming DSP applications. The tile concept will not only be applied on chip level but also on board-level and system-level. The tile concept has a number of advantages: (1) depending on the requirements more or l

  12. Surprise... Surprise..., An Empirical Investigation on How Surprise is Connected to Customer Satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vanhamme (Joëlle)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis research investigates the specific influence of the emotion of surprise on customer transaction-specific satisfaction. Four empirical studies-two field studies (a diary study and a cross section survey) and two experiments-were conducted. The results show that surprise positively

  13. Surprise... Surprise..., An Empirical Investigation on How Surprise is Connected to Customer Satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vanhamme (Joëlle)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis research investigates the specific influence of the emotion of surprise on customer transaction-specific satisfaction. Four empirical studies-two field studies (a diary study and a cross section survey) and two experiments-were conducted. The results show that surprise positively [n

  14. Efficient Video Editing for Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignasi Vegas Pajaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recording, storing and sharing video content has become one of the most popular usages of smartphones. This has resulted in demand for video editing apps that the users can use to edit their videos before sharing on various social networks. This study describes a technique to create a video editing application that uses the processing power of both GPU and CPU to process various editing tasks. The results and subsequent discussion shows that using the processing power of both the GPU and CPU in the video editing process makes the application much more time-efficient and responsive as compared to just the CPU-based processing.

  15. Eco-efficiency of laser welding applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaierle, Stefan; Dahmen, Martin; Güdükkurt, Okan

    2011-05-01

    As widely known laser materials processing has some advantages regarding local heat input and controllability. In many fields applications were developed which are not accessible for conventional thermal processing. In other fields laser-supported manufacturing techniques are a valuable alternative. On the one hand laser techniques enable increased processing speed and less post-processing, leading to an increased productivity. On the other hand low efficiencies in the energy conversion seem to be a major drawback and apparently limit the range of applications. In the frame of conventional processing schemes laser beam welding requires a high utilization in order to run economically. Main advantages lie in the reduced consumption of material and the reduced efforts in post processing. Because of the locally concentrated heat input process emissions are lower which reduces energy and material consumption in the auxiliary chain. To make full use of the often-conjured flexibility a multitude of manufacturing schemes had been developed and adapted. In order to appraise the versatility of laser driven processing techniques a cost and benefit analysis based on a life-cycle approach is conducted including both, economics and ecology. Eco-efficiency is rated by a variation of the BASF method. Taking into account the reduced consumption of consumables, reduced effort for preparation and post-processing, and focusing on specific application ranges a positive environmental impact can be proven.

  16. Surprise as a design strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, G.D.S.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Imagine yourself queuing for the cashier’s desk in a supermarket. Naturally, you have picked the wrong line, the one that does not seem to move at all. Soon, you get tired of waiting. Now, how would you feel if the cashier suddenly started to sing? Many of us would be surprised and, regardless of

  17. Surprise as a design strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, G.D.S.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Imagine yourself queuing for the cashier’s desk in a supermarket. Naturally, you have picked the wrong line, the one that does not seem to move at all. Soon, you get tired of waiting. Now, how would you feel if the cashier suddenly started to sing? Many of us would be surprised and, regardless of th

  18. Brazilian rescue plan sparks surprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to Financial Times,when Guido Mantega,Brazil's finance minister,suddenly proposed a “Bric” rescue package for the eurozone this week,he caught not only other world leaders by surprise but also many of his fellow countrymen.Even as officials from other members of the so-called Bric grouping,Russia,India and China,said it was the first they heard of the idea,many ordinary Brazilians expressed shock at the notion of bailing out the world's richest trading bloc.

  19. High Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor for Rotorcraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medic, Gorazd; Sharma, Om P.; Jongwook, Joo; Hardin, Larry W.; McCormick, Duane C.; Cousins, William T.; Lurie, Elizabeth A.; Shabbir, Aamir; Holley, Brian M.; Van Slooten, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    The report "High Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor for Rotorcraft Applications" documents the work conducted at UTRC under the NRA Contract NNC08CB03C, with cost share 2/3 NASA, and 1/3 UTRC, that has been extended to 4.5 years. The purpose of this effort was to identify key technical barriers to advancing the state-of-the-art of small centrifugal compressor stages; to delineate the measurements required to provide insight into the flow physics of the technical barriers; to design, fabricate, install, and test a state-of-the-art research compressor that is representative of the rear stage of an axial-centrifugal aero-engine; and to acquire detailed aerodynamic performance and research quality data to clarify flow physics and to establish detailed data sets for future application. The design activity centered on meeting the goal set outlined in the NASA solicitation-the design target was to increase efficiency at higher work factor, while also reducing the maximum diameter of the stage. To fit within the existing Small Engine Components Test Facility at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and to facilitate component re-use, certain key design parameters were fixed by UTRC, including impeller tip diameter, impeller rotational speed, and impeller inlet hub and shroud radii. This report describes the design effort of the High Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor stage (HECC) and delineation of measurements, fabrication of the compressor, and the initial tests that were performed. A new High-Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor stage with a very challenging reduction in radius ratio was successfully designed, fabricated and installed at GRC. The testing was successful, with no mechanical problems and the running clearances were achieved without impeller rubs. Overall, measured pressure ratio of 4.68, work factor of 0.81, and at design exit corrected flow rate of 3 lbm/s met the target requirements. Polytropic efficiency of 85.5 percent and stall margin of 7.5 percent were

  20. Some Surprises in Relativistic Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, N O

    2016-01-01

    General Relativity has had tremendous success both on the theoretical and the experimental fronts for over a century now. However, the contents of the theory are far from exhausted. Only very recently, with the detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes, we have started probing the behavior of gravity in the strongly non-linear regime. Even today, the studies of black holes keep revealing more and more paradoxes and bizarre results. In this paper, inspired by David Hilbert's startling observation, we show that, contrary to the conventional wisdom, a freely falling test particle feels gravitational repulsion by a black hole as seen by the asymptotic observer. We dig deeper into this surprising behavior of relativistic gravity and offer some explanations.

  1. Some Surprising Introductory Physics Facts and Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallmann, A. James

    2016-01-01

    In the entertainment world, people usually like, and find memorable, novels, short stories, and movies with surprise endings. This suggests that classroom teachers might want to present to their students examples of surprising facts associated with principles of physics. Possible benefits of finding surprising facts about principles of physics are…

  2. Electrical energy efficiency technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sumper, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The improvement of electrical energy efficiency is fast becoming one of the most essential areas of sustainability development, backed by political initiatives to control and reduce energy demand. Now a major topic in industry and the electrical engineering research community, engineers have started to focus on analysis, diagnosis and possible solutions. Owing to the complexity and cross-disciplinary nature of electrical energy efficiency issues, the optimal solution is often multi-faceted with a critical solutions evaluation component to ensure cost effectiveness. This single-source refer

  3. Efficient interfacing of light and surface plasmon polaritons for quantum optics applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eran, Kot

    control of matter. These include applications such as efficient photon collection, single-photon switching and transistors, and long-range optical coupling of quantum bits for quantum communications. However, generating and controlling strong coherent interaction between otherwise very weakly interacting...... interaction are the window to the underlying quantum world. It is no surprise then that there has always been push to find more, and gain better control over systems in which this interaction can be studied. In the past two decades, this end was further motivated as applications were envisioned to coherent...... light and quantum emitters proves a difficult task. Current days solutions range from cavities, atomic ensembles, photonic band gaps structures, ion traps and optical latices are all being improved and studied but none has yet to emerge as superior. Recently, another proposal for such a strong coupling...

  4. Flocculation efficiency of chitosan for papermaking applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Nicu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a large interest in bio-polymers as environment-friendly alternatives to synthetic additives in papermaking. In this work, the behavior of three chitosans with different molecular weights and cationic charges were investigated as flocculation additives in papermaking on two systems: calcium carbonate (GCC and pulp/GCC suspension. Comparison was made with two traditional cationic polymers used in wet end chemistry (poly-diallyldimethyl-ammonium chloride (PDADMAC and poly-ethylene imine (PEI. Flocculation efficiency was evaluated by flocculation parameters (mean floc size and number of counts and by floc behavior under shear conditions, using a focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM technique. Results indicated different behaviors between the three chitosans when they were used for the flocculation of GCC and pulp/GCC suspensions. Chitosans were found to be more efficient over PDADMAC and PEI for flocculating small particles of the GCC suspension, but less efficient for increasing floc sizes, regardless of their MW or CCD. Flocculation parameters for pulp/GCC suspensions suggested the flocculation behavior of chitosan was close to that of PEI, but chitosan had higher efficiency and affinity towards cellulose fibers.

  5. Young Galaxy's Magnetism Surprises Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Astronomers have made the first direct measurement of the magnetic field in a young, distant galaxy, and the result is a big surprise. Looking at a faraway protogalaxy seen as it was 6.5 billion years ago, the scientists measured a magnetic field at least 10 times stronger than that of our own Milky Way. They had expected just the opposite. The GBT Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF The scientists made the discovery using the National Science Foundation's ultra-sensitive Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. "This new measurement indicates that magnetic fields may play a more important role in the formation and evolution of galaxies than we have realized," said Arthur Wolfe, of the University of California-San Diego (UCSD). At its great distance, the protogalaxy is seen as it was when the Universe was about half its current age. According to the leading theory, cosmic magnetic fields are generated by the dynamos of rotating galaxies -- a process that would produce stronger fields with the passage of time. In this scenario, the magnetic fields should be weaker in the earlier Universe, not stronger. The new, direct magnetic-field measurement comes on the heels of a July report by Swiss and American astronomers who made indirect measurements that also implied strong magnetic fields in the early Universe. "Our results present a challenge to the dynamo model, but they do not rule it out," Wolfe said. There are other possible explanations for the strong magnetic field seen in the one protogalaxy Wolfe's team studied. "We may be seeing the field close to the central region of a massive galaxy, and we know such fields are stronger toward the centers of nearby galaxies. Also, the field we see may have been amplified by a shock wave caused by the collision of two galaxies," he said. The protogalaxy studied with the GBT, called DLA-3C286, consists of gas with little or no star formation occurring in it. The astronomers suspect that

  6. Surprising Beauty in Technical Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidhazy, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The Imaging and Photographic Technology area, in which the author teaches, is an applications- and technology-oriented photography program designed to prepare students for work in technical, corporate, industrial, and scientific environments. One day, the author received an e-mail message from an editor who had found his Web site and thought he…

  7. Energy Efficiency Studies of Mont Blanc Applications

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, the performance and energy efficiency of four different implementations of matrix multiplication, written in OmpSs and OpenCL, is tested and evaluated. The benchmarking is done using an Intel Ivy Bridge Core i7 3770K. The results are evaluated and discussed with regards to different optimization configurations, like vectorization and multi-threading. Energy measurements are taken using PAPI, which in turn uses the Running Average Power Limit interface in the Intel processor to...

  8. Efficient Data Assimilation Algorithms for Bathymetry Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanidehno, H.; Kokkinaki, A.; Lee, J. H.; Farthing, M.; Hesser, T.; Kitanidis, P. K.; Darve, E. F.

    2016-12-01

    Information on the evolving state of the nearshore zone bathymetry is crucial to shoreline management, recreational safety, and naval operations. The high cost and complex logistics of using ship-based surveys for bathymetry estimation have encouraged the use of remote sensing monitoring. Data assimilation methods combine monitoring data and models of nearshore dynamics to estimate the unknown bathymetry and the corresponding uncertainties. Existing applications have been limited to the basic Kalman Filter (KF) and the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF). The former can only be applied to low-dimensional problems due to its computational cost; the latter often suffers from ensemble collapse and uncertainty underestimation. This work explores the use of different variants of the Kalman Filter for bathymetry applications. In particular, we compare the performance of the EnKF to the Unscented Kalman Filter and the Hierarchical Kalman Filter, both of which are KF variants for non-linear problems. The objective is to identify which method can better handle the nonlinearities of nearshore physics, while also having a reasonable computational cost. We present two applications; first, the bathymetry of a synthetic one-dimensional cross section normal to the shore is estimated from wave speed measurements. Second, real remote measurements with unknown error statistics are used and compared to in situ bathymetric survey data collected at the USACE Field Research Facility in Duck, NC. We evaluate the information content of different data sets and explore the impact of measurement error and nonlinearities.

  9. Energy efficiency in air handling applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, P. [Australian Baldor (Australia)

    1995-07-01

    It is estimated that the cost of air handling in a typical office building is $25,000 to $60,000 per 10,000 sq metres. New technologies are now available to reduce this by 50 percent with an investment that is recoverable within two years. Old systems of air handling operated at full speed with flow rates changed by mechanical vanes or dampers. The excess capacity generated is wasting energy which could be saved using modern motor controls that match the system output with actual needs. Comparisons of relative energy consumptions of different fan flow control methods show that the more time a system spends throttled down, the better candidate it is for the more efficient Variable Speed Drive (VSD) device which matches the motor`s speed to actual needs. The use of VSD instead of vanes and dampers reduces operating costs which impacts directly on profitability. 2 tables, 1 fig.

  10. Irrigation methods for efficient water application: 40 years of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irrigation methods for efficient water application: 40 years of South African ... to a specific situation rather than by calculating various performance indicators. ... of Irrigation Water Use covers 4 levels of water-management infrastructure: the ...

  11. Efficient Energy use in Different Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Lars

    2007-05-15

    There is a steadily growing awareness for environmental issues caused by the increased energy use, mainly in the industrial world. The use of fossil fuels has reached the point where it can not be looked at as an endless source. The resources are decreasing at a pace where alternative energy sources will be a necessity for this and future generations. Global warming, due to increased concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, has become one of the most important issues on the political agenda at all levels. A widespread opinion is that energy conservation technologies are needed and a shift towards renewable energy sources is required to attain a sustainable development of our society and a progress in the developing countries. This thesis is focusing on two different energy conservation technologies in different applications. The open absorption system, a modification of an absorption heat pump is a promising technique in moist air processes, recovering the latent heat in the air and decreasing the total heat demand. The technology has been tested in two full scale pilot plants at a sawmill operating four timber dryers and another unit installed at an indoor swimming pool. The technique has had positive outcomes in both operational and energy conservation respects. It has been shown that the energy demand was decreased considerably in both applications. The investment cost has proved to be relatively high, but optimization of operational parameters shows a potential to decrease the initial investment and make the technology more competitive. Pressurized entrained-flow high temperature black liquor gasification (PEHT-BLG), developed by Chemrec AB, is another novel technique presented in this thesis. Black liquor is an important by-product in the papermaking process. Chemicals and energy is recovered in the conventional recovery boiler where superheated steam is produced to generate electricity and process heat. The cooking chemicals are recovered from the

  12. Evaluative Appraisals of Environmental Mystery and Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Jack L.; Cubukcu, Ebru

    2011-01-01

    This study used a desktop virtual environment (VE) of 15 large-scale residential streets to test the effects of environmental mystery and surprise on response. In theory, mystery and surprise should increase interest and visual appeal. For each VE, participants walked through an approach street and turned right onto a post-turn street. We designed…

  13. Evaluative Appraisals of Environmental Mystery and Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Jack L.; Cubukcu, Ebru

    2011-01-01

    This study used a desktop virtual environment (VE) of 15 large-scale residential streets to test the effects of environmental mystery and surprise on response. In theory, mystery and surprise should increase interest and visual appeal. For each VE, participants walked through an approach street and turned right onto a post-turn street. We designed…

  14. Analyst Information Precision and Small Earnings Surprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Bissessur; D. Veenman

    2014-01-01

    Prior research attributes zero and small positive earnings surprises to managers’ incentives for earnings management. In contrast, this study introduces and empirically tests an explanation for zero and small positive earnings surprises based on predictable variation in analyst forecast errors. We a

  15. Cognitive and Social Perspectives on Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhami, Mundler

    2007-01-01

    Meanings of "surprise" are wide and include uplifting and engaging facets like wonder and amazement on the one hand as well as ones that may be of the opposite nature like interruption and disrupt on the other. Pedagogically, educators who use surprise in class activities are focusing on students being "taken aback" by a situation, hopefully…

  16. Water use efficiency by coffee arabica after glyphosate application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Paolinelli de Carvalho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many coffee growers apply glyphosate in directed applications, but some phytotoxicity has been noted. It is believed some herbicides can exert a direct or indirect negative effect on photosynthesis by reducing the metabolic rate in a way that can affect the water use efficiency. The objective of this study was to investigate the variables related to water use among coffee cultivars subjected to the application of glyphosate and the effects of each dose. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using three varieties of coffee (Coffea arabica, Acaiá (MG-6851, Catucaí Amarelo (2SL and Topázio (MG-1190, and three doses of glyphosate (0.0, 115.2 and 460.8 g acid equivalent ha-1, in a factorial 3 x 3 design. At 15 days after application, a reduction in stomatal conductance was observed, and smaller transpiration rate and water use efficiency were found in the fourth leaf at 15 days after application. There was a decrease in the transpiration rate at 45 DAA, with the Acaiá cultivar showing reductions with 115.2 g ha-1. There was transitory reduction in water use efficiency with glyphosate application, but can affect the growth and production. The Acaiá cultivar showed the highest tolerance to glyphosate because the water use efficiency after herbicide application.

  17. Potential high efficiency solar cells: Applications from space photovoltaic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    NASA involvement in photovoltaic energy conversion research development and applications spans over two decades of continuous progress. Solar cell research and development programs conducted by the Lewis Research Center's Photovoltaic Branch have produced a sound technology base not only for the space program, but for terrestrial applications as well. The fundamental goals which have guided the NASA photovoltaic program are to improve the efficiency and lifetime, and to reduce the mass and cost of photovoltaic energy conversion devices and arrays for use in space. The major efforts in the current Lewis program are on high efficiency, single crystal GaAs planar and concentrator cells, radiation hard InP cells, and superlattice solar cells. A brief historical perspective of accomplishments in high efficiency space solar cells will be given, and current work in all of the above categories will be described. The applicability of space cell research and technology to terrestrial photovoltaics will be discussed.

  18. The conceptualization model problem—surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, John

    2005-03-01

    The foundation of model analysis is the conceptual model. Surprise is defined as new data that renders the prevailing conceptual model invalid; as defined here it represents a paradigm shift. Limited empirical data indicate that surprises occur in 20-30% of model analyses. These data suggest that groundwater analysts have difficulty selecting the appropriate conceptual model. There is no ready remedy to the conceptual model problem other than (1) to collect as much data as is feasible, using all applicable methods—a complementary data collection methodology can lead to new information that changes the prevailing conceptual model, and (2) for the analyst to remain open to the fact that the conceptual model can change dramatically as more information is collected. In the final analysis, the hydrogeologist makes a subjective decision on the appropriate conceptual model. The conceptualization problem does not render models unusable. The problem introduces an uncertainty that often is not widely recognized. Conceptual model uncertainty is exacerbated in making long-term predictions of system performance. C'est le modèle conceptuel qui se trouve à base d'une analyse sur un modèle. On considère comme une surprise lorsque le modèle est invalidé par des données nouvelles; dans les termes définis ici la surprise est équivalente à un change de paradigme. Des données empiriques limitées indiquent que les surprises apparaissent dans 20 à 30% des analyses effectuées sur les modèles. Ces données suggèrent que l'analyse des eaux souterraines présente des difficultés lorsqu'il s'agit de choisir le modèle conceptuel approprié. Il n'existe pas un autre remède au problème du modèle conceptuel que: (1) rassembler autant des données que possible en utilisant toutes les méthodes applicables—la méthode des données complémentaires peut conduire aux nouvelles informations qui vont changer le modèle conceptuel, et (2) l'analyste doit rester ouvert au fait

  19. Healing efficiency of epoxy-based materials for structural application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondo, Marialuigia; Guadagno, Liberata

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes a self-healing composite exhibiting high levels of healing efficiency under working conditions typical of aeronautic applications. The self-healing material is composed of a thermosetting epoxy matrix in which a catalyst of Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP) and nanocapsules are dispersed. The nanocapsules contain a monomer able to polymerize via ROMP. The preliminary results demonstrate an efficient self-repair function which is also active at very low temperatures.

  20. A toolkit for detecting technical surprise.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, Michael Wayne; Foehse, Mark C.

    2010-10-01

    The detection of a scientific or technological surprise within a secretive country or institute is very difficult. The ability to detect such surprises would allow analysts to identify the capabilities that could be a military or economic threat to national security. Sandia's current approach utilizing ThreatView has been successful in revealing potential technological surprises. However, as data sets become larger, it becomes critical to use algorithms as filters along with the visualization environments. Our two-year LDRD had two primary goals. First, we developed a tool, a Self-Organizing Map (SOM), to extend ThreatView and improve our understanding of the issues involved in working with textual data sets. Second, we developed a toolkit for detecting indicators of technical surprise in textual data sets. Our toolkit has been successfully used to perform technology assessments for the Science & Technology Intelligence (S&TI) program.

  1. Deciphering network community structure by surprise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aldecoa, Rodrigo; Marín, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    .... A fundamental, unsolved problem is how to characterize the community structure of a network. Here, using both standard and novel benchmarks, we show that maximization of a simple global parameter, which we call Surprise...

  2. A Surprising Culprit Behind Celiac Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_164503.html A Surprising Culprit Behind Celiac Disease? Study suggests harmless viruses may set stage ... typically harmless type of virus might sometimes trigger celiac disease, a new study suggests. Celiac disease is ...

  3. Lightweight High Efficiency Electric Motors for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A.; Tyler, Tony R.; Piper, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Lightweight high efficiency electric motors are needed across a wide range of space applications from - thrust vector actuator control for launch and flight applications to - general vehicle, base camp habitat and experiment control for various mechanisms to - robotics for various stationary and mobile space exploration missions. QM Power?s Parallel Path Magnetic Technology Motors have slowly proven themselves to be a leading motor technology in this area; winning a NASA Phase II for "Lightweight High Efficiency Electric Motors and Actuators for Low Temperature Mobility and Robotics Applications" a US Army Phase II SBIR for "Improved Robot Actuator Motors for Medical Applications", an NSF Phase II SBIR for "Novel Low-Cost Electric Motors for Variable Speed Applications" and a DOE SBIR Phase I for "High Efficiency Commercial Refrigeration Motors" Parallel Path Magnetic Technology obtains the benefits of using permanent magnets while minimizing the historical trade-offs/limitations found in conventional permanent magnet designs. The resulting devices are smaller, lower weight, lower cost and have higher efficiency than competitive permanent magnet and non-permanent magnet designs. QM Power?s motors have been extensively tested and successfully validated by multiple commercial and aerospace customers and partners as Boeing Research and Technology. Prototypes have been made between 0.1 and 10 HP. They are also in the process of scaling motors to over 100kW with their development partners. In this paper, Parallel Path Magnetic Technology Motors will be discussed; specifically addressing their higher efficiency, higher power density, lighter weight, smaller physical size, higher low end torque, wider power zone, cooler temperatures, and greater reliability with lower cost and significant environment benefit for the same peak output power compared to typically motors. A further discussion on the inherent redundancy of these motors for space applications will be provided.

  4. Efficient Image Blur in Web-Based Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2010-01-01

    be implemented using a subimage copy function, and evaluate its performance with various web browsers in comparison to an infinite impulse response filter. While this pyramid algorithm was first proposed for GPU-based image processing, its applicability to web-based applications indicates that some GPU......Scripting languages require the use of high-level library functions to implement efficient image processing; thus, real-time image blur in web-based applications is a challenging task unless specific library functions are available for this purpose. We present a pyramid blur algorithm, which can...

  5. Surprises in numerical expressions of physical constants

    CERN Document Server

    Amir, Ariel; Tokieda, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    In science, as in life, `surprises' can be adequately appreciated only in the presence of a null model, what we expect a priori. In physics, theories sometimes express the values of dimensionless physical constants as combinations of mathematical constants like pi or e. The inverse problem also arises, whereby the measured value of a physical constant admits a `surprisingly' simple approximation in terms of well-known mathematical constants. Can we estimate the probability for this to be a mere coincidence, rather than an inkling of some theory? We answer the question in the most naive form.

  6. Efficient Collaborative Application Monitoring Scheme for Mobile Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Altshuler, Yaniv; Elovici, Yuval

    2010-01-01

    New operating systems for mobile devices allow their users to download millions of applications created by various individual programmers, some of which may be malicious or flawed. In order to detect that an application is malicious, monitoring its operation in a real environment for a significant period of time is often required. Mobile devices have limited computation and power resources and thus are limited in their monitoring capabilities. In this paper we propose an efficient collaborative monitoring scheme that harnesses the collective resources of many mobile devices, "vaccinating" them against potentially unsafe applications. We suggest a new local information flooding algorithm called "TTL Probabilistic Propagation" (TPP). The algorithm periodically monitors one or more application and reports its conclusions to a small number of other mobile devices, who then propagate this information onwards. The algorithm is analyzed, and is shown to outperform existing state of the art information propagation al...

  7. Scavenger: Transparent Development of Efficient Cyber Foraging Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø

    2010-01-01

    Cyber foraging is a pervasive computing technique where small mobile devices offload resource intensive tasks to stronger computing machinery in the vicinity. This paper presents Scavenger-a new cyber foraging system supporting easy development of mobile cyber foraging applications, while still...... delivering efficient, mobile use of remote computing resources through the use of a custom built mobile code execution environment and a new dual-profiling scheduler. One of the main difficulties within cyber foraging is that it is very challenging for application programmers to develop cyber foraging...... enabled applications. An application using cyber foraging is working with mobile, distributed and, possibly, parallel computing; fields within computer science known to be hard for programmers to grasp. In this paper it is shown by example, how a highly distributed, parallel, cyber foraging enabled...

  8. Surprising Connections between Partitions and Divisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Thomas J.; Hassen, Abdulkadir; Chandrupatla, Tirupathi R.

    2007-01-01

    The sum of the divisors of a positive integer is one of the most interesting concepts in multiplicative number theory, while the number of ways of expressing a number as a sum is a primary topic in additive number theory. In this article, we describe some of the surprising connections between and similarities of these two concepts.

  9. Surprises from extragalactic propagation of UHECRs

    CERN Document Server

    Boncioli, Denise; Grillo, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-high energy cosmic ray experimental data are now of very good statistical significance even in the region of the expected GZK feature. The identification of their sources requires sophisticate analysis of their propagation in the extragalactic space. When looking at the details of this propagation some unforeseen features emerge. We will discuss some of these "surprises".

  10. Efficiency Improvement and Quality Initiatives Application in Financial Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Ajtene Avdullahi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Financial institutions in today’s economy have no longer the luxury to improve profit simply by increasing revenue. These firms, due to the significant measuring reductions in the financial services industry needed to improve operational efficiencies and merely support existing processes with fewer resources. This paper explains the benefits of Lean, Six Sigma, Total Quality Management and Lean Six Sigma that have improved organization's performance, by cutting costs and waste, improving their products or services, increasing profitability as well as enhancing customer satisfaction. The applicability of quality management practices in financial institutions in Kosovo is presented and also their efficiency and effectiveness. By analyzing data from Raiffeisen Bank Kosovo, this paper highlights the benefits of Individual and Micro companies customer segment as the result of organizational change and successful application of quality initiatives from financial institutions in Kosovo.

  11. Efficient Scheduling of Pigeons for a Constrained Delay Tolerant Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legand Burge

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Information collection in the disaster area is an important application of pigeon networks—a special type of delay tolerant networks (DTNs that borrows the ancient idea of using pigeons as the telecommunication method. The aim of this paper is to explore highly efficient scheduling strategies of pigeons for such applications. The upper bound of traffic that can be supported under the deadline constraints for the basic on-demand strategy is given through the analysis. Based on the analysis, a waiting-based packing strategy is introduced. Although the latter strategy could not change the maximum traffic rate that a pigeon can support, it improves the efficiency of a pigeon largely. The analytical results are verified by the simulations.

  12. High Efficiency Power Converter for Low Voltage High Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten

    , and remote power generation for light towers, camper vans, boats, beacons, and buoys etc. A review of current state-of-the-art is presented. The best performing converters achieve moderately high peak efficiencies at high input voltage and medium power level. However, system dimensioning and cost are often......The topic of this thesis is the design of high efficiency power electronic dc-to-dc converters for high-power, low-input-voltage to high-output-voltage applications. These converters are increasingly required for emerging sustainable energy systems such as fuel cell, battery or photo voltaic based...... determined by the performance at the system worst case operating point which is usually at minimum input voltage and maximum power. Except for the non-regulating V6 converters, all published solutions exhibit a very significant drop in conversion efficiency at minimum input voltage and maximum output power...

  13. High quantum efficiency S-20 photocathodes for photon counting applications

    CERN Document Server

    Orlov, Dmitry A; Pinto, Serge Duarte; Glazenborg, Rene; Kernen, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    Based on conventional S-20 processes, a new series of high quantum efficiency (QE) photocathodes has been developed that can be specifically tuned for use in the ultraviolet, blue or green regions of the spectrum. The QE values exceed 30% at maximum response, and the dark count rate is found to be as low as 30 Hz/cm2 at room temperature. This combination of properties along with a fast temporal response makes these photocathodes ideal for application in photon counting detectors.

  14. A Case for Application Oblivious Energy-Efficient MPI Runtime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesh, Akshay; Vishnu, Abhinav; Hamidouche, Khaled; Tallent, Nathan R.; Panda, Dhabaleswar; Kerbyson, Darren J.; Hoisie, Adolfy

    2015-10-19

    Power has become the major impediment in designing large scale high-end systems. Message Passing Interface (MPI) is the {\\em de facto} communication interface used as the back-end for designing applications, programming models and runtime for these systems. Slack --- the time spent by an MPI process in a single MPI call --- provides a potential for energy and power savings, if an appropriate power reduction technique such as core-idling/Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS) can be applied without perturbing application's execution time. Existing techniques that exploit slack for power savings assume that application behavior repeats across iterations/executions. However, an increasing use of adaptive, data-dependent workloads combined with system factors (OS noise, congestion) makes this assumption invalid. This paper proposes and implements Energy Aware MPI (EAM) --- an application-oblivious energy-efficient MPI runtime. EAM uses a combination of communication models of common MPI primitives (point-to-point, collective, progress, blocking/non-blocking) and an online observation of slack for maximizing energy efficiency. Each power lever incurs time overhead, which must be amortized over slack to minimize degradation. When predicted communication time exceeds a lever overhead, the lever is used {\\em as soon as possible} --- to maximize energy efficiency. When mis-prediction occurs, the lever(s) are used automatically at specific intervals for amortization. We implement EAM using MVAPICH2 and evaluate it on ten applications using up to 4096 processes. Our performance evaluation on an InfiniBand cluster indicates that EAM can reduce energy consumption by 5--41\\% in comparison to the default approach, with negligible (less than 4\\% in all cases) performance loss.

  15. Radar Design to Protect Against Surprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Technological and doctrinal surprise is about rendering preparations for conflict as irrelevant or ineffective . For a sensor, this means essentially rendering the sensor as irrelevant or ineffective in its ability to help determine truth. Recovery from this sort of surprise is facilitated by flexibility in our own technology and doctrine. For a sensor, this mean s flexibility in its architecture, design, tactics, and the designing organizations ' processes. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory manage d and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000.

  16. Surprise Leads to Noisier Perceptual Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta I Garrido

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Surprising events in the environment can impair task performance. This might be due to complete distraction, leading to lapses during which performance is reduced to guessing. Alternatively, unpredictability might cause a graded withdrawal of perceptual resources from the task at hand and thereby reduce sensitivity. Here we attempt to distinguish between these two mechanisms. Listeners performed a novel auditory pitch—duration discrimination, where stimulus loudness changed occasionally and incidentally to the task. Responses were slower and less accurate in the surprising condition, where loudness changed unpredictably, than in the predictable condition, where the loudness was held constant. By explicitly modelling both lapses and changes in sensitivity, we found that unpredictable changes diminished sensitivity but did not increase the rate of lapses. These findings suggest that background environmental uncertainty can disrupt goal-directed behaviour. This graded processing strategy might be adaptive in potentially threatening contexts, and reflect a flexible system for automatic allocation of perceptual resources.

  17. Radar Design to Protect Against Surprise.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2015-02-01

    Technological and doctrinal surprise is about rendering preparations for conflict as irrelevant or ineffective . For a sensor, this means essentially rendering the sensor as irrelevant or ineffective in its ability to help determine truth. Recovery from this sort of surprise is facilitated by flexibility in our own technology and doctrine. For a sensor, this mean s flexibility in its architecture, design, tactics, and the designing organizations ' processes. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory manage d and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000.

  18. Surprise-Based Learning for Autonomous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-28

    for scientific theories containing recursive theoretical terms". British Journal of Philosophy of Science, 44. 641-652, 1993. Piaget J.. "The Origins...paradigm stems from Piaget’s theory of Developmental Psychology [5], Herben Simon’s theory on dual-space search for knowledge and problem solving [6...34, Twenty-First Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, Edinburgh, Scotland, July 2005. [34] Itti L., Baldi P., "A Surprising Theory of

  19. An Efficient Photo Voltaic System for Onboard Ship Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashidhar Kasthala

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a high efficient photovoltaic system is proposed for onboard ship applications which convert the lower voltage obtained from solar modules to higher voltage required by the ship service loads. In a typical photovoltaic system only step-up /boost converter is used due to which the converter has to operate in extreme duty ratio, resulting in increase of switching losses and thus decreasing the overall efficiency. But in this paper the conventional boost converter is used with interleaved inductors and capacitors. The poposed system stores the energy in inductors and thus reduces the stress in the switches (Without allowing the total voltage to appear across the switch. The simulation is designed using MATLAB/Simulink with an Input voltage of 40-V to achieve a output voltage of 300-380 V. The developed simulation results are compared for output powers of 500W and 1kW

  20. Investigation of Heat Sink Efficiency for Electronic Component Cooling Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staliulionis, Ž.; Zhang, Zhe; Pittini, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Research and optimisation of cooling of electronic components using heat sinks becomes increasingly important in modern industry. Numerical methods with experimental real-world verification are the main tools to evaluate efficiency of heat sinks or heat sink systems. Here the investigation...... of relatively simple heat sink application is performed using modeling based on finite element method, and also the potential of such analysis was demonstrated by real-world measurements and comparing obtained results. Thermal modeling was accomplished using finite element analysis software COMSOL and thermo......-imaging camera was used to measure the thermal field distribution. Ideas for future research involving improvement of the experimental setup and modeling verification are given....

  1. A biocompatible, highly efficient click reaction and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yue; Liang, Gaolin

    2014-02-14

    Herein, we review the development, optimization, applications and potential prospects of a novel click reaction based on the condensation reaction between 2-cyanobenzothiazole (CBT) and D-cysteine (D-Cys) in fireflies. This click condensation reaction has obvious advantages in biocompatibility, efficiency and stability in aqueous environments. Optimization of this click reaction has been carried out so that it can be controlled by pH change, reduction, or enzymatic cleavage to synthesize large molecules and self-assembled nanostructures, or enhance probe signals. Consequently, this CBT-based click reaction has been and could be successfully applied to a wide range of biomedical applications such as molecular imaging (e.g., optical imaging, nuclear imaging and magnetic resonance imaging), biomolecular detection, drug delivery and other potentialities.

  2. Pupil size tracks perceptual content and surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Niels A; Meindertsma, Thomas; van Loon, Anouk M; Lamme, Victor A F; Bonneh, Yoram S; Donner, Tobias H

    2015-04-01

    Changes in pupil size at constant light levels reflect the activity of neuromodulatory brainstem centers that control global brain state. These endogenously driven pupil dynamics can be synchronized with cognitive acts. For example, the pupil dilates during the spontaneous switches of perception of a constant sensory input in bistable perceptual illusions. It is unknown whether this pupil dilation only indicates the occurrence of perceptual switches, or also their content. Here, we measured pupil diameter in human subjects reporting the subjective disappearance and re-appearance of a physically constant visual target surrounded by a moving pattern ('motion-induced blindness' illusion). We show that the pupil dilates during the perceptual switches in the illusion and a stimulus-evoked 'replay' of that illusion. Critically, the switch-related pupil dilation encodes perceptual content, with larger amplitude for disappearance than re-appearance. This difference in pupil response amplitude enables prediction of the type of report (disappearance vs. re-appearance) on individual switches (receiver-operating characteristic: 61%). The amplitude difference is independent of the relative durations of target-visible and target-invisible intervals and subjects' overt behavioral report of the perceptual switches. Further, we show that pupil dilation during the replay also scales with the level of surprise about the timing of switches, but there is no evidence for an interaction between the effects of surprise and perceptual content on the pupil response. Taken together, our results suggest that pupil-linked brain systems track both the content of, and surprise about, perceptual events.

  3. Application of an efficient Bayesian discretization method to biomedical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishnan Vanathi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several data mining methods require data that are discrete, and other methods often perform better with discrete data. We introduce an efficient Bayesian discretization (EBD method for optimal discretization of variables that runs efficiently on high-dimensional biomedical datasets. The EBD method consists of two components, namely, a Bayesian score to evaluate discretizations and a dynamic programming search procedure to efficiently search the space of possible discretizations. We compared the performance of EBD to Fayyad and Irani's (FI discretization method, which is commonly used for discretization. Results On 24 biomedical datasets obtained from high-throughput transcriptomic and proteomic studies, the classification performances of the C4.5 classifier and the naïve Bayes classifier were statistically significantly better when the predictor variables were discretized using EBD over FI. EBD was statistically significantly more stable to the variability of the datasets than FI. However, EBD was less robust, though not statistically significantly so, than FI and produced slightly more complex discretizations than FI. Conclusions On a range of biomedical datasets, a Bayesian discretization method (EBD yielded better classification performance and stability but was less robust than the widely used FI discretization method. The EBD discretization method is easy to implement, permits the incorporation of prior knowledge and belief, and is sufficiently fast for application to high-dimensional data.

  4. High efficiency digital cooler electronics for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkconnell, C. S.; Luong, T. T.; Shaw, L. S.; Murphy, J. B.; Moody, E. A.; Lisiecki, A. L.; Ellis, M. J.

    2014-06-01

    Closed-cycle cryogenic refrigerators, or cryocoolers, are an enabling technology for a wide range of aerospace applications, mostly related to infrared (IR) sensors. While the industry focus has tended to be on the mechanical cryocooler thermo mechanical unit (TMU) alone, implementation on a platform necessarily consists of the combination of the TMU and a mating set of command and control electronics. For some applications the cryocooler electronics (CCE) are technologically simple and low cost relative to the TMU, but this is not always the case. The relative cost and complexity of the CCE for a space-borne application can easily exceed that of the TMU, primarily due to the technical constraints and cost impacts introduced by the typical space radiation hardness and reliability requirements. High end tactical IR sensor applications also challenge the state of the art in cryocooler electronics, such as those for which temperature setpoint and frequency must be adjustable, or those where an informative telemetry set must be supported, etc. Generally speaking for both space and tactical applications, it is often the CCE that limits the rated lifetime and reliability of the cryocooler system. A family of high end digital cryocooler electronics has been developed to address these needs. These electronics are readily scalable from 10W to 500W output capacity; experimental performance data for nominally 25W and 100W variants are presented. The combination of a FPGA-based controller and dual H-bridge motor drive architectures yields high efficiency (>92% typical) and precision temperature control (+/- 30 mK typical) for a wide range of Stirling-class mechanical cryocooler types and vendors. This paper focuses on recent testing with the AIM INFRAROT-MODULE GmbH (AIM) SX030 and AIM SF100 cryocoolers.

  5. Some surprising facts about (the problem of) surprising facts (from the Dusseldorf Conference, February 2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, D

    2014-03-01

    A common intuition about evidence is that if data x have been used to construct a hypothesis H, then x should not be used again in support of H. It is no surprise that x fits H, if H was deliberately constructed to accord with x. The question of when and why we should avoid such "double-counting" continues to be debated in philosophy and statistics. It arises as a prohibition against data mining, hunting for significance, tuning on the signal, and ad hoc hypotheses, and as a preference for predesignated hypotheses and "surprising" predictions. I have argued that it is the severity or probativeness of the test--or lack of it--that should determine whether a double-use of data is admissible. I examine a number of surprising ambiguities and unexpected facts that continue to bedevil this debate.

  6. Stroke Recovery: Surprising Influences and Residual Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argye E. Hillis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is startling individual variability in the degree to which people recover from stroke and the duration of time over which recovery of some symptoms occurs. There are a variety of mechanisms of recovery from stroke which take place at distinct time points after stroke and are influenced by different variables. We review recent studies from our laboratory that unveil some surprising findings, such as the role of education in chronic recovery. We also report data showing that the consequences that most plague survivors of stroke and their caregivers are loss of high level cortical functions, such as empathy or written language. These results have implications for rehabilitation and management of stroke.

  7. Area Efficient Turbo Encoder for Wireless Applications on FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansi Rastogi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Error control is the major insistence in today’s wireless communication systems. In this era parallel concatenated convolutional codes known as turbo codes plays a crucial role. These codes have been chosen as error control approach for various wireless applications such as UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System,DVB (Digital Video Broadcasting etc. In this paper an area efficient turbo encoder (2, 1, 3 is proposed to suffice the elevated demand of miniaturization in future wireless communication. The proposed design is simulated using matlab and synthesized on Xilinx Virtex-2p (xc2vp30-ff896-5 FPGA. During simulation the proposed design is compared with the matlab model of RSC encoder. The performance of proposed Turbo encoder will be compared for FPGAs in terms of number of slices, number of slice Flip-flops and the number of registers. The Synthesis results show a 7% improvement in the utilized no. of slices and slice flip-flop. So an area efficient, cost effective Parallel Concatenated Convolutional Code Encoder has been proposed in this paper

  8. Surprises and mysteries in urban soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groffman, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the Baltimore Ecosystem Study, one of two urban long-term ecological research (LTER) projects funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, we are using "the watershed approach" to integrate ecological, physical and social sciences. Urban and suburban watershed input/output budgets for nitrogen have shown surprisingly high retention which has led to detailed analysis of sources and sinks in soils these watersheds. Home lawns, thought to be major sources of reactive nitrogen in suburban watersheds, have more complex coupled carbon and nitrogen dynamics than previously thought, and are likely the site of much nitrogen retention. Riparian zones, thought to be an important sink for reactive nitrogen in many watersheds, have turned out be nitrogen sources in urban watersheds due to hydrologic changes that disconnect streams from their surrounding landscape. Urban effects on atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and nitrogen deposition have strong effects on soil nitrogen cycling processes and soil:atmosphere fluxes of nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane. Efforts to manage urban soils and watersheds through geomorphic stream restoration, creation of stormwater management features and changes in lawn and forest management can have significant effects on watershed carbon and nitrogen dynamics. Urban soils present a basic and applied science frontier that challenges our understanding of biological, physical, chemical and social science processes. The watershed approach provides an effective platform for integrating these disciplines and for articulating critical questions that arise from surprising results. This approach can help us to meet the challenge of urban soils, which is critical to achieving sustainability goals in cities across the world.

  9. Energy-efficient lighting applications in a supermarket environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammer, D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the application of energy-efficient lighting in a retail environment, specifically a supermarket. It will reveal the general theory behind Big V`s chosen lighting design, and then discuss two examples of the application: one, a retrofit to an existing supermarket; the other, the adaption of the design to a new store. The factors that influence Big V`s lighting design are: (1) the best presentation of product for merchandising purposes, and (2) the lowest operating cost. These two factors can often be mutually exclusive. For merchandising purposes, the best design would make the product `jump off the shelf` at a customer, preferably into his/her shopping cart. Such an arrangement would include high footcandle levels along with a very high color rendering index (CRI). To design only to these requirements would result in very high original and operating costs for the lighting system. However, to base the design on cost considerations alone would result in low light levels at a very low CRI. Since neither option is acceptable, Big V`s design is a compromise, combining the best light quality at a reasonable cost.

  10. The Search for Efficiency in Arboreal Ray Tracing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, M.; Disney, M.; Chen, J. M.; Gomez-Dans, J.; Kelbe, D.; van Aardt, J. A.; Lewis, P.

    2016-12-01

    Forest structure significantly impacts a range of abiotic conditions, including humidity and the radiation regime, all of which affect the rate of net and gross primary productivity. Current forest productivity models typically consider abstract media to represent the transfer of radiation within the canopy. Examples include the representation forest structure via a layered canopy model, where leaf area and inclination angles are stratified with canopy depth, or as turbid media where leaves are randomly distributed within space or within confined geometric solids such as blocks, spheres or cones. While these abstract models are known to produce accurate estimates of primary productivity at the stand level, their limited geometric resolution restricts applicability at fine spatial scales, such as the cell, leaf or shoot levels, thereby not addressing the full potential of assimilation of data from laboratory and field measurements with that of remote sensing technology. Recent research efforts have explored the use of laser scanning to capture detailed tree morphology at millimeter accuracy. These data can subsequently be used to combine ray tracing with primary productivity models, providing an ability to explore trade-offs among different morphological traits or assimilate data from spatial scales, spanning the leaf- to the stand level. Ray tracing has a major advantage of allowing the most accurate structural description of the canopy, and can directly exploit new 3D structural measurements, e.g., from laser scanning. However, the biggest limitation of ray tracing models is their high computational cost, which currently limits their use for large-scale applications. In this talk, we explore ways to more efficiently exploit ray tracing simulations and capture this information in a readily computable form for future evaluation, thus potentially enabling large-scale first-principles forest growth modelling applications.

  11. Application of gold nanoparticles for improved drug efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shittu, K. O.; Bankole, M. T.; Abdulkareem, A. S.; Abubakre, O. K.; Ubaka, A. U.

    2017-09-01

    Due to increasing resistance of microorganisms towards current antibiotics, there is a need for new or enhanced antibiotics. Nanotechnology is a technology that enhances the use of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) in area of medical applications, especially as a drug carrier for targeted drug delivery. In this research, AuNPs was synthesized using biological method via bioreduction of Piper guineense aqueous leaf extract on tetra gold chloride, characterized using UV-Vis spectrophometer, DLS, TEM/EDS and FTIR. The synthesized AuNPs was covalently functionalized with polyethylene glycol and encapsulated with Lincomycin and in vitro dissolution methods was used to evaluate the potential performance of the formulated nanodrug. The nanodrug has highest release efficiency at the 9th minutes (23.4 mg ml-1 for 40 °C) and (29.5 mg ml-1 for 60 °C) compared with the non-nanodrug. The antibacterial potential of the nanodrug was seen on the gram-positive bacteria of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes with highest inhibitions of 18 mm (at 40 °C) and 16 mm (at 60 °C) for S. aureus, and 16 mm for S. pyogenes (both at 40 °C and 60 °C). The bacteria growth inhibition continued and lasted for 15 min, while that of non-nanodrug lasted for 9 min with lesser growth inhibition compared to the formulated nanodrug. This work shows that the presence of the AuNPs increased the release efficiency of lincomycin even at a lower concentration and also bacteria growth inhibition thereby suggesting the effectiveness of the nanodrug formulation.

  12. Surprising characteristics of visual systems of invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín-Moro, J; Hernández-Verdejo, J L; Jiménez-Gahete, A E

    2017-01-01

    To communicate relevant and striking aspects about the visual system of some close invertebrates. Review of the related literature. The capacity of snails to regenerate a complete eye, the benefit of the oval shape of the compound eye of many flying insects as a way of stabilising the image during flight, the potential advantages related to the extreme refractive error that characterises the ocelli of many insects, as well as the ability to detect polarised light as a navigation system, are some of the surprising capabilities present in the small invertebrate eyes that are described in this work. The invertebrate eyes have capabilities and sensorial modalities that are not present in the human eye. The study of the eyes of these animals can help us to improve our understanding of our visual system, and inspire the development of optical devices. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Surprises from Saturn: Implications for Other Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, A. J.

    2014-05-01

    The exploration of Saturn by Cassini has provided many surprises regarding: Saturn's rapidly rotating magnetosphere, interactions with its diverse moons, and interactions with the solar wind. Enceladus, orbiting at 4 Saturn radii (RS), was found to have plumes of water vapour and ice which are the dominant source for the inner magnetosphere. Charged water clusters, charged dust and photoelectrons provide key populations in the 'dusty plasma' observed. Direct pickup is seen near Enceladus and field-aligned currents create a spot in Saturn's aurora. At Titan, orbiting at 20 RS, unexpected heavy negative and positive ions are seen in the ionosphere, which provide the source for Titan's haze. Ionospheric plasma is seen in Titan's tail, enabling ion escape to be estimated at 7 tonnes per day. Saturn's ring ionosphere was seen early in the mission and a return will be made in 2017. In addition, highly accelerated electrons are seen at Saturn's high Mach number (MA˜100) quasi-parallel bow shock. Here we review some of these key new results, and discuss the implications for other solar system objects.

  14. Efficient Reversible Montgomery Multiplier and Its Application to Hardware Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor M. Nayeem

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU of a crypto-processor and microchips leak information through power consumption. Although the cryptographic protocols are secured against mathematical attacks, the attackers can break the encryption by measuring the energy consumption. Approach: To thwart attacks, this study proposed the use of reversible logic for designing the ALU of a crypto-processor. Ideally, reversible circuits do not dissipate any energy. If reversible circuits are used, then the attacker would not be able to analyze the power consumption. In order to design the reversible ALU of a crypto-processor, reversible Carry Save Adder (CSA using Modified TSG (MTSG gates and architecture of Montgomery multiplier were proposed. For reversible implementation of Montgomery multiplier, efficient reversible multiplexers and sequential circuits such as reversible registers and shift registers were presented. Results: This study showed that modified designs perform better than the existing ones in terms of number of gates, number of garbage outputs and quantum cost. Lower bounds of the proposed designs were established by providing relevant theorems and lemmas. Conclusion: The application of reversible circuit is suitable to the field of hardware cryptography.

  15. Novel Polymers for High Efficiency Renewable and Portable Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-30

    systems with frontier orbital levels (HOMOs and LUMOs) and morphologies systematically investigated and optimized for high efficiency photoelectric and...of polymer-dye covalently linked systems that could efficiently convert light/heat into electrical power. Therefore, frontier orbital matching...force between the polymer and dye would result in weaker PL quenching and optoelectronic device power conversion efficiency , this experimentally

  16. Estimations of expectedness and potential surprise in possibility theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prade, Henri; Yager, Ronald R.

    1992-01-01

    This note investigates how various ideas of 'expectedness' can be captured in the framework of possibility theory. Particularly, we are interested in trying to introduce estimates of the kind of lack of surprise expressed by people when saying 'I would not be surprised that...' before an event takes place, or by saying 'I knew it' after its realization. In possibility theory, a possibility distribution is supposed to model the relative levels of mutually exclusive alternatives in a set, or equivalently, the alternatives are assumed to be rank-ordered according to their level of possibility to take place. Four basic set-functions associated with a possibility distribution, including standard possibility and necessity measures, are discussed from the point of view of what they estimate when applied to potential events. Extensions of these estimates based on the notions of Q-projection or OWA operators are proposed when only significant parts of the possibility distribution are retained in the evaluation. The case of partially-known possibility distributions is also considered. Some potential applications are outlined.

  17. A Shocking Surprise in Stephan's Quintet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This false-color composite image of the Stephan's Quintet galaxy cluster clearly shows one of the largest shock waves ever seen (green arc). The wave was produced by one galaxy falling toward another at speeds of more than one million miles per hour. The image is made up of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and a ground-based telescope in Spain. Four of the five galaxies in this picture are involved in a violent collision, which has already stripped most of the hydrogen gas from the interiors of the galaxies. The centers of the galaxies appear as bright yellow-pink knots inside a blue haze of stars, and the galaxy producing all the turmoil, NGC7318b, is the left of two small bright regions in the middle right of the image. One galaxy, the large spiral at the bottom left of the image, is a foreground object and is not associated with the cluster. The titanic shock wave, larger than our own Milky Way galaxy, was detected by the ground-based telescope using visible-light wavelengths. It consists of hot hydrogen gas. As NGC7318b collides with gas spread throughout the cluster, atoms of hydrogen are heated in the shock wave, producing the green glow. Spitzer pointed its infrared spectrograph at the peak of this shock wave (middle of green glow) to learn more about its inner workings. This instrument breaks light apart into its basic components. Data from the instrument are referred to as spectra and are displayed as curving lines that indicate the amount of light coming at each specific wavelength. The Spitzer spectrum showed a strong infrared signature for incredibly turbulent gas made up of hydrogen molecules. This gas is caused when atoms of hydrogen rapidly pair-up to form molecules in the wake of the shock wave. Molecular hydrogen, unlike atomic hydrogen, gives off most of its energy through vibrations that emit in the infrared. This highly disturbed gas is the most turbulent molecular hydrogen ever seen. Astronomers were surprised not only by the turbulence

  18. Efficient Third Harmonic Generation for Wind Lidar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordaunt, David W.; Cheung, Eric C.; Ho, James G.; Palese, Stephen P.

    1998-01-01

    The characterization of atmospheric winds on a global basis is a key parameter required for accurate weather prediction. The use of a space based lidar system for remote measurement of wind speed would provide detailed and highly accurate data for future weather prediction models. This paper reports the demonstration of efficient third harmonic conversion of a 1 micrometer laser to provide an ultraviolet (UV) source suitable for a wind lidar system based on atmospheric molecular scattering. Although infrared based lidars using aerosol scattering have been demonstrated to provide accurate wind measurement, a UV based system using molecular or Rayleigh scattering will provide accurate global wind measurements, even in those areas of the atmosphere where the aerosol density is too low to yield good infrared backscatter signals. The overall objective of this work is to demonstrate the maturity of the laser technology and its suitability for a near term flight aboard the space shuttle. The laser source is based on diode-pumped solid-state laser technology which has been extensively demonstrated at TRW in a variety of programs and internal development efforts. The pump laser used for the third harmonic demonstration is a breadboard system, designated the Laser for Risk Reduction Experiments (LARRE), which has been operating regularly for over 5 years. The laser technology has been further refined in an engineering model designated as the Compact Advanced Pulsed Solid-State Laser (CAPSSL), in which the laser head was packaged into an 8 x 8 x 18 inch volume with a weight of approximately 61 pounds. The CAPSSL system is a ruggedized configuration suitable for typical military applications. The LARRE and CAPSSL systems are based on Nd:YAG with an output wavelength of 1064 nm. The current work proves the viability of converting the Nd:YAG fundamental to the third harmonic wavelength at 355 nm for use in a direct detection wind lidar based on atmospheric Rayleigh scattering.

  19. Business models for material efficiency services. Conceptualization and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halme, Minna; Anttonen, Markku; Kuisma, Mika; Kontoniemi, Nea [Helsinki School of Economics, Department of Marketing and Management, P.O. Box 1210, 00101 Helsinki (Finland); Heino, Erja [University of Helsinki, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences (Finland)

    2007-06-15

    Despite the abundant research on material flows and the growing recognition of the need to dematerialize the economy, business enterprises are still not making the best possible use of the many opportunities for material efficiency improvements. This article proposes one possible solution: material efficiency services provided by outside suppliers. It also introduces a conceptual framework for the analysis of different business models for eco-efficient services and applies the framework to material efficiency services. Four business models are outlined and their feasibility is studied from an empirical vantage point. In contrast to much of the previous research, special emphasis is laid on the financial aspects. It appears that the most promising business models are 'material efficiency as additional service' and 'material flow management service'. Depending on the business model, prominent material efficiency service providers differ from large companies that offer multiple products and/or services to smaller, specialized providers. Potential clients (users) typically lack the resources (expertise, management's time or initial funds) to conduct material efficiency improvements themselves. Customers are more likely to use material efficiency services that relate to support materials or side-streams rather than those that are at the core of production. Potential client organizations with a strategy of outsourcing support activities and with experience of outsourcing are more keen to use material efficiency services. (author)

  20. Computational surprisal analysis speeds-up genomic characterization of cancer processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko-Balasha, Nataly; Simon, Simcha; Levine, R D; Remacle, F; Exman, Iaakov

    2014-01-01

    Surprisal analysis is increasingly being applied for the examination of transcription levels in cellular processes, towards revealing inner network structures and predicting response. But to achieve its full potential, surprisal analysis should be integrated into a wider range computational tool. The purposes of this paper are to combine surprisal analysis with other important computation procedures, such as easy manipulation of the analysis results--e.g. to choose desirable result sub-sets for further inspection--, retrieval and comparison with relevant datasets from public databases, and flexible graphical displays for heuristic thinking. The whole set of computation procedures integrated into a single practical tool is what we call Computational Surprisal Analysis. This combined kind of analysis should facilitate significantly quantitative understanding of different cellular processes for researchers, including applications in proteomics and metabolomics. Beyond that, our vision is that Computational Surprisal Analysis has the potential to reach the status of a routine method of analysis for practitioners. The resolving power of Computational Surprisal Analysis is here demonstrated by its application to a variety of cellular cancer process transcription datasets, ours and from the literature. The results provide a compact biological picture of the thermodynamic significance of the leading gene expression phenotypes in every stage of the disease. For each transcript we characterize both its inherent steady state weight, its correlation with the other transcripts and its variation due to the disease. We present a dedicated website to facilitate the analysis for researchers and practitioners.

  1. Computational surprisal analysis speeds-up genomic characterization of cancer processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly Kravchenko-Balasha

    Full Text Available Surprisal analysis is increasingly being applied for the examination of transcription levels in cellular processes, towards revealing inner network structures and predicting response. But to achieve its full potential, surprisal analysis should be integrated into a wider range computational tool. The purposes of this paper are to combine surprisal analysis with other important computation procedures, such as easy manipulation of the analysis results--e.g. to choose desirable result sub-sets for further inspection--, retrieval and comparison with relevant datasets from public databases, and flexible graphical displays for heuristic thinking. The whole set of computation procedures integrated into a single practical tool is what we call Computational Surprisal Analysis. This combined kind of analysis should facilitate significantly quantitative understanding of different cellular processes for researchers, including applications in proteomics and metabolomics. Beyond that, our vision is that Computational Surprisal Analysis has the potential to reach the status of a routine method of analysis for practitioners. The resolving power of Computational Surprisal Analysis is here demonstrated by its application to a variety of cellular cancer process transcription datasets, ours and from the literature. The results provide a compact biological picture of the thermodynamic significance of the leading gene expression phenotypes in every stage of the disease. For each transcript we characterize both its inherent steady state weight, its correlation with the other transcripts and its variation due to the disease. We present a dedicated website to facilitate the analysis for researchers and practitioners.

  2. Spatial filtering efficiency of monostatic biaxial lidar: analysis and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agishev, Ravil R; Comeron, Adolfo

    2002-12-20

    Results of lidar modeling based on spatial-angular filtering efficiency criteria are presented. Their analysis shows that the low spatial-angular filtering efficiency of traditional visible and near-infrared systems is an important cause of low signal/background-radiation ratio (SBR) at the photodetector input The low SBR may be responsible for considerable measurement errors and ensuing the low accuracy of the retrieval of atmospheric optical parameters. As shown, the most effective protection against sky background radiation for groundbased biaxial lidars is the modifying of their angular field according to a spatial-angular filtering efficiency criterion. Some effective approaches to achieve a high filtering efficiency for the receiving system optimization are discussed.

  3. Spatial filtering efficiency of monostatic biaxial lidar: analysis and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agishev, Ravil R.; Comeron, Adolfo

    2002-12-01

    Results of lidar modeling based on spatial-angular filtering efficiency criteria are presented. Their analysis shows that the low spatial-angular filtering efficiency of traditional visible and near-infrared systems is an important cause of low signal/background-radiation ratio (SBR) at the photodetector input. The low SBR may be responsible for considerable measurement errors and ensuing the low accuracy of the retrieval of atmospheric optical parameters. As shown, the most effective protection against sky background radiation for groundbased biaxial lidars is the modifying of their angular field according to a spatial-angular filtering efficiency criterion. Some effective approaches to achieve a high filtering efficiency for the receiving system optimization are discussed.

  4. Spatial filtering efficiency of monostatic biaxial lidar: analysis and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Agishev, Ravil R.; Comerón Tejero, Adolfo

    2002-01-01

    Results of lidar modeling based on spatial-angular filtering efficiency criteria are presented. Their analysis shows that the low spatial-angular filtering efficiency of traditional visible and near-infrared systems is an important cause of low signal background-radiation ratio SBR at the photodetector input. The low SBR may be responsible for considerable measurement errors and ensuing the low accuracy of the retrieval of atmospheric optical parameters. As shown, the most effec...

  5. Spatial filtering efficiency of monostatic biaxial lidar: analysis and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Agishev, Ravil R.; Comerón Tejero, Adolfo

    2002-01-01

    Results of lidar modeling based on spatial-angular filtering efficiency criteria are presented. Their analysis shows that the low spatial-angular filtering efficiency of traditional visible and near-infrared systems is an important cause of low signal background-radiation ratio SBR at the photodetector input. The low SBR may be responsible for considerable measurement errors and ensuing the low accuracy of the retrieval of atmospheric optical parameters. As shown, the most effec...

  6. Energy efficiency of lighting installations: Software application and experimental validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Lobão

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The rational use of energy and energy-efficient environmental public street lighting is an important topic. In the design of new public lighting installations, national regulations containing energy-efficient guidelines are already used. Nevertheless, either in new installations or in reconstructions of existing lighting, designers do not generally consider all the available means to save energy. In installations of street lighting, energy consumption can be reduced by reducing the losses in the conductors, associated with the efficiency of the equipment, allowing better use of the available energy. The losses in the conductors must be analysed in conjunction with all the loads that contribute to the current in the sections of the installed street lighting. When opting for more efficient lamps and luminaires or lighting control systems, the current decreases in the sections covered with the most significant power loss due to proportionality with the square of the current. This decrease, often forgotten, is considered in this work in the investment analysis of efficiency and sustainable street lighting via simulation and experimental results. This analysis, combined with the features and operating parameters of the electrical installation, accounts for all the gains that can make a difference in the choice of efficient street lighting.

  7. The Influence of Negative Surprise on Hedonic Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Kieling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After some time using a product or service, the consumer tends to feel less pleasure with consumption. This reduction of pleasure is known as hedonic adaptation. One of the emotions that interfere in this process is surprise. Based on two experiments, we suggest that negative surprise – differently to positive – influences with the level of pleasure foreseen and experienced by the consumer. Study 1 analyzes the influence of negative (vs. positive surprise on the consumer’s post-purchase hedonic adaptation expectation. Results showed that negative surprise influences the intensity of adaptation, augmenting its strength. Study 2 verifies the influence of negative (vs positive surprise over hedonic adaptation. The findings suggested that negative surprise makes adaptation happen more intensively and faster as time goes by, which brings consequences to companies and consumers in the post-purchase process, such as satisfaction and loyalty.

  8. 78 FR 35073 - Compass Efficient Model Portfolios, LLC and Compass EMP Funds Trust; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... COMMISSION Compass Efficient Model Portfolios, LLC and Compass EMP Funds Trust; Notice of Application June 4.... Applicants: Compass Efficient Model Portfolios, LLC (the ``Adviser'') and Compass EMP Funds Trust (``the... perspective of the investor, the role of the Subadvisers is comparable to that of the individual...

  9. Effects of Surprisal and Locality on Danish Sentence Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Kizach, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    An eye-tracking experiment in Danish investigates two dominant accounts of sentence processing: locality-based theories that predict a processing advantage for sentences where the distance between the major syntactic heads is minimized, and the surprisal theory which predicts that processing time...... constructions with two postverbal NP-objects. An eye-tracking experiment showed a clear advantage for local syntactic relations, with only a marginal effect of lexicalised surprisal and no effect of syntactic surprisal. We conclude that surprisal has a relatively marginal effect, which may be clearest for verbs...

  10. NILM Applications for the Energy-Efficient Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, D.; Earle, L.; Sparn, B.

    2012-11-01

    We present a forecast for systems-focused applications of non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM), which meet the needs of homeowners, the technology sector, the service sector, and/or utilities. We discuss both near- and long-term applications.

  11. Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe dominant economic theory, neoclassical economics, employs a single economic evaluative criterion: efficiency. Moreover, it assigns this criterion a very specific meaning. Other – heterodox – schools of thought in economics tend to use more open concepts of efficiency, related to comm

  12. High Efficiency Power Converter for Low Voltage High Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten

    , and remote power generation for light towers, camper vans, boats, beacons, and buoys etc. In chapter 2, a review of current state-of-the-art is presented. The best performing converters achieve moderately high peak efficiencies at high input voltage and medium power level. However, system dimensioning...

  13. Improving air handler efficiency in residential HVAC applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.; Mingee, Michael D.; Brenner, Douglas E.

    2003-08-01

    In continuing the development of energy efficiency standards, consideration has turned to air handlers used for heating and air conditioning of consumer residences. These air handlers have typical efficiencies of about 10% to 15% due to poor electric motor performance and aerodynamically poor fans and fan housings. This study was undertaken to examine some of these performance issues, under carefully controlled laboratory conditions, to support potential regulatory changes. In addition, this study examined the performance of a prototype air handler fan assembly that offers the potential for substantial increases in performance. This prototype and a standard production fan were tested in a full-scale duct system and test chamber at LBNL which was specifically designed for testing heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. The laboratory tests compared efficiency, total airflow, sensitivity to duct system flow resistance, and the effects of installation in a smaller cabinet. The test results showed that, averaged over a wide range of operating conditions, the prototype air handler had about twice the efficiency of the standard air handler and was less sensitive to duct system flow resistance changes. The performance of both air handlers was significantly reduced by reducing the space between the air handler and the cabinet it was installed in. Therefore any fan rating needs to be performed using the actual cabinet it will be used in.

  14. Energy-efficient wireless networking for multimedia applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    In this paper we identify the most prominent problems of wireless multimedia networking and present several state-of-the-art solutions with a focus on energy efficiency. Three key problems in networked wireless multimedia systems are: (1) the need to maintain a minimum quality of service over

  15. Field Efficiency of Slurry Applications Involving In-field Transports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochtis, Dionysis; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn; Green, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Controlled traffic farming can significantly reduce the soil compaction caused from heavy machinery systems. However, using CTF in material handling operations executed by cooperative machines, the significantly increased in-field transports lead to a lower system’s efficiency. Recently, a discre...

  16. Efficient Cfd/csd Coupling Methods for Aeroelastic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Xu, Tianhao; Xie, Jing

    2016-06-01

    A fast aeroelastic numerical simulation method using CFD/CSD coupling are developed. Generally, aeroelastic numerical simulation costs much time and significant hardware resources with CFD/CSD coupling. In this paper, dynamic grid method, full implicit scheme, parallel technology and improved coupling method are researched for efficiency simulation. An improved Delaunay graph mapping method is proposed for efficient dynamic grid deform. Hybrid grid finite volume method is used to solve unsteady flow fields. The dual time stepping method based on parallel implicit scheme is used in temporal discretization for efficiency simulation. An approximate system of linear equations is solved by the GMRES algorithm with a LU-SGS preconditioner. This method leads to a significant increase in performance over the explicit and LU-SGS implicit methods. A modification of LU-SGS is proposed to improve the parallel performance. Parallel computing overs a very effective way to improve our productivity in doing CFD/CFD coupling analysis. Improved loose coupling method is an efficiency way over the loose coupling method and tight coupling method. 3D wing's aeroelastic phenomenon is simulated by solving Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations using improved loose coupling method. The flutter boundary is calculated and agrees well with experimental data. The transonic hole is very clear in numerical simulation results.

  17. COMPUTER APPLICATION SYSTEM FOR OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY OF DIESEL RAILBUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz WOJCIECHOWSKI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a computer algorithm to calculate the estimated operating cost analysis rail bus. This computer application system compares the cost of employment locomotive and wagon, the cost of using locomotives and cost of using rail bus. An intensive growth of passenger railway traffic increased a demand for modern computer systems to management means of transportation. Described computer application operates on the basis of selected operating parameters of rail buses.

  18. Surprise and Sense Making: Undergraduate Placement Experiences in SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Andreas; Thomas, Rhodri; Jameson, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore undergraduate placement experiences in tourism and hospitality SMEs, focusing on the notions of surprise and sense making. It aims to argue that surprises and sense making are important elements not only of the adjustment process when entering new work environments, but also of the learning experience that…

  19. Solar efficiency of a photo catalytic nonwoven: dye removal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillard, C.; Disdier, J.; Herrmann, J. M.; Monnet, C.; Dussaud, J.; Malato, S.; Blanco, J.

    2003-07-01

    A specially designed titania photo catalyst was prepared by coating Ahlstrom non-woven paper, used as a flexible photo catalytic support, with Millennium anatase PC50 and PC500 at different mass coatings. Several types of reactants were treated: formetanate (pesticide), Remazole (azo-dye), Amaranth (azo-dye) and Methylene Blue (model dye). Supported catalysts installed in a new solar photo reactor (STEP) were compared to the well-known CPCs working with slurries (0.5 g/L) of the same catalysts. Efficiency of both photo catalytic system was very similar for formetanate removal but not for dye degradation, for which the CPC was more efficient. Solar UV light adsorption by dyes is proposed as the reason for these results. (Author) 12 refs.

  20. Application Independent Energy Efficient Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Virmani, Deepali; Ghanshyam,; Ahlawat, Khyati; Noble,

    2012-01-01

    Wireless Sensor networks are dense networks of small, low-cost sensors, which collect and disseminate environmental data and thus facilitate monitoring and controlling of physical environment from remote locations with better accuracy. The major challenge is to achieve energy efficiency during the communication among the nodes. This paper aims at proposing a solution to schedule the node's activities to reduce the energy consumption. We propose the construction of a decentralized lifetime maximizing tree within clusters. We aim at minimizing the distance of transmission with minimization of energy consumption. The sensor network is distributed into clusters based on the close proximity of the nodes. Data transfer among the nodes is done with a hybrid technique of both TDMA/ FDMA which leads to efficient utilization of bandwidth and maximizing throughput.

  1. Efficiency Improvement and Quality Initiatives Application in Financial Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    MSc. Ajtene Avdullahi; MSc. Vjosa Fejza

    2015-01-01

    Financial institutions in today’s economy have no longer the luxury to improve profit simply by increasing revenue. These firms, due to the significant measuring reductions in the financial services industry needed to improve operational efficiencies and merely support existing processes with fewer resources. This paper explains the benefits of Lean, Six Sigma, Total Quality Management and Lean Six Sigma that have improved organization's performance, by cutting costs and waste, improving thei...

  2. Neural Responses to Rapid Facial Expressions of Fear and Surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Facial expression recognition is mediated by a distributed neural system in humans that involves multiple, bilateral regions. There are six basic facial expressions that may be recognized in humans (fear, sadness, surprise, happiness, anger, and disgust; however, fearful faces and surprised faces are easily confused in rapid presentation. The functional organization of the facial expression recognition system embodies a distinction between these two emotions, which is investigated in the present study. A core system that includes the right parahippocampal gyrus (BA 30, fusiform gyrus, and amygdala mediates the visual recognition of fear and surprise. We found that fearful faces evoked greater activity in the left precuneus, middle temporal gyrus (MTG, middle frontal gyrus, and right lingual gyrus, whereas surprised faces were associated with greater activity in the right postcentral gyrus and left posterior insula. These findings indicate the importance of common and separate mechanisms of the neural activation that underlies the recognition of fearful and surprised faces.

  3. Efficient searching and sorting applications using an associative array processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, W.; Quinn, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a method of searching and sorting data by using some of the unique capabilities of an associative array processor. To understand the application, the associative array processor is described in detail. In particular, the content addressable memory and flip network are discussed because these two unique elements give the associative array processor the power to rapidly sort and search. A simple alphanumeric sorting example is explained in hardware and software terms. The hardware used to explain the application is the STARAN (Goodyear Aerospace Corporation) associative array processor. The software used is the APPLE (Array Processor Programming Language) programming language. Some applications of the array processor are discussed. This summary tries to differentiate between the techniques of the sequential machine and the associative array processor.

  4. Analysis of Energy Efficiency in WSN by Considering SHM Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pawan; Naresh Babu, Merugu; Raju, Kota Solomon, Dr; Sharma, Sudhir Kumar, Dr; Jain, Vaibhav

    2017-08-01

    The Wireless Sensor Network is composed of a significant number of autonomous nodes deployed in an extensive or remote area. In WSN, the sensor nodes have a limited transmission range, processing speed and storage capabilities as well as their energy resources are also limited. In WSN all nodes are not directly connected. The primary objective for all kind of WSN is to enhance and optimize the network lifetime i.e. to minimize the energy consumption in the WSN. There are lots of applications of WSN out of which this research paper focuses upon the Structural Health Monitoring application in which 50 Meter bridge has been taken as a test application for the simulation purpose.

  5. Design, Selection and Application of High Efficient Complex Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The design, selection and application principles of complex alloys according to the requirements of making low-alloy steels are di scussed. The designed complex alloys containing calcium, barium, magne sium, strontium, rare earth elements, etc. should not only be able to deoxidize, desulphurize and refine liquid steel, but also alloy it. Th e application principles of alloys are as follows: using Si-Mn or Si-M n-Al alloys for pre-deoxidizing, Si-Al-Ba or Si-Al-Ca-Ba alloys for fi nal deoxidizing and Si-Ca-Ba-Mg(Sr) alloys for refining.

  6. Efficiency evaluation of mud applications of laser doppler of skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimova, S. K.; Kondratenko, E. I.; Alykova, O. M.; Lomtieva, N. A.; Alykova, A. F.

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of the microcirculation’s change of the face skin of the women under the influence of the sulfur silt mud application of the lake Karantinnoe of Astrakhan region was studied. The age particularities of vasorelaxation’s peloid action on the microcirculation of the face skin was installed. Peloid promotes the influx of arterial blood, the improvement of the tissue’s feeding and the reduction of the stagnant events. The prolonged action of the sulfur silt mud application reveals at more mature age.

  7. Energy Efficient FPGA based Hardware Accelerators for Financial Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenn Toft, Jakob; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) based accelerators are very suitable to implement application-specific processors using uncommon operations or number systems. In this work, we design FPGA-based accelerators for two financial computations with different characteristics and we compare...

  8. Efficient trajectory bending with applications to loop closure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbelman, G.; Esteban, I.; Schutte, K.

    2010-01-01

    In robotic applications the absolute pose is often obtained as the integral of successive relative rigid-body motions. As each relative rigid-body motion is typically the product of statistical inference, the integrated absolute pose will exhibit error build-up and the estimated trajectory will

  9. Development and Application of Efficient Portal Imaging Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.J. de Boer (Hans)

    2003-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The central subject of this thesis is to derive clinically applicable methods to measure and improve the reproducibility of treatment delivery in radiotherapy by means of portal imaging. The most important criteria that such methods should meet, apart from being effecti

  10. An Efficient Parallel Graph Edge Matching Algorithm and Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jun; MA Shaohan

    1999-01-01

    A fast and efficient parallel algorithm for finding a maximal edge matching in an undirected graph G(V,E) is proposed. It runs inO (log n) time with O (m/log n+n) processors on an EREW PRAM for aclass of graph set Π, where n=|V|,m=|E| and Π includesat least (i) planar graphs;(ii) graphs of bounded genus; and (iii)graphs of bounded maximum degree and so on. Our algorithm improves thepreviously known best algorithms by a factor of logn in the timecomplexity with linear number of processors on EREW PRAMs when the inputis limited to Π.

  11. Highly Efficient Thermoresponsive Nanocomposite for Controlled Release Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassine, Omar; Zaher, Amir; Li, Er Qiang; Alfadhel, Ahmed; Perez, Jose E.; Kavaldzhiev, Mincho; Contreras, Maria F.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.; Khashab, Niveen M.; Kosel, Jurgen

    2016-06-01

    Highly efficient magnetic release from nanocomposite microparticles is shown, which are made of Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel with embedded iron nanowires. A simple microfluidic technique was adopted to fabricate the microparticles with a high control of the nanowire concentration and in a relatively short time compared to chemical synthesis methods. The thermoresponsive microparticles were used for the remotely triggered release of Rhodamine (B). With a magnetic field of only 1 mT and 20 kHz a drug release of 6.5% and 70% was achieved in the continuous and pulsatile modes, respectively. Those release values are similar to the ones commonly obtained using superparamagnetic beads but accomplished with a magnetic field of five orders of magnitude lower power. The high efficiency is a result of the high remanent magnetization of the nanowires, which produce a large torque when exposed to a magnetic field. This causes the nanowires to vibrate, resulting in friction losses and heating. For comparison, microparticles with superparamagnetic beads were also fabricated and tested; while those worked at 73 mT and 600 kHz, no release was observed at the low field conditions. Cytotoxicity assays showed similar and high cell viability for microparticles with nanowires and beads.

  12. Thermal efficiency improvements : a chemical heat pump system application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mert, M.S.; Salt, I.; Bolat, E. [Yildiz Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Karaca, F. [Marmara Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Chemical heat pumps are used to upgrade thermal energy and provide energy storage without losses. The feasibility of an n-hexane/1-hexane/hydrogen chemical heat pump system based on the dehydrogenation of n-hexane at low temperatures and 1-hexane at high temperatures was investigated. Theoretical analysis was carried out using related thermodynamic and equilibrium data to determine the thermal efficiency of the cycle. The latent heats of vaporization at normal boiling points for n-hexane and 1-hexane were calculated using a Riedel equation. Heat capacities as a function of temperature were calculated by Missenard group contribution and Rowlinson-Bondi methods. Estimated C{sub PL} values were presented. The effect of temperature on the Standart heat of reaction was calculated. Gibbs free energy was expressed as a function of temperature. Results indicated that a high 1-hexane concentration in the liquid mixture was required. The ratio of upgraded heat to supplied heat was the key parameter for estimating the thermal coefficient of performance (COP). It was observed that the efficiency of the pump increased with an increase in low level hydrogenation pressure. It was concluded that designing a chemical heat pump involves the consideration of a variety of interacting parameters. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs.

  13. Dendronized multifunctional amphiphilic polymers as efficient nanocarriers for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Meena; Gupta, Shilpi; Achazi, Katharina; Böttcher, Christoph; Khandare, Jayant; Sharma, Sunil K; Haag, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    To gain insight into the factors that affect stability and transport efficiency under dilution conditions, dendronized and hyperbranched multifunctional amphiphilic polymers are synthesized by following the "grafting to" approach using varied amounts of propargylated alkyl chain with perfect and hyperbranched polyglycerol dendrons on the base copolymer of PEG (Mn: 1000 g mol(-1)) diethylester and 2-azidopropane-1,3-diol following the "bio-catalytic method" and "click approach". The dendronized and hyperbranched polymeric systems form supramolecular aggregates and exhibit an efficient transport potential for the model dye "Nile red" in the low μm range in the core-shell-type architecture provided with distinct amphiphilicity as required for encapsulation. Cytotoxicity studies show the polymeric systems to be non-toxic over a wide concentration range. The cellular internalization of Nile-red-encapsulated supramolecular micellar structures is also studied using cellular fluorescence micro-scopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) measurements. A comparison of the data for the dendronized polymers (PEG Mn: 600/1000 g mol(-1)) with the respective low-molecular-weight amphiphile reveal that these polymeric systems are excellent nanotransporters.

  14. Efficient Big Integer Multiplication and Squaring Algorithms for Cryptographic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Jahani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Public-key cryptosystems are broadly employed to provide security for digital information. Improving the efficiency of public-key cryptosystem through speeding up calculation and using fewer resources are among the main goals of cryptography research. In this paper, we introduce new symbols extracted from binary representation of integers called Big-ones. We present a modified version of the classical multiplication and squaring algorithms based on the Big-ones to improve the efficiency of big integer multiplication and squaring in number theory based cryptosystems. Compared to the adopted classical and Karatsuba multiplication algorithms for squaring, the proposed squaring algorithm is 2 to 3.7 and 7.9 to 2.5 times faster for squaring 32-bit and 8-Kbit numbers, respectively. The proposed multiplication algorithm is also 2.3 to 3.9 and 7 to 2.4 times faster for multiplying 32-bit and 8-Kbit numbers, respectively. The number theory based cryptosystems, which are operating in the range of 1-Kbit to 4-Kbit integers, are directly benefited from the proposed method since multiplication and squaring are the main operations in most of these systems.

  15. Highly Efficient Thermoresponsive Nanocomposite for Controlled Release Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Yassine, Omar

    2016-06-23

    Highly efficient magnetic release from nanocomposite microparticles is shown, which are made of Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel with embedded iron nanowires. A simple microfluidic technique was adopted to fabricate the microparticles with a high control of the nanowire concentration and in a relatively short time compared to chemical synthesis methods. The thermoresponsive microparticles were used for the remotely triggered release of Rhodamine (B). With a magnetic field of only 1 mT and 20 kHz a drug release of 6.5% and 70% was achieved in the continuous and pulsatile modes, respectively. Those release values are similar to the ones commonly obtained using superparamagnetic beads but accomplished with a magnetic field of five orders of magnitude lower power. The high efficiency is a result of the high remanent magnetization of the nanowires, which produce a large torque when exposed to a magnetic field. This causes the nanowires to vibrate, resulting in friction losses and heating. For comparison, microparticles with superparamagnetic beads were also fabricated and tested; while those worked at 73 mT and 600 kHz, no release was observed at the low field conditions. Cytotoxicity assays showed similar and high cell viability for microparticles with nanowires and beads.

  16. Efficient Design of Sierpinski Fractal Antenna for High Frequency Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajdeep Singh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A wideband published slot antenna appropriate for wireless code division multiple access (WCDMA and sustaining the international interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX applications is planned here. The antenna is fractal line fed and its construction is based on fractal geometry where the resonance frequency of antenna is dropped by applying iteration methods. Fractal antennas are the most suited for aerospace and UWB applications because of their low profile, light weight and low power handling capacity. They can be designed in a variety of shapes in order to obtain enhanced gain and bandwidth, dual band and circular polarization to even ultra-wideband operation. For the simulation process ANSOFT HFSS (high frequency structure simulator has been used. The effect of antenna dimensions and substrate parameters on the performance of antenna have been discussed. The antenna has been designed using the Arlon substrate with relative permittivity of 1.3 and a substrate of Sierpinski Carpet shaped placed on it. Feed used is the fractal line feed. The designed antenna is a low profile, small size and multiband antenna since it can be operated at different frequencies within the frequency range of 4.3GHz to 11GHz. It includes the frequencies used for wireless WCDMA application and used to receive and transmit a high-frequency signal.

  17. Energy Efficiency in Industrial Areas: Application of Best Practices for Energy Efficiency In Mediterranean Industrial Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Anna Segreto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The results presented in this paper originate from an EU research project that is near toits completion. The goal was to build a model that can be applied to all industrial sites inthe Mediterranean area. The approach followed to achieve the objectives was to study allthe new technologies and systems that, if applied globally, can make the whole areasustainable both energetically and environmentally. The application of the model allowsthe design and implementation of self-sufficient green areas in terms of energy which alsobrings to the reduction of the emissions into the atmosphere. An aim of the project wasalso to identify possible sources of funding or incentives. The main beneficiaries of theresults are SMEs that through a more responsible approach to the environment could getgreater market competitiveness and reduce energy costs of their enterprises. Otherbeneficiaries are the people who obtain advantages from a clearer and less pollutedsurrounding environment.The paper presents the results obtained from the application of the model in some pilotcases.

  18. An Efficient Receiver Deniable Encryption Scheme and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Meng

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Deniable encryption is an important cryptographic primitive, essential in all cryptographic protocols where a coercive adversary comes to play with high potential. Deniable encryption plays a key role in the internet/electronic voting, electronic bidding, electronic auctions and secure multiparty computation. In this study a practical efficient receiver deniable encryption scheme based on BCP commitment scheme and idea of Klonowski et al. is proposed. The proposed scheme is a one-move scheme without any pre-encryption information required to be sent between the sender and the receiver prior to encryption. Moreover, the overhead is low in term of the size of the ciphertext. At the same time we compare the typical deniable encryption schemes with our proposed scheme. Finally, applying the proposed deniable encryption, we originally give a coercion-resistant internet voting model without physical assumptions. We also compare the typical internet voting protocols with our proposed model.

  19. Efficient Functional-Based Adaptation for CFD Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, William C

    2015-01-01

    Adjoint methods have gained popularity in recent years for driving adaptation procedures which aim to reduce error in solution functionals. While adjoint methods have been proven effective for functional-based adaptation, the practical implementation of an adjoint method can be quite burdensome since code developers constantly need to ensure and maintain a dual consistent discretization as updates are made. Also, since most engineering problems consider multiple functionals, an adjoint solution must be obtained for each functional of interest which can increase the overall computational cost significantly. In this paper, an alternative to adjoints is presented which uses a sparse approximate inverse of the Jacobian of the residual to obtain approximate adjoint sensitivities for functional-based adaptation indicators. Since the approximate inverse need only be computed once, it can be recycled for any number of functionals making the new approach more efficient than a conventional adjoint method. This new meth...

  20. Design of efficient methanol impermeable membranes for fuel cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufrano, F; Baglio, V; Di Blasi, O; Staiti, P; Antonucci, V; Aricò, A S

    2012-02-28

    In this paper, the design of efficient composite membranes based on sulfonated polysulfone and acidic silica material with characteristics and properties such as methanol barrier, high proton conductivity and suitable fuel cells performance is presented. A positive influence of nanosized acidic silica powders, used as an additive filler in the preparation of composite membranes, due to an efficient hydrophilic inter-distribution inside the membrane when compared to pure silica, is found. A series of different techniques such as XRF, FT-IR, TGA, DSC, IEC and conductivity measurements are used to highlight the properties of acidic silica material and composite membranes. The composite membrane based on acidic silica (SPSf-SiO(2)-S) shows the lowest crossover current (only 8 mA cm(-2)), which is 43% lower than that of a pure SPSf membrane and 33% lower compared to a composite membrane based on bare silica (SPSf-SiO(2)). These significant differences are attributed to the increasing diffusion path length of MeOH/H(2)O clusters in the composite membranes. The maximum DMFC performance at 30 °C is achieved with the SPSf-SiO(2)-S membrane (23 mW cm(-2)), whereas the MEAs based on SPSf-SiO(2) and pure SPSf membranes reached 21 and 16 mW cm(-2), respectively. These significant results of the composite SPSf-SiO(2)-S membrane are ascribed at a good compromise among high proton conductivity, low swelling and low methanol crossover compared to pure SPSf and (unmodified silica)-SPSf membranes. A preliminary short durability test of 100 h performed in a cell with the composite SPSf-SiO(2)-S membrane shows remarkable performance stability during chrono-voltammetric measurements (60 mA cm(-2)) at 30 °C.

  1. Efficient provisioning for multi-core applications with LSF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Pra, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    Tier-1 sites providing computing power for HEP experiments are usually tightly designed for high throughput performances. This is pursued by reducing the variety of supported use cases and tuning for performances those ones, the most important of which have been that of singlecore jobs. Moreover, the usual workload is saturation: each available core in the farm is in use and there are queued jobs waiting for their turn to run. Enabling multi-core jobs thus requires dedicating a number of hosts where to run, and waiting for them to free the needed number of cores. This drain-time introduces a loss of computing power driven by the number of unusable empty cores. As an increasing demand for multi-core capable resources have emerged, a Task Force have been constituted in WLCG, with the goal to define a simple and efficient multi-core resource provisioning model. This paper details the work done at the INFN Tier-1 to enable multi-core support for the LSF batch system, with the intent of reducing to the minimum the average number of unused cores. The adopted strategy has been that of dedicating to multi-core a dynamic set of nodes, whose dimension is mainly driven by the number of pending multi-core requests and fair-share priority of the submitting user. The node status transition, from single to multi core et vice versa, is driven by a finite state machine which is implemented in a custom multi-core director script, running in the cluster. After describing and motivating both the implementation and the details specific to the LSF batch system, results about performance are reported. Factors having positive and negative impact on the overall efficiency are discussed and solutions to reduce at most the negative ones are proposed.

  2. Control grid motion estimation for efficient application of optical flow

    CERN Document Server

    Zwart, Christine M

    2012-01-01

    Motion estimation is a long-standing cornerstone of image and video processing. Most notably, motion estimation serves as the foundation for many of today's ubiquitous video coding standards including H.264. Motion estimators also play key roles in countless other applications that serve the consumer, industrial, biomedical, and military sectors. Of the many available motion estimation techniques, optical flow is widely regarded as most flexible. The flexibility offered by optical flow is particularly useful for complex registration and interpolation problems, but comes at a considerable compu

  3. Extending the entry consistency model to enable efficient visualization for code-coupling grid applications

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniu, Gabriel; Cudennec, Loïc; Monnet, Sébastien

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of efficient visualization of shared data within code coupling grid applications. These applications are structured as a set of distributed, autonomous, weakly-coupled codes. We focus on the case where the codes are able to interact using the abstraction of a shared data space. We propose an efficient visualization scheme by adapting the mechanisms used to maintain the data consistency. We introduce a new operation called relaxed read, as an extension to the e...

  4. Efficient numerical modeling of the cornea, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, L.; Navarro, Rafael M.; Hdez-Matamoros, J. L.

    2004-10-01

    Corneal topography has shown to be an essential tool in the ophthalmology clinic both in diagnosis and custom treatments (refractive surgery, keratoplastia), having also a strong potential in optometry. The post processing and analysis of corneal elevation, or local curvature data, is a necessary step to refine the data and also to extract relevant information for the clinician. In this context a parametric cornea model is proposed consisting of a surface described mathematically by two terms: one general ellipsoid corresponding to a regular base surface, expressed by a general quadric term located at an arbitrary position and free orientation in 3D space and a second term, described by a Zernike polynomial expansion, which accounts for irregularities and departures from the basic geometry. The model has been validated obtaining better adjustment of experimental data than other previous models. Among other potential applications, here we present the determination of the optical axis of the cornea by transforming the general quadric to its canonical form. This has permitted us to perform 3D registration of corneal topographical maps to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Other basic and clinical applications are also explored.

  5. A High Efficiency DC Bus Regulator / RPC for Spacecraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2004-02-01

    DC bus voltage regulation may be required in future high powered spacecraft due to the length of the busses or because they are not generated at precise voltage levels. In these cases the regulation range is often only a few percent increase or decrease, but conventional DC voltage regulators switch all the power passing through them, and this level of power switched determines the size and losses in the regulator. A recently developed concept uses a low power DC-DC converter in series with the bus to raise or lower the bus voltage over a small range. This partial power processing technique combines the small size and power losses of the low power converter with the ability to regulate, (over a small range) a high power bus. The Series Connected Buck Boost Regulator (SCBBR) described herein provides bus regulation with an efficiency of 98%. The circuit also provides bus switching and overcurrent limiting functions of a Remote Power Controller (RPC). This paper describes the circuit design and performance of a breadboard SCBBR configured as a bus voltage regulator providing +/- 40% voltage regulation range, bus switching, and overload limiting.

  6. Efficient free-form surface representation with application in orthodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamany, Sameh M.; El-Bialy, Ahmed M.

    1999-03-01

    Orthodontics is the branch of dentistry concerned with the study of growth of the craniofacial complex. The detection and correction of malocclusion and other dental abnormalities is one of the most important and critical phases of orthodontic diagnosis. This paper introduces a system that can assist in automatic orthodontics diagnosis. The system can be used to classify skeletal and dental malocclusion from a limited number of measurements. This system is not intended to deal with several cases but is aimed at cases more likely to be encountered in epidemiological studies. Prior to the measurement of the orthodontics parameters, the position of the teeth in the jaw model must be detected. A new free-form surface representation is adopted for the efficient and accurate segmentation and separation of teeth from a scanned jaw model. THe new representation encodes the curvature and surface normal information into a 2D image. Image segmentation tools are then sued to extract structures of high/low curvature. By iteratively removing these structures, individual teeth surfaces are obtained.

  7. GDI based full adders for energy efficient arithmetic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Shoba

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Addition is a vital arithmetic operation and acts as a building block for synthesizing all other operations. A high-performance adder is one of the key components in the design of application specific integrated circuits. In this paper, three low power full adders are designed with full swing AND, OR and XOR gates to alleviate threshold voltage problem which is commonly encountered in Gate Diffusion Input (GDI logic. This problem usually does not allow the full adder circuits to operate without additional inverters. However, the three full adders are successfully realized using full swing gates with the significant improvement in their performance. The performance of the proposed designs is compared with the other full adder designs, namely CMOS, CPL, hybrid and GDI through SPICE simulations using 45 nm technology models. Simulation results reveal that proposed designs have lower energy consumption among all the conventional designs taken for comparison.

  8. Conference of “Uncertainty and Surprise: Questions on Working with the Unexpected and Unknowable”

    CERN Document Server

    McDaniel, Reuben R; Uncertainty and Surprise in Complex Systems : Questions on Working with the Unexpected

    2005-01-01

    Complexity science has been a source of new insight in physical and social systems and has demonstrated that unpredictability and surprise are fundamental aspects of the world around us. This book is the outcome of a discussion meeting of leading scholars and critical thinkers with expertise in complex systems sciences and leaders from a variety of organizations sponsored by the Prigogine Center at The University of Texas at Austin and the Plexus Institute to explore strategies for understanding uncertainty and surprise. Besides distributions to the conference it includes a key digest by the editors as well as a commentary by the late nobel laureat Ilya Prigogine, "Surprises in half of a century". The book is intended for researchers and scientists in complexity science as well as for a broad interdisciplinary audience of both practitioners and scholars. It will well serve those interested in the research issues and in the application of complexity science to physical and social systems.

  9. Efficient Preparation and Characterization of Functional Graphene with Versatile Applicability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingui Li; Yang Tao; Feiran Li; Meirong Huang

    2016-01-01

    Graphene, as star versatile materials having extraordinarily high electric conductivity, electron mobility, thermal conductivity, thermal stability, optical transparency, and mechanical strength, has attracted much attention from scientists and engineers in the field of materials, chemistry, physics, energy, and environment in the last decade and achieved fruitful accomplishment. This review discusses preparation strategies, functionality, characterization, and applications for two dimensional nanosheet and quasi⁃one⁃dimensional nanoribbon of graphene through direct exfoliation of graphite, chemical vapor deposition of hydrocarbon, laser⁃induced direct synthesis of graphene, laser etched graphene oxide in the dry state without the use of toxic reducing agent hydrazine, unzipping carbon nanotube, and polycondensation of polycyclic aromatics on the basis of 178 representative references mostly in 2015. The stabilization of graphene oxide prepared in chemical preparation in "top⁃down" is emphasized. Several vital classic methods of characterizing molecular structure, C/O ratio, defect, morphology, single⁃or few⁃layered ( 2 to 10 layers) structure, porous and hollow structures, including Raman spectroscopy, AFM, SEM, TEM, STM, electron diffraction, X⁃ray diffraction, and X⁃ray photoelectron spectroscopy are systematically introduced. Because graphene possesses novel incomparable multifunctionalities, its versatile applications as novel conducting additives, reinforcing filler, separation membrane, sensor, anticorrosive coating, catalyst, electromagnetic shield, lubricant, and flexible electrode materials in electrochemical and electronic devices, including photovoltaic cells, supercapacitors, rechargeable batteries, sensors, field effect transistors, light emitting diodes, separation membranes, adsorbents and absorbents, catalysts, electro⁃optic modulator, terahertz emitter and detector, and semiconductors, have been mentioned.Especially in the aspect

  10. Defense Science Board (DSB) Summer Study Report on Strategic Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    DSB Summer Study Report on Strategic Surprise July 2015 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden...SUBTITLE DSB Summer Study Report on Strategic Surprise 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Defense Science Board ( DSB ),The Pentagon ,OUSD(AT&L

  11. Design of a high-efficiency collection structure for daylight illumination applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Che; Whang, Allen Jong-Woei; Lee, Tsung-Xian

    2013-12-20

    In developing a high-quality natural light illumination system (NLIS), the primary considerations include how to increase system efficiency and broaden its applications. This paper describes the conception, design, and analysis of a daylight collector that presents the combined advantages of excellent efficiency and a compact size. The collector structure consists of extendable two-channel collecting units, a planar light guide, and a central coupler to improve light collection efficiency and increase surface area. In this study, two types of daylight collectors are proposed for illumination applications with different light patterns. With these collectors, the NLIS can now provide sufficiently powerful light for indoor illumination.

  12. Efficient Dependence Analysis for UML Statechart Diagrams and Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YITong; WUFangjun

    2005-01-01

    Dependence analysis is a well-known technique to analyze, understand and maintain programs,which has been widely used in activities of software engineering and reengineering. Although dependence analysis for programs written in high-level languages has been widely studied in literatures, very little work is involved in analyzing dependence for Unified modeling language(UML) models. Therefore, the paper proposes a new approach for analyzing dependences among UML statechart diagrams for three cases: (1) it does not contain composite states; (2) it may include ordinal substates; (3) it may include concurrent substates. Firstly, we analyze and compute data and control dependences in Case 1 and Case 2 at full length. Then, using the information obtained in the previous steps, we discuss concurrent dependence and synchronal dependence besides data and control dependencesin Case 3. Finally, we present one of the most important applications of dependence analysis - program slicing, using the method presented in this paper. Our method successfully solves the problems in previous methods, and can obtain more precise slices than any other methods we known.

  13. Compact, energy EFFICIENT neutron source: enabling technology for various applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershcovitch, A.; Roser, T.

    2009-12-01

    A novel neutron source comprising of a deuterium beam (energy of about 100 KeV) injected into a tube filled with tritium gas and/or tritium plasma that generates D-T fusion reactions, whose products are 14.06 MeV neutrons and 3.52 MeV alpha particles, is described. At the opposite end of the tube, the energy of deuterium ions that did not interact is recovered. Beryllium walls of proper thickness can be utilized to absorb 14 MeV neutrons and release 2-3 low energy neutrons. Each ion source and tube forms a module. Larger systems can be formed from multiple units. Unlike currently proposed methods, where accelerator-based neutron sources are very expensive, large, and require large amounts of power for operation, this neutron source is compact, inexpensive, easy to test and to scale up. Among possible applications for this neutron source concept are sub-critical nuclear breeder reactors and transmutation of radioactive waste.

  14. AN APPLICATION FOR EFFICIENT TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORKS PROVISIONING USING LINEAR PROGRAMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Augusta Soares Machado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical proposition for the application of the Linear Programming quantitative method in order to assist planning and control of customer circuit delivery activities in telecommunications companies working with the corporative market. Based upon data provided for by a telecom company operating in Brazil, the Linear Programming method was employed for one of the classical problems of determining the optimum mix of production quantities for a set of five products of that company: Private Telephone Network, Internet Network, Intranet Network, Low Speed Data Network, and High Speed Data Network, in face of several limitations of the productive resources, seeking to maximize the company’s monthly revenue. By fitting the production data available into a primary model, observation was made as to what number of monthly activations for each product would be mostly optimized in order to achieve maximum revenues in the company. The final delivery of a complete network was not observed but the delivery of the circuits that make it up, and this was a limiting factor for the study herein, which, however, brings an innovative proposition for the planning of private telecommunications network provisioning.

  15. A New Very-High-Efficiency R4 Converter for High-Power Fuel Cell Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2009-01-01

    W prototype converter is presented. Input voltage range is 30-60 V and output voltage is 800 V. Test results, including voltage- and current waveforms and efficiency measurements, are presented. A record high converter efficiency of 98.2 % is achieved. The proposed R4 boost converter thus constitutes a low......A new very high efficiency 10 kW isolated R4 boost converter for low-voltage high-power fuel cell applications is presented. Using a new concept for partially paralleling of isolated boost converters, only the critical high ac-current parts are paralleled. Four 2.5 kW power stages, consisting...... cost solution to achieve very high conversion efficiency in high input current applications....

  16. Industrial applications using BASF eco-efficiency analysis: perspectives on green engineering principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonnard, David R; Kicherer, Andreas; Saling, Peter

    2003-12-01

    Life without chemicals would be inconceivable, but the potential risks and impacts to the environment associated with chemical production and chemical products are viewed critically. Eco-efficiency analysis considers the economic and life cycle environmental effects of a product or process, giving these equal weighting. The major elements of the environmental assessment include primary energy use, raw materials utilization, emissions to all media, toxicity, safety risk, and land use. The relevance of each environmental category and also for the economic versus the environmental impacts is evaluated using national emissions and economic data. The eco-efficiency analysis method of BASF is briefly presented, and results from three applications to chemical processes and products are summarized. Through these applications, the eco-efficiency analyses mostly confirm the 12 Principles listed in Anastas and Zimmerman (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003, 37(5), 94A), with the exception that, in one application, production systems based on bio-based feedstocks were not the most eco-efficient as compared to those based on fossil resources. Over 180 eco-efficiency analyses have been conducted at BASF, and their results have been used to support strategic decision-making, marketing, research and development, and communication with external parties. Eco-efficiency analysis, as one important strategy and success factor in sustainable development, will continue to be a very strong operational tool at BASF.

  17. Avoiding surprises when implementing a single quality system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donawa, Maria

    2009-01-01

    European medical device manufacturers are sometimes surprised to learn that operating ISO 13485 alone is not sufficient to meet United States (US) quality system requirements. This article discusses important considerations for meeting US and European requirements when operating under a single quality system.

  18. Reconsiderations: Donald Murray and the Pedagogy of Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Toward the end of his life, Donald Murray felt that his approach to writing instruction was no longer appreciated by journals in his field. Nevertheless, his emphasis on encouraging students to surprise themselves through informal writing still has considerable value. (Contains 1 note.)

  19. Reconsiderations: Donald Murray and the Pedagogy of Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Toward the end of his life, Donald Murray felt that his approach to writing instruction was no longer appreciated by journals in his field. Nevertheless, his emphasis on encouraging students to surprise themselves through informal writing still has considerable value. (Contains 1 note.)

  20. Errors and surprise in patients with focal brain lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ullsperger, M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent theories of performance monitoring suggest that not only errors and negative action outcomes but also valence-free expectancy violations can trigger cognitive and behavioral adaptations. EEG and fMRI evidence suggests that monitoring of both errors and surprising but valence-free action

  1. Quality and efficiency of apple orchard protection affected by sprayer type and application rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Sedlar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to evaluate the potential of reduced application rates in apple trees as well as the potential of selective spray applications by using sensor-based tree detection techniques in Serbian fruit production. Their economical and biological effect was evaluated based on the quality and efficiency of the crop protection and techno-economic analysis. Results showed that during suitable weather conditions and with properly adjusted sprayer settings, a reduced application rate of 381 L ha-1 gave same quality of crop protection as a medium application rate of 759 L ha-1. A two-year efficiency trial on Venturia inaequalis and Podosphaera leucitricha infecting apple also showed that there was no significant difference in crop protection results for different types of orchard application techniques and application rates. The techno-economic analysis showed that selective application should be introduced in practice in areas >3-ha given that the cost of their introduction pays off after 2-3 seasons. Every subsequent season would give a clear economic profit. Besides the economic benefits, selective application technique also has a significant positive ecological effect due to reduction of spray losses and the amount of plant protection products used.

  2. Comparative efficiency evaluation of buck and hybrid buck DC-DC converters for automotive applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelan, Ovidiu; Cornea, Octavian; Muntean, Nicolae

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses design considerations and efficiency investigation of a conventional step-down and a hybrid switched-capacitor DC-DC converter. Three MOSFETs with low on-resistance have been tested for each converter in order to find the most adequate switch for this application...

  3. A combined irradiance-transmittance solar spectrum and its application to photovoltaic efficiency calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, P J; Wagner, S; Kazmerski, L L; Hulstrom, R L

    1979-05-11

    SOLTRAN is a flexible computer model for the direct solar beam intensity spectrum at the earth's surface. It has been derived by combining the extra-terrestrial solar spectrum with the atmospheric transmittance spectrum. Application of SOLTRAN to the calculation of the potential efficiency of photovoltaic cells demonstrates the effect of atmospheric absorption bands. These bands prevent unequivocal assignment of optimum energy gap values.

  4. High Efficiency, High Linearity, Switch Mode Power Amplifiers for Varying envelop Signal Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tong, Tian; Sira, Daniel; Nielsen, Michael;

    2009-01-01

    using switch-mode power amplifier aided by various linearization techniques can present a feasible way to achieve both high linearity and high power efficiency. In this paper two different implementations of the switch-mode power amplifier a re p resented for varying envelop applications: the RF pulse...

  5. The use of high efficiency solar cells in grid connected applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruton, T.M.; Summers, J.G.; Scott, R.D.W. (BP Solar International, Leatherhead (United Kingdom)); Mason, N.B.; Lord, B.E.; Nagle, J.P. (BP Solar Espana, Poligono Industrial de Valportillo, Alcobendas, Madrid (Spain))

    1992-01-01

    Solar cells with the laser grooved, buried grid structure with efficiencies in excess of 17% have been produced commercially in BP Solar Espana. Modules with high power (90W) with a relatively high module voltage have been developed for grid connected applications. Test modules have been environmentally tested with good results. (orig.).

  6. Applications of nanomaterials in liquid chromatography: opportunities for separation with high efficiency and selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengxiang; Wang, Zhiyong; Liao, Yiping; Liu, Huwei

    2006-08-01

    During recent decades, great efforts have been made to improve the chemical stability, selectivity, and separation efficiency of stationary phases in liquid chromatography. Significant progress has been achieved, especially after the introduction of nanomaterials into separation science. This review covers the applications of nanomaterials playing various roles in liquid chromatography. Future possibilities for developing nanomaterial-based stationary phases are also discussed.

  7. 75 FR 47536 - Application Deadline Extended; Executive Green ICT & Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Mexico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ....html ) and other Internet web sites, press releases to general and trade media, direct mail, notices by... Application Deadline Extended; Executive Green ICT & Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Mexico City, Mexico..., International Trade Administration, and U.S. & Foreign Commercial Service are organizing an Executive Green ICT...

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF MORE-EFFICIENT GAS FLOODING APPLICABLE TO SHALLOW RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Rossen; Russell T. Johns; Gary A. Pope

    2003-08-21

    The objective of this research is to widen the applicability of gas flooding to shallow oil reservoirs by reducing the pressure required for miscibility using gas enrichment and increasing sweep efficiency with foam. Task 1 examines the potential for improved oil recovery with enriched gases. Subtask 1.1 examines the effect of dispersion processes on oil recovery and the extent of enrichment needed in the presence of dispersion. Subtask 1.2 develops a fast, efficient method to predict the extent of enrichment needed for crude oils at a given pressure. Task 2 develops improved foam processes to increase sweep efficiency in gas flooding. Subtask 2.1 comprises mechanistic experimental studies of foams with N2 gas. Subtask 2.2 conducts experiments with CO{sub 2} foam. Subtask 2.3 develops and applies a simulator for foam processes in field application.

  9. Techniques and tools for measuring energy efficiency of scientific software applications

    CERN Document Server

    Abdurachmanov, David; Eulisse, Giulio; Knight, Robert; Niemi, Tapio; Nurminen, Jukka K.; Nyback, Filip; Pestana, Goncalo; Ou, Zhonghong; Khan, Kashif

    2014-01-01

    The scale of scientific High Performance Computing (HPC) and High Throughput Computing (HTC) has increased significantly in recent years, and is becoming sensitive to total energy use and cost. Energy-efficiency has thus become an important concern in scientific fields such as High Energy Physics (HEP). There has been a growing interest in utilizing alternate architectures, such as low power ARM processors, to replace traditional Intel x86 architectures. Nevertheless, even though such solutions have been successfully used in mobile applications with low I/O and memory demands, it is unclear if they are suitable and more energy-efficient in the scientific computing environment. Furthermore, there is a lack of tools and experience to derive and compare power consumption between the architectures for various workloads, and eventually to support software optimizations for energy efficiency. To that end, we have performed several physical and software-based measurements of workloads from HEP applications running o...

  10. Evaluation of Application Methods Efficiency of Zinc and Iron for Canola(Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad BYBORDI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluation of application method efficiency of zinc and iron microelements in canola, an experiment was conducted in the Agricultural Research Station of Eastern Azerbaijan province in 2008. The experimental design was a RCBD with eight treatments (F1: control, F2: iron, F3: zinc, F4: iron + zinc in the form of soil utility, F5: iron, F6: zinc, F7: iron+ zinc in the form of solution foliar application, and F8: iron + zinc in the form of soil utility and foliar application. Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences among treatments on given traits, antioxidant enzymes activity, fatty acids percentage, plant height, seed weight to capitulum weight ratio, protein percentage, oil percentage, oil yield, 1000 seed weight, seed yield, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium percentage of leaves, zinc and iron content of leaves and capitulum diameters. The highest seed yield, oil yield, oil percentage, 1000 seed weight, seed weight to capitulum weight ratio and protein percentage were obtained from the soil and foliar application of iron + zinc treatments (F8. Also, the highest amounts of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium concentration in leaves were achieved from control treatment which was an indication of non-efficiency of iron and zinc on the absorption rate of these substances in the leaves. The correlation between effective traits on the seed yield, such as, capitalism diameter, number of seed rows in capitulum, seed weight to capitulum weight ratio and 1000 seed weight were positively significant. In general, foliar and soil application of zinc and iron had the highest efficiency in aspect of seed production. The comparison of the various methods of fertilization showed that foliar application was more effective than soil application. Also, micronutrient foliar application increased concentration of elements, especially zinc and iron. Antioxidant enzymes activity was different in response to treatments also the

  11. Are seismic hazard assessment errors and earthquake surprises unavoidable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Why earthquake occurrences bring us so many surprises? The answer seems evident if we review the relationships that are commonly used to assess seismic hazard. The time-span of physically reliable Seismic History is yet a small portion of a rupture recurrence cycle at an earthquake-prone site, which makes premature any kind of reliable probabilistic statements about narrowly localized seismic hazard. Moreover, seismic evidences accumulated to-date demonstrate clearly that most of the empirical relations commonly accepted in the early history of instrumental seismology can be proved erroneous when testing statistical significance is applied. Seismic events, including mega-earthquakes, cluster displaying behaviors that are far from independent or periodic. Their distribution in space is possibly fractal, definitely, far from uniform even in a single segment of a fault zone. Such a situation contradicts generally accepted assumptions used for analytically tractable or computer simulations and complicates design of reliable methodologies for realistic earthquake hazard assessment, as well as search and definition of precursory behaviors to be used for forecast/prediction purposes. As a result, the conclusions drawn from such simulations and analyses can MISLEAD TO SCIENTIFICALLY GROUNDLESS APPLICATION, which is unwise and extremely dangerous in assessing expected societal risks and losses. For example, a systematic comparison of the GSHAP peak ground acceleration estimates with those related to actual strong earthquakes, unfortunately, discloses gross inadequacy of this "probabilistic" product, which appears UNACCEPTABLE FOR ANY KIND OF RESPONSIBLE SEISMIC RISK EVALUATION AND KNOWLEDGEABLE DISASTER PREVENTION. The self-evident shortcomings and failures of GSHAP appeals to all earthquake scientists and engineers for an urgent revision of the global seismic hazard maps from the first principles including background methodologies involved, such that there becomes: (a) a

  12. Sleeping beauties in theoretical physics 26 surprising insights

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Thanu

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses a fascinating set of questions in theoretical physics which will both entertain and enlighten all students, teachers and researchers and other physics aficionados. These range from Newtonian mechanics to quantum field theory and cover several puzzling issues that do not appear in standard textbooks. Some topics cover conceptual conundrums, the solutions to which lead to surprising insights; some correct popular misconceptions in the textbook discussion of certain topics; others illustrate deep connections between apparently unconnected domains of theoretical physics; and a few provide remarkably simple derivations of results which are not often appreciated. The connoisseur of theoretical physics will enjoy a feast of pleasant surprises skilfully prepared by an internationally acclaimed theoretical physicist. Each topic is introduced with proper background discussion and special effort is taken to make the discussion self-contained, clear and comprehensible to anyone with an undergraduate e...

  13. The June surprises: balls, strikes, and the fog of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Charles

    2013-04-01

    At first, few constitutional experts took seriously the argument that the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act exceeded Congress's power under the commerce clause. The highly political opinions of two federal district judges - carefully chosen by challenging plaintiffs - of no particular distinction did not shake that confidence that the act was constitutional. This disdain for the challengers' arguments was only confirmed when the act was upheld by two highly respected conservative court of appeals judges in two separate circuits. But after the hostile, even mocking questioning of the government's advocate in the Supreme Court by the five Republican-appointed justices, the expectation was that the act would indeed be struck down on that ground. So it came as no surprise when the five opined the act did indeed exceed Congress's commerce clause power. But it came as a great surprise when Chief Justice John Roberts, joined by the four Democrat-appointed justices, ruled that the act could be sustained as an exercise of Congress's taxing power - a ground urged by the government almost as an afterthought. It was further surprising, even shocking, that Justices Antonin Scalia, Anthony Kennedy, Clarence Thomas, and Samuel Alito not only wrote a joint opinion on the commerce clause virtually identical to that of their chief, but that in writing it they did not refer to or even acknowledge his opinion. Finally surprising was the fact that Justices Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Stephen Breyer joined the chief in holding that aspects of the act's Medicaid expansion were unconstitutional. This essay ponders and tries to unravel some of these puzzles.

  14. Efficient use of available network in mobile for executing mobile application with real time constraints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D.Saraf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world mobile fulfill most of computational needs of average persons in form of different applications. As smart phones works in multiprocessing mode, no of applications gets executedsimultaneously executed in mobile device. Though mobile configurations are improving in (battery, processing speed it still needs additional computing speed to run apps with real time constraints. Thus to fulfill computational needs of real time mobile applications such as augmented reality , some part of execution can be shared with cloud having no of cloud service provider such as Amazon Cloud, Windows Azure. Mobiles can also use machines and other mobile devices such as laptops, smart phones with higher configurations of ram and processor, tablets etc for transferring execution load of applications running on mobile using different wireless connections such as wifi network or blue tooth network. Mobile must able to utilize all available networks in an efficient way to provide best solution in running augmented reality application. In this paper we are providing modified design of Adhoc networks for providing better computation efficiency as well as terms of services in augmented reality application.

  15. Systematic efficiency enhancement in Monte Carlo applications. Final progress report, July 1, 1976-January 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spanier, J.

    1980-06-11

    Research performed under the grant period has been undertaken as part of the principal investigator's long-term efforts to develop new, more efficient estimators for application to a wide variety of practical problems. Two rather different approaches have characterized the work: (1) the use of a multistage analysis (1) to optimize the efficiencies (variances) of families of estimating random variables in a traditional statistical Monte Carlo framework, and (2) the development of parallel quasi-random sampling techniques and corresponding deterministic error bounds.

  16. An efficiency improved single-phase PFC converter for electric vehicle charger applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Dexuan; Tang, Yi; Jin, Chi;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an efficiency improved single-phase power factor correction (PFC) converter with its target application to plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging systems. The proposed PFC converter features sinusoidal input current, three-level output characteristic, and wide range...... of output DC voltage. Moreover, the involved DC/DC buck conversion stage may only need to convert partial input power rather than full scale of input power, and therefore the system overall efficiency can be much improved. Through proper control of the buck converter, it is also possible to mitigate...

  17. Surprise and Opportunity for Learning in Grand Canyon: the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore S. Melis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With a focus on resources of the Colorado River ecosystem below Glen Canyon Dam, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program has included a variety of experimental policy tests, ranging from manipulation of water releases from the dam to removal of non-native fish within Grand Canyon National Park. None of these field-scale experiments has yet produced unambiguous results in terms of management prescriptions. But there has been adaptive learning, mostly from unanticipated or surprising resource responses relative to predictions from ecosystem modeling. Surprise learning opportunities may often be viewed with dismay by some stakeholders who might not be clear about the purpose of science and modeling in adaptive management. However, the experimental results from the Glen Canyon Dam program actually represent scientific successes in terms of revealing new opportunities for developing better river management policies. A new long-term experimental management planning process for Glen Canyon Dam operations, started in 2011 by the U.S. Department of the Interior, provides an opportunity to refocus management objectives, identify and evaluate key uncertainties about the influence of dam releases, and refine monitoring for learning over the next several decades. Adaptive learning since 1995 is critical input to this long-term planning effort. Embracing uncertainty and surprise outcomes revealed by monitoring and ecosystem modeling will likely continue the advancement of resource objectives below the dam, and may also promote efficient learning in other complex programs.

  18. Separating environmental efficiency into production and abatement efficiency. A nonparametric model with application to U.S. power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampf, Benjamin

    2011-08-15

    In this paper we present a new approach to evaluate the environmental efficiency of decision making units. We propose a model that describes a two-stage process consisting of a production and an end-of-pipe abatement stage with the environmental efficiency being determined by the efficiency of both stages. Taking the dependencies between the two stages into account, we show how nonparametric methods can be used to measure environmental efficiency and to decompose it into production and abatement efficiency. For an empirical illustration we apply our model to an analysis of U.S. power plants.

  19. iPhone application development strategies for efficient mobile design and delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Jim

    2011-01-01

    iPhone application development is explained here in an accessible treatment for the generalist Library and Information Science (LIS) practitioner. Future information-seeking practices by users will take place across a diverse array of ubiquitous computing devices. iPhone applications represent one of the most compelling new platforms for which to remediate and re-engineer library service. Strategies of efficient mobile design and delivery include adapting computing best practices of data independence and adhering to web standards as articulated by the W3C. These best practices apply across the

  20. Efficient development of web applications for remote participation using Ruby on Rails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emoto, M., E-mail: emo@nifs.ac.j [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Yoshida, M.; Iwata, C. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Inagaki, S. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-kouen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Nagayama, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    Large-scale experiments such as ITER require international collaboration, and remote participation plays an important role in carrying out such experiments. Web-based applications are useful tools for scientists participating in experiments remotely using personal computers. Since the participants typically download web-based applications to their computer each time they access the web servers, they do not need to install extra software in order to use these applications. In addition, the application developers do not need to distribute the latest program files each time they are modified, thus reducing maintenance costs for remote participation systems. For these reasons, we have been developing web-based applications for the LHD experiments at NIFS. In a previous study, we showed the benefits of using Ruby on Rails (RoR) to develop web-based applications for analysis code. We thought this approach would also be useful for developing applications for remote participation. Therefore, we have developed several web-based applications using RoR for participating in the LHD experiments. These applications include a data viewer and a scheduler of experiments. The main reason to adopt RoR for this purpose is its efficiency for developing web-based applications. For example, to develop a data viewer, we used an existing program running on an X-Windows System. Using RoR, we could minimize the modifications of the existing programs to add web interfaces. In this paper, we will report a web-based application developed using RoR for the LHD experiment. We will also discuss the benefits of using RoR in developing remote participation tools.

  1. Efficient PCA-driven EAs and metamodel-assisted EAs, with applications in turbomachinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, Stylianos A.; Asouti, Varvara G.; Giannakoglou, Kyriakos C.

    2014-07-01

    This article presents methods to enhance the efficiency of Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs), particularly those assisted by surrogate evaluation models or metamodels. The gain in efficiency becomes important in applications related to industrial optimization problems with a great number of design variables. The development is based on the principal components analysis of the elite members of the evolving EA population, the outcome of which is used to guide the application of evolution operators and/or train dependable metamodels/artificial neural networks by reducing the number of sensory units. Regarding the latter, the metamodels are trained with less computing cost and yield more relevant objective function predictions. The proposed methods are applied to constrained, single- and two-objective optimization of thermal and hydraulic turbomachines.

  2. Efficient polar convolution based on the discrete Fourier-Bessel transform for application in computational biophotonics

    CERN Document Server

    Melchert, O; Roth, B

    2016-01-01

    We discuss efficient algorithms for the accurate forward and reverse evaluation of the discrete Fourier-Bessel transform (dFBT) as numerical tools to assist in the 2D polar convolution of two radially symmetric functions, relevant, e.g., to applications in computational biophotonics. In our survey of the numerical procedure we account for the circumstance that the objective function might result from a more complex measurement process and is, in the worst case, known on a finite sequence of coordinate values, only. We contrast the performance of the resulting algorithms with a procedure based on a straight forward numerical quadrature of the underlying integral transform and asses its efficienty for two benchmark Fourier-Bessel pairs. An application to the problem of finite-size beam-shape convolution in polar coordinates, relevant in the context of tissue optics and optoacoustics, is used to illustrate the versatility and computational efficiency of the numerical procedure.

  3. An Energy-Efficient, Application-Oriented Control Algorithm for MAC Protocols in WSN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deliang; Peng, Fei; Qian, Depei

    Energy efficiency has been a main concern in wireless sensor networks where Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol plays an important role. However, current MAC protocols designed for energy saving have seldom considered multiple applications coexisting in WSN with variation of traffic load dynamics and different QoS requirements. In this paper, we propose an adaptive control algorithm at MAC layer to promote energy efficiency. We focus on the tradeoff relation between collisions and control overhead as a reflection of traffic load and propose to balance the tradeoff under the constraints of QoS options. We integrate the algorithm into S-MAC and verify it through NS-2 platform. The results demonstrate the algorithm achieves observable improvement in energy performance while meeting QoS requirement for different coexisting applications in comparison with S-MAC.

  4. Radiation Efficient Unidirectional Low-Profile Slot Antenna Elements for X-Band Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Löcker

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Slots in metallic ground planes are very promising candidates for conformal antenna applications. However, a low-profile unidirectional antenna requires a back reflector close to the slot and the resulting stripline feed causes strong excitation of parallel-plate modes. In this contribution, we consider unidirectional reflector-backed slot configurations with parallel-plate mode suppression by shorting pins. Starting from a parametric study with respect to shorting pin location and back reflector distance, we present a stripline-fed rectangular slot element with radiation efficiency of more than 80% and a bandwidth of about 5% at centre frequency 10GHz. A careful optimisation of shorting pin locations guarantees reliable parallel-plate mode suppression without deteriorating the slot radiation behaviour. Coupling coefficients between parallel and aligned rectangular slot elements are presented. For increased bandwidth applications, a bow-tie slot element with about 8% bandwidth and radiation efficiency of close to 80% is proposed.

  5. Nutrient Uptake and Use Efficiency of Irrigated Rice in Response to Potassium Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hong; WANG Guang-Huo

    2004-01-01

    Potassium is one of the most important nutrients for rice production in many areas of Asia, especially in southeast China where potassium deficiency in soil is a widespread problem. Field experiments were conducted for four consecutive years in Jinhua City, Zhejiang Province, to determine utilization of nutrients (N, P and K) by inbred and hybrid rice and rice grain yields as affected by application of potassium fertilizer under irrigated conditions. Grain yield and nutrient harvest index showed a significant response to the NPK treatment as compared to the NP treatment. This suggested that potassium improved transfer of nitrogen and phosphorus from stems and leaves to panicles in rice plants. N and P use efficiencies of rice were not strongly responsive to potassium, but K use efficiency decreased significantly despite the fact that the amount of total K uptake increased. A significant difference between varieties was also observed with respect to nutrient uptake and use efficiency. Hybrid rice exhibited physiological advantage in N and P uptake and use efficiency over inbred rice. Analysis of annual dynamic change of exchangeable K and non-exchangeable K in the test soil indicated that non-exchangeable K was an important K source for rice. Potassium application caused an annual decrease in the concentration of available K in the soil tested, whereas an increase was observed in non-exchangeable K. It could be concluded that K fertilizer application at the rate of 100 kg ha-1 per season was not high enough to match K output, and efficient K management for rice must be based on the K input/output balance.

  6. Enhanced Solar Photoelectrochemical Conversion Efficiency of ZnO:Cu Electrodes for Water-Splitting Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Dom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available n-type ZnO:Cu photoanodes were fabricated by simple spray pyrolysis deposition technique. Influence of low concentration (range ~10−4–10−1% of Cu doping in hexagonal ZnO lattice on its photoelectrochemical performance has been investigated. The doped photoanodes displayed 7-time enhanced conversion efficiencies with respect to their undoped counterpart, as estimated from the photocurrents generated under simulated solar radiation. This is the highest enhancement in the solar conversion efficiency reported so far for the Cu-doped ZnO. This performance is attributed to the red shift in the band gap of the Cu-doped films and is in accordance with the incident-photon-current-conversion efficiency (IPCE measurements. Electrochemical studies reveal an n-type nature of these photoanodes. Thus, the study indicates a high potential of doped ZnO films for solar energy applications, in purview of the development of simple nanostructuring methodologies.

  7. More efficient ground truth ROI image coding technique :implementation and wavelet based application analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUMARAYAPA Ajith; ZHANG Ye

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, more efficient, low-complexity and reliable region of interest (ROI) image codec for compressing smooth low texture remote sensing images is proposed. We explore the efficiency of the modified ROI codec with respect to the selected set of convenient wavelet filters, which is a novel method. Such ROI coding experiment analysis representing low bit rate lossy to high quality lossless reconstruction with timing analysis is useful for improving remote sensing ground truth surveillance efficiency in terms of time and quality. The subjective [i.e. fair, five observer (HVS) evaluations using enhanced 3D picture view Hyper memory display technology] and the objective results revealed that for faster ground truth ROI coding applications, the Symlet-4 adaptation performs better than Biorthogonal 4.4 and Biorthogonal 6.8. However, the discrete Meyer wavelet adaptation is the best solution for delayed ROI image reconstructions.

  8. Impacts of manure application on soil environment, rainfall use efficiency and crop biomass under dryland farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Jia, Zhikuan; Liang, Lianyou; Yang, Baoping; Ding, Ruixia; Nie, Junfeng; Wang, Junpeng

    2016-02-01

    Because of inadequate nutrient and water supply, soils are often unproductive in Northwest China. We studied the effects of manure application at low (LM 7.5  t ha–1), medium (MM 15 t ha–1), and high (HM 22.5 t ha–1) rates combined with fixed levels of chemical fertilizers on maize growth and rainfall use efficiency compared with chemical fertilizers (CK) under semi-arid conditions over a three-year period. HM and MM treatments could significantly increase soil water storage (0–120 cm) at tasseling stage of maize compared with LM treatment and CK (P efficiency increased as manure application rate increasing (P efficiency by 6.5–12.7% at big trumpeting – tasseling stage compared with LM and MM treatments. HM and MM treatments increased rainfall use efficiency by 8.6–18.1% at tasseling – grain filling stage compared with CK. There was no significant difference on biomass between HM and MM treatments at grain filling and maturity stages of maize in 2009 and 2010.

  9. Effects of 15N application frequency on nitrogen uptake efficiency in citrus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, Ana; Bañuls, Josefina; Millo, Eduardo Primo; Legaz, Francisco

    2003-12-01

    Two irrigation systems were used to compare nitrogen uptake efficiency in citrus trees and to evaluate the NO3- runoff in "Navelina" orange trees [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] on Carrizo citrange rootstock (Citrus sinensis x Poncirus trifoliata Raf.). These were fertilized with 125 g N as labelled K15NO3 and grown outdoors in containers filled with a sand-loamy soil. Two groups of 3 trees received this N dose either in five equally split applications by a flooding irrigation system or in 66 applications by drip. Trees were harvested at the end of the vegetative cycle (December) and the isotopic ratios of 15N/14N were measured in the soil-plant system. The N uptake efficiency of the whole tree was higher with drip irrigation (75%) than with flooding system (64%). In the 0-90 cm soil profile, the N immobilized in the organic fraction was similar for both irrigation methods (around 13 %), whereas the N retained as NO3- was 1% of the N applied under drip and 10% under flooding. In the last case, most of NO3- remained under root system and it could be lost to leaching either by heavy rainfalls or excessive water applications. These results showed that a drip irrigation system was more efficient for improving water use and N uptake from fertilizer, in addition to potentially reduced leaching losses.

  10. AN IMPROVED BIT LOADING TECHNIQUE FOR ENHANCED ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN NEXT GENERATION VOICE/VIDEO APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VINOTH BABU K.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Multi input multi output (MIMO and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM are the key techniques for the future wireless communication systems. Previous research in the above areas mainly concentrated on spectral efficiency improvement and very limited work has been done in terms of energy efficient transmission. In addition to spectral efficiency improvement, energy efficiency improvement has become an important research because of the slow progressing nature of the battery technology. Since most of the user equipments (UE rely on battery, the energy required to transmit the target bits should be minimized to avoid quick battery drain. The frequency selective fading nature of the wireless channel reduces the spectral and energy efficiency of OFDM based systems. Dynamic bit loading (DBL is one of the suitable solution to improve the spectral and energy efficiency of OFDM system in frequency selective fading environment. Simple dynamic bit loading (SDBL algorithm is identified to offer better energy efficiency with less system complexity. It is well suited for fixed data rate voice/video applications. When the number of target bits are very much larger than the available subcarriers, the conventional single input single output (SISO-SDBL scheme offers high bit error rate (BER and needs large transmit energy. To improve bit error performance we combine space frequency block codes (SFBC with SDBL, where the adaptations are done in both frequency and spatial domain. To improve the quality of service (QoS further, optimal transmit antenna selection (OTAS scheme is also combined with SFBC-SDBL scheme. The simulation results prove that the proposed schemes offer better QoS when compared to the conventional SISOSDBL scheme.

  11. The application of short-term efficiency analysis in diagnosing occupational voice disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Niebudek-Bogusz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: An objective determination of the range of vocal efficiency is rather difficult. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of application of short-term acoustic efficiency analysis in diagnosing occupational voice disorders. Material and Methods: The study covered 98 people (87 women and 11 men diagnosed with occupational dysphonia through videostroboscopic examination. The control group comprised 100 people (81 women and 19 men with normal voices. The short-term acoustic analysis was carried out by means of DiagnoScope software, including classical parameters (Jitter group, Shimmer group and the assessment of noise degree NHR, as well as new short-term efficiency parameters determined in a short time period during sustained phonation of the vowel “a.” The results were then compared. Results: The values of all the examined classical parameters were considerably higher in the study group of pathological voices than in the control group of normal voices (p = 0.00. The aerodynamic parameter, maximum phonation time, was significantly shorter by over 0.5 s in the study group than in the control group. The majority of the acoustic efficiency parameters were also considerably worse in the study group of subjects with occupational dysphonia than in the control group (p = 0.00. Moreover, the correlation between the efficiency parameters and most of the classical acoustic parameters in the study group implies that for the voices with occupational pathology the decreased efficiency of the vocal apparatus is reflected in the acoustic voice structure. Conclusions: Efficiency parameters determined during short-term acoustic analysis can be an objective indicator of the decreased phonatory function of the larynx, useful in diagnosing occupational vocal pathology. Med Pr 2015;66(2:225–234

  12. Assessing measures of energy efficiency performance and their application in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K.

    2008-02-15

    This paper explores different measures of energy efficiency performance (hereafter referred to as 'MEEP'): absolute energy consumption, energy intensity, diffusion of specific energy-saving technology and thermal efficiency. It discusses their advantages and disadvantages and their roles within policy frameworks. MEEP may be necessary at several stages during policy design: in a developing regulatory framework; during the actual application; and in evaluation after policy implementation. Policy makers should consider the suitability of MEEP at each of these stages, based on criteria such as reliability, feasibility and verifiability. The paper considers the importance of so-called boundary definitions when measuring energy performance, and how these affect the appropriateness of country comparisons to guide policy decisions. The paper also addresses the limitations of both energy intensity and technology diffusion indicators as measures of energy efficiency performance. A case study on Japan's iron and steel industry illustrates the critical role of proper boundary definitions for a meaningful assessment of energy efficiency in industry. Depending on the boundaries set for the analysis, the energy consumption per ton of crude steel ranges from 16 to 21 GJ. Both a proper understanding of various methods to assess energy efficiency and the linkage with policy objectives and frameworks are important. Using the diffusion rates of specific energy-efficient processes is a technology-oriented approach which seeks to encourage the retrofitting or replacement of less efficient equipment. There are fewer boundary problems using diffusion rates than by calculating energy consumption. 42 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs., 1 app.

  13. An Efficient and Adaptive Mutual Authentication Framework for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Network-Based Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardeep Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Robust security is highly coveted in real wireless sensor network (WSN applications since wireless sensors’ sense critical data from the application environment. This article presents an efficient and adaptive mutual authentication framework that suits real heterogeneous WSN-based applications (such as smart homes, industrial environments, smart grids, and healthcare monitoring. The proposed framework offers: (i key initialization; (ii secure network (cluster formation (i.e., mutual authentication and dynamic key establishment; (iii key revocation; and (iv new node addition into the network. The correctness of the proposed scheme is formally verified. An extensive analysis shows the proposed scheme coupled with message confidentiality, mutual authentication and dynamic session key establishment, node privacy, and message freshness. Moreover, the preliminary study also reveals the proposed framework is secure against popular types of attacks, such as impersonation attacks, man-in-the-middle attacks, replay attacks, and information-leakage attacks. As a result, we believe the proposed framework achieves efficiency at reasonable computation and communication costs and it can be a safeguard to real heterogeneous WSN applications.

  14. An efficient and adaptive mutual authentication framework for heterogeneous wireless sensor network-based applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pardeep; Ylianttila, Mika; Gurtov, Andrei; Lee, Sang-Gon; Lee, Hoon-Jae

    2014-02-11

    Robust security is highly coveted in real wireless sensor network (WSN) applications since wireless sensors' sense critical data from the application environment. This article presents an efficient and adaptive mutual authentication framework that suits real heterogeneous WSN-based applications (such as smart homes, industrial environments, smart grids, and healthcare monitoring). The proposed framework offers: (i) key initialization; (ii) secure network (cluster) formation (i.e., mutual authentication and dynamic key establishment); (iii) key revocation; and (iv) new node addition into the network. The correctness of the proposed scheme is formally verified. An extensive analysis shows the proposed scheme coupled with message confidentiality, mutual authentication and dynamic session key establishment, node privacy, and message freshness. Moreover, the preliminary study also reveals the proposed framework is secure against popular types of attacks, such as impersonation attacks, man-in-the-middle attacks, replay attacks, and information-leakage attacks. As a result, we believe the proposed framework achieves efficiency at reasonable computation and communication costs and it can be a safeguard to real heterogeneous WSN applications.

  15. Development of an Efficient Meso- scale Multi-phase Flow Solver in Nuclear Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taehun [City Univ. (CUNY), NY (United States)

    2015-10-20

    The proposed research aims at formulating a predictive high-order Lattice Boltzmann Equation for multi-phase flows relevant to nuclear energy related application - namely, saturated and sub-cooled boiling in reactors, and liquid- liquid mixing and extraction for fuel cycle separation. An efficient flow solver will be developed based on the Finite Element based Lattice Boltzmann Method (FE- LBM), accounting for phase-change heat transfer and capable of treating multiple phases over length scales from the submicron to the meter. A thermal LBM will be developed in order to handle adjustable Prandtl number, arbitrary specific heat ratio, a wide range of temperature variations, better numerical stability during liquid-vapor phase change, and full thermo-hydrodynamic consistency. Two-phase FE-LBM will be extended to liquid–liquid–gas multi-phase flows for application to high-fidelity simulations building up from the meso-scale up to the equipment sub-component scale. While several relevant applications exist, the initial applications for demonstration of the efficient methods to be developed as part of this project include numerical investigations of Critical Heat Flux (CHF) phenomena in nuclear reactor fuel bundles, and liquid-liquid mixing and interfacial area generation for liquid-liquid separations. In addition, targeted experiments will be conducted for validation of this advanced multi-phase model.

  16. 10 years of surprises at Saturn: CAPS and INMS highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, A. J.; Waite, J. H.

    2014-04-01

    The Cassini mission at Saturn has provided many surprises on Saturn's rapidly rotating magnetosphere and its interaction with the diverse moons, as well as its interaction with the solar wind. One of the early discoveries was the water-rich composition of the magnetosphere. Its structure and dynamics indicate remarkable injections, periodicities and interchange events. Enceladus, orbiting at 4 RS, was found to have plumes of water vapour and ice which are the dominant source for the inner magnetosphere. Charged water clusters, charged dust and photoelectrons provide key populations in the 'dusty plasma' seen here, as well as chemical complexity in the plume material. Direct pickup is seen near Enceladus and field aligned currents create a spot in Saturn's aurora. At Titan, orbiting at 20 RS, heavy negative and positive ions are seen in the ionosphere, as well as neutrals, all of which have surprising chemical complexity. These provide the source for Titan's haze. Ionospheric plasma is seen in Titan's tail, enabling ion escape to be estimated at 7 tonnes per day. Saturn's ring ionosphere was seen early in the mission, which was oxygen rich and produced photoelectrons; a return will be made in 2017. At Rhea, pickup positive and negative ions indicated weak atmospheres sustained by energetic particle impact, seen in the neutrals also. A weak atmosphere was also seen at Dione. The exosphere production process operates at Jupiter's moons also. Here we review some of the key new results, and discuss the implications for other solar system contexts.

  17. Efficiency Enhancement of DC to DC Multilevel Boost Converter and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ravikumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to propose a experimental verification for single-phase to three phase drive system composed of two parallel single-phase rectifiers, a three-phase inverter and an induction motor. Apart from traditional application in dc motor drives, new applications of BDC include energy storage in renewable energy systems, fuel cell energy systems, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV and Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS. A dc-dc converter is always required to allow energy exchange between storage device and the rest of system. In HEV applications, BDCs are required to link different dc voltage buses and transfer energy between them. A non-isolated bi-directional dc-dc converters is used in our project to achieve better efficiency.

  18. APPLICATION OF PULSE-PERIODICAL MODE FOR IMPROVEMENT OF LASER TREATMENT EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Apollonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to estimate an application of pulse-periodical mode for improvement of laser treatment efficiency. Laser technologies have been widely used in the processes of material treatment with the purpose to provide them the required surface properties and also for high accuracy cutting of sheet materials. Application of complex treatment is of great interest and especially when it is used for worn-out surfaces with formation of a coating by gas-flame laying of powder mixture of specific composition and subsequent laser fusion.Increase of laser unit capacity is very important task for higher efficiency of laser technology application in mechanical engineering. Nowadays technological processes using lasers with high average power (more than 100 W have been applying only sources that are working in two modes, namely: continuous and pulse- periodical (P-P with pulse repetition rate from some units to several hundred hertz and pulse duration within dozens to hundreds of microseconds and even within milliseconds. On the other hand, in some cases shielding effect of plasma cloud formed during laser alloying, cladding or welding reduces the efficiency of laser treatment up to 50 % depending on plasma composition and laser beam length. High frequency P-P laser systems with high average power working in mode of Q-factor modulation allow to realize principally other mechanism of irradiation interaction with materials that is an ablation. In this case it is possible to provide local energy release both in space and time.The performed analysis has revealed that P-P mode of laser operation for a majority of treatment processes is much better and more efficient from energetic point of view in comparison with the continuous mode. On the basis of the developments it is possible to make a conclusion that there is a possibility to create laser systems working in high frequency P-P mode with high average power above hundreds watt.

  19. Thin film CdTe based neutron detectors with high thermal neutron efficiency and gamma rejection for security applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.; Murphy, J. W.; Kim, J.; Rozhdestvenskyy, S.; Mejia, I.; Park, H.; Allee, D. R.; Quevedo-Lopez, M.; Gnade, B.

    2016-12-01

    Solid-state neutron detectors offer an alternative to 3He based detectors, but suffer from limited neutron efficiencies that make their use in security applications impractical. Solid-state neutron detectors based on single crystal silicon also have relatively high gamma-ray efficiencies that lead to false positives. Thin film polycrystalline CdTe based detectors require less complex processing with significantly lower gamma-ray efficiencies. Advanced geometries can also be implemented to achieve high thermal neutron efficiencies competitive with silicon based technology. This study evaluates these strategies by simulation and experimentation and demonstrates an approach to achieve >10% intrinsic efficiency with <10-6 gamma-ray efficiency.

  20. Increased efficiency of luminescent solar concentrators after application of organic wavelength selective mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbunt, Paul P C; Tsoi, Shufen; Debije, Michael G; Broer, Dirk J; Bastiaansen, Cees W M; Lin, Chi-Wen; de Boer, Dick K G

    2012-09-10

    Organic wavelength-selective mirrors are used to reduce the loss of emitted photons through the surface of a luminescent solar concentrator (LSC). A theoretical calculation suggests that application of a 400 nm broad reflector on top of an LSC containing BASF Lumogen Red 305 as a luminophore can reflect 91% of all surface emitted photons back into the device. Used in this way, such broad reflectors could increase the edge-emission efficiency of the LSC by up to 66%. Similarly, 175 nm broad reflectors could increase efficiency up to 45%. Measurements demonstrate more limited effectiveness and dependency on the peak absorbance of the LSC. At higher absorbance, the increased number of internal re-absorption events reduces the effectiveness of the reflectors, leading to a maximum increase in LSC efficiency of ~5% for an LSC with a peak absorbance of 1. Reducing re-absorption by reducing dye concentration or the coverage of the luminophore coating results in an increase in LSC efficiency of up to 30% and 27%, respectively.

  1. Design, Fabrication and Test of a High Efficiency Refractive Secondary Concentrator for Solar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.; Geng, Steven M.; Castle, Charles H.; Macosko, Robert P.

    2000-01-01

    Common to many of the space applications that utilize solar thermal energy such as electric power conversion, thermal propulsion, and furnaces, is a need for highly efficient, solar concentration systems. An effort is underway to develop the refractive secondary concentrator, which uses refraction and total internal reflection to efficiently concentrate and direct solar energy. When used in combination with advanced primary concentrators, the refractive secondary concentrator enables very high system concentration ratios (10,000 to 1) and very high temperatures (greater than 2000 K). Presented is an overview of the effort at the NASA Glenn Research Center to evaluate the performance of a prototype single crystal sapphire refractive secondary concentrator and to compare the performance with analytical models. The effort involves the design and fabrication of a secondary concentrator, design and fabrication of a calorimeter and its support hardware, calibration of the calorimeter, testing of the secondary concentrator in NASA Glenn's Tank 6 solar thermal vacuum facility, and comparing the test results with predictions. Test results indicate an average throughput efficiency of 87%. It is anticipated that reduction of a known reflection loss with an anti-reflective coating would result in a secondary concentrator throughput efficiency of approximately 93%.

  2. Efficiency Enhancement of Nanoporous Silicon/Polycrystalline-Silicon Solar Cells by Application of Trenched Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuen-Hsien Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trenched electrodes were proposed to enhance the short-circuit current and conversion efficiency of polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si solar cells with nanoporous silicon (NPS surface layers. NPS films that served as textured surface layers were firstly prepared on heavily doped p+-type (100 poly-Si wafers by anodic etching process. Interdigitated trenches were formed in the NPS layers by a reactive-ion-etch (RIE process and Cr/Al double-layered metal was then deposited to fill the trenches and construct trenched-electrode-contacts (TEC’s. Cells with TEC structures (called “TEC cells” obtained 5.5 times higher short-circuit current than that of cells with planar electrode contacts (called “non-TEC cells”. Most significantly, a TEC cell achieved 8 times higher conversion efficiency than that of a non-TEC cell. The enhanced short-circuit current and conversion efficiency in TEC cells were ascribed to the reduced overall series resistance of devices. In a TEC cell, trenched electrodes provided photocurrent flowing routes that directly access the poly-Si substrates without passing through the high resistive NPS layers. Therefore, the application of NPS surface layers with trenched electrodes is a novel approach to development of highly efficient poly-Si solar cells.

  3. Efficiently mapping structure-property relationships of gas adsorption in porous materials: application to Xe adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaija, A R; Wilmer, C E

    2017-09-08

    Designing better porous materials for gas storage or separations applications frequently leverages known structure-property relationships. Reliable structure-property relationships, however, only reveal themselves when adsorption data on many porous materials are aggregated and compared. Gathering enough data experimentally is prohibitively time consuming, and even approaches based on large-scale computer simulations face challenges. Brute force computational screening approaches that do not efficiently sample the space of porous materials may be ineffective when the number of possible materials is too large. Here we describe a general and efficient computational method for mapping structure-property spaces of porous materials that can be useful for adsorption related applications. We describe an algorithm that generates random porous "pseudomaterials", for which we calculate structural characteristics (e.g., surface area, pore size and void fraction) and also gas adsorption properties via molecular simulations. Here we chose to focus on void fraction and Xe adsorption at 1 bar, 5 bar, and 10 bar. The algorithm then identifies pseudomaterials with rare combinations of void fraction and Xe adsorption and mutates them to generate new pseudomaterials, thereby selectively adding data only to those parts of the structure-property map that are the least explored. Use of this method can help guide the design of new porous materials for gas storage and separations applications in the future.

  4. Legislative and policy in energy efficient designing and renewable energy sources: Application in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pucar Mila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses political and legislative frames in the field of energy efficient building and renewable energy sources in planning and implementation in Serbia. „Development strategy until 2015.“ is reviewed in concise portrait. This strategy maps a way for the application of energy services of much higher quality than ones offered at a present day. It reviews relevant laws concerning the subject, as well as institutions, programs and their implementation. Basic principles of energy policy in Serbia and their achievement are also given by that strategy. Serbia's energy policies are designed to allow new legislative, structural, organizational, institutional, and economic frames and visions of unification of Serbian energetics into regional and Pan-European integrations. One of the key factors is the inclusion of sustainable development and energy efficient design concerned policies. Application of these, almost completely neglected, energy sources, for which there is high potential in Serbia, would allow preservation of primary energy sources and local environment. This potential hasn't seen significant research, and therefore, neither the technical improvement. Apart from that, one of the goals of wider application of renewable energy sources is lowering the poverty level. This helps avoiding the already used “dirty development” method. .

  5. Measured Zero Net Energy Performance: Results, Lessons, and Surprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Carrie; LaRue, Anna; Pigman, Margaret; Roberts, Jon; Kaneda, David; Connelly, Dylan; Elliott, John; Pless, Shanti; Pande, Abhijeet; Dean, Edward; Anbarlilar, Can

    2016-08-26

    As more and more zero net energy (ZNE) buildings are built and monitored, we can learn from both careful case studies of individual projects as well as a broader perspective of trends over time. In a forum sponsored by Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E), eight expert speakers discussed: results and lessons from monitoring occupied ZNE buildings; best practices for setting performance targets and getting actionable performance information, and; things that have surprised them about monitored ZNE buildings. This paper distills the content of the forum by laying out the most common hurdles that are encountered in setting up monitoring projects, frequent performance issues that the monitoring uncovers, and lessons learned that can be applied to future projects.

  6. Surprising hair analysis results following acute carbofuran intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulaurent, S; Gaulier, J M; Zouaoui, K; Moesch, C; François, B; Lachâtre, G

    2011-10-10

    We present two non fatal cases of intoxication with carbofuran (CBF) documented by hair analysis. Carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran (OHCBF, its main metabolite) hair concentrations were determined using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The obtained results were surprising if we consider several hair analyses previously published and based on a theory of the presence of xenobiotic in the only segment that comprised its intake. Among the two intoxication cases, we noticed the presence of CBF and OHCBF in hair segments corresponding to 45 days before, and more than 100 days after, the day of intoxication. Additionally, repeated hair samplings and subsequent analysis revealed a decrease of the carbofuran's concentration during the hair life.

  7. Physics Nobel prize 2004: Surprising theory wins physics Nobel

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    From left to right: David Politzer, David Gross and Frank Wilczek. For their understanding of counter-intuitive aspects of the strong force, which governs quarks inside protons and neutrons, on 5 October three American physicists were awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics. David J. Gross (Kavli Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara), H. David Politzer (California Institute of Technology), and Frank Wilczek (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) made a key theoretical discovery with a surprising result: the closer quarks are together, the weaker the force - opposite to what is seen with electromagnetism and gravity. Rather, the strong force is analogous to a rubber band stretching, where the force increases as the quarks get farther apart. These physicists discovered this property of quarks, known as asymptotic freedom, in 1976. It later became a key part of the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the Standard Model, the current best theory to describe the interac...

  8. Probability and Surprisal in Auditory Comprehension of Morphologically Complex Words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Baayen, R. Harald

    2012-01-01

    Two auditory lexical decision experiments document for morphologically complex words two points at which the probability of a target word given the evidence shifts dramatically. The first point is reached when morphologically unrelated competitors are no longer compatible with the evidence....... Adapting terminology from Marslen-Wilson (1984), we refer to this as the word’s initial uniqueness point (UP1). The second point is the complex uniqueness point (CUP) introduced by Balling and Baayen (2008), at which morphologically related competitors become incompatible with the input. Later initial...... in the course of the word co-determines response latencies. The presence of effects of surprisal, both at the initial uniqueness point of complex words, and cumulatively throughout the word, challenges the Shortlist B model of Norris and McQueen (2008), and suggests that a Bayesian approach to auditory...

  9. 2014 Presidential elections in Romania – surprising result or strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Mihalache

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The presidential elections in Romania which took place in November 2014 were won by Klaus Iohannis, who clearly defeated the incumbent prime-minister Victor Ponta by 10%. The result was considered by many a surprise, as none of the opinion polls were able to predict it. This article reveals a part of the strategy of Klaus Iohannis’s campaign and it offers a few clues about how this is result was possible, without having the aim to explain it fully. As the authors were accountable for strategy and political message in the electoral campaign for Klaus Iohannis, the scientific approach is combined with the inside view, to provide the reader a better understanding of the November 2014 events.

  10. High Current Planar Magnetics for High Efficiency Bidirectional DC-DC Converters for Fuel Cell Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    Efficiency is one of the main concerns during the design phase of switch mode power supply. Planar magnetics based on PCB windings have the potential to reduce the magnetic manufacturing cost however, one of their main drawbacks comes from their low filling factor and high stray capacitance....... This paper presents an analysis of different planar windings configurations focusing on dc and ac resistances in order to achieve highly efficiency in dc-dc converters. The analysis considers different copper thicknesses form 70 μm up to 1500 μm (extreme copper PCB) taking into account manufacturing...... complexity and challenges. The analysis is focused on a high current inductor for a dc-dc converter for fuel cell applications and it is based on FEM simulations. Analysis and results are verified on a 6 kW dc-dc isolated full bridge boost converter prototype based on fully planar magnetics achieving a peak...

  11. The High-efficiency LED Driver for Visible Light Communication Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Cihun-Siyong Alex; Lee, Yu-Chen; Lai, Jyun-Liang; Yu, Chueh-Hao; Huang, Li Ren; Yang, Chia-Yen

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a LED driver for VLC. The main purpose is to solve the low data rate problem used to be in switching type LED driver. The GaN power device is proposed to replace the traditional silicon power device of switching LED driver for the purpose of increasing switching frequency of converter, thereby increasing the bandwidth of data transmission. To achieve high efficiency, the diode-connected GaN power transistor is utilized to replace the traditional ultrafast recovery diode used to be in switching type LED driver. This work has been experimentally evaluated on 350-mA output current. The results demonstrate that it supports the data of PWM dimming level encoded in the PPM scheme for VLC application. The experimental results also show that system’s efficiency of 80.8% can be achieved at 1-Mb/s data rate.

  12. Efficient Signal-Time Coding Design and its Application in Wireless Gaussian Relay Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Pingyi; Letaief, Khaled Ben

    2009-01-01

    Signal-time coding, which combines the traditional encoding/modulation mode in the signal domain with signal pulse phase modulation in the time domain, was proposed to improve the information flow rate in relay networks. In this paper, we mainly focus on the efficient signal-time coding design. We first derive an explicit iterative algorithm to estimate the maximum number of available codes given the code length of signal-time coding, and then present an iterative construction method of codebooks. It is shown that compared with conventional computer search, the proposed iterative construction method can reduce the complexity greatly. Numerical results will also indicate that the new constructed codebook is optimal in terms of coding rate. To minimize the buffer size needed to store the codebook while keeping a relatively high efficiency, we shall propose a combinatorial construction method. We will then consider applications in wireless Gaussian relay networks. It will be shown that in the three node network ...

  13. The JPL space photovoltaic program. [energy efficient so1 silicon solar cells for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Monck, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The development of energy efficient solar cells for space applications is discussed. The electrical performance of solar cells as a function of temperature and solar intensity and the influence of radiation and subsequent thermal annealing on the electrical behavior of cells are among the factors studied. Progress in GaAs solar cell development is reported with emphasis on improvement of output power and radiation resistance to demonstrate a solar cell array to meet the specific power and stability requirements of solar power satellites.

  14. Implementation of efficient technologies application center; Implantacao de um centro de aplicacao de tecnologias eficientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Reynaldo S. da; Aguiar, Joao C.R.; Pinto Junior, Ary V.; Souza, Hamilton M. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Sistemas de Distribuicao e Uso Eficiente de Energia Eletrica

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the basic concept and the main activities at the Electric Technology Application Center (ETAC) placed at CEPEL. The aim of the center is presented, regarding issues such as: energy waste preventing, energy-efficient production processes and environmental protection. This work also presents the initial partnerships and the first ETAC products, according to three main areas: Industrial Commercial and Residential. (author) 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.; e-mail: cref at fund.cepel.br; sigiliao at fund.cepel.br

  15. Efficient 3D movement-based kernel density estimator and application to wildlife ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey-PR, Jeff; Sheppard, James K.; Lockwood, Glenn K.; Chourasia, Amit; Tatineni, Mahidhar; Fisher, Robert N.; Sinkovits, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    We describe an efficient implementation of a 3D movement-based kernel density estimator for determining animal space use from discrete GPS measurements. This new method provides more accurate results, particularly for species that make large excursions in the vertical dimension. The downside of this approach is that it is much more computationally expensive than simpler, lower-dimensional models. Through a combination of code restructuring, parallelization and performance optimization, we were able to reduce the time to solution by up to a factor of 1000x, thereby greatly improving the applicability of the method.

  16. Low-cost nanomaterials toward greener and more efficient energy applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Zhiqun

    2014-01-01

    This book will cover the most recent progress on the use of low-cost nanomaterials and development of low-cost/large scale processing techniques for greener and more efficient energy related applications, including but not limited to solar cells, energy storage, fuel cells, hydrogen generation, biofuels, etc. Leading researchers will be invited to author chapters in the field with their expertise. Each chapter will provide general introduction to a specific topic, current status of research and development, research challenges and outlook for future direction of research. This book aims

  17. Application of High-Temperature Mold Materials to Die Cast Copper Motor Rotor for Improved Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John G. Cowie; Edwin F. Brush, Jr.; Dale T. Peters; Stephen P. Midson; Darryl J. Van Son

    2003-05-01

    The objective of the study, Application of High-Temperature Mold Materials to Die Cast Copper Motor Rotor for Improved Efficiency, was to support the Copper Development Association (CDA) in its effort to design, fabricate and demonstrate mold technologies designed to withstand the copper motor rotor die casting environment for an economically acceptable life. The anticipated result from the compiled data and tests were to: (1) identify materials suitable for die casting copper, (2) fabricate motor rotor molds and (3) supply copper rotor motors for testing in actual compressor systems. Compressor manufacturers can apply the results to assess the technical and economical viability of copper rotor motors.

  18. Exploring the concept of climate surprises. A review of the literature on the concept of surprise and how it is related to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, M.H.; Moore, C.M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Streets, D.G.; Bhatti, N.; Rosa, C.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Stewart, T.R. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report examines the concept of climate surprise and its implications for environmental policymaking. Although most integrated assessment models of climate change deal with average values of change, it is usually the extreme events or surprises that cause the most damage to human health and property. Current models do not help the policymaker decide how to deal with climate surprises. This report examines the literature of surprise in many aspects of human society: psychology, military, health care, humor, agriculture, etc. It draws together various ways to consider the concept of surprise and examines different taxonomies of surprise that have been proposed. In many ways, surprise is revealed to be a subjective concept, triggered by such factors as prior experience, belief system, and level of education. How policymakers have reacted to specific instances of climate change or climate surprise in the past is considered, particularly with regard to the choices they made between proactive and reactive measures. Finally, the report discusses techniques used in the current generation of assessment models and makes suggestions as to how climate surprises might be included in future models. The report concludes that some kinds of surprises are simply unpredictable, but there are several types that could in some way be anticipated and assessed, and their negative effects forestalled.

  19. HIGH EFFICIENCY, LOW EMISSIONS, SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS FOR MULTIPLE APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sara Ward; Michael A. Petrik

    2004-07-28

    Technology Management Inc. (TMI), teamed with the Ohio Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, has engineered, constructed, and demonstrated a stationary, low power, multi-module solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) prototype system operating on propane and natural gas. Under Phase I, TMI successfully operated two systems in parallel, in conjunction with a single DC-AC inverter and battery bus, and produced net AC electricity. Phase II testing expanded to include alternative and renewable fuels typically available in rural regions of Ohio. The commercial system is expected to have ultra-low pollution, high efficiency, and low noise. The TMI SOFC uses a solid ceramic electrolyte operating at high temperature (800-1000 C) which electrochemically converts gaseous fuels (hydrogen or mixed gases) and oxygen into electricity. The TMI system design oxidizes fuel primarily via electrochemical reactions and uses no burners (which pollute and consume fuel)--resulting in extremely clean exhaust. The use of proprietary sulfur tolerant materials developed by TMI allows system operation without additional fuel pre-processing or sulfur removal. Further, the combination of high operating temperatures and solid state operation increases the potential for higher reliability and efficiencies compared to other types of fuel cells. Applications for the TMI SOFC system cover a wide range of transportation, building, industrial, and military market sectors. A generic technology, fuel cells have the potential to be embodied into multiple products specific to Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program areas including: Fuel Cells and Microturbines, School Buildings, Transportation, and Bioenergy. This program focused on low power stationary applications using a multi-module system operating on a range of common fuels. By producing clean electricity more efficiently (thus using less fuel), fuel cells have the triple effect of cleaning up the

  20. Tuning the dielectric properties of thiourea analog crystals for efficient nonlinear optical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabari Girisun, T.C. [Department of Physics, Bishop Heber College, Tiruchirappalli 620 017, Tamil Nadu (India); School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamil Nadu (India); Dhanuskodi, S., E-mail: dhanus2k3@yahoo.com [School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2010-01-15

    Materials with low dielectric constant have attracted a great deal of interest in the field of nonlinear applications and microelectronic industry. Metal complexes of thiourea with group II transition metals (Zn, Cd) as central atom and period III elements (S, Cl) were synthesized by chemical reaction method and single crystals were grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation method. By parallel plate capacitor technique, the dielectric response, dissipation factor, ac conductivity and impedance of virgin and metal complexes have been studied in the frequency (100 Hz to 5 MHz) and temperature (303-423 K) ranges. Metal complexes of thiourea with cadmium substitute have a low dielectric constant less than 10. Also the presence of chlorine in the metal complex induces noncentro symmetric structure. Hence the role of group II transition metals and period III elements in tuning the dielectric properties for efficient nonlinear applications has been studied.

  1. Energy-Efficient Scheduling of HPC Applications in Cloud Computing Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Garg, Saurabh Kumar; Anandasivam, Arun; Buyya, Rajkumar

    2009-01-01

    The use of High Performance Computing (HPC) in commercial and consumer IT applications is becoming popular. They need the ability to gain rapid and scalable access to high-end computing capabilities. Cloud computing promises to deliver such a computing infrastructure using data centers so that HPC users can access applications and data from a Cloud anywhere in the world on demand and pay based on what they use. However, the growing demand drastically increases the energy consumption of data centers, which has become a critical issue. High energy consumption not only translates to high energy cost, which will reduce the profit margin of Cloud providers, but also high carbon emissions which is not environmentally sustainable. Hence, energy-efficient solutions are required that can address the high increase in the energy consumption from the perspective of not only Cloud provider but also from the environment. To address this issue we propose near-optimal scheduling policies that exploits heterogeneity across mu...

  2. Efficient Learning of VAM-Based Representation of 3D Targets and its Active Vision Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajeev; Srinivasa, Narayan

    1998-01-01

    There has been a considerable interest in using active vision for various applications. This interest is primarily because active vision can enhance machine vision capabilities by dynamically changing the camera parameters based on the content of the scene. An important issue in active vision is that of representing 3D targets in a manner that is invariant to changing camera configurations. This paper addresses this representation issue for a robotic active vision system. An efficient Vector Associative Map (VAM)-based learning scheme is proposed to learn a joint-based representation. Computer simulations and experiments are first performed to evaluate the effectiveness of this scheme using the University of Illinois Active Vision System (UIAVS). The invariance property of the learned representation is then exploited to develop several robotic applications. These include, detecting moving targets, saccade control, planning saccade sequences and controlling a robot manipulator.

  3. Efficient computation of the W 3 topological invariant and application to Floquet-Bloch systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höckendorf, B.; Alvermann, A.; Fehske, H.

    2017-07-01

    We introduce an efficient algorithm for the computation of the W 3 invariant of general unitary maps, which converges rapidly even on coarse discretization grids. The algorithm does not require extensive manipulation of the unitary maps, identification of the precise positions of degeneracy points, or fixing the gauge of eigenvectors. After construction of the general algorithm, we explain its application to the 2  +  1 dimensional maps that arise in the Floquet-Bloch theory of periodically driven two-dimensional quantum systems. We demonstrate this application by computing the W 3 invariant for an irradiated graphene model with a continuously modulated Hamilton operator, where it predicts the number of anomalous edge states in each gap.

  4. Testing an emerging paradigm in migration ecology shows surprising differences in efficiency between flight modes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam E Duerr

    Full Text Available To maximize fitness, flying animals should maximize flight speed while minimizing energetic expenditure. Soaring speeds of large-bodied birds are determined by flight routes and tradeoffs between minimizing time and energetic costs. Large raptors migrating in eastern North America predominantly glide between thermals that provide lift or soar along slopes or ridgelines using orographic lift (slope soaring. It is usually assumed that slope soaring is faster than thermal gliding because forward progress is constant compared to interrupted progress when birds pause to regain altitude in thermals. We tested this slope-soaring hypothesis using high-frequency GPS-GSM telemetry devices to track golden eagles during northbound migration. In contrast to expectations, flight speed was slower when slope soaring and eagles also were diverted from their migratory path, incurring possible energetic costs and reducing speed of progress towards a migratory endpoint. When gliding between thermals, eagles stayed on track and fast gliding speeds compensated for lack of progress during thermal soaring. When thermals were not available, eagles minimized migration time, not energy, by choosing energetically expensive slope soaring instead of waiting for thermals to develop. Sites suited to slope soaring include ridges preferred for wind-energy generation, thus avian risk of collision with wind turbines is associated with evolutionary trade-offs required to maximize fitness of time-minimizing migratory raptors.

  5. A High Efficiency 1kWatt GaN Amplifier for P-Band Pulsed Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An improved efficiency amplifier for high power pulse applications at P-Band will be investigated that will support space based RADAR systems. Current P-Band pulsed...

  6. A High Efficiency 1kWatt GaN amplifier for P-Band pulsed applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An improved efficiency amplifier for high power pulse applications at P-Band will be investigated that will support space based RADAR systems. Current P-Band pulsed...

  7. Quantitative Assessment of the Efficiency of Physiological Signals in Emotional State Recognition for Healthcare Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mojarradshafie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available efficient monitoring of emotions may provide medical information with diagnostic value for healthcare applications and clinical researches. Different emotions can generate specific patterns in physiology via Autonomic Nervous System (ANS. Consequently, we achieve an acceptable accuracy of the emotion classification using extracting relevant features from physiological signals. In this study, an experiment is conducted to elicit four emotional states (happiness, anger, sadness and relax in twenty four healthy subjects. The physiological signals such as ECG, SCL (Skin Conductivity Level, EMG and Respiration signal are recorded simultaneously. After necessary preprocessing for primary signals such as segmentation, filtering, smoothing, removing artifacts and removal of baseline drift, various features in time and frequency domain are extracted. Feature selection method is used to find best relevant features. Afterward, different dimension reduction algorithms and classification methods are used to compare the efficiency of different physiological signals in emotion recognition. The precision of classifications with different features is found to be higher than 70%. The results show that the different physiological signals have different ability to classify four given affective states. Our proposed methods can result in developing a robust emotional states recognition system for healthcare applications.

  8. Towards Realising Secure and Efficient Image and Video Processing Applications on Quantum Computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Iliyasu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Exploiting the promise of security and efficiency that quantum computing offers, the basic foundations leading to commercial applications for quantum image processing are proposed. Two mathematical frameworks and algorithms to accomplish the watermarking of quantum images, authentication of ownership of already watermarked images and recovery of their unmarked versions on quantum computers are proposed. Encoding the images as 2n-sized normalised Flexible Representation of Quantum Images (FRQI states, with n-qubits and 1-qubit dedicated to capturing the respective information about the colour and position of every pixel in the image respectively, the proposed algorithms utilise the flexibility inherent to the FRQI representation, in order to confine the transformations on an image to any predetermined chromatic or spatial (or a combination of both content of the image as dictated by the watermark embedding, authentication or recovery circuits. Furthermore, by adopting an apt generalisation of the criteria required to realise physical quantum computing hardware, three standalone components that make up the framework to prepare, manipulate and recover the various contents required to represent and produce movies on quantum computers are also proposed. Each of the algorithms and the mathematical foundations for their execution were simulated using classical (i.e., conventional or non-quantum computing resources, and their results were analysed alongside other longstanding classical computing equivalents. The work presented here, combined together with the extensions suggested, provide the basic foundations towards effectuating secure and efficient classical-like image and video processing applications on the quantum-computing framework.

  9. An Energy-Efficient ASIC for Wireless Body Sensor Networks in Medical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoyu Zhang; Hanjun Jiang; Lingwei Zhang; Chun Zhang; Zhihua Wang; Xinkai Chen

    2010-02-01

    An energy-efficient application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) featured with a work-on-demand protocol is designed for wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs) in medical applications. Dedicated for ultra-low-power wireless sensor nodes, the ASIC consists of a low-power microcontroller unit (MCU), a power-management unit (PMU), reconfigurable sensor interfaces, communication ports controlling a wireless transceiver, and an integrated passive radio-frequency (RF) receiver with energy harvesting ability. The MCU, together with the PMU, provides quite flexible communication and power-control modes for energy-efficient operations. The always-on passive RF receiver with an RF energy harvesting block offers the sensor nodes the capability of work-on-demand with zero standby power. Fabricated in standard 0.18-¿m complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology, the ASIC occupies a die area of 2 mm × 2.5 mm. A wireless body sensor network sensor-node prototype using this ASIC only consumes < 10-nA current under the passive standby mode, and < 10 ¿A under the active standby mode, when supplied by a 3-V battery.

  10. Efficient Adjoint Computation of Hybrid Systems of Differential Algebraic Equations with Applications in Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhyankar, Shrirang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Anitescu, Mihai [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Constantinescu, Emil [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zhang, Hong [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Sensitivity analysis is an important tool to describe power system dynamic behavior in response to parameter variations. It is a central component in preventive and corrective control applications. The existing approaches for sensitivity calculations, namely, finite-difference and forward sensitivity analysis, require a computational effort that increases linearly with the number of sensitivity parameters. In this work, we investigate, implement, and test a discrete adjoint sensitivity approach whose computational effort is effectively independent of the number of sensitivity parameters. The proposed approach is highly efficient for calculating trajectory sensitivities of larger systems and is consistent, within machine precision, with the function whose sensitivity we are seeking. This is an essential feature for use in optimization applications. Moreover, our approach includes a consistent treatment of systems with switching, such as DC exciters, by deriving and implementing the adjoint jump conditions that arise from state and time-dependent discontinuities. The accuracy and the computational efficiency of the proposed approach are demonstrated in comparison with the forward sensitivity analysis approach.

  11. E-SAP: Efficient-Strong Authentication Protocol for Healthcare Applications Using Wireless Medical Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoon-Jae Lee

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A wireless medical sensor network (WMSN can sense humans’ physiological signs without sacrificing patient comfort and transmit patient vital signs to health professionals’ hand-held devices. The patient physiological data are highly sensitive and WMSNs are extremely vulnerable to many attacks. Therefore, it must be ensured that patients’ medical signs are not exposed to unauthorized users. Consequently, strong user authentication is the main concern for the success and large scale deployment of WMSNs. In this regard, this paper presents an efficient, strong authentication protocol, named E-SAP, for healthcare application using WMSNs. The proposed E-SAP includes: (1 a two-factor (i.e., password and smartcard professional authentication; (2 mutual authentication between the professional and the medical sensor; (3 symmetric encryption/decryption for providing message confidentiality; (4 establishment of a secure session key at the end of authentication; and (5 professionals can change their password. Further, the proposed protocol requires three message exchanges between the professional, medical sensor node and gateway node, and achieves efficiency (i.e., low computation and communication cost. Through the formal analysis, security analysis and performance analysis, we demonstrate that E-SAP is more secure against many practical attacks, and allows a tradeoff between the security and the performance cost for healthcare application using WMSNs.

  12. Energy Efficient MANET Protocol Using Cross Layer Design for Military Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamata Rath

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In military applications mobile adhoc network plays very important role because it is specifically designed network for on demand requirement and in situations where set up of physical network is not possible. This special type of network which takes control in infrastructure less communication handles serious challenges tactfully such as highly robust and dynamic military work stations, devices and smaller sub-networks in the battle field. Therefore there is a high demand of designing efficient routing protocols ensuring security and reliability for successful transmission of highly sensitive and confidential military information in defence networks. With this objective, a power efficient network layer routing protocol in the network for military application is designed and simulated using a new cross layer approach of design to increase reliability and network lifetime up to a greater extent.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 66, No. 2, March 2016, pp. 146-150, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.66.9705

  13. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF APPLICATION EFFICIENCY OF ORTHOGONAL TRANSFORMATIONS IN FREQUENCY ALGORITHMS FOR DIGITAL IMAGE WATERMARKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Batura

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of orthogonal transformations application in the frequency algorithms of the digital watermarking of still images is examined. Discrete Hadamard transform, discrete cosine transform and discrete Haar transform are selected. Their effectiveness is determined by the invisibility of embedded in digital image watermark and its resistance to the most common image processing operations: JPEG-compression, noising, changing of the brightness and image size, histogram equalization. The algorithm for digital watermarking and its embedding parameters remain unchanged at these orthogonal transformations. Imperceptibility of embedding is defined by the peak signal to noise ratio, watermark stability– by Pearson's correlation coefficient. Embedding is considered to be invisible, if the value of the peak signal to noise ratio is not less than 43 dB. Embedded watermark is considered to be resistant to a specific attack, if the Pearson’s correlation coefficient is not less than 0.5. Elham algorithm based on the image entropy is chosen for computing experiment. Computing experiment is carried out according to the following algorithm: embedding of a digital watermark in low-frequency area of the image (container by Elham algorithm, exposure to a harmful influence on the protected image (cover image, extraction of a digital watermark. These actions are followed by quality assessment of cover image and watermark on the basis of which efficiency of orthogonal transformation is defined. As a result of computing experiment it was determined that the choice of the specified orthogonal transformations at identical algorithm and parameters of embedding doesn't influence the degree of imperceptibility for a watermark. Efficiency of discrete Hadamard transform and discrete cosine transformation in relation to the attacks chosen for experiment was established based on the correlation indicators. Application of discrete Hadamard transform increases

  14. HTCC-Modified Nanoclay for Tissue Engineering Applications: A Synergistic Cell Growth and Antibacterial Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Aliabadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the synthesis of a biocompatible chitosan ammonium salt N-(2-hydroxy propyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC and using it in montmorillonite ion-exchange process. HTCC-modified montmorillonite (Mt with different chemical ratios was successfully synthesized, and their characteristics have been verified by XRD and FTIR analyses. Produced samples have been evaluated in terms of antibacterial efficiency and biocompatibility (cell culture test. Antibacterial efficiency of synthesized HTCC/Mt samples has been confirmed against both gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus. The results disclosed that the antibacterial efficiency of HTCC-modified montmorillonite was unexpectedly even more than HTCC. This excellent synergistic effect has been referred to entrapping bacteria between the intercalated structures of HTCC-modified montmorillonite. Then HTCC on clay layers can seriously attack and damage the entrapped bacteria. An extraordinary biocompatibility, cell attachment, and cell growth even more than tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS have been recorded in the case of this novel kind of modified clay. Due to existing concerns about serious and chronic infections after implant placement, this natural-based bioactive and antibacterial modified clay can be used in electrospun nanofibers and other polymeric implants with promising mechanical properties for tissue engineering applications.

  15. HTCC-modified nanoclay for tissue engineering applications: a synergistic cell growth and antibacterial efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliabadi, Majid; Dastjerdi, Roya; Kabiri, Kourosh

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the synthesis of a biocompatible chitosan ammonium salt N-(2-hydroxy) propyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC) and using it in montmorillonite ion-exchange process. HTCC-modified montmorillonite (Mt) with different chemical ratios was successfully synthesized, and their characteristics have been verified by XRD and FTIR analyses. Produced samples have been evaluated in terms of antibacterial efficiency and biocompatibility (cell culture test). Antibacterial efficiency of synthesized HTCC/Mt samples has been confirmed against both gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus). The results disclosed that the antibacterial efficiency of HTCC-modified montmorillonite was unexpectedly even more than HTCC. This excellent synergistic effect has been referred to entrapping bacteria between the intercalated structures of HTCC-modified montmorillonite. Then HTCC on clay layers can seriously attack and damage the entrapped bacteria. An extraordinary biocompatibility, cell attachment, and cell growth even more than tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) have been recorded in the case of this novel kind of modified clay. Due to existing concerns about serious and chronic infections after implant placement, this natural-based bioactive and antibacterial modified clay can be used in electrospun nanofibers and other polymeric implants with promising mechanical properties for tissue engineering applications.

  16. Efficiency Improved by H2 Forming Gas Treatment for Si-Based Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuang-Tung Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic (PV effects have been investigated and improved using efficient treatments both on single-crystalline (sc and on multicrystalline (mc silicon (Si solar cells. The major effect of forming gas (FG treatment on solar cell performance is the fill-factor values, which increase 3.75% and 8.28%, respectively, on sc-Si and mc-Si solar cells. As for the optimal 15%-H2 ratio and 40-minute FG treatment, the conversion efficiency (η values drastically increase to 14.89% and 14.31%, respectively, for sc- and mc-Si solar cells. Moreover, we can measure the internal quantum efficiency (IQE values increase with H2-FG treatment under visible wavelength (400~900 nm radiation. Thus based on the work in this research, we confirm that H2 passivation has become crucial both in PV as well as in microelectronics fields. Moreover, the developed mc-Si solar cell by proper H2 FG treatment is quite suitable for commercial applications.

  17. Efficient Parallelization of a Dynamic Unstructured Application on the Tera MTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak

    1999-01-01

    The success of parallel computing in solving real-life computationally-intensive problems relies on their efficient mapping and execution on large-scale multiprocessor architectures. Many important applications are both unstructured and dynamic in nature, making their efficient parallel implementation a daunting task. This paper presents the parallelization of a dynamic unstructured mesh adaptation algorithm using three popular programming paradigms on three leading supercomputers. We examine an MPI message-passing implementation on the Cray T3E and the SGI Origin2OOO, a shared-memory implementation using cache coherent nonuniform memory access (CC-NUMA) of the Origin2OOO, and a multi-threaded version on the newly-released Tera Multi-threaded Architecture (MTA). We compare several critical factors of this parallel code development, including runtime, scalability, programmability, and memory overhead. Our overall results demonstrate that multi-threaded systems offer tremendous potential for quickly and efficiently solving some of the most challenging real-life problems on parallel computers.

  18. The surprising diversity of clostridial hydrogenases: a comparative genomic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calusinska, Magdalena; Happe, Thomas; Joris, Bernard; Wilmotte, Annick

    2010-06-01

    Among the large variety of micro-organisms capable of fermentative hydrogen production, strict anaerobes such as members of the genus Clostridium are the most widely studied. They can produce hydrogen by a reversible reduction of protons accumulated during fermentation to dihydrogen, a reaction which is catalysed by hydrogenases. Sequenced genomes provide completely new insights into the diversity of clostridial hydrogenases. Building on previous reports, we found that [FeFe] hydrogenases are not a homogeneous group of enzymes, but exist in multiple forms with different modular structures and are especially abundant in members of the genus Clostridium. This unusual diversity seems to support the central role of hydrogenases in cell metabolism. In particular, the presence of multiple putative operons encoding multisubunit [FeFe] hydrogenases highlights the fact that hydrogen metabolism is very complex in this genus. In contrast with [FeFe] hydrogenases, their [NiFe] hydrogenase counterparts, widely represented in other bacteria and archaea, are found in only a few clostridial species. Surprisingly, a heteromultimeric Ech hydrogenase, known to be an energy-converting [NiFe] hydrogenase and previously described only in methanogenic archaea and some sulfur-reducing bacteria, was found to be encoded by the genomes of four cellulolytic strains: Clostridum cellulolyticum, Clostridum papyrosolvens, Clostridum thermocellum and Clostridum phytofermentans.

  19. Atom Surprise: Using Theatre in Primary Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Ran; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet

    2011-10-01

    Early exposure to science may have a lifelong effect on children's attitudes towards science and their motivation to learn science in later life. Out-of-class environments can play a significant role in creating favourable attitudes, while contributing to conceptual learning. Educational science theatre is one form of an out-of-class environment, which has received little research attention. This study aims to describe affective and cognitive learning outcomes of watching such a play and to point to connections between theatrical elements and specific outcomes. "Atom Surprise" is a play portraying several concepts on the topic of matter. A mixed methods approach was adopted to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of children (grades 1-6) from two different school settings who watched the play. Data were gathered using questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Analysis suggested that in both schools children's knowledge on the topic of matter increased after the play with younger children gaining more conceptual knowledge than their older peers. In the public school girls showed greater gains in conceptual knowledge than boys. No significant changes in students' general attitudes towards science were found, however, students demonstrated positive changes towards science learning. Theatrical elements that seemed to be important in children's recollection of the play were the narrative, props and stage effects, and characters. In the children's memory, science was intertwined with the theatrical elements. Nonetheless, children could distinguish well between scientific facts and the fictive narrative.

  20. Novelty biases attention and gaze in a surprise trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, Gernot; Herwig, Arvid

    2016-01-01

    While the classical distinction between task-driven and stimulus-driven biasing of attention appears to be a dichotomy at first sight, there seems to be a third category that depends on the contrast or discrepancy between active representations and the upcoming stimulus, and may be termed novelty, surprise, or prediction failure. For previous demonstrations of the discrepancy-attention link, stimulus-driven components (saliency) may have played a decisive role. The present study was conducted to evaluate the discrepancy-attention link in a display where novel and familiar stimuli are equated for saliency. Eye tracking was used to determine fixations on novel and familiar stimuli as a proxy for attention. Results show a prioritization of attention by the novel color, and a de-prioritization of the familiar color, which is clearly present at the second fixation, and spans over the next couple of fixations. Saliency, on the other hand, did not prioritize items in the display. The results thus reinforce the notion that novelty captures and binds attention.

  1. A Well-Known But Still Surprising Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2014-12-01

    The bicycle generator is often mentioned as an example of a method to produce electric energy. It is cheap and easily accessible, so it is a natural example to use in teaching. There are different types, but I prefer the old side-wall dynamo. The most common explanation of its working principle seems to be something like the illustration in Fig. 1. The illustration is taken from a popular textbook in the Norwegian junior high school.1 Typically it is explained as a system of a moving magnet or coils that directly results in a varying magnetic field through the coils. According to Faraday's law a voltage is induced in the coils. Simple and easy! A few times I have had a chance to glimpse into a bicycle generator, and I was somewhat surprised to sense that the magnet rotated parallel to the turns of the coil. How could the flux through the coil change and induce a voltage when the magnet rotated parallel to the turns of the coil? When teaching electromagnetic induction I have showed the students a dismantled generator and asked them how this could work. They naturally found that this was more difficult to understand than the principle illustrated in Fig. 1. Other authors in this journal have discussed even more challenging questions concerning electric generators.2,3

  2. Efficient Data Reduction Techniques for Remote Applications of a Wireless Visual Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khursheed Khursheed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A Wireless Visual Sensor Network (WVSN is formed by deploying many Visual Sensor Nodes (VSNs in the field. After acquiring an image of the area of interest, the VSN performs local processing on it and transmits the result using an embedded wireless transceiver. Wireless data transmission consumes a great deal of energy, where energy consumption is mainly dependent on the amount of information being transmitted. The image captured by the VSN contains a huge amount of data. For certain applications, segmentation can be performed on the captured images. The amount of information in the segmented images can be reduced by applying efficient bi‐level image compression methods. In this way, the communication energy consumption of each of the VSNs can be reduced. However, the data reduction capability of bi‐level image compression standards is fixed and is limited by the used compression algorithm. For applications attributing few changes in adjacent frames, change coding can be applied for further data reduction. Detecting and compressing only the Regions of Interest (ROIs in the change frame is another possibility for further data reduction. In a communication system, where both the sender and the receiver know the employed compression standard, there is a possibility for further data reduction by not including the header information in the compressed bit stream of the sender. This paper summarizes different information reduction techniques such as image coding, change coding and ROI coding. The main contribution is the investigation of the combined effect of all these coding methods and their application to a few representative real life applications. This paper is intended to be a resource for researchers interested in techniques for information reduction in energy constrained embedded applications.

  3. Application of the EXtrapolated Efficiency Method (EXEM) to infer the gamma-cascade detection efficiency in the actinide region

    CERN Document Server

    Ducasse, Q; Mathieu, L; Marini, P; Morillon, B; Aiche, M; Tsekhanovich, I

    2015-01-01

    The study of transfer-induced gamma-decay probabilities is very useful for understanding the surrogate-reaction method and, more generally, for constraining statistical-model calculations. One of the main difficulties in the measurement of gamma-decay probabilities is the determination of the gamma-cascade detection efficiency. In [Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 700, 59 (2013)] we developed the Extrapolated Efficiency Method (EXEM), a new method to measure this quantity. In this work, we have applied, for the first time, the EXEM to infer the gamma-cascade detection efficiency in the actinide region. In particular, we have considered the 238U(d,p)239U and 238U(3He,d)239Np reactions. We have performed Hauser-Feshbach calculations to interpret our results and to verify the hypothesis on which the EXEM is based. The determination of fission and gamma-decay probabilities of 239Np below the neutron separation energy allowed us to validate the EXEM.

  4. Application of the EXtrapolated Efficiency Method (EXEM) to infer the gamma-cascade detection efficiency in the actinide region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducasse, Q. [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3-Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium B.P. 120, 33175 Gradignan (France); CEA-Cadarache, DEN/DER/SPRC/LEPh, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Jurado, B., E-mail: jurado@cenbg.in2p3.fr [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3-Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium B.P. 120, 33175 Gradignan (France); Mathieu, L.; Marini, P. [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3-Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium B.P. 120, 33175 Gradignan (France); Morillon, B. [CEA DAM DIF, 91297 Arpajon (France); Aiche, M.; Tsekhanovich, I. [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3-Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium B.P. 120, 33175 Gradignan (France)

    2016-08-01

    The study of transfer-induced gamma-decay probabilities is very useful for understanding the surrogate-reaction method and, more generally, for constraining statistical-model calculations. One of the main difficulties in the measurement of gamma-decay probabilities is the determination of the gamma-cascade detection efficiency. In Boutoux et al. (2013) [10] we developed the EXtrapolated Efficiency Method (EXEM), a new method to measure this quantity. In this work, we have applied, for the first time, the EXEM to infer the gamma-cascade detection efficiency in the actinide region. In particular, we have considered the {sup 238}U(d,p){sup 239}U and {sup 238}U({sup 3}He,d){sup 239}Np reactions. We have performed Hauser–Feshbach calculations to interpret our results and to verify the hypothesis on which the EXEM is based. The determination of fission and gamma-decay probabilities of {sup 239}Np below the neutron separation energy allowed us to validate the EXEM.

  5. FastFlow: Efficient Parallel Streaming Applications on Multi-core

    CERN Document Server

    Aldinucci, Marco; Meneghin, Massimiliano

    2009-01-01

    Shared memory multiprocessors come back to popularity thanks to rapid spreading of commodity multi-core architectures. As ever, shared memory programs are fairly easy to write and quite hard to optimise; providing multi-core programmers with optimising tools and programming frameworks is a nowadays challenge. Few efforts have been done to support effective streaming applications on these architectures. In this paper we introduce FastFlow, a low-level programming framework based on lock-free queues explicitly designed to support high-level languages for streaming applications. We compare FastFlow with state-of-the-art programming frameworks such as Cilk, OpenMP, and Intel TBB. We experimentally demonstrate that FastFlow is always more efficient than all of them in a set of micro-benchmarks and on a real world application; the speedup edge of FastFlow over other solutions might be bold for fine grain tasks, as an example +35% on OpenMP, +226% on Cilk, +96% on TBB for the alignment of protein P01111 against UniP...

  6. Robust and efficient vision system for group of cooperating mobile robots with application to soccer robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klancar, Gregor; Kristan, Matej; Kovacic, Stanislav; Orqueda, Omar

    2004-07-01

    In this paper a global vision scheme for estimation of positions and orientations of mobile robots is presented. It is applied to robot soccer application which is a fast dynamic game and therefore needs an efficient and robust vision system implemented. General applicability of the vision system can be found in other robot applications such as mobile transport robots in production, warehouses, attendant robots, fast vision tracking of targets of interest and entertainment robotics. Basic operation of the vision system is divided into two steps. In the first, the incoming image is scanned and pixels are classified into a finite number of classes. At the same time, a segmentation algorithm is used to find corresponding regions belonging to one of the classes. In the second step, all the regions are examined. Selection of the ones that are a part of the observed object is made by means of simple logic procedures. The novelty is focused on optimization of the processing time needed to finish the estimation of possible object positions. Better results of the vision system are achieved by implementing camera calibration and shading correction algorithm. The former corrects camera lens distortion, while the latter increases robustness to irregular illumination conditions.

  7. Biomedical Applications of the Information-efficient Spectral Imaging Sensor (ISIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentry, S.M.; Levenson, R.

    1999-01-21

    The Information-efficient Spectral Imaging Sensor (ISIS) approach to spectral imaging seeks to bridge the gap between tuned multispectral and fixed hyperspectral imaging sensors. By allowing the definition of completely general spectral filter functions, truly optimal measurements can be made for a given task. These optimal measurements significantly improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and speed, minimize data volume and data rate, while preserving classification accuracy. The following paper investigates the application of the ISIS sensing approach in two sample biomedical applications: prostate and colon cancer screening. It is shown that in these applications, two to three optimal measurements are sufficient to capture the majority of classification information for critical sample constituents. In the prostate cancer example, the optimal measurements allow 8% relative improvement in classification accuracy of critical cell constituents over a red, green, blue (RGB) sensor. In the colon cancer example, use of optimal measurements boost the classification accuracy of critical cell constituents by 28% relative to the RGB sensor. In both cases, optimal measurements match the performance achieved by the entire hyperspectral data set. The paper concludes that an ISIS style spectral imager can acquire these optimal spectral images directly, allowing improved classification accuracy over an RGB sensor. Compared to a hyperspectral sensor, the ISIS approach can achieve similar classification accuracy using a significantly lower number of spectral samples, thus minimizing overall sample classification time and cost.

  8. New application notion of pipeline transport--integrated in industry solid waste innocuous and efficient disposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; ZHAO Xue-yi; WANG Xing; PAN Yue; ZHANG Na; WU Yu-jing; WU Miao

    2006-01-01

    In order to solve transport problems of industry solid, firstly, a new application notion of pipeline transport was presented, that is to say, combining pretreatment and transport with disposal techniques of industry solid waste. Secondly, the integrated disposal and transport system for industry solid waste was introduced, in particular, the operating principles, equipment set-up, key technology and technical parameters. Next, this paper illustrated the application of this integrated system. Such as it can transport coal sludge with sufficiently high solids content ( about 72%~77%) and high apparent viscosity Generally, the transport distance is about 1 000 m. This system has been successfully used in innocuous disposition and efficient utilization of other industrial byproducts or solid wastes, such as city sludge and paper making waste. The integrated system causes no pollution to the environment for its complete seal and realizes protecting the environment,conserving the energy, promoting the development of cycling economic. Finally, the paper discussed the research works that were needed for studying such pipeline transport system and narrates the relevant condition and application status.

  9. Surprise disrupts cognition via a fronto-basal ganglia suppressive mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Jan R; Jenkinson, Ned; Brittain, John-Stuart; Voets, Sarah H E M; Aziz, Tipu Z; Aron, Adam R

    2016-04-18

    Surprising events markedly affect behaviour and cognition, yet the underlying mechanism is unclear. Surprise recruits a brain mechanism that globally suppresses motor activity, ostensibly via the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia. Here, we tested whether this suppressive mechanism extends beyond skeletomotor suppression and also affects cognition (here, verbal working memory, WM). We recorded scalp-EEG (electrophysiology) in healthy participants and STN local field potentials in Parkinson's patients during a task in which surprise disrupted WM. For scalp-EEG, surprising events engage the same independent neural signal component that indexes action stopping in a stop-signal task. Importantly, the degree of this recruitment mediates surprise-related WM decrements. Intracranially, STN activity is also increased post surprise, especially when WM is interrupted. These results suggest that surprise interrupts cognition via the same fronto-basal ganglia mechanism that interrupts action. This motivates a new neural theory of how cognition is interrupted, and how distraction arises after surprising events.

  10. ICT applications for energy efficiency in buildings. Report from the KTH Centre for Sustainable Communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramers, Anna H.; Svane, Oerjan

    2011-07-01

    The project 'ICT as a Motor of Transition' aims to examine how the innovative application of ICT can contribute to more energy-efficient transport habits and facilitate more sustainable ways of managing and using buildings, without the need for drastic changes in the city's physical structure. The project is an extended in-depth study and forms part of current research into urban sustainable development in the SitCit project at KTH Environmental Strategies Research (fms). The full title of the SitCit project is 'Situations of Opportunity in the Growth and Change of Three Stockholm City Districts - Everyday Life, Built Environment and Transport Explored as Energy Usage Systems and Governance Networks' (SitCit, 2010). It is an ongoing, cross-disciplinary, five-year project in collaboration with the Department of Energy Technology at KTH. An important part of the SitCit project is a methodological approach that integrates actors and measures in describing a process of change, in other words to look at 'What' can be transformed in parallel with transformation 'By Whom'? The 'ICT as a Motor of Transition' project focused on ICT solutions for energy-efficient and sustainable ways of managing and using buildings in the existing built environment. ICT could play a role as a key enabler for decreasing energy usage in buildings and at the same time create new business opportunities driven by the need for energy efficiency. Throughout the life cycle of a building, most energy ({approx}80%) is used during the operational stage (REEB, 2009a). The decisions made in the early design stages or in renovation stages for existing buildings thus influence about 80% of the total life cycle energy usage, while the impact of user behaviour and real-time control is in the range of 20% (REEB, 2009a). Therefore there is an urgent need to find new possibilities to decrease the energy usage in buildings. The overarching aim of this study

  11. Properties and Surprises of Solar Activity XXIII Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishkov, V. N.

    2010-12-01

    The main properties of the 23rd cycle match almost completely those of average-magnitude solar cycles, and some of the features of the cycle may indicate a change in the generation mode of magnetic fields in the solar convection zone. If this is the case, the Sun enters a period of intermediate and weak cycles of solar activity (SA) in terms of the Wolf number, which may last for 3 to 6 solar cycles. The main development stages of solar cycle 23 are the following: minimum of solar cycle 22: April 1996 (W* = 8.0); maximum of the smoothed relative sunspot number: April 2000; global polarity reversal of the general solar magnetic field: July to December 2000; secondary maximum of the relative sunspot number: November 2001; maximum of the 10.7-cm radio flux: February 2002; phase of the cycle maximum: October 1999 to June 2002; beginning of the decrease phase: July 2002; the point of minimum of the current SA cycle: December 2008. Solar cycle 23 has presented two powerful flare-active sunspot groups, in September 2005 and December 2006 (+5.5 and +6.6 years from the maximum) which by flare potential occupy 4th and 20th place among the most flare-active regions for the last four solar cycles. The unprecedented duration of the relative sunspot numbers fall that has led to already record duration of the last solar cycle among authentic cycles (since 1849) became the next surprise of development of solar activity during the last cycle. The phase of the minimum began in May 2005 and lasted for 4.5 years. Thus, the new solar cycle 24 has begun in January 2009.

  12. Dracunculiasis eradication - Finishing the job before surprises arise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin Jelle Visser

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dracunculiasis(Guinea worm disease) is a preventable waterborne parasitic disease that affects the poorest people living in remote rural areas in sub-SaharanAfrican countries, who do not have access to safe drinking water.The Guinea Worm Eradication Program, a25-year old campaign to rid the world ofGuineaWorm disease has now reached its final stage accelerating to zero cases in all endemic countries.During the19th and20th centuries, dracunculiasis was common in much ofSouthernAsia and theAfrican continent.The overall number of cases has been reduced tremendously by≥99%, from the3.32 million cases estimated to have occurred in1986 inAfrica to only1797 cases reported in2010 reported in only five countries(Sudan,Mali,Ethiopia,Chad andGhana) andAsia free of the disease.This achievement is unique in its kind - the only previously eradicated disease is smallpox, a viral infection for which vaccination was possible - and it has been achieved through primary community-based prevention and health education programs.Most efforts need to be taken in two countries,SouthSudan(comprising94% or1698 out of1797 of the cases reported world-wide in2010) andMali because of frequent movements of nomads in a vast area inside and outsideMali’s borders.All factors favourable to dracunculiasis eradication are available including adequate financial resources, community and political support and high levels of advocacy.Thus there is no reason that this disabling parasitic disease cannot be eradicated soon before surprises arise such as new civil conflicts in currently endemic countries.

  13. High Efficiency Nanostructured III-V Photovoltaics for Solar Concentrator Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Seth

    2012-09-12

    The High Efficiency Nanostructured III-V Photovoltaics for Solar Concentrators project seeks to provide new photovoltaic cells for Concentrator Photovoltaics (CPV) Systems with higher cell efficiency, more favorable temperature coefficients and less sensitivity to changes in spectral distribution. The main objective of this project is to provide high efficiency III-V solar cells that will reduce the overall cost per Watt for power generation using CPV systems.This work is focused both on a potential near term application, namely the use of indium arsenide (InAs) QDs to spectrally "tune" the middle (GaAs) cell of a SOA triple junction device to a more favorable effective bandgap, as well as the long term goal of demonstrating intermediate band solar cell effects. The QDs are confined within a high electric field i-region of a standard GaAs solar cell. The extended absorption spectrum (and thus enhanced short circuit current) of the QD solar cell results from the increase in the sub GaAs bandgap spectral response that is achievable as quantum dot layers are introduced into the i-region. We have grown InAs quantum dots by OMVPE technique and optimized the QD growth conditions. Arrays of up to 40 layers of strain balanced quantum dots have been experimentally demonstrated with good material quality, low residual stain and high PL intensity. Quantum dot enhanced solar cells were grown and tested under simulated one sun AM1.5 conditions. Concentrator solar cells have been grown and fabricated with 5-40 layers of QDs. Testing of these devices show the QD cells have improved efficiency compared to baseline devices without QDs. Device modeling and measurement of thermal properties were performed using Crosslight APSYS. Improvements in a triple junction solar cell with the insertion of QDs into the middle current limiting junction was shown to be as high as 29% under one sun illumination for a 10 layer stack QD enhanced triple junction solar cell. QD devices have strong

  14. Preparation, thermal performance and application of shape-stabilized PCM in energy efficient buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.P.; Lin, K.P.; Di, H.F.; Jiang, Y. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Building Science and Technology; Yang, B. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-10-15

    Shape-stabilized phase change material (PCM) is a kind of novel PCM. It has the following salient features: large apparent specific heat for phase change temperature region, suitable thermal conductivity, keeping shape stabilized in the phase change process and no need for containers. The preparation for such kind material was investigated and its thermophysical properties were measured. Some applications of such material in energy efficient buildings (e.g., in electric under floor space heating system, in wallboard or floor to absorb solar energy to narrow the temperature swing of a day in winter) were studied. Some models of analyzing the thermal performance of the systems were developed, which were validated with the experiments. The following conclusions are obtained: (1) the applications of the novel PCM we put forward are of promising perspectives in some climate regions; (2) by using different paraffin, the melting temperature of shape-stabilized PCM can be adjusted; (3) the heat of fusion of it is in the range of 62-138 kJ kg{sup -1}; (4) for PCM floor or wallboard to absorb solar energy to narrow the temperature swing in a day in winter, the suitable melting temperature of PCM should be a little higher than average indoor air temperature of the room without PCM for the period of sunshine; (5) for the electric under-floor space heating system, the optimal melting temperature can be determined by simulation; (6) PCM layer used in the aforementioned application should not be thicker than 2 cm; (7) the models developed by us are helpful for applications of shape-stabilized PCM in buildings. (author)

  15. A High-Efficiency Refractive Secondary Solar Concentrator for High Temperature Solar Thermal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.; Macosko, Robert P.

    2000-01-01

    A refractive secondary solar concentrator is a non-imaging optical device that accepts focused solar energy from a primary concentrator and redirects that light, by means of refraction and total internal reflection (TIR) into a cavity where the solar energy is used for power and/or propulsion applications. This concept offers a variety of advantages compared to typical reflective secondary concentrators (or the use of no secondary at all): higher optical efficiency, minimal secondary cooling requirements, a smaller cavity aperture, a reduction of outgassing from the cavity and flux tailoring of the solar energy within the heat receiver. During the past 2 years, NASA Lewis has been aggressively developing this concept in support of the NASA Marshall Shooting Star Flight Experiment. This paper provides a brief overview of the advantages and technical challenges associated with the development of a refractive secondary concentrator and the fabrication of a working unit in support of the flight demonstration program.

  16. Exhaustive and Efficient Constraint Propagation: A Semi-Supervised Learning Perspective and Its Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Zhiwu; Peng, Yuxin

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel pairwise constraint propagation approach by decomposing the challenging constraint propagation problem into a set of independent semi-supervised learning subproblems which can be solved in quadratic time using label propagation based on k-nearest neighbor graphs. Considering that this time cost is proportional to the number of all possible pairwise constraints, our approach actually provides an efficient solution for exhaustively propagating pairwise constraints throughout the entire dataset. The resulting exhaustive set of propagated pairwise constraints are further used to adjust the similarity matrix for constrained spectral clustering. Other than the traditional constraint propagation on single-source data, our approach is also extended to more challenging constraint propagation on multi-source data where each pairwise constraint is defined over a pair of data points from different sources. This multi-source constraint propagation has an important application to cross-modal mul...

  17. Pulsed high field magnets. An efficient way of shaping laser accelerated proton beams for application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, Florian; Schramm, Ulrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Bagnoud, Vincent; Blazevic, Abel; Busold, Simon [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz Institut Jena, 07734 Jena (Germany); Brabetz, Christian; Schumacher, Dennis [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Deppert, Oliver; Jahn, Diana; Roth, Markus [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Karsch, Leonhard; Masood, Umar [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Kraft, Stephan [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Compact laser-driven proton accelerators are a potential alternative to complex, expensive conventional accelerators, enabling unique beam properties, like ultra-high pulse dose. Nevertheless, they still require substantial development in reliable beam generation and transport. We present experimental studies on capture, shape and transport of laser and conventionally accelerated protons via pulsed high-field magnets. These magnets, common research tools in the fields of solid state physics, have been adapted to meet the demands of laser acceleration experiments.Our work distinctively shows that pulsed magnet technology makes laser acceleration more suitable for application and can facilitate compact and efficient accelerators, e.g. for material research as well as medical and biological purposes.

  18. Advanced DC/DC Converters Towards Higher Volumetric Efficiencies For Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Harry; Shue, Jack; Liu, David; Wang, Bright; Plante, Jeanette

    2005-01-01

    A new emphasis on planetary exploration by NASA drives the need for small, high power DC/DC converters which are functionally modular. NASA GSFC and other government space organizations are supporting technology development in the DC/DC converter area to both meet new needs and to promote more sources of supply. New technologies which enable miniaturization such as embedded passive technologies and thermal management using high thermal conductivity materials are features of the new designs. Construction of some simple DC/DC converter core circuits using embedded components was found to be successful for increasing volumetric efficiency to 37 W/inch. The embedded passives were also able to perform satisfactorily in this application in cryogenic temperatures.

  19. Spectrally-resolved optical efficiency using a multi-junction cell as light sensor: Application cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria, Marta; Domínguez, César; Jost, Norman; Vallerotto, Guido; Antón, Ignacio; Sala, Gabriel

    2017-09-01

    The experimental method to determine the spectrally-resolved optical efficiency of concentrating optics is described in this paper. The measurement uses a multi-junction solar cell as light sensor and a series of band-pass filters to isolate the optical performance of different narrow spectral bands throughout the spectrum of interest. Additional bias light is provided to saturate the subcells whose spectral response is out of the transmittance of every band-pass filter. The method allows the characterization of the combined transmittance, reflectance and absorbance of every material composing the optics including optical couplers and thin layers such as antireflective coatings. The two application cases included illustrate the potential of this novel characterization technique. Firstly, a novel refractive concentrator, the Achromatic Doublet on Glass (ADG) Fresnel lens is measured. Secondly, the method is applied to analyze the degradation of outdoor exposed glass molded Secondary Optical Elements (SOE).

  20. High Efficiency Interleaved Active Clamped Dc-Dc Converter with Fuel Cell for High Voltage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona P

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A high efficiency interleaved ZVS active clamped current fed dc-dc converter is proposed in this paper specially used for fuel cell applications. As the fuel cell output is very low we are in need of a step up dc-dc converter. Here a current fed dc-dc converter is used. Two current fed dc-dc converters are interleaved by connecting their inputs in parallel and outputs in series. With this proposed methodology input current ripples in the fuel cell stacks can be reduced and a regulated output voltage ripples can be obtained. The active clamping circuit used in this model absorbs the turn off voltage spikes hence low voltage devices with low on state resistance can be used.Voltage doubler circuits will give double the output voltage than normal with smaller transformer turns ratio and flexibility. The proposed method is simulated in MATLAB for verifying the accuracy of the proposed design.

  1. The feasibility and application of using gravitational energy to allow efficient travel between earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, O. L.; Avvento, Gennaro J.

    This paper discusses the feasibility and application of using gravitational energy attained in a planetary swing-by to control the trajectory of an interplanetary transfer vehicle (IPTV) - establishing nonstop round trip orbits between earth and Mars. Energy supplied by the swing-by process and supplemented by minor correction burns will allow efficient nonstop round trip travel between earth and Mars. The IPTV will have all the necessary support equipment to maintain the cargo (manned/unmanned) during transit. At the planetary 'landfall' points, the IPTV will not decelerate but will perform a swing-by maneuver returning to the planet of origin. Cargo elements will either depart or dock with the IPTV at the planetary approach asymptote. This will be the only component of the system to undergo propulsive maneuvers.

  2. A novel neural dynamical approach to convex quadratic program and its efficient applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Youshen; Sun, Changyin

    2009-12-01

    This paper proposes a novel neural dynamical approach to a class of convex quadratic programming problems where the number of variables is larger than the number of equality constraints. The proposed continuous-time and proposed discrete-time neural dynamical approach are guaranteed to be globally convergent to an optimal solution. Moreover, the number of its neurons is equal to the number of equality constraints. In contrast, the number of neurons in existing neural dynamical methods is at least the number of the variables. Therefore, the proposed neural dynamical approach has a low computational complexity. Compared with conventional numerical optimization methods, the proposed discrete-time neural dynamical approach reduces multiplication operation per iteration and has a large computational step length. Computational examples and two efficient applications to signal processing and robot control further confirm the good performance of the proposed approach.

  3. Constructing an Efficient Self-Tuning Aircraft Engine Model for Control and Health Management Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Jeffrey B.; Simon, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    Self-tuning aircraft engine models can be applied for control and health management applications. The self-tuning feature of these models minimizes the mismatch between any given engine and the underlying engineering model describing an engine family. This paper provides details of the construction of a self-tuning engine model centered on a piecewise linear Kalman filter design. Starting from a nonlinear transient aerothermal model, a piecewise linear representation is first extracted. The linearization procedure creates a database of trim vectors and state-space matrices that are subsequently scheduled for interpolation based on engine operating point. A series of steady-state Kalman gains can next be constructed from a reduced-order form of the piecewise linear model. Reduction of the piecewise linear model to an observable dimension with respect to available sensed engine measurements can be achieved using either a subset or an optimal linear combination of "health" parameters, which describe engine performance. The resulting piecewise linear Kalman filter is then implemented for faster-than-real-time processing of sensed engine measurements, generating outputs appropriate for trending engine performance, estimating both measured and unmeasured parameters for control purposes, and performing on-board gas-path fault diagnostics. Computational efficiency is achieved by designing multidimensional interpolation algorithms that exploit the shared scheduling of multiple trim vectors and system matrices. An example application illustrates the accuracy of a self-tuning piecewise linear Kalman filter model when applied to a nonlinear turbofan engine simulation. Additional discussions focus on the issue of transient response accuracy and the advantages of a piecewise linear Kalman filter in the context of validation and verification. The techniques described provide a framework for constructing efficient self-tuning aircraft engine models from complex nonlinear

  4. Efficient Energy Sensitization of C 60 and Application to Organic Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Trinh, Cong

    2013-08-14

    Fullerenes are currently the most popular electron-acceptor material used in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) due to their superior properties, such as good electron conductivity and efficient charge separation at the donor/acceptor interface. However, low absorptivity in the visible spectral region is a significant drawback of fullerenes. In this study, we have designed a zinc chlorodipyrrin derivative (ZCl) that absorbs strongly in the visible region (450-600 nm) with an optical density 7-fold higher than a C60 film. ZCl efficiently transfers absorbed photoenergy to C60 in mixed films. Application of ZCl as an energy sensitizer in OPV devices leads to an increase in the photocurrent from the acceptor layer, without changing the other device characteristics, i.e., open circuit voltage and fill factor. For example, C 60-based OPVs with and without the sensitizer give 4.03 and 3.05 mA/cm2, respectively, while both have VOC = 0.88 V and FF = 0.44. Our ZCl sensitization approach improves the absorbance of the electron-acceptor layer while still utilizing the beneficial characteristics of C60 in OPVs. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  5. A new framework for comprehensive, robust, and efficient global sensitivity analysis: 2. Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Saman; Gupta, Hoshin V.

    2016-01-01

    Based on the theoretical framework for sensitivity analysis called "Variogram Analysis of Response Surfaces" (VARS), developed in the companion paper, we develop and implement a practical "star-based" sampling strategy (called STAR-VARS), for the application of VARS to real-world problems. We also develop a bootstrap approach to provide confidence level estimates for the VARS sensitivity metrics and to evaluate the reliability of inferred factor rankings. The effectiveness, efficiency, and robustness of STAR-VARS are demonstrated via two real-data hydrological case studies (a 5-parameter conceptual rainfall-runoff model and a 45-parameter land surface scheme hydrology model), and a comparison with the "derivative-based" Morris and "variance-based" Sobol approaches are provided. Our results show that STAR-VARS provides reliable and stable assessments of "global" sensitivity across the full range of scales in the factor space, while being 1-2 orders of magnitude more efficient than the Morris or Sobol approaches.

  6. Nanostructured organosilicon luminophores and their application in highly efficient plastic scintillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarenko, Sergei A; Surin, Nikolay M; Borshchev, Oleg V; Luponosov, Yuriy N; Akimov, Dmitry Y; Alexandrov, Ivan S; Burenkov, Alexander A; Kovalenko, Alexey G; Stekhanov, Viktor N; Kleymyuk, Elena A; Gritsenko, Oleg T; Cherkaev, Georgiy V; Kechek'yan, Alexander S; Serenko, Olga A; Muzafarov, Aziz M

    2014-10-08

    Organic luminophores are widely used in various optoelectronic devices, which serve for photonics, nuclear and particle physics, quantum electronics, medical diagnostics and many other fields of science and technology. Improving their spectral-luminescent characteristics for particular technical requirements of the devices is a challenging task. Here we show a new concept to universal solution of this problem by creation of nanostructured organosilicon luminophores (NOLs), which are a particular type of dendritic molecular antennas. They combine the best properties of organic luminophores and inorganic quantum dots: high absorption cross-section, excellent photoluminescence quantum yield, fast luminescence decay time and good processability. A NOL consists of two types of covalently bonded via silicon atoms organic luminophores with efficient Förster energy transfer between them. Using NOLs in plastic scintillators, widely utilized for radiation detection and in elementary particles discoveries, led to a breakthrough in their efficiency, which combines both high light output and fast decay time. Moreover, for the first time plastic scintillators, which emit light in the desired wavelength region ranging from 370 to 700 nm, have been created. We anticipate further applications of NOLs as working elements of pulsed dye lasers in photonics, optoelectronics and as fluorescent labels in biology and medical diagnostics.

  7. Trellis-coded MPSK modulation for highly efficient military satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterbi, Andrew J.; Wolf, Jack K.; Zehavi, Ephraim

    Trellis-coded multiple-phase-shift-keyed (MPSK) modulation is an effective technique for increasing the bandwidth efficiency of an existing channel while maintaining at least a moderate degree of power efficiency through coding. The authors consider the application of this technique to increase markedly the capacity of a 25-kHz military satellite channel. It is shown that with only minor modifications to the QPSK modem to incorporate 8 PSK and 16 PSK modulation and no modification to the rate-1/2 coder used to transmit 16 kb/s over this channel, transmission rates of 32 kb/s and 48 kb/s, can be supported at E(b)/N(0) levels only moderately higher than for the lower data rate. In fact, it is demonstrated that 48 Kb/s can be transmitted within exactly the same bandwidth and at the same E(b)/N(0) levels as that required to transmit uncoded QPSK at 32 kb/s at bit error rate of 10-5.

  8. Efficient Inference of Gaussian-Process-Modulated Renewal Processes with Application to Medical Event Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasko, Thomas A

    2014-07-01

    The episodic, irregular and asynchronous nature of medical data render them difficult substrates for standard machine learning algorithms. We would like to abstract away this difficulty for the class of time-stamped categorical variables (or events) by modeling them as a renewal process and inferring a probability density over non-parametric longitudinal intensity functions that modulate the process. Several methods exist for inferring such a density over intensity functions, but either their constraints prevent their use with our potentially bursty event streams, or their time complexity renders their use intractable on our long-duration observations of high-resolution events, or both. In this paper we present a new efficient and flexible inference method that uses direct numeric integration and smooth interpolation over Gaussian processes. We demonstrate that our direct method is up to twice as accurate and two orders of magnitude more efficient than the best existing method (thinning). Importantly, our direct method can infer intensity functions over the full range of bursty to memoryless to regular events, which thinning and many other methods cannot do. Finally, we apply the method to clinical event data and demonstrate a simple example application facilitated by the abstraction.

  9. Efficient Analysis of Live and Historical Streaming Data and itsApplication to Cybersecurity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiss, Frederick; Stockinger, Kurt; Wu, Kesheng; Shoshani, Arie; Hellerstein, Joseph M.

    2007-04-06

    Applications that query data streams in order to identifytrends, patterns, or anomalies can often benefit from comparing the livestream data with archived historical stream data. However, searching thishistorical data in real time has been considered so far to beprohibitively expensive. One of the main bottlenecks is the update costsof the indices over the archived data. In this paper, we address thisproblem by using our highly-efficient bitmap indexing technology (calledFastBit) and demonstrate that the index update operations aresufficiently efficient for this bottleneck to be removed. We describe ourprototype system based on the TelegraphCQ streaming query processor andthe FastBit bitmap index. We present a detailed performance evaluation ofour system using a complex query workload for analyzing real networktraffic data. The combined system uses TelegraphCQ to analyze streams oftraffic information and FastBit to correlate current behaviors withhistorical trends. We demonstrate that our system can simultaneouslyanalyze (1) live streams with high data rates and (2) a large repositoryof historical stream data.

  10. Highly efficient multifunctional metasurface for high-gain lens antenna application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Haisheng; Wang, Guangming; Li, Haipeng; Guo, Wenlong; Li, Tangjing

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a novel multifunctional metasurface combining linear-to-circular polarization conversion and electromagnetic waves focusing has been proposed and applied to design a high-gain lens antenna working at Ku band. The multifunctional metasurface consists of 15 × 15 unit cells. Each unit cell is composed of four identical metallic layers and three intermediate dielectric layers. Due to well optimization, the multifunctional metasurface can convert the linearly polarized waves generated by the source to circularly polarized waves and focus the waves. By placing a patch antenna operating at 15 GHz at the focal point of the metasurface and setting the focal distance to diameter ratio ( F/ D) to 0.34, we obtain a multifunctional lens antenna. Simulated and measured results coincide well, indicating that the metasurface can convert linearly polarized waves to right-handed circularly polarized waves at 15 GHz with excellent performances in terms of the 3 dB axial ratio bandwidth of 5.3%, realized gain of 16.9 dB and aperture efficiency of 41.2%. Because of the advantages of high gain, competitive efficiency and easy fabrication, the proposed lens antenna has a great potential application in wireless and satellite communication.

  11. Surprising findings when updating workload at the Wits Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-20

    May 20, 2015 ... researchers is an institutional governance issue which should best be ... A retrospective extraction of data from committee minutes (2011-2013) and application forms (January ..... in the healthcare-based ethics approval.

  12. A High-Efficiency Voltage Equalization Scheme for Supercapacitor Energy Storage System in Renewable Generation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liran Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its fast charge and discharge rate, a supercapacitor-based energy storage system is especially suitable for power smoothing in renewable energy generation applications. Voltage equalization is essential for series-connected supercapacitors in an energy storage system, because it supports the system’s sustainability and maximizes the available cell energy. In this paper, we present a high-efficiency voltage equalization scheme for supercapacitor energy storage systems in renewable generation applications. We propose an improved isolated converter topology that uses a multi-winding transformer. An improved push-pull forward circuit is applied on the primary side of the transformer. A coupling inductor is added on the primary side to allow the switches to operate under the zero-voltage switching (ZVS condition, which reduces switching losses. The diodes in the rectifier are replaced with metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs to reduce the power dissipation of the secondary side. In order to simplify the control, we designed a controllable rectifying circuit to achieve synchronous rectifying on the secondary side of the transformer. The experimental results verified the effectiveness of the proposed design.

  13. Fungicides efficiency on wheat diseases control in response to the application with different spray nozzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rafael Garcés Fiallos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of fungicides to leaf control diseases of wheat, when applied to different models of spray nozzles. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with four replicates of factorial (4 x 3+1. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The fungicides used were: Opera® (pyraclostrobin+epoxiconazole 0.75 L.ha-1 , Opera® 0.75 L.ha-1 +Folicur® (tebuconazole 0.3 L.ha-1 , Priori Xtra® (azoxystrobin+cyproconazole 0.3 L.ha-1 , Priori Xtra® 0.3 L.ha-1 +Tilt® (propiconazole 0.3 L.ha-1 . These fungicides were applied with three models of spray nozzles jet planes: XR 11 001 (fine drop, AIRMIX 11,001 (average drop and AVI 11,001 (coarse drop. We evaluated the incidence and severity (damage per plant leaf of yellow spot (Drechslera tritici-repentis, spot blotch (Bipolaris sorokiniana, leaf rust (Puccinia triticina and grain yield (kg.ha-1 culture. The results show that the application of fungicides for control of leaf diseases in wheat resulted in increases in grain yield, and yield higher values were observed with the application of Opera®, using the XR 11001.

  14. Privacy-Free Garbled Circuits with Applications To Efficient Zero-Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Tore Kasper; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Orlandi, Claudio

    In the last few years garbled circuits (GC) have been elevated from being merely a component in Yao’s protocol for secure two-party computation, to a cryptographic primitive in its own right, following the growing number applications that use GCs. Zero-Knowledge (ZK) protocols is one of these exa......In the last few years garbled circuits (GC) have been elevated from being merely a component in Yao’s protocol for secure two-party computation, to a cryptographic primitive in its own right, following the growing number applications that use GCs. Zero-Knowledge (ZK) protocols is one...... in the computation), we can construct more efficient garbled schemes specifically tailored to this goal. As a highlight of our result, in one of our constructions only one encryption per gate needs to be communicated and XOR gates never require any cryptographic operation. In addition to making a step forward...... towards more practical ZK, we believe that our contribution is also interesting from a conceptual point of view: in the terminology of Bellare et al. [BHR12] our garbling schemes achieve authenticity, but no privacy nor obliviousness, therefore representing the first natural separation between those...

  15. Modeling of high efficiency solar cells under laser pulse for power beaming applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Raj K.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1994-09-01

    Solar cells have been used to convert sunlight to electrical energy for many years and also offer great potential for non-solar energy conversion applications. Their greatly improved performance under monochromatic light compared to sunlight, makes them suitable as photovoltaic (PV) receivers in laser power beaming applications. Laser beamed power to a PV array receiver could provide power to satellites, an orbital transfer vehicle, or a lunar base. Gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium phosphide (InP) solar cells have calculated efficiencies of more than 50 percent under continuous illumination at the optimum wavelength. Currently high power free-electron lasers are being developed which operate in pulsed conditions. Understanding cell behavior under a laser pulse is important in the selection of the solar cell material and the laser. An experiment by NAsA lewis and JPL at the AVLIS laser facility in Livermore, CA presented experimental data on cell performance under pulsed laser illumination. Reference 5 contains an overview of technical issues concerning the use of solar cells for laser power conversion, written before the experiments were performed. As the experimental results showed, the actual effects of pulsed operation are more complicated. Reference 6 discusses simulations of the output of GaAs concentrator solar cells under pulsed laser illumination. The present paper continues this work, and compares the output of Si and GaAs solar cells.

  16. Efficient blastomere biopsy for mouse embryo splitting for future applications in human assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illmensee, K; Kaskar, K; Zavos, P M

    2005-12-01

    The objective of the current study was to establish a safe, efficient biopsy procedure for embryo splitting using the mouse model for future applications in human assisted reproduction. From mouse embryos at the 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-cell stage, half the number of blastomeres were microsurgically biopsied and transferred into empty mouse zonae pellucidae. Twin embryonic development was monitored during in-vitro culture. Blastocyst developmental rate using 2-, 4-, 6-, and 8-cell splitting was 74.4, 75.0, 66.7 and 38.4 respectively, with corresponding hatching rates of 94.9, 97.5, 92.7 and 83.8%. Blastocysts from 2-, 4-, and 6-cell splitting resulted in elevated hatching rates compared with non-operated blastocysts (87.5%), due to the Tyrode-assisted hatching effect. Blastocyst morphology was superior from 2- and 4-cell splitting when compared with 6- and 8-cell splitting. Furthermore, outgrowth of twin blastocysts from 2- and 4-cell splitting showed well-developed colonies with trophoblast cells and clusters of ICM cells, whereas those obtained from 6- and 8-cell splitting frequently formed small-sized colonies. Due to the high twinning success rate obtained under the experimental conditions employed in this study, it appears that with further modifications and proper safeguards, such embryo splitting efforts could have potential applications in humans.

  17. Investigating the efficiency of IEEE 802.15.4 for medical monitoring applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegris, P; Banitsas, K

    2011-01-01

    Recent advancements in wireless communications technologies bring us one step closer to provide reliable Telecare services as an alternative to patients staying in a hospital mainly for monitoring purposes. In this research we investigate the efficiency of IEEE 802.15.4 in a simple scenario where a patient is being monitored using an ECG and a blood analysis module. This approach binds well with assisted living solutions, by sharing the network infrastructure for both monitoring and control while taking advantage of the low power features of the protocol. Such applications are becoming more and more realistic to implement as IEEE 802.15.4 compatible hardware becomes increasingly available. Our aim is to examine the impact of Beacon and Superframe Order in the medium access delay, dropped packets, end to end delay, average retransmission attempts and consumed power focusing on this bandwidth demanding situation where the network load does not allow low duty cycles, in order to draw some conclusions on the effect that this will have to telemonitoring applications.

  18. A new device for vein localization and effect of application of disinfectant spray on its efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreyer Jan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A functional device was developed to immediately show the localization of veins by detecting a temperature increase on the skin directly above them. Our new idea, compared to other developments, is the comparison of temperatures between a small, ideally punctiform, skin area, and a larger circularly surrounding area. This is realized by two infrared temperature sensors, one with a small field of view, and the other one with a larger field of view. The position of the vein is indicated by two laser modules, which beams cross in one spot, when the device is held in a defined distance to the skin. If the device is held over a vein, the laser spot lightens up. The device was tested in ten study participants. Cooling of the skin by disinfectant spray prior to the measurements increases the temperature gradient and thereby improves the efficiency of the device. Temperature profiles of four skin areas of each study participant were measured before and one minute after application of disinfectant spray. After application of disinfectant spray, a temperature difference of more than 0.3 K between a measuring point above a vein and points 15 mm next to this could be found in 36 out of 40 measurements (90%, compared to 26 out of 40 (65% before disinfection. The mean temperature gradient could be increased from 0.476 K to 1.03 K (p < 0.001.

  19. Surprising Sensitivities in Simulations of Radiative Convective Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drotos, Gabor; Becker, Tobias; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Stevens, Bjorn

    2017-04-01

    The climate and climate-sensitivity of a global model run in radiative equilibrium is explored. Results from simulations with ECHAM6.3 coupled to a slab ocean and run in a wide range of configurations are presented. Simulations both with and without a parameterised representation of deep convection are conducted for CO2 concentrations ranging from one eighth of present day values to thirty-two times the present day, and for variations in the solar constant of more than a factor of two. Very long simulations, in some case more than a thousand years, are performed to adequately sample the attractor of the different climate states of the model, and provide robust estimates of the system's climate sensitivity parameter. For the standard configuration of the model the climate sensitivity progressively decreases from very large values (6-7K) for the coldest climates to well below 1 K for the warmest climates. For very high CO2 levels (16 and 32 times the present value) fluctuations of globally averaged temperature as large as 10 K arise on decadal time-scales. These fluctuations manifest as quasi-period coolings, driven by large and persistent global scale decks of stratiform low clouds, so that for a period of several years global temperatures drop to levels below the lowest temperatures of the climate with present day values of CO2. The same configuration of the model has more modest sensitivities when the insolation is reduced, but runaway warming results for small (10%) increases. Simulations without parameterised convection have colder (by roughly 10K) climates and smaller (1K) sensitivities, allowing a stable climate with earth-like temperatures even for insolation much (50%) larger than the present day. Such values of insolation are possible because over a large range of the insolation the climate sensitivity parameter is very near zero. The surprising sensitivities of the system, and the limit-cycle like behaviour of the very CO2 rich climates, can be traced to

  20. Application of Environmental Change Efficiency to the Sustainability of Urban Development at the Neighborhood Level

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hsing-Fu Kuo; Ko-Wan Tsou

    2015-01-01

    .... A spatial and measurable efficiency value is defined for environmental changes in urban land development, which provides a comprehensive evaluation index for the efficiency of urban development...

  1. Fine-pitch high-efficiency spatial optical modulator for mobile display applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jong Hyeong; Yun, Sang Kyeong; Kim, Hee Yeoun; An, Seungdo; Park, Heung Woo; Choi, Yoon Joon; Yurlov, Victor; Lapchuk, Anatoliy; Yang, Chung Mo; Lee, Sung Jun; Jang, Jae Wook; Lee, Ki Un; Woo, Ki Suk; Bourim, El M.

    2009-02-01

    Diffractive spatial optical modulators (SOM) with fine pitch pixel array were introduced for the mobile applications of laser projection display which requires the small volume, low power consumption and high optical efficiency. Micromechanical designs of piezoelectric (PZT) actuator and mirror ribbon structure were optimized for small volume, but keeping the same level of the other performance. Even though the same design rule and fabrication equipment were used for 10 um pitch SOM and 16 um pitch SOM, the optical efficiency of the fine pitch SOM was 78 % for the 0th order diffraction and is better than that of 16 um pitch SOM (73%). The full on/off contrast ratio has no difference between 10 um pitch and 16 um pitch SOM. All the optical characteristics coincide well with the theoretical estimations. High displacement of 500nm, which is enough to modulate the three Red, Green and Blue colors were achieved by the control of the thicknesses and stresses of constituent structural layers. It was found that the stress of Pt/PZT/Pt actuating layer was the main parameter affecting the initial gap height of the ribbon and also its displacement. For improving the optical properties of the SOM devices, the required ribbon-flatness could be achieved by applying a stress gradient on the SiN layer to compensate for the stress unbalance between Al mirror and SiN supprting layer. The temperature sensitive characteristics of the SOM device, which degrades the image quality, could be minimized by a mechanical compensation method using a thermal expansion effect of Si substrates. This concept could be applied in most of the bridge type MEMS structure. The most critical parameter which limit the SOM device lifetime was found to be the ribbon displacement degradation. By using a temperature accelerating lifetime measurement method based on the displacement degradation the estimated lifetime was more than 4,000 hrs and is of acceptable level in the mobile application. In short, the

  2. Nano-graphene oxide carboxylation for efficient bioconjugation applications: a quantitative optimization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imani, Rana; Emami, Shahriar Hojjati, E-mail: semami@aut.ac.ir [Amirkabir University of Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faghihi, Shahab, E-mail: shahabeddin.faghihi@mail.mcgill.ca, E-mail: sfaghihi@nigeb.ac.ir [National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tissue Engineering and Biomaterials Division (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    A method for carboxylation of graphene oxide (GO) with chloroacetic acid that precisely optimizes and controls the efficacy of the process for bioconjugation applications is proposed. Quantification of COOH groups on nano-graphene oxide sheets (NGOS) is performed by novel colorimetric methylene blue (MB) assay. The GO is synthesized and carboxylated by chloroacetic acid treatment under strong basic condition. The size and morphology of the as-prepared NGOS are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effect of acid to base molar ratio on the physical, chemical, and morphological properties of NGOS is analyzed by Fourier-transformed infrared spectrometry (FTIR), UV–Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), AFM, and zeta potential. For evaluation of bioconjugation efficacy, the synthesized nano-carriers with different carboxylation ratios are functionalized by octaarginine peptide sequence (R8) as a biomolecule model containing amine groups. The quantification of attached R8 peptides to graphene nano-sheets’ surface is performed with a colorimetric-based assay which includes the application of 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The results show that the thickness and lateral size of nano-sheets are dramatically decreased to 0.8 nm and 50–100 nm after carboxylation process, respectively. X-ray analysis shows the nano-sheets interlaying space is affected by the alteration of chloroacetic acid to base ratio. The MB assay reveals that the COOH groups on the surface of NGOS are maximized at the acid to base ratio of 2 which is confirmed by FTIR, XRD, and zeta potential. The TNBS assay also shows that bioconjugation of the optimized carboxylated NGOS sample with octaarginine peptide is 2.5 times more efficient compared to bare NGOS. The present work provides evidence that treatment of GO by chloroacetic acid under an optimized condition would create a functionalized high

  3. Development and application of efficient strategies for parallel magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, F.

    2006-07-01

    artifacts. Unfortunately, parallel imaging is associated with a loss in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and therefore is limited to applications which do not already operate at the SNR limit. An additional limitation is the fact that the coil array must provide sufficient sensitivity variations throughout the object under investigation in order to offer enough spatial encoding capacity. This doctoral thesis exhibits an overview of my research on the topic of efficient parallel imaging strategies. Based on existing parallel acquisition and reconstruction strategies, such as SENSE and GRAPPA, new concepts have been developed and transferred to potential clinical applications. (orig.)

  4. Enery Efficient Press and Sinter of Titanium Powder for Low-Cost Components in Vehicle Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Zwitter; Phillip Nash; Xiaoyan Xu; Chadwick Johnson

    2011-03-31

    This is the final technical report for the Department of Energy NETL project NT01931 Energy Efficient Press and Sinter of Titanium Powder for Low-Cost Components in Vehicle Applications. Titanium has been identified as one of the key materials with the required strength that can reduce the weight of automotive components and thereby reduce fuel consumption. Working with newly developed sources of titanium powder, Webster-Hoff will develop the processing technology to manufacture low cost vehicle components using the single press/single sinter techniques developed for iron based powder metallurgy today. Working with an automotive or truck manufacturer, Webster-Hoff will demonstrate the feasibility of manufacturing a press and sinter titanium component for a vehicle application. The project objective is two-fold, to develop the technology for manufacturing press and sinter titanium components, and to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a titanium component for a vehicle application. The lowest cost method for converting metal powder into a net shape part is the Powder Metallurgy Press and Sinter Process. The method involves compaction of the metal powder in a tool (usually a die and punches, upper and lower) at a high pressure (up to 60 TSI or 827 MPa) to form a green compact with the net shape of the final component. The powder in the green compact is held together by the compression bonds between the powder particles. The sinter process then converts the green compact to a metallurgically bonded net shape part through the process of solid state diffusion. The goal of this project is to expand the understanding and application of press and sinter technology to Titanium Powder applications, developing techniques to manufacture net shape Titanium components via the press and sinter process. In addition, working with a vehicle manufacturer, demonstrate the feasibility of producing a titanium component for a vehicle. This is not a research program, but rather a

  5. Developments in Stochastic Fuel Efficient Cruise Control and Constrained Control with Applications to Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Kevin K.

    The dissertation presents contributions to fuel-efficient control of vehicle speed and constrained control with applications to aircraft. In the first part of this dissertation a stochastic approach to fuel-efficient vehicle speed control is developed. This approach encompasses stochastic modeling of road grade and traffic speed, modeling of fuel consumption through the use of a neural network, and the application of stochastic dynamic programming to generate vehicle speed control policies that are optimized for the trade-off between fuel consumption and travel time. The fuel economy improvements with the proposed policies are quantified through simulations and vehicle experiments. It is shown that the policies lead to the emergence of time-varying vehicle speed patterns that are referred to as time-varying cruise. Through simulations and experiments it is confirmed that these time-varying vehicle speed profiles are more fuel-efficient than driving at a comparable constant speed. Motivated by these results, a simpler implementation strategy that is more appealing for practical implementation is also developed. This strategy relies on a finite state machine and state transition threshold optimization, and its benefits are quantified through model-based simulations and vehicle experiments. Several additional contributions are made to approaches for stochastic modeling of road grade and vehicle speed that include the use of Kullback-Liebler divergence and divergence rate and a stochastic jump-like model for the behavior of the road grade. In the second part of the dissertation, contributions to constrained control with applications to aircraft are described. Recoverable sets and integral safe sets of initial states of constrained closed-loop systems are introduced first and computational procedures of such sets based on linear discrete-time models are given. The use of linear discrete-time models is emphasized as they lead to fast computational procedures. Examples of

  6. Stars Form Surprisingly Close to Milky Way's Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way has surprisingly helped spawn a new generation of stars, according to observations from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This novel mode of star formation may solve several mysteries about the supermassive black holes that reside at the centers of nearly all galaxies. "Massive black holes are usually known for violence and destruction," said Sergei Nayakshin of the University of Leicester, United Kingdom, and coauthor of a paper on this research in an upcoming issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. "So it's remarkable that this black hole helped create new stars, not just destroy them." Black holes have earned their fearsome reputation because any material -- including stars -- that falls within the so-called event horizon is never seen again. However, these new results indicate that the immense disks of gas known to orbit many black holes at a "safe" distance from the event horizon can help nurture the formation of new stars. Animation of Stars Forming Around Black Hole Animation of Stars Forming Around Black Hole This conclusion came from new clues that could only be revealed in X-rays. Until the latest Chandra results, astronomers have disagreed about the origin of a mysterious group of massive stars discovered by infrared astronomers to be orbiting less than a light year from the Milky Way's central black hole, a.k.a. Sagittarius A*, or Sgr A*. At such close distances to Sgr A*, the standard model for star formation predicts that gas clouds from which stars form should have been ripped apart by tidal forces from the black hole. Two models to explain this puzzle have been proposed. In the disk model, the gravity of a dense disk of gas around Sgr A* offsets the tidal forces and allows stars to form; in the migration model, the stars formed in a star cluster far away from the black hole and migrated in to form the ring of massive stars. The migration scenario predicts about a

  7. Carbon Dioxide: Surprising Effects on Decision Making and Neurocognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2013-01-01

    The occupants of modern submarines and the International Space Station (ISS) have much in common as far as their air quality is concerned. Air is polluted by materials offgassing, use of utility compounds, leaks of systems chemicals, and anthropogenic sources. The primary anthropogenic compound of concern to submariners and astronauts has been carbon dioxide (CO2). NASA and the US Navy rely on the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRC-COT) to help formulate exposure levels to CO2 that are thought to be safe for exposures of 3-6 months. NASA calls its limits Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs). Years of experience aboard the ISS and a recent publication on deficits in decision making in ground-based subjects exposed briefly to 0.25% CO2 suggest that exposure levels that have been presumed acceptable to preserve health and performance need to be reevaluated. The current CO2 exposure limits for 3-6 months set by NASA and the UK Navy are 0.7%, and the limit for US submariners is 0.5%, although the NRC-COT recommended a 90-day level of 0.8% as safe a few years ago. NASA has set a 1000-day SMAC at 0.5% for exploration-class missions. Anecdotal experience with ISS operations approaching the current 180-day SMAC of 0.7% suggest that this limit is too high. Temporarily, NASA has limited exposures to 0.5% until further peer-reviewed data become available. In the meantime, a study published last year in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives (Satish U, et al. 2012) demonstrated that complexdecision- making performance is somewhat affected at 0.1% CO2 and becomes "dysfunctional" for at least half of the 9 indices of performance at concentrations approaching 0.25% CO2. The investigators used the Strategic Management Simulation (SMS) method of testing for decisionmaking ability, and the results were so surprising to the investigators that they declared that their findings need to be independently confirmed. NASA has responded to the

  8. Advanced nanostructured materials and their application for improvement of sun-light harvesting and efficiency of solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova-Malinovska, D.

    2016-02-01

    This review describes the application of different nanostructured materials in solar cells technology for improvement of sun-light harvesting and their efficiency. Several approaches have recently been proposed to increase the efficiency of solar cells above the theoretical limit which are based on a “photon management” concept that employs such phenomena as: (i) down-conversion, and (ii) surface plasmon resonance effect (iii) decreasing of the loss due to the reflection of the radiation, (iv) increasing of the reflection from the back contact, v) increasing of the effective solar cells surface, etc. The results demonstrate the possibility for to increasing of light harvesting, short circuit current and efficiency by application of nanomaterials in thin film and hetero-junction (HJ) solar cells. The first promising results allow an expectation for application of advanced nanomaterials in the 3d generation solar cells.

  9. Efficient techniques for wave-based sound propagation in interactive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Ravish

    Sound propagation techniques model the effect of the environment on sound waves and predict their behavior from point of emission at the source to the final point of arrival at the listener. Sound is a pressure wave produced by mechanical vibration of a surface that propagates through a medium such as air or water, and the problem of sound propagation can be formulated mathematically as a second-order partial differential equation called the wave equation. Accurate techniques based on solving the wave equation, also called the wave-based techniques, are too expensive computationally and memory-wise. Therefore, these techniques face many challenges in terms of their applicability in interactive applications including sound propagation in large environments, time-varying source and listener directivity, and high simulation cost for mid-frequencies. In this dissertation, we propose a set of efficient wave-based sound propagation techniques that solve these three challenges and enable the use of wave-based sound propagation in interactive applications. Firstly, we propose a novel equivalent source technique for interactive wave-based sound propagation in large scenes spanning hundreds of meters. It is based on the equivalent source theory used for solving radiation and scattering problems in acoustics and electromagnetics. Instead of using a volumetric or surface-based approach, this technique takes an object-centric approach to sound propagation. The proposed equivalent source technique generates realistic acoustic effects and takes orders of magnitude less runtime memory compared to prior wave-based techniques. Secondly, we present an efficient framework for handling time-varying source and listener directivity for interactive wave-based sound propagation. The source directivity is represented as a linear combination of elementary spherical harmonic sources. This spherical harmonic-based representation of source directivity can support analytical, data

  10. Efficient development of memory bounded geo-applications to scale on modern supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räss, Ludovic; Omlin, Samuel; Licul, Aleksandar; Podladchikov, Yuri; Herman, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Numerical modeling is an actual key tool in the area of geosciences. The current challenge is to solve problems that are multi-physics and for which the length scale and the place of occurrence might not be known in advance. Also, the spatial extend of the investigated domain might strongly vary in size, ranging from millimeters for reactive transport to kilometers for glacier erosion dynamics. An efficient way to proceed is to develop simple but robust algorithms that perform well and scale on modern supercomputers and permit therefore very high-resolution simulations. We propose an efficient approach to solve memory bounded real-world applications on modern supercomputers architectures. We optimize the software to run on our newly acquired state-of-the-art GPU cluster "octopus". Our approach shows promising preliminary results on important geodynamical and geomechanical problematics: we have developed a Stokes solver for glacier flow and a poromechanical solver including complex rheologies for nonlinear waves in stressed rocks porous rocks. We solve the system of partial differential equations on a regular Cartesian grid and use an iterative finite difference scheme with preconditioning of the residuals. The MPI communication happens only locally (point-to-point); this method is known to scale linearly by construction. The "octopus" GPU cluster, which we use for the computations, has been designed to achieve maximal data transfer throughput at minimal hardware cost. It is composed of twenty compute nodes, each hosting four Nvidia Titan X GPU accelerators. These high-density nodes are interconnected with a parallel (dual-rail) FDR InfiniBand network. Our efforts show promising preliminary results for the different physics investigated. The glacier flow solver achieves good accuracy in the relevant benchmarks and the coupled poromechanical solver permits to explain previously unresolvable focused fluid flow as a natural outcome of the porosity setup. In both cases

  11. Enhanced monolithic diffraction gratings with high efficiency and reduced polarization sensitivity for remote sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebel, Peter; Diehl, Torsten; Moeller, Tobias; Gatto, Alexandre; Pesch, Alexander; Erdmann, Lars H.; Burkhardt, Matthias; Kalies, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Spectral imaging systems lead to enhanced sensing properties when the sensing system provides sufficient spectral resolution to identify materials from its spectral reflectance signature. The performance of diffraction gratings provides an initial way to improve instrumental resolution. Thus, subsequent manufacturing techniques of high quality gratings are essential to significantly improve the spectral performance. The ZEISS unique technology of manufacturing real-blazed profiles and as well as lamellar profiles comprising transparent substrates is well suited for the production of transmission gratings. In order to reduce high order aberrations, aspherical and free-form surfaces can be alternatively processed to allow more degrees of freedom in the optical design of spectroscopic instruments with less optical elements and therefore size and weight advantages. Prism substrates were used to manufacture monolithic GRISM elements for UV to IR spectral range. Many years of expertise in the research and development of optical coatings enable high transmission anti-reflection coatings from the DUV to the NIR. ZEISS has developed specially adapted coating processes (Ion beam sputtering, ion-assisted deposition and so on) for maintaining the micro-structure of blazed gratings in particular. Besides of transmission gratings, numerous spectrometer setups (e.g. Offner, Rowland circle, Czerny-Turner system layout) working on the optical design principles of reflection gratings. This technology steps can be applied to manufacture high quality reflection gratings from the EUV to the IR applications with an outstanding level of low stray light and ghost diffraction order by employing a combination of holography and reactive ion beam etching together with the in-house coating capabilities. We report on results of transmission gratings on plane and curved substrates and GRISM elements with enhanced efficiency of the grating itself combined with low scattered light in the angular

  12. A spatio-temporal detective quantum efficiency and its application to fluoroscopic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, S. N.; Cunningham, I. A. [Sackler School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978 (Israel); Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute and Lawson Health Research Institute, 100 Perth Drive, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada) and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 5B8 (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: Fluoroscopic x-ray imaging systems are used extensively in spatio-temporal detection tasks and require a spatio-temporal description of system performance. No accepted metric exists that describes spatio-temporal fluoroscopic performance. The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is a metric widely used in radiography to quantify system performance and as a surrogate measure of patient ''dose efficiency.'' It has been applied previously to fluoroscopic systems with the introduction of a temporal correction factor. However, the use of a temporally-corrected DQE does not provide system temporal information and it is only valid under specific conditions, many of which are not likely to be satisfied by suboptimal systems. The authors propose a spatio-temporal DQE that describes performance in both space and time and is applicable to all spatio-temporal quantum-based imaging systems. Methods: The authors define a spatio-temporal DQE (two spatial-frequency axes and one temporal-frequency axis) in terms of a small-signal spatio-temporal modulation transfer function (MTF) and spatio-temporal noise power spectrum (NPS). Measurements were made on an x-ray image intensifier-based bench-top system using continuous fluoroscopy with an RQA-5 beam at 3.9 {mu}R/frame and hardened 50 kVp beam (0.8 mm Cu filtration added) at 1.9 {mu}R/frame. Results: A zero-frequency DQE value of 0.64 was measured under both conditions. Nonideal performance was noted at both larger spatial and temporal frequencies; DQE values decreased by {approx}50% at the cutoff temporal frequency of 15 Hz. Conclusions: The spatio-temporal DQE enables measurements of decreased temporal system performance at larger temporal frequencies analogous to previous measurements of decreased (spatial) performance. This marks the first time that system performance and dose efficiency in both space and time have been measured on a fluoroscopic system using DQE and is the first step toward the

  13. A spatio-temporal detective quantum efficiency and its application to fluoroscopic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, S N; Cunningham, I A

    2010-11-01

    Fluoroscopic x-ray imaging systems are used extensively in spatio-temporal detection tasks and require a spatio-temporal description of system performance. No accepted metric exists that describes spatio-temporal fluoroscopic performance. The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is a metric widely used in radiography to quantify system performance and as a surrogate measure of patient "dose efficiency". It has been applied previously to fluoroscopic systems with the introduction of a temporal correction factor. However, the use of a temporally-corrected DQE does not provide system temporal information and it is only valid under specific conditions, many of which are not likely to be satisfied by suboptimal systems. The authors propose a spatio-temporal DQE that describes performance in both space and time and is applicable to all spatio-temporal quantum-based imaging systems. The authors define a spatio-temporal DQE (two spatial-frequency axes and one temporal-frequency axis) in terms of a small-signal spatio-temporal modulation transfer function (MTF) and spatio-temporal noise power spectrum (NPS). Measurements were made on an x-ray image intensifier-based bench-top system using continuous fluoroscopy with an RQA-5 beam at 3.9 microR/frame and hardened 50 kVp beam (0.8 mm Cu filtration added) at 1.9 microR/frame. A zero-frequency DQE value of 0.64 was measured under both conditions. Nonideal performance was noted at both larger spatial and temporal frequencies; DQE values decreased by approximately 50% at the cutoff temporal frequency of 15 Hz. The spatio-temporal DQE enables measurements of decreased temporal system performance at larger temporal frequencies analogous to previous measurements of decreased (spatial) performance. This marks the first time that system performance and dose efficiency in both space and time have been measured on a fluoroscopic system using DQE and is the first step toward the generalized use of DQE on clinical fluoroscopic systems.

  14. Application of Data Envelopment Analysis to Measure Cost, Revenue and Profit Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristína Kočišová

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The literature analysing efficiency of financial institutions has enveloped rapidly over the last years. Most studies have focused on the input side analysing input technical and cost efficiency. Only few studies have examined the output side evaluating output technical and revenue efficiency. We know that both sides are relevant when evaluating efficiency of financial institutions. Therefore the primary purpose of this paper is to review a number of approaches for efficiency measurement. In particular, the concepts of cost, revenue and profit functions are discussed. We apply Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA to a sample of Slovak and Czech commercial banks during years 2009–2013 comparing the efficiencies by either minimizing cost or maximizing revenue and profit. The results showed that the level of average revenue efficiency was the highest and the average profit efficiency was the lowest one. As can be seen the Czech banks were more cost, revenue and profit efficient than Slovak ones during the whole analysed period.

  15. Supermagnetic Neutron Star Surprises Scientists, Forces Revision of Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    magnetars because their magnetic fields are 100-1,000 times stronger than those of typical pulsars. It is the decay of those incredibly strong fields that powers their strange X-ray emission. "The magnetic field from a magnetar would make an aircraft carrier spin around and point north quicker than a compass needle moves on Earth," said David Helfand, of Columbia University. A magnetar's field is 1,000 trillion times stronger than Earth's, Helfand pointed out. The new object -- named XTE J1810-197 -- was first discovered by NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer when it emitted a strong burst of X-rays in 2003. While the X-rays were fading in 2004, Jules Halpern of Columbia University and collaborators identified the magnetar as a radio-wave emitter using the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in New Mexico. Any radio emission is highly unusual for a magnetar. Because magnetars had not been seen to regularly emit radio waves, the scientists presumed that the radio emission was caused by a cloud of particles thrown off the neutron star at the time of its X-ray outburst, an idea they soon would realize was wrong. With knowledge that the magnetar emitted some form of radio waves, Camilo and his colleagues observed it with the Parkes radio telescope in Australia in March and immediately detected astonishingly strong radio pulsations every 5.5 seconds, corresponding to the previously-determined rotation rate of the neutron star. As they continued to observe XTE J1810-197, the scientists got more surprises. Whereas most pulsars become weaker at higher radio frequencies, XTE J1810-197 does not, remaining a strong emitter at frequencies up to 140 GHz, the highest frequency ever detected from a radio pulsar. In addition, unlike normal pulsars, the object's radio emission fluctuates in strength from day to day, and the shape of the pulsations changes as well. These variations likely indicate that the magnetic fields around the pulsar are changing

  16. Chandra Finds Surprising Black Hole Activity In Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Scientists at the Carnegie Observatories in Pasadena, California, have uncovered six times the expected number of active, supermassive black holes in a single viewing of a cluster of galaxies, a finding that has profound implications for theories as to how old galaxies fuel the growth of their central black holes. The finding suggests that voracious, central black holes might be as common in old, red galaxies as they are in younger, blue galaxies, a surprise to many astronomers. The team made this discovery with NASA'S Chandra X-ray Observatory. They also used Carnegie's 6.5-meter Walter Baade Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile for follow-up optical observations. "This changes our view of galaxy clusters as the retirement homes for old and quiet black holes," said Dr. Paul Martini, lead author on a paper describing the results that appears in the September 10 issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters. "The question now is, how do these black holes produce bright X-ray sources, similar to what we see from much younger galaxies?" Typical of the black hole phenomenon, the cores of these active galaxies are luminous in X-ray radiation. Yet, they are obscured, and thus essentially undetectable in the radio, infrared and optical wavebands. "X rays can penetrate obscuring gas and dust as easily as they penetrate the soft tissue of the human body to look for broken bones," said co-author Dr. Dan Kelson. "So, with Chandra, we can peer through the dust and we have found that even ancient galaxies with 10-billion-year-old stars can have central black holes still actively pulling in copious amounts of interstellar gas. This activity has simply been hidden from us all this time. This means these galaxies aren't over the hill after all and our theories need to be revised." Scientists say that supermassive black holes -- having the mass of millions to billions of suns squeezed into a region about the size of our Solar System -- are the engines in the cores of

  17. An efficient semi-blind source extraction algorithm and its applications to biomedical signal extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE YaLan; SHEU Phillip C-Y; ZENG JiaZhi; WANG Gang; LU Ke

    2009-01-01

    In many applications, such as biomedical engineering, it is often required to extract a desired signal instead of all source signals. This can be achieved by blind source extraction (BSE) or semi-blind source extraction, which is a powerful technique emerging from the neural network field. In this paper, we propose an efficient semi-blind source extraction algorithm to extract a desired source signal as its first output signal by using a priori information about its kurtosis range. The algorithm is robust to outliers and spiky noise because of adopting a classical robust contrast function. And it is also robust to the estimation errors of the kurtoaia range of the desired signal providing the estimation errors are not large. The algorithm has good extraction performance, even in some poor situations when the kurtosis values of some source signals are very close to each other. Its convergence stability and robustness are theoretically analyzed. Simulations and experiments on artificial generated data and real-world data have confirmed these results.

  18. Design and Synthesis of Novel Block Copolymers for Efficient Opto-Electronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sam-Shajing; Fan, Zhen; Wang, Yiqing; Taft, Charles; Haliburton, James; Maaref, Shahin

    2002-01-01

    It has been predicted that nano-phase separated block copolymer systems containing electron rich donor blocks and electron deficient acceptor blocks may facilitate the charge carrier separation and migration in organic photovoltaic devices due to improved morphology in comparison to polymer blend system. This paper presents preliminary data describing the design and synthesis of a novel Donor-Bridge-Acceptor (D-B-A) block copolymer system for potential high efficient organic optoelectronic applications. Specifically, the donor block contains an electron donating alkyloxy derivatized polyphenylenevinylene (PPV), the acceptor block contains an electron withdrawing alkyl-sulfone derivatized polyphenylenevinylene (PPV), and the bridge block contains an electronically neutral non-conjugated aliphatic hydrocarbon chain. The key synthetic strategy includes the synthesis of each individual block first, then couple the blocks together. While the donor block stabilizes and facilitates the transport of the holes, the acceptor block stabilizes and facilitates the transport of the electrons, the bridge block is designed to hinder the probability of electron-hole recombination. Thus, improved charge separation and stability are expected with this system. In addition, charge migration toward electrodes may also be facilitated due to the potential nano-phase separated and highly ordered block copolymer ultra-structure.

  19. Wavy channel Thin Film Transistor for area efficient, high performance and low power applications

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir

    2014-06-01

    We report a new Thin Film Transistor (TFT) architecture that allows expansion of the device width using wavy (continuous without separation) fin features - termed as wavy channel (WC) architecture. This architecture allows expansion of transistor width in a direction perpendicular to the substrate, thus not consuming extra chip area, achieving area efficiency. The devices have shown for a 13% increase in the device width resulting in a maximum 2.4x increase in \\'ON\\' current value of the WCTFT, when compared to planar devices consuming the same chip area, while using atomic layer deposition based zinc oxide (ZnO) as the channel material. The WCTFT devices also maintain similar \\'OFF\\' current value, similar to 100 pA, when compared to planar devices, thus not compromising on power consumption for performance which usually happens with larger width devices. This work offers a pragmatic opportunity to use WCTFTs as backplane circuitry for large-area high-resolution display applications without any limitation any TFT materials.

  20. Structure of 100 W high-efficiency piezoelectric transformer for applications in power electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kohei; Adachi, Kazunari; Shibamata, Yuki; Suzuki, Tsunehisa

    2016-08-01

    We propose a piezoelectric transformer comprising two identical bolt-clamped Langevin-type transducers (BLTs) and a stepped horn for its applications to high-power electronics. The transformer can realize a specified step-up voltage transformation ratio determined by the cross-sectional area ratio of the horn, both ends of which are connected to the BLTs, at a driving frequency in the vicinity of its mechanical resonance frequency. In experiments, we obtained the results predicted by finite-element analysis. The deviations of the measured resonance and driving frequencies from the numerically estimated values were 0.86 and 0.80%, respectively. At the driving frequency, the maximum efficiency was 99.2%, and a maximum output power of 100 W was obtained with an input voltage of 100 Vrms. Nevertheless, we observed unstable actions of the transformer, which can be attributed to the “jumping and dropping” phenomena, in high voltage operation. Numerical analysis suggests that the instability may be caused by the local electric field concentration in the piezoelectric elements, which occurs only when the transformer is driven by a low-output-impedance voltage source at its mechanical resonance frequency.

  1. Efficient approach and application of the Green's functions in spatial domain in multilayered media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Min; LI LeWei; LI LiangChao; WU ZhenSen

    2008-01-01

    Based on the dipole source method, all components of the Green's functions in spectral domain are restructured concisely by four basis functions, and in terms of the two-level discrete complex image method (DCIM) with the high order Sommer-feld identities, an efficient algorithm for closed-form Green's functions in spatial domain in multilayered media is presented. This new work enjoys the advantages of the surface wave pole extraction directly carried out by the generalized integral path without troubles of that all components of Green's function in spectral domain should be reformed respectively in transmission line network analogy, and then the Green's functions for mixed-potential integral equation (MPIE) analysis in both near-field and far-field in multilayered media are obtained. In addition, the curl op-erator for coupled field in MPIE is avoided conveniently. It is especially applicable and useful to characterize the electromagnetic scattering by, and radiation in the presence of, the electrically large 3-D objects in multilayered media. The numerical results of the S-parameters of a microstrip periodic bandgap (PBG) filter, the radar cross section (RCS) of a large microstrip antenna array, the characteristics of scattering, and radiation from the three-dimensional (3-D) targets in multilayered media are obtained, to demonstrate better effectiveness and accuracy of this tech-nique.

  2. Layer-by-Layer (LBL) Self-Assembled Biohybrid Nanomaterials for Efficient Antibacterial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanhao; Long, Yubo; Li, Qing-Lan; Han, Shuying; Ma, Jianbiao; Yang, Ying-Wei; Gao, Hui

    2015-08-12

    Although antibiotics have been widely used in clinical applications to treat pathogenic infections at present, the problem of drug-resistance associated with abuse of antibiotics is becoming a potential threat to human beings. We report a biohybrid nanomaterial consisting of antibiotics, enzyme, polymers, hyaluronic acid (HA), and mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), which exhibits efficient in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity with good biocompatibility and negligible hemolytic side effect. Herein, biocompatible layer-by-layer (LBL) coated MSNs are designed and crafted to release encapsulated antibiotics, e.g., amoxicillin (AMO), upon triggering with hyaluronidase, produced by various pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The LBL coating process comprises lysozyme (Lys), HA, and 1,2-ethanediamine (EDA)-modified polyglycerol methacrylate (PGMA). The Lys and cationic polymers provided multivalent interactions between MSN-Lys-HA-PGMA and bacterial membrane and accordingly immobilized the nanoparticles to facilitate the synergistic effect of these antibacterial agents. Loading process was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD). The minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) of MSN-Lys-HA-PGMA treated to antibiotic resistant bacteria is much lower than that of isodose Lys and AMO. Especially, MSN-Lys-HA-PGMA exhibited good inhibition for pathogens in bacteria-infected wounds in vivo. Therefore, this type of new biohybrid nanomaterials showed great potential as novel antibacterial agents.

  3. Key Factors Controlling the Applicability and Efficiency of Bioremediation of Chlorinated Ethenes In Situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Yoshikawa, M.; Takeuchi, M.; Komai, T.

    2012-12-01

    Bioremediation has been considered as one of environmentally friendly and cost effective approaches for cleaning up the sites polluted by organic contaminants, such as chlorinated ethenes. Although bioremediation, in its widest sense, is not new, and many researches have been performed on bioremediation of different kinds of pollutants, an effective design and implication of in situ bioremediation still remains a challenging problem because of the complexity. Many factors may affect the applicability and efficiency of bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes in situ, which include the type and concentration of contaminants, biological, geological and hydro-geological conditions of the site, physical and chemical characteristics of groundwater and soils to be treated, as well as the constraints in engineering. In this presentation, an overview together with a detailed discussion on each factor will be provided. The influences of individual factors are discussed using the data obtained or cited from different sites and experiments, and thus under different environmental conditions. The results of this study illustrated that 1) the establishment of microbial consortium is of crucial importance for a complete degradation of chlorinated ethenes, 2) in situ control of favorable conditions for increasing microbial activities for bio-degradation through a designed pathway is the key to success, 3) the focus of a successful remediation system is to design an effective delivery process that is capable of producing adequate amendment mixing of contaminant-degrading bacteria, appropriate concentrations of electron acceptors, electron donors, and microbial nutrients in the subsurface treatment area.

  4. An Alkali-Vapor Cell with Metal Coated Windows for Efficient Application of an Electric Field

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkisyan, D; Guena, J; Lintz, M; Bouchiat, M A; Sarkisyan, David; Gu\\'{e}na, Jocelyne; Lintz, Michel; Bouchiat, Marie-Anne

    2005-01-01

    We describe the implementation of a cylindrical T-shaped alkali-vapor cell for laser spectroscopy in the presence of a longitudinal electric field. The two windows are used as two electrodes of the high-voltage assembly, which is made possible by a metallic coating which entirely covers the inner and outer sides of the windows except for a central area to let the laser beams in and out of the cell. This allows very efficient application of the electric field, up to 2 kV/cm in a rather dense superheated vapor, even when significant photoemission takes place at the windows during pulsed laser irradiation. The body of the cell is made of sapphire or alumina ceramic to prevent large currents resulting from surface conduction observed in cesiated glass cells. The technique used to attach the monocrystalline sapphire windows to the cell body causes minimal stress birefringence in the windows. In addition, reflection losses at the windows can be made very small. The vapor cell operates with no buffer gas and has no ...

  5. Alkali-vapor cell with metal coated windows for efficient application of an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisyan, D.; Sarkisyan, A. S.; Guéna, J.; Lintz, M.; Bouchiat, M.-A.

    2005-05-01

    We describe the implementation of a cylindrical T-shaped alkali-vapor cell for laser spectroscopy in the presence of a longitudinal electric field. The two windows are used as two electrodes of the high-voltage assembly, which is made possible by a metallic coating which entirely covers the inner and outer sides of the windows except for a central area to let the laser beams in and out of the cell. This allows very efficient application of the electric field, up to 2kV/cm in a rather dense superheated vapor, even when significant photoemission takes place at the windows during pulsed laser irradiation. The body of the cell is made of sapphire or alumina ceramic to prevent large currents resulting from surface conduction observed in cesiated glass cells. The technique used to attach the monocrystalline sapphire windows to the cell body causes minimal stress birefringence in the windows. In addition, reflection losses at the windows can be made very small. The vapor cell operates with no buffer gas and has no magnetic part. The use of this kind of cell has resulted in an improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio in the measurement of parity violation in cesium vapor underway at ENS, Paris. The technique can be applied to other situations where a brazed assembly would give rise to unacceptably large birefringence in the windows.

  6. Applicability and efficiency of near-optimal spatial encoding for dynamically adaptive MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientara, G P; Panych, L P; Jolesz, F A

    1998-02-01

    Adaptive near-optimal MRI spatial encoding entails, for the acquisition of each image update in a dynamic series, the computation of encodes in the form of a linear algebra-derived orthogonal basis set determined from an image estimate. The origins of adaptive encoding relevant to MRI are reviewed. Sources of error of this approach are identified from the linear algebraic perspective where MRI data acquisition is viewed as the projection of information from the field-of-view onto the encoding basis set. The definitions of ideal and non-ideal encoding follow, with nonideal encoding characterized by the principal angles between two vector spaces. An analysis of the distribution of principal angles is introduced and applied in several example cases to quantitatively describe the suitability of a basis set derived from a specific image estimate for the spatial encoding of a given field-of-view. The robustness of adaptive near-optimal spatial encoding for dynamic MRI is favorably shown by results computed using singular value decomposition encoding that simulates specific instances of worst case data acquisition when all objects have changed or new objects have appeared in the field-of-view. The mathematical analysis and simulations presented clarify the applicability and efficiency of adaptively determined near-optimal spatial encoding throughout a range of circumstances as may typically occur during use of dynamic MRI.

  7. An efficient particle swarm approach for mixed-integer programming in reliability-redundancy optimization applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Coelho, Leandro dos [Industrial and Systems Engineering Graduate Program, LAS/PPGEPS, Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUCPR, Imaculada Conceicao, 1155, 80215-901 Curitiba, Parana (Brazil)], E-mail: leandro.coelho@pucpr.br

    2009-04-15

    The reliability-redundancy optimization problems can involve the selection of components with multiple choices and redundancy levels that produce maximum benefits, and are subject to the cost, weight, and volume constraints. Many classical mathematical methods have failed in handling nonconvexities and nonsmoothness in reliability-redundancy optimization problems. As an alternative to the classical optimization approaches, the meta-heuristics have been given much attention by many researchers due to their ability to find an almost global optimal solutions. One of these meta-heuristics is the particle swarm optimization (PSO). PSO is a population-based heuristic optimization technique inspired by social behavior of bird flocking and fish schooling. This paper presents an efficient PSO algorithm based on Gaussian distribution and chaotic sequence (PSO-GC) to solve the reliability-redundancy optimization problems. In this context, two examples in reliability-redundancy design problems are evaluated. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed PSO-GC is a promising optimization technique. PSO-GC performs well for the two examples of mixed-integer programming in reliability-redundancy applications considered in this paper. The solutions obtained by the PSO-GC are better than the previously best-known solutions available in the recent literature.

  8. I/O-Efficient Batched Union-Find and Its Applications to Terrain Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Yi, Ke

    2010-01-01

    . We also describe a simple and practical O(SORT(N) log(&frac;NM))-I/O algorithm for this problem, which we have implemented. We are interested in the union-find problem because of its applications in terrain analysis. A terrain can be abstracted as a height function defined over R2, and many problems...... terrain-analysis problems that benefit from a union-find data structure: (i) computing topological persistence and (ii) constructing the contour tree. We give the first O(SORT(N))-I/O algorithms for these two problems, assuming that the input terrain is represented as a triangular mesh with N vertices.......In this article we present an I/O-efficient algorithm for the batched (off-line) version of the union-find problem. Given any sequence of N union and find operations, where each union operation joins two distinct sets, our algorithm uses O(SORT(N)) = O(&frac;NB logM/B&frac;NB) I/Os, where M...

  9. Continuous utility factor in segregation models: a few surprises

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Parna

    2015-01-01

    We consider the constrained Schelling model of social segregation which allows non-local jumps of the agents. In the present study, the utility factor u is defined in a way such that it can take continuous values and depends on the tolerance threshold as well as fraction of unlike neighbours. Two models are proposed: in model A the jump probability is determined by the sign of u only which makes it equivalent to the discrete model. In model B the actual values of u are considered. Model A and model B are shown to differ drastically as far as segregation behaviour and phase transitions are concerned. The constrained model B turns out to be as efficient as the unconstrained discrete model, if not more. In addition, we also consider a few other dynamical aspects which have not been studied in segregation models earlier.

  10. Efficiency of the application of an increasing hydrogel dose in bispore mushrooms cultivation. Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. Imbach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Koc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The economical efficiency of the application of an increasing hydrogel dose in bispore mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. Imbach SYLVAN 737 has been experimented in controlled weather conditions. It was found that the application of a 50 and 150 g•m-2 hydrogel dose is not economically proved due to the lack of harvest significant increase. In the cultivation of this particular variety of mushrooms, the optimal hydrogel dose should not be 100 g•m-2 of subsoil.

  11. Effects of single basal application of coated compound fertilizer on yield and nitrogen use efficiency in double-cropped rice

    OpenAIRE

    Jiana Chen; Fangbo Cao; Hairong Xiong; Min Huang; Yingbin Zou; Yuanfu Xiong

    2017-01-01

    Fertilizer plays an important role in increasing rice yield. More than half of all fertilizer applied to the field is not taken up, resulting in environmental damage and substantial economic losses. To address these concerns, a low-cost, coated compound fertilizer named “Xiang Nong Da” (XND), requiring only a single basal application, was studied. A two-year field experiment was conducted to test the effects of XND application on rice yield and nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency. An ordinary ...

  12. Efficient Estimation of Dynamic Density Functions with Applications in Streaming Data

    KAUST Repository

    Qahtan, Abdulhakim

    2016-05-11

    Recent advances in computing technology allow for collecting vast amount of data that arrive continuously in the form of streams. Mining data streams is challenged by the speed and volume of the arriving data. Furthermore, the underlying distribution of the data changes over the time in unpredicted scenarios. To reduce the computational cost, data streams are often studied in forms of condensed representation, e.g., Probability Density Function (PDF). This thesis aims at developing an online density estimator that builds a model called KDE-Track for characterizing the dynamic density of the data streams. KDE-Track estimates the PDF of the stream at a set of resampling points and uses interpolation to estimate the density at any given point. To reduce the interpolation error and computational complexity, we introduce adaptive resampling where more/less resampling points are used in high/low curved regions of the PDF. The PDF values at the resampling points are updated online to provide up-to-date model of the data stream. Comparing with other existing online density estimators, KDE-Track is often more accurate (as reflected by smaller error values) and more computationally efficient (as reflected by shorter running time). The anytime available PDF estimated by KDE-Track can be applied for visualizing the dynamic density of data streams, outlier detection and change detection in data streams. In this thesis work, the first application is to visualize the taxi traffic volume in New York city. Utilizing KDE-Track allows for visualizing and monitoring the traffic flow on real time without extra overhead and provides insight analysis of the pick up demand that can be utilized by service providers to improve service availability. The second application is to detect outliers in data streams from sensor networks based on the estimated PDF. The method detects outliers accurately and outperforms baseline methods designed for detecting and cleaning outliers in sensor data. The

  13. Application of Environmental Change Efficiency to the Sustainability of Urban Development at the Neighborhood Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Fu Kuo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a new assessment model framework, termed the driving forces-pressure-state-impact-policy and pattern (DPSIP model, for environmental change efficiency in urban land development, based on urban sustainable development and the theory of economic efficiency evaluation. A spatial and measurable efficiency value is defined for environmental changes in urban land development, which provides a comprehensive evaluation index for the efficiency of urban development and its environmental impact. This type of urban interior sustainability is considered new within the context of global environmental changes. We identify nine important indicators to evaluate the relative efficiency of 233 neighborhoods in Tainan, Taiwan. The results indicate that the average environmental change efficiency is 89.44%, which shows clear spatial differentiation. The key indicators affecting the efficiency score are area, population density, location, mixed land uses, the floor area ratio, and the impervious ratio. In the future, urban design can reduce environmental impacts and enhance efficiency values.

  14. Developing Information on Energy Savings and Associated Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficient Emerging Technologies Applicable in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang; Slaa, Jan Willem; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-12-15

    Implementation and adoption of efficient end-use technologies have proven to be one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the industries. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost effective investments that the industry could make in improving efficiency and productivity while reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Over the years, there have been incentives to use resources and energy in a cleaner and more efficient way to create industries that are sustainable and more productive. With the working of energy programs and policies on GHG inventory and regulation, understanding and managing the costs associated with mitigation measures for GHG reductions is very important for the industry and policy makers around the world and in California. Successful implementation of applicable emerging technologies not only may help advance productivities, improve environmental impacts, or enhance industrial competitiveness, but also can play a significant role in climate-mitigation efforts by saving energy and reducing the associated GHG emissions. Developing new information on costs and savings benefits of energy efficient emerging technologies applicable in California market is important for policy makers as well as the industries. Therefore, provision of timely evaluation and estimation of the costs and energy savings potential of emerging technologies applicable to California is the focus of this report. The overall goal of the project is to identify and select a set of emerging and under-utilized energy-efficient technologies and practices as they are important to reduce energy consumption in industry while maintaining economic growth. Specifically, this report contains the results from performing Task 3 Technology Characterization for California Industries for the project titled Research Opportunities in Emerging and Under-Utilized Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies, sponsored by

  15. Trait Anxiety Is Associated with Negative Interpretations When Resolving Valence Ambiguity of Surprised Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gewnhi; Vasey, Michael W; Kim, Grace; Hu, Dixie D; Thayer, Julian F

    2016-01-01

    The current research examines whether trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretation bias when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces. To further isolate the neuro-cognitive mechanism, we presented angry, happy, and surprised faces at broad spatial frequency (BSF), high spatial frequency (HSF), and low spatial frequency (LSF) and asked participants to determine the valence of each face. High trait anxiety was associated with more negative interpretations of BSF (i.e., intact) surprised faces. However, the modulation of trait anxiety on the negative interpretation of surprised faces disappeared at HSF and LSF. The current study provides evidence that trait anxiety modulates negative interpretations of BSF surprised faces. However, the negative interpretation of LSF surprised faces appears to be a robust default response that occurs regardless of individual differences in trait anxiety.

  16. Trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretations when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gewnhi Park

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The current research examines whether trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretation bias when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces. To further isolate the neuro-cognitive mechanism, we presented angry, happy, and surprised faces at broad, high, and low spatial frequency and asked participants to determine the valence of each face. High trait anxiety was associated with more negative interpretations of broad spatial frequency (i.e., intact surprised faces. However, the modulation of trait anxiety on the negative interpretation of surprised faces disappeared at high and low spatial frequencies. The current study provides evidence that trait anxiety modulates negative interpretations of broad spatial frequency surprised faces. However, the negative interpretation of low spatial frequency surprised faces appears to be a robust default response that occurs regardless of individual differences in trait anxiety.

  17. Effects of Surprisal and Locality on Danish Sentence Processing: An Eye-Tracking Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Kizach, Johannes

    2017-03-22

    An eye-tracking experiment in Danish investigates two dominant accounts of sentence processing: locality-based theories that predict a processing advantage for sentences where the distance between the major syntactic heads is minimized, and the surprisal theory which predicts that processing time increases with big changes in the relative entropy of possible parses, sometimes leading to anti-locality effects. We consider both lexicalised surprisal, expressed in conditional trigram probabilities, and syntactic surprisal expressed in the manipulation of the expectedness of the second NP in Danish constructions with two postverbal NP-objects. An eye-tracking experiment showed a clear advantage for local syntactic relations, with only a marginal effect of lexicalised surprisal and no effect of syntactic surprisal. We conclude that surprisal has a relatively marginal effect, which may be clearest for verbs in verb-final languages, while locality is a robust predictor of sentence processing.

  18. Colored ultra-thin hybrid photovoltaics with high quantum efficiency for decorative PV applications (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L. Jay

    2015-10-01

    adopted by other material systems as well. Based on these understandings, we have also developed colored perovskite PV by integrating an optical cavity with the perovskite semiconductors [4]. The principle and experimental results will be presented. 1. J. Y. Lee, K. T. Lee, S.Y. Seo, L. J. Guo, "Decorative power generating panels creating angle insensitive transmissive colors," Sci. Rep. 4, 4192, 2014. 2. K. T. Lee, J.Y. Lee, S.-Y. Seo, and L. J. Guo, "Colored ultra-thin hybrid photovoltaics with high quantum efficiency," Light: Science and Applications, 3, e215, 2014. 3. K. T. Lee, S.-Y. Seo, J.Y. Lee, and L. J. Guo, "Ultrathin metal-semiconductor-metal resonator for angle invariant visible band transmission filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 231112, (2014); and "Strong resonance effect in a lossy medium-based optical cavity for angle robust spectrum filters," Adv. Mater, 26, 6324-6328, 2014. 4. K. T. Lee, M. Fukuda, L. J. Guo, "Colored, see-through perovskite solar cells employing an optical cavity," Submitted, 2015

  19. Ammonia Volatilization and Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency in Response to Urea Application in Rice Fields of the Taihu Lake Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ammonia volatilization losses, nitrogen utilization efficiency, and rice yields in response to urea application to a rice field were investigated in Wangzhuang Town, Changshu City, Jiangsu Province, China. The N fertilizer treatments, applied in triplicate, were 0 (control), 100, 200, 300, or 350 kg N ha-1. After urea was applied to the surface water, a continuous airflow enclosure method was used to measure ammonia volatilization in the paddy field. Total N losses through ammonia volatilization generally increased with the N application rate, and the two higher N application rates (300 and 350 kg N ha-1) showed a higher ratio of N lost through ammonia volatilization to applied N. Total ammonia loss by ammonia volatilization during the entire rice growth stage ranged from 9.0% to 16.7% of the applied N. Increasing the application rate generally decreased the ratio of N in the seed to N in the plant. For all N treatments, the nitrogen fertilizer utilization efficiency ranged from 30.9% to 45.9%. Surplus N with the highest N rate resulted in lodging of rice plants, a decreased rate of nitrogen fertilizer utilization, and reduced rice yields. Calculated from this experiment, the most economical N fertilizer application rate was 227 kg ha-1 for the type of paddy soil in the Taihu Lake region. However, recommending an appropriate N fertilizer application rate such that the plant growth is enhanced and ammonia loss is reduced could improve the N utilization efficiency of rice.

  20. Trait Anxiety Is Associated with Negative Interpretations When Resolving Valence Ambiguity of Surprised Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Gewnhi Park; Vasey, Michael W.; Grace Kim; Dixie D Hu; Thayer, Julian F

    2016-01-01

    The current research examines whether trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretation bias when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces. To further isolate the neuro-cognitive mechanism, we presented angry, happy, and surprised faces at broad, high, and low spatial frequency and asked participants to determine the valence of each face. High trait anxiety was associated with more negative interpretations of broad spatial frequency (i.e., intact) surprised faces. However, the mo...

  1. Premium Efficiency Motor Selection and Application Guide – A Handbook for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert A. McCoy and John G. Douglass

    2014-02-01

    This handbook informs new motor purchase decisions by identifying energy and cost savings that can come from replacing motors with premium efficiency units. The handbook provides an overview of current motor use in the industrial sector, including the development of motor efficiency standards, currently available and emerging advanced efficiency motor technologies, and guidance on how to evaluate motor efficiency opportunities. It also several tips on getting the most out of industrial motors, such as how to avoid adverse motor interactions with electronic adjustable speed drives and how to ensure efficiency gains are not lost to undervoltage operation or excessive voltage unbalance.

  2. A Neural Mechanism for Surprise-related Interruptions of Visuospatial Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Jan R

    2016-11-30

    Surprising perceptual events recruit a fronto-basal ganglia mechanism for inhibition, which suppresses motor activity following surprise. A recent study found that this inhibitory mechanism also disrupts the maintenance of verbal working memory (WM) after surprising tones. However, it is unclear whether this same mechanism also relates to surprise-related interruptions of non-verbal WM. We tested this hypothesis using a change-detection task, in which surprising tones impaired visuospatial WM. Participants also performed a stop-signal task (SST). We used independent component analysis and single-trial scalp-electroencephalogram to test whether the same inhibitory mechanism that reflects motor inhibition in the SST relates to surprise-related visuospatial WM decrements, as was the case for verbal WM. As expected, surprising tones elicited activity of the inhibitory mechanism, and this activity correlated strongly with the trial-by-trial level of surprise. However, unlike for verbal WM, the activity of this mechanism was unrelated to visuospatial WM accuracy. Instead, inhibition-independent activity that immediately succeeded the inhibitory mechanism was increased when visuospatial WM was disrupted. This shows that surprise-related interruptions of visuospatial WM are not effected by the same inhibitory mechanism that interrupts verbal WM, and instead provides evidence for a 2-stage model of distraction.

  3. Discovery of interstellar ketenyl (HCCO), a surprisingly abundant radical

    CERN Document Server

    Agundez, Marcelino; Guelin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    We have conducted radioastronomical observations of 9 dark clouds with the IRAM 30m telescope. We present the first identification in space of the ketenyl radical (HCCO) toward the starless core Lupus-1A and the molecular cloud L483, and the detection of the related molecules ketene (H2CCO) and acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) in these two sources and 3 additional dark clouds. We also report the detection of the formyl radical (HCO) in the 9 targeted sources and of propylene (CH2CHCH3) in 4 of the observed sources, which extends significantly the number of dark clouds where these molecules are known to be present. We derive a beam-averaged column density of HCCO of 5e11 cm-2 in both Lupus-1A and L483, which means that the ketenyl radical is just 10 times less abundant than ketene in these sources. The non-negligible abundance of HCCO found implies that there must be a powerful formation mechanism able to counterbalance the efficient destruction of this radical through reactions with neutral atoms. The column densities d...

  4. Selective nitration and bromination of surprisingly ruffled phosphorus corroles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomarico, Giuseppe; Tortora, Luca; Fronczek, Frank R; Smith, Kevin M; Paolesse, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Phosphorus complexes of corrole have recently attracted increasing interest since these compounds can be easily prepared in good yields, are stable, and show unusual optical properties. For these reasons, phosphorus corroles represent a class of interesting compounds to be exploited in the field of material science or for biomedical investigations and the definition of synthetic pathways for their functionalization is an important step to optimize their properties for various applications. We report here the reactivity of the phosphorus complex of 5,10,15-tritolylcorrole in the nitration or bromination reaction. Both these attempts were successful, allowing the preparation of substituted phosphorus corroles, which can be used as intermediates of more complex architectures endowed with useful properties. Furthermore, the crystallographic characterization of both complexes shows that they have an unusual ruffled geometry of the corrole core, a conformation that has not been considered possible for such a macrocycle.

  5. Efficient implementation of the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, with application to the Cormack-Jolly-Seber model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, W.A.; Barker, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Judicious choice of candidate generating distributions improves efficiency of the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. In Bayesian applications, it is sometimes possible to identify an approximation to the target posterior distribution; this approximate posterior distribution is a good choice for candidate generation. These observations are applied to analysis of the Cormack-Jolly-Seber model and its extensions. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  6. Simplified Application of Material Efficiency Green Metrics to Synthesis Plans: Pedagogical Case Studies Selected from "Organic Syntheses"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraos, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a simplified approach for the application of material efficiency metrics to linear and convergent synthesis plans encountered in organic synthesis courses. Computations are facilitated and automated using intuitively designed Microsoft Excel spreadsheets without invoking abstract mathematical formulas. The merits of this…

  7. A more efficient way to shape metal-organic framework (MOF) powder materials for hydrogen storage applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ren, Jianwei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available operation time. This granulation approach is a more efficient way to shape MOF-type powder materials into application-specific configurations compared to the mechanical pressing method. The pellets could be conveniently packed in a small hydrogen storage...

  8. Simplified Application of Material Efficiency Green Metrics to Synthesis Plans: Pedagogical Case Studies Selected from "Organic Syntheses"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraos, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a simplified approach for the application of material efficiency metrics to linear and convergent synthesis plans encountered in organic synthesis courses. Computations are facilitated and automated using intuitively designed Microsoft Excel spreadsheets without invoking abstract mathematical formulas. The merits of this…

  9. Analyzing demand-side efficiency in global health: an application to maternal care in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin, Elizabeth; Ariana, Proochista; Broekel, Tom; Tran, Toan Khanh

    2016-11-01

    This article investigates demand-side efficiency in global health-or the efficiency with which health system users convert public health resources into health outcomes. We introduce and explain the concept of demand-side efficiency as well as quantitative methods to empirically estimate it. Using a robust nonparametric form of technical efficiency analysis, we estimate demand side efficiency and its social determinants. We pilot these methods looking at how efficiently pregnant women in Northern Vietnam convert public health resources into appropriate maternal care as defined by national policy. We find that women who live in non-mountainous geographies, who are formally employed, who are pregnant with a boy and who are ethnic minorities are all more likely to be efficient at achieving appropriate care. We find no significant association between wealth or education and efficiency. Our results suggest that, in the Vietnamese context, women who are the most likely to achieve appropriate maternal care, are not necessarily the most likely to do so efficiently. Women who live in non-mountainous geographies and who are formally employed are both more likely to achieve appropriate care and to do so efficiently. Yet ethnic minority women, who do not systematically achieve better care, are more likely to be efficient or to achieve better care when compared with those with the same endowment of public health resources. On the methodological level, the pilot highlights that this approach can provide useful information for policy by identifying which groups of people are more and less likely to be efficient. By understanding which groups are more likely to be efficient-and in turn how and why-it may be possible to devise policies to promote the drivers of, or conversely address the constraints to, optimizing demand-side efficiency.

  10. Effects of nitrogen application rate on dry matter redistribution, grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency and photosynthesis in malting barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, J; Jiang, D; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    The harmonious combination of malting barley yield, quality and nitrogen (N) use-efficiency under nitrogen (N) rates applications was greatly conducive to production in China. The malting barley cultivar Supi 3 was planted during the growing seasons 2005 and 2006 at two contrasting sites in China......, and decreased with 300 kg N ha−1. Net photosynthetic rate (P N) and the amount of accumulated dry matter distributed into grains showed the same response to N application as grain yield. Grain protein content increased with increasing N application rates. Moreover, based on further analysis of these results...

  11. Discovery of interstellar ketenyl (HCCO), a surprisingly abundant radical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agúndez, Marcelino; Cernicharo, José; Guélin, Michel

    2015-05-01

    We conducted radioastronomical observations of 9 dark clouds with the IRAM 30 m telescope. We present the first identification in space of the ketenyl radical (HCCO) toward the starless core Lupus-1A and the molecular cloud L483 and the detection of the related molecules ketene (H2CCO) and acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) in these two sources and 3 additional dark clouds. We also report the detection of the formyl radical (HCO) in the 9 targeted sources and of propylene (CH2CHCH3) in 4 of the observed sources, which significantly extends the number of dark clouds where these molecules are known to be present. We have derived a beam-averaged column density of HCCO of ~5 × 1011 cm-2 in both Lupus-1A and L483, which means that the ketenyl radical is just ~10 times less abundant than ketene in these sources. The non-negligible abundance of HCCO found implies that there must be a powerful formation mechanism able to counterbalance the efficient destruction of this radical through reactions with neutral atoms. The column densities derived for HCO, (0.5-2.7) ×1012 cm-2, and CH2CHCH3, (1.9-4-2) ×1013 cm-2, are remarkably uniform across the sources where these species are detected, confirming their ubiquity in dark clouds. Gas phase chemical models of cold dark clouds can reproduce the observed abundances of HCO, but cannot explain the presence of HCCO in Lupus-1A and L483 and the high abundances derived for propylene. The chemistry of cold dark clouds needs to be revised in light of these new observational results. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m Telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain).Tables 3-6 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  12. Discovery of interstellar ketenyl (HCCO), a surprisingly abundant radical★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agúndez, Marcelino; Cernicharo, José; Guélin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    We have conducted radioastronomical observations of 9 dark clouds with the IRAM 30m telescope. We present the first identification in space of the ketenyl radical (HCCO) toward the starless core Lupus-1A and the molecular cloud L483, and the detection of the related molecules ketene (H2CCO) and acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) in these two sources and 3 additional dark clouds. We also report the detection of the formyl radical (HCO) in the 9 targeted sources and of propylene (CH2CHCH3) in 4 of the observed sources, which extends significantly the number of dark clouds where these molecules are known to be present. We derive a beam-averaged column density of HCCO of ~ 5 × 1011 cm−2 in both Lupus-1A and L483, which means that the ketenyl radical is just ~10 times less abundant than ketene in these sources. The non-negligible abundance of HCCO found implies that there must be a powerful formation mechanism able to counterbalance the efficient destruction of this radical through reactions with neutral atoms. The column densities derived for HCO, (0.5-2.7) ×1012 cm−2, and CH2CHCH3, (1.9-4-2) ×1013 cm−2, are remarkably uniform across the sources where these species are detected, confirming their ubiquity in dark clouds. Gas phase chemical models of cold dark clouds can reproduce the observed abundances of HCO, but cannot explain the presence of HCCO in Lupus-1A and L483 and the high abundances derived for propylene. The chemistry of cold dark clouds needs to be revised in the light of these new observational results. PMID:26722130

  13. Manure and Paper Mill Sludge Application Effects on Potato Yield, Nitrogen Efficiency and Disease Incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Drapeau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate organic amendment management is essential in potato production to increase soil productivity and potato (Solanum tuberosum L. quality. The objectives of this two-year field study (2004–2005 were to evaluate the effects of organic amendment applications with or without mineral N fertilizer addition on potato yield, N uptake, N use efficiency (NUE, and on disease incidence. The experimental design was a split-plot, which included nine treatments with four different organic amendments applied in fall 2003 or in spring 2004 at a rate of 40 Mg ha−1 (wet basis and an unamended control in main plots, and N fertilizer rates (0 and 90 kg N ha−1 in sub-plots. Organic amendments consisted of fresh cattle manure (FCM, composted cattle manure (CCM, paper mill sludge with C/N ratio <15 (PMS1 and paper mill sludge with C/N >15 (PMS2 applied alone (0 kg N ha−1 or supplemented with mineral fertilizer at a rate 90 kg N ha−1. The N fertilizer rate in the unamended control consisted of 0 and 150 kg N ha−1. No organic amendments were applied in 2005 to evaluate residual effects. Fall and spring applications of FCM, CCM and PMS alone significantly increased N uptake and potato marketable yields by 2.5 to 16.4 Mg ha−1, compared to the unfertilized control. Combining organic amendments with N fertilizer at 90 kg N ha−1 increased potato yields, N uptake, and specific gravity, which were comparable to those obtained in mineral N fertilizer treatments (150 kg N ha−1. Residual effects of organic amendments alone had no significant effects on potato yields or on N uptake compared to the unfertilized control. Potato NUE for FCM, CCM and PMS ranged from 6% to 25% in the first year and from 2% to 8% in the residual year. The NUE values were higher for PMS with lower C/N ratio compared to FCM and CCM. This study did not show any difference between organic amendment applied in spring or fall on potato yield and quality. It was also demonstrated that

  14. Efficiency of applications of radiation in paediatrics; Wirksamkeit von Strahlenanwendungen in der Kinderheilkunde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendel, H.; Schneider, K.; Kohn, M.; Bakowski, C.; Endemann, B.; Freidhof, C.; Stein, E.

    1996-03-01

    This initial research project was intended to elaborate and provide a retrospective survey and a collection of basic data showing the efficiency of frequent diagnostic applications of radiation in paediatrics. The results of the study are summarized as follows: Paediatricians` advanced training for treatment of frequent disease in children obviously has been ignoring the significance of affections of the urinary tract, so that in general doctors are giving preference to sonography as an entrance examination for young infants, and diagnostic radiology frequently is applied too late. There is urgent need for in-depth quality assurance measures in diagnostic radiology of infants. The codes of practice first published by the Bundesaerztekammer in 1989 and revised and amended in 1995 are only paper in many hospitals and practices. One reason is outdated equipment. Equipment specifications for paediatric applications have to be distributed in order to avoid gross mistakes in diagnostic imaging. Also, the lack of experience of doctors and radiographers in diagnostic radiology of infants and young children adds up to the technical deficiencies. Regulatory requirements need to be established in order to ensure acquisition and proof of expert training and knowledge in paediatric radiology and radiography, and suitable advanced training. Further research projects are needed in order to ascertain the impact of novel and recent methods, as for instance digital radiography, on radiation dose and image quality. Further, data have to be collected on the radiation dose administered during fluoroscopy and computed tomography in paediatrics. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Ziel des Forschungsvorhabens war zunaechst die Basisdaten ueber haeufige Roentgenaufnahmen in der Paediatrie zu erheben. Die Erhebungen fuehrten zu folgenden Schlussfolgerungen: Die Fortbildung der Paediater bei haeufigen Erkrankungen im Kindesalter beruecksichtigt offensichtlich nicht ausreichend Erkrankungen des Harntraktes

  15. Improving the efficiency of boron application on the vineyards during NPK fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magomadov, Andy; Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Kalinitchenko, Valeriy; Minkina, Tatiana; Sushkova, Svetlana

    2017-04-01

    The effect of different doses and time of boron fertilization on growth and development of grape plants were studied on the soils of Terek-Kumskiy sands of Chechen Republic, Russian Federation. The studies have shown that sandy soils of pilot area have a low content of main macronutrients except of potassium. The boron content in the sandy soils varies within wide limits and characterizes this soil as lack of boron content especially in water-soluble boron distribution through the soil profile. It was developed a technique for roots feeding of grapes for the first time, that allows to control chemical processes the NPK uptake by plant roots. The studied process realized by implementation of optimum amount of boron in plant-available form, introduced in a certain phase of plants growth. It helps to improve the efficiency of nitrogen, phosphate, potassium using. It was found that boron improves the movement of growth substances and ascorbic acid from the leaves to the fertile parts and cannot be replaced by other nutrients. The plants need of boron throughout the growing season. Boron plays an important role in cell division and protein synthesis is an essential component of cell membranes. The use of boric acid as a fertilizer to increase the number of ovaries on grape plants, stimulating the formation of new points of stems and root growth, increased the number of shoots, improved growth, increased the sugar content of the grapes and taste of the fruit, which is a result of more active uptake of boron by grapes. The optimal dose of boron fertilization on the sandy soil and the comparative agroecological and economic evaluation of its application presented in the research. The use of boron fertilizers allowed to increase the sugar content, acidity, tasting score grapes up to 12-38%. The greatest effect of boron fertilization achieved by application to the phase start of sap flow in a dose of 3 kg/ha in the background N90P90K90. The developed technique for sandy

  16. Applicability and economic efficiency of earthquake retrofit measures on existing buildings in Bucharest, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    The research discussed in this contribution contains two aspects: on one side the economic efficiency of seismic retrofit measures, and on the other their applicability. The research was limited to housing buildings. Bucharest, the capital of Romania, was the object of the research. Strong earthquakes affect Bucharest about three times in a century, the damaging earthquakes of the 20th century being in 1940 and 1977. Other strong earthquakes occurred in 1986 and 1990. Since it is a broad topic, first the building type was determined, which should serve further research. For this scope the building types of the 20th century, which are common in Bucharest, Romania, were investigated. For each building type reports have been written, which comprised the earthquake resilient features, the seismic defficiencies, the damage patterns and the retrofit measures. Each of these features was listed for elements of the building. A first result of the research was an integrated system in order to include latter aspects in the planning in the first steps. So already at the building survey attention has to be paid on how a building is subdivided in order to be able to determine the economic efficiency of the planned action. So were defined the `retrofit elements`. In a first step the characteristics were defined, through which these retrofit elements (for example column, wall part between two windows) can be recognised in the building survey. In a further one, which retrofit measures can be connected to these. Diagrams were built, in order to visualise these findings. For each retrofit element and the corresponding measure the costs were calculated. Also, these retrofit elements and the measures connected to them were modelled for the simulation with the structural software, so that the benefit of the measures could be determined. In the part which regarded the economic efficiency, benefits and costs of retrofit measures had to be compared, so the improvement in the rigidity

  17. [Nutrient use efficiency and yield-increasing effect of single basal application of rice specific controlled release fertilizer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiansheng; Xu, Peizhi; Tang, Shuanhu; Zhang, Fabao; Xie, Chunsheng

    2005-10-01

    A series of pot and field experiments and field demonstrations showed that in comparing with the commonly used specific-fertilizers containing same amounts of nutrients, single basal application of rice-specific controlled release fertilizer could increase the use efficiency of N and P by 12.2% - 22.7% and 7.0% - 35.0%, respectively in pot experiment, and the use efficiency of N by 17.1% in field experiment. In 167 field demonstrations successively conducted for 3 years in various rice production areas of Guangdong Province, single basal application of the fertilizer saved the application rate of N and P by 22.1% and 21.8%, respectively, and increased the yield by 8.2%, compared with normal split fertilization.

  18. Technical Efficiency of Indonesian Commercial Banks: An Application of Two-Stage DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Vanina Soetanto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses data envelopment analysis (DEA to investigate the technical efficiency of the Indonesian commercial banks over the period 2004-2009 using intermediation approach. The analysis is conducted based on common frontier of duration of study and ownership of the banks, namely state-owned banks and private banks. Then Tobit regression model is used to examine the influence of internal factors as bank characteristics to efficiency scores. The results of DEA show that Indonesian commercial banks could improve their technical efficiency by 10.5% on average and the scale inefficiency is dominating over pure technical inefficiency. The commercial state-owned banks are showing perfect efficiency during the period of study, and proven to be more efficient compared to the commercial private banks. Finally Tobit regression is revealing that higher asset scale and liquidity risk increase the efficiency of the bank, while the profitability is on the contrary.

  19. Automated Atmospheric Composition Dataset Level Metadata Discovery. Difficulties and Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strub, R. F.; Falke, S. R.; Kempler, S.; Fialkowski, E.; Goussev, O.; Lynnes, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Composition Portal (ACP) is an aggregator and curator of information related to remotely sensed atmospheric composition data and analysis. It uses existing tools and technologies and, where needed, enhances those capabilities to provide interoperable access, tools, and contextual guidance for scientists and value-adding organizations using remotely sensed atmospheric composition data. The initial focus is on Essential Climate Variables identified by the Global Climate Observing System - CH4, CO, CO2, NO2, O3, SO2 and aerosols. This poster addresses our efforts in building the ACP Data Table, an interface to help discover and understand remotely sensed data that are related to atmospheric composition science and applications. We harvested GCMD, CWIC, GEOSS metadata catalogs using machine to machine technologies - OpenSearch, Web Services. We also manually investigated the plethora of CEOS data providers portals and other catalogs where that data might be aggregated. This poster is our experience of the excellence, variety, and challenges we encountered.Conclusions:1.The significant benefits that the major catalogs provide are their machine to machine tools like OpenSearch and Web Services rather than any GUI usability improvements due to the large amount of data in their catalog.2.There is a trend at the large catalogs towards simulating small data provider portals through advanced services. 3.Populating metadata catalogs using ISO19115 is too complex for users to do in a consistent way, difficult to parse visually or with XML libraries, and too complex for Java XML binders like CASTOR.4.The ability to search for Ids first and then for data (GCMD and ECHO) is better for machine to machine operations rather than the timeouts experienced when returning the entire metadata entry at once. 5.Metadata harvest and export activities between the major catalogs has led to a significant amount of duplication. (This is currently being addressed) 6.Most (if not

  20. Application of acoustic agglomeration to enhance air filtration efficiency in air-conditioning and mechanical ventilation (ACMV) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Bing Feng; Xiong, Jin Wen; Wan, Man Pun

    2017-01-01

    The recent episodes of haze in Southeast Asia have caused some of the worst regional atmospheric pollution ever recorded in history. In order to control the levels of airborne fine particulate matters (PM) indoors, filtration systems providing high PM capturing efficiency are often sought, which inadvertently also results in high airflow resistance (or pressure drop) that increases the energy consumption for air distribution. A pre-conditioning mechanism promoting the formation of particle clusters to enhance PM capturing efficiency without adding flow resistance in the air distribution ductwork could provide an energy-efficient solution. This pre-conditioning mechanism can be fulfilled by acoustic agglomeration, which is a phenomenon that promotes the coagulation of suspended particles by acoustic waves propagating in the fluid medium. This paper discusses the basic mechanisms of acoustic agglomeration along with influencing factors that could affect the agglomeration efficiency. The feasibility to apply acoustic agglomeration to improve filtration in air-conditioning and mechanical ventilation (ACMV) systems is investigated experimentally in a small-scale wind tunnel. Experimental results indicate that this novel application of acoustic pre-conditioning improves the PM2.5 filtration efficiency of the test filters by up to 10% without introducing additional pressure drop. The fan energy savings from not having to switch to a high capturing efficiency filter largely outstrip the additional energy consumed by the acoustics system. This, as a whole, demonstrates potential energy savings from the combined acoustic-enhanced filtration system without compromising on PM capturing efficiency.

  1. Efficiency clustering for low-density microarrays and its application to QPCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marron JS

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathway-targeted or low-density arrays are used more and more frequently in biomedical research, particularly those arrays that are based on quantitative real-time PCR. Typical QPCR arrays contain 96-1024 primer pairs or probes, and they bring with it the promise of being able to reliably measure differences in target levels without the need to establish absolute standard curves for each and every target. To achieve reliable quantification all primer pairs or array probes must perform with the same efficiency. Results Our results indicate that QPCR primer-pairs differ significantly both in reliability and efficiency. They can only be used in an array format if the raw data (so called CT values for real-time QPCR are transformed to take these differences into account. We developed a novel method to obtain efficiency-adjusted CT values. We introduce transformed confidence intervals as a novel measure to identify unreliable primers. We introduce a robust clustering algorithm to combine efficiencies of groups of probes, and our results indicate that using n N = 96-1024. Conclusions Careful estimation of primer efficiency is necessary to avoid significant measurement inaccuracies. Transformed confidence intervals are a novel method to assess and interprete the reliability of an efficiency estimate in a high throughput format. Efficiency clustering as developed here serves as a compromise between the imprecision in assuming uniform efficiency, and the computational complexity and danger of over-fitting when using individually determined efficiencies.

  2. Surprisal-based comparison between a symbolic and a connectionist model of sentence processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, S.L.; Taatgen, N.; van Rijn, H.

    2009-01-01

    The 'unlexicalized surprisal' of a word in sentence context is defined as the negative logarithm of the probability of the word's part-of-speech given the sequence of previous parts-of-speech of the sentence. Unlexicalized surprisal is known to correlate with word reading time. Here, it is shown

  3. The role of surprising events in a math game on proportional reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, P.; Oostendorp, van H.; Vrugte, ter J.; Jong, de T.; Vandercruysse, S.; Elen, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether surprising events can be used to stimulate students’ playful learning in a GBL environment in the domain of proportional reasoning. The assumed effect of surprise is that unexpected events interrupt an expectation and therefore triggers the player to evaluate the new situ

  4. Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; LaBar, Kevin S; Adcock, R Alison

    2016-10-01

    Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal representations of the environment, and surprising events are indications for encoding new representations of the environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system, including the hippocampus and surrounding cortex, encodes surprising events and is influenced by motivational state. Because behavior reflects the goals of an individual, we investigated whether motivational valence (i.e., pursuing rewards versus avoiding punishments) also impacts neural and mnemonic encoding of surprising events. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants encountered perceptually unexpected events either during the pursuit of rewards or avoidance of punishments. Despite similar levels of motivation across groups, reward and punishment facilitated the processing of surprising events in different medial temporal lobe regions. Whereas during reward motivation, perceptual surprises enhanced activation in the hippocampus, during punishment motivation surprises instead enhanced activation in parahippocampal cortex. Further, we found that reward motivation facilitated hippocampal coupling with ventromedial PFC, whereas punishment motivation facilitated parahippocampal cortical coupling with orbitofrontal cortex. Behaviorally, post-scan testing revealed that reward, but not punishment, motivation resulted in greater memory selectivity for surprising events encountered during goal pursuit. Together these findings demonstrate that neuromodulatory systems engaged by anticipation of reward and punishment target separate components of the medial temporal lobe, modulating medial temporal lobe sensitivity and connectivity. Thus, reward and punishment motivation yield distinct neural contexts for learning, with distinct consequences for how surprises are incorporated into predictive mnemonic models of the environment.

  5. Firm efficiency, industry performance and the economy : Three-way decomposition with an application to Andalusia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amores, A.F.; ten Raa, T.

    2014-01-01

    An economy may perform better because the firms become more efficient, the industries are better organized, or the allocation between industries is improved. In this paper we extend the literature on the measurement of industry efficiency (a decomposition in firm contributions and an organizational

  6. Efficiency clustering for low-density microarrays and its application to QPCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Pathway-targeted or low-density arrays are used more and more frequently in biomedical research, particularly those arrays that are based on quantitative real-time PCR. Typical QPCR arrays contain 96-1024 primer pairs or probes, and they bring with it the promise of being able to reliably measure differences in target levels without the need to establish absolute standard curves for each and every target. To achieve reliable quantification all primer pairs or array probes must perform with the same efficiency. Results Our results indicate that QPCR primer-pairs differ significantly both in reliability and efficiency. They can only be used in an array format if the raw data (so called CT values for real-time QPCR) are transformed to take these differences into account. We developed a novel method to obtain efficiency-adjusted CT values. We introduce transformed confidence intervals as a novel measure to identify unreliable primers. We introduce a robust clustering algorithm to combine efficiencies of groups of probes, and our results indicate that using n interprete the reliability of an efficiency estimate in a high throughput format. Efficiency clustering as developed here serves as a compromise between the imprecision in assuming uniform efficiency, and the computational complexity and danger of over-fitting when using individually determined efficiencies. PMID:20646303

  7. A robust AHP-DEA method for measuring the relative efficiency: An application of airport industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Foroughi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the relative efficiency of similar units has been an important topic of research among many researchers. Data envelopment analysis has been one of the most important techniques for measuring the efficiency of different units. However, there are some limitations on using such technique and some people prefer to use other methods such as analytical hierarchy process to measure the relative efficiencies. Besides, uncertainty in the input data is another issue, which makes some misleading results. In this paper, we present an integrated robust DEA-AHP to measure the relative efficiency of similar units. The proposed model of this is believed to capable of presenting better results in terms of efficiency compared with exclusive usage of DEA or AHP. The implementation of the proposed model is demonstrated for a real-world case study of Airport industry and the results are analyzed.

  8. Testing Weak Form of Market Efficiency by Application of Simple Technical Trading rules on the Indian Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The efficient market hypothesis has been and continues to be one of the most contentious issues in finance. The studies conducted till 1960's and 1970's fairly supported EMH until recent years, when some academicians proved that the theory is not applicable in real markets. This was done either by using statistical tests or by testing with simple technical trading rules. In this two of the most popular trading rules have been used to test the efficiency of Indian stock markets. The trading ru...

  9. Lead-acid battery with improved cycle life and increased efficiency for lead leveling application and electric road vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsel, A.; Schulz, J.; Guetlich, K. F.

    1983-11-01

    Lifetime and efficiency of lead acid batteries are discussed. A gas lift pump was used to prevent acid stratification and to reduce the charging factor (down to 1.03 to 1.05). A re-expansion method was applied and an expander depot and a compound separation were built in. Cycle life is increased from 700 cycles to 1690 cycles. Efficiency is increased by energy and time saving due to the reduced charging factor and by the use of a recombination stopper and a charge indicator with remote control. It is suggested that the lead acid system is still one of the best possibilities for electric road vehicle applications.

  10. Application of the modified Wheeler cap method for radiation efficiency measurement of balanced electrically small antennas in complex environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiaying; Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, application of a modified Wheeler cap method for the radiation efficiency measurement of balanced electrically small antennas is presented. It is shown that the limitations on the cavity dimension can be overcome and thus measurement in a large cavity is possible. The cavity loss...... is investigated, and a modified radiation efficiency formula that includes the cavity loss is introduced. Moreover, a modification of the technique is proposed that involves the antenna working complex environment inside the Wheeler Cap and thus makes possible measurement of an antenna close to a hand or head...

  11. Testing Weak Form of Market Efficiency by Application of Simple Technical Trading rules on the Indian Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Ankit

    2006-01-01

    The efficient market hypothesis has been and continues to be one of the most contentious issues in finance. The studies conducted till 1960's and 1970's fairly supported EMH until recent years, when some academicians proved that the theory is not applicable in real markets. This was done either by using statistical tests or by testing with simple technical trading rules. In this two of the most popular trading rules have been used to test the efficiency of Indian stock markets. The trading ru...

  12. Influences of nitrogen fertilizer application rates on radish yield, nutrition quality, and nitrogen recovery efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulin LIAO; Xiangmin RONG; Shengxian ZHENG; Qiang LIU; Meirong FAN; Jianwei PENG; Guixian XIE

    2009-01-01

    Radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) were grown in plastic pots in a screenhouse to investigate the influences of nitrogen fertilizer application rates (NFAR) on yield, nitrate content, nitrate reductase activity (NR), nutrition quality, and nitrogen recovery efficiency (NRE) at commercial mature stage. Five N-rate treatments, 0.644, 0.819, 0.995, 1.170, and 1.346 g·por-1, were set up in the screenhouse pot experiments, and nitrogen fertilizer (unlabeled N and l5N-labeled fertilizer) was applied as basal dressing and topdressing, respectively. The results indicated that the fresh and dry weight yields of radish increased with the increase of NFAR at the range of 0.099 to 0.180g N-kg-1 soil, decreased at 0.207 g N-kg-1 soil, and accordingly there was a significant quadratic relationship between the fresh and dry weight yields of radish and the NFAR. At the high addition of urea-N fertilizer, the nitrate content accumulated in the fleshy roots and leaves due to the decline in NR activity. From 0.644 to 0.819 g N-por1 NR increased most rapidly, the highest NR activity occurred at 0.819 g N-por-1, and the lowest NR activity happened at 1.346 g N-por-1. Soluble sugar and ascorbic acid initially increased to the highest value and then decreased, and, contrarily, crude fiber rapidly decreased with the increase of NFAR. Total N uptake (TNU), N derived from fertilizer (Ndff), and N derived from soil (Ndfs) in radish increased, except that Ndfs relatively and slightly decreased at the rate of 0.207 g N-kg'soil. The ratio of Ndff to TNU increased, but the ratio of Ndfs to TNU as well as NRE of N fertilizer decreased with the increase of NFAR. Therefore, the appropriate NFAR should be preferably recommended for improving the yields and nutrition qualities of radish and NRE of N fertilizer.

  13. Efficient, deep-blue TADF-emitters for OLED display applications (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Daniel; Baumann, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Currently, the mobile display market is strongly shifting towards AMOLED technology, in order to enable curved and flexible displays. This leads to a growing demand for highly efficient OLED emitters to reduce the power consumption and increase display resolution at the same time. While highly efficient green and red OLEDs already found their place in commercial OLED-displays, the lack of efficient blue emitters is still an issue. Consequently, the active area for blue is considerably larger than for green and red pixels, to make up for the lower efficiency. We intend to close this efficiency-gap with novel emitters based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) technology. Compared to state-of-the-art fluorescent dopants, the efficiency of TADF-emitters is up to four times higher. At the same time, it is possible to design them in a way to maintain deep blue emission, i.e. CIE y technology does not contain any rare elements, which allows for the fabrication of sustainable OLED technology. In this work, we highlight one of our recently developed blue TADF materials. Basic material properties as well as first device results are discussed. In a bottom-emitting device, a CIEx/CIEy coordinate of (0.16/0.17) was achieved with efficiency values close to 20% EQE.

  14. Limits to solar power conversion efficiency with applications to quantum and thermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.; Smith, B. T.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical framework is presented that permits examination of the limit to the efficiency of various solar power conversion devices. Thermodynamic limits to solar power efficiency are determined for both quantum and thermal systems, and the results are applied to a variety of devices currently considered for use in space systems. The power conversion efficiency for single-threshold energy quantum systems receiving unconcentrated air mass zero solar radiation is limited to 31 percent. This limit applies to photovoltaic cells directly converting solar radiation, or indirectly, as in the case of a thermophotovoltaic system. Photoelectrochemical cells rely on an additional chemical reaction at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, which introduces additional second-law demands and a reduction of the solar conversion efficiency. Photochemical systems exhibit even lower possible efficiencies because of their relatively narrow absorption bands. Solar-powered thermal engines in contact with an ambient reservoir at 300 K and operating at maximum power have a peak conversion efficiency of 64 percent, and this occurs for a thermal reservoir at a temperature of 2900 K. The power conversion efficiency of a solar-powered liquid metal magnetohydrodydnamic generator, a solar-powered steam turbine electric generator, and an alkali metal thermoelectric converter is discussed.

  15. Application of GIS in exploring spatial dimensions of Efficiency in Competitiveness of Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, Shahid; Sen, Joy

    2017-04-01

    Infrastructure is an important component in building competitiveness of a region. Present global scenario of economic slowdown that is led by slump in demand of goods and services and decreasing capacity of government institutions in investing public infrastructure. Strategy of augmenting competitiveness of a region can be built around improving efficient distribution of public infrastructure in the region. This efficiency in the distribution of infrastructure will reduce the burden of government institution and improve the relative output of the region in relative lesser investment. A rigorous literature study followed by an expert opinion survey (RIDIT scores) reveals that Railway, Road, ICTs and Electricity infrastructure is very crucial for better competitiveness of a region. Discussion with Experts in ICTs, Railways and Electricity sectors were conducted to find the issues, hurdles and possible solution for the development of these sectors. In an underdeveloped country like India, there is a large constrain of financial resources, for investment in infrastructure sector. Judicious planning for allocation of resources for infrastructure provisions becomes very important for efficient and sustainable development. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is the mathematical programming optimization tool that measure technical efficiency of the multiple-input and/or multiple-output case by constructing a relative technical efficiency score. This paper tries to utilize DEA to identify the efficiency at which present level of selected components of Infrastructure (Railway, Road, ICTs and Electricity) is utilized in order to build competitiveness of the region. This paper tries to identify a spatial pattern of efficiency of Infrastructure with the help of spatial auto-correlation and Hot-spot analysis in Arc GIS. This analysis leads to policy implications for efficient allocation of financial resources for the provision of infrastructure in the region and building a

  16. Design of Efficient Sound Systems for Low Voltage Battery Driven Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Niels Elkjær; Oortgiesen, Rien; Knott, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of portable battery driven sound systems is crucial as it relates to both the playback time and cost of the system. This paper presents design considerations when designing such systems. This include loudspeaker and amplifier design. Using a low resistance voice coil realized....... A small sized sound system was implemented using the discussed design considerations. The amplifier efficiency performance was found to be very high with near-idle efficiency reaching a remarkably 88% at 2 W. The average output SPL was estimated to be up to 90 dB in half spheric anechoic conditions...

  17. Highly efficient photonic nanowire single-photon sources for quantum information applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Claudon, J.; Munsch, M.

    2013-01-01

    must feature near-unity efficiency, where the efficiency is defined as the number of detected photons per trigger, the probability g(2)(τ=0) of multi-photon emission events should be 0 and the emitted photons are required to be indistinguishable. An optically or electrically triggered quantum light......  factor, meaning that efficient coupling from the QD to the guided mode is obtained over a broad spectral range of ~ 50-100 nm. [4] This means that spectral alignment between the emitter line and a narrow cavity line is not required, which represents a huge practical advantage in the fabrication...

  18. Technology computer aided design of 29.5% efficient perovskite/interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction mechanically stacked tandem solar cell for energy-efficient applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rahul; Chaujar, Rishu

    2017-04-01

    A 29.5% efficient perovskite/SiC passivated interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction (IBC-SiHJ) mechanically stacked tandem solar cell device has been designed and simulated. This is a substantial improvement of 40% and 15%, respectively, compared to the transparent perovskite solar cell (21.1%) and Si solar cell (25.6%) operated individually. The perovskite solar cell has been used as a top subcell, whereas 250- and 25-μm-thick IBC-SiHJ solar cells have been used as bottom subcells. The realistic technology computer aided design analysis has been performed to understand the physical processes in the device and to make reliable predictions of the behavior. The performance of the top subcell has been obtained for different acceptor densities and hole mobility in Spiro-MeOTAD along with the impact of counter electrode work function. To incorporate the effect of material quality, the influence of carrier lifetimes has also been studied for perovskite top and IBC-SiHJ bottom subcells. The optical and electrical behavior of the devices has been obtained for both standalone as well as tandem configuration. Results reported in this study reveal that the proposed four-terminal tandem device may open a new door for cost-effective and energy-efficient applications.

  19. Mobile Technology Applications for Manufacturing, Reduction of Muda (Waste and the Effect on Manufacturing Economy and Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Huenerfauth

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices in the manufacturing setting offer mobility and information whenever and wherever it is needed; these advantages allow for a more efficient workflow and allow the user to make more informed decisions. Due to these advantages, companies are reducing muda (waste by using mobile devices (implementing Lean Manufacturing and therefore saving money. Some of the mobile applications discussed in this paper are the following: Augmented Reality for assembly training, pruefcubing, remotely-monitored shop floors, statistical process control (SPC, and change requests for construction, and the two types of muda (waste reduced by these mobile applications are “unnecessary / excess motion and defects.”

  20. High-Efficiency GaN-Based UV Imaging Photocathodes for Application in Harsh Environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is directed toward the development of innovative high-efficiency UV photocathodes based on the wide bandgap III-nitride semiconductors for reliable...

  1. High Quantum Efficiency Type II SLS FPAs for Space-Based Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR proposes to develop high quantum efficiency (QE) and low dark current infrared epitaxy materials based on Type II Strained Layer Superlattice (SLS)...

  2. High Quantum Efficiency Type II SLS FPAs for Space-Based Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase II SBIR proposes to develop high quantum efficiency (QE) and low dark current infrared epitaxy materials based on Type II Strained Layer Superlattice...

  3. Hybrid surface structures for efficiency enhancement of fluorescent SiC for white LED application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Xiong, Meng; Lu, Weifang

    Hybrid structures contain structures in both micro- and nano-meter scale have been fabricated on fluorescent SiC by applying a fast fabrication method. Luminescence efficiency of f-SiC was enhanced significantly compared with normal nanostructures....

  4. Efficient Tm-Fiber-Pumped Ho:YLF Laser System for Coherent LIDAR Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to employ a recently developed, efficient, high-power, heavily-doped Tm:silica-fiber technology as a high-gain fiber pre-amplifier and as a...

  5. An application of data envelopment analysis for measuring the relative efficiency in banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Soltanifar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the relative efficiency of banking industry has been a popular subject among both practitioners and academicians. Data envelopment analysis (DEA has been widely applied for different purposes. This paper presents an empirical investigation to measure the relative efficiency of various banks located in province of Semnan, Iran. The proposed study uses DEA method to rank all units and using Anderson and Peterson method (1993 [Andersen, P., & Petersen, N. C. (1993. A procedure for ranking efficient units in data envelopment analysis. Management Science, 39, 1261-1264], we provide some super efficiency for inefficient units. The study also provides reference numbers for inefficient units and gives some target values for all inefficient units.

  6. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE APPLICABILITY OF SOFTWARE PRODUCT LINE ENGINEERING FOR ENERGY AND COST-EFFICIENT GREENHOUSE PRODUCTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mærsk-Møller, Hans Martin

    Software product line engineering (SPLE) has shown promising results with respect to software reuse and has a wide range of benefits. Thus, we want to investigate the applicability of SPLE to develop tools for improving the energy and cost-efficiency of greenhouse production in Denmark...... control concept, called DynaLight, which reduces the energy consumption and cost by optimizing the use of the supplementary light in greenhouses. As the DynaLight concept can be used to analyze, plan and control production, a tool suite has to be developed. The need for developing multiple tools...... context especially with respect to small teams, it reports on the experience and describes the application in a detailed and tangible way. It describes the development process, the results of the tools with respect to cost and energy-efficiency, how component-based architecture is utilized as software...

  7. An Efficient Restrictive Blind Signature Scheme with Applications to Electronic Cash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a new restrictive blind signature scheme is proposed. Compared with Brands restrictive blind signature scheme, our scheme is even more restrictive and efficient. And our scheme is proved secure, too. A new withdrawal protocol of electronic cash system is designed by using our restrictive blind signature scheme, which is more efficient than the withdrawal protocol and is more appropriate for adopting pre-processing and post-processing.

  8. Research on High-efficient Remanufacturing Technologies and Application of Electric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren; Zhao, Yuejin; Yang, Xu; Wang, Gen

    2017-09-01

    The energy conservation of electric motor system is the key of industrial energy conservation. With the implementation and acceleration of electric motor energy efficiency improvement plan, more and more electric motors are knocked out. High-efficient remanufacturing of electric motor refers to improving the efficiency of electric motor and recycling the resources by replacing the winding, iron core and other components of electric motor on the basis of the low-efficient/outdated electric motors, which conforms to China’s policy of circular economy and resource recovery. The remanufacturing of electric motor not only maximizes the use of resources, but also reduces the energy consumption generated by reprocessing of cast iron, silicon steel sheet and other materials in dismantling of electric motor. However, structures and iron core materials used in design and manufacture of electric motors are different, and the degrees of wear of electric motors are also different under different operating conditions, which further result in diversified design schemes, increased remanufacturing cost and reduced remanufacturing efficiency. This paper analyzes the key process technologies for remanufacturing of electric motors are researched by analyzing the remanufacturing technologies of electric motors, and presents the feasibility to replace the cast-aluminum rotor with cast-copper rotor in high-efficient remanufacturing process of electric motor.

  9. Application of Data Envelopment Analysis to Evaluate Efficiency of Commercial Greenhouse Strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Banaeian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of strawberry greenhouses showed a big variation of data and high mean benefit to cost ratio (1.74, so the proper potential was seen for improvement of economic efficiency and management in strawberry greenhouses and detailed study was seriously required. In this study, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA technique was applied to investigate the degree of technical and scale efficiency of greenhouse strawberries of Iran, also to compare and optimize the performance of each greenhouse. Based on the amount of four important inputs: human labor (h/ha, fertilizers (kg/ha, capital ($/ha and other expenses ($/ha, and gross return of strawberry ($/ha as output. Mean technical efficiency was 0.73, indicating that there is ample potential for more efficient and sustainable input utilization in production and 27% of overall resources could be saved. The majority of the scale-inefficient greenhouses are operating under increasing returns to scale; efficiency analysis theory suggests that they are obviously small greenhouses that need to increase their sizes in order to achieve cost savings. Ranking of productive efficiencies based on the four mentioned inputs is also shown to differ significantly from that based on a single resource (labor.

  10. Previously seen and expected stimuli elicit surprise in the context of visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retell, James D; Becker, Stefanie I; Remington, Roger W

    2016-04-01

    In the context of visual search, surprise is the phenomenon by which a previously unseen and unexpected stimulus exogenously attracts spatial attention. Capture by such a stimulus occurs, by definition, independent of task goals and is thought to be dependent on the extent to which the stimulus deviates from expectations. However, the relative contributions of prior-exposure and explicit knowledge of an unexpected event to the surprise response have not yet been systematically investigated. Here observers searched for a specific color while ignoring irrelevant cues of different colors presented prior to the target display. After a brief familiarization period, we presented an irrelevant motion cue to elicit surprise. Across conditions we varied prior exposure to the motion stimulus - seen versus unseen - and top-down expectations of occurrence - expected versus unexpected - to assess the extent to which each of these factors contributes to surprise. We found no attenuation of the surprise response when observers were pre-exposed to the motion cue and or had explicit knowledge of its occurrence. Our results show that it is neither sufficient nor necessary that a stimulus be new and unannounced to elicit surprise and suggest that the expectations that determine the surprise response are highly context specific.

  11. Application of an Efficient Gene Targeting System Linking Secondary Metabolites to their Biosynthetic Genes in Aspergillus terreus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Chun-Jun; Knox, Benjamin P.; Sanchez, James F.; Chiang, Yi-Ming; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Wang, Clay C.

    2013-07-19

    Nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) are natural products biosynthesized by NRP synthetases. A kusA-, pyrG- mutant strain of Aspergillusterreus NIH 2624 was developed that greatly facilitated the gene targeting efficiency in this organism. Application of this tool allowed us to link four major types of NRP related secondary metabolites to their responsible genes in A. terreus. In addition, an NRP related melanin synthetase was also identified in this species.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF EFFICIENCY OF APPLICATION OF TOOLS OF CARRYING OUT THE ALL-RUSSIAN POPULATION CENSUS OF 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg V. Manzhula

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At a stage of preparation for the All-Russian population census of 2020 it is necessary to develop methodical and technological support of processes of carrying out census for increase of reliability of data collection and quality of information processing of population census of the Russian Federation with use of modern information and communication technologies, and also a technique of an assessment of efficiency of application of tools of carrying out census

  13. A Statistical Analysis of the Relationship between Harmonic Surprise and Preference in Popular Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Scott A; Rosen, David S; Grzywacz, Norberto M

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that some musical pieces may preferentially activate reward centers in the brain. Less is known, however, about the structural aspects of music that are associated with this activation. Based on the music cognition literature, we propose two hypotheses for why some musical pieces are preferred over others. The first, the Absolute-Surprise Hypothesis, states that unexpected events in music directly lead to pleasure. The second, the Contrastive-Surprise Hypothesis, proposes that the juxtaposition of unexpected events and subsequent expected events leads to an overall rewarding response. We tested these hypotheses within the framework of information theory, using the measure of "surprise." This information-theoretic variable mathematically describes how improbable an event is given a known distribution. We performed a statistical investigation of surprise in the harmonic structure of songs within a representative corpus of Western popular music, namely, the McGill Billboard Project corpus. We found that chords of songs in the top quartile of the Billboard chart showed greater average surprise than those in the bottom quartile. We also found that the different sections within top-quartile songs varied more in their average surprise than the sections within bottom-quartile songs. The results of this study are consistent with both the Absolute- and Contrastive-Surprise Hypotheses. Although these hypotheses seem contradictory to one another, we cannot yet discard the possibility that both absolute and contrastive types of surprise play roles in the enjoyment of popular music. We call this possibility the Hybrid-Surprise Hypothesis. The results of this statistical investigation have implications for both music cognition and the human neural mechanisms of esthetic judgments.

  14. Nanotechnologies for efficient solar and wind energy harvesting and storage in smart-grid and transportation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldada, Louay

    2011-01-01

    A wide array of nanotechnologies can be used to improve the efficiency of energy harvest from the Sun and the wind, and the efficiency of energy storage in secondary batteries, for use in smart grid and transportation applications. High-quality nanostructured copper indium gallium selenide thin films help produce high-efficiency photovoltaic modules. Various nanotechnologies are utilized to improve the efficiency of power-generating wind turbines, including nanoparticle-containing lubricants that reduce the friction generated from the rotation of the turbines, nanocoatings for de-icing and self-cleaning technologies, and advanced nanocomposites that provide lighter and stronger wind blades. A number of nanotechnologies can be beneficial in advanced high-capacity secondary batteries for smart grid and transportation applications. These technologies include nanostructured carbon-nanotube-based and silicon-nanowire-based electrodes with ultrahigh surface areas, as well as nanoengineered β-alumina ceramic electrolytes with well-controlled grains, grain boundaries, and crystal orientation, which are used to boost the energy and power densities in secondary batteries such as lithium-ion, sodium-sulfur, flow, and dry cell batteries.

  15. Pooling designs with surprisingly high degree of error correction in a finite vector space

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Pooling designs are standard experimental tools in many biotechnical applications. It is well-known that all famous pooling designs are constructed from mathematical structures by the "containment matrix" method. In particular, Macula's designs (resp. Ngo and Du's designs) are constructed by the containment relation of subsets (resp. subspaces) in a finite set (resp. vector space). Recently, we generalized Macula's designs and obtained a family of pooling designs with more high degree of error correction by subsets in a finite set. In this paper, as a generalization of Ngo and Du's designs, we study the corresponding problems in a finite vector space and obtain a family of pooling designs with surprisingly high degree of error correction. Our designs and Ngo and Du's designs have the same number of items and pools, respectively, but the error-tolerant property is much better than that of Ngo and Du's designs, which was given by D'yachkov et al. \\cite{DF}, when the dimension of the space is large enough.

  16. October Surprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Ushered in with the rampage of Hurricane Matthew, later days brightened in this month that has often been harbinger of both good and bad news for Cuba and the world. Hurricane Matthew ripped through Eastern Cuba, devastating the historic town of Baracoa (Cuba's first capital, founded in 1511) and the village of Maisí, where the morning sun first rises over Cuban territory. Wind and flood leveled hundreds of homes, brought down the power grid and destroyed crops. Yet there was no loss of human life, unlike in neighboring Haiti and other countries in Matthew's path, and unlike in Cuba in 1963, when Hurricane Flora caused more than 1200 deaths. In Haiti, efforts of health workers-including hundreds of Haitian graduates from Cuba's Latin American Medical School and 600 Cuban health professionals already there-were bolstered by dozens of specially trained Cuban disaster medical personnel in the wake of the storm.

  17. Surprising Resists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Stephie

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses an art adventure with her third, fourth, and fifth grade enrichment kids to the Fort Collins Museum of Contemporary Art in Colorado. The author demonstrates and teaches her students how to use the art tissue paper and oil pastel complementing the creative spirit of the Jaune Quick-to-See Smith work presented…

  18. Green computing: efficient energy management of multiprocessor streaming applications via model checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmad, W.

    2017-01-01

    Streaming applications such as virtual reality, video conferencing, and face detection, impose high demands on a system’s performance and battery life. With the advancement in mobile computing, these applications are increasingly implemented on battery-constrained platforms, such as gaming consoles,

  19. X-Switch: An Efficient , Multi-User, Multi-Language Web Application Server

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumbo Nyirenda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Web applications are usually installed on and accessed through a Web server. For security reasons, these Web servers generally provide very few privileges to Web applications, defaulting to executing them in the realm of a guest ac- count. In addition, performance often is a problem as Web applications may need to be reinitialised with each access. Various solutions have been designed to address these security and performance issues, mostly independently of one another, but most have been language or system-specic. The X-Switch system is proposed as an alternative Web application execution environment, with more secure user-based resource management, persistent application interpreters and support for arbitrary languages/interpreters. Thus it provides a general-purpose environment for developing and deploying Web applications. The X-Switch system's experimental results demonstrated that it can achieve a high level of performance. Further- more it was shown that X-Switch can provide functionality matching that of existing Web application servers but with the added benet of multi-user support. Finally the X-Switch system showed that it is feasible to completely separate the deployment platform from the application code, thus ensuring that the developer does not need to modify his/her code to make it compatible with the deployment platform.

  20. Efficient VUV light sources from rare gas excimers and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Wataru; Kubodera, Shoichi; Kawanaka, Junji

    1997-04-01

    Efficient VUV excimer lamps with two types of discharge configurations, expanding jet discharge and silent discharge (dielectric-barrier discharge) in a variety of rare gases and their mixtures, are presented. In the jet discharges VUV output power was 9 mW with an efficiency of 10-2% at 126 nm for argon excimers. Output powers of other excimers were 300 mW with 1.0% efficiency at 146 nm for krypton excimers and 500 mW with 1.6% efficiency at 176 nm for xenon excimers. Simultaneous emissions from hetero-nuclear rare gas excimers (ArKr*, 135 nm) as well as homo-nuclear rare gas excimers (Ar2* and Kr2*) were observed by using rare gas mixtures of argon and krypton. Output powers and efficiencies of the silent discharge excimer lamps were 500 mW and 1.6% for argon, 5 W and 13% for krypton, and 5 W and 20% for xenon excimers. In the silent discharge extremely broad band excimer emissions were observed at the center wavelengths of 145 nm for an argon/krypton mixture and of 163 nm for a krypton/xenon mixture. A PMMA plate was photo-chemically etched at the rates of 1 - 2 nm/min by the irradiation of the 172 nm radiation in air and argon gas atmospheres.

  1. Efficient biomass preparation for the utilization as biocoal in industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampe, Karl; Grund, Guido; Erpelding, Richard; Denker, Jurgen [ThyssenKrupp Polysius AG, Beckum (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Rising energy costs and regulations on the efficient utilisation of energy resources force plant operators in all industrial sectors to focus on these aspects. Both in power generation as well as in thermal processes, the use of renewable sources is becoming more and more important. In this respect, especially the utilisation of biomass plays an ever-increasing role. The production of biocoal offers a solution to overcome the challenges of a wide range of different feedstock properties and to provide homogenised, biogenic fuels. The main objectives to be achieved in biocoal production are efficient drying, energy densification, bulk density maximisation and grindability optimisation. Here, the torrefaction of biomass presents a suitable and energy-efficient solution. With regard to uniform temperature distribution, temperature control, efficiency and final product quality, the multiple hearth furnace method is the preferred process of ThyssenKrupp Polysius. A double-zone multiple hearth furnace (POLTORR) permits both drying and torrefaction of wet biomasses up to 50% moisture content in one coupled unit. The main advantage of this process is the direct, safe and efficient utilisation of the volatiles released during torrefaction for the drying process by means of post-combustion, thus under favourable conditions, an almost autothermic process can be realized.

  2. [Urban sustainability assessment based on eco-efficiency and its application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Lin, Jian-yi; Cui, Sheng-hui; Cao, Bin; Shi, Long-yu

    2010-04-01

    Comprehensive assessment on urban ecological system is one of important issues for regional sustainable development research. Urban eco-efficiency is the effective tool to integrate sustainabable strategies into the development planning and management initiatives, which expresses the relationship of inputs of ecological impact and outputs of social welfare. An evaluation model of urban sustainability based on eco-efficiency was proposed by integrating Ecological Footprint model and Human Development Index. Using this model, a case study of Xiamen City was carried out using the statistical data from 2000 to 2006. There is a fluctuation of ecoefficiency which showed a steady increase first, then a sharp decline and a marginal increase towards the end. During 2000-2006, the per-capita ecological footprint increases from 4.279 hm2 to 5.462 hm2; and the Human Development Index increases from 0.831 to 0.896; thus the eco-efficiency, resource efficiency and environmental efficiency declines by 15.5%, 15.7% and 15.3% respectively. Xiamen experiences sustainability hypo-increasing phase first, sustainability increasing phase secondly, then sustainability decreasing phase, and sustainability increasing phase in the end. On the whole, the urban sustainability shows a decreasing trend.

  3. Efficiency of chlorophyll in gross primary productivity: A proof of concept and application in crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitelson, Anatoly A; Peng, Yi; Viña, Andrés; Arkebauer, Timothy; Schepers, James S

    2016-08-20

    One of the main factors affecting vegetation productivity is absorbed light, which is largely governed by chlorophyll. In this paper, we introduce the concept of chlorophyll efficiency, representing the amount of gross primary production per unit of canopy chlorophyll content (Chl) and incident PAR. We analyzed chlorophyll efficiency in two contrasting crops (soybean and maize). Given that they have different photosynthetic pathways (C3 vs. C4), leaf structures (dicot vs. monocot) and canopy architectures (a heliotrophic leaf angle distribution vs. a spherical leaf angle distribution), they cover a large spectrum of biophysical conditions. Our results show that chlorophyll efficiency in primary productivity is highly variable and responds to various physiological and phenological conditions, and water availability. Since Chl is accessible through non-destructive, remotely sensed techniques, the use of chlorophyll efficiency for modeling and monitoring plant optimization patterns is practical at different scales (e.g., leaf, canopy) and under widely-varying environmental conditions. Through this analysis, we directly related a functional characteristic, gross primary production with a structural characteristic, canopy chlorophyll content. Understanding the efficiency of the structural characteristic is of great interest as it allows explaining functional components of the plant system.

  4. The application of Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to eco-efficiency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiaying; Wu, Zhijun; Holländer, Robert

    2012-05-15

    A new method for weighting and aggregating eco-efficiency indicators is of the utmost importance, if researchers in the field are to provide simplified and physically meaningful information to policy makers. To date, there is still considerable debate over which weighting and aggregating methods to use in this context. We apply a new variant of factor analysis, Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), to a simple eco-efficiency analysis case study. PMF constrains its solutions to be non-negative, providing two important advantages over traditional factor analysis (FA) or principal component analysis (PCA): the rotational ambiguity of the solution space is reduced, and all the results are guaranteed to be physically meaningful. We suggest that PMF is better choice than either FA or PCA for eco-efficiency indicators, especially when dealing with complex social-economic and environmental data.

  5. Occupancy measurement in building: A litterature review, application on an energy efficiency research demonstrated building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caucheteux A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the energy efficiency of buildings and its confrontation with the current Building Energy Simulations now faces knowledge of what is commonly called “occupancy”. This work has been made in order to implement a monitoring system on a research demonstrator building at DLRCA in Angers (France. The goals were first to know the occupancy as input data of models but also to build occupancy models. Occupancy can be defined as all the action of occupants that affect building energy efficiency. The chosen monitoring deals with its presence, lightning, windows opening and internal gains. It seems that the use of an Infra- red detector allows a accuracy of 5 min in the detection of presence. The use of dry contact sensors allows the detection of five different rates of slide windows opening that can affect temperature decrease. Light sensors seem to be efficient to detect artificial lighting states when correctly configured.

  6. COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF HEAT-PUMPS APPLICATION IN LOW TEMPERATURE HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Chepurnoy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The  article  considers  comparative  operation-efficiency  of  the  low-temperature  heatsupply systems with heat pumping plants (HPP and with hot-water boilers. The paper shows that for energy evaluation of the alternative heat-supply systems effectiveness one cannot employ the transformation ratio (heating coefficient and the fuel heat-utilization factor in the HPP. Nonetheless the transformation ratio enters the formulae designating the efficiency of HPP operation. The authors obtain a generalized formula for ascertainment of transformation ratio and suggest evaluating the operation efficiency of the heat-supply systems by means of indicators specifying relative gain in the exergy-efficiency factor, fuel savings and saving expenditures connected with fuel and utilities. They attain formulae and build nomographic charts for those indicators ascertainment. The operation-efficiency comparative analysis of the low-temperature heat supply systems with HPP and with hot-water boilers shows that the HPP systems increase their effectiveness with transformation ratio, fuel price increase as well as with low electric-energy prices. The article specifies that with fuel low prices, the transformation-ratios limiting values with which the HPP operation-efficacy gains, grow. Energy-efficiency increase in the HPP does not always guaranty their economic effectiveness. These findings are true only for the heating systems. The hot water-supply systems will require the HPP condenser water additional heating to the assumed temperature from another thermal source, which reduces the effectiveness of the heat pump plants utilizing.

  7. High efficiency RF amplifier development over wide dynamic range for accelerator application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Jitendra Kumar; Ramarao, B. V.; Pande, Manjiri M.; Joshi, Gopal; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Pitamber

    2017-10-01

    Superconducting (SC) cavities in an accelerating section are designed to have the same geometrical velocity factor (βg). For these cavities, Radio Frequency (RF) power needed to accelerate charged particles varies with the particle velocity factor (β). RF power requirement from one cavity to other can vary by 2-5 dB within the accelerating section depending on the energy gain in the cavity and beam current. In this paper, we have presented an idea to improve operating efficiency of the SC RF accelerators using envelope tracking technique. A study on envelope tracking technique without feedback is carried out on a 1 kW, 325 MHz, class B (conduction angle of 180 degrees) tuned load power amplifier (PA). We have derived expressions for the efficiency and power output for tuned load amplifier operating on the envelope tracking technique. From the derived expressions, it is observed that under constant load resistance to the device (MOSFET), optimum amplifier efficiency is invariant whereas output power varies with the square of drain bias voltage. Experimental results on 1 kW PA module show that its optimum efficiency is always greater than 62% with variation less than 5% from mean value over 7 dB dynamic range. Low power amplifier modules are the basic building block for the high power amplifiers. Therefore, results for 1 kW PA modules remain valid for the high power solid state amplifiers built using these PA modules. The SC RF accelerators using these constant efficiency power amplifiers can improve overall accelerator efficiency.

  8. Effects of single basal application of coated compound fertilizer on yield and nitrogen use efficiency in double-cropped rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiana Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fertilizer plays an important role in increasing rice yield. More than half of all fertilizer applied to the field is not taken up, resulting in environmental damage and substantial economic losses. To address these concerns, a low-cost, coated compound fertilizer named “Xiang Nong Da” (XND, requiring only a single basal application, was studied. A two-year field experiment was conducted to test the effects of XND application on rice yield and nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency. An ordinary uncoated compound fertilizer (UNCF, with 20% more nutrients and split application was selected as the control. The yield of XND-treated rice was only 3.1% lower than that of the control, an insignificant difference. There were no significant differences between N use efficiency indices of the two fertilizer treatments except for N partial factor productivity (PFPN. PFPN of XND treatment was 19.7%–23.2% higher than the control, a significant difference. This result indicates that a 20% decrease in N application rate is possible with XND without yield reduction and with savings in both labor and time.

  9. Application of a mixed DEA model to evaluate relative efficiency validity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Data envelopment analysis(DEA) model is widely used to evaluate the relative efficiency of producers. It is a kind of objective decision method with multiple indexes. However, the two basic models frequently used at present, the C2R model and the C2GS2 model have limitations when used alone,resulting in evaluations that are often unsatisfactory. In order to solve this problem, a mixed DEA model is built and is used to evaluate the validity of the business efficiency of listed companies. An explanation of how to use this mixed DEA model is offered and its feasibility is verified.

  10. Efficient circular thresholding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yu-Kun; Rosin, Paul L

    2014-03-01

    Otsu's algorithm for thresholding images is widely used, and the computational complexity of determining the threshold from the histogram is O(N) where N is the number of histogram bins. When the algorithm is adapted to circular rather than linear histograms then two thresholds are required for binary thresholding. We show that, surprisingly, it is still possible to determine the optimal threshold in O(N) time. The efficient optimal algorithm is over 300 times faster than traditional approaches for typical histograms and is thus particularly suitable for real-time applications. We further demonstrate the usefulness of circular thresholding using the adapted Otsu criterion for various applications, including analysis of optical flow data, indoor/outdoor image classification, and non-photorealistic rendering. In particular, by combining circular Otsu feature with other colour/texture features, a 96.9% correct rate is obtained for indoor/outdoor classification on the well known IITM-SCID2 data set, outperforming the state-of-the-art result by 4.3%.

  11. [Estimation of clinical-pathogenetic efficiency of reamberin and cycloferon application in patients with the severe form of acute tonsillitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, V M; Tereshkin, V A; Sotskaia, Ia A; Peresadin, N A; Kruglova, O V

    2013-03-01

    Efficiency of reamberin and cycloferon application combination at the patients with the heavy form of acute tonsillitis was investigated. It is set that cycloferon and reamberin application in the complex of treatment of the patients with this pathology is instrumental in normalization of the general state and feel of patients, liquidation of both commontoxic syndrome and local inflammatory displays in pharynx, and also normalization of the studied biochemical and immunological indexes. Application of cycloferon and reamberin provides the decline of "average molecules" and malon dialdehyde level to norm, that testifies about liquidation endogenous "metabolic" intoxication syndrome, and also instrumental in normalization of phagocytes activity of monocytes indexes, that describe normalize operating of the indicated preparation on the macrophage phagocytes system.

  12. Application of data envelopment analysis in measuring the efficiency of mutual fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nik, Marzieh Geramian; Mihanzadeh, Hooman; Izadifar, Mozhgan; Nik, Babak Geramian

    2015-05-01

    The growth of mutual fund industry during the past decades emphasizes the importance of this investment vehicle particularly in prosperity of financial markets and in turn, financial growth of each country. Therefore, evaluating the relative efficiency of mutual funds as investment tool is of importance. In this study, a combined model of DEA (data envelopment analysis), and goal programming (GoDEA) approaches contributes widely to analyze the return efficiency of Mutual Funds in an attempt to separate efficient and inefficient Funds as well as identifying the inefficiency resources. Mixed asset local funds, which are managed jointly by CIMB and Public Mutual Berhad, have been selected for the purpose of this paper. As a result, Public Small Cap Fund (P Small Cap) is regarded as the most efficient mutual fund during the period of study. The integrated model aims to first guide investors to choose the best performing fund among other mutual funds, secondly provides the realistic and appropriate benchmark in compare to other classic method, and finally confirms the utility of data envelopment analysis (DEA) as decision-making tool.

  13. Reliable tool life measurements in turning - an application to cutting fluid efficiency evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos A.; Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2001-01-01

    ) provides efficiency evaluation. Six cutting oils, five of which formulated from vegetable basestock, were evaluated in turning. Experiments were run in a range of cutting parameters. according to a 2, 3-1 factorial design, machining AISI 316L stainless steel with coated carbide tools. Tool life...

  14. Energy-efficient induction motors designing with application of a modified criterion of reduced costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Petrushin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a modified criterion of reduced costs that employs coefficients of operation significance and priority of ohmic loss accounting to allow matching maximum efficiency with minimum reduced costs. Impact of the inflation factor on the criterion of reduced costs is analyzed.

  15. Fuel Application Efficiency in Ideal Cycle of Gas Turbine Plant with Isobaric Heat Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nesenchuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals expediency to use in prospect fuels with maximum value  Qнр∑Vi and minimum theoretical burning temperature in order to obtain maximum efficiency of the ideal cycle in GTP with isobaric heat supply.

  16. Automation of irrigation systems to control irrigation applications and crop water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural irrigation management to slow water withdrawals from non-replenishing quality water resources is a global endeavor and vital to sustaining irrigated agriculture and dependent rural economies. Research in site-specific irrigation management has shown that water use efficiency, and crop p...

  17. Fluorescence imaging for investigating the efficiency of formulations, adjuvants and application systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, de H.; Schoor, van der R.; Jalink, H.

    2005-01-01

    Several herbicides reduce, directly or indirectly, the efficiency of photosynthesis of plants. As a consequence, the fluorescence of the chlorophyll increases. The relative increase of fluorescence [(Fm-F0)/Fm] can be used to compare the influence of formulations and adjuvants on the activity of her

  18. Establishment and application of an efficient, economic, and rapid rice DNA extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid, economic, and efficient method for DNA extraction from rice leaf, root and seed was developed, and the extracted DNA was used as a template to successfully amplify the rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta. Profiles of Pi-ta in 165 breeding lines detected by DNA markers were verified using diff...

  19. Design of Efficient Sound Systems for Low Voltage Battery Driven Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Niels Elkjær; Oortgiesen, Rien; Knott, Arnold;

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of portable battery driven sound systems is crucial as it relates to both the playback time and cost of the system. This paper presents design considerations when designing such systems. This include loudspeaker and amplifier design. Using a low resistance voice coil realized with ...

  20. Efficiency of Finnish General Upper Secondary Schools: An Application of Stochastic Frontier Analysis with Panel Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirjavainen, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Different stochastic frontier models for panel data are used to estimate education production functions and the efficiency of Finnish general upper secondary schools. Grades in the matriculation examination are used as an output and explained with the comprehensive school grade point average, parental socio-economic background, school resources,…

  1. Co-sensitization of natural dyes for improved efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. Ashok; Subalakshmi, K.; Senthilselvan, J.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a new approach of co-sensitized DSSC based on natural dyes is investigated to explore the possible way to improve the power conversion efficiency. To realize this purpose 10 DSSC devices were fabricated using mono-sensitization and co-sensitization of ethanolic extracts of natural dye sensitizers obtained from Cactus fruit, Jambolana fruit, Curcumin and Bermuda grass. The optical absorption spectrum of the mono and hybrid dye extracts were studied by UV-Visible absorption spectrum. It shows the characteristic absorption peaks in visible region corresponds to the presence of natural pigments of anthocyanin, betacyanin and chlorophylls. Absorption spectrum of hybrid dyes reveals a wide absorption band in visible region with improved extinction co-efficient and it is favorable for increased light harvesting nature. The power conversion efficiency of DSSC devices were calculated using J-V curve and the maximum efficiency achieved in the present work is noted to be ~0.61% for Cactus-Bermuda co-sensitized DSSC.

  2. Parameters of electrostatic spraying and its influence on the application efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Shigueaki Sasaki

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available When the electrostatic spraying is used correctly, it provides advantages over conventional systems, however many factors can affect the system efficiency. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the charge/mass ratio (Q/M at different spraying distances (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 m, and the liquid deposition efficiency on the target. Evaluating the Q/M ratio the Faraday cage method was used and to evaluate the liquid deposition efficiency the artificial targets were positioned longitudinally and transversely to the spray jet. It was found that the spraying distance affects the Q/M ratio, consequently, the liquid deposition efficiency. For the closest distance to the target the Q/M ratio was 4.11 mC kg-1, and at distances of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 m, the ratio decreased to 1.38, 0.64, 0.31, 0.17 and 0.005 mC kg-1, respectively. For the liquid deposition, the electrostatic system was affected by the target orientation and spraying distance. The target transversely to the jet of liquid did not improve the liquid deposition, but longitudinally increased the deposition up to 3 meters of distance.

  3. The role of loudness in detection of surprising events in music recordings

    OpenAIRE

    Holonowicz, Piotr; Herrera, Perfecto; Purwins, Hendrik

    2009-01-01

    The abrupt change of loudness is a salient event that is not always expected by a music listener. Therefore loudness is an important cue when seeking for events in a music stream that could violate human expectations. The concept of expectation and surprise in music has become recently the subject of extensive research, however mostly using symbolic data. The aim of this work is to investigate the circumstances when a change of sound intensity could be surprising for a listener. Then, using t...

  4. High Efficiency Three Phase Resonant Conversion for Standardized Architecture Power System Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A low-cost, standardized-architecture power system is proposed for NASA electric propulsion (EP) applications. Three approaches are combined to develop a system that...

  5. High Efficiency Three Phase Resonant Conversion for Standardized Architecture Power System Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A low-cost, standardized-architecture power system is proposed for NASA electric propulsion (EP) applications. Three approaches are combined to develop a system that...

  6. Assessment of Economic Efficiency Pertaining to Application of Energy Storage Units in Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chernetsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers some aspects pertaining to an application of technologies for energy storage in electric power. Review of technical and cost characteristics of energy storage units has been given in the paper. The review reflects data of the energy storage units which are available and which are under development. The paper proposes an approach that permits to assess boundaries of economically reasonable application of energy storage systems in order to balance daily load curve of a power system.

  7. A compact high efficiency 8 kW 325 MHz power amplifier for accelerator applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Jitendra Kumar; Ramarao, B. V.; Pande, Manjiri M.; Singh, P.

    2014-11-01

    A solid state RF power amplifier (SSRFPA) has been designed and developed for 8 kW RF power at 325 MHz. The work was carried out to achieve high efficiency (over 70% efficiency), high gain and compact size for the amplifier module. The sub-components of this amplifier like a 1 kW amplifier module at 325 MHz, an 8-way RF power combiner rated for 8 kW RF power and a micro-strip based power divider have been designed and developed in-house. The size of the amplifier is miniaturized by incorporating innovative design techniques and proper selection of the substrate material in the input/output matching networks. Measured power gain and conversion efficiency of the solid state RF power amplifier module at 1.06 kW output is 21.7 dB and 73.2%, respectively. A coaxial line based 8-way Wilkinson power combiner has been designed and developed. Return loss of the combiner at the output (combined) port is 26.4 dB at 325 MHz. Transmission parameters of the combiner from each input (splitting) port to output port are 9.1 dB±0.15 dB. This amplifier uses a pre-driver of 20 W and a driver amplifier of 150 W. Total power gain and efficiency of 8 kW SSRFPA have been 92.3 dB (including the driver stages) and 68.3%, respectively. The harmonic content in the RF output is less than -50 dBc for all the harmonics. Main features of this development are high power density (kW/cm3), large value for kW/module, high efficiency (68.3%) for 8 kW SSRFPA at 325 MHz and rugged operation.

  8. A compact high efficiency 8 kW 325 MHz power amplifier for accelerator applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Jitendra Kumar, E-mail: jkmishra@barc.gov.in; Ramarao, B.V.; Pande, Manjiri M.; Singh, P.

    2014-11-11

    A solid state RF power amplifier (SSRFPA) has been designed and developed for 8 kW RF power at 325 MHz. The work was carried out to achieve high efficiency (over 70% efficiency), high gain and compact size for the amplifier module. The sub-components of this amplifier like a 1 kW amplifier module at 325 MHz, an 8-way RF power combiner rated for 8 kW RF power and a micro-strip based power divider have been designed and developed in-house. The size of the amplifier is miniaturized by incorporating innovative design techniques and proper selection of the substrate material in the input/output matching networks. Measured power gain and conversion efficiency of the solid state RF power amplifier module at 1.06 kW output is 21.7 dB and 73.2%, respectively. A coaxial line based 8-way Wilkinson power combiner has been designed and developed. Return loss of the combiner at the output (combined) port is 26.4 dB at 325 MHz. Transmission parameters of the combiner from each input (splitting) port to output port are 9.1 dB±0.15 dB. This amplifier uses a pre-driver of 20 W and a driver amplifier of 150 W. Total power gain and efficiency of 8 kW SSRFPA have been 92.3 dB (including the driver stages) and 68.3%, respectively. The harmonic content in the RF output is less than −50 dBc for all the harmonics. Main features of this development are high power density (kW/cm{sup 3}), large value for kW/module, high efficiency (68.3%) for 8 kW SSRFPA at 325 MHz and rugged operation.

  9. An efficient multistrategy DNA decontamination procedure of PCR reagents for hypersensitive PCR applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Champlot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: PCR amplification of minute quantities of degraded DNA for ancient DNA research, forensic analyses, wildlife studies and ultrasensitive diagnostics is often hampered by contamination problems. The extent of these problems is inversely related to DNA concentration and target fragment size and concern (i sample contamination, (ii laboratory surface contamination, (iii carry-over contamination, and (iv contamination of reagents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we performed a quantitative evaluation of current decontamination methods for these last three sources of contamination, and developed a new procedure to eliminate contaminating DNA contained in PCR reagents. We observed that most current decontamination methods are either not efficient enough to degrade short contaminating DNA molecules, rendered inefficient by the reagents themselves, or interfere with the PCR when used at doses high enough to eliminate these molecules. We also show that efficient reagent decontamination can be achieved by using a combination of treatments adapted to different reagent categories. Our procedure involves γ- and UV-irradiation and treatment with a mutant recombinant heat-labile double-strand specific DNase from the Antarctic shrimp Pandalus borealis. Optimal performance of these treatments is achieved in narrow experimental conditions that have been precisely analyzed and defined herein. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There is not a single decontamination method valid for all possible contamination sources occurring in PCR reagents and in the molecular biology laboratory and most common decontamination methods are not efficient enough to decontaminate short DNA fragments of low concentration. We developed a versatile multistrategy decontamination procedure for PCR reagents. We demonstrate that this procedure allows efficient reagent decontamination while preserving the efficiency of PCR amplification of minute quantities of DNA.

  10. Hydrothermal Synthesis of VO2 Polymorphs: Advantages, Challenges and Prospects for the Application of Energy Efficient Smart Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Magdassi, Shlomo; Gao, Yanfeng; Long, Yi

    2017-07-19

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2 ) is a widely studied inorganic phase change material, which has a reversible phase transition from semiconducting monoclinic to metallic rutile phase at a critical temperature of τc ≈ 68 °C. The abrupt decrease of infrared transmittance in the metallic phase makes VO2 a potential candidate for thermochromic energy efficient windows to cut down building energy consumption. However, there are three long-standing issues that hindered its application in energy efficient windows: high τc , low luminous transmittance (Tlum ), and undesirable solar modulation ability (ΔTsol ). Many approaches, including nano-thermochromism, porous films, biomimetic surface reconstruction, gridded structures, antireflective overcoatings, etc, have been proposed to tackle these issues. The first approach-nano-thermochromism-which is to integrate VO2 nanoparticles in a transparent matrix, outperforms the rest; while the thermochromic performance is determined by particle size, stoichiometry, and crystallinity. A hydrothermal method is the most common method to fabricate high-quality VO2 nanoparticles, and has its own advantages of large-scale synthesis and precise phase control of VO2 . This Review focuses on hydrothermal synthesis, physical properties of VO2 polymorphs, and their transformation to thermochromic VO2 (M), and discusses the advantages, challenges, and prospects of VO2 (M) in energy-efficient smart windows application. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Application of Mechanical Similarity Laws to the Collection Efficiencies of Geometrically Types of Uni—Flow Cyclone Dust Collectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AkiraOGAWA; KazuyaSUGIYAMA; 等

    1993-01-01

    From the mechanical similarity point of view,the centrifugal effect,Ar,and the Stokes number,St,as well as the Reynolds number,Rec for the motion of solid particles in the cyclone are the relevant parameters.In order to apply these similarty laws for the prediction of the Characteristics of the collection efficiency,ηc,geometrically similar types of uni-flow cyclones were used.The body diameters of the cyclones were D1=30,50,69 and 99mm,respectively.The feed particle concentration of the fly-ash particles was up to Co=60 g/m3,from the experimental results:(1) the pressure drop,ΔPc,in the cyclones was a function of not only the Reynods number,Rec.but also the body diameter,D1;(2)the collection efficiency,ηc,did not always increase with decreasing body diameter but there existed an optimal body size;(3)application of the mechanical similarity laws to the collection efficiency was not always sufficient for estimating the collection efficiency,since the feed particle concentration was an additional important factor;(4)a new parameter which was the ratio,Epf,of the apparent separation energy,Wp,of the solid particles to the energy loss,Ee,of the gas flow in the cyclone was introduced for discussing the collection efficiency;(5) Fuchs theory,used to estimate the collection efficiency,was examined.Fuchs theory may be applied for high feed particle concentration.

  12. Applications of MMPBSA to Membrane Proteins I: Efficient Numerical Solutions of Periodic Poisson-Boltzmann Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botello-Smith, Wesley M.; Luo, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Continuum solvent models have been widely used in biomolecular modeling applications. Recently much attention has been given to inclusion of implicit membrane into existing continuum Poisson-Boltzmann solvent models to extend their applications to membrane systems. Inclusion of an implicit membrane complicates numerical solutions of the underlining Poisson-Boltzmann equation due to the dielectric inhomogeneity on the boundary surfaces of a computation grid. This can be alleviated by the use of the periodic boundary condition, a common practice in electrostatic computations in particle simulations. The conjugate gradient and successive over-relaxation methods are relatively straightforward to be adapted to periodic calculations, but their convergence rates are quite low, limiting their applications to free energy simulations that require a large number of conformations to be processed. To accelerate convergence, the Incomplete Cholesky preconditioning and the geometric multi-grid methods have been extended to incorporate periodicity for biomolecular applications. Impressive convergence behaviors were found as in the previous applications of these numerical methods to tested biomolecules and MMPBSA calculations. PMID:26389966

  13. Application Of Sustainable Design Principles To Increase Energy Efficiency Of Existing Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoury B.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effectiveness of different energy retrofitting techniques and examines the impact of employing those methods on energy consumption of existing residential buildings. Based on the research findings, the most effective and practical method of retrofitting has been proposed in order to improve energy efficiency of existing buildings. In order to achieve this goal, an existing residential building has been simulated in FirstRate 5 software so as to determine the existing thermal performance of the building. Afterwards, considering sustainable design principles, different insulation layers, glazing, and construction materials have been employed to conduct a comprehensive thermal performance study. Based on the research outcomes, the best technique for increasing energy efficiency of existing buildings and reducing their environmental impact and footprint has been identified and proposed for practical purposes.

  14. Efficient proteolysis and application of an alkaline protease from halophilic Bacillus sp. EMB9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rajeshwari; Srivastava, A K; Khare, S K

    2014-10-03

    A salt-stable alkaline protease from moderately halophilic Bacillus sp. EMB9, isolated from the western coast of India, is described. This protease was capable of efficiently removing silver from used/waste X-Ray films, as well as hydrolyzing defatted soy flour with 31% degree of hydrolysis (DH). Production of the protease was optimized by using response surface methodology. Ca(2+) and NaCl were the most critical factors in enhancing the yield. Under optimized culture conditions, a maximum of 369 U protease/mL was obtained, which is quite comparable to the yields of commercial proteases. The elevated production level coupled with ability to efficiently hydrolyze protein-laden soy flour and complete recovery of silver from used X-Ray films makes it a prospective industrial enzyme.

  15. Trust models for efficient communication in Mobile Cloud Computing and their applications to e-Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Florin; Dobre, Ciprian; Mocanu, Bogdan-Costel; Citoteanu, Oana-Maria; Xhafa, Fatos

    2016-11-01

    Managing the large dimensions of data processed in distributed systems that are formed by datacentres and mobile devices has become a challenging issue with an important impact on the end-user. Therefore, the management process of such systems can be achieved efficiently by using uniform overlay networks, interconnected through secure and efficient routing protocols. The aim of this article is to advance our previous work with a novel trust model based on a reputation metric that actively uses the social links between users and the model of interaction between them. We present and evaluate an adaptive model for the trust management in structured overlay networks, based on a Mobile Cloud architecture and considering a honeycomb overlay. Such a model can be useful for supporting advanced mobile market-share e-Commerce platforms, where users collaborate and exchange reliable information about, for example, products of interest and supporting ad-hoc business campaigns

  16. Efficient quantum-classical method for computing thermal rate constant of recombination: application to ozone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Mikhail V; Babikov, Dmitri

    2012-05-14

    Efficient method is proposed for computing thermal rate constant of recombination reaction that proceeds according to the energy transfer mechanism, when an energized molecule is formed from reactants first, and is stabilized later by collision with quencher. The mixed quantum-classical theory for the collisional energy transfer and the ro-vibrational energy flow [M. Ivanov and D. Babikov, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 144107 (2011)] is employed to treat the dynamics of molecule + quencher collision. Efficiency is achieved by sampling simultaneously (i) the thermal collision energy, (ii) the impact parameter, and (iii) the incident direction of quencher, as well as (iv) the rotational state of energized molecule. This approach is applied to calculate third-order rate constant of the recombination reaction that forms the (16)O(18)O(16)O isotopomer of ozone. Comparison of the predicted rate vs. experimental result is presented.

  17. Engineering BiOX (X = Cl, Br, I) nanostructures for highly efficient photocatalytic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefeng; Huang, Baibiao; Dai, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis that employs photo-excited semiconductor materials to reduce water and oxidize toxic pollutants upon solar light irradiation holds great prospects for renewable energy substitutes and environmental protection. To utilize solar light effectively, the quest for highly active photocatalysts working under visible light has always been the research focus. Layered BiOX (X = Cl, Br, I) are a kind of newly exploited efficient photocatalysts, and their light response can be tuned from UV to visible light range. The properties of semiconductors are dependent on their morphologies and compositions as well as structures, and this also offers the guidelines for design of highly-efficient photocatalysts. In this review, recent advances and emerging strategies in tailoring BiOX (X = Cl, Br, I) nanostructures to boost their photocatalytic properties are surveyed.

  18. An Efficient LED System-in-Module for General Lighting Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-09-14

    The objective of the project was to realize an LED-based lighting technology platform for general illumination, starting with LED chips, and integrating the necessary technologies to make compact, user-friendly, high-efficiency, energy-saving sources of controlled white (or variable-colored) light. The project is to build the system around the LEDs, and not to work on the LEDs themselves, in order that working products can be introduced soon after the LEDs reach suitable efficiency for mass-production of high-power light sources for general illumination. Because the light sources are intended for general illumination, color must be accurately maintained, requiring feedback control in the electronics. The project objective has been realized and screw base demonstrators, based on the technology developed in the project, have been built.

  19. Empirical applications of an environmental stress indicator and the environmental efficiency revolution in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Shen Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, the first aim is to apply the structure of material flow analysis (MFA and ecological footprint model to construct an environmental stress indicator. Secondly, an impact, population, affluence and technology (IPAT analysis is used to resolve indicators related to MFA and resource yield productivity. The research indicates following results: (1 The 2007 per capita ecological deficit in Taiwan is 6.3441 square hm.The figures reflect that productivity and life intensity of residents have exceeded the carrying capacity of Taiwan's ecological economic system. (2 Wealth becomes the most important factor in material needs and pollution discharge. (3 Environmental efficiency and ecological efficiency slowed down dramatically, demonstrating that use of resources and total amount of environmental stress stay at a developmental stage. Therefore, if proper measures are not adopted, the current weak sustainability will lead into the vicious circle which departs from sustainable development.

  20. High efficiency of CO2-activated graphite felt as electrode for vanadium redox flow battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Chung; Chen, Jian-Yu; Kabtamu, Daniel Manaye; Lin, Guan-Yi; Hsu, Ning-Yih; Chou, Yi-Sin; Wei, Hwa-Jou; Wang, Chen-Hao

    2017-10-01

    A simple method for preparing CO2-activated graphite felt as an electrode in a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) was employed by the direct treatment in a CO2 atmosphere at a high temperature for a short period. The CO2-activated graphite felt demonstrates excellent electrochemical activity and reversibility. The VRFB using the CO2-activated graphite felts in the electrodes has coulombic, voltage, and energy efficiencies of 94.52%, 88.97%, and 84.15%, respectively, which is much higher than VRFBs using the electrodes of untreated graphite felt and N2-activated graphite felt. The efficiency enhancement was attributed to the higher number of oxygen-containing functional groups on the graphite felt that are formed during the CO2-activation, leading to improving the electrochemical behaviour of the resultant VRFB.

  1. The design and analysis of effective and efficient neural networks and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makovoz, W.V.

    1989-01-01

    A complicated design issue of efficient Multilayer neural networks is addressed, and the perception and similar neural networks are examined. It shows that a three-layer perceptron neural network with specially designed learning algorithms provides an efficient framework to solve an exclusive OR problem using only n {minus} 1 processing elements in the second layer. Two efficient rapidly converging algorithms for any symmetric Boolean function were developed using only n {minus} 1 processing elements in the perceptron neural network and int(n/2) processing elements in the Adaline and perceptron neural network with the stepfunction transfer function. Similar results were obtained for the quasi-symmetric Boolean functions using a linear number of processing elements in perceptron neural networks, Adaline's, and perceptron neural networks with the stepfunction transfer functions. Generalized Boolean functions are discussed and two rapidly converging algorithms are shown for perceptron neural networks, Adaline's, and perceptron neural network with stepfunction transfer function. Many other interesting perceptron neural networks are discussed in the dissertation. Perceptron neural networks are applied to find the largest value of the n inputs. A new perceptron neural network is designed to find the largest value of the n inputs with the minimum number of inputs and the minimum number of layers. New perceptron neural networks are developed to sort n inputs. New, effective and efficient back-propagation Neural networks are designed to sort n inputs. The Sigmoid transfer function was discussed and a generalized Sigmoid function to improve Neural network performance was developed. A modified back-propagation learning algorithm was developed that builds any n input symmetric Boolean function using only int(n/2) processing elements in the second layer.

  2. Efficient algorithms for discrete wavelet transform with applications to denoising and fuzzy inference systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, K K

    2013-01-01

    Due to its inherent time-scale locality characteristics, the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) has received considerable attention in signal/image processing. Wavelet transforms have excellent energy compaction characteristics and can provide perfect reconstruction. The shifting (translation) and scaling (dilation) are unique to wavelets. Orthogonality of wavelets with respect to dilations leads to multigrid representation. As the computation of DWT involves filtering, an efficient filtering process is essential in DWT hardware implementation. In the multistage DWT, coefficients are calculated

  3. Application of CIS to high-efficiency PV module fabrication. Phase 3 final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basol, B M; Kapur, V K; Leidholm, C R; Halani, A; Roe, R; Norsworthy, G [International Solar Electric Technology, Inglewood, CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    During this research period, researchers at International Solar Electric Technology (ISET) concentrated their efforts on three different areas of research. Within the National CIS R and D Team, ISET participated in the substrate/Mo interactions working group and investigated issues such as Na diffusion from the soda-lime glass substrate into the Mo layers and CIS films. Researchers determined that the Na content within the Mo layers was not a strong function of the nature of the Mo film. However, they found that diffusion through the Mo layers was a function of the Mo film characteristics as well as a very strong function of the CIS growth process itself. Researchers showed conclusively that the Na resided on the grain boundaries of CIS layers. Another team activity involved evaluation of CdS-free CIS solar cells. ZnO/CIS junctions prepared by the two-stage process showed light-soaking effects. Cells left under illumination improved in efficiency and were similar to the CdS/CIS junctions. After storage in the dark, however, efficiency deteriorated greatly for the ZnO/CIS device, most of the decline coming from the open-circuit voltage values. Much of the effort during this period was spent on developing a low-cost, non-vacuum CIS deposition technique. The method developed involves particulate deposition and formation of precursor layers followed by the conversion of these layers into CIS. Test modules of 40--60 cm{sup 2} were adapted to understand the issues involved in this novel technology. At the present time, the submodule efficiencies are 6--7%. Single-cell efficiencies are in the 10--13% range.

  4. HTCC-Modified Nanoclay for Tissue Engineering Applications: A Synergistic Cell Growth and Antibacterial Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Aliabadi; Roya Dastjerdi; Kourosh Kabiri

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the synthesis of a biocompatible chitosan ammonium salt N-(2-hydroxy) propyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC) and using it in montmorillonite ion-exchange process. HTCC-modified montmorillonite (Mt) with different chemical ratios was successfully synthesized, and their characteristics have been verified by XRD and FTIR analyses. Produced samples have been evaluated in terms of antibacterial efficiency and biocompatibility (cell culture test). Antibacterial e...

  5. A Hopeful CNF—SAT Algorithm—Its High Efficiency,Industrial Application and Limitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文奇; 李未

    1998-01-01

    From the SAT physical model,a physical hypothesis named PHHY is proposed.By PHY,it is proved that there is a universally efficient algorithm for solving SAT problem.Then,by square packing problem,the authors show that thre are interesting industrial NP-complete problems which can be solved through SAT algorithms,but each way of solving like this will be much worse than that of a certain direct solving.

  6. Application of high temperature phase change materials for improved efficiency in waste-to-energy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Magro, Fabio; Xu, Haoxin; Nardin, Gioacchino; Romagnoli, Alessandro

    2017-06-28

    This study reports the thermal analysis of a novel thermal energy storage based on high temperature phase change material (PCM) used to improve efficiency in waste-to-energy plants. Current waste-to-energy plants efficiency is limited by the steam generation cycle which is carried out with boilers composed by water-walls (i.e. radiant evaporators), evaporators, economizers and superheaters. Although being well established, this technology is subjected to limitations related with high temperature corrosion and fluctuation in steam production due to the non-homogenous composition of solid waste; this leads to increased maintenance costs and limited plants availability and electrical efficiency. The proposed solution in this paper consists of replacing the typical refractory brick installed in the combustion chamber with a PCM-based refractory brick capable of storing a variable heat flux and to release it on demand as a steady heat flux. By means of this technology it is possible to mitigate steam production fluctuation, to increase temperature of superheated steam over current corrosion limits (450°C) without using coated superheaters and to increase the electrical efficiency beyond 34%. In the current paper a detailed thermo-mechanical analysis has been carried out in order to compare the performance of the PCM-based refractory brick against the traditional alumina refractory bricks. The PCM considered in this paper is aluminium (and its alloys) whereas its container consists of high density ceramics (such as Al2O3, AlN and Si3N4); the different coefficient of linear thermal expansion for the different materials requires a detailed thermo-mechanical analysis to be carried out to ascertain the feasibility of the proposed technology. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Efficient Algorithm and Architecture of Critical-Band Transform for Low-Power Speech Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woon-Seng Gan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient algorithm and its corresponding VLSI architecture for the critical-band transform (CBT are developed to approximate the critical-band filtering of the human ear. The CBT consists of a constant-bandwidth transform in the lower frequency range and a Brown constant-Q transform (CQT in the higher frequency range. The corresponding VLSI architecture is proposed to achieve significant power efficiency by reducing the computational complexity, using pipeline and parallel processing, and applying the supply voltage scaling technique. A 21-band Bark scale CBT processor with a sampling rate of 16 kHz is designed and simulated. Simulation results verify its suitability for performing short-time spectral analysis on speech. It has a better fitting on the human ear critical-band analysis, significantly fewer computations, and therefore is more energy-efficient than other methods. With a 0.35 μm CMOS technology, it calculates a 160-point speech in 4.99 milliseconds at 234 kHz. The power dissipation is 15.6 μW at 1.1 V. It achieves 82.1% power reduction as compared to a benchmark 256-point FFT processor.

  8. Definition, theory, methods, and applications of the safe and efficient simultaneous extraction of coal and gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanping Cheng; Liang Wang; Hongyong Liu; Shengli Kong; Quanlin Yang; Jintuo Zhu; Qingyi Tu

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous extraction of the coal and gas is an effective method of eliminating coal mine gas disasters while safely exploiting the coal and achieving efficient gas drainage in China, which is widely accepted by the main coal-producing countries around the world. However, the concrete definition of simultaneous extraction is vague and there is little accurate theoretical support for the simultaneous extraction of coal and gas, which makes it difficult to determine an efficient gas drainage method appropriate to the features of coal seams. Based on theoretical analysis, laboratory tests and field observations, a specific definition of simultaneous extraction of coal and gas is proposed after analyzing the characteristics of coal seam occurrences in China, and we developed the mechanism of mining-enhanced permeability and established the corresponding theoretical model. This comprises a process of fracture network formation, in which the original fractures are opened and new fractures are produced by unloading damage. According to the theoretical model, the engineering approaches and their quantitative parameters of‘unloading by borehole drilling’ for single coal seams and‘unloading by protective seam mining’ for groups of coal seams are proposed, and the construction principles for coal exploitation and gas-drainage systems for different conditions are given. These methods were applied successfully in the Tunlan Coal Mine in Shanxi Province and the Panyi Coal Mine in Anhui Province and could assure safe and efficient simultaneous extraction of coal and gas in these outburst coal mines.

  9. Efficient Algorithm and Architecture of Critical-Band Transform for Low-Power Speech Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan Woon-Seng

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient algorithm and its corresponding VLSI architecture for the critical-band transform (CBT are developed to approximate the critical-band filtering of the human ear. The CBT consists of a constant-bandwidth transform in the lower frequency range and a Brown constant- transform (CQT in the higher frequency range. The corresponding VLSI architecture is proposed to achieve significant power efficiency by reducing the computational complexity, using pipeline and parallel processing, and applying the supply voltage scaling technique. A 21-band Bark scale CBT processor with a sampling rate of 16 kHz is designed and simulated. Simulation results verify its suitability for performing short-time spectral analysis on speech. It has a better fitting on the human ear critical-band analysis, significantly fewer computations, and therefore is more energy-efficient than other methods. With a 0.35 m CMOS technology, it calculates a 160-point speech in 4.99 milliseconds at 234 kHz. The power dissipation is 15.6 W at 1.1 V. It achieves 82.1 power reduction as compared to a benchmark 256-point FFT processor.

  10. Preparation and application of efficient TiO2/ACFs photocatalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-hua; YANG Rong; LI Song-mei

    2006-01-01

    Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) supported titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalyst was developed by sol-gel method. The surface morphology and microstructure of the photocatalyst were characterized with scan electron microscope(SEM), X-ray diffiaction patterns and specific surface area analysis. The prepared photocatalyst is specially helpful for the removal of low molecular weight organic pollutants in wastewater. Decomposition efficiency of methylene blue solution by TiO2/ACFs catalyst reached almost 100% under 60 min reaction, while the decomposition efficiency by pure TiO2 was only 25% under 3 h reaction. The mineralization of toluene aqueous solution was measured by total organic carbon instrument, and the evolution of intermediate species was detected by gas chromatograph instrument. The results indicated that the prepared photocatalyst not only enhanced the photoactivity of TiO2, but also suppressed the emergence of intermediate species, which may be more deleterious to human. The enhancement of photocatalysis was due to increased efficiency of adsorption and desorption, which were control steps in heterogeneous photocatalysis.

  11. An Application on Merton Model in the Non-efficient Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yanan; Xiao, Qingxian

    Merton Model is one of the famous credit risk models. This model presumes that the only source of uncertainty in equity prices is the firm’s net asset value .But the above market condition holds only when the market is efficient which is often been ignored in modern research. Another, the original Merton Model is based on assumptions that in the event of default absolute priority holds, renegotiation is not permitted , liquidation of the firm is costless and in the Merton Model and most of its modified version the default boundary is assumed to be constant which don’t correspond with the reality. So these can influence the level of predictive power of the model. In this paper, we have made some extensions on some of these assumptions underlying the original model. The model is virtually a modification of Merton’s model. In a non-efficient market, we use the stock data to analysis this model. The result shows that the modified model can evaluate the credit risk well in the non-efficient market.

  12. Application of standard and modified Eh-Star test method for induction motor stray load losses and efficiency measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koprivica Branko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the application of one simple and accurate method for the measurement of stray load losses (additional load losses in induction machines. That is the Eh-Star method given in the IEC 60034-2-1 standard. In this paper the theoretical background of the method and the measurement procedure have been explained. All measurements have been performed using modern measurement systems based on a personal computer, data acquisition cards and LabVIEW software. According to the measured results for the stray load losses, the efficiency of the induction motor has been calculated. The efficiency obtained has been compared with the IEC standard efficiency classes, in order to determine the efficiency class of the tested motor. Additionally, measurements have been performed using the modified Eh-Star method. The results obtained have been compared with those obtained using the Eh-Star method. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods have been analyzed in this paper.

  13. Low-temperature-processed efficient semi-transparent planar perovskite solar cells for bifacial and tandem applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Fan; Feurer, Thomas; Jäger, Timo; Avancini, Enrico; Bissig, Benjamin; Yoon, Songhak; Buecheler, Stephan; Tiwari, Ayodhya N.

    2015-01-01

    Semi-transparent perovskite solar cells are highly attractive for a wide range of applications, such as bifacial and tandem solar cells; however, the power conversion efficiency of semi-transparent devices still lags behind due to missing suitable transparent rear electrode or deposition process. Here we report a low-temperature process for efficient semi-transparent planar perovskite solar cells. A hybrid thermal evaporation–spin coating technique is developed to allow the introduction of PCBM in regular device configuration, which facilitates the growth of high-quality absorber, resulting in hysteresis-free devices. We employ high-mobility hydrogenated indium oxide as transparent rear electrode by room-temperature radio-frequency magnetron sputtering, yielding a semi-transparent solar cell with steady-state efficiency of 14.2% along with 72% average transmittance in the near-infrared region. With such semi-transparent devices, we show a substantial power enhancement when operating as bifacial solar cell, and in combination with low-bandgap copper indium gallium diselenide we further demonstrate 20.5% efficiency in four-terminal tandem configuration. PMID:26576667

  14. Low-temperature-processed efficient semi-transparent planar perovskite solar cells for bifacial and tandem applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Fan; Feurer, Thomas; Jäger, Timo; Avancini, Enrico; Bissig, Benjamin; Yoon, Songhak; Buecheler, Stephan; Tiwari, Ayodhya N

    2015-11-18

    Semi-transparent perovskite solar cells are highly attractive for a wide range of applications, such as bifacial and tandem solar cells; however, the power conversion efficiency of semi-transparent devices still lags behind due to missing suitable transparent rear electrode or deposition process. Here we report a low-temperature process for efficient semi-transparent planar perovskite solar cells. A hybrid thermal evaporation-spin coating technique is developed to allow the introduction of PCBM in regular device configuration, which facilitates the growth of high-quality absorber, resulting in hysteresis-free devices. We employ high-mobility hydrogenated indium oxide as transparent rear electrode by room-temperature radio-frequency magnetron sputtering, yielding a semi-transparent solar cell with steady-state efficiency of 14.2% along with 72% average transmittance in the near-infrared region. With such semi-transparent devices, we show a substantial power enhancement when operating as bifacial solar cell, and in combination with low-bandgap copper indium gallium diselenide we further demonstrate 20.5% efficiency in four-terminal tandem configuration.

  15. Low-temperature-processed efficient semi-transparent planar perovskite solar cells for bifacial and tandem applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Fan; Feurer, Thomas; Jäger, Timo; Avancini, Enrico; Bissig, Benjamin; Yoon, Songhak; Buecheler, Stephan; Tiwari, Ayodhya N.

    2015-11-01

    Semi-transparent perovskite solar cells are highly attractive for a wide range of applications, such as bifacial and tandem solar cells; however, the power conversion efficiency of semi-transparent devices still lags behind due to missing suitable transparent rear electrode or deposition process. Here we report a low-temperature process for efficient semi-transparent planar perovskite solar cells. A hybrid thermal evaporation-spin coating technique is developed to allow the introduction of PCBM in regular device configuration, which facilitates the growth of high-quality absorber, resulting in hysteresis-free devices. We employ high-mobility hydrogenated indium oxide as transparent rear electrode by room-temperature radio-frequency magnetron sputtering, yielding a semi-transparent solar cell with steady-state efficiency of 14.2% along with 72% average transmittance in the near-infrared region. With such semi-transparent devices, we show a substantial power enhancement when operating as bifacial solar cell, and in combination with low-bandgap copper indium gallium diselenide we further demonstrate 20.5% efficiency in four-terminal tandem configuration.

  16. RESEARCHES CONCERNING THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY ACHIEVED SUCCESSIVE TO THE APPLICATION OF BIOLOGICALLY-ACTIVE PRODUCTS IN SMOOTH BROME CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA PEł

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Within any branch of material production, the supervision of the economic effects caused by the applied technologies is an essential requirement. Not only related to the productive activity, but also related to scientific research, designing and other fields of activity, the final goal is represented by the achievement of immediate or far off economic effects. The introduction and generalization into production of the newest technologies of forage production must rely upon calculations of economic efficiency, too. The objective of these calculations is to offer to any producer the possibility to choose among the optimal technologic variants, with great productions per surface unit, of high quality and low costs. The calculations of economic efficiency were carried out during the three years of experimentation. The economic efficiency obtained after the application of biostimulants in smooth brome during the first year of production is expressed through the achievement of a profit per surface unit of 75.85 – 127.00 €/ha. Successive to the calculations of economic efficiency, during the second year of production, the profit per surface unit recorded values between 79.10 – 153.10 €/ha depending upon the applied biostimulant, and during the third year of production the profit obtained per surface unit was 211.05 – 270.70 €/ha.

  17. Highly efficient forward osmosis based on porous membranes--applications and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Saren; Li, Ye; Zhao, Yang; Li, Weiyi; Tang, Chuyang Y

    2015-04-07

    For the first time, forward osmosis (FO) was performed using a porous membrane with an ultrafiltration (UF)-like rejection layer and its feasibility for high performance FO filtration was demonstrated. Compared to traditional FO membranes with dense rejection layers, the UF-like FO membrane was 2 orders of magnitude more permeable. This gave rise to respectable FO water flux even at ultralow osmotic driving force, for example, 7.6 L/m(2).h at an osmotic pressure of merely 0.11 bar (achieved by using a 0.1% poly(sodium 4-styrene-sulfonate) draw solution). The membrane was applied to oil/water separation, and a highly stable FO water flux was achieved. The adoption of porous FO membranes opens a door to many new opportunities, with potential applications ranging from wastewater treatment, valuable product recovery, and biomedical applications. The potential applications and implications of porous FO membranes are addressed in this paper.

  18. Application of laser technology in high efficiency silicon solar cell manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, W.X.; Tu, J.L.; Wang, Z.G.; Cui, H.Y.; Deng, J.L.; Liu, Z.M.; Liao, H. [Yunnan Normal Univ., Yunnan (China). Solar Energy Research Inst., Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy Advanced Materials and Manufacturing Technology

    2008-07-01

    This paper examined the use of laser processing applications in solar cell fabrication. Laser processing is used to improve the electrical performance of solar cells as well as to reduce their manufacturing cost. Laser processes included laser scribing and cutting; laser fired contacts; wrap through technology; laser chemical processing; and the application of thin film devices. The study also examined the use of laser-fired contact (LFC) process schemes for the production of silicon (Si) Results of the study indicated that the lasers resulted in decreased wafer thickness and increased wafer sizes. LFC schemes can be applied on almost all advanced solar cell structures, including metal or emitter wrap-through cells and interdigitated back contact cells. Laser doping and via hole drilling techniques are also feasible in industrial applications. The use of laser technologies is expected to reduce costs. It was concluded that laser technologies are an appropriate choice for solar cell manufacturing processes. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Engineering Secure Two-Party Computation Protocols Design, Optimization, and Applications of Efficient Secure Function Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Secure two-party computation, called secure function evaluation (SFE), enables two mutually mistrusting parties, the client and server, to evaluate an arbitrary function on their respective private inputs while revealing nothing but the result. Originally the technique was considered to be too inefficient for practical privacy-preserving applications, but in recent years rapid speed-up in computers and communication networks, algorithmic improvements, automatic generation, and optimizations have enabled their application in many scenarios. The author offers an extensive overview of the most pr

  20. BiVO4/TiO2(N2) Nanotubes Heterojunction Photoanode for Highly Efficient Photoelectrocatalytic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Bai, Jing; Li, Yunpo; Zeng, Qingyi; Li, Jinhua; Zhou, Baoxue

    2017-04-01

    We report the development of a novel visible response BiVO4/TiO2(N2) nanotubes photoanode for photoelectrocatalytic applications. The nitrogen-treated TiO2 nanotube shows a high carrier concentration rate, thus resulting in a high efficient charge transportation and low electron-hole recombination in the TiO2-BiVO4. Therefore, the BiVO4/TiO2(N2) NTs photoanode enabled with a significantly enhanced photocurrent of 2.73 mA cm-2 (at 1 V vs. Ag/AgCl) and a degradation efficiency in the oxidation of dyes under visible light. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and UV-Vis absorption spectrum were conducted to characterize the photoanode and demonstrated the presence of both metal oxides as a junction composite.

  1. Analysis of an Increase in the Efficiency of a Spark Ignition Engine Through the Application of an Automotive Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkisz, Jerzy; Fuc, Pawel; Lijewski, Piotr; Ziolkowski, Andrzej; Galant, Marta; Siedlecki, Maciej

    2016-08-01

    We have analyzed the increase of the overall efficiency of a spark ignition engine through energy recovery following the application of an automotive thermoelectric generator (ATEG) of our own design. The design of the generator was developed following emission investigations during vehicle driving under city traffic conditions. The measurement points were defined by actual operation conditions (engine speed and load), subsequently reproduced on an engine dynamometer. Both the vehicle used in the on-road tests and the engine dynamometer were fit with the same, downsized spark ignition engine (with high effective power-to-displacement ratio). The thermodynamic parameters of the exhaust gases (temperature and exhaust gas mass flow) were measured on the engine testbed, along with the fuel consumption and electric current generated by the thermoelectric modules. On this basis, the power of the ATEG and its impact on overall engine efficiency were determined.

  2. An efficient computational method for solving nonlinear stochastic Itô integral equations: Application for stochastic problems in physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydari, M.H., E-mail: heydari@stu.yazd.ac.ir [Faculty of Mathematics, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); The Laboratory of Quantum Information Processing, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hooshmandasl, M.R., E-mail: hooshmandasl@yazd.ac.ir [Faculty of Mathematics, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); The Laboratory of Quantum Information Processing, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Cattani, C., E-mail: ccattani@unisa.it [Department of Mathematics, University of Salerno, Via Ponte Don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Maalek Ghaini, F.M., E-mail: maalek@yazd.ac.ir [Faculty of Mathematics, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); The Laboratory of Quantum Information Processing, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Because of the nonlinearity, closed-form solutions of many important stochastic functional equations are virtually impossible to obtain. Thus, numerical solutions are a viable alternative. In this paper, a new computational method based on the generalized hat basis functions together with their stochastic operational matrix of Itô-integration is proposed for solving nonlinear stochastic Itô integral equations in large intervals. In the proposed method, a new technique for computing nonlinear terms in such problems is presented. The main advantage of the proposed method is that it transforms problems under consideration into nonlinear systems of algebraic equations which can be simply solved. Error analysis of the proposed method is investigated and also the efficiency of this method is shown on some concrete examples. The obtained results reveal that the proposed method is very accurate and efficient. As two useful applications, the proposed method is applied to obtain approximate solutions of the stochastic population growth models and stochastic pendulum problem.

  3. Application of the modified Wheeler cap method for radiation efficiency measurement of balanced electrically small antennas in complex environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiaying; Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, application of a modified Wheeler cap method for the radiation efficiency measurement of balanced electrically small antennas is presented. It is shown that the limitations on the cavity dimension can be overcome and thus measurement in a large cavity is possible. The cavity loss...... is investigated, and a modified radiation efficiency formula that includes the cavity loss is introduced. Moreover, a modification of the technique is proposed that involves the antenna working complex environment inside the Wheeler Cap and thus makes possible measurement of an antenna close to a hand or head...... phantom. The measurement procedures are described and the key features of the technique are discussed. The results of simulations and measurements by the proposed method are presented and compared....

  4. Evaluation of high-efficiency mc-Si cell processing technologies regarding environmental impact and industrial applicability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenkeit, B.; Nagel, H.; Schmidt, W. [SCHOTT Solar GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Str. 4, 63755 Alzenau (Germany); Russell, R. [BP Solar, Poligono Industrial s/n Zona Oeste, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); De Wild-Scholten, M.J.; Weeber, A.W.; Tool, C.J.J. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Tathgar, H.; Gjerstad, O. [ScanWafer ASA, P.O. Box 280, NO 1323 Hovik (Norway); McCann, M.; Raabe, B.; Huster, F. [University of Konstanz UKON, P.O. Box X916, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Del Canizo, C. [Instituto Energia Solar, Universidad Polytecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Roberts, S.; Bruton, T.M. [NaREC PV Technology Centre, Albert Street, Blyth, Northumberland, NE24 1LZ (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    Due to the impressive growth rate of the photovoltaic industry in the last years, it has become of increasing importance to assess solar cell production processes for its environmental impact. This work compares in detail the environmental impact of equipment, consumed materials and waste treatment in several high-efficiency mc-Si cell processing sequences developed within the European project TOPSICLE. Amongst others, we critically analysed the advanced isotextured process for up to 17% efficient cells based on screen-printing proposed by ECN, the angled buried contact (ABC) process and a hybrid buried contact / screen printing process, both proposed by the University of Konstanz. The evaluated data is compared with that of a state-of-the-art industrial screen-printing process. The publicly available results might serve as a useful decision tool for planning future solar cell production lines with respect to environmental impact and industrial applicability.

  5. 78 FR 74189 - Compass Efficient Model Portfolios, LLC, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... market participants by virtue of its affiliation with the Index Provider. Applicants note that the...-Adviser will be required to adopt, a Code of Ethics pursuant to rule 17j-1 under the Act and rule 204A-1... of the Funds solely by virtue of one or more of the following: (a) Holding 5% or ] more, or more than...

  6. Unraveling the efficient applications of secondary metabolites of various Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keswani, Chetan; Mishra, Sandhya; Sarma, Birinchi Kumar; Singh, Surya Pratap; Singh, Harikesh Bahadur

    2014-01-01

    Recent shift in trends of agricultural practices from application of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides to organic farming has brought into focus the use of microorganisms that carryout analogous function. Trichoderma spp. is one of the most popular genera of fungi commercially available as a plant growth promoting fungus (PGPF) and biological control agent. Exploitation of the diverse nature of secondary metabolites produced by different species of Trichoderma augments their extensive utility in agriculture and related industries. As a result, Trichoderma has achieved significant success as a powerful biocontrol agent at global level. The endorsement of Trichoderma spp. by scientific community is based on the understanding of its mechanisms of action against a large set of fungal, bacterial and in certain cases viral infections. However, it is still an agnostic view that there could be any single major mode of operation, although it is argued that all mechanisms operate simultaneously in a synchronized fashion. The central idea behind this review article is to emphasize the potentiality of applications of target specific secondary metabolites of Trichoderma for controlling phytopathogens as a substitute of commercially available whole organism formulations. With the aim to this point, we have compiled an inclusive list of secondary metabolites produced by different species of Trichoderma and their applications in diverse areas with the major emphasis on agriculture. Outlining the importance and diverse activities of secondary metabolites of Trichoderma besides its relevance to agriculture would generate greater understanding of their other important and beneficial applications apart from target specific biopesticides.

  7. Harnessing modern web application technology to create intuitive and efficient data visualization and sharing tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan eWood

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscientists increasingly need to work with big data in order to derive meaningful results in their field. Collecting, organizing and analyzing this data can be a major hurdle on the road to scientific discovery. This hurdle can be lowered using the same technologies that are currently revolutionizing the way that cultural and social media sites represent and share information with their users. Web application technologies and standards such as RESTful webservices, HTML5 and high-performance in-browser JavaScript engines are being utilized to vastly improve the way that the world accesses and shares information. The neuroscience community can also benefit tremendously from these technologies. We present here a web application that allows users to explore and request the complex datasets that need to be shared among the neuroimaging community. The COINS (Collaborative Informatics and Neuroimaging Suite Data Exchange uses web application technologies to facilitate data sharing in three phases: Exploration, Request/Communication, and Download. This paper will focus on the first phase, and how intuitive exploration of large and complex datasets is achieved using a framework that centers around asynchronous client-server communication (AJAX and also exposes a powerful API that can be utilized by other applications to explore available data. First opened to the neuroscience community in August 2012, the Data Exchange has already provided researchers with over 2500 GB of data.

  8. Harnessing modern web application technology to create intuitive and efficient data visualization and sharing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Dylan; King, Margaret; Landis, Drew; Courtney, William; Wang, Runtang; Kelly, Ross; Turner, Jessica A; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscientists increasingly need to work with big data in order to derive meaningful results in their field. Collecting, organizing and analyzing this data can be a major hurdle on the road to scientific discovery. This hurdle can be lowered using the same technologies that are currently revolutionizing the way that cultural and social media sites represent and share information with their users. Web application technologies and standards such as RESTful webservices, HTML5 and high-performance in-browser JavaScript engines are being utilized to vastly improve the way that the world accesses and shares information. The neuroscience community can also benefit tremendously from these technologies. We present here a web application that allows users to explore and request the complex datasets that need to be shared among the neuroimaging community. The COINS (Collaborative Informatics and Neuroimaging Suite) Data Exchange uses web application technologies to facilitate data sharing in three phases: Exploration, Request/Communication, and Download. This paper will focus on the first phase, and how intuitive exploration of large and complex datasets is achieved using a framework that centers around asynchronous client-server communication (AJAX) and also exposes a powerful API that can be utilized by other applications to explore available data. First opened to the neuroscience community in August 2012, the Data Exchange has already provided researchers with over 2500 GB of data.

  9. An Efficient Augmented Lagrangian Method with Applications to Total Variation Minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    history. It was introduced into imaging denoising problems by Rudin , Osher and Fatemi in 1992 [30]. From then on, TV minimizing models have become one 3...Powell applied to convex program- ming, Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 555–562, 1973. [30] L. Rudin , S. Osher and E

  10. Efficient application of next-generation sequencing for the diagnosis of rare genetic syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madrigal, I.; Alvarez-Mora, M.I.; Karlberg, O.; Rodriguez-Revenga, L.; Martinez Elurbe, D.; Rabionet, R.; Mur, A.; Pie, J.; Ballesta, F.; Sauer, S.; Syvanen, A.C.; Mila, M.

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: The causes of intellectual disability, which affects 1%-3% of the general population, are highly heterogeneous and the genetic defect remains unknown in around 40% of patients. The application of next-generation sequencing is changing the nature of biomedical diagnosis. This technology has qui

  11. An efficient algorithm for solving nonlinear system of differential equations and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa GÜLSU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we apply Chebyshev collocation method to obtain the numerical solutions of nonlinear systems of differential equations. This method transforms the nonlinear systems of differential equation to nonlinear systems of algebraic equations. The convergence of the numerical method are given and their applicability is illustrated with some examples.

  12. I/O-Efficient Batched Union-Find and Its Applications to Terrain Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Yi, Ke

    2006-01-01

    important applications such as terrain modeling, flow analysis, topological feature extraction, etc. We give the first O(sort(N))-I/O algorithms for these two problems, assuming that the input terrain is represented as a triangular mesh with N vertices.Finally, we report some preliminary experimental...

  13. Efficient Buffer Capacity and Scheduler Setting Computation for Soft Real-Time Stream Processing Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekooij, Marco; Wiggers, Maarten; Meerbergen, van Jef; Falk, H.; Marwedel, P.

    2007-01-01

    Soft real-time applications that process data streams can often be intuitively described as dataflow process networks. In this paper we present a novel analysis technique to compute conservative estimates of the required buffer capacities in such process networks. With the same analysis technique sc

  14. High efficiency isolated DC/DC converter inherently optimized for fuel cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Press; Jensen, Lasse Crone; Larsen, Martin Norgaard

    2013-01-01

    The isolated full-bridge boost converter has been suggested as the best choice for fuel cell applications. Comparisons have been carried out in the literature using both stress factors and experimental verified designs to determine the optimal converter. Never the less, this paper suggests a diff...

  15. Efficient application of next-generation sequencing for the diagnosis of rare genetic syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madrigal, I.; Alvarez-Mora, M.I.; Karlberg, O.; Rodriguez-Revenga, L.; Martinez Elurbe, D.; Rabionet, R.; Mur, A.; Pie, J.; Ballesta, F.; Sauer, S.; Syvanen, A.C.; Mila, M.

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: The causes of intellectual disability, which affects 1%-3% of the general population, are highly heterogeneous and the genetic defect remains unknown in around 40% of patients. The application of next-generation sequencing is changing the nature of biomedical diagnosis. This technology has qui

  16. Nickel contact sensitivity in the guinea pig. An efficient open application test method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G D; Rohold, A E; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1992-01-01

    Nickel contact sensitivity was successfully induced in guinea pigs using an open epicutaneous application method. Immediately after pretreatment with 1% aqueous sodium lauryl sulfate, upper back skin was treated daily for 4 weeks with 0.3%-3% nickel sulfate in either a 1% lanolin cream (Vaseline, p...

  17. Algorithms for energy efficient data extraction from wireless sensor networks for environmental monitoring applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatterjea, S.; Havinga, P.J.M.; Kooistra, L.; Ligtenberg, A.

    2008-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can provide high resolution spatial and temporal data for environmental applications if they are densely deployed. However, as the nodes which make up the network are typically battery operated, a major problem faced by WSNs is limited network lifetime. In order to ex

  18. A Smart Gateway Architecture for Improving Efficiency of Home Network Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A smart home gateway plays an important role in the Internet of Things (IoT system that takes responsibility for the connection between the network layer and the ubiquitous sensor network (USN layer. Even though the home network application is developing rapidly, researches on the home gateway based open development architecture are less. This makes it difficult to extend the home network to support new applications, share service, and interoperate with other home network systems. An integrated access gateway (IAGW is proposed in this paper which upward connects with the operator machine-to-machine platform (M2M P/F. In this home network scheme, the gateway provides standard interfaces for supporting various applications in home environments, ranging from on-site configuration to node and service access. In addition, communication management ability is also provided by M2M P/F. A testbed of a simple home network application system that includes the IAGW prototype is created to test its user interaction capabilities. Experimental results show that the proposed gateway provides significant flexibility for users to configure and deploy a home automation network; it can be applied to other monitoring areas and simultaneously supports a multi-ubiquitous sensor network.

  19. Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Coffee at the Vegetative Stage as Influenced by Fertilizer Application Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca-Jimenez, Alveiro; Doane, Timothy A; Horwath, William R

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is the most limiting nutrient for coffee production in Colombia. An adequate supply is especially important during the vegetative period of growth, since any deficiency during this short period is known to have lasting effects on subsequent coffee bean production. Urea fertilizer is commonly applied on the soil surface since steep slopes hamper incorporation into soil, a practice which increases the risk of N volatilization. Little information is available on N recovery during early growth stages under different fertilizer application practices. The aim of this study was therefore to provide a comparison of (15)N uptake during the early vegetative growth stage under surface-applied and incorporation practices at two contrasting locations. The highest proportion of plant N derived from fertilizer (Ndff) occurred 60 days following application at the site with greater precipitation and soil organic matter, where surface application also increased the Ndff in roots and stems after 120 days. Although fertilizer N supplied approximately 20-29% of total plant N after 4 months, this fertilizer-derived N corresponded on average to only 5% of the total application, indicating that very little fertilizer (relative to how much is applied) reaches plants during this time. Apart from the difference in Ndff observed at the wetter site, there was no effect of application method on dry weight and macronutrient content in different plant components, root to shoot ratio, and leaf (13)C content. However, site effects were registered for most of these measurements, with the exception of total nutrient uptake. Similarly to Ndff trends, lower root/shoot ratio and higher concentrations of N, K, and Mg in aboveground biomass were found in the site with higher rainfall and soil organic matter, likely resulting from higher soil water and N availability. These findings provide new information useful as a direction for further research looking toward increasing NUE during the

  20. Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Coffee at the Vegetative Stage as Influenced by Fertilizer Application Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca-Jimenez, Alveiro; Doane, Timothy A.; Horwath, William R.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is the most limiting nutrient for coffee production in Colombia. An adequate supply is especially important during the vegetative period of growth, since any deficiency during this short period is known to have lasting effects on subsequent coffee bean production. Urea fertilizer is commonly applied on the soil surface since steep slopes hamper incorporation into soil, a practice which increases the risk of N volatilization. Little information is available on N recovery during early growth stages under different fertilizer application practices. The aim of this study was therefore to provide a comparison of 15N uptake during the early vegetative growth stage under surface-applied and incorporation practices at two contrasting locations. The highest proportion of plant N derived from fertilizer (Ndff) occurred 60 days following application at the site with greater precipitation and soil organic matter, where surface application also increased the Ndff in roots and stems after 120 days. Although fertilizer N supplied approximately 20–29% of total plant N after 4 months, this fertilizer-derived N corresponded on average to only 5% of the total application, indicating that very little fertilizer (relative to how much is applied) reaches plants during this time. Apart from the difference in Ndff observed at the wetter site, there was no effect of application method on dry weight and macronutrient content in different plant components, root to shoot ratio, and leaf 13C content. However, site effects were registered for most of these measurements, with the exception of total nutrient uptake. Similarly to Ndff trends, lower root/shoot ratio and higher concentrations of N, K, and Mg in aboveground biomass were found in the site with higher rainfall and soil organic matter, likely resulting from higher soil water and N availability. These findings provide new information useful as a direction for further research looking toward increasing NUE during the

  1. Effects of Kaolin Application on Light Absorption and Distribution, Radiation Use Efficiency and Photosynthesis of Almond and Walnut Canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Adolfo; Metcalf, Samuel G.; Buchner, Richard P.; Fulton, Allan E.; Lampinen, Bruce D.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Kaolin applied as a suspension to plant canopies forms a film on leaves that increases reflection and reduces absorption of light. Photosynthesis of individual leaves is decreased while the photosynthesis of the whole canopy remains unaffected or even increases. This may result from a better distribution of light within the canopy following kaolin application, but this explanation has not been tested. The objective of this work was to study the effects of kaolin application on light distribution and absorption within tree canopies and, ultimately, on canopy photosynthesis and radiation use efficiency. Methods Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) incident on individual leaves within the canopy of almond (Prunus dulcis) and walnut (Juglans regia) trees was measured before and after kaolin application in order to study PAR distribution within the canopy. The PAR incident on, and reflected and transmitted by, the canopy was measured on the same day for kaolin-sprayed and control trees in order to calculate canopy PAR absorption. These data were then used to model canopy photosynthesis and radiation use efficiency by a simple method proposed in previous work, based on the photosynthetic response to incident PAR of a top-canopy leaf. Key Results Kaolin increased incident PAR on surfaces of inner-canopy leaves, although there was an estimated 20 % loss in PAR reaching the photosynthetic apparatus, due to increased reflection. Assuming a 20 % loss of PAR, modelled photosynthesis and photosynthetic radiation use efficiency (PRUE) of kaolin-coated leaves decreased by only 6·3 %. This was due to (1) more beneficial PAR distribution within the kaolin-sprayed canopy, and (2) with decreasing PAR, leaf photosynthesis decreases less than proportionally, due to the curvature of the photosynthesis response-curve to PAR. The relatively small loss in canopy PRUE (per unit of incident PAR), coupled with the increased incident PAR on the leaf surface on

  2. A New Type of Paper-frame Cavernous Material and Its Application in Energy Efficiency in Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type of paper-frame cavernous material, which is a made-up hollow material, by using silicate-cinder size to drench and daub.It possesses excellent performances such as light-weight, high-intensity, fire-resistance, sound-insulation, heat-insulation and no-pollution. Composed with concrete materials, a new type of bearing and energy-efficient block can be gained, which is a kind of excellent wall materials and has a wide application prospect.

  3. Silicon Detector Arrays with Absolute Quantum Efficiency over 50% in the Far Ultraviolet for Single Photon Counting Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nikzad, Shouleh; Greer, Frank; Jones, Todd; Jacquot, Blake; Monacos, Steve; Blacksberg, J; Hamden, Erika; Schiminovich, David; Martin, Chris; Morrissey, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    We have used Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE)-based delta doping technology to demonstrate near 100% internal quantum efficiency (QE) on silicon electron-multiplied Charge Coupled Devices (EMCCDs) for single photon counting detection applications. Furthermore, we have used precision techniques for depositing antireflection (AR) coatings by employing Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) and demonstrated over 50% external QE in the far and near-ultraviolet in megapixel arrays. We have demonstrated that other device parameters such as dark current are unchanged after these processes. In this paper, we report on these results and briefly discuss the techniques and processes employed.

  4. Efficiency of application of means of sports preparation of combat sportsmen in physical training of students of technical high school

    OpenAIRE

    Litvinenko A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The problem of efficiency of application of different volumes of trainings facilities of sporting single combats (on the example of kickboxing) is considered in physical education of students. The complexity of influence of facilities of east single combats is shown on sportsmen. In an experiment took part 50 students of first-year of teaching in age 17-18 years. Tests were used: undercutting on a cross-bar, broad jumps from a place, at shuttle run of 4х9 m. Positive intercommunication of inc...

  5. Improving timeliness and efficiency in the referral process for safety net providers: application of the Lean Six Sigma methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckard, Gloria J; Borkowski, Nancy; Diaz, Deisell; Sanchez, Carlos; Boisette, Serge A

    2010-01-01

    Designated primary care clinics largely serve low-income and uninsured patients who present a disproportionate number of chronic illnesses and face great difficulty in obtaining the medical care they need, particularly the access to specialty physicians. With limited capacity for providing specialty care, these primary care clinics generally refer patients to safety net hospitals' specialty ambulatory care clinics. A large public safety net health system successfully improved the effectiveness and efficiency of the specialty clinic referral process through application of Lean Six Sigma, an advanced process-improvement methodology and set of tools driven by statistics and engineering concepts.

  6. Efficient coding of wavelet trees and its applications in image coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bin; Yang, En-hui; Tewfik, Ahmed H.; Kieffer, John C.

    1996-02-01

    We propose in this paper a novel lossless tree coding algorithm. The technique is a direct extension of the bisection method, the simplest case of the complexity reduction method proposed recently by Kieffer and Yang, that has been used for lossless data string coding. A reduction rule is used to obtain the irreducible representation of a tree, and this irreducible tree is entropy-coded instead of the input tree itself. This reduction is reversible, and the original tree can be fully recovered from its irreducible representation. More specifically, we search for equivalent subtrees from top to bottom. When equivalent subtrees are found, a special symbol is appended to the value of the root node of the first equivalent subtree, and the root node of the second subtree is assigned to the index which points to the first subtree, an all other nodes in the second subtrees are removed. This procedure is repeated until it cannot be reduced further. This yields the irreducible tree or irreducible representation of the original tree. The proposed method can effectively remove the redundancy in an image, and results in more efficient compression. It is proved that when the tree size approaches infinity, the proposed method offers the optimal compression performance. It is generally more efficient in practice than direct coding of the input tree. The proposed method can be directly applied to code wavelet trees in non-iterative wavelet-based image coding schemes. A modified method is also proposed for coding wavelet zerotrees in embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) image coding. Although its coding efficiency is slightly reduced, the modified version maintains exact control of bit rate and the scalability of the bit stream in EZW coding.

  7. A comprehensive guide for designing more efficient irrigation systems with respect to application control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaddam, Issam; Schuetze, Niels

    2017-04-01

    The worldwide water scarcity problems are expected to aggravate due to the increasing population and the need to produce more food. Irrigated agriculture is considered the highest consumer of fresh water resources with a rate exceeds 70% of global consumption. Consequently, an improvement in the efficiency of all irrigation methods, such as furrow or drip irrigation, becomes more necessary and urgent. Therefore, a more precise knowledge about soil water distribution in the root zone and the water balance components is required. For this purpose and as a part of the SAPHIR project (Saxonian Platform for high Performance Irrigation), a 2D simulation- based study was performed with virtual field conditions. The study investigates the most important design parameters of many irrigation systems, such as irrigation intensity and duration, and shows there influence on the water distribution efficiency. Furthermore, three main soil textures are used to test the impact of the soil hydraulic properties on irrigation effectiveness. A numerous number of irrigation scenarios of each irrigation system was simulated using HYDRUS 2D. Thereafter, the results were digitally calculated, compiled and made available online in the so called "Irrigation Atlases". The irrigation atlases provide graphical results of the soil moisture and pressure head distributions in the root zone. Moreover, they contain detailed information of the water balance for all simulated scenarios. The most studies evaluate the irrigation water demands on local, regional or global scales and for that an efficient water distribution is required. In this context, the irrigation atlases can serve as a valuable tool for the implementation of planned irrigation measures.

  8. Efficient scheduling of astronomical observations. Application to the CARMENES radial-velocity survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Piquer, A.; Morales, J. C.; Ribas, I.; Colomé, J.; Guàrdia, J.; Perger, M.; Caballero, J. A.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Jeffers, S. V.; Reiners, A.; Amado, P. J.; Quirrenbach, A.; Seifert, W.

    2017-08-01

    Context. Targeted spectroscopic exoplanet surveys face the challenge of maximizing their planet detection rates by means of careful planning. For a large planet survey, the number of possible observation combinations, i.e., the sequence of observations night after night, both in total time and amount of targets, is enormous. Aims: Sophisticated scheduling tools and the improved understanding of the exoplanet population are employed to investigate an efficient and optimal way to plan the execution of observations. This is applied to the CARMENES instrument, which is an optical and infrared high-resolution spectrograph that has started a survey of about 300 M-dwarf stars in search of terrestrial exoplanets. Methods: We used evolutionary computation techniques to create an automatic scheduler that minimizes the idle periods of the telescope and distributes the observations among all the targets using configurable criteria. We simulated the case of the CARMENES survey with a realistic sample of targets, and we estimated the efficiency of the planning tool both in terms of telescope operations and planet detection. Results: Our scheduling simulations produce plans that use about 99% of the available telescope time (including overheads) and optimally distribute the observations among the different targets. Under such conditions, and using current planet statistics, the optimized plan using this tool should allow the CARMENES survey to discover about 65% of the planets with radial-velocity semi-amplitudes greater than 1 ms-1 when considering only photon noise. Conclusions: The simulations using our scheduling tool show that it is possible to optimize the survey planning by minimizing idle instrument periods and fulfilling the science objectives in an efficient manner to maximize the scientific return.

  9. Efficiency Enhancement of Nanoporous Silicon/Polycrystalline-Silicon Solar Cells by Application of Trenched Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Kuen-Hsien Wu; Chia-Chun Tang

    2014-01-01

    Trenched electrodes were proposed to enhance the short-circuit current and conversion efficiency of polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) solar cells with nanoporous silicon (NPS) surface layers. NPS films that served as textured surface layers were firstly prepared on heavily doped p+-type (100) poly-Si wafers by anodic etching process. Interdigitated trenches were formed in the NPS layers by a reactive-ion-etch (RIE) process and Cr/Al double-layered metal was then deposited to fill the trenches...

  10. Issues of Intruder Analytical Model Applicability for Evaluating an Efficiency of Security Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukovetskiy, Anton V.; Boyko, Vladimir I.; Kolpakov, Gennady N.; Poner, Michael V.

    2016-06-01

    Physical protection system (PPS) is created at a nuclear object to prevent unauthorized acts regarding to nuclear materials, nuclear installations, points of storage of nuclear materials and other items under physical protection. The ability of the PPS to prevent unauthorized actions of intruder was adopted as the main criterion for evaluating the efficiency of the physical protection system. The article considers the possibility of creation of the intruder analytical model to determine time indicators of overcoming boundaries of protection of nuclear object by an intruder with set features.

  11. Efficiency of application of special exercises and exercises with the use of baseball pitching machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agapov D.V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of the approach on making up coordination capabilities and technical tactical performances in baseball is confirmed. 100 boys (age 12-14 years take part in experiment. Relative analysis of a level of development of coordination capabilities and technical tactical readiness of baseball players is carried out. The level of development of technical readiness after experiment under the program «pitch, hit and run» is taped. The frame of special exercises with usage of colour balls is featured. Dynamics of hits for baseball players on a flying ball is presented. The approach in modelling of requirements of competitive activity is developed.

  12. The application of finance and accounting theory to the valuation of new energy and efficiency options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awerbuch, S.

    1995-12-31

    New, renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies are often passive and capital intensive-attributes they share with computer-integrated-manufacturing (CIM), robotics, computer-aided-design (CAD) and similar manufacturing process technologies. The experience in manufacturing over the last two decades indicates that traditional accounting-based procedures for valuing such new technologies significantly understate their benefits. This paper highlights recent research which extends project valuation principles and illustrates how reliance on the engineering oriented levelized energy cost distorst benefit/cost streams.

  13. An Application of Six Sigma for Improving the Efficiency of Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Hsien Hsu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Implementing the Six Sigma control method is to use define, measure, analyze, improve and control (DMAIC framework to improve the process from the beginning, emphasize the process management, reduce the process time, eliminate the defects, and increase the passing rate. The aims of this study is to apply Six Sigma control method with DMAIC framework to shorten the power supply over time in order to enhance the power supply efficiency in T. power company (TPC. The result showed that the power supply over time was reduced from 66% to 30% in the Construction Work Second Section.

  14. Efficient method for scattering problems in open billiards: Theory and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akguc, Gursoy B.; Seligman, Thomas H.

    2006-12-01

    We present an efficient method to solve scattering problems in two-dimensional open billiards with two leads and a complicated scattering region. The basic idea is to transform the scattering region to a rectangle, which will lead to complicated dynamics in the interior, but simple boundary conditions. The method can be specialized to closed billiards, and it allows the treatment of interacting particles in the billiard. We apply this method to quantum echoes measured recently in a microwave cavity, and indicate how it can be used for interacting particles.

  15. An efficient method for scattering problems in open billiards: Theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Akguc, G B; Akguc, Gursoy B.; Seligman, Thomas H.

    2006-01-01

    We present an efficient method to solve scattering problems in two-dimensional open billiards with two leads and a complicated scattering region. The basic idea is to transform the scattering region to a rectangle, which will lead to complicated dynamics in the interior, but simple boundary conditions. The method can be specialized to closed billiards, and it allows the treatment of interacting particles in the billiard. We apply this method to quantum echoes measured recently in a microwave cavity, and indicate, how it can be used for interacting particles.

  16. An efficient rotation-free triangle and its application in cloth simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yexin.; 周晔欣.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, an efficient rotation-free (RF) triangle is proposed and applied to drape/cloth simulations in which the cloth often under large displacements and rotations. The RF model is a class of thin plate/shell computational models possessing only 3 translational degrees of freedom per director whilst their domains of influence are larger than their domains of integration. An important advantage of RF models is that they do not use rotational degrees of freedom and, thus, are not plag...

  17. Efficient Threshold Zero-Knowledge with Applications to User-Centric Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Gert Læssøe; Keller, Marcel; Rupp, Andy

    2012-01-01

    logarithms, representations, p-th roots, etc.), as well as OR statements. These building blocks are proven secure in our model. Furthermore, we apply the developed primitives and techniques in the context of user-centric protocols. In particular, we construct distributed-user variants of Brands’ e...... efficient (when compared to a general MPC approach). In comparison to the original protocols only the prover’s (or user’s) side is modified while the other side stays untouched. In particular, it is oblivious to the other party whether it interacts with a distributed prover (or user) or one as defined...

  18. Opportunity cost based analysis of corporate eco-efficiency: a methodology and its application to the CO2-efficiency of German companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Tobias; Figge, Frank; Liesen, Andrea; Barkemeyer, Ralf

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we propose the return-to-cost-ratio (RCR) as an alternative approach to the analysis of operational eco-efficiency of companies based on the notion of opportunity costs. RCR helps to overcome two fundamental deficits of existing approaches to eco-efficiency. (1) It translates eco-efficiency into managerial terms by applying the well-established notion of opportunity costs to eco-efficiency analysis. (2) RCR allows to identify and quantify the drivers behind changes in corporate eco-efficiency. RCR is applied to the analysis of the CO(2)-efficiency of German companies in order to illustrate its usefulness for a detailed analysis of changes in corporate eco-efficiency as well as for the development of effective environmental strategies.

  19. Application of gravitational sedimentation to efficient cellular recycling in continuous alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, A.B.R.A.; Nelson, D.L. (Univ. Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil))

    1993-02-05

    A mathematical model for the sedimentation velocity in an inclined parallel plate sedimenter is proposed. The parameters of the alcoholic fermentation broth (cell density of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, density of the fermentation medium, viscosity of the broth at various alcohol and biomass contents) were determined experimentally. The sedimentation velocities were predicted under various operational conditions and parameters, both of the broth (the alcohol concentration and cell content) and the sedimenter prototype (length, distance between the plates, and slope). The proposed model for the sedimentation velocity presented a good correlation with the experimental results of continuous sedimentation. Three sedimenter prototypes were assembled and tested for efficiency of separation of yeast cells under conditions considered of interest for continuous alcoholic fermentation. A selective filter for the overflow composed of calcium alginate gel improved efficiency (over 98%), and adequate settler residence times (about 20 min) were attained. The operational results permitted the operation of continuous alcoholic fermentation with cellular recycling effected exclusively by gravitational sedimentation, thus characterizing a process of enormous industrial interest because of the operational simplicity and low operational and maintenance costs.

  20. Power-efficient low-temperature woven coiled fibre actuator for wearable applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Maki; Nakamura, Kunihiko; Arase, Hidekazu; Asai, Katsuhiko; Kaneko, Yuriko; John, Stephen W.; Tagashira, Kenji; Omote, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    A fibre actuator that generates a large strain with high specific power represents a promising strategy to develop novel wearable devices and robotics. We propose a new coiled-fibre actuator based on highly drawn, hard linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) fibres. Driven by resistance heating, the actuator can be operated at temperatures as low as 60 °C and uses only 20% of the power consumed by previously coiled fibre actuators when generating 20 MPa of stress at 10% strain. In this temperature range, 1600 W kg−1 of specific work (8 times that of a skeletal muscle) at 69 MPa of tensile stress (230 times that of a skeletal muscle) with a work efficiency of 2% is achieved. The actuator generates strain as high as 23% at 90 °C. Given the low driving temperature, the actuator can be combined with common fabrics or stretchable conductive elastomers without thermal degradation, allowing for easy use in wearable systems. Nanostructural analysis implies that the lamellar crystals in drawn LLDPE fibres are weakly bridged with each other, which allows for easy deformation into compact helical shapes via twisting and the generation of large strain with high work efficiency. PMID:27812014

  1. Efficient implementation for spherical flux computation and its application to vascular segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Max W K; Chung, Albert C S

    2009-03-01

    Spherical flux is the flux inside a spherical region, and it is very useful in the analysis of tubular structures in magnetic resonance angiography and computed tomographic angiography. The conventional approach is to estimate the spherical flux in the spatial domain. Its running time depends on the sphere radius quadratically, which leads to very slow spherical flux computation when the sphere size is large. This paper proposes a more efficient implementation for spherical flux computation in the Fourier domain. Our implementation is based on the reformulation of the spherical flux calculation using the divergence theorem, spherical step function, and the convolution operation. With this reformulation, most of the calculations are performed in the Fourier domain. We show how to select the frequency subband so that the computation accuracy can be maintained. It is experimentally demonstrated that, using the synthetic and clinical phase contrast magnetic resonance angiographic volumes, our implementation is more computationally efficient than the conventional spatial implementation. The accuracies of our implementation and that of the conventional spatial implementation are comparable. Finally, the proposed implementation can definitely benefit the computation of the multiscale spherical flux with a set of radii because, unlike the conventional spatial implementation, the time complexity of the proposed implementation does not depend on the sphere radius.

  2. Efficient Hybrid White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes for Application of Triplet Harvesting with Simple Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Kyo Min; Lee, Sungkyu; Yoo, Han Kyu; Baek, Hyun Jung; Kim, Jwajin; Yoon, Seung Soo; Kim, Young Kwan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) based on triplet harvesting with simple structure. All the hole transporting material and host in emitting layer (EML) of devices were utilized with same material by using N,N'-di-1-naphthalenyl-N,N'-diphenyl-[1,1':4',1":4",1"'-quaterphenyl]-4,4"'-diamine (4P-NPD) which were known to be blue fluorescent material. Simple hybrid WOLEDs were fabricated three color with blue fluorescent and green, red phosphorescent materials. We was investigated the effect of triplet harvesting (TH) by exciton generation zone on simple hybrid WOLEDs. Characteristic of simple hybrid WOLEDs were dominant hole mobility, therefore exciton generation zone was expected in EML. Additionally, we was optimization thickness of hole transporting layer and electron transporting layer was fabricated a simple hybrid WOLEDs. Simple hybrid WOLED exhibits maximum luminous efficiency of 29.3 cd/A and maximum external quantum efficiency of 11.2%. Commission Internatio...

  3. High efficiency direct fuel cell hybrid power cycle for near term application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinfeld, G.; Maru, H.C. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); Sanderson, R.A. [Fuel Cell Systems Consultant, Wethersfield, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Direct carbonate fuel cells being developed by Energy Research Corporation can generate power at an efficiency approaching 60% LHV. This unique fuel cell technology can consume natural gas and other hydrocarbon based fuels directly without requiring an external reformer, thus providing a simpler and inherently efficient power generation system. A 2 MW power plant demonstration of this technology has been initiated at an installation in the city of Santa Clara in California. A 2.85 MW commercial configuration shown in Figure 1 is presently being developed. The complete plant includes the carbonate fuel cell modules, an inverter, transformer and switchgear, a heat recovery unit and supporting instrument air and water treatment systems. The emission levels for this 2.85 MW plant are projected to be orders of magnitude below existing or proposed standards. The 30 year levelized cost of electricity, without inflation, is projected to be approximately 5{cents}/kW-h assuming capital cost for the carbonate fuel cell system of $1000/kW.

  4. Power-efficient low-temperature woven coiled fibre actuator for wearable applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Maki; Nakamura, Kunihiko; Arase, Hidekazu; Asai, Katsuhiko; Kaneko, Yuriko; John, Stephen W.; Tagashira, Kenji; Omote, Atsushi

    2016-11-01

    A fibre actuator that generates a large strain with high specific power represents a promising strategy to develop novel wearable devices and robotics. We propose a new coiled-fibre actuator based on highly drawn, hard linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) fibres. Driven by resistance heating, the actuator can be operated at temperatures as low as 60 °C and uses only 20% of the power consumed by previously coiled fibre actuators when generating 20 MPa of stress at 10% strain. In this temperature range, 1600 W kg-1 of specific work (8 times that of a skeletal muscle) at 69 MPa of tensile stress (230 times that of a skeletal muscle) with a work efficiency of 2% is achieved. The actuator generates strain as high as 23% at 90 °C. Given the low driving temperature, the actuator can be combined with common fabrics or stretchable conductive elastomers without thermal degradation, allowing for easy use in wearable systems. Nanostructural analysis implies that the lamellar crystals in drawn LLDPE fibres are weakly bridged with each other, which allows for easy deformation into compact helical shapes via twisting and the generation of large strain with high work efficiency.

  5. Power-efficient low-temperature woven coiled fibre actuator for wearable applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Maki; Nakamura, Kunihiko; Arase, Hidekazu; Asai, Katsuhiko; Kaneko, Yuriko; John, Stephen W; Tagashira, Kenji; Omote, Atsushi

    2016-11-04

    A fibre actuator that generates a large strain with high specific power represents a promising strategy to develop novel wearable devices and robotics. We propose a new coiled-fibre actuator based on highly drawn, hard linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) fibres. Driven by resistance heating, the actuator can be operated at temperatures as low as 60 °C and uses only 20% of the power consumed by previously coiled fibre actuators when generating 20 MPa of stress at 10% strain. In this temperature range, 1600 W kg(-1) of specific work (8 times that of a skeletal muscle) at 69 MPa of tensile stress (230 times that of a skeletal muscle) with a work efficiency of 2% is achieved. The actuator generates strain as high as 23% at 90 °C. Given the low driving temperature, the actuator can be combined with common fabrics or stretchable conductive elastomers without thermal degradation, allowing for easy use in wearable systems. Nanostructural analysis implies that the lamellar crystals in drawn LLDPE fibres are weakly bridged with each other, which allows for easy deformation into compact helical shapes via twisting and the generation of large strain with high work efficiency.

  6. An efficient artificial bee colony algorithm with application to nonlinear predictive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Sahed, Oussama; Kara, Kamel; Benyoucef, Abousoufyane; Laid Hadjili, Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    In this paper a constrained nonlinear predictive control algorithm, that uses the artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm to solve the optimization problem, is proposed. The main objective is to derive a simple and efficient control algorithm that can solve the nonlinear constrained optimization problem with minimal computational time. Indeed, a modified version, enhancing the exploring and the exploitation capabilities, of the ABC algorithm is proposed and used to design a nonlinear constrained predictive controller. This version allows addressing the premature and the slow convergence drawbacks of the standard ABC algorithm, using a modified search equation, a well-known organized distribution mechanism for the initial population and a new equation for the limit parameter. A convergence statistical analysis of the proposed algorithm, using some well-known benchmark functions is presented and compared with several other variants of the ABC algorithm. To demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm in solving engineering problems, the constrained nonlinear predictive control of the model of a Multi-Input Multi-Output industrial boiler is considered. The control performances of the proposed ABC algorithm-based controller are also compared to those obtained using some variants of the ABC algorithms.

  7. Application of gravitational sedimentation to efficient cellular recycling in continuous alcoholic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, A B; Nelson, D L

    1993-02-05

    A mathematical model for the sedimentation velocity in an inclined parallel plate sedimenter is proposed. The parameters of the alcoholic fermentation broth (cell density of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, density of the fermentation medium, viscosity of the broth at various alcohol and biomass contents) were determined experimentally. The sedimentation velocities were predicted under the various operational conditions and parameters, both of the broth (the alcohol concentration and cell content) and the sedimenter prototype (length, distance between the plates, and slope). The proposed model for the sedimentation velocity presented a good correlation with the experimental results of continuous sedimentation. These sedimenter prototypes were assembled and tested for efficiency of separation of yeast cell under conditions considered for interest for continuous alcoholic fermentation. A selective filter for the overflow composed of calcium alginate gel improved operation. A high operational stability, high separation efficiency (over 98%), and adequate settler residence times (about 20 min) were attained. The operational results permitted the operation of continuous alcoholic fermentation with cellular recycling effected exclusively by gravitational sedimentation, this characterizing a process of enormous industrial interest because of the operational simplicity and low operational and maintenance costs.

  8. Low-cost/high-efficiency lasers for medical applications in the 14XX-nm regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, J. J.; McIntyre, E.; Rafferty, C.; Yanushefski, L.; Bean, D. M.

    2011-03-01

    Laser therapy is becoming an increasingly popular method of treating numerous dermatological conditions. The widespread use of these devices is often limited by the cost and size. Low cost, portable lasers would expand the laser market further into homes, general practitioners, dermatologists, plastic surgeons, and 3rd world countries. There are numerous light devices currently on the market for hair removal and growth, acne reduction, and wrinkles. These devices are varied, from LEDs to intense pulsed light (IPL) to lasers. One particular disease is leishmaniasis, caused by a parasite carried by sand flies, most often occurring in third world countries. While there are drug therapies available, they sometimes require hospitalization for several days and are very expensive. An RF device has been FDA approved for treatment of leishmaniasis, but costs about $20,000 which is too expensive for widespread use. Since the method is heating the lesion, the same affect could be achieved using an infrared laser. Diode lasers have the capability to be produced in mass quantity for low costs, as shown by the ubiquity of diode lasers in the telecom industry and household appliances. Unfortunately, many diode lasers suffer from poor efficiency, particularly in wavelengths for dermatology. Advances are being made to improve wall plug efficiency of lasers to reduce waste heat and increase output power. In this paper, those efforts being made to develop manufacturing partners to lower the cost while increasing the production volume of long wavelength lasers will be discussed along with performance data and clinical results.

  9. A DC-DC Converter Efficiency Model for System Level Analysis in Ultra Low Power Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benton H. Calhoun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of inductor based DC-DC converters that can be used to study the impact of power management techniques such as dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS. System level power models of low power systems on chip (SoCs and power management strategies cannot be correctly established without accounting for the associated overhead related to the DC-DC converters that provide regulated power to the system. The proposed model accurately predicts the efficiency of inductor based DC-DC converters with varying topologies and control schemes across a range of output voltage and current loads. It also accounts for the energy and timing overhead associated with the change in the operating condition of the regulator. Since modern SoCs employ power management techniques that vary the voltage and current loads seen by the converter, accurate modeling of the impact on the converter efficiency becomes critical. We use this model to compute the overall cost of two power distribution strategies for a SoC with multiple voltage islands. The proposed model helps us to obtain the energy benefits of a power management technique and can also be used as a basis for comparison between power management techniques or as a tool for design space exploration early in a SoC design cycle.

  10. How to verify lightning protection efficiency for electrical systems? Testing procedures and practical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkl, Josef; Zahlmann, Peter [DEHN and SOEHNE, Neumarkt (Germany)], Emails: Josef.Birkl@technik.dehn.de, Peter.Zahlmann@technik.dehn.de

    2007-07-01

    There are increasing numbers of applications, installing Surge Protective Devices (SPDs), through which partial lightning currents flow, and highly sensitive, electronic devices to be protected closely next to each other due to the design of electric distribution systems and switchgear installations which is getting more and more compact. In these cases, the protective function of the SPDs has to be co-ordinated with the individual immunity of the equipment against energetic, conductive impulse voltages and impulse currents. In order to verify the immunity against partial lightning currents of the complete system laboratory tests on a system level are a suitable approach. The proposed test schemes for complete systems have been successfully performed on various applications. Examples will be presented. (author)

  11. Improving IEEE 802.15.4 for Low-Latency Energy-Efficient Industrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng

    The IEEE 802.15.4 standard for LR-WPAXs is becoming a de-facto standard for Wireless Sensor Xetworks (WSXs) applications in industrial fields. In this paper, we evaluate the latency performance of the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol based on a typical industrial scenario: a star network with 20 devices that send short messages (1 Byte) to the PAX coordinator. We analyzed the behavior of the GTS mechanism in the standard analytically. The results reveal essential limitations of the standard for low-latency applications in automation environments. According to our findings, we propose an enhanced protocol version that fully supports industry demands on low-latency communication. Our protocol version uses the original physical layer and, thus, can be implemented conveniently using cheap IEEE 802.15.4 hardware. The analytical results prove that we are able to meet the guaranteed low latency of 10 ms as specified by typical automation environments.

  12. An Efficient Hybrid Power Control Algorithm for Capacity Improvement of CDMA-based Fixed Wireless Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zeeshan, Muhammad; Malik, Muhammad Yasir

    2011-01-01

    In Fixed Wireless Applications (FWA), the Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is the most promising candidate for wideband data access. The reason is the soft limit on the number of active mobile devices. Many Fixed Wireless Applications impose an upper bound on the BER performance which restricts the increase in number of mobile users. The number of active mobile users or Capacity is further reduced in Multipath Fading Environment (MFE). This paper presents an effective method of improving the capacity of CDMA based Fixed Wireless Networks by using a hybrid power control algorithm. The proposed scheme improves the capacity two times as compared to the conventional CDMA based networks. Simulation results have been presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  13. Highly Efficient Bienzyme Functionalized Nanocomposite-Based Microfluidics Biosensor Platform for Biomedical Application

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Azahar Ali; Saurabh Srivastava; Solanki, Pratima R.; Venu Reddy; Ved V. Agrawal; CheolGi Kim; Renu John; Malhotra, Bansi D.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the fabrication of a novel microfluidics nanobiochip based on a composite comprising of nickel oxide nanoparticles (nNiO) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), as well as the chip's use in a biomedical application. This nanocomposite was integrated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannels, which were constructed using the photolithographic technique. A structural and morphological characterization of the fabricated microfluidics chip, which was functionalized ...

  14. Efficient Orchestration of Data Centers Via Comprehensive and Application Aware Trade Off Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    of computer servers called data centers to remotely store, manage, and process user data , is be- coming increasingly popular as a cost-effective and on...same data intensive workload as close as possible to reduce both bandwidth contention and communication latency [14]. But although the concept of...different types of indi- vidual application workloads (e.g., computation or memory intensive vs. data or network intensive) within a shared multi-tenant

  15. Efficient parallelisation techniques for applications running on GPUs using the CUDA framework

    OpenAIRE

    Ottesen, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Modern graphic processing units (GPU) are powerful parallel processing multi-core devices that are found in most computers today. The increase in processing resources of the GPU, coupled with improvements and flexibility of the programming frameworks, has increased the interest in general purpose programming on theGPU(GPGPU). In this thesis, we investigate how the GPU architecture and its processing capabilities can be utilised in general purpose applications using the NVIDIA c...

  16. Urease inhibitor (NBPT and efficiency of single or split application of urea in wheat crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Curitiba Espindula

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available NBPT (N-(n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide, a urease inhibitor, has been reported as one of the most promising compounds to maximize urea nitrogen use in agricultural systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of irrigated wheat fertilized with urea or urea + NBPT as single or split application. The experiment was conducted from June to October 2006 in Viçosa, MG, Brazil. The experimental design followed a 2×2 factorial scheme, in which urea or urea + NBPT were combined with two modes of application: full dose at sowing (60kg ha-1 or split (20kg ha-1 at sowing + 40kg ha-1 as topdressing at tillering, in randomized blocks with ten replications. The split application of nitrogen fertilization does not improve the yield wheat under used conditions. The use of urease inhibitor improves the grain yield of wheat crop when urea is applied in topdressing at tillering, but its use does not promote difference when urea is applied in the furrow at planting.

  17. The Effect of Zinc Fertilizer Application on Grain Yield of Different Zinc-Efficient Spring and Winter Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available These field trials were carried out to investigate the effect of various zinc (Zn fertilizer application treatments on grain yield of some spring (Isfahan and Neishabour and winter wheat cultivars (Mashhad and Jolge-e-Rokh with different Zn efficiency during 2009-2010 growth seasons. Five Zn fertilizer treatments were applied including: no added Zn (control, soil application of Zn-sulfate, and foliar spray of Zn-sulfate, Omex1, and Omex2. Omex1 and Omex2 contained 4 and 17% Zn, respectively. Foliar spray was performed at the anthesis stage. Both spring and winter wheat genotypes significantly differed in grain yield. The results showed that wheat genotypes largely varied in their grain yield response to different Zn application treatments. Some spring (Sholeh in Isfahan and winter (Sabalan in Jolg-e-Rokh wheat genotypes had greater response to Zn fertilization so that Zn addition increased grain yield of Sholeh by 48% and Sabalan by 17% as compared with no added Zn control. In contrast, Zn addition had no effect on grain yield of some other genotypes. Yield response of wheat genotypes to Zn application treatments significantly varied upon location. According to the results obtained from this study, the efficacy of Zn fertilizer treatments on grain yield of wheat is dependent on the genotype and location. Therefore, this concern should be considered in fertilizer recommendation programs that a specific Zn fertilizer treatment may not be recommended for all wheat cultivars and locations.

  18. Short and long term efficiencies of debris risk reduction measures: Application to a European LEO mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T.; Kervarc, R.; Bertrand, S.; Carle, P.; Donath, T.; Destefanis, R.; Grassi, L.; Tiboldo, F.; Schäfer, F.; Kempf, S.; Gelhaus, J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent numerical studies indicate that the low Earth orbit (LEO) debris environment has reached a point such that even if no further space launches were conducted, the Earth satellite population would remain relatively constant for only the next 50 years or so. Beyond that, the debris population would begin to increase noticeably, due to the production of collisional debris (Liou and Johnson, 2008). Measures to be enforced play thus a major role to preserve an acceptable space mission risk and ensure sustainable space activities. The identification of such measures and the quantification of their efficiency over time for LEO missions is of prime concern in the decision-making process, as it has been investigated for the last few decades by the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC). This paper addresses the final results of a generic methodology and the characteristics of a tool developed to assess the efficiency of the risk reduction measures identified for the Sentinel-1 (S1) mission. This work is performed as part of the 34-month P2-ROTECT project (Prediction, Protection & Reduction of OrbiTal Exposure to Collision Threats), funded by the European Union within the Seventh Framework Programme. Three ways of risk reduction have been investigated, both in short and long-term, namely: better satellite protection, better conjunction prediction, and cleaner environment. According to our assumptions, the S1 mission vulnerability evaluations in the long term (from 2093 to 2100) show that full compliance to the mitigation measures leads to a situation twice safer than that induced by an active debris removal of 5 objects per year in a MASTER2009 Business-As-Usual context. Because these measures have visible risk reduction effects in the long term, complementary measures with short response time are also studied. In the short term (from 2013 to 2020), a better prediction of the conjunctions is more efficient than protecting the satellite S1 itself. By

  19. Leveraging Smart Meter Data through Advanced Analytics: Applications to Building Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalori, Saurabh

    The poor energy efficiency of buildings is a major barrier to alleviating the energy dilemma. Historically, monthly utility billing data was widely available and analytical methods for identifying building energy efficiency improvements, performing building Monitoring and Verification (M&V) and continuous commissioning (CCx) were based on them. Although robust, these methods were not sensitive enough to detect a number of common causes for increased energy use. In recent years, prevalence of short-term building energy consumption data, also known as Energy Interval Data (EID), made available through the Smart Meters, along with data mining techniques presents the potential of knowledge discovery inherent in this data. This allows more sophisticated analytical tools to be developed resulting in greater sensitivities due to higher prediction accuracies; leading to deep energy savings and highly efficient building system operations. The research explores enhancements to Inverse Statistical Modeling techniques due to the availability of EID. Inverse statistical modeling is the process of identification of prediction model structure and estimates of model parameters. The methodology is based on several common statistical and data mining techniques: cluster analysis for day typing, outlier detection and removal, and generation of building scheduling. Inverse methods are simpler to develop and require fewer inputs for model identification. They can model changes in energy consumption based on changes in climatic variables and up to a certain extent, occupancy. This makes them easy-to-use and appealing to building managers for evaluating any general retrofits, building condition monitoring, continuous commissioning and short-term load forecasting (STLF). After evaluating several model structures, an elegant model form was derived which can be used to model daily energy consumption; which can be extended to model energy consumption for any specific hour by adding corrective

  20. Efficient energy conversion in the pulp and paper industry: application to a sulfite wood pulping process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marechal, F.

    2007-07-01

    This report measures the actions performed in 2006 and the actions planned for 2007 within the framework of the project Efficient Energy Conversion in the Pulp and Paper Industry. In addition to the data reconciliation models of the steam and condensate networks and of the process of Borregaard Schweiz AG, process models have been developed with the goal of defining the heat requirements of the process. The combination of utility system data reconciliation with the process models allows to considerably reduce the need for detailed process modelling and for on-site data collection and measurement. A systematic definition of the hot and cold streams in the process has been developed in order to compute the minimum energy requirement of the process. The process requirements have been defined using the dual representation concept where the energy requirement of the process unit operations are systematically analysed from their thermodynamic requirement and the way they are satisfied by the technology that implements the operation. Corresponding to the same energy requirement but realised with different temperature allows on one hand to define the exergy efficiency of the heat transfer system in each of the process unit operations and to identify possible energy savings by heat exchange in the system. The analysis has been completed by the definition of the possible energy recovery from waste streams. The minimum energy requirement of the process using the different requirement representation has been realised and the analysis of the energy savings opportunities is now under preparation. This new step will first concern the definition of the utility system integration and the systematic analysis of the energy savings opportunities followed by the techno-economic evaluation of the most profitable energy savings options in the process. The national and international collaborations constitute also an important part of this project. The project is done in close

  1. Material Science for High-Efficiency Photovoltaics: From Advanced Optical Coatings to Cell Design for High-Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perl, Emmett Edward

    a top junction. These designs maximize reflection of high-energy light for an InGaN top junction while minimizing reflection of low-energy light that would be absorbed by the lower four junctions. Increasing the reflectivity of high-energy photons enables a second pass of light through the InGaN cell, leading to increased absorption and a higher photocurrent. These optical designs enhanced the efficiency of a 2.65eV InGaN solar cell to a value of 3.3% under the AM0 spectrum, the highest reported efficiency for a standalone InGaN solar cell. The second half of the dissertation describes the development of III-V solar cells for high-temperature applications. As the operating temperature of a solar cell is increased, the ideal bandgap of the top junction increases. AlGaInP solar cells with bandgaps ranging from 1.9eV to 2.2eV are developed. A 2.03eV AlGaInP solar cell is demonstrated with a bandgap-voltage offset of 440mV, the lowest of any AlGaInP solar cell reported to date. Single-junction AlGaInP, GaInP, and GaAs solar cells designed for high-temperature operation are characterized up to a temperature of 400°C. The cell properties are compared to an analytical drift-diffusion model, and we find that a fundamental increase in the intrinsic carrier concentration, ni, dominates the temperature dependence of the dark currents, open-circuit voltage, and cell efficiency. These findings provide a valuable guide to the design of any system that requires high-temperature solar cell operation.

  2. Efficient implementation of a van der Waals density functional: application to double-wall carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Pérez, Guillermo; Soler, José M

    2009-08-28

    We present an efficient implementation of the van der Waals density functional of Dion et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 246401 (2004)], which expresses the nonlocal correlation energy as a double spatial integral. We factorize the integration kernel and use fast Fourier transforms to evaluate the self-consistent potential, total energy, and atomic forces, in O(NlogN) operations. The resulting overhead, for medium and large systems, is a small fraction of the total computational cost, representing a dramatic speedup over the O(N(2)) evaluation of the double integral. This opens the realm of first-principles simulations to the large systems of interest in soft matter and biomolecular problems. We apply the method to calculate the binding energies and the barriers for relative translation and rotation in double-wall carbon nanotubes.

  3. Solar efficiency of a new deposited titania photocatalyst: Pesticide and dye removal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Dinh An, C.; Dussaud, J.; Guillard, C.; Disdier, J.; Malato, S.; Herrmann, J.M.

    2002-07-01

    A specially designed titania catalyst was prepared by coating Ahlstrom nonwoven paper with Millennium PC 500 anatase which was therefore used as a flexible photocatalytic support. Simultaneously, a new solar photoreactor (STEP) has been designed based on the multistep cascade falling film principle to ensure good exposure to sunlight and good oxygenation of the effluent to be treated. Four reactants were treated: 4-chlorophenol as a basic organic pollutant model, formetanate as a widely used pesticide, indigo carmine and congo res as complex multifunctional dye molecules. Each reaction was performed simultaneously in a slurry solar CPC photoreactor to better evaluate and validate the results obtained in the STEP reactor under identical solar exposure. The STEP solar reactor was found as efficient as the CPC for 4-chlorophenol and formetanate total degradation. By contrast, both dyes required longer treatment in STEP experiments. This new system constitutes a good alternative to slurries, whose final filtration is actually eliminated. (Author) 21 refs.

  4. Up to fourth virial coefficients from simple and efficient internal-coordinate sampling: application to neon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebke, Jonas; Pahl, Elke; Schwerdtfeger, Peter

    2012-07-01

    A simple and efficient internal-coordinate importance sampling protocol for the Monte Carlo computation of (up to fourth-order) virial coefficients ̅B(n) of atomic systems is proposed. The key feature is a multivariate sampling distribution that mimics the product structure of the dominating pairwise-additive parts of the ̅B(n). This scheme is shown to be competitive over routine numerical methods and, as a proof of principle, applied to neon: The second, third, and fourth virial coefficients of neon as well as equation-of-state data are computed from ab initio two- and three-body potentials; four-body contributions are found to be insignificant. Kirkwood-Wigner quantum corrections to first order are found to be crucial to the observed agreement with recent ab initio and experimental reference data sets but are likely inadequate at very low temperatures.

  5. Improved Computing-Efficiency Least-Squares Algorithm with Application to All-Pass Filter Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo-Chyuan Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available All-pass filter design can be generally achieved by solving a system of linear equations. The associated matrices involved in the set of linear equations can be further formulated as a Toeplitz-plus-Hankel form such that a matrix inversion is avoided. Consequently, the optimal filter coefficients can be solved by using computationally efficient Levinson algorithms or Cholesky decomposition technique. In this paper, based on trigonometric identities and sampling the frequency band of interest uniformly, the authors proposed closed-form expressions to compute the elements of the Toeplitz-plus-Hankel matrix required in the least-squares design of IIR all-pass filters. Simulation results confirm that the proposed method achieves good performance as well as effectiveness.

  6. Reliable tool life measurements in turning - an application to cutting fluid efficiency evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos A.; Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2001-01-01

    The paper proposes a method to obtain reliable measurements of tool life in turning, discussing some aspects related to experimental procedure and measurement accuracy. The method (i) allows and experimental determination of the extended Taylor's equation, with a limited set of experiments and (ii......) provides efficiency evaluation. Six cutting oils, five of which formulated from vegetable basestock, were evaluated in turning. Experiments were run in a range of cutting parameters. according to a 2, 3-1 factorial design, machining AISI 316L stainless steel with coated carbide tools. Tool life...... measurements were associated to an estimation of their uncertainty, and it was found that by taking three repetitions the uncertainty calculated with a coverage factor of two was on average three times bigger than the experimental standard deviation....

  7. Core-shell gold J-aggregate nanoparticles for highly efficient strong coupling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoumessi Lekeufack, Diane; Brioude, Arnaud; Coleman, Anthony W.; Miele, Philippe; Bellessa, Joel; De Zeng, Li; Stadelmann, Pierre

    2010-06-01

    We have developed a straightforward synthetic route to prepare core-shell systems based on gold nanoparticles (NPs) surrounded with J-aggregates molecules. This synthesis allows the direct and efficient coating, at room temperature, of pretreated citrate-stabilized gold NPs with 5, 5', 6, 6'-tetrachloro-1-1'-diethyl-3, 3'-di (4-sulfobutyl)-benzimidazolocarbocyanine (TDBC), without supplementary adding of salts and bases during the synthesis. As the size of gold particle is tunable, the precise optimization of the strong coupling between the electronic transitions of organic components (TDBC) and the plasmon modes of the gold NPs is achieved corresponding to a Rabi energy of 220 meV, a value not yet obtained in such a system.

  8. Prospects of application of additive technologies for increasing the efficiency of impeller machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belova, O. V.; Borisov, Yu. A.

    2017-08-01

    Impeller machine is a device in which the flow path carries out the supply (or retraction) of mechanical energy to the flow of a working fluid passing through the machine. To increase the efficiency of impeller machines, it is necessary to use design modern technologies, namely the use of numerical methods for conducting research in the field of gas dynamics, as well as additive manufacturing (AM) for the of both prototypes and production model. AM technologies are deservedly rightly called revolutionary because they give unique possibility for manufacturing products, creating perfect forms, both light and durable. The designers face the challenge of developing a new design methodology, since AM allows the use of the concept of "Complexity For Free". The "Complexity For Free" conception is based on: complexity of the form; hierarchical complexity; complexity of the material; functional complexity. The new technical items design method according to a functional principle is also investigated.

  9. Efficient estimation of dynamic density functions with an application to outlier detection

    KAUST Repository

    Qahtan, Abdulhakim Ali Ali

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method to estimate the dynamic density over data streams, named KDE-Track as it is based on a conventional and widely used Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) method. KDE-Track can efficiently estimate the density with linear complexity by using interpolation on a kernel model, which is incrementally updated upon the arrival of streaming data. Both theoretical analysis and experimental validation show that KDE-Track outperforms traditional KDE and a baseline method Cluster-Kernels on estimation accuracy of the complex density structures in data streams, computing time and memory usage. KDE-Track is also demonstrated on timely catching the dynamic density of synthetic and real-world data. In addition, KDE-Track is used to accurately detect outliers in sensor data and compared with two existing methods developed for detecting outliers and cleaning sensor data. © 2012 ACM.

  10. Limits on thickness and efficiency of Polish Doughnuts in application to the ULX sources

    CERN Document Server

    Wielgus, Maciek; Lasota, Jean-Pierre; Abramowicz, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Polish Doughnuts (PDs) are geometrically thick disks which rotate with super-Keplerian velocities in their innermost parts, and whose long and narrow funnels along rotation axes collimate the emerging radiation into beams. In this paper we construct extremal family of PDs that maximize both geometrical thickness and radiative efficiency. We then derive upper limits for these quantities and subsequently for the related ability to collimate radiation. PDs with such extreme properties may explain the observed properties of the ULX sources with no need for the black hole masses exceeding ~ 10 solar masses. However, we show that strong advective cooling, which is expected to be one of the dominant cooling mechanisms in accretion flows with super-Eddington accretion rates, tends to reduce geometrical thickness and luminosity of PDs substantially. We also show that the beamed radiation emerging from the PDs' funnels corresponds to "isotropic" luminosities that linearly scale with the mass accretion rate, and do not ...

  11. Efficient Quartet Representations of Trees and Applications to Supertree and Summary Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ruth; Lawhorn, MaLyn; Rusinko, Joseph; Weber, Noah

    2016-12-14

    Quartet trees displayed by larger phylogenetic trees have long been used as inputs for species tree and supertree reconstruction. Computational constraints prevent the use of all displayed quartets in many practical problems with large numbers of taxa. We introduce the notion of an Efficient Quartet System (EQS) to represent a phylogenetic tree with a subset of the quartets displayed by the tree. We show mathematically that the set of quartets obtained from a tree via an EQS contains all of the combinatorial information of the tree itself. Using performance tests on simulated datasets, we also demonstrate that using an EQS to reduce the number of quartets in both summary method pipelines for species tree inference as well as methods for supertree inference results in only small reductions in accuracy.

  12. A CZT high efficiency detector with 3D spatial resolution for Laue lens applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auricchio, N.; Basili, A.; Caroli, E.

    2010-01-01

    high performance focal plane detectors in order to exploit to the maximum the intrinsic capabilities of these new high energy telescopes. We describe the ongoing development of a three dimensional (3D) position sensitive device suitable as the basic unit of a high efficiency focal plane detector...... one collecting strip and 8 drift strips. The drift strips are biased by a voltage divider. The cathode is divided into 4 horizontal strips for the reconstruction of the third coordinate of the interaction. The final 3D prototype is made by packing 8 linear modules, each composed of one basic sensitive...... unit, bonded onto a supporting ceramic layer. The readout electronics implements the new RENA-3 Asics and the data handling system uses custom designed FPGA based electronics to provide both the ASIC operation and the acquisition logic....

  13. Optimum Thickness Conditions of TiO2 Nanotubes Layer for Efficient Electrochemical Luminescence Cells Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min-Ki; Sung, Youl-Moon; Park, Min-Woo

    2015-02-01

    We report a TiO2 nanotubes (NTs)-based Electrochemical luminescence (ECL) cell. The ECL cell was fabricated using the electrode of TiO2 NTs and Ru(II) complex (Ru(bpy)2+(3)) as a luminescence materials. The fabricated ECL cell is composed of F-doped SnO2 (FTO) glass/Ru(II)/TiO2 NTs/Ti plate. At a bias voltage of 3 V, the measured ECL efficiencies were 0 Im/W for cell without NTs, 0.03 Im/W for NTs-6.5 µm, 0.07 Im/W for NTs-8 µm and 0.1 Im/W for NTs-10 µm, respectively. The use of Ti02 NTs increases ECL intensities by about 2 times compared to the typical ECL cell without the use of TiO2 NTs.

  14. Efficient Fabrication of Hierarchically Porous Graphene-Derived Aerogel and Its Application in Lithium Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Qin, Furong; Lai, Yanqing; Li, Jie; Lei, Xiaoke; Wang, Mengran; Lu, Hai; Fang, Jing

    2016-03-09

    Hierarchically porous carbon/graphene aerogel (CGA) with relatively high surface area and pore volume is synthesized through an efficient fabrication strategy, which involves forming hydrothermal carbon layer on the pore wall as upholder and directly carbonizing the wet hydrogel from hydrothermal reaction, without using any special drying techniques. Cassava powder is used as carbon precursor which enables sustainable synthesis. Carbonizing the wet hydrothermal product is found to be a self-activation process, through which abundant pores are generated. The aerogel is used as host to encapsulate sulfur for lithium sulfur battery. Graphene, served as highly conductive scaffold, accelerates the transport of the electrons. The hierarchically porous structure is in favor of improving the electrochemical performance of lithium sulfur battery. Therefore, the cathode with high sulfur loading and high sulfur content can deliver very good performance.

  15. Periodically Aligned Si Nanopillar Arrays as Efficient Antireflection Layers for Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaocheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Periodically aligned Si nanopillar (PASiNP arrays were fabricated on Si substrate via a silver-catalyzed chemical etching process using the diameter-reduced polystyrene spheres as mask. The typical sub-wavelength structure of PASiNP arrays had excellent antireflection property with a low reflection loss of 2.84% for incident light within the wavelength range of 200–1,000 nm. The solar cell incorporated with the PASiNP arrays exhibited a power conversion efficiency (PCE of ~9.24% with a short circuit current density (JSC of ~29.5 mA/cm2 without using any extra surface passivation technique. The high PCE of PASiNP array-based solar cell was attributed to the excellent antireflection property of the special periodical Si nanostructure.

  16. Highly efficient isolation of Populus mesophyll protoplasts and its application in transient expression assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Guo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Populus is a model woody plant and a promising feedstock for lignocellulosic biofuel production. However, its lengthy life cycle impedes rapid characterization of gene function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We optimized a Populus leaf mesophyll protoplast isolation protocol and established a Populus protoplast transient expression system. We demonstrated that Populus protoplasts are able to respond to hormonal stimuli and that a series of organelle markers are correctly localized in the Populus protoplasts. Furthermore, we showed that the Populus protoplast transient expression system is suitable for studying protein-protein interaction, gene activation, and cellular signaling events. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study established a method for efficient isolation of protoplasts from Populus leaf and demonstrated the efficacy of using Populus protoplast transient expression assays as an in vivo system to characterize genes and pathways.

  17. Highly Efficient Isolation of Populus Mesophyll Protoplasts and Its Application in Transient Expression Assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jianjun [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL; Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Muchero, Wellington [ORNL; Kalluri, Udaya C [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Chen, Jay [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Background: Populus is a model woody plant and a promising feedstock for lignocellulosic biofuel production. However, its lengthy life cycle impedes rapid characterization of gene function. Methodology/Principal Findings: We optimized a Populus leaf mesophyll protoplast isolation protocol and established a Populus protoplast transient expression system. We demonstrated that Populus protoplasts are able to respond to hormonal stimuli and that a series of organelle markers are correctly localized in the Populus protoplasts. Furthermore, we showed that the Populus protoplast transient expression system is suitable for studying protein-protein interaction, gene activation, and cellular signaling events. Conclusions/Significance: This study established a method for efficient isolation of protoplasts from Populus leaf and demonstrated the efficacy of using Populus protoplast transient expression assays as an in vivo system to characterize genes and pathways.

  18. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF AN EFFICIENT METHOD TO RIVER DISCHARGE MEASUREMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan-Yi WANG; Jau-Yau LU; Chih-Chiang SU

    2002-01-01

    A highly efficient flow discharge measuring method was proposed in this study. Either the traditional velocimeters or the Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP) can be used to measure the maximum flow velocity, Umax at the y-axis (vertical passing through the maximum point velocity in a channel cross section). The mean velocity of the cross section (U) was computed by φUmax, where φ was estimated from the field data collected with the cup-type current meter using the "two-point method".The flow discharge was then computed by multiplying the estimated flow area with (U). In contrast to the traditional method, where flow depth and flow velocity measurements are needed for each vertical, the proposed method has the advantages of short operation time and high accuracy. These features are especially important for the measurement of unsteady flow.

  19. Efficient Non-Uniform Orthogonal Mesh Generation Algorithm for Cylindrical Finite Difference Time Domain Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Guoxiang; CHEN Yinchao; SHEN Guoqiang

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents an efficient andfast non-uniform, orthogonal mesh generation algo-rithm for the analysis and design of cylindrical mi-crowave devices and integrated circuits using thecylindrical finite-difference time-domain (CFDTD)methods. By using this algorithm, we can easily gen-erate a suitable CFDTD grid fitting for the devel-oped CFDTD Maxwell's solver. In the paper, wewill introduce in detail the algorithm and the graph-ical functions of the corresponding software package,CylinMesh. In addition, we will illustrate the algo-rithm by demonstrating various one, two, and three-dimensional grid patterns for a double-layered cylin-drical microstrip stepped-impedance low pass filter.

  20. Immune biosensors based on the SPR and TIRE: efficiency of their application for bacteria determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodub, N. F.; Ogorodniichuk, J.; Lebedeva, T.; Shpylovyy, P.

    2013-11-01

    In this work we have designed high-specific biosensors for Salmonella typhimurium detection based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE). It has been demonstrated high selectivity and sensitivity of analysis. As a registering part for our experiments the Spreeta (USA) and "Plasmonotest" (Ukraine) with flowing cell have been applied among of SPR device. Previous researches confirmed an efficiency of SPR biosensors using for detecting of specific antigen-antibody interactions therefore this type of reactions with some previous preparations of surface binding layer was used as reactive part. It has been defined that in case with Spreeta sensitivity was on the level 103 - 107 cells/ml. Another biosensor based on the SPR has shown the sensitivity within 101 - 106 cells/ml. Maximal sensitivity was on the level of several cells in 10 ml (up to the fact that less than 5 cells) which has been obtained using the biosensor based on TIRE.