WorldWideScience

Sample records for surprisingly accurate idea

  1. Rapid and Accurate Idea Transfer: Presenting Ideas with Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-30

    questions from the Pre-test were included in the Post-test. I. At the end of the day, people in the camps take home about __ taka to feed their families. 2...teachers are not paid regularly. Tuition fees for different classes are 40 to 80 taka (Bangladesh currency) 27 per month which is very high for the...October 26, 2002. 27 In April 2005, exchange rate, one $ = 60 taka . 44 Rapid and Accurate Idea Transfer: CDRL (DI-MIS-807 11 A, 00012 1) Presenting

  2. Rapid and Accurate Idea Transfer: Presenting Ideas with Concept Maps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moon, Brian M; Hoffman, Robert R

    2008-01-01

    ...) are the preferred medium for presenting complex ideas. Critics have pointed to the slavish, indeed dangerous, use of slideshows, warning of their tendency to reduce the analytic quality of presentations of evidence. The U.S...

  3. Risk, surprises and black swans fundamental ideas and concepts in risk assessment and risk management

    CERN Document Server

    Aven, Terje

    2014-01-01

    Risk, Surprises and Black Swans provides an in depth analysis of the risk concept with a focus on the critical link to knowledge; and the lack of knowledge, that risk and probability judgements are based on.Based on technical scientific research, this book presents a new perspective to help you understand how to assess and manage surprising, extreme events, known as 'Black Swans'. This approach looks beyond the traditional probability-based principles to offer a broader insight into the important aspects of uncertain events and in doing so explores the ways to manage them.

  4. Ontological Surprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leahu, Lucian

    2016-01-01

    a hybrid approach where machine learning algorithms are used to identify objects as well as connections between them; finally, it argues for remaining open to ontological surprises in machine learning as they may enable the crafting of different relations with and through technologies.......This paper investigates how we might rethink design as the technological crafting of human-machine relations in the context of a machine learning technique called neural networks. It analyzes Google’s Inceptionism project, which uses neural networks for image recognition. The surprising output...

  5. Surprise Trips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias; Kawash, Raghid; Andersen, Lisbet Møller

    2010-01-01

    We report on a platform that augments the natural experience of exploration in diverse indoor and outdoor environments. The system builds on the theme of surprises in terms of user expectations and finding points of interest. It utilizes physical icons as representations of users' interests...... and as notification tokens to alert users when they are within proximity of a surprise. To evaluate the concept, we developed mock-ups, a video prototype and conducted a wizard-of-oz user test for a national park in Denmark....

  6. Charming surprise

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2011-01-01

    The CP violation in charm quarks has always been thought to be extremely small. So, looking at particle decays involving matter and antimatter, the LHCb experiment has recently been surprised to observe that things might be different. Theorists are on the case. The study of the physics of the charm quark was not in the initial plans of the LHCb experiment, whose letter “b” stands for “beauty quark”. However, already one year ago, the Collaboration decided to look into a wider spectrum of processes that involve charm quarks among other things. The LHCb trigger allows a lot of these processes to be selected, and, among them, one has recently shown interesting features. Other experiments at b-factories have already performed the same measurement but this is the first time that it has been possible to achieve such high precision, thanks to the huge amount of data provided by the very high luminosity of the LHC. “We have observed the decay modes of the D0, a pa...

  7. Charming surprise

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2011-01-01

    The CP violation in charm quarks has always been thought to be extremely small. So, looking at particle decays involving matter and antimatter, the LHCb experiment has recently been surprised to observe that things might be different. Theorists are on the case.   The study of the physics of the charm quark was not in the initial plans of the LHCb experiment, whose letter “b” stands for “beauty quark”. However, already one year ago, the Collaboration decided to look into a wider spectrum of processes that involve charm quarks among other things. The LHCb trigger allows a lot of these processes to be selected, and, among them, one has recently shown interesting features. Other experiments at b-factories have already performed the same measurement but this is the first time that it has been possible to achieve such high precision, thanks to the huge amount of data provided by the very high luminosity of the LHC. “We have observed the decay modes of t...

  8. Surprise, Recipes for Surprise, and Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, Jeffrey

    2018-02-07

    Surprising people can provide an opening for influencing them. Surprises garner attention, are arousing, are memorable, and can prompt shifts in understanding. Less noted is that, as a result, surprises can serve to persuade others by leading them to shifts in attitudes. Furthermore, because stories, pictures, and music can generate surprises and those can be widely shared, surprise can have broad social influence. People also tend to share surprising items with others, as anyone on social media has discovered. This means that in addition to broadcasting surprising information, surprising items can also spread through networks. The joint result is that surprise not only has individual effects on beliefs and attitudes but also collective effects on the content of culture. Items that generate surprise need not be random or accidental. There are predictable methods or recipes for generating surprise. One such recipe is discussed, the repetition-break plot structure, to explore the psychological and social possibilities of examining surprise. Recipes for surprise offer a useful means for understanding how surprise works and offer prospects for harnessing surprise to a wide array of ends. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  9. Final priority; technical assistance to improve state data capacity--National Technical Assistance Center to improve state capacity to accurately collect and report IDEA data. Final priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services announces a priority under the Technical Assistance to Improve State Data Capacity program. The Assistant Secretary may use this priority for competitions in fiscal year (FY) 2013 and later years. We take this action to focus attention on an identified national need to provide technical assistance (TA) to States to improve their capacity to meet the data collection and reporting requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). We intend this priority to establish a TA center to improve State capacity to accurately collect and report IDEA data (Data Center).

  10. Surprise... Surprise..., An Empirical Investigation on How Surprise is Connected to Customer Satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vanhamme (Joëlle)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis research investigates the specific influence of the emotion of surprise on customer transaction-specific satisfaction. Four empirical studies-two field studies (a diary study and a cross section survey) and two experiments-were conducted. The results show that surprise positively

  11. Surprise as a design strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, G.D.S.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Imagine yourself queuing for the cashier’s desk in a supermarket. Naturally, you have picked the wrong line, the one that does not seem to move at all. Soon, you get tired of waiting. Now, how would you feel if the cashier suddenly started to sing? Many of us would be surprised and, regardless of

  12. Exchanging ideas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevir, M; Ankersmit, F

    2000-01-01

    In this debate Mark Bevir and Frank Ankersmit continue their discussion of Bevir's The Logic of the History of Ideas. There are two related areas of contention: 1) the notion of intention and its use for a correct understanding of the writing of the history of ideas and 2) the question how deep the

  13. Idea Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Parente, C.; Ferro, L.

    2016-01-01

    WOS:000387124100017 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science) The Idea Puzzle is a software application created in 2007. It is a support tool to assist PhD students and researchers in the process of designing research projects through a focus on three central dimensions of research that are collectively represented by a triangle. Each side of the Idea Puzzle triangle corresponds to one of the three dimensions that every empirical research project should ideally include: ontology (data), epistemology (...

  14. Materializing ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandvad, Sara Malou

    2011-01-01

    to investigate how the evolving object may form an active part in the collaborative process of its making. The article identifies three moments when the evolving object becomes decisive for the collaboration: the idea has to be detached to enable collaboration; attachments between collaborators are made via...

  15. Some Surprising Introductory Physics Facts and Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallmann, A. James

    2016-01-01

    In the entertainment world, people usually like, and find memorable, novels, short stories, and movies with surprise endings. This suggests that classroom teachers might want to present to their students examples of surprising facts associated with principles of physics. Possible benefits of finding surprising facts about principles of physics are…

  16. The role of surprise in satisfaction judgements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhamme, J.; Snelders, H.M.J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Empirical findings suggest that surprise plays an important role in consumer satisfaction, but there is a lack of theory to explain why this is so. The present paper provides explanations for the process through which positive (negative) surprise might enhance (reduce) consumer satisfaction. First,

  17. Climate Change as a Predictable Surprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazerman, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I analyze climate change as a 'predictable surprise', an event that leads an organization or nation to react with surprise, despite the fact that the information necessary to anticipate the event and its consequences was available (Bazerman and Watkins, 2004). I then assess the cognitive, organizational, and political reasons why society fails to implement wise strategies to prevent predictable surprises generally and climate change specifically. Finally, I conclude with an outline of a set of response strategies to overcome barriers to change

  18. A toolkit for detecting technical surprise.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, Michael Wayne; Foehse, Mark C.

    2010-10-01

    The detection of a scientific or technological surprise within a secretive country or institute is very difficult. The ability to detect such surprises would allow analysts to identify the capabilities that could be a military or economic threat to national security. Sandia's current approach utilizing ThreatView has been successful in revealing potential technological surprises. However, as data sets become larger, it becomes critical to use algorithms as filters along with the visualization environments. Our two-year LDRD had two primary goals. First, we developed a tool, a Self-Organizing Map (SOM), to extend ThreatView and improve our understanding of the issues involved in working with textual data sets. Second, we developed a toolkit for detecting indicators of technical surprise in textual data sets. Our toolkit has been successfully used to perform technology assessments for the Science & Technology Intelligence (S&TI) program.

  19. Numbers and other math ideas come alive

    CERN Document Server

    Pappas, Theoni

    2012-01-01

    Most people don't think about numbers, or take them for granted. For the average person numbers are looked upon as cold, clinical, inanimate objects. Math ideas are viewed as something to get a job done or a problem solved. Get ready for a big surprise with Numbers and Other Math Ideas Come Alive. Pappas explores mathematical ideas by looking behind the scenes of what numbers, points, lines, and other concepts are saying and thinking. In each story, properties and characteristics of math ideas are entertainingly uncovered and explained through the dialogues and actions of its math

  20. Combining Ideas in Crowdsourced Idea Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Kai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Collecting ideas through crowdsourcing has become a common practice for companies to benefit from external ideas and innovate. It is desirable that crowd members build on each other's ideas to achieve synergy. This study proposes and verifies a new method for idea combination which can result in combined ideas that are both novel and useful. The domain-specific knowledge of crowd members does not influence the effectiveness of such idea combination. The new method can be used for collecting highly creative ideas from the crowd. The implications for future research are discussed.

  1. Surprise: a belief or an emotion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellers, Barbara; Fincher, Katrina; Drummond, Caitlin; Bigony, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Surprise is a fundamental link between cognition and emotion. It is shaped by cognitive assessments of likelihood, intuition, and superstition, and it in turn shapes hedonic experiences. We examine this connection between cognition and emotion and offer an explanation called decision affect theory. Our theory predicts the affective consequences of mistaken beliefs, such as overconfidence and hindsight. It provides insight about why the pleasure of a gain can loom larger than the pain of a comparable loss. Finally, it explains cross-cultural differences in emotional reactions to surprising events. By changing the nature of the unexpected (from chance to good luck), one can alter the emotional reaction to surprising events. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Viral marketing: the use of surprise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindgreen, A.; Vanhamme, J.; Clarke, I.; Flaherty, T.B.

    2005-01-01

    Viral marketing involves consumers passing along a company's marketing message to their friends, family, and colleagues. This chapter reviews viral marketing campaigns and argues that the emotion of surprise often is at work and that this mechanism resembles that of word-of-mouth marketing.

  3. Exploration, Novelty, Surprise and Free Energy Minimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp eSchwartenbeck

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews recent developments under the free energy principle that introduce a normative perspective on classical economic (utilitarian decision-making based on (active Bayesian inference. It has been suggested that the free energy principle precludes novelty and complexity, because it assumes that biological systems – like ourselves - try to minimise the long-term average of surprise to maintain their homeostasis. However, recent formulations show that minimising surprise leads naturally to concepts such as exploration and novelty bonuses. In this approach, agents infer a policy that minimises surprise by minimising the difference (or relative entropy between likely and desired outcomes, which involves both pursuing the goal-state that has the highest expected utility (often termed ‘exploitation’ and visiting a number of different goal-states (‘exploration’. Crucially, the opportunity to visit new states increases the value of the current state. Casting decision-making problems within a variational framework, therefore, predicts that our behaviour is governed by both the entropy and expected utility of future states. This dissolves any dialectic between minimising surprise and exploration or novelty seeking.

  4. Glial heterotopia of maxilla: A clinical surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Mahalik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Glial heterotopia is a rare congenital mass lesion which often presents as a clinical surprise. We report a case of extranasal glial heterotopia in a neonate with unusual features. The presentation, management strategy, etiopathogenesis and histopathology of the mass lesion has been reviewed.

  5. Models of Automation surprise : results of a field survey in aviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, Robert; Dekker, Sidney

    2017-01-01

    Automation surprises in aviation continue to be a significant safety concern and the community’s search for effective strategies to mitigate them are ongoing. The literature has offered two fundamentally divergent directions, based on different ideas about the nature of cognition and collaboration

  6. Radar Design to Protect Against Surprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Technological and doctrinal surprise is about rendering preparations for conflict as irrelevant or ineffective . For a sensor, this means essentially rendering the sensor as irrelevant or ineffective in its ability to help determine truth. Recovery from this sort of surprise is facilitated by flexibility in our own technology and doctrine. For a sensor, this mean s flexibility in its architecture, design, tactics, and the designing organizations ' processes. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory manage d and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000.

  7. Old Star's "Rebirth" Gives Astronomers Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope are taking advantage of a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to watch an old star suddenly stir back into new activity after coming to the end of its normal life. Their surprising results have forced them to change their ideas of how such an old, white dwarf star can re-ignite its nuclear furnace for one final blast of energy. Sakurai's Object Radio/Optical Images of Sakurai's Object: Color image shows nebula ejected thousands of years ago. Contours indicate radio emission. Inset is Hubble Space Telescope image, with contours indicating radio emission; this inset shows just the central part of the region. CREDIT: Hajduk et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF, ESO, StSci, NASA Computer simulations had predicted a series of events that would follow such a re-ignition of fusion reactions, but the star didn't follow the script -- events moved 100 times more quickly than the simulations predicted. "We've now produced a new theoretical model of how this process works, and the VLA observations have provided the first evidence supporting our new model," said Albert Zijlstra, of the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom. Zijlstra and his colleagues presented their findings in the April 8 issue of the journal Science. The astronomers studied a star known as V4334 Sgr, in the constellation Sagittarius. It is better known as "Sakurai's Object," after Japanese amateur astronomer Yukio Sakurai, who discovered it on February 20, 1996, when it suddenly burst into new brightness. At first, astronomers thought the outburst was a common nova explosion, but further study showed that Sakurai's Object was anything but common. The star is an old white dwarf that had run out of hydrogen fuel for nuclear fusion reactions in its core. Astronomers believe that some such stars can undergo a final burst of fusion in a shell of helium that surrounds a core of heavier nuclei such as carbon and oxygen. However, the

  8. Estimations of expectedness and potential surprise in possibility theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prade, Henri; Yager, Ronald R.

    1992-01-01

    This note investigates how various ideas of 'expectedness' can be captured in the framework of possibility theory. Particularly, we are interested in trying to introduce estimates of the kind of lack of surprise expressed by people when saying 'I would not be surprised that...' before an event takes place, or by saying 'I knew it' after its realization. In possibility theory, a possibility distribution is supposed to model the relative levels of mutually exclusive alternatives in a set, or equivalently, the alternatives are assumed to be rank-ordered according to their level of possibility to take place. Four basic set-functions associated with a possibility distribution, including standard possibility and necessity measures, are discussed from the point of view of what they estimate when applied to potential events. Extensions of these estimates based on the notions of Q-projection or OWA operators are proposed when only significant parts of the possibility distribution are retained in the evaluation. The case of partially-known possibility distributions is also considered. Some potential applications are outlined.

  9. Generation of Ideas, Ideation and Idea Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Dorow

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ideas are vital for organizations because they are the source for innovation and this in turn is endlesssource of competitive advantage. The correct definition of concepts not only allows the targeting ofacademic studies, but its future application in everyday life of organizations. The overall objectiveof this article is to clarify the terms related to generation of ideas, ideation and idea management.The method used was a literature review, and later, an analysis of the concepts used by the studiessurveyed, seeking points of convergence and divergence. As a result we propose a clarification inorder to aid understanding of the terms, setting a benchmark for future research. We conclude thatideation and idea generation are the same, they are the process of creating new ideas and ideamanagement comprises the management of ideas throughout the innovation process.

  10. Resilience to Surprises through Communicative Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Evan. Goldstein

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Resilience thinkers share an interest in collaborative deliberation with communicative planners, who aim to accommodate different forms of knowledge and styles of reasoning to promote social learning and yield creative and equitable agreements. Members of both fields attended a symposium at Virginia Tech in late 2008, where communicative planners considered how social-ecological resilience informed new possibilities for planning practice beyond disaster mitigation and response. In turn, communicative planners offered resilience scholars ideas about how collaboration could accomplish more than enhance rational decision making of the commons. Through these exchanges, the symposium fostered ideas about collaborative governance and the critical role of expertise in fostering communicative resilience.

  11. Pupil size tracks perceptual content and surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Niels A; Meindertsma, Thomas; van Loon, Anouk M; Lamme, Victor A F; Bonneh, Yoram S; Donner, Tobias H

    2015-04-01

    Changes in pupil size at constant light levels reflect the activity of neuromodulatory brainstem centers that control global brain state. These endogenously driven pupil dynamics can be synchronized with cognitive acts. For example, the pupil dilates during the spontaneous switches of perception of a constant sensory input in bistable perceptual illusions. It is unknown whether this pupil dilation only indicates the occurrence of perceptual switches, or also their content. Here, we measured pupil diameter in human subjects reporting the subjective disappearance and re-appearance of a physically constant visual target surrounded by a moving pattern ('motion-induced blindness' illusion). We show that the pupil dilates during the perceptual switches in the illusion and a stimulus-evoked 'replay' of that illusion. Critically, the switch-related pupil dilation encodes perceptual content, with larger amplitude for disappearance than re-appearance. This difference in pupil response amplitude enables prediction of the type of report (disappearance vs. re-appearance) on individual switches (receiver-operating characteristic: 61%). The amplitude difference is independent of the relative durations of target-visible and target-invisible intervals and subjects' overt behavioral report of the perceptual switches. Further, we show that pupil dilation during the replay also scales with the level of surprise about the timing of switches, but there is no evidence for an interaction between the effects of surprise and perceptual content on the pupil response. Taken together, our results suggest that pupil-linked brain systems track both the content of, and surprise about, perceptual events. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A surprising palmar nevus: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Rafiei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Raised palmar or plantar nevus especially in white people is an unusual feature. We present an uncommon palmar compound nevus in a 26-year-old woman with a large diameter (6 mm which had a collaret-shaped margin. In histopathologic evaluation intralymphatic protrusions of nevic nests were noted. This case was surprising to us for these reasons: size, shape, location and histopathology of the lesion. Palmar nevi are usually junctional (flat and below 3 mm diameter and intra lymphatic protrusion or invasion in nevi is an extremely rare phenomenon.

  13. The Value of Change: Surprises and Insights in Stellar Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bildsten, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Astronomers with large-format cameras regularly scan the sky many times per night to detect what's changing, and telescopes in space such as Kepler and, soon, TESS obtain very accurate brightness measurements of nearly a million stars over time periods of years. These capabilities, in conjunction with theoretical and computational efforts, have yielded surprises and remarkable new insights into the internal properties of stars and how they end their lives. I will show how asteroseismology reveals the properties of the deep interiors of red giants, and highlight how astrophysical transients may be revealing unusual thermonuclear outcomes from exploding white dwarfs and the births of highly magnetic neutron stars. All the while, stellar science has been accelerated by the availability of open source tools, such as Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA), and the nearly immediate availability of observational results.

  14. Fundamental surprise in the application of airpower

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    explain transformations in scientific research proposed by Thomas Kuhn in his book “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions." Kuhn proposed the idea...that the accepted traditions of scientific research within a particular community, known as a paradigm, provide the tools to perform "normal science...the large-scale attacks on Lebanese infrastructure would have on the regime, this concept was a non- starter . The order issued to the IDF on 12 July

  15. Primary Care Practice: Uncertainty and Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Benjamin F.

    I will focus my comments on uncertainty and surprise in primary care practices. I am a medical anthropologist by training, and have been a full-time researcher in family medicine for close to twenty years. In this talk I want to look at primary care practices as complex systems, particularly taking the perspective of translating evidence into practice. I am going to discuss briefly the challenges we have in primary care, and in medicine in general, of translating new evidence into the everyday care of patients. To do this, I will look at two studies that we have conducted on family practices, then think about how practices can be best characterized as complex adaptive systems. Finally, I will focus on the implications of this portrayal for disseminating new knowledge into practice.

  16. Surprises and counterexamples in real function theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rajwade, A R

    2007-01-01

    This book presents a variety of intriguing, surprising and appealing topics and nonroutine theorems in real function theory. It is a reference book to which one can turn for finding that arise while studying or teaching analysis.Chapter 1 is an introduction to algebraic, irrational and transcendental numbers and contains the Cantor ternary set. Chapter 2 contains functions with extraordinary properties; functions that are continuous at each point but differentiable at no point. Chapters 4 and intermediate value property, periodic functions, Rolle's theorem, Taylor's theorem, points of tangents. Chapter 6 discusses sequences and series. It includes the restricted harmonic series, of alternating harmonic series and some number theoretic aspects. In Chapter 7, the infinite peculiar range of convergence is studied. Appendix I deal with some specialized topics. Exercises at the end of chapters and their solutions are provided in Appendix II.This book will be useful for students and teachers alike.

  17. The surprising power of neighborly advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Daniel T; Killingsworth, Matthew A; Eyre, Rebecca N; Wilson, Timothy D

    2009-03-20

    Two experiments revealed that (i) people can more accurately predict their affective reactions to a future event when they know how a neighbor in their social network reacted to the event than when they know about the event itself and (ii) people do not believe this. Undergraduates made more accurate predictions about their affective reactions to a 5-minute speed date (n = 25) and to a peer evaluation (n = 88) when they knew only how another undergraduate had reacted to these events than when they had information about the events themselves. Both participants and independent judges mistakenly believed that predictions based on information about the event would be more accurate than predictions based on information about how another person had reacted to it.

  18. Smarter snack ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips for healthy eating Smarter snack ideas Smarter snack ideas Healthier eating doesn’t mean that you ... to cut out fun foods. Here are some snacks to keep your body and your mouth happy: ...

  19. The Emergence of Ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim; Dalsgård, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The development of new ideas is an essential concern for many design projects. There are, however, few in-depth studies of how such ideas emerge within these contexts. In this article we offer an analysis of the emergence of ideas from specific sources of inspiration, as they arise through...

  20. Entrepreneurs and new ideas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biais, B.; Perotti, E.

    2008-01-01

    We study how early-stage new ideas are turned into successful businesses. Even promising ideas can be unprofitable if they fail on one dimension, such as technical feasibility, correspondence to market demand, legality, or patentability. To screen good ideas, the entrepreneur needs to hire experts

  1. The conceptualization model problem—surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, John

    2005-03-01

    The foundation of model analysis is the conceptual model. Surprise is defined as new data that renders the prevailing conceptual model invalid; as defined here it represents a paradigm shift. Limited empirical data indicate that surprises occur in 20-30% of model analyses. These data suggest that groundwater analysts have difficulty selecting the appropriate conceptual model. There is no ready remedy to the conceptual model problem other than (1) to collect as much data as is feasible, using all applicable methods—a complementary data collection methodology can lead to new information that changes the prevailing conceptual model, and (2) for the analyst to remain open to the fact that the conceptual model can change dramatically as more information is collected. In the final analysis, the hydrogeologist makes a subjective decision on the appropriate conceptual model. The conceptualization problem does not render models unusable. The problem introduces an uncertainty that often is not widely recognized. Conceptual model uncertainty is exacerbated in making long-term predictions of system performance. C'est le modèle conceptuel qui se trouve à base d'une analyse sur un modèle. On considère comme une surprise lorsque le modèle est invalidé par des données nouvelles; dans les termes définis ici la surprise est équivalente à un change de paradigme. Des données empiriques limitées indiquent que les surprises apparaissent dans 20 à 30% des analyses effectuées sur les modèles. Ces données suggèrent que l'analyse des eaux souterraines présente des difficultés lorsqu'il s'agit de choisir le modèle conceptuel approprié. Il n'existe pas un autre remède au problème du modèle conceptuel que: (1) rassembler autant des données que possible en utilisant toutes les méthodes applicables—la méthode des données complémentaires peut conduire aux nouvelles informations qui vont changer le modèle conceptuel, et (2) l'analyste doit rester ouvert au fait

  2. X rays and radioactivity: a complete surprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radvanyi, P.; Bordry, M.

    1995-01-01

    The discoveries of X rays and of radioactivity came as complete experimental surprises; the physicists, at that time, had no previous hint of a possible structure of atoms. It is difficult now, knowing what we know, to replace ourselves in the spirit, astonishment and questioning of these years, between 1895 and 1903. The nature of X rays was soon hypothesized, but the nature of the rays emitted by uranium, polonium and radium was much more difficult to disentangle, as they were a mixture of different types of radiations. The origin of the energy continuously released in radioactivity remained a complete mystery for a few years. The multiplicity of the radioactive substances became soon a difficult matter: what was real and what was induced ? Isotopy was still far ahead. It appeared that some radioactive substances had ''half-lifes'': were they genuine radioactive elements or was it just a transitory phenomenon ? Henri Becquerel (in 1900) and Pierre and Marie Curie (in 1902) hesitated on the correct answer. Only after Ernest Rutherford and Frederick Soddy established that radioactivity was the transmutation of one element into another, could one understand that a solid element transformed into a gaseous element, which in turn transformed itself into a succession of solid radioactive elements. It was only in 1913 - after the discovery of the atomic nucleus -, through precise measurements of X ray spectra, that Henry Moseley showed that the number of electrons of a given atom - and the charge of its nucleus - was equal to its atomic number in the periodic table. (authors)

  3. X rays and radioactivity: a complete surprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radvanyi, P. [Laboratoire National Saturne, Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bordry, M. [Institut du Radium, 75 - Paris (France)

    1995-12-31

    The discoveries of X rays and of radioactivity came as complete experimental surprises; the physicists, at that time, had no previous hint of a possible structure of atoms. It is difficult now, knowing what we know, to replace ourselves in the spirit, astonishment and questioning of these years, between 1895 and 1903. The nature of X rays was soon hypothesized, but the nature of the rays emitted by uranium, polonium and radium was much more difficult to disentangle, as they were a mixture of different types of radiations. The origin of the energy continuously released in radioactivity remained a complete mystery for a few years. The multiplicity of the radioactive substances became soon a difficult matter: what was real and what was induced ? Isotopy was still far ahead. It appeared that some radioactive substances had ``half-lifes``: were they genuine radioactive elements or was it just a transitory phenomenon ? Henri Becquerel (in 1900) and Pierre and Marie Curie (in 1902) hesitated on the correct answer. Only after Ernest Rutherford and Frederick Soddy established that radioactivity was the transmutation of one element into another, could one understand that a solid element transformed into a gaseous element, which in turn transformed itself into a succession of solid radioactive elements. It was only in 1913 - after the discovery of the atomic nucleus -, through precise measurements of X ray spectra, that Henry Moseley showed that the number of electrons of a given atom - and the charge of its nucleus - was equal to its atomic number in the periodic table. (authors).

  4. Idea of Quality Versus Idea of Excellence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Kiauta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates professionals on the field of quality, are responsible to give to customer honest clarification of fundamental ideas. Quality movement is losing credibility with suggesting that the idea of quality is replacing with the idea of excellence. Findings are based on more than 25 years of practice in professional promotion of quality: in consulting on private and public sector, from 1990 lead auditor at SIQ (Slovenian Institute of Quality, from 1998 lead assessor – commission for Slovenian Excellence Quality Award. Theory is developed based on: Noriaki Kano theory of Attractive quality, Tito Conti ideas on TQM and applications problems of Excellence model, Practical case of General Hospital Novo Mesto (in 1998 first attempt of using EM, than forced to build QMS based on ISO 9001 and then returned to practice EM. Findings: We really need to amplify and to understand the concept of quality in a much wider way. To treat excellence related activities separated from all others quality management activities is not god solution. The name of EFQM Excellence Model should be replaced with Quality Management Model. Research limitations/implications: This paper present findings mainly based on practice in Slovenia and especially in public sector where practicing of CAF is not giving expected benefits. Practical implications: The three styles of quality management (improvements to reach demands, improvements to reach expectations, improvements to react on new conditions and needs should be connected with personal development. Theory is developed based on: Noriaki Kano theory of Attractive quality, Tito Conti ideas on TQM and applications problems of Excellence model. We need integration moments. Integration is other word for creativity and health. It leads to integrity. Excellence is only one of three states of quality. If we ask: How? The answer is bad, good or excellent. All three are possible states of the same parameter.

  5. IDEA papers no 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassou, O.

    2002-09-01

    The Information network on the Economic Development in Aquitaine (IDEA) aims to collect and spread the environmental information concerning the Aquitaine, in order to implement an observatory of the regional environment and of the sustainable development. The IDEA paper no. 2 is devoted to the IDEA missions and their cooperation with ''Alliance pour la qualite et la performance''. This association groups actors for the development and the promotion of the quality. (A.L.B.)

  6. Seven durable ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, John P

    2008-01-01

    Partners Healthcare, and its affiliated hospitals, have a long track record of accomplishments in clinical information systems implementations and research. Seven ideas have shaped the information systems strategies and tactics at Partners; centrality of processes, organizational partnerships, progressive incrementalism, agility, architecture, embedded research, and engage the field. This article reviews the ideas and discusses the rationale and steps taken to put the ideas into practice.

  7. Business Ideas Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Business Ideas Competition "The Rainbow Seed Fund is a UK fund, which provides finance to support the commercialization of good ideas founded on scientific research; it is for the benefit of the UK industry in particular. To encourage ideas from CERN the Rainbow Seed Fund is running a business ideas competition.The winner of this competition will receive an immediate cash prize of GBP £1,000. In addition the Rainbow Seed Fund may well provide finance for market research, for protection of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and for prototyping to take the idea forward. Further awards of GBP £750 will be made for ideas which gain investment from the Fund.Candidates will only be required to prepare a 2-4-page summary of their business idea, and not a full business plan. Full details and an entry form are available at www.rainbowseedfund.com ." ALL Members of the Personnel seeking participation in the business ideas competition are asked to submit their ideas via the CERN TT Unit (Jean-Marie.Le Goff@cern.ch) th...

  8. A Shocking Surprise in Stephan's Quintet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This false-color composite image of the Stephan's Quintet galaxy cluster clearly shows one of the largest shock waves ever seen (green arc). The wave was produced by one galaxy falling toward another at speeds of more than one million miles per hour. The image is made up of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and a ground-based telescope in Spain. Four of the five galaxies in this picture are involved in a violent collision, which has already stripped most of the hydrogen gas from the interiors of the galaxies. The centers of the galaxies appear as bright yellow-pink knots inside a blue haze of stars, and the galaxy producing all the turmoil, NGC7318b, is the left of two small bright regions in the middle right of the image. One galaxy, the large spiral at the bottom left of the image, is a foreground object and is not associated with the cluster. The titanic shock wave, larger than our own Milky Way galaxy, was detected by the ground-based telescope using visible-light wavelengths. It consists of hot hydrogen gas. As NGC7318b collides with gas spread throughout the cluster, atoms of hydrogen are heated in the shock wave, producing the green glow. Spitzer pointed its infrared spectrograph at the peak of this shock wave (middle of green glow) to learn more about its inner workings. This instrument breaks light apart into its basic components. Data from the instrument are referred to as spectra and are displayed as curving lines that indicate the amount of light coming at each specific wavelength. The Spitzer spectrum showed a strong infrared signature for incredibly turbulent gas made up of hydrogen molecules. This gas is caused when atoms of hydrogen rapidly pair-up to form molecules in the wake of the shock wave. Molecular hydrogen, unlike atomic hydrogen, gives off most of its energy through vibrations that emit in the infrared. This highly disturbed gas is the most turbulent molecular hydrogen ever seen. Astronomers were surprised not only by the turbulence

  9. Between material and ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlstedt, Palle

    2012-01-01

    between a dynamic concept and the changing material form of the work. Combining ideas, tools, material and memory, creativity is described as a coherent, dynamic, and iterative process that navigates the space of the chosen medium, guided by the tools at hand, and by the continuously revised ideas...

  10. IDEA papers no 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrigues, Ph.

    2003-01-01

    The Information network on the Economic Development in Aquitaine (IDEA) aims to collect and spread the environmental information concerning the Aquitaine, in order to implement an observatory of the regional environment and of the sustainable development. The IDEA paper no. 6 is presents the association and the results of the ordinary general assembly of the 28 June 2003. (A.L.B.)

  11. IDEA papers no 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricard, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Information network on the Economic Development in Aquitaine (IDEA) aims to collect and spread the environmental information concerning the Aquitaine, in order to implement an observatory of the regional environment and of the sustainable development. The IDEA paper no.10 is devoted to the sustainable development education. Examples of actions in agriculture schools and colleges are presented. (A.L.B.)

  12. Nurturing Good Ideas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.M. van den Ende (Jan); R.C. Kijkuit (Bob)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractManagers know that simply generating lots of ideas doesn’t necessarily produce good ones. What companies need are systems that nurture good ideas and cull bad ones—before they ever reach the decision maker’s desk. Our research shows that tapping the input of many people early in the

  13. IDEA papers no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrigues, P.

    2002-04-01

    The Information network on the Economic Development in Aquitaine (IDEA) aims to collect and spread the environmental information concerning the Aquitaine, in order to implement an observatory of the regional environment and of the sustainable development. The IDEA paper no. 1 provides information such as, meeting, Internet addresses and programs, for the month of April 2002. (A.L.B.)

  14. IDEA papers no 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacour, C.

    2002-12-01

    The Information network on the Economic Development in Aquitaine (IDEA) aims to collect and spread the environmental information concerning the Aquitaine, in order to implement an observatory of the regional environment and of the sustainable development. The IDEA paper no. 3 is devoted to the part of the environment observation in the sustainable development implementation. (A.L.B.)

  15. ARQUITECTURAS DE VIAJE. IDEAS TRANSPORTADAS / Architecture of travel. Transported ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Montero Fernández

    2010-11-01

    apply them to our work. Reflecting on this idea, when faced with the blank paper, our thoughts that accompany us on journeys arise in a reiterative way to accompany us in our plans.A travelling object, that which repeats itself and leaves a copy whenever it is moved, allows us to assess the relationship between the place and that object, between memory and architecture. The repetition arises as a surprise from the journey, like a situation discovered in the movement, an occasional discovery that allows us to discover an intention and thereby a criterion. A travelling couple, in this case two Egyptian lions that travelled to Rome in antiquity, moving within the city to the Vatican. The other example is that of the non-commissioned project that is born in the mind of its author, Le Corbusier, like a manifesto of the Art. It allows us to think that the ideas, the thoughts, need to be forgotten to be reconstructed, to be able to be repeated in a more creative manner. The architectural plan is not only the genesis of prototypes but must be the formalization of an idea that matures in time, adjusting to the realization demanded in each place and circumstance, persisting even beyond its own author.

  16. Surprise: Dwarf Galaxy Harbors Supermassive Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The surprising discovery of a supermassive black hole in a small nearby galaxy has given astronomers a tantalizing look at how black holes and galaxies may have grown in the early history of the Universe. Finding a black hole a million times more massive than the Sun in a star-forming dwarf galaxy is a strong indication that supermassive black holes formed before the buildup of galaxies, the astronomers said. The galaxy, called Henize 2-10, 30 million light-years from Earth, has been studied for years, and is forming stars very rapidly. Irregularly shaped and about 3,000 light-years across (compared to 100,000 for our own Milky Way), it resembles what scientists think were some of the first galaxies to form in the early Universe. "This galaxy gives us important clues about a very early phase of galaxy evolution that has not been observed before," said Amy Reines, a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Virginia. Supermassive black holes lie at the cores of all "full-sized" galaxies. In the nearby Universe, there is a direct relationship -- a constant ratio -- between the masses of the black holes and that of the central "bulges" of the galaxies, leading them to conclude that the black holes and bulges affected each others' growth. Two years ago, an international team of astronomers found that black holes in young galaxies in the early Universe were more massive than this ratio would indicate. This, they said, was strong evidence that black holes developed before their surrounding galaxies. "Now, we have found a dwarf galaxy with no bulge at all, yet it has a supermassive black hole. This greatly strengthens the case for the black holes developing first, before the galaxy's bulge is formed," Reines said. Reines, along with Gregory Sivakoff and Kelsey Johnson of the University of Virginia and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), and Crystal Brogan of the NRAO, observed Henize 2-10 with the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array radio telescope and

  17. Ideas worth nurturing

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    Originally created in response to requests from experimentalists working in the collaborations, IdeaSquare has evolved into a place where innovative ideas meet established expertise. Although the project is still in its pilot phase, two EU-funded projects have found their home in the IdeaSquare building and 46 students have already participated in the Challenge-Based Innovation courses based there. More to come…   IdeaSquare, which will be inaugurated on 9 December, is the name given to the B3179 refurbished building at LHC Point 1. More importantly, IdeaSquare is the name of a project designed to nurture innovation at CERN. “The scope of the project is to bring together researchers, engineers, people from industry and young students and encourage them to come up with new ideas that are useful for society, inspired by CERN’s ongoing detector R&D and upgrade projects,” explains Markus Nordberg who, together with Marzio Nessi, set up IdeaSquare withi...

  18. Intraperitoneal Glucose Sensing is Sometimes Surprisingly Rapid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Lyngvi Fougner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid, accurate and robust glucose measurements are needed to make a safe artificial pancreas for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2. The present gold standard of continuous glucose sensing, subcutaneous (SC glucose sensing, has been claimed to have slow response and poor robustness towards local tissue changes such as mechanical pressure, temperature changes, etc. The present study aimed at quantifying glucose dynamics from central circulation to intraperitoneal (IP sensor sites, as an alternative to the SC location. Intraarterial (IA and IP sensors were tested in three anaesthetized non-diabetic pigs during experiments with intravenous infusion of glucose boluses, enforcing rapid glucose level excursions in the range 70--360 mg/dL (approximately 3.8--20 mmol/L. Optical interferometric sensors were used for IA and IP measurements. A first-order dynamic model with time delay was fitted to the data after compensating for sensor dynamics. Additionally, off-the-shelf Medtronic Enlite sensors were used for illustration of SC glucose sensing. The time delay in glucose excursions from central circulation (IA to IP sensor location was found to be in the range 0--26 s (median: 8.5 s, mean: 9.7 s, SD 9.5 s, and the time constant was found to be 0.5--10.2 min (median: 4.8 min, mean: 4.7 min, SD 2.9 min. IP glucose sensing sites have a substantially faster and more distinctive response than SC sites when sensor dynamics is ignored, and the peritoneal fluid reacts even faster to changes in intravascular glucose levels than reported in previous animal studies. This study may provide a benchmark for future, rapid IP glucose sensors.

  19. The Influence of Negative Surprise on Hedonic Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Kieling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After some time using a product or service, the consumer tends to feel less pleasure with consumption. This reduction of pleasure is known as hedonic adaptation. One of the emotions that interfere in this process is surprise. Based on two experiments, we suggest that negative surprise – differently to positive – influences with the level of pleasure foreseen and experienced by the consumer. Study 1 analyzes the influence of negative (vs. positive surprise on the consumer’s post-purchase hedonic adaptation expectation. Results showed that negative surprise influences the intensity of adaptation, augmenting its strength. Study 2 verifies the influence of negative (vs positive surprise over hedonic adaptation. The findings suggested that negative surprise makes adaptation happen more intensively and faster as time goes by, which brings consequences to companies and consumers in the post-purchase process, such as satisfaction and loyalty.

  20. Powering Ideas through Expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Wigan, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    This contribution discusses how ideas are powered through expertise and moral authority. Professionals compete with each other to power ideas by linking claims to expertise, how things best work, to moral claims about how things should be. To show how, we draw on a case of battles over global tax...... reporting multinational corporations should provide to ensure they pay their fair share of tax. Ideas powered by expertise contain shared causal beliefs, as well as principled beliefs about value systems. We demonstrate that professionals can contest the established order when demonstrations of expertise...

  1. A Dichotomic Analysis of the Surprise Examination Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Franceschi, Paul

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a dichotomic analysis of the surprise examination paradox. In section 1, I analyse the surprise notion in detail. I introduce then in section 2, the distinction between a monist and dichotomic analysis of the paradox. I also present there a dichotomy leading to distinguish two basically and structurally different versions of the paradox, respectively based on a conjoint and a disjoint definition of the surprise. In section 3, I describe the solution to SEP corresponding to...

  2. IDEA papers no 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillet, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Information network on the Economic Development in Aquitaine (IDEA) aims to collect and spread the environmental information concerning the Aquitaine, in order to implement an observatory of the regional environment and of the sustainable development. The IDEA paper no 8 presents the regional energy observatories and some news on the wood energy experience, the thermal and energetic improvement of buildings and the green certificates in Aquitaine. (A.L.B.)

  3. IDEA papers no 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocquet, R.

    2004-01-01

    The Information network on the Economic Development in Aquitaine (IDEA) aims to collect and spread the environmental information concerning the Aquitaine, in order to implement an observatory of the regional environment and of the sustainable development. The IDEA paper no.11 is devoted to the wastes management in Aquitaine. Data on wastes volume, type and recycling are presented and examples of enterprises actions are provided. (A.L.B.)

  4. IDEA papers no 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducout, P.

    2003-01-01

    The Information network on the Economic Development in Aquitaine (IDEA) aims to collect and spread the environmental information concerning the Aquitaine, in order to implement an observatory of the regional environment and of the sustainable development. The IDEA paper no. 7 is devoted to the water quality and management in Gironde. The european framework directive on water and the humid zones are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  5. IDEA papers no. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Paul, J.C

    2004-01-01

    The Information network on the Economic Development in Aquitaine (IDEA) aims to collect and spread the environmental information concerning the Aquitaine, in order to implement an observatory of the regional environment and of the sustainable development. The IDEA paper no. 9 is devoted to the air quality: atmospheric pollution effects on health, nitrogen oxide pollution, air quality monitoring in buildings, the regulations and the atmospheric pollution, emissions land registry objectives and the greenhouse gases. (A.L.B.)

  6. The Value of Surprising Findings for Research on Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    JS Armstrong

    2004-01-01

    In the work of Armstrong (Journal of Business Research, 2002), I examined empirical research on the scientific process and related these to marketing science. The findings of some studies were surprising. In this reply, I address surprising findings and other issues raised by commentators.

  7. Models of Automation Surprise: Results of a Field Survey in Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert De Boer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Automation surprises in aviation continue to be a significant safety concern and the community’s search for effective strategies to mitigate them are ongoing. The literature has offered two fundamentally divergent directions, based on different ideas about the nature of cognition and collaboration with automation. In this paper, we report the results of a field study that empirically compared and contrasted two models of automation surprises: a normative individual-cognition model and a sensemaking model based on distributed cognition. Our data prove a good fit for the sense-making model. This finding is relevant for aviation safety, since our understanding of the cognitive processes that govern human interaction with automation drive what we need to do to reduce the frequency of automation-induced events.

  8. IDEAS Pamphlet for CES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, David J.; Santora, Joshua D.; Hochstadt, Jake

    2017-01-01

    Pamphlet on the IDEAS project for the Game Changing Development programs NASA booth at the Consumer Electronics Show. Pamphlet covers a high level overview of the technology developed and its capabilities. The technology being developed for the Integrated Display and Environmental Awareness System (IDEAS) project is a wearable computer system with an optical heads-up display (HUD) providing various means of communication and data manipulation to the user. The wearable computer, in the form of smart glasses, would allow personnel to view and modify critical information on a transparent, interactive display. This is presented in their unobstructed field of view, without taking their eyes or hands away from their critical work. The product is being designed in a modular manner so that the user can adjust the capabilities of the device depending on need. IDEAS is a full featured hardware and softwaresystem built to enhance the capabilities of theNASA work force on the ground and in space.

  9. Ideas about housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2009-01-01

    This booklet is a project documentation of a short-term project titled ‘IDEAS ABOUT HOUSING Arkitektkonkurrencernes boligløsninger’. Architectural competitions have been used to develop new living concepts reacting on current political, economical and social flows. Participation in an architectural...... an important part of the world of architecture and planning in Denmark. Competitions, sponsored by government organizations, housing associations, or private business, are usually requests to make proposals for a specific project, but they are also sometimes used to elicit ideas about a general project type...

  10. Alucinaciones e ideas delirantes

    OpenAIRE

    López Berrocal, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Las alucinaciones e ideas delirantes son síntomas relacionados en su gran mayoría con trastornos mentales graves que constituyen problemas tanto sanitarios como sociales. Estos síntomas agravan la enfermedad produciendo un malestar en la persona que los padece y su entorno, tanto ambiental como familiar y cercano. Este trabajo se presenta como una explicación a los conceptos, sus posibles clasificaciones y tipos, las diferentes teorías explicativas de las alucinaciones e ideas delirantes....

  11. Corrugator Activity Confirms Immediate Negative Affect in Surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha eTopolinski

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The emotion of surprise entails a complex of immediate responses, such as cognitive interruption, attention allocation to, and more systematic processing of the surprising stimulus. All these processes serve the ultimate function to increase processing depth and thus cognitively master the surprising stimulus. The present account introduces phasic negative affect as the underlying mechanism responsible for these consequences. Surprising stimuli are schema-discrepant and thus entail cognitive disfluency, which elicits immediate negative affect. This affect in turn works like a phasic cognitive tuning switching the current processing mode from more automatic and heuristic to more systematic and reflective processing. Directly testing the initial elicitation of negative affect by suprising events, the present experiment presented high and low surprising neutral trivia statements to N = 28 participants while assessing their spontaneous facial expressions via facial electromyography. High compared to low suprising trivia elicited higher corrugator activity, indicative of negative affect and mental effort, while leaving zygomaticus (positive affect and frontalis (cultural surprise expression activity unaffected. Future research shall investigate the mediating role of negative affect in eliciting surprise-related outcomes.

  12. Big ideas: innovation policy

    OpenAIRE

    John Van Reenen

    2011-01-01

    In the last CentrePiece, John Van Reenen stressed the importance of competition and labour market flexibility for productivity growth. His latest in CEP's 'big ideas' series describes the impact of research on how policy-makers can influence innovation more directly - through tax credits for business spending on research and development.

  13. The Idea of Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Isidore

    1987-01-01

    Reviews case law, constitutional principles, and early American writings which deal with the idea of private property. Concludes that, in the future, the issues of laissez-fare capitalism, government regulation, and the welfare state will require further clarification of our conception of private property. (JDH)

  14. 50 Practical Promotion Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeyski, Tom

    1997-01-01

    Includes 50 cost-effective ideas for promoting camp in the areas of recruiting new campers, encouraging returning campers, advertising strategies, printing brochures and other written materials, using photographs, targeting groups for camp facility rental, and effectively using the media. (LP)

  15. Ideas for Directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Care Information Exchange, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Presents child care center directors with a variety of relevant management ideas from business and the child care field. They include translating employee body language; leadership myths; on-the-job teacher training; undesirable bosses; wasting employee talent; voicing disagreement; employee anger; encouraging creativity; and coping with late…

  16. Innovative detector ideas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruchti, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Excellent ideas abound in high resolution vertex detection, high resolution calorimetry, particle detection, and in operation of devices in high luminosity environments. With appropriate development of these innovations in instrumentation, we should be able to confront successfully the challenges of physics requiring high luminosity and very high energy

  17. The Idea of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathison, Jane

    1976-01-01

    The idea of evolution is examined in a historical perspective in this article. Considerable discussion is given to the works of Lamarck and Darwin. The evolutionary process is also examined with respect to philosophy, art and music history, and man's place in nature. References are included. (MA)

  18. Sharing Teaching Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouse, Richard J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The first idea concerns a board game similar to tic-tac-toe in which the strategy involves the knowledge of the factorization of quadratic polynomials. The second game uses the calculation of the surface areas of solid figures applying the specific examples of cigar boxes and cylindrical tin cans. (JJK)

  19. Upper Grades Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornburg, David; Beane, Pam

    1983-01-01

    Presents programming ideas using LOGO, activity for converting flowchart into a computer program, and a Pascal program for generating music using paddles. Includes the article "Helping Computers Adapt to Kids" by Philip Nothnagle; a program for estimating length of lines is included. (JN)

  20. Managing Uncertainity: Soviet Views on Deception, Surprise, and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hull, Andrew

    1989-01-01

    .... In the first two cases (deception and surprise), the emphasis is on how the Soviets seek to sow uncertainty in the minds of the enemy and how the Soviets then plan to use that uncertainty to gain military advantage...

  1. Dividend announcements reconsidered: Dividend changes versus dividend surprises

    OpenAIRE

    Andres, Christian; Betzer, André; van den Bongard, Inga; Haesner, Christian; Theissen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the issue of share price reactions to dividend announcements. Previous papers rely almost exclusively on a naive dividend model in which the dividend change is used as a proxy for the dividend surprise. We use the difference between the actual dividend and the analyst consensus forecast as obtained from I/B/E/S as a proxy for the dividend surprise. Using data from Germany, we find significant share price reactions after dividend announcements. Once we control for analys...

  2. The Surprise Examination Paradox and the Second Incompleteness Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Kritchman, Shira; Raz, Ran

    2010-01-01

    We give a new proof for Godel's second incompleteness theorem, based on Kolmogorov complexity, Chaitin's incompleteness theorem, and an argument that resembles the surprise examination paradox. We then go the other way around and suggest that the second incompleteness theorem gives a possible resolution of the surprise examination paradox. Roughly speaking, we argue that the flaw in the derivation of the paradox is that it contains a hidden assumption that one can prove the consistency of the...

  3. Powering Ideas through Expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Wigan, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    This contribution discusses how ideas are powered through expertise and moral authority. Professionals compete with each other to power ideas by linking claims to expertise, how things best work, to moral claims about how things should be. To show how, we draw on a case of battles over global tax...... policy. Corporate reporting for tax purposes is an area where the European Union, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, the United Nations, large global accountancy firms and non-governmental organizations have been active. The point of contention here is what form of financial...... can be fused with claims to moral authority. Such a constellation is more likely when political conditions are favourable....

  4. When ideas grow up

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    Challenge: to use basic-research technologies to enhance mobility. A group of Finnish students accepted this challenge in 2014 and now they have come back to CERN’s IdeaSquare to develop their idea: a smart hip protector to protect elderly people in the event of a fall.   The smart hip protector protects elderly people if they fall. (Image: George Atanassov/Aalto University) The intelligent hip protector features two airbags and three different sensors – an accelerometer, a gyroscope and a magnetometer. When the three sensors simultaneously show that the person is falling, a CO2 cartridge releases gas into the airbags and quickly inflates them, thus softening the impact with the ground. “This idea came about during the Challenge-Based Innovation course in 2014, in which participants were asked to use technologies developed for basic research in new solutions to facilitate mobility,” explains Enna Rane, a member of the team. “Together with students...

  5. I can do that alone..or not? How idea generators juggle between the pros and cons of teamwork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Deichmann (Dirk); Jensen, M. (Michael)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Research summary:__ The advantages of working with a team to develop an idea are well established, but surprisingly, little is known about why some idea generators ignore these advantages by developing their ideas alone. To answer this question, we study two important trade-offs.

  6. Ideas for fast accelerator model calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.

    1997-05-01

    With the advent of a simple matrix inversion technique, measurement-based storage ring modeling has made rapid progress in recent years. Using fast computers with large memory, the matrix inversion procedure typically adjusts up to 10 3 model variables to fit the order of 10 5 measurements. The results have been surprisingly accurate. Physics aside, one of the next frontiers is to simplify the process and to reduce computation time. In this paper, the authors discuss two approaches to speed up the model calibration process: recursive least-squares fitting and a piecewise fitting approach

  7. IDEA and Family Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Öztürk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA gives many rights to parents with special needs in terms of involvement and participation. Given the importance of family involvement in the special education process, and federal legislation that increasingly mandated and supported such involvement over time, considerable research has focused on the multiple ways that relationships between schools and families in the special education decision making process have played out. Educational professionals should create a positive climate for CLD families so that they feel more comfortable and therefore are able to participate more authentically and meaningfully.

  8. New accelerator ideas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    In the past, providing higher particle beam energies meant building bigger accelerators. It is now universally accepted that with the current generation of accelerator projects either under construction (such as LEP at CERN) or proposed (such as the Superconducting Super Collider in the US), conventional techniques are reaching their practical limit. With the growing awareness that progress in particle physics requires new methods to accelerate particles, workshops and study groups are being set up across the world to search for ideas for the machines of tomorrow

  9. Powering Ideas through Expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Wigan, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    policy. Corporate reporting for tax purposes is an area where the European Union, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, the United Nations, large global accountancy firms and non-governmental organizations have been active. The point of contention here is what form of financial...... reporting multinational corporations should provide to ensure they pay their fair share of tax. Ideas powered by expertise contain shared causal beliefs, as well as principled beliefs about value systems. We demonstrate that professionals can contest the established order when demonstrations of expertise...

  10. New accelerator ideas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1985-05-15

    In the past, providing higher particle beam energies meant building bigger accelerators. It is now universally accepted that with the current generation of accelerator projects either under construction (such as LEP at CERN) or proposed (such as the Superconducting Super Collider in the US), conventional techniques are reaching their practical limit. With the growing awareness that progress in particle physics requires new methods to accelerate particles, workshops and study groups are being set up across the world to search for ideas for the machines of tomorrow.

  11. An efficient community detection algorithm using greedy surprise maximization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yawen; Jia, Caiyan; Yu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Community detection is an important and crucial problem in complex network analysis. Although classical modularity function optimization approaches are widely used for identifying communities, the modularity function (Q) suffers from its resolution limit. Recently, the surprise function (S) was experimentally proved to be better than the Q function. However, up until now, there has been no algorithm available to perform searches to directly determine the maximal surprise values. In this paper, considering the superiority of the S function over the Q function, we propose an efficient community detection algorithm called AGSO (algorithm based on greedy surprise optimization) and its improved version FAGSO (fast-AGSO), which are based on greedy surprise optimization and do not suffer from the resolution limit. In addition, (F)AGSO does not need the number of communities K to be specified in advance. Tests on experimental networks show that (F)AGSO is able to detect optimal partitions in both simple and even more complex networks. Moreover, algorithms based on surprise maximization perform better than those algorithms based on modularity maximization, including Blondel–Guillaume–Lambiotte–Lefebvre (BGLL), Clauset–Newman–Moore (CNM) and the other state-of-the-art algorithms such as Infomap, order statistics local optimization method (OSLOM) and label propagation algorithm (LPA). (paper)

  12. Ideas that break through

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    The EU-cofunded project ULICE (Union of Light Ion Centres in Europe) was launched in 2009 in response to the need to share clinical experience in hadron therapy treatment in Europe and knowledge of the associated complex technical aspects. After four successful years of activity the project is now over but the “transnational access” idea will survive thanks to an extension granted by the European Commission.   A treatment room at CNAO, the Italian centre for hadron therapy. CNAO is participating in ULICE’s transnational access initiative. Image: CNAO. Until a few years ago, the landscape of hadron therapy in Europe was advancing in a fragmented way and facilities were being built without a common shared approach. EU-cofunded projects such as ENLIGHT, ULICE, PARTNER, ENVISION and ENTERVISION helped to build a unified platform where the different – private and public – stakeholders were able to share their views and practical experience in the ...

  13. Surprise and Memory as Indices of Concrete Operational Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, Thomas M.

    1973-01-01

    Normal and retarded children's use of color, number, length and continuous quantity as attributes of identification was assessed by presenting them with contrived changes in three properties. Surprise and correct memory responses for color preceded those to number, which preceded logical verbal responses to a conventional number-conservation task.…

  14. Effects of surprisal and locality on Danish sentence processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Kizach, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    An eye-tracking experiment in Danish investigates two dominant accounts of sentence processing: locality-based theories that predict a processing advantage for sentences where the distance between the major syntactic heads is minimized, and the surprisal theory which predicts that processing time...

  15. Surprisal analysis and probability matrices for rotational energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, R.D.; Bernstein, R.B.; Kahana, P.; Procaccia, I.; Upchurch, E.T.

    1976-01-01

    The information-theoretic approach is applied to the analysis of state-to-state rotational energy transfer cross sections. The rotational surprisal is evaluated in the usual way, in terms of the deviance of the cross sections from their reference (''prior'') values. The surprisal is found to be an essentially linear function of the energy transferred. This behavior accounts for the experimentally observed exponential gap law for the hydrogen halide systems. The data base here analyzed (taken from the literature) is largely computational in origin: quantal calculations for the hydrogenic systems H 2 +H, He, Li + ; HD+He; D 2 +H and for the N 2 +Ar system; and classical trajectory results for H 2 +Li + ; D 2 +Li + and N 2 +Ar. The surprisal analysis not only serves to compact a large body of data but also aids in the interpretation of the results. A single surprisal parameter theta/subR/ suffices to account for the (relative) magnitude of all state-to-state inelastic cross sections at a given energy

  16. Things may not be as expected: Surprising findings when updating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-14

    May 14, 2015 ... Things may not be as expected: Surprising findings when updating .... (done at the end of three months after the first review month) ..... Allen G. Getting beyond form filling: The role of institutional governance in human research ...

  17. Automation surprise : results of a field survey of Dutch pilots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, R.J.; Hurts, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Automation surprise (AS) has often been associated with aviation safety incidents. Although numerous laboratory studies have been conducted, few data are available from routine flight operations. A survey among a representative sample of 200 Dutch airline pilots was used to determine the prevalence

  18. Spatiotemporal neural characterization of prediction error valence and surprise during reward learning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouragnan, Elsa; Queirazza, Filippo; Retzler, Chris; Mullinger, Karen J; Philiastides, Marios G

    2017-07-06

    Reward learning depends on accurate reward associations with potential choices. These associations can be attained with reinforcement learning mechanisms using a reward prediction error (RPE) signal (the difference between actual and expected rewards) for updating future reward expectations. Despite an extensive body of literature on the influence of RPE on learning, little has been done to investigate the potentially separate contributions of RPE valence (positive or negative) and surprise (absolute degree of deviation from expectations). Here, we coupled single-trial electroencephalography with simultaneously acquired fMRI, during a probabilistic reversal-learning task, to offer evidence of temporally overlapping but largely distinct spatial representations of RPE valence and surprise. Electrophysiological variability in RPE valence correlated with activity in regions of the human reward network promoting approach or avoidance learning. Electrophysiological variability in RPE surprise correlated primarily with activity in regions of the human attentional network controlling the speed of learning. Crucially, despite the largely separate spatial extend of these representations our EEG-informed fMRI approach uniquely revealed a linear superposition of the two RPE components in a smaller network encompassing visuo-mnemonic and reward areas. Activity in this network was further predictive of stimulus value updating indicating a comparable contribution of both signals to reward learning.

  19. The idea of the record

    OpenAIRE

    Parry, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the idea of the sports record and its relation to our ideas of excellence, achievement and progress. It begins by recovering and reviewing the work of Richard Mandell, whose definition of the record emphasizes three central ideas: statistic, athletic and recognition. It then considers the work of Henning Eichberg, Allen Guttmann and Mandell, from the 1970s onwards, on the genesis of the modern sports record, explaining and developing their ideas via a distinction between d...

  20. Guiding New Product Idea Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The creation of innovative ideas is the initial step in entrepreneurial practice and venture management. As the management of technology is now on the priority agenda of higher education institutions, there is a need to develop pedagogic schemes for idea generation. Despite its importance, the idea generation process is hard to systematize or to…

  1. I can do that alone..or not? How idea generators juggle between the pros and cons of teamwork

    OpenAIRE

    Deichmann, Dirk; Jensen, M. (Michael)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Research summary:__ The advantages of working with a team to develop an idea are well established, but surprisingly, little is known about why some idea generators ignore these advantages by developing their ideas alone. To answer this question, we study two important trade-offs. First, working with a team provides access to additional resources but also leads to increased coordination costs. Second, sharing the risks and costs of developing an idea necessitates sharing the ...

  2. An interesting idea, but….

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The idea of causing the consciousness of the entire human race to jump into the future for about two minutes is an amusing one. However, in this case, imagination has nothing to do with what can really happen in our world and, in particular, nothing that can ever be caused by the LHC operation. John Ellis, from the Theory group, explains why."I like science fiction; when I was a teenager I had a lot of it and I think that it actually contributed to my decision to eventually become a researcher in science", says John Ellis, CERN theoretical physicist. In Robert Sawyer’s book, lead ion collisions at the LHC cause the whole of humankind to experience a flash-forward. However, although the LHC will be the first particle accelerator to collide heavy ions at an unprecedented (for experiments on Earth) energy, Nature does it every day and nothing terrible has ever happened. "It turns out that a large fraction of high energy cosmic rays is actually heavy nuclei", explains Ellis. "So, in fact, heavy ion experimen...

  3. EXPERIENCES WITH IDEA PROMOTING INITIATIVES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gish, Liv

    2011-01-01

    In new product development a central activity is to provide new ideas. Over the last decades experiences with stimulating employee creativity and establishing idea promoting initiatives have been made in industrial practice. Such initiatives are often labeled Idea Management – a research field...... with a growing interest. In this paper I examine three different idea promoting initiatives carried out in Grundfos, a leading pump manufacturer. In the analysis I address what understandings of idea work are inscribed in the initiatives and what role these initiatives play in the organization with respect...... understandings of idea work are inscribed in the idea promoting initiatives as they to some degree have to fit with the understandings embedded in practice in order to work....

  4. Sleeping beauties in theoretical physics 26 surprising insights

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Thanu

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses a fascinating set of questions in theoretical physics which will both entertain and enlighten all students, teachers and researchers and other physics aficionados. These range from Newtonian mechanics to quantum field theory and cover several puzzling issues that do not appear in standard textbooks. Some topics cover conceptual conundrums, the solutions to which lead to surprising insights; some correct popular misconceptions in the textbook discussion of certain topics; others illustrate deep connections between apparently unconnected domains of theoretical physics; and a few provide remarkably simple derivations of results which are not often appreciated. The connoisseur of theoretical physics will enjoy a feast of pleasant surprises skilfully prepared by an internationally acclaimed theoretical physicist. Each topic is introduced with proper background discussion and special effort is taken to make the discussion self-contained, clear and comprehensible to anyone with an undergraduate e...

  5. The June surprises: balls, strikes, and the fog of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Charles

    2013-04-01

    At first, few constitutional experts took seriously the argument that the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act exceeded Congress's power under the commerce clause. The highly political opinions of two federal district judges - carefully chosen by challenging plaintiffs - of no particular distinction did not shake that confidence that the act was constitutional. This disdain for the challengers' arguments was only confirmed when the act was upheld by two highly respected conservative court of appeals judges in two separate circuits. But after the hostile, even mocking questioning of the government's advocate in the Supreme Court by the five Republican-appointed justices, the expectation was that the act would indeed be struck down on that ground. So it came as no surprise when the five opined the act did indeed exceed Congress's commerce clause power. But it came as a great surprise when Chief Justice John Roberts, joined by the four Democrat-appointed justices, ruled that the act could be sustained as an exercise of Congress's taxing power - a ground urged by the government almost as an afterthought. It was further surprising, even shocking, that Justices Antonin Scalia, Anthony Kennedy, Clarence Thomas, and Samuel Alito not only wrote a joint opinion on the commerce clause virtually identical to that of their chief, but that in writing it they did not refer to or even acknowledge his opinion. Finally surprising was the fact that Justices Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Stephen Breyer joined the chief in holding that aspects of the act's Medicaid expansion were unconstitutional. This essay ponders and tries to unravel some of these puzzles.

  6. ORMS IN SURPRISING PLACES: CLINICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myroshnychenko MS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Helminthes are the most common human diseases, which are characterized by involvement in the pathological process of all organs and systems. In this article, the authors discuss a few cases of typical and atypical localizations for parasitic worms such as filarial and pinworms which were recovered from surprising places in the bodies of patients in Kharkiv region. This article will allow the doctors of practical health care to pay special attention to the timely prevention and diagnostics of this pathology.

  7. On the surprising rigidity of the Pauli exclusion principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, O.W.

    1989-01-01

    I review recent attempts to construct a local quantum field theory of small violations of the Pauli exclusion principle and suggest a qualitative reason for the surprising rigidity of the Pauli principle. I suggest that small violations can occur in our four-dimensional world as a consequence of the compactification of a higher-dimensional theory in which the exclusion principle is exactly valid. I briefly mention a recent experiment which places a severe limit on possible violations of the exclusion principle. (orig.)

  8. Teacher Supply and Demand: Surprises from Primary Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Wayne

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of primary research studies on public school teacher supply and demand revealed four surprises. Projections show that enrollments are leveling off. Relatedly, annual hiring increases should be only about two or three percent over the next few years. Results from studies of teacher attrition also yield unexpected results. Excluding retirements, only about one in 20 teachers leaves each year, and the novice teachers who quit mainly cite personal and family reasons, not job dissatisfaction. Each of these findings broadens policy makers' options for teacher supply.

  9. Ideas for Office Occupations Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alverson, Ruby; And Others

    Prepared by South Carolina office occupations teachers, this booklet contains ideas for effective and motivating teaching methods in office occupations courses on the secondary school level. Besides ideas generally applicable, suggestions are included for teaching the following specific subjects: (1) accounting, (2) recordkeeping, (3) cooperative…

  10. Changing ideas of bodily cleanliness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt

    2004-01-01

    About historical shifts in ideas of bodily cleanliness and what impacts this have on the possibility of implementing more ecological toilets.......About historical shifts in ideas of bodily cleanliness and what impacts this have on the possibility of implementing more ecological toilets....

  11. The IDEA papers no 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Information network on the Economic Development in Aquitaine (IDEA) aims to collect and spread the environmental information concerning the Aquitaine, in order to implement an observatory of the regional environment and of the sustainable development. The IDEA paper no. 4 presents the point of view of some participants to the third national meeting of the environment observatories. (A.L.B.)

  12. 100+ ideas for teaching mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Ollerton, Mike

    2007-01-01

    All Mike's ideas have been tried and tested at the chalkface. This second edition will be at least 20% bigger and will contain ideas which range from simple addition to using and applying trigonometry, from naming 2D shapes to exploring the intrigues of 3D solids.

  13. IDEA papers special number 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercadie, J.L.

    2003-06-01

    The Information network on the Economic Development in Aquitaine (IDEA) aims to collect and spread the environmental information concerning the Aquitaine, in order to implement an observatory of the regional environment and of the sustainable development. The IDEA papers provides information such as, meeting, Internet addresses and programs. This paper is specially devoted to the environment. (A.L.B.)

  14. Revised article: Business Ideas Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    THIS ARTICLE REPLACES THAT PUBLISHED IN BULLETIN 27/2003, PAGE 8. "The Rainbow Seed Fund is a UK fund, which provides finance to support the commercialization of good ideas founded on scientific research; it is for the benefit of the UK industry in particular. To encourage ideas from CERN the Rainbow Seed Fund is running a business ideas competition. The winner of this competition will receive an immediate cash prize of GBP £1,000. In addition the Rainbow Seed Fund may well provide finance for market research, for protection of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and for prototyping to take the idea forward. Further awards of GBP £750 will be made for ideas which gain investment from the Fund. Candidates will only be required to prepare a 2-4-page summary of their business idea, and not a full business plan. Full details and an entry form are available at http://www.rainbowseedfund.com." ALL Members of the Personnel seeking participation in the business ideas competition are asked to submit their ideas via ...

  15. Enlightenment philosophers’ ideas about chaos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kulik

    2014-07-01

     It is grounded that the philosopher and enlightener Johann Gottfried von Herder advanced an idea of objectivity of process of transformation chaos into order. It is shown that idea of «The law of nature» existing as for ordering chaos opened far­reaching prospects for researches of interaction with chaos.

  16. Wars of Ideas and the War of Ideas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Echevarria, II, Antulio J

    2008-01-01

    ... as such. With that in mind, this monograph offers a brief examination of four common types of wars of ideas, and uses that as a basis for analyzing how the United States and its allies and strategic partners...

  17. Spectrally accurate contour dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buskirk, R.D.; Marcus, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    We present an exponentially accurate boundary integral method for calculation the equilibria and dynamics of piece-wise constant distributions of potential vorticity. The method represents contours of potential vorticity as a spectral sum and solves the Biot-Savart equation for the velocity by spectrally evaluating a desingularized contour integral. We use the technique in both an initial-value code and a newton continuation method. Our methods are tested by comparing the numerical solutions with known analytic results, and it is shown that for the same amount of computational work our spectral methods are more accurate than other contour dynamics methods currently in use

  18. Physics Nobel prize 2004: Surprising theory wins physics Nobel

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    From left to right: David Politzer, David Gross and Frank Wilczek. For their understanding of counter-intuitive aspects of the strong force, which governs quarks inside protons and neutrons, on 5 October three American physicists were awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics. David J. Gross (Kavli Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara), H. David Politzer (California Institute of Technology), and Frank Wilczek (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) made a key theoretical discovery with a surprising result: the closer quarks are together, the weaker the force - opposite to what is seen with electromagnetism and gravity. Rather, the strong force is analogous to a rubber band stretching, where the force increases as the quarks get farther apart. These physicists discovered this property of quarks, known as asymptotic freedom, in 1976. It later became a key part of the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the Standard Model, the current best theory to describe the interac...

  19. Surprises in the suddenly-expanded infinite well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslangul, Claude

    2008-01-01

    I study the time evolution of a particle prepared in the ground state of an infinite well after the latter is suddenly expanded. It turns out that the probability density |Ψ(x, t)| 2 shows up quite a surprising behaviour: for definite times, plateaux appear for which |Ψ(x, t)| 2 is constant on finite intervals for x. Elements of theoretical explanation are given by analysing the singular component of the second derivative ∂ xx Ψ(x, t). Analytical closed expressions are obtained for some specific times, which easily allow us to show that, at these times, the density organizes itself into regular patterns provided the size of the box is large enough; more, above some critical size depending on the specific time, the density patterns are independent of the expansion parameter. It is seen how the density at these times simply results from a construction game with definite rules acting on the pieces of the initial density

  20. Hepatobiliary fascioliasis in non-endemic zones: a surprise diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ashish Kumar; Goenka, Mahesh Kumar; Goenka, Usha; Chakrabarti, Amrita

    2013-03-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Fasciola hepatica. Because of population migration and international food trade, human fascioliasis is being an increasingly recognised entity in nonendemic zones. In most parts of Asia, hepatobiliary fascioliasis is sporadic. Human hepatobiliary infection by this trematode has two distinct phases: an acute hepatic phase and a chronic biliary phase. Hepatobiliary infection is mostly associated with intense peripheral eosinophilia. In addition to classically defined hepatic phase and biliary phase fascioliasis, some cases may have an overlap of these two phases. Chronic liver abscess formation is a rare presentation. We describe a surprise case of hepatobiliary fascioliasis who presented to us with liver abscess without intense peripheral eosinophilia, a rare presentation of human fascioliasis especially in non-endemic zones. Copyright © 2013 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Institutionalizing New Ideas Through Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Renate; Jancsary, Dennis; Höllerer, Markus A.

    How do visualization and visual forms of communication influence the process of transforming a novel idea into established organizational practice? In this paper, we build theory with regard to the role of visuals in manifesting and giving form to an innovative idea as it proceeds through various...... stages of institutionalization. Ideas become institutionalized not merely through widespread diffusion in a cognitive-discursive form but eventually through their translation into concrete activities and transformation into specific patterns of organizational practice. We argue that visualization plays...... a pivotal and unique role in this process. Visualization bridges the ideational with the practical realm by providing representations of ideas, connecting them to existing knowledge, and illustrating the specific actions that instantiate them. Similar to verbal discourse, and often in tandem, visual...

  2. From Idea to Organizational Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Renate E.; Jancsary, Dennis; Höllerer, Markus A.

    How do visualization and visual forms of communication influence the process of transforming a novel idea into established organizational practice? In this paper, we build theory with regard to the role of visuals in manifesting and giving form to an innovative idea as it proceeds through various...... stages of institutionalization. Ideas become institutionalized not merely through widespread diffusion in a cognitive-discursive form but eventually through their translation into concrete activities and transformation into specific patterns of organizational practice. We argue that visualization plays...... organizational practice with legitimacy – and thus solidify the coupling of innovative ideas and organizational practice. Extending existing research, we develop a set of propositions linking dimensions of visuality and visualization to the different stages of institutionalization in order to explain...

  3. Ideas Production in Emerging Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Luintel, Kul B; Kahn, Mosahid

    2012-01-01

    We model 'new ideas' production in a panel of 17 emerging countries. Our results reveal: (i) ideas production is duplicative, (ii) externality associated with domestic knowledge stocks is of above unit factor proportionality, (iii) OECD countries raise the innovation-bar for emerging countries, (iv) there is no significant knowledge diffusion across emerging countries, and (v) growth in emerging countries appear far from a balanced growth path.

  4. Stata Hybrids: Updates and Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieldler, James

    2014-01-01

    At last year's Stata conference I presented two projects for using Python with Stata: a plugin that embeds the Python programming language within Stata and code for using Stata data sets in Python. In this talk I will describe some small improvements being made to these projects, and I will present other ideas for combining tools with Stata. Some of these ideas use Python, some use JavaScript and a web browser.

  5. Exploring the concept of climate surprises. A review of the literature on the concept of surprise and how it is related to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glantz, M.H.; Moore, C.M.; Streets, D.G.; Bhatti, N.; Rosa, C.H.

    1998-01-01

    This report examines the concept of climate surprise and its implications for environmental policymaking. Although most integrated assessment models of climate change deal with average values of change, it is usually the extreme events or surprises that cause the most damage to human health and property. Current models do not help the policymaker decide how to deal with climate surprises. This report examines the literature of surprise in many aspects of human society: psychology, military, health care, humor, agriculture, etc. It draws together various ways to consider the concept of surprise and examines different taxonomies of surprise that have been proposed. In many ways, surprise is revealed to be a subjective concept, triggered by such factors as prior experience, belief system, and level of education. How policymakers have reacted to specific instances of climate change or climate surprise in the past is considered, particularly with regard to the choices they made between proactive and reactive measures. Finally, the report discusses techniques used in the current generation of assessment models and makes suggestions as to how climate surprises might be included in future models. The report concludes that some kinds of surprises are simply unpredictable, but there are several types that could in some way be anticipated and assessed, and their negative effects forestalled

  6. Exploring the concept of climate surprises. A review of the literature on the concept of surprise and how it is related to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, M.H.; Moore, C.M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Streets, D.G.; Bhatti, N.; Rosa, C.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Stewart, T.R. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report examines the concept of climate surprise and its implications for environmental policymaking. Although most integrated assessment models of climate change deal with average values of change, it is usually the extreme events or surprises that cause the most damage to human health and property. Current models do not help the policymaker decide how to deal with climate surprises. This report examines the literature of surprise in many aspects of human society: psychology, military, health care, humor, agriculture, etc. It draws together various ways to consider the concept of surprise and examines different taxonomies of surprise that have been proposed. In many ways, surprise is revealed to be a subjective concept, triggered by such factors as prior experience, belief system, and level of education. How policymakers have reacted to specific instances of climate change or climate surprise in the past is considered, particularly with regard to the choices they made between proactive and reactive measures. Finally, the report discusses techniques used in the current generation of assessment models and makes suggestions as to how climate surprises might be included in future models. The report concludes that some kinds of surprises are simply unpredictable, but there are several types that could in some way be anticipated and assessed, and their negative effects forestalled.

  7. IDEAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sharon L.

    1991-01-01

    Presented are activities that focus on gathering, using, and interpreting data about fingerprints as a basis for integrating mathematics and science. Patterns, classification, logical reasoning, and mathematical relationships are explored by making graphs, classifying fingerprints, and matching identical fingerprints. A parent-involvement activity…

  8. Atom Surprise: Using Theatre in Primary Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Ran; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet

    2011-10-01

    Early exposure to science may have a lifelong effect on children's attitudes towards science and their motivation to learn science in later life. Out-of-class environments can play a significant role in creating favourable attitudes, while contributing to conceptual learning. Educational science theatre is one form of an out-of-class environment, which has received little research attention. This study aims to describe affective and cognitive learning outcomes of watching such a play and to point to connections between theatrical elements and specific outcomes. "Atom Surprise" is a play portraying several concepts on the topic of matter. A mixed methods approach was adopted to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of children (grades 1-6) from two different school settings who watched the play. Data were gathered using questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Analysis suggested that in both schools children's knowledge on the topic of matter increased after the play with younger children gaining more conceptual knowledge than their older peers. In the public school girls showed greater gains in conceptual knowledge than boys. No significant changes in students' general attitudes towards science were found, however, students demonstrated positive changes towards science learning. Theatrical elements that seemed to be important in children's recollection of the play were the narrative, props and stage effects, and characters. In the children's memory, science was intertwined with the theatrical elements. Nonetheless, children could distinguish well between scientific facts and the fictive narrative.

  9. X-rays from comets - a surprising discovery

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    Comets are kilometre-size aggregates of ice and dust, which remained from the formation of the solar system. It was not obvious to expect X-ray emission from such objects. Nevertheless, when comet Hyakutake (C/1996 B2) was observed with the ROSAT X-ray satellite during its close approach to Earth in March 1996, bright X-ray emission from this comet was discovered. This finding triggered a search in archival ROSAT data for comets, which might have accidentally crossed the field of view during observations of unrelated targets. To increase the surprise even more, X-ray emission was detected from four additional comets, which were optically 300 to 30 000 times fainter than Hyakutake. For one of them, comet Arai (C/1991 A2), X-ray emission was even found in data which were taken six weeks before the comet was optically discovered. These findings showed that comets represent a new class of celestial X-ray sources. The subsequent detection of X-ray emission from several other comets in dedicated observations confir...

  10. Innate ideas in Islamic philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halilović Tehran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The human soul is the subject of debates in numerous scientific disciplines. Philosophical considerations encompass a special dimension of the human soul that is related to ontological truths. Among different philosophical questions raised regarding the human soul, the issue of innate ideas particularly stands out. Well-known points of disagreement between Plato and Aristotle regarding this question are usually focused on whether a person possesses knowledge and thoughts from their creation, i.e. birth, or they acquire them through time and experience. With the appearance of Cartesian scepticism and following the solutions Descartes offered for the problem of certain knowledge, the issue of innate ideas has remained the focal question for many prominent philosophers. In the Islamic philosophy, the rational explanation of the nature of innate ideas originates from the more comprehensive theory of the human soul and it states that a person, according to their nature, possesses already existent cognitive abilities they were born with. Innate cognitive abilities discussed in the Islamic philosophy do not refer just to theoretical, but to practical knowledge, as well. Therefore, the analysis of innate ideas in the works of Muslim philosophers is connected to a larger number of scientific disciplines than when it comes to most Western philosophers. The difference between the practical and theoretic intellect will serve as a cognitive basis for defining another aspect of innate ideas. The products of a practical intellect, the human will and his actions, are personal and particular and, therefore, can be connected to the everyday life of a person. Owing to the general presence of the practical intellect in all life spheres, the influence of innate ideas, which are determined in a human being, is recognizable in all most detailed moments of their life.

  11. Beyond interests and institutions: US health policy reform and the surprising silence of big business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyrl, Marc E

    2014-02-01

    Interest-based arguments do not provide satisfying explanations for the surprising reticence of major US employers to take a more active role in the debate surrounding the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Through focused comparison with the Bismarckian systems of France and Germany, on the one hand, and with the 1950s and 1960s in the United States, on the other, this article concludes that while institutional elements do account for some of the observed behavior of big business, a necessary complement to this is a fuller understanding of the historically determined legitimating ideology of US firms. From the era of the "corporate commonwealth," US business inherited the principles of private welfare provision and of resistance to any expansion of government control. Once complementary, these principles are now mutually exclusive: employer-provided health insurance increasingly is possible only at the cost of ever-increasing government subsidy and regulation. Paralyzed by the uncertainty that followed from this clash of legitimate ideas, major employers found themselves unable to take a coherent and unified stand for or against the law. As a consequence, they failed either to oppose it successfully or to secure modifications to it that would have been useful to them.

  12. Beyond surprise : A longitudinal study on the experience of visual-tactual incongruities in products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, G.D.S.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Hekkert, P.

    2012-01-01

    When people encounter products with visual-tactual incongruities, they are likely to be surprised because the product feels different than expected. In this paper, we investigate (1) the relationship between surprise and the overall liking of the products, (2) the emotions associated with surprise,

  13. Surprising Incentive: An Instrument for Promoting Safety Performance of Construction Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhradin Ghasemi

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study proved that the surprising incentive would improve the employees' safety performance just in the short term because the surprising value of the incentives dwindle over time. For this reason and to maintain the surprising value of the incentive system, the amount and types of incentives need to be evaluated and modified annually or biannually.

  14. The Role of Surprise in Game-Based Learning for Mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Pieter; van Oostendorp, Herre; ter Vrugte, Judith; Vandercruysse, Sylke; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.; Elen, Jan; De Gloria, Alessandro; Veltkamp, Remco

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the potential of surprise on learning with prevocational students in the domain of proportional reasoning. Surprise involves an emotional reaction, but it also serves a cognitive goal as it directs attention to explain why the surprising event occurred and to learn for

  15. Human amygdala response to dynamic facial expressions of positive and negative surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrticka, Pascal; Lordier, Lara; Bediou, Benoît; Sander, David

    2014-02-01

    Although brain imaging evidence accumulates to suggest that the amygdala plays a key role in the processing of novel stimuli, only little is known about its role in processing expressed novelty conveyed by surprised faces, and even less about possible interactive encoding of novelty and valence. Those investigations that have already probed human amygdala involvement in the processing of surprised facial expressions either used static pictures displaying negative surprise (as contained in fear) or "neutral" surprise, and manipulated valence by contextually priming or subjectively associating static surprise with either negative or positive information. Therefore, it still remains unresolved how the human amygdala differentially processes dynamic surprised facial expressions displaying either positive or negative surprise. Here, we created new artificial dynamic 3-dimensional facial expressions conveying surprise with an intrinsic positive (wonderment) or negative (fear) connotation, but also intrinsic positive (joy) or negative (anxiety) emotions not containing any surprise, in addition to neutral facial displays either containing ("typical surprise" expression) or not containing ("neutral") surprise. Results showed heightened amygdala activity to faces containing positive (vs. negative) surprise, which may either correspond to a specific wonderment effect as such, or to the computation of a negative expected value prediction error. Findings are discussed in the light of data obtained from a closely matched nonsocial lottery task, which revealed overlapping activity within the left amygdala to unexpected positive outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. The ideas of particle physics. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughlan, G.D.; Dodd, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Our main concern in writing this book has been to communicate the central ideas and concepts of elementary particle physics. We have attempted to present a comprehensive overview of the subject at a level which carries the reader beyond the simplifications and generalisations necessary in popular science books. Matter consists of just two types of elementary particles: quarks and leptons. These are the fundamental building blocks of the material world. The theory describing the microscopic behaviour of these particles has, over the past decade or so, become known as the 'standard model', providing as it does an accurate account of the force of electromagnetism, the weak nuclear force (responsible for radioactive decay), and the strong nuclear force (which holds atomic nuclei together). The standard model has been remarkably successful; all experimental tests have verified the detailed predictions of the theory. (author)

  17. Exploring Classroom Hydroponics. Growing Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Gardening Association, Burlington, VT.

    Growing Ideas, the National Gardening Association's series for elementary, middle, and junior high school educators, helps teachers engage students in using plants and gardens as contexts for developing a deeper, richer understanding of the world around them. This volume's focus is on hydroponics. It presents basic hydroponics information along…

  18. Getting started with Intellij IDEA

    CERN Document Server

    Assumpção, Hudson Orsine

    2013-01-01

    A practical, fast-paced guide with clear, step-by-step exercisesto help you understand the basics of IntelliJ Idea and develop a web application.This book will be ideal if you are a Java developer who has a little knowledge about IntelliJ and wants to get more information on using it to improve your development performance

  19. Travelling Ideas, Power and Place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tait, Malcolm; Jensen, Ole B.

    2007-01-01

    , often with unpredictable consequences.  In order to understand the circulation and impact of these ideas this paper constructs an analytical framework which views these concepts within wider networks of social agents and institutions. Using insights from actor-network theory and discourse analysis we...

  20. Idea Bank: Steps to Visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music Educators Journal, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Unique ideas about how to maintain interest in musicals, concerts, and other music performances are described. For example, Project Parent Awareness encouraged parent participation in children's music education and the Akron (Ohio) All-City Festivals of Music provided students with performing opportunities under well-known conductors. (CS)

  1. Sparking Old and New Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Rossi, Dara; Campbell, Laurie O.

    2012-01-01

    In the past, teachers have used chalkboards for "chalk talks," a strategy where a teacher wrote words and drew images to demonstrate reflecting, document generating ideas, and explore knowledge. Out with the old-school version and in with the "Marker Sparker" method, which uses whiteboards or poster paper and colorful markers to achieve the same…

  2. 2. A Circle of ideas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 2. Geometry A Circle of Ideas. Kapil H Paranjape. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 2 February 1996 pp 26-31. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/02/0026-0031. Author Affiliations.

  3. IDEA and Early Childhood Inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barbara J.; Rapport, Mary Jane K.

    This paper discusses 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that promote the inclusion of children with disabilities in general early childhood education settings. The evolution of inclusion policy is explored and changes in disability terminology are described. Amended provisions are then explained and include:…

  4. New Ideas for School Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producers' Council, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Present educators, architects, engineers, and building product manufacturers with a medium of common interest for discussion of mutual school construction problems, objectives, needs, ideas, capabilities and limitations. Contents include--(1) modern wood construction, (2) school room in a steel mill, (3) masonry in new school design, (4) the…

  5. Accurate quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently accurate result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable grounds for optimism about the general ability to perform accurate calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.

  6. Surprisingly rational: probability theory plus noise explains biases in judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Fintan; Watts, Paul

    2014-07-01

    The systematic biases seen in people's probability judgments are typically taken as evidence that people do not use the rules of probability theory when reasoning about probability but instead use heuristics, which sometimes yield reasonable judgments and sometimes yield systematic biases. This view has had a major impact in economics, law, medicine, and other fields; indeed, the idea that people cannot reason with probabilities has become a truism. We present a simple alternative to this view, where people reason about probability according to probability theory but are subject to random variation or noise in the reasoning process. In this account the effect of noise is canceled for some probabilistic expressions. Analyzing data from 2 experiments, we find that, for these expressions, people's probability judgments are strikingly close to those required by probability theory. For other expressions, this account produces systematic deviations in probability estimates. These deviations explain 4 reliable biases in human probabilistic reasoning (conservatism, subadditivity, conjunction, and disjunction fallacies). These results suggest that people's probability judgments embody the rules of probability theory and that biases in those judgments are due to the effects of random noise. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Of Syntheses and Surprises: Toward a Critical Integral Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gustav Anderson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The central concern of this article is how the search for formal structures with universal values functions ideologically, addressing Zizek’s claim that East-West syntheses may represent the dominant ideology par excellance of global capitalism. To this end, the article offers a Foucaultian genealogy of Integral theory, tracing its origins to the cultural and subjective contingencies of the British Empire, primarily in the work of Integral theory’s foundational thinker, Aurobindo Ghose. The article poses a primary critique of synthesis and evolution as mythological keys to Ultimate Reality which suggests that Zizek’s critique may have some validity, and offers the potential for a “critical integral theory” as an alternative. Situated in Deleuze and Guattari’s concept of becoming, and represented in the ideas and practices of a constellation of thinkers inclusive of Gurdjieff, Benjamin, and Trungpa, the article’s view of integration supports radical democracy as presented in the writings of Laclau and Mouffe as a model outcome for social and personal transformational practices.

  8. Of Syntheses and Surprises:Toward a Critical Integral Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gustav Anderson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The central concern of this article is how the search for formal structures with universal values functions ideologically, addressing Zizek’s claim that East-West syntheses may represent the dominant ideology par excellance of global capitalism. To this end, the article offers a Foucaultian genealogy of Integral theory, tracing its origins to the cultural and subjective contingencies of the British Empire, primarily in the work of Integral theory’s foundational thinker, Aurobindo Ghose. The article poses a primary critique of synthesis and evolution as mythological keys to Ultimate Reality which suggests that Zizek’s critique may have some validity, and offers the potential for a “critical integral theory” as an alternative. Situated in Deleuze and Guattari’s concept of becoming, and represented in the ideas and practices of a constellation of thinkers inclusive of Gurdjieff, Benjamin, and Trungpa, the article’s view of integration supports radical democracy as presented in the writings of Laclau and Mouffe as a model outcome for social and personal transformational practices.

  9. Stars Form Surprisingly Close to Milky Way's Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way has surprisingly helped spawn a new generation of stars, according to observations from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This novel mode of star formation may solve several mysteries about the supermassive black holes that reside at the centers of nearly all galaxies. "Massive black holes are usually known for violence and destruction," said Sergei Nayakshin of the University of Leicester, United Kingdom, and coauthor of a paper on this research in an upcoming issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. "So it's remarkable that this black hole helped create new stars, not just destroy them." Black holes have earned their fearsome reputation because any material -- including stars -- that falls within the so-called event horizon is never seen again. However, these new results indicate that the immense disks of gas known to orbit many black holes at a "safe" distance from the event horizon can help nurture the formation of new stars. Animation of Stars Forming Around Black Hole Animation of Stars Forming Around Black Hole This conclusion came from new clues that could only be revealed in X-rays. Until the latest Chandra results, astronomers have disagreed about the origin of a mysterious group of massive stars discovered by infrared astronomers to be orbiting less than a light year from the Milky Way's central black hole, a.k.a. Sagittarius A*, or Sgr A*. At such close distances to Sgr A*, the standard model for star formation predicts that gas clouds from which stars form should have been ripped apart by tidal forces from the black hole. Two models to explain this puzzle have been proposed. In the disk model, the gravity of a dense disk of gas around Sgr A* offsets the tidal forces and allows stars to form; in the migration model, the stars formed in a star cluster far away from the black hole and migrated in to form the ring of massive stars. The migration scenario predicts about a

  10. Students' Ideas and Radical Constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Gómez, Pedro J.

    2016-08-01

    In this article, I study, from the point of view of the analytic philosophy of mind, the compatibility of students' ideas studies (SIS) with radical constructivism (RC). I demonstrate that RC is based on a psychology of narrow mental states; that is, the idea that the mental content of an individual can be fully characterised without any reference external to her or him. I show that this fact imposes some severe restrictions to SIS to be incorporated into RC. In particular, I argue that only qualitative studies can comply with the requirement of narrowness. Nevertheless, I propose that quantitative works can be employed as sources of types in order to study token actual students. I use this type-token dichotomy to put forward an outline of a theory of the relation between school contents and mental contents. In this view, token mental contents regarding a given topic can be defined, and probed, only by resorting to typical school contents.

  11. Communism: idea vs. 'real movement'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celikates, R.

    2011-01-01

    ‘It’s quite straightforward, you’ll understand it. It’s not hard.’ The enthusiasm with which part of the intellectual left greeted the rehabilitation of the ‘idea of communism’ by philosophers such as Alain Badiou and Slavoj Žižek may remind one of this first line of Brecht’s ‘In Praise of

  12. The idea of philosophical sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernilo, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    This article introduces the idea of philosophical sociology as an enquiry into the relationships between implicit notions of human nature and explicit conceptualizations of social life within sociology. Philosophical sociology is also an invitation to reflect on the role of the normative in social life by looking at it sociologically and philosophically at the same: normative self-reflection is a fundamental aspect of sociology's scientific tasks because key sociological questions are, in the last instance, also philosophical ones. For the normative to emerge, we need to move away from the reductionism of hedonistic, essentialist or cynical conceptions of human nature and be able to grasp the conceptions of the good life, justice, democracy or freedom whose normative contents depend on more or less articulated conceptions of our shared humanity. The idea of philosophical sociology is then sustained on three main pillars and I use them to structure this article: (1) a revalorization of the relationships between sociology and philosophy; (2) a universalistic principle of humanity that works as a major regulative idea of sociological research, and; (3) an argument on the social (immanent) and pre-social (transcendental) sources of the normative in social life. As invitations to embrace posthuman cyborgs, non-human actants and material cultures proliferate, philosophical sociology offers the reminder that we still have to understand more fully who are the human beings that populate the social world. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  13. Young Idea People Mix with Old Idea People to Make the World Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M.

    2017-12-01

    Groups of young idea people come to eat, drink, and talk about new ideas that old idea people are working on to change the world for the better. The ideas may fix our body and mind, make our lives easier or harder, and more. The young idea people lead, learn, listen and act, so they can become old idea people. The young idea people scare the old idea people because their ideas are different. And, sometimes, the young idea people have new ideas that the old idea people have not thought about. When this happens it makes the old idea people happy and better at their work. The old idea people get to go places and share their ideas around the world. They make good money and have fun lives. They write about their work and can be well known, or not. The young idea people learn from the old idea people how they can be like them. Together the young and old idea people build things and talk about crazy ideas that may come to be. Sometimes the old idea people talk too much and don't listen. They use big words that can be hard to understand. But, the young idea people help them learn to use known words so everyone learns. We know the young idea people learn and grow from this act and they grow happier about their life. We also know that the old idea people get happy that the young idea people are so bright.

  14. Carbon Dioxide: Surprising Effects on Decision Making and Neurocognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2013-01-01

    The occupants of modern submarines and the International Space Station (ISS) have much in common as far as their air quality is concerned. Air is polluted by materials offgassing, use of utility compounds, leaks of systems chemicals, and anthropogenic sources. The primary anthropogenic compound of concern to submariners and astronauts has been carbon dioxide (CO2). NASA and the US Navy rely on the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRC-COT) to help formulate exposure levels to CO2 that are thought to be safe for exposures of 3-6 months. NASA calls its limits Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs). Years of experience aboard the ISS and a recent publication on deficits in decision making in ground-based subjects exposed briefly to 0.25% CO2 suggest that exposure levels that have been presumed acceptable to preserve health and performance need to be reevaluated. The current CO2 exposure limits for 3-6 months set by NASA and the UK Navy are 0.7%, and the limit for US submariners is 0.5%, although the NRC-COT recommended a 90-day level of 0.8% as safe a few years ago. NASA has set a 1000-day SMAC at 0.5% for exploration-class missions. Anecdotal experience with ISS operations approaching the current 180-day SMAC of 0.7% suggest that this limit is too high. Temporarily, NASA has limited exposures to 0.5% until further peer-reviewed data become available. In the meantime, a study published last year in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives (Satish U, et al. 2012) demonstrated that complexdecision- making performance is somewhat affected at 0.1% CO2 and becomes "dysfunctional" for at least half of the 9 indices of performance at concentrations approaching 0.25% CO2. The investigators used the Strategic Management Simulation (SMS) method of testing for decisionmaking ability, and the results were so surprising to the investigators that they declared that their findings need to be independently confirmed. NASA has responded to the

  15. Are seismic hazard assessment errors and earthquake surprises unavoidable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Why earthquake occurrences bring us so many surprises? The answer seems evident if we review the relationships that are commonly used to assess seismic hazard. The time-span of physically reliable Seismic History is yet a small portion of a rupture recurrence cycle at an earthquake-prone site, which makes premature any kind of reliable probabilistic statements about narrowly localized seismic hazard. Moreover, seismic evidences accumulated to-date demonstrate clearly that most of the empirical relations commonly accepted in the early history of instrumental seismology can be proved erroneous when testing statistical significance is applied. Seismic events, including mega-earthquakes, cluster displaying behaviors that are far from independent or periodic. Their distribution in space is possibly fractal, definitely, far from uniform even in a single segment of a fault zone. Such a situation contradicts generally accepted assumptions used for analytically tractable or computer simulations and complicates design of reliable methodologies for realistic earthquake hazard assessment, as well as search and definition of precursory behaviors to be used for forecast/prediction purposes. As a result, the conclusions drawn from such simulations and analyses can MISLEAD TO SCIENTIFICALLY GROUNDLESS APPLICATION, which is unwise and extremely dangerous in assessing expected societal risks and losses. For example, a systematic comparison of the GSHAP peak ground acceleration estimates with those related to actual strong earthquakes, unfortunately, discloses gross inadequacy of this "probabilistic" product, which appears UNACCEPTABLE FOR ANY KIND OF RESPONSIBLE SEISMIC RISK EVALUATION AND KNOWLEDGEABLE DISASTER PREVENTION. The self-evident shortcomings and failures of GSHAP appeals to all earthquake scientists and engineers for an urgent revision of the global seismic hazard maps from the first principles including background methodologies involved, such that there becomes: (a) a

  16. IDEA Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Robert P. [International District Energy Association, Westborough, MA (United States)

    2013-12-20

    The DOE Clean Energy Application Centers were launched with a goal of focusing on important aspects of our nation’s energy supply including Efficiency, Reliability and Resiliency. Clean Energy solutions based on Combined Heat & Power (CHP), District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery are at the core of ensuring a reliable and efficient energy infrastructure for campuses, communities, and industry and public enterprises across the country. IDEA members which include colleges and universities, hospitals, airports, downtown utilities as well as manufacturers, suppliers and service providers have long-standing expertise in the planning, design, construction and operations of Clean Energy systems. They represent an established base of successful projects and systems at scale and serve important and critical energy loads. They also offer experience, lessons learned and best practices which are of immense value to the sustained growth of the Clean Energy sector. IDEA has been able to leverage the funds from the project award to raise the visibility, improve the understanding and increase deployment CHP, District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery solutions across the regions of our nation, in collaboration with the regional CEAC’s. On August 30, 2012, President Obama signed an Executive Order to accelerate investments in industrial energy efficiency (EE), including CHP and set a national goal of 40 GW of new CHP installation over the next decade IDEA is pleased to have been able to support this Executive Order in a variety of ways including raising awareness of the goal through educational workshops and Conferences and recognizing the installation of large scale CHP and district energy systems. A supporting key area of collaboration has involved IDEA providing technical assistance on District Energy/CHP project screenings and feasibility to the CEAC’s for multi building, multi-use projects. The award was instrumental in the development of a first-order screening

  17. The Generative Archetypes of Idea Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Osch, Wietske van

    2013-01-01

    Anyone who engages with ideas in the context of everyday work is engaged in idea work. Building on Jung’s psychological theory of types, we theorize about the fundamental processes underlying one’s generative capacity, and in turn, one’s ability to generate ideas and engage effectively in idea wo...

  18. Classical and new ideas of a university

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jens Erik

    2011-01-01

    The chapter examines what has happened to ideas of the university in the light of current reforms and the implementation of performance management. Taking a retrospective view of the most central ideas of a university, focus will be on why even a modernized and corporatized university apparently...... cannot survive without reference to ideas and idealistic justifications, including a number of classical ideas, as well as on which new ideas may be delineated on the basis of the old....

  19. Hillslope, river, and Mountain: some surprises in Landscape evolution (Ralph Alger Bagnold Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, G. E.

    2012-04-01

    Geomorphology, like the rest of geoscience, has always had two major themes: a quest to understand the earth's history and 'products' - its landscapes and seascapes - and, in parallel, a quest to understand its formative processes. This dualism is manifest in the remarkable career of R. A. Bagnold, who was inspired by landforms such as dunes, and dedicated to understanding the physical processes that shaped them. His legacy inspires us to emulate two principles at the heart of his contributions: the benefits of rooting geomorphic theory in basic physics, and the importance of understanding geomorphic systems in terms of simple equations framed around energy or force. Today, following Bagnold's footsteps, the earth-surface process community is engaged in a quest to build, test, and refine an ever-improving body of theory to describe our planet's surface and its evolution. In this lecture, I review a small sample of some of the fruits of that quest, emphasizing the value of surprises encountered along the way. The first example involves models of long-term river incision into bedrock. When the community began to grapple with how to represent this process mathematically, several different ideas emerged. Some were based on the assumption that sediment transport is the limiting factor; others assumed that hydraulic stress on rock is the key, while still others treated rivers as first-order 'reactors.' Thanks in part to advances in digital topography and numerical computing, the predictions of these models can be tested using natural-experiment case studies. Examples from the King Range, USA, the Central Apennines, Italy, and the fold-thrust belt of Taiwan, illustrate that independent knowledge of history and/or tectonics makes it possible to quantify how the rivers have responded to external forcing. Some interesting surprises emerge, such as: that the relief-uplift relationship can be highly nonlinear in a steady-state landscape because of grain-entrainment thresholds

  20. Chandra Finds Surprising Black Hole Activity In Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Scientists at the Carnegie Observatories in Pasadena, California, have uncovered six times the expected number of active, supermassive black holes in a single viewing of a cluster of galaxies, a finding that has profound implications for theories as to how old galaxies fuel the growth of their central black holes. The finding suggests that voracious, central black holes might be as common in old, red galaxies as they are in younger, blue galaxies, a surprise to many astronomers. The team made this discovery with NASA'S Chandra X-ray Observatory. They also used Carnegie's 6.5-meter Walter Baade Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile for follow-up optical observations. "This changes our view of galaxy clusters as the retirement homes for old and quiet black holes," said Dr. Paul Martini, lead author on a paper describing the results that appears in the September 10 issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters. "The question now is, how do these black holes produce bright X-ray sources, similar to what we see from much younger galaxies?" Typical of the black hole phenomenon, the cores of these active galaxies are luminous in X-ray radiation. Yet, they are obscured, and thus essentially undetectable in the radio, infrared and optical wavebands. "X rays can penetrate obscuring gas and dust as easily as they penetrate the soft tissue of the human body to look for broken bones," said co-author Dr. Dan Kelson. "So, with Chandra, we can peer through the dust and we have found that even ancient galaxies with 10-billion-year-old stars can have central black holes still actively pulling in copious amounts of interstellar gas. This activity has simply been hidden from us all this time. This means these galaxies aren't over the hill after all and our theories need to be revised." Scientists say that supermassive black holes -- having the mass of millions to billions of suns squeezed into a region about the size of our Solar System -- are the engines in the cores of

  1. A Neural Mechanism for Surprise-related Interruptions of Visuospatial Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Jan R

    2018-01-01

    Surprising perceptual events recruit a fronto-basal ganglia mechanism for inhibition, which suppresses motor activity following surprise. A recent study found that this inhibitory mechanism also disrupts the maintenance of verbal working memory (WM) after surprising tones. However, it is unclear whether this same mechanism also relates to surprise-related interruptions of non-verbal WM. We tested this hypothesis using a change-detection task, in which surprising tones impaired visuospatial WM. Participants also performed a stop-signal task (SST). We used independent component analysis and single-trial scalp-electroencephalogram to test whether the same inhibitory mechanism that reflects motor inhibition in the SST relates to surprise-related visuospatial WM decrements, as was the case for verbal WM. As expected, surprising tones elicited activity of the inhibitory mechanism, and this activity correlated strongly with the trial-by-trial level of surprise. However, unlike for verbal WM, the activity of this mechanism was unrelated to visuospatial WM accuracy. Instead, inhibition-independent activity that immediately succeeded the inhibitory mechanism was increased when visuospatial WM was disrupted. This shows that surprise-related interruptions of visuospatial WM are not effected by the same inhibitory mechanism that interrupts verbal WM, and instead provides evidence for a 2-stage model of distraction. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Transfer your ideas to society!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Science and technology labs are the ideal places for developing innovative solutions. However, inventors sometimes don’t realize that their ideas can find an application in industry, which can in turn have a technical and economic impact on society. Some researchers may think that disclosing an invention is a time-consuming process which is worth doing only in very special cases. But one thing is certain: it is always worth informing the Knowledge and Technology Transfer group, as they will give you the correct advice and support. Don’t be afraid of the paperwork… it can be highly rewarding!   Why should researchers at CERN bother to disclose their inventions to the Knowledge and Technology Transfer Group first? “Because when inventors do so, a process to transfer the technology to industry is set in motion” explains Henning Huuse, Patent Portfolio Manager in the KTT Group. To facilitate this transfer, patent protection can be a useful tool. &...

  3. Selling ideas, attitudes, and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Douglas A

    2010-04-01

    Advertisers are adept at changing our attitudes and purchasing behaviors, but we rarely notice the effects. This plenary talk at the eighth annual Midwest Rural Agricultural Safety and Health Forum, November 2009, focused on the psychology of advertising and how advertising is designed to work outside of our conscious awareness. Several psychological "tricks" are used to influence us, with the goal being to get us to change our behaviors but to think that it was our idea all along. These tricks include using emotional appeals and persuasion techniques that rely on biases in human problem solving. This power can be used for social marketing, the use of these techniques to promote social well-being, rather than simply for commercial purposes. Understanding how advertising works therefore allows us to use this power to effect positive changes in society.

  4. Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal representations of the environment, and surprising events are indications for encoding new representations of the environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system, including the hippocampus and surrounding cortex, encodes surprising events and is influenced by motivational state. Because behavior reflects the goals of an individual, we investigated whether motivational valence (i.e., pursuing rewards versus avoiding punishments) also impacts neural and mnemonic encoding of surprising events. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants encountered perceptually unexpected events either during the pursuit of rewards or avoidance of punishments. Despite similar levels of motivation across groups, reward and punishment facilitated the processing of surprising events in different medial temporal lobe regions. Whereas during reward motivation, perceptual surprises enhanced activation in the hippocampus, during punishment motivation surprises instead enhanced activation in parahippocampal cortex. Further, we found that reward motivation facilitated hippocampal coupling with ventromedial PFC, whereas punishment motivation facilitated parahippocampal cortical coupling with orbitofrontal cortex. Behaviorally, post-scan testing revealed that reward, but not punishment, motivation resulted in greater memory selectivity for surprising events encountered during goal pursuit. Together these findings demonstrate that neuromodulatory systems engaged by anticipation of reward and punishment target separate components of the medial temporal lobe, modulating medial temporal lobe sensitivity and connectivity. Thus, reward and punishment motivation yield distinct neural contexts for learning, with distinct consequences for how surprises are incorporated into predictive mnemonic models of the environment. PMID:26854903

  5. Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; LaBar, Kevin S; Adcock, R Alison

    2016-10-01

    Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal representations of the environment, and surprising events are indications for encoding new representations of the environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system, including the hippocampus and surrounding cortex, encodes surprising events and is influenced by motivational state. Because behavior reflects the goals of an individual, we investigated whether motivational valence (i.e., pursuing rewards versus avoiding punishments) also impacts neural and mnemonic encoding of surprising events. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants encountered perceptually unexpected events either during the pursuit of rewards or avoidance of punishments. Despite similar levels of motivation across groups, reward and punishment facilitated the processing of surprising events in different medial temporal lobe regions. Whereas during reward motivation, perceptual surprises enhanced activation in the hippocampus, during punishment motivation surprises instead enhanced activation in parahippocampal cortex. Further, we found that reward motivation facilitated hippocampal coupling with ventromedial PFC, whereas punishment motivation facilitated parahippocampal cortical coupling with orbitofrontal cortex. Behaviorally, post-scan testing revealed that reward, but not punishment, motivation resulted in greater memory selectivity for surprising events encountered during goal pursuit. Together these findings demonstrate that neuromodulatory systems engaged by anticipation of reward and punishment target separate components of the medial temporal lobe, modulating medial temporal lobe sensitivity and connectivity. Thus, reward and punishment motivation yield distinct neural contexts for learning, with distinct consequences for how surprises are incorporated into predictive mnemonic models of the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Forgotten research institute makes money from ideas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobinkovic, B.

    2008-01-01

    Robots that stack magnets weighing several tons in the world's biggest nuclear laboratory with a millimetre precision. Small machines that can destroy bombs, detect bombs in trains, planes or cars. A leading position in an expert group that, with NATO funds, tests how robotic systems can be used in the fight against terrorism. This summary indicates that ideas are an integral part of the work done at the ZTS Vyskumno-vyvojovy ustav (ZTS VVU) research institute in Kosice. This is nothing special for a research institute. But this is a joint stock company. And so it needed one additional vision: producing goods that sell from the research. ZTS VVU has delivered robotic system for accurate positioning of cryo-magnets for the CERN. Cryo-magnet is 16 m long and weights 34 tonnes. For the CERN five robotic systems were delivered. The value of the contract with the CERN was about 60 millions slovak crowns (≅ 2 million EUR). Transport containers, manipulators for decontamination and manipulators with radioactive wastes were manufactured for the Bohunicke spracovatelske centrum (Bohunice Radioactive Waste Processing Center). (authors)

  7. Great Constitutional Ideas: Justice, Equality, and Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Isidore

    1987-01-01

    Examines the ideas of justice, equality, and property as they are represented in the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Discusses how these ideas affect the way public schools operate and the lessons educators teach or don't teach about our society. Includes ideas for classroom activities. (JDH)

  8. Virtual Volatility, an Elementary New Concept with Surprising Stock Market Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prange, Richard; Silva, A. Christian

    2006-03-01

    Textbook investors start by predicting the future price distribution, PDF, of a candidate stock (or portfolio) at horizon T, e.g. a year hence. A (log)normal PDF with center (=drift =expected return) μT and width (=volatility) σT is often assumed on Central Limit Theorem grounds, i.e. by a random walk of daily (log)price increments δs. The standard deviation, stdev, of historical (ex post) δs `s is usually a fair predictor of the coming year's (ex ante) stdev(δs) = σdaily, but the historical mean E(δs) at best roughly limits the true, to be predicted, drift by μtrueT˜ μhistT ± σhistT. Textbooks take a PDF with σ ˜ σdaily and μ as somehow known, as if accurate predictions of μ were possible. It is elementary and presumably new to argue that an average of PDF's over a range of μ values should be taken, e.g. an average over forecasts by different analysts. We estimate that this leads to a PDF with a `virtual' volatility σ ˜ 1.3σdaily. It is indeed clear that uncertainty in the value of the expected gain parameter increases the risk of investment in that security by most measures, e. g. Sharpe's ratio μT/σT will be 30% smaller because of this effect. It is significant and surprising that there are investments which benefit from this 30% virtual increase in the volatility

  9. A conceptual geochemical model of the geothermal system at Surprise Valley, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Andrew P. G.; Ferguson, Colin; Cantwell, Carolyn A.; Zierenberg, Robert A.; McClain, James; Spycher, Nicolas; Dobson, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    Characterizing the geothermal system at Surprise Valley (SV), northeastern California, is important for determining the sustainability of the energy resource, and mitigating hazards associated with hydrothermal eruptions that last occurred in 1951. Previous geochemical studies of the area attempted to reconcile different hot spring compositions on the western and eastern sides of the valley using scenarios of dilution, equilibration at low temperatures, surface evaporation, and differences in rock type along flow paths. These models were primarily supported using classical geothermometry methods, and generally assumed that fluids in the Lake City mud volcano area on the western side of the valley best reflect the composition of a deep geothermal fluid. In this contribution, we address controls on hot spring compositions using a different suite of geochemical tools, including optimized multicomponent geochemistry (GeoT) models, hot spring fluid major and trace element measurements, mineralogical observations, and stable isotope measurements of hot spring fluids and precipitated carbonates. We synthesize the results into a conceptual geochemical model of the Surprise Valley geothermal system, and show that high-temperature (quartz, Na/K, Na/K/Ca) classical geothermometers fail to predict maximum subsurface temperatures because fluids re-equilibrated at progressively lower temperatures during outflow, including in the Lake City area. We propose a model where hot spring fluids originate as a mixture between a deep thermal brine and modern meteoric fluids, with a seasonally variable mixing ratio. The deep brine has deuterium values at least 3 to 4‰ lighter than any known groundwater or high-elevation snow previously measured in and adjacent to SV, suggesting it was recharged during the Pleistocene when meteoric fluids had lower deuterium values. The deuterium values and compositional characteristics of the deep brine have only been identified in thermal springs and

  10. Accurate predictions for the LHC made easy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The data recorded by the LHC experiments is of a very high quality. To get the most out of the data, precise theory predictions, including uncertainty estimates, are needed to reduce as much as possible theoretical bias in the experimental analyses. Recently, significant progress has been made in computing Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) computations, including matching to the parton shower, that allow for these accurate, hadron-level predictions. I shall discuss one of these efforts, the MadGraph5_aMC@NLO program, that aims at the complete automation of predictions at the NLO accuracy within the SM as well as New Physics theories. I’ll illustrate some of the theoretical ideas behind this program, show some selected applications to LHC physics, as well as describe the future plans.

  11. A Contrast-Based Computational Model of Surprise and Its Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Luis; Cardoso, Amílcar

    2017-11-19

    We review our work on a contrast-based computational model of surprise and its applications. The review is contextualized within related research from psychology, philosophy, and particularly artificial intelligence. Influenced by psychological theories of surprise, the model assumes that surprise-eliciting events initiate a series of cognitive processes that begin with the appraisal of the event as unexpected, continue with the interruption of ongoing activity and the focusing of attention on the unexpected event, and culminate in the analysis and evaluation of the event and the revision of beliefs. It is assumed that the intensity of surprise elicited by an event is a nonlinear function of the difference or contrast between the subjective probability of the event and that of the most probable alternative event (which is usually the expected event); and that the agent's behavior is partly controlled by actual and anticipated surprise. We describe applications of artificial agents that incorporate the proposed surprise model in three domains: the exploration of unknown environments, creativity, and intelligent transportation systems. These applications demonstrate the importance of surprise for decision making, active learning, creative reasoning, and selective attention. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  12. A Statistical Analysis of the Relationship between Harmonic Surprise and Preference in Popular Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Scott A; Rosen, David S; Grzywacz, Norberto M

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that some musical pieces may preferentially activate reward centers in the brain. Less is known, however, about the structural aspects of music that are associated with this activation. Based on the music cognition literature, we propose two hypotheses for why some musical pieces are preferred over others. The first, the Absolute-Surprise Hypothesis, states that unexpected events in music directly lead to pleasure. The second, the Contrastive-Surprise Hypothesis, proposes that the juxtaposition of unexpected events and subsequent expected events leads to an overall rewarding response. We tested these hypotheses within the framework of information theory, using the measure of "surprise." This information-theoretic variable mathematically describes how improbable an event is given a known distribution. We performed a statistical investigation of surprise in the harmonic structure of songs within a representative corpus of Western popular music, namely, the McGill Billboard Project corpus. We found that chords of songs in the top quartile of the Billboard chart showed greater average surprise than those in the bottom quartile. We also found that the different sections within top-quartile songs varied more in their average surprise than the sections within bottom-quartile songs. The results of this study are consistent with both the Absolute- and Contrastive-Surprise Hypotheses. Although these hypotheses seem contradictory to one another, we cannot yet discard the possibility that both absolute and contrastive types of surprise play roles in the enjoyment of popular music. We call this possibility the Hybrid-Surprise Hypothesis. The results of this statistical investigation have implications for both music cognition and the human neural mechanisms of esthetic judgments.

  13. Summit surprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, N

    1994-01-01

    A New Delhi Population Summit, organized by the Royal Society, the US National Academy of Sciences, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and the Indian National Science Academy, was convened with representation of 120 (only 10% women) scientists from 50 countries and about 12 disciplines and 43 national scientific academies. Despite the common assumption that scientists never agree, a 3000 word statement was signed by 50 prominent national figures and supported by 25 professional papers on diverse subjects. The statement proclaimed that stable world population and "prodigious planning efforts" are required for dealing with global social, economic, and environmental problems. The target should be zero population growth by the next generation. The statement, although containing many uncompromising assertions, was not as strong as a statement by the Royal Society and the US National Academy of Sciences released last year: that, in the future, science and technology may not be able to prevent "irreversible degradation of the environment and continued poverty," and that the capacity to sustain life on the planet may be permanently jeopardized. The Delhi statement was backed by professional papers highlighting several important issues. Dr Mahmoud Fathalla of the Rockefeller Foundation claimed that the 500,000 annual maternal deaths worldwide, of which perhaps 33% are due to "coathanger" abortions, are given far less attention than a one-day political event of 500 deaths would receive. Although biologically women have been given a greater survival advantage, which is associated with their reproductive capacity, socially disadvantaged females are relegated to low status. There is poorer nutrition and overall health care for females, female infanticide, and female fetuses are increasingly aborted in China, India, and other countries. The sex ratio in developed countries is 95-97 males to every 100 females, but in developing Asian countries the ratio is 105 males to 100 females. There are reports of 60-100 million missing females. The human species 12,000 years ago had a population of 6 million, a life expectancy of 20 years, and a doubling time of 8000 years; high birth rates were important for preservation of the species. Profertility attitudes are still prevalent today. Insufficient funds go to contraceptive research.

  14. Exploring the Effects of Contest Mechanisms on Idea Shortlisting in an Open Idea Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merz, Alexander Benedikt; Seeber, Isabella; Maier, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Picking the most promising from a multitude of crowd-generated ideas challenges organizations that employ open idea competitions. Hence, hosts of such contests often filter submitted ideas into shortlists to help juries selecting the winning ideas. While contest communities and rewards have been...

  15. Power Through, Over and in Ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Martin B.; Schmidt, Vivien A.

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the tendency of discursive institutionalists to conflate the notion that ‘ideas matter' for policy-making with the ‘power of ideas’, little has been done to explicitly theorize ideational power. To fill this lacuna, the contribution defines ideational power as the capacity of actors...... (whether individual or collective) to influence other actors’ normative and cognitive beliefs through the use of ideational elements, and – based on insights from the discursive institutionalist literature – suggests three different types of ideational power: power through ideas, understood as the capacity...... of actors to persuade other actors to accept and adopt their views through the use of ideational elements; power over ideas, meaning the imposition of ideas and the power to resist the inclusion of alternative ideas into the policy-making arena; and power in ideas, which takes place through the establishing...

  16. Power Through, Over and in Ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Martin B.; Schmidt, Vivien A.

    2016-01-01

    of actors to persuade other actors to accept and adopt their views through the use of ideational elements; power over ideas, meaning the imposition of ideas and the power to resist the inclusion of alternative ideas into the policy-making arena; and power in ideas, which takes place through the establishing......Owing to the tendency of discursive institutionalists to conflate the notion that ‘ideas matter' for policy-making with the ‘power of ideas’, little has been done to explicitly theorize ideational power. To fill this lacuna, the contribution defines ideational power as the capacity of actors...... (whether individual or collective) to influence other actors’ normative and cognitive beliefs through the use of ideational elements, and – based on insights from the discursive institutionalist literature – suggests three different types of ideational power: power through ideas, understood as the capacity...

  17. Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Murty, Vishnu P.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal representations of the environment, and surprising events are indications for encoding new representations of the environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system, including the hippocampus and surrounding cortex, encodes surprising events and is influenced by motivational state. Because behavior reflects the goals of an individual, we investigated whether motivational valence (i.e., pursuing rewards versus avoiding punishments) also...

  18. Identifying the emergence of design ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inie, Nanna

    This position paper outlines four types of design idea indicators that provide four starting points for exploration of the emergence of design ideas from a micro perspective. The results are derived from two empirical studies of design processes. The research builds on the assumption that we need...... better understanding and definition of design idea emergence and transformation in order to systematically explore the creative process....

  19. Economic Ideas During the Malolos Congress

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel S. de Dios

    1999-01-01

    While much has been written about the political ideas of the revolution, little if anything has been written about its economic ideas. This paper is an attempt to provide an intellectual background to the economic policies and directives emanating from the Malolos Republic. It traces the source of the revolution’s economics to cameralist ideas, a handed down by liberal Spanish thinkers and practical policy reformers. It documents these influences in the revolution’s policies towards public fi...

  20. A Field Experiment in Motivating Employee Ideas

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne Neckermann; Michael Gibbs; Christoph Siemroth

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We study the effects of a field experiment designed to motivate employee ideas, at a large technology company. Employees were encouraged to submit ideas on process and product improvements via an online system. In the experiment, the company randomized 19 account teams into treatment and control groups. Employees in treatment teams received rewards if their ideas were approved. Nothing changed for employees in control teams. Our main finding is that rewards substa...

  1. Living in the WOW of Your Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabry, M. Parker

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the author got to thinking about some of the ideas that have crossed her mind in the last couple of weeks. The list made her smile. And as she went over it point by point in her head she tried to determine what, if any, reasonable or logical patterns were emerging in her myriad of ideas. The four divergent ideas presented in this article…

  2. Accurate Evaluation of Quantum Integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galant, D. C.; Goorvitch, D.; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Combining an appropriate finite difference method with Richardson's extrapolation results in a simple, highly accurate numerical method for solving a Schrodinger's equation. Important results are that error estimates are provided, and that one can extrapolate expectation values rather than the wavefunctions to obtain highly accurate expectation values. We discuss the eigenvalues, the error growth in repeated Richardson's extrapolation, and show that the expectation values calculated on a crude mesh can be extrapolated to obtain expectation values of high accuracy.

  3. Overcome IMF crisis with idea and invention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    1998-01-01

    This book introduces the invention as a tool to overcome IMF crisis. These are the titles of the way to create invention and idea : what is idea? everyone can create something, have a confidence, this is patent, replace or change something, invention is not logical, challenge the normal law, throw away stereotype, movement of idea, original imagination, there are a lot of solutions, there is no expert, have a positive thought, why does inventor invent? necessity is invention of mother, three stage of idea and invention and imitation for invention.

  4. Overcome IMF crisis with idea and invention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    1998-01-15

    This book introduces the invention as a tool to overcome IMF crisis. These are the titles of the way to create invention and idea : what is idea? everyone can create something, have a confidence, this is patent, replace or change something, invention is not logical, challenge the normal law, throw away stereotype, movement of idea, original imagination, there are a lot of solutions, there is no expert, have a positive thought, why does inventor invent? necessity is invention of mother, three stage of idea and invention and imitation for invention.

  5. Ignorance, Vulnerability and the Occurrence of "Radical Surprises": Theoretical Reflections and Empirical Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlicke, C.

    2009-04-01

    By definition natural disasters always contain a moment of surprise. Their occurrence is mostly unforeseen and unexpected. They hit people unprepared, overwhelm them and expose their helplessness. Yet, there is surprisingly little known on the reasons for their being surprised. Aren't natural disasters expectable and foreseeable after all? Aren't the return rates of most hazards well known and shouldn't people be better prepared? The central question of this presentation is hence: Why do natural disasters so often radically surprise people at all (and how can we explain this being surprised)? In the first part of the presentation, it is argued that most approaches to vulnerability are not able to grasp this moment of surprise. On the contrary, they have their strength in unravelling the expectable: A person who is marginalized or even oppressed in everyday life is also vulnerable during times of crisis and stress, at least this is the central assumption of most vulnerability studies. In the second part, an understanding of vulnerability is developed, which allows taking into account such radical surprises. First, two forms of the unknown are differentiated: An area of the unknown an actor is more or less aware of (ignorance), and an area, which is not even known to be not known (nescience). The discovery of the latter is mostly associated with a "radical surprise", since it is per definition impossible to prepare for it. Second, a definition of vulnerability is proposed, which allows capturing the dynamics of surprises: People are vulnerable when they discover their nescience exceeding by definition previously established routines, stocks of knowledge and resources—in a general sense their capacities—to deal with their physical and/or social environment. This definition explicitly takes the view of different actors serious and departs from their being surprised. In the third part findings of a case study are presented, the 2002 flood in Germany. It is shown

  6. Master’s Thesis Ideas 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Nielsen, Peter V.; Brohus, Henrik

    The report contain a list of project ideas proposed by the scientific staff at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, and some companies.......The report contain a list of project ideas proposed by the scientific staff at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, and some companies....

  7. The National Origins of Policy Ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.; Pedersen, Ove K.

    2014-01-01

    In this article John Campbell and Ove Pedersen argue that the way policy ideas are generated by knowledge regimes varies considerably across countries; and the effect on national politics is significant. The article is adapted from The National Origins of Policy Ideas: Knowledge Regimes...

  8. 3rd Semester and Master's Thesis Ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan

    The following pages contain a list of project ideas proposed by the scientific staff at the department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, and a number of companies. Most of the project ideas in this catalouge may form the basis for long and short candidate projects as well as regular 3rd...

  9. The circulation of ideas: firms versus markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmann, T.F.; Perotti, E.C.

    2006-01-01

    We describe new ideas as incomplete concepts for which the innovator needs feedback from agents with complementary skills. Once shared, ideas may be stolen. We compare how different contractual environments support invention and implementation. Markets, as open exchange systems, are good for

  10. A Field Experiment in Motivating Employee Ideas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Gibbs (Michael); S. Neckermann (Susanne); C. Siemroth (Christoph)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We study the effects of a field experiment designed to motivate employee ideas, at a large technology company. Employees were encouraged to submit ideas on process and product improvements via an online system. In the experiment, the company randomized 19 account

  11. The challenges and benefits of idea management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Deichmann (Dirk)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractFor organisations to sustain success in their markets, and in order to survive, they need to utilise their workforce as effectively as possible. By stimulating and implementing employees’ ideas for improvement and innovation, idea management encourages people to participate in the

  12. Time: Assessing Understanding of Core Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Margaret; McDonough, Andrea; Clarkson, Philip; Clarke, Doug

    2016-01-01

    Although an understanding of time is crucial in our society, curriculum documents have an undue emphasis on reading time and little emphasis on core underlying ideas. Given this context, a one-to-one assessment interview, based on a new framework, was developed and administered to investigate students' understanding of core ideas undergirding the…

  13. History of Great Ideas: An Honors Seminar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Marty; And Others

    The History of Great Ideas is an interdisciplinary seminar course for sophomore honor students at North Arkansas Community Technical College that teaches the intellectual history of western civilization. Each semester, students study 14 ideas from science, philosophy, history, religion, sociology, and economics to discover how philosophical…

  14. Entrepreneurial Idea Identification through Online Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing use of social network websites may signal a change in the way the next generation of entrepreneurs identify entrepreneurial ideas. An important part of the entrepreneurship literature emphasizes how vital the use of social networks is to entrepreneurial idea identification, opportunity recognition, and ultimately new venture…

  15. Turkish Students' Ideas about Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Ahmet; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

    2008-01-01

    A questionnaire was used to explore the prevalence of ideas about global warming in Year 10 (age 15-16 years) school students in Turkey. The frequencies of individual scientific ideas and misconceptions about the causes, consequences and "cures" of global warming were identified. In addition, several general findings emerged from this…

  16. On the content of a product idea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2005-01-01

    In an industrial company developing consumer products for the global marketplace, it is the management’s task to decide which product ideas shall be selected as a basis for developing new and innovative products. The company management has to allocate resources to a portfolio of product ideas...

  17. IDEA MANAGEMENT IN THE INNOVATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin George ALEXE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The employees of a company often want to make themselves useful and to make life easier at work by providing potentially useful ideas, aimed at eliminating problems or to exploit the opportunities. Without the ability to obtain new ideas, an organization stagnates, declines and eventually is eliminated by the competitors who have new ideas. To materialize the idea into an innovative product, it is desirable that it corresponds to the company's goals to be achieved with the existing technology and resources in order to reduce the investments. Thus, it appeared the need for an idea management to bring order in the set of ideas and to create a transparent and effective mode in attracting and management of these ideas. This paper proposes, starting from a number of scientific approaches in the literature, to address to the idea management as a complex model and to identify which are those dedicated IT solutions that could help going over various phases and sub-phases of such a complex model, particularly useful for the management of a company.

  18. The National Origins of Policy Ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.; Pedersen, Ove K.

    In politics, ideas matter. They provide the foundation for economic policymaking, which in turn shapes what is possible in domestic and international politics. Yet until now, little attention has been paid to how these ideas are produced and disseminated, and how this process varies between...... countries. The National Origins of Policy Ideas provides the first comparative analysis of how "knowledge regimes" communities of policy research organizations like think tanks, political party foundations, ad hoc commissions, and state research offices, and the institutions that govern them generate ideas...... and communicate them to policymakers. John Campbell and Ove Pedersen examine how knowledge regimes are organized, operate, and have changed over the last thirty years in the United States, France, Germany, and Denmark. They show how there are persistent national differences in how policy ideas are produced. Some...

  19. Towards accurate emergency response behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, T.O.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear reactor operator emergency response behavior has persisted as a training problem through lack of information. The industry needs an accurate definition of operator behavior in adverse stress conditions, and training methods which will produce the desired behavior. Newly assembled information from fifty years of research into human behavior in both high and low stress provides a more accurate definition of appropriate operator response, and supports training methods which will produce the needed control room behavior. The research indicates that operator response in emergencies is divided into two modes, conditioned behavior and knowledge based behavior. Methods which assure accurate conditioned behavior, and provide for the recovery of knowledge based behavior, are described in detail

  20. Keep it Accurate and Diverse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali Bagheri, Mohammad; Gao, Qigang; Guerrero, Sergio Escalera

    2015-01-01

    the performance of an ensemble of action learning techniques, each performing the recognition task from a different per- spective. The underlying idea is that instead of aiming a very sophisticated and powerful representation/learning technique, we can learn action categories using a set of relatively simple...... to improve the recognition perfor- mance, a powerful combination strategy is utilized based on the Dempster-Shafer theory, which can effectively make use of diversity of base learners trained on different sources of information. The recognition results of the individual clas- sifiers are compared with those...... obtained from fusing the classifiers’ output, showing enhanced performance of the proposed methodology....

  1. What is a surprise earthquake? The example of the 2002, San Giuliano (Italy event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mucciarelli

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Both in scientific literature and in the mass media, some earthquakes are defined as «surprise earthquakes». Based on his own judgment, probably any geologist, seismologist or engineer may have his own list of past «surprise earthquakes». This paper tries to quantify the underlying individual perception that may lead a scientist to apply such a definition to a seismic event. The meaning is different, depending on the disciplinary approach. For geologists, the Italian database of seismogenic sources is still too incomplete to allow for a quantitative estimate of the subjective degree of belief. For seismologists, quantification is possible defining the distance between an earthquake and its closest previous neighbor. Finally, for engineers, the San Giuliano quake could not be considered a surprise, since probabilistic site hazard estimates reveal that the change before and after the earthquake is just 4%.

  2. Conference of “Uncertainty and Surprise: Questions on Working with the Unexpected and Unknowable”

    CERN Document Server

    McDaniel, Reuben R; Uncertainty and Surprise in Complex Systems : Questions on Working with the Unexpected

    2005-01-01

    Complexity science has been a source of new insight in physical and social systems and has demonstrated that unpredictability and surprise are fundamental aspects of the world around us. This book is the outcome of a discussion meeting of leading scholars and critical thinkers with expertise in complex systems sciences and leaders from a variety of organizations sponsored by the Prigogine Center at The University of Texas at Austin and the Plexus Institute to explore strategies for understanding uncertainty and surprise. Besides distributions to the conference it includes a key digest by the editors as well as a commentary by the late nobel laureat Ilya Prigogine, "Surprises in half of a century". The book is intended for researchers and scientists in complexity science as well as for a broad interdisciplinary audience of both practitioners and scholars. It will well serve those interested in the research issues and in the application of complexity science to physical and social systems.

  3. The Most Distant Mature Galaxy Cluster - Young, but surprisingly grown-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Astronomers have used an armada of telescopes on the ground and in space, including the Very Large Telescope at ESO's Paranal Observatory in Chile to discover and measure the distance to the most remote mature cluster of galaxies yet found. Although this cluster is seen when the Universe was less than one quarter of its current age it looks surprisingly similar to galaxy clusters in the current Universe. "We have measured the distance to the most distant mature cluster of galaxies ever found", says the lead author of the study in which the observations from ESO's VLT have been used, Raphael Gobat (CEA, Paris). "The surprising thing is that when we look closely at this galaxy cluster it doesn't look young - many of the galaxies have settled down and don't resemble the usual star-forming galaxies seen in the early Universe." Clusters of galaxies are the largest structures in the Universe that are held together by gravity. Astronomers expect these clusters to grow through time and hence that massive clusters would be rare in the early Universe. Although even more distant clusters have been seen, they appear to be young clusters in the process of formation and are not settled mature systems. The international team of astronomers used the powerful VIMOS and FORS2 instruments on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) to measure the distances to some of the blobs in a curious patch of very faint red objects first observed with the Spitzer space telescope. This grouping, named CL J1449+0856 [1], had all the hallmarks of being a very remote cluster of galaxies [2]. The results showed that we are indeed seeing a galaxy cluster as it was when the Universe was about three billion years old - less than one quarter of its current age [3]. Once the team knew the distance to this very rare object they looked carefully at the component galaxies using both the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based telescopes, including the VLT. They found evidence suggesting that most of the

  4. Salience and attention in surprisal-based accounts of language processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eZarcone

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The notion of salience has been singled out as the explanatory factor for a diverse range oflinguistic phenomena. In particular, perceptual salience (e.g. visual salience of objects in the world,acoustic prominence of linguistic sounds and semantic-pragmatic salience (e.g. prominence ofrecently mentioned or topical referents have been shown to influence language comprehensionand production. A different line of research has sought to account for behavioral correlates ofcognitive load during comprehension as well as for certain patterns in language usage usinginformation-theoretic notions, such as surprisal. Surprisal and salience both affect languageprocessing at different levels, but the relationship between the two has not been adequatelyelucidated, and the question of whether salience can be reduced to surprisal / predictability isstill open. Our review identifies two main challenges in addressing this question: terminologicalinconsistency and lack of integration between high and low levels of representations in salience-based accounts and surprisal-based accounts. We capitalise upon work in visual cognition inorder to orient ourselves in surveying the different facets of the notion of salience in linguisticsand their relation with models of surprisal. We find that work on salience highlights aspects oflinguistic communication that models of surprisal tend to overlook, namely the role of attentionand relevance to current goals, and we argue that the Predictive Coding framework provides aunified view which can account for the role played by attention and predictability at different levelsof processing and which can clarify the interplay between low and high levels of processes andbetween predictability-driven expectation and attention-driven focus.

  5. Salience and Attention in Surprisal-Based Accounts of Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarcone, Alessandra; van Schijndel, Marten; Vogels, Jorrig; Demberg, Vera

    2016-01-01

    The notion of salience has been singled out as the explanatory factor for a diverse range of linguistic phenomena. In particular, perceptual salience (e.g., visual salience of objects in the world, acoustic prominence of linguistic sounds) and semantic-pragmatic salience (e.g., prominence of recently mentioned or topical referents) have been shown to influence language comprehension and production. A different line of research has sought to account for behavioral correlates of cognitive load during comprehension as well as for certain patterns in language usage using information-theoretic notions, such as surprisal. Surprisal and salience both affect language processing at different levels, but the relationship between the two has not been adequately elucidated, and the question of whether salience can be reduced to surprisal / predictability is still open. Our review identifies two main challenges in addressing this question: terminological inconsistency and lack of integration between high and low levels of representations in salience-based accounts and surprisal-based accounts. We capitalize upon work in visual cognition in order to orient ourselves in surveying the different facets of the notion of salience in linguistics and their relation with models of surprisal. We find that work on salience highlights aspects of linguistic communication that models of surprisal tend to overlook, namely the role of attention and relevance to current goals, and we argue that the Predictive Coding framework provides a unified view which can account for the role played by attention and predictability at different levels of processing and which can clarify the interplay between low and high levels of processes and between predictability-driven expectation and attention-driven focus.

  6. Salience and Attention in Surprisal-Based Accounts of Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarcone, Alessandra; van Schijndel, Marten; Vogels, Jorrig; Demberg, Vera

    2016-01-01

    The notion of salience has been singled out as the explanatory factor for a diverse range of linguistic phenomena. In particular, perceptual salience (e.g., visual salience of objects in the world, acoustic prominence of linguistic sounds) and semantic-pragmatic salience (e.g., prominence of recently mentioned or topical referents) have been shown to influence language comprehension and production. A different line of research has sought to account for behavioral correlates of cognitive load during comprehension as well as for certain patterns in language usage using information-theoretic notions, such as surprisal. Surprisal and salience both affect language processing at different levels, but the relationship between the two has not been adequately elucidated, and the question of whether salience can be reduced to surprisal / predictability is still open. Our review identifies two main challenges in addressing this question: terminological inconsistency and lack of integration between high and low levels of representations in salience-based accounts and surprisal-based accounts. We capitalize upon work in visual cognition in order to orient ourselves in surveying the different facets of the notion of salience in linguistics and their relation with models of surprisal. We find that work on salience highlights aspects of linguistic communication that models of surprisal tend to overlook, namely the role of attention and relevance to current goals, and we argue that the Predictive Coding framework provides a unified view which can account for the role played by attention and predictability at different levels of processing and which can clarify the interplay between low and high levels of processes and between predictability-driven expectation and attention-driven focus. PMID:27375525

  7. Elimination of Ideas and Professional Socialisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravengaard, Gitte; Rimestad, Lene

    2012-01-01

    . Our aim is to study how this building of expertise takes place at meetings with a particular focus on the decision-making process concerning ideas for new news stories. In order to do this, we perform linguistic analysis of news production practices, as we investigate how the journalists' ideas...... for potential news stories are eliminated by the editor at the daily newsroom meetings. The elimination of ideas for news stories are not just eliminations; they are also corrections of culturally undesirable behaviour producing and reproducing the proper perception of an important object of knowledge...

  8. A literature review of idea management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anna Rose Vagn

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the paper is primarily to conduct a state-of-the-art literature review of Idea Management and secondary to point out unanswered questions which are left behind in the reviewed literature. Scientific knowledge is primarily represented in innovation management literature but also...... considerably in literature on software and IT. On the background of the literature review, there are some weaknesses in the literature to be considered. These weaknesses concern the understanding of how people interact with idea management in their daily work practices and how different types of ideas...

  9. Taking an idea to a research protocol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... Review Article: Taking an idea to a research protocol ... step is to identify the knowledge gap within the intended field of research by examining the background ... be found by writing a critical narrative review of the literature.

  10. Idea Generation in Highly Institutionalized Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agoguè, Marine; Boxenbaum, Eva

    innovation. An important question facing innovation research is thus how actors can generate ideas that break with the field frame in highly institutionalized fields? To answer this question, we draw on insights into dual process modeling from cognitive sciences. Dual process modeling emphasizes...... the different nature of the conscious (deliberate) and subconscious (implicit) systems involved in ideation. We further elaborate on how these two systems relate to four streams of research that management scholars evoke to model microprocesses of generating new ideas, namely metaphors, conceptual blending......The early phase of innovation processes in highly institutionalized fields relies on the capabilities of actors to generate new ideas that break with the field frame. Informed by a dominant logic, a field frame shapes collective cognition and can thus prevent the generation of new ideas and block...

  11. The National Origins of Policy Ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.; Pedersen, Ove K.

    countries. The National Origins of Policy Ideas provides the first comparative analysis of how "knowledge regimes" communities of policy research organizations like think tanks, political party foundations, ad hoc commissions, and state research offices, and the institutions that govern them generate ideas...... contexts. Drawing on extensive interviews with top officials at leading policy research organizations, this book demonstrates why knowledge regimes are as important to capitalism as the state and the firm, and sheds new light on debates about the effects of globalization, the rise of neoliberalism......In politics, ideas matter. They provide the foundation for economic policymaking, which in turn shapes what is possible in domestic and international politics. Yet until now, little attention has been paid to how these ideas are produced and disseminated, and how this process varies between...

  12. In Search of the Bright Idea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Tim

    1980-01-01

    It is suggested that coming up with fresh and interesting ideas for college and university publications requires keeping an open mind to events, people, and surroundings, finding good writers, and planning interesting layouts with illustrations. (MSE)

  13. ''Nature is unknowable''. The idea of uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crozon, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with one of the great idea of the twentieth century, the uncertainty principle of Heisenberg. With a philosophical approach the author explains this principle and presents its cultural impacts on mind. (A.L.B.)

  14. Impact of Lemaitre's ideas on modern cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peebles, P.J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The author recalls some of the history of the discovery of the expansion of the universe. Then he presents an assessment of the present status of some of Lemaitre's main ideas in physical cosmology. (Auth.)

  15. When Is Network Lasso Accurate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Jung

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The “least absolute shrinkage and selection operator” (Lasso method has been adapted recently for network-structured datasets. In particular, this network Lasso method allows to learn graph signals from a small number of noisy signal samples by using the total variation of a graph signal for regularization. While efficient and scalable implementations of the network Lasso are available, only little is known about the conditions on the underlying network structure which ensure network Lasso to be accurate. By leveraging concepts of compressed sensing, we address this gap and derive precise conditions on the underlying network topology and sampling set which guarantee the network Lasso for a particular loss function to deliver an accurate estimate of the entire underlying graph signal. We also quantify the error incurred by network Lasso in terms of two constants which reflect the connectivity of the sampled nodes.

  16. New weak keys in simplified IDEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafman, Sari Agustini; Muhafidzah, Arini

    2016-02-01

    Simplified IDEA (S-IDEA) is simplified version of International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) and useful teaching tool to help students to understand IDEA. In 2012, Muryanto and Hafman have found a weak key class in the S-IDEA by used differential characteristics in one-round (0, ν, 0, ν) → (0,0, ν, ν) on the first round to produce input difference (0,0, ν, ν) on the fifth round. Because Muryanto and Hafman only use three differential characteristics in one-round, we conducted a research to find new differential characteristics in one-round and used it to produce new weak key classes of S-IDEA. To find new differential characteristics in one-round of S-IDEA, we applied a multiplication mod 216+1 on input difference and combination of active sub key Z1, Z4, Z5, Z6. New classes of weak keys are obtained by combining all of these characteristics and use them to construct two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA with or without the 4th round sub key. In this research, we found six new differential characteristics in one round and combined them to construct two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA. When two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA are used and the 4th round sub key required, we obtain 2 new classes of weak keys, 213 and 28. When two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA are used, yet the 4th round sub key is not required, the weak key class of 213 will be 221 and 28 will be 210. Membership test can not be applied to recover the key bits in those weak key classes. The recovery of those unknown key bits can only be done by using brute force attack. The simulation result indicates that the bit of the key can be recovered by the longest computation time of 0,031 ms.

  17. The Accurate Particle Tracer Code

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yulei; Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong; Yu, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    The Accurate Particle Tracer (APT) code is designed for large-scale particle simulations on dynamical systems. Based on a large variety of advanced geometric algorithms, APT possesses long-term numerical accuracy and stability, which are critical for solving multi-scale and non-linear problems. Under the well-designed integrated and modularized framework, APT serves as a universal platform for researchers from different fields, such as plasma physics, accelerator physics, space science, fusio...

  18. Accurate x-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deslattes, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    Heavy ion accelerators are the most flexible and readily accessible sources of highly charged ions. These having only one or two remaining electrons have spectra whose accurate measurement is of considerable theoretical significance. Certain features of ion production by accelerators tend to limit the accuracy which can be realized in measurement of these spectra. This report aims to provide background about spectroscopic limitations and discuss how accelerator operations may be selected to permit attaining intrinsically limited data

  19. General Process for Business Idea Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Halinen, Anu

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents a process for generating ideas with the intent to propagate new business within a micro-company. Utilizing this newly proposed process, generation of new ideas will be initiated allowing for subsequent business plans to be implemented to grow the existing customer base. Cloudberrywind is a family-owned and family-operated micro company in the Finnish region that offers information technology consulting services and support for project management to improve company efficie...

  20. Surprise Gift” Purchases of Small Electric Appliances: A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vanhamme (Joëlle); C.J.P.M. de Bont (Cees)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractUnderstanding decision-making processes for gifts is of strategic importance for companies selling small electrical appliances as gifts account for a large part of their sales. Among all gifts, the ones that are surprising are the most valued by recipients. However, research about

  1. Dealing with unexpected events on the flight deck : A conceptual model of startle and surprise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman, H.M.; Groen, E.L.; Paassen, M.M. van; Bronkhorst, A.W.; Mulder, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: A conceptual model is proposed in order to explain pilot performance in surprising and startling situations. Background: Today’s debate around loss of control following in-flight events and the implementation of upset prevention and recovery training has highlighted the importance of

  2. Bagpipes and Artichokes: Surprise as a Stimulus to Learning in the Elementary Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Bonnie Schaffhauser

    2016-01-01

    Incorporating surprise into music instruction can stimulate student attention, curiosity, and interest. Novelty focuses attention in the reticular activating system, increasing the potential for brain memory storage. Elementary ages are ideal for introducing novel instruments, pieces, composers, or styles of music. Young children have fewer…

  3. The Educational Philosophies of Mordecai Kaplan and Michael Rosenak: Surprising Similarities and Illuminating Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Jeffrey; Caplan, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The thoughts of Mordecai Kaplan and Michael Rosenak present surprising commonalities as well as illuminating differences. Similarities include the perception that Judaism and Jewish education are in crisis, the belief that Jewish peoplehood must include commitment to meaningful content, the need for teachers to teach from a position of…

  4. Decision-making under surprise and uncertainty: Arsenic contamination of water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhir, Timothy O.; Mozumder, Pallab; Halim, Nafisa

    2018-05-01

    With ignorance and potential surprise dominating decision making in water resources, a framework for dealing with such uncertainty is a critical need in hydrology. We operationalize the 'potential surprise' criterion proposed by Shackle, Vickers, and Katzner (SVK) to derive decision rules to manage water resources under uncertainty and ignorance. We apply this framework to managing water supply systems in Bangladesh that face severe, naturally occurring arsenic contamination. The uncertainty involved with arsenic in water supplies makes the application of conventional analysis of decision-making ineffective. Given the uncertainty and surprise involved in such cases, we find that optimal decisions tend to favor actions that avoid irreversible outcomes instead of conventional cost-effective actions. We observe that a diversification of the water supply system also emerges as a robust strategy to avert unintended outcomes of water contamination. Shallow wells had a slight higher optimal level (36%) compare to deep wells and surface treatment which had allocation levels of roughly 32% under each. The approach can be applied in a variety of other cases that involve decision making under uncertainty and surprise, a frequent situation in natural resources management.

  5. Surprising results: HIV testing and changes in contraceptive practices among young women in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennott, Christie; Yeatman, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This study uses eight waves of data from the population-based Tsogolo la Thanzi study (2009–2011) in rural Malawi to examine changes in young women’s contraceptive practices, including the use of condoms, non-barrier contraceptive methods, and abstinence, following positive and negative HIV tests. The analysis factors in women’s prior perceptions of their HIV status that may already be shaping their behaviour and separates surprise HIV test results from those that merely confirm what was already believed. Fixed effects logistic regression models show that HIV testing frequently affects the contraceptive practices of young Malawian women, particularly when the test yields an unexpected result. Specifically, women who are surprised to test HIV positive increase their condom use and are more likely to use condoms consistently. Following an HIV negative test (whether a surprise or expected), women increase their use of condoms and decrease their use of non-barrier contraceptives; the latter may be due to an increase in abstinence following a surprise negative result. Changes in condom use following HIV testing are robust to the inclusion of potential explanatory mechanisms including fertility preferences, relationship status, and the perception that a partner is HIV positive. The results demonstrate that both positive and negative tests can influence women’s sexual and reproductive behaviours, and emphasise the importance of conceptualizing of HIV testing as offering new information only insofar as results deviate from prior perceptions of HIV status. PMID:26160156

  6. Surprise, Memory, and Retrospective Judgment Making: Testing Cognitive Reconstruction Theories of the Hindsight Bias Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Ivan K.

    2009-01-01

    Hindsight bias has been shown to be a pervasive and potentially harmful decision-making bias. A review of 4 competing cognitive reconstruction theories of hindsight bias revealed conflicting predictions about the role and effect of expectation or surprise in retrospective judgment formation. Two experiments tested these predictions examining the…

  7. Accurate determination of antenna directivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Mikael

    1997-01-01

    The derivation of a formula for accurate estimation of the total radiated power from a transmitting antenna for which the radiated power density is known in a finite number of points on the far-field sphere is presented. The main application of the formula is determination of directivity from power......-pattern measurements. The derivation is based on the theory of spherical wave expansion of electromagnetic fields, which also establishes a simple criterion for the required number of samples of the power density. An array antenna consisting of Hertzian dipoles is used to test the accuracy and rate of convergence...

  8. The trouble with drink: why ideas matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Griffith

    2010-05-01

    This paper builds upon the work of previous authors who have explored the evolution of ideas in the alcohol arena. With revisions in the relevant sections of ICD and DSM forthcoming, such matters are of considerable contemporary importance. The focus here will be upon the history of the last 200 years. The main themes to be explored include the flux of ideas on what, over time, has counted as the trouble with drink, ideas on the cause of the problem and the impact of this thinking on public action. Medical authorities of the late Enlightenment period made the revolutionary suggestion that habitual drunkenness constituted a disease, rather than a vice. The thread of that idea can be traced to the present day, but with an alternative perception of drink itself or alcohol-related problems generally, as cause for concern, also having a lineage. There are several inferences to be drawn from this history: the need for vigilance lest disease formulations become stalking-horses for moralism and social control, the need to integrate awareness of alcohol dependence as a dimensional individual-level problem, with a public health understanding of the vastly amorphous and at least equally important universe of alcohol-related problems; the dangers lurking in scientific reductionism when the problems at issue truly require a multi-disciplinary analysis; and the need for global consensus rather than cultural imposition of ideas on what counts as the problem with drink.

  9. C. Linnaeus' ideas concerning retribution and fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rob. V. Wikman

    1967-02-01

    Full Text Available Linnæus' Nemesis divina has been interpreted in different ways. Crucial is its central problem: the ideas of fate and retribution, but these are, in turn, dependent on Linnæus' conception of God and nature and not least on his opinions concerning the unity and coherence of the natural and ethical order of the world. From whatever sources Linnæus may have derived his religious ideas and whatever changes they may have undergone, his religious attitude in face of the works of nature remained unshaken. But Linnæus' religion, as we find it fragmentarily in these literary sources, was entirely undogmatic, untheological and, from a Christian point of view, even heterodox. Partly, this was in accord with his belief in the necessary immanent coherence in the processes of nature and the concomitant idea of the righteous divine order of the world.

  10. On the content of a product idea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    because many stakeholders, aspects and future events have to be predicted and taken into account. From a research viewpoint we see at least three ways to support a company with its task to select product ideas for further development: 1. To develop systematic procedures for better collecting and recording......, and the business and innovation oriented literature we have observed that many terms are used, e.g. need, problem, business opportunity, task, creative solution, innovation, the radical idea etc., but the terms have different meanings for different authors. We have for more than a decade organised a PhD summer...... in industrial practice. Thus, a proper support of company’s management and design team is to contribute to a coherent and subtle understanding of the nature and content of a product idea and creation of a productive mindset and skills. We see such a contribution not only as important, but also as of actual...

  11. Digital Earth - Young generation's comprehension and ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrova, T.; Konecny, M.

    2014-02-01

    The authors are experienced in working with children and students in the field of early warning and crises management and cartography. All these topics are closely connected to Digital Earth (DE) ideas. On the basis of a questionnaire, the young generation's comprehension of DE concept is clarified. Students from different age groups (from 19 to 36) from different countries and with different social, cultural, economical and political backgrounds are asked to provide definition of DE and describe their basic ideas about meaning, methodology and applications of the concept. The questions aim to discover the young generation's comprehension of DE ideas. They partially cover the newest trends of DE development like social, cultural and environmental issues as well as the styles of new communications (Google Earth, Facebook, LinkedIn, etc.). In order to assure the future development of the DE science, it is important to take into account the young generation's expectations. Some aspects of DE development are considered in the Conclusions.

  12. Preservice Elementary Teachers' Ideas About Scientific Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Amy

    2014-10-01

    With the goal of producing scientifically literate citizens who are able to make informed decisions and reason critically when science intersects with their everyday lives, the National Research Council (NRC) has produced two recent documents that call for a new approach to K-12 science education that is based on scientific practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas. These documents will potentially influence future state standards and K-12 curricula. Teachers will need support in order to teach science using a practices based approach, particularly if they do not have strong science backgrounds, which is often the case with elementary teachers. This study investigates one cohort (n = 19) of preservice elementary teachers' ideas about scientific practices, as developed in a one-semester elementary science teaching methods course. The course focused on eight particular scientific practices, as defined by the National Research Council's A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (2012). Participants' written reflections, lesson plans and annotated teaching videos were analyzed in fine detail to better understand their ideas about what it means to engage in each of the practices. The findings suggest that preservice elementary teachers hold promising ideas about scientific practices (such as an emphasis on argumentation and communication between scientists, critical thinking, and answering and asking questions as the goal of science) as well as problematic ideas (including confusion over the purpose of modeling and the process of analysis, and conflating argumentation and explanation building). These results highlight the strengths and limitations of using the Framework (NRC 2012) as an instructional text and the difficulties of differentiating between preservice teachers' content knowledge about doing the practices and their pedagogical knowledge about teaching the practices.

  13. Pushing photonic ideas into innovation through crowdfunding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun

    2015-07-01

    It is known today that crowdfunding is a very popular approach that simultaneously assists in rapidly disseminating creative ideas, performing worldwide market survey, getting the fund, and eventually starting the business. Hence, this article highlights some of the photonics-related ideas that are explored through the promising crowdfunding approach. These include microlenses for mobile devices, specially designed lenses for helmets and solar cells, three-dimensional optical scanners, optical spectrometers, and surface plasmon resonance-based optical sensors. Most of them looks simple and yet are very creative backing up with interesting stories behind them to persuade the target customers to participate.

  14. Ideas y representaciones sociales de la adolescencia

    OpenAIRE

    Casco Ramos, Francisco José

    2003-01-01

    El objetivo de esta tesis doctoral está en conocer las ideas que hay en la actualidad sobre la adolescencia en nuestro país, y en diferentes grupos como los propios adolescentes, los padres, los profesores y las personas mayores de sesenta años. Este interés se justifica por la opinión de que estas ideas influirán decisivamente en las interacciones que, po r ejemplo, padres y profesores tendrán con sus hijos y alumnos respectivamente. Hay, además que tener en cuenta que los cambios sociales d...

  15. Narrow-Bicliques: Cryptanalysis of Full IDEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khovratovich, D.; Leurent, G.; Rechberger, C.

    2012-01-01

    We apply and extend the recently introduced biclique framework to IDEA and for the first time describe an approach to noticeably speed-up key-recovery for the full 8.5 round IDEA.We also show that the biclique approach to block cipher cryptanalysis not only obtains results on more rounds, but also...... extended with ways to allow for a significantly reduced data complexity with everything else being equal. For this we use available degrees of freedom as known from hash cryptanalysis to narrow the relevant differential trails. Our cryptanalysis is of high computational complexity, and does not threaten...

  16. Accurate Modeling of Advanced Reflectarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Min

    to the conventional phase-only optimization technique (POT), the geometrical parameters of the array elements are directly optimized to fulfill the far-field requirements, thus maintaining a direct relation between optimization goals and optimization variables. As a result, better designs can be obtained compared...... of the incident field, the choice of basis functions, and the technique to calculate the far-field. Based on accurate reference measurements of two offset reflectarrays carried out at the DTU-ESA Spherical NearField Antenna Test Facility, it was concluded that the three latter factors are particularly important...... using the GDOT to demonstrate its capabilities. To verify the accuracy of the GDOT, two offset contoured beam reflectarrays that radiate a high-gain beam on a European coverage have been designed and manufactured, and subsequently measured at the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility...

  17. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, Cameron J; Slattery, Ashley D; Stapleton, Andrew J; Shapter, Joseph G; Gibson, Christopher T

    2016-01-01

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1–1.3 nm to 0.1–0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials. (paper)

  18. Human Amygdala Tracks a Feature-Based Valence Signal Embedded within the Facial Expression of Surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M Justin; Mattek, Alison M; Bennett, Randi H; Solomon, Kimberly M; Shin, Jin; Whalen, Paul J

    2017-09-27

    Human amygdala function has been traditionally associated with processing the affective valence (negative vs positive) of an emotionally charged event, especially those that signal fear or threat. However, this account of human amygdala function can be explained by alternative views, which posit that the amygdala might be tuned to either (1) general emotional arousal (activation vs deactivation) or (2) specific emotion categories (fear vs happy). Delineating the pure effects of valence independent of arousal or emotion category is a challenging task, given that these variables naturally covary under many circumstances. To circumvent this issue and test the sensitivity of the human amygdala to valence values specifically, we measured the dimension of valence within the single facial expression category of surprise. Given the inherent valence ambiguity of this category, we show that surprised expression exemplars are attributed valence and arousal values that are uniquely and naturally uncorrelated. We then present fMRI data from both sexes, showing that the amygdala tracks these consensus valence values. Finally, we provide evidence that these valence values are linked to specific visual features of the mouth region, isolating the signal by which the amygdala detects this valence information. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT There is an open question as to whether human amygdala function tracks the valence value of cues in the environment, as opposed to either a more general emotional arousal value or a more specific emotion category distinction. Here, we demonstrate the utility of surprised facial expressions because exemplars within this emotion category take on valence values spanning the dimension of bipolar valence (positive to negative) at a consistent level of emotional arousal. Functional neuroimaging data showed that amygdala responses tracked the valence of surprised facial expressions, unconfounded by arousal. Furthermore, a machine learning classifier identified

  19. Prediction, Expectation, and Surprise: Methods, Designs, and Study of a Deployed Traffic Forecasting Service

    OpenAIRE

    Horvitz, Eric J.; Apacible, Johnson; Sarin, Raman; Liao, Lin

    2012-01-01

    We present research on developing models that forecast traffic flow and congestion in the Greater Seattle area. The research has led to the deployment of a service named JamBayes, that is being actively used by over 2,500 users via smartphones and desktop versions of the system. We review the modeling effort and describe experiments probing the predictive accuracy of the models. Finally, we present research on building models that can identify current and future surprises, via efforts on mode...

  20. The effect of emotionally valenced eye region images on visuocortical processing of surprised faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuaixia; Li, Ping; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Xiangru; Luo, Wenbo

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we presented pictorial representations of happy, neutral, and fearful expressions projected in the eye regions to determine whether the eye region alone is sufficient to produce a context effect. Participants were asked to judge the valence of surprised faces that had been preceded by a picture of an eye region. Behavioral results showed that affective ratings of surprised faces were context dependent. Prime-related ERPs with presentation of happy eyes elicited a larger P1 than those for neutral and fearful eyes, likely due to the recognition advantage provided by a happy expression. Target-related ERPs showed that surprised faces in the context of fearful and happy eyes elicited dramatically larger C1 than those in the neutral context, which reflected the modulation by predictions during the earliest stages of face processing. There were larger N170 with neutral and fearful eye contexts compared to the happy context, suggesting faces were being integrated with contextual threat information. The P3 component exhibited enhanced brain activity in response to faces preceded by happy and fearful eyes compared with neutral eyes, indicating motivated attention processing may be involved at this stage. Altogether, these results indicate for the first time that the influence of isolated eye regions on the perception of surprised faces involves preferential processing at the early stages and elaborate processing at the late stages. Moreover, higher cognitive processes such as predictions and attention can modulate face processing from the earliest stages in a top-down manner. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  1. Analysis of physiological signals for recognition of boredom, pain, and surprise emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun-Hye; Park, Byoung-Jun; Park, Mi-Sook; Kim, Sang-Hyeob; Sohn, Jin-Hun

    2015-06-18

    The aim of the study was to examine the differences of boredom, pain, and surprise. In addition to that, it was conducted to propose approaches for emotion recognition based on physiological signals. Three emotions, boredom, pain, and surprise, are induced through the presentation of emotional stimuli and electrocardiography (ECG), electrodermal activity (EDA), skin temperature (SKT), and photoplethysmography (PPG) as physiological signals are measured to collect a dataset from 217 participants when experiencing the emotions. Twenty-seven physiological features are extracted from the signals to classify the three emotions. The discriminant function analysis (DFA) as a statistical method, and five machine learning algorithms (linear discriminant analysis (LDA), classification and regression trees (CART), self-organizing map (SOM), Naïve Bayes algorithm, and support vector machine (SVM)) are used for classifying the emotions. The result shows that the difference of physiological responses among emotions is significant in heart rate (HR), skin conductance level (SCL), skin conductance response (SCR), mean skin temperature (meanSKT), blood volume pulse (BVP), and pulse transit time (PTT), and the highest recognition accuracy of 84.7% is obtained by using DFA. This study demonstrates the differences of boredom, pain, and surprise and the best emotion recognizer for the classification of the three emotions by using physiological signals.

  2. On The Relationship Between Idea-Quantity and Idea-Quality During Ideation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinig, B.A.; Briggs, R.O.

    2008-01-01

    A great deal of research has been conducted to develop methods and techniques to improve group ideation. Most of this research focuses on techniques for increasing the quantity of ideas generated during ideation; less attention has been given to the quality of the ideas produced. This focus stems

  3. Why do I always have the best ideas? The role of idea quality in unconscious plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfect, Timothy J; Stark, Louisa-Jayne

    2008-05-01

    Groups of individuals often work together to generate solutions to a problem. Subsequently, one member of the group can plagiarise another either by recalling that person's idea as their own (recall-own plagiarism), or by generating a novel solution that duplicates a previous idea (generate-new plagiarism). The current study examines the extent to which these forms of plagiarism are influenced by the quality of the ideas. Groups of participants initially generated ideas, prior to an elaboration phase in which idea quality was manipulated in two ways: participants received feedback on the quality of the ideas as rated by independent judges, and they generated improvements to a subset of the ideas. Unconscious plagiarism was measured in recall-own and generate-new tasks. For recall, idea improvement led to increased plagiarism, while for the generate-new task, the independent ratings influenced plagiarism. These data indicate that different source-judgement processes underlie the two forms of plagiarism, neither of which can be reduced simply to memory strength.

  4. Idea juht eitas maksupettust / Inge Rumessen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rumessen, Inge

    2002-01-01

    Reklaamiagentuuri Idea juht Mark Eikner eitas kohtuistungil seost mitmemiljonilise maksupettuse skeemiga möödunud kohalike valimiste ajal. Kohtuprotsess Meelis Siidirätsepa üle, kes OÜ Rescue juhina jättis tasumata 1,5 milj. krooni käibemaksu

  5. Transforming an idea into a scholarly project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lillian; Cullum, Sarah; Cheung, Gary; Friedman, Susan Hatters

    2018-04-01

    This article describes components of a workshop designed to orientate psychiatric trainees to the task of conducting a scholarly project. The aims are: to promote an approach that incorporates principles of adult learning to guide trainees who are undertaking research; to allow trainees to transform their ideas into more tangible research questions; and to enable supervisors to reflect on delivering similar content in scholarly project workshops. The workshop comprised: creating a safe space to explore ideas; discussing the process of posing a question or hypothesis; using group interactions to generate concepts; and considering personal values that influence the choice of research methodology to answer a question. Examples are provided from the workshop. The process enabled trainees to generate and distil ideas into more concrete questions and methods in three phases: introductory, exploratory and tangible. Adult learning principles may assist trainees to develop their ideas for a scholarly project into research questions that are relevant to clinical practice. Harnessing the creative potential of a peer collective may encourage deeper inquiry, shifts to a tangible output and a sustained interest in research.

  6. Idea Bank: Ten Steps to Recruiting Singers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luethi, Dean

    2015-01-01

    This issue of "Idea Bank" asks: "Wouldn't it be wonderful if word of mouth were sufficient to sell music education--if students lined up outside the rehearsal spaces to enroll in the ensembles?" The reality is that people don't show up in music classrooms without motivation. Music educators need to understand what motivates…

  7. Ten Ideas Worth Stealing from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarchow, Elaine

    1992-01-01

    New Zealand educators have some ideas worth stealing, including morning tea-time, the lie-flat manifold duplicate book for recording classroom observation comments, school uniforms, collegial planning and grading of college assignments, good meeting etiquette, a whole-child orientation, portable primary architecture, group employment interviews…

  8. Wrestling with Equity: Reauthorization of IDEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Julie Fisher

    1997-01-01

    Explores six proposed changes and the controversies that have stalled Congress's reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Although IDEA's fundamental characteristics will remain unchanged, there is likely to be an increased focus on outcomes, an augmented appeals process, and provisions addressing discipline problems.…

  9. The development of ideas in twistor theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggett, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the main concepts of twistor theory. The emphasis is on the evolution of the subject from the original motivating ideas to the more recent work. In particular the physical and philosophical reasoning behind the use of the various mathematical structure is discussed. (author)

  10. Students' Ideas on Cooperative Learning Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoruk, Abdulkadir

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study is to investigate students' ideas on cooperative learning method. For that purpose students who are studying at elementary science education program are distributed into two groups through an experimental design. Factors threaten the internal validity are either eliminated or reduced to minimum value. Data analysis is done…

  11. [The Academy of Ideas - second edition 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Academy of Ideas is an initiative of the Italian Society of Nephrology, dedicated to young people who work in nephrology. The 2014 edition wants to foster innovative ideas at different levels of maturity along the research and innovation process, through two distinct sections meant for people who present basic or applied research ideas and for people who submit proofs of concepts transferable to products or services in a relatively short time period. The proposal aims to enhance grant application skills, giving to young researchers the opportunity of collaborating with multi-disciplinary groups of professionals; help young researchers to exploit ideas arising from clinical research and showing a Technology Readiness Level that allows immediate or close in time applicability; foster the understanding of the business perspective in the nephrology sector: giving to young scientists the opportunity to have in-hand experience on challenges related to bringing to the market research results; create a network of knowledge and collaboration among young researchers to facilitate the establishment of collaborative relationships and promote the creation of new projects and publications of high scientific impact.

  12. Relational capital, new knowledge and innovative ideas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J.M. Mom (Tom)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractOrganisational learning occurs when people engage in exploration activities – activities aimed at acquiring and using new knowledge, ideas and insights. Exploration, explains Tom Mom, associate professor of strategic entrepreneurship at RSM, ‘is about people and organisations

  13. The Idea of Order at Geometry Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishel, Thomas

    The idea of order in geometry is explored using the experience of assignments given to undergraduates in a college geometry course "From Space to Geometry." Discussed are the definition of geometry, and earth measurement using architecture, art, and common experience. This discussion concludes with a consideration of the question of whether…

  14. SpinX: incredible idea, incredible luck

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "True innovation may be defined as a knock-out idea that is so beautifully simple everyone wonders why he didn't think of it. Sometimes, it takes a determined outsider with expertise in a totally different field to put the pieces together. The Geneva-based start-up SpinX Technologies is a case study..." (2 pages)

  15. The Idea Factory: An Interactive Intergroup Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosh, Lisa; Leach, Evan

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines the Idea Factory exercise, an interactive exercise designed to help participants examine group, individual, and organizational factors that affect intergroup conflict. Specific emphasis is placed on exploring the relationship between intra- and intergroup dynamics and identifying managerial practices that foster effective…

  16. Nudging Students into Writing Creatively (Teaching Ideas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, George; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes ideas for writing prompts and assignments proposed by three different teachers: (1) writing poems inspired by smells of herbs and spices; (2) writing about past perceptions and feelings after looking at a photograph; and (3) writing a "self-portrait." (TB)

  17. Ideas on hadronic physics at short distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparata, G.

    1989-01-01

    The ideas underlying Perturbative QCD and its rival theory ACD/QGD, that has been developed by the author with a number of collaborators, are described and confronted upon an anthology of experimental data in e + e - annihilation, deep inelastic scattering and high p T physics. (author). 32 refs.; 20 figs.; 1 tab

  18. Core Ideas of Engineering and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneider, Cary

    2012-01-01

    Last month, Rodger Bybee's article, "Scientific and Engineering Practices in K-12 Classrooms," provided an overview of Chapter 3 in "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas" (NRC 2011). Chapter 3 describes the practices of science and engineering that students are expected to develop during 13 years…

  19. The accurate particle tracer code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulei; Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong; Yu, Zhi; Yao, Yicun

    2017-11-01

    The Accurate Particle Tracer (APT) code is designed for systematic large-scale applications of geometric algorithms for particle dynamical simulations. Based on a large variety of advanced geometric algorithms, APT possesses long-term numerical accuracy and stability, which are critical for solving multi-scale and nonlinear problems. To provide a flexible and convenient I/O interface, the libraries of Lua and Hdf5 are used. Following a three-step procedure, users can efficiently extend the libraries of electromagnetic configurations, external non-electromagnetic forces, particle pushers, and initialization approaches by use of the extendible module. APT has been used in simulations of key physical problems, such as runaway electrons in tokamaks and energetic particles in Van Allen belt. As an important realization, the APT-SW version has been successfully distributed on the world's fastest computer, the Sunway TaihuLight supercomputer, by supporting master-slave architecture of Sunway many-core processors. Based on large-scale simulations of a runaway beam under parameters of the ITER tokamak, it is revealed that the magnetic ripple field can disperse the pitch-angle distribution significantly and improve the confinement of energetic runaway beam on the same time.

  20. 'Surprise': Outbreak of Campylobacter infection associated with chicken liver pâté at a surprise birthday party, Adelaide, Australia, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Amy; Fearnley, Emily; Denehy, Emma

    2012-10-01

    In July 2012, an outbreak of Campylobacter infection was investigated by the South Australian Communicable Disease Control Branch and Food Policy and Programs Branch. The initial notification identified illness at a surprise birthday party held at a restaurant on 14 July 2012. The objective of the investigation was to identify the potential source of infection and institute appropriate intervention strategies to prevent further illness. A guest list was obtained and a retrospective cohort study undertaken. A combination of paper-based and telephone questionnaires were used to collect exposure and outcome information. An environmental investigation was conducted by Food Policy and Programs Branch at the implicated premises. All 57 guests completed the questionnaire (100% response rate), and 15 met the case definition. Analysis showed a significant association between illness and consumption of chicken liver pâté (relative risk: 16.7, 95% confidence interval: 2.4-118.6). No other food or beverage served at the party was associated with illness. Three guests submitted stool samples; all were positive for Campylobacter. The environmental investigation identified that the cooking process used in the preparation of chicken liver pâté may have been inconsistent, resulting in some portions not cooked adequately to inactivate potential Campylobacter contamination. Chicken liver products are a known source of Campylobacter infection; therefore, education of food handlers remains a high priority. To better identify outbreaks among the large number of Campylobacter notifications, routine typing of Campylobacter isolates is recommended.

  1. Idea and Intuition: On the Perceptibility of the Platonic Ideas in the Thought of Arthur Schopenhauer

    OpenAIRE

    Costanzo, Jason

    2009-01-01

    IDEA AND INTUITION On the Perceptibility of the Platonic Ideas in the Thought of Arthur Schopenhauer In this work, I examine the perceptibility of the Platonic Ideas in the thought of Arthur Schopenhauer. The work is divided into four chapters, each focusing and building upon a specific aspect related to this questi on. The first chapter (“Plato and the Primacy of Intellect”) deals with Scho penhauer’s interpretation specific to Platonic thought. I there address the question of why it is tha...

  2. L'idea di giustizia in Platone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bentivoglio

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The idea of justice is the center of gravity of Plato’s philosophy. To define the concept of justice also means defining the necessary and universal human condition that society must honor to keep in balance. The paper proposes a reconstruction of the route of Platonic thought that only in the Dialogues of maturity – particularly in the Parmenides – takes the accomplished philosophical form, that is, the logical-dialectical form. Finally, the paper would like to point out whether the outcome of Platonic reflection about the idea of the Good and Justice may still be relevant in order to interpret the “core” of the epochal crisis of the contemporary world.

  3. New ideas about unified field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleiser, M.

    1986-01-01

    An outline of the physical concepts evolution is given from the ancient philosophers to the present time. With qualitative explanations about the meaning of the theories that is the milestones of these concepts evolution, it mentions the ideas which lead the studies to the conception of a unified field theory. Chronologically, it has brief information about the ideas of Laplace (mechanical determinism), Maxwell (the field concept), Einsten (the space-time structure), Heisenberg and Schroedinger (the quantum mechanics), Dirac (the relativistic quantum and the antiparticles), Gell-Mann (the quarks), Weinberg-Salam (Weak interactions and eletromagnetic unification), H. Georgi and S. Glashon (strong interactions plus Weinberg-Salam), Kaluza-Klein (a fifth space-time coordinate), and Zumino-Weiss (supersymmetry and supergravity). (G.D.F.) [pt

  4. 'Swab racks are an old fashioned idea'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, M

    1991-12-01

    Mary Mumford, theatre sister at the Princes of Wales Hospital, Bridgend, was asked to speak in a short debate at an NATN branch meeting, supporting the motion that 'swab racks are an old fashioned idea'. Although she did not like swab racks she had not attempted thus far to do anything about them. In the event, she actually lost the debate--not in principle but because she could offer no effective alternative method of checking swabs. Having been given the incentive, a trial is now being conducted in her hospital similar to that described by Paul Wicker. This is the case presented by Mary Mumford supporting the following motion ... 'that swab racks are an old fashioned idea, which cause more potential problems due to exposure of blood than is proven to be safe in today's theatre environment'.

  5. Nuclear physics and ideas of quantum chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelevinsky, V.G.

    2002-01-01

    The field nowadays called 'many-body quantum chaos' was started in 1939 with the article by I.I. Gurevich studying the regularities of nuclear spectra. The field has been extensively developed recently, both mathematically and in application to mesoscopic systems and quantum fields. We argue that nuclear physics and the theory of quantum chaos are mutually beneficial. Many ideas of quantum chaos grew up from the factual material of nuclear physics; this enrichment still continues to take place. On the other hand, many phenomena in nuclear structure and reactions, as well as the general problem of statistical physics of finite strongly interacting systems, can be understood much deeper with the help of ideas and methods borrowed from the field of quantum chaos. A brief review of the selected topics related to the recent development is presented

  6. Reworking The Antonsen-Bormann Idea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, S G

    2012-01-01

    The Antonsen – Bormann idea was originally proposed by these authors for the computation of the heat kernel in curved space; it was also used by the author recently with the same objective but for the Lagrangian density for a real massive scalar field in 2 + 1 dimensional curved space. It is now reworked here with a different purpose – namely, to determine the zeta function for the said model using the Schwinger operator expansion.

  7. How Do You Learn Multidisciplinary Idea?

    OpenAIRE

    Shigehiro Hashimoto

    2015-01-01

    The way how to learn multidisciplinary ideas has been discussed. Biomedical engineering is exemplified for a multidisciplinary field. "Biomedical Engineering" makes a multidisciplinary research area, which includes biology, medicine, engineering and others. The cross-cultural student seminars on biomedical engineering have been exemplified as the case studies. In the group fieldwork, students were divided into small groups. Each group visited the university hospital to find research topics re...

  8. Ideas y Visualizaciones Matemáticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Díaz-Cano Ocaña

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Durante el curso académico 2010-2011 la Cátedra Miguel de Guzmán de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid organizó el Seminario de Ideas y Visualizaciones Matemáticas. El material utilizado en este seminario, incluidas las grabaciones de las dieciséis conferencias impartidas, se recopiló en un DVD cuya estructura y contenido se describen en este artículo.

  9. Ideas about the study of dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriesse, C.D.

    1974-01-01

    Agreement seems to exist about the general idea that a dust particle is a tiny piece of solid material, with some atomic lattice and bonding electrons. But questions like: how large are dust particles, what is their chemical composition, how do they scatter and absorb light, are answered differently when different spectral features are discussed. However, observations do give a number of keys for a reasonable particle model. (G.T.H.)

  10. Teaching computer science at school: some ideas

    OpenAIRE

    Bodei, Chiara; Grossi, Roberto; Lagan?, Maria Rita; Righi, Marco

    2010-01-01

    As a young discipline, Computer Science does not rely on longly tested didactic procedures. This allows the experimentation of innovative teaching methods at schools, especially in early childhood education. Our approach is based on the idea that abstracts notions should be gained as the final result of a learning path made of concrete and touchable steps. To illustrate our methodology, we present some of the teaching projects we proposed.

  11. Uncovering student ideas in physical science

    CERN Document Server

    Keeley, Page

    2014-01-01

    If you and your students can't get enough of a good thing, Volume 2 of Uncovering Student Ideas in Physical Science is just what you need. The book offers 39 new formative assessment probes, this time with a focus on electric charge, electric current, and magnets and electromagnetism. It can help you do everything from demystify electromagnetic fields to explain the real reason balloons stick to the wall after you rub them on your hair.

  12. Music Production; from idea to complete record

    OpenAIRE

    Öhman, Ann-Marie

    2007-01-01

    This examination paper investigates how the producer assignment works focused on which musical questions that appears and how you make decisions for those. For several years I have tried to convince Kjell Öhman to make a Christmas record, and together we developed the idea of me producing one. I want to investigate which musical questions will arise in a music production project. Which musical decisions will be made in the process? What controls the decisions? In this report the following que...

  13. IDEA: Interactive Display for Evolutionary Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Amy; Mahurkar, Anup; Crabtree, Jonathan; Badger, Jonathan H; Carlton, Jane M; Silva, Joana C

    2008-12-08

    The availability of complete genomic sequences for hundreds of organisms promises to make obtaining genome-wide estimates of substitution rates, selective constraints and other molecular evolution variables of interest an increasingly important approach to addressing broad evolutionary questions. Two of the programs most widely used for this purpose are codeml and baseml, parts of the PAML (Phylogenetic Analysis by Maximum Likelihood) suite. A significant drawback of these programs is their lack of a graphical user interface, which can limit their user base and considerably reduce their efficiency. We have developed IDEA (Interactive Display for Evolutionary Analyses), an intuitive graphical input and output interface which interacts with PHYLIP for phylogeny reconstruction and with codeml and baseml for molecular evolution analyses. IDEA's graphical input and visualization interfaces eliminate the need to edit and parse text input and output files, reducing the likelihood of errors and improving processing time. Further, its interactive output display gives the user immediate access to results. Finally, IDEA can process data in parallel on a local machine or computing grid, allowing genome-wide analyses to be completed quickly. IDEA provides a graphical user interface that allows the user to follow a codeml or baseml analysis from parameter input through to the exploration of results. Novel options streamline the analysis process, and post-analysis visualization of phylogenies, evolutionary rates and selective constraint along protein sequences simplifies the interpretation of results. The integration of these functions into a single tool eliminates the need for lengthy data handling and parsing, significantly expediting access to global patterns in the data.

  14. IDEA: Interactive Display for Evolutionary Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlton Jane M

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of complete genomic sequences for hundreds of organisms promises to make obtaining genome-wide estimates of substitution rates, selective constraints and other molecular evolution variables of interest an increasingly important approach to addressing broad evolutionary questions. Two of the programs most widely used for this purpose are codeml and baseml, parts of the PAML (Phylogenetic Analysis by Maximum Likelihood suite. A significant drawback of these programs is their lack of a graphical user interface, which can limit their user base and considerably reduce their efficiency. Results We have developed IDEA (Interactive Display for Evolutionary Analyses, an intuitive graphical input and output interface which interacts with PHYLIP for phylogeny reconstruction and with codeml and baseml for molecular evolution analyses. IDEA's graphical input and visualization interfaces eliminate the need to edit and parse text input and output files, reducing the likelihood of errors and improving processing time. Further, its interactive output display gives the user immediate access to results. Finally, IDEA can process data in parallel on a local machine or computing grid, allowing genome-wide analyses to be completed quickly. Conclusion IDEA provides a graphical user interface that allows the user to follow a codeml or baseml analysis from parameter input through to the exploration of results. Novel options streamline the analysis process, and post-analysis visualization of phylogenies, evolutionary rates and selective constraint along protein sequences simplifies the interpretation of results. The integration of these functions into a single tool eliminates the need for lengthy data handling and parsing, significantly expediting access to global patterns in the data.

  15. The influence of the surprising decay properties of element 108 on search experiments for new elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, S.; Armbruster, P.; Muenzenberg, G.; Reisdorf, W.; Schmidt, K.H.; Burkhard, H.G.; Hessberger, F.P.; Schoett, H.J.; Agarwal, Y.K.; Berthes, G.; Gollerthan, U.; Folger, H.; Hingmann, J.G.; Keller, J.G.; Leino, M.E.; Lemmertz, P.; Montoya, M.; Poppensieker, K.; Quint, B.; Zychor, I.

    1986-01-01

    Results of experiments to synthesize the heaviest elements are reported. Surprising is the high stability against fission not only of the odd and odd-odd nuclei but also of even isotopes of even elements. Alpha decay data gave an increasing stability of nuclei by shell effects up to 266 109, the heaviest known element. Theoretically, the high stability is explained by an island of nuclei with big quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations around Z=109 and N=162. Future experiments will be planned to prove the island character of these heavy nuclei. (orig.)

  16. Cosmic Evolution: The History of an Idea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, S. J.

    2004-12-01

    Cosmic evolution has become the conceptual framework within which modern astronomy is undertaken, and is the guiding principle of major NASA programs such as Origins and Astrobiology. While there are 19th- and early 20th century antecedents, as in the work of Robert Chambers, Herbert Spencer and Lawrence Henderson, it was only at mid-20th century that full-blown cosmic evolution began to be articulated and accepted as a research paradigm extending from the Big Bang to life, intelligence and the evolution of culture. Harlow Shapley was particularly important in spreading the idea to the public in the 1950s, and NASA embraced the idea in the 1970s as part of its SETI program and later its exobiology and astrobiology programs. Eric Chaisson, Carl Sagan and others were early proponents of cosmic evolution, and it continues to be elaborated in ever more subtle form as a research program and a philosophy. It has even been termed "Genesis for the 21st century." This paper documents the origin and development of the idea and offers a glimpse of where it could lead if cultural evolution is taken seriously, possibly leading to the concept of a postbiological universe.

  17. Mapping the evolution of scientific ideas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Herrera, Mark [UNIV OF MARYLAND; Gulbahce, Natali [UNIV OF BOSTON

    2009-01-01

    Despite the apparent conceptual boundaries of scientific fields, a formal description for their evolution is lacking. Here we describe a novel approach to study the dynamics and evolution of scientific fields using a network-based analysis. We build an idea network consisting of American Physical Society PACS numbers as nodes representing scientific concepts. Two PACS numbers are linked if there exist publications that reference them simultaneously. We locate scientific fields using Cfinder, an overlapping community finding algorithm, and describe the time evolution of these fields using a community evolution method over the course of 1985-2006. The communities we identify map to known scientific fields, and their age strongly depends on t.heir size, impact and activity. Our analysis further suggests that communities that redefine themselves by merging and creating new groups of ideas tend to have more fitness as measured by the impact per paper, and hence communities with a higher fitness tend to be short-lived. The described approach to quantify the evolution of ideas may be relevant in making predictions about the future of science and how to guide its development.

  18. Mapping the evolution of scientific ideas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Herrera, Mark [UNIV OF MARYLAND; Gulbahce, Natali [NORTHEASTERN UNIV

    2008-01-01

    The importance of interdisciplinary research is ever increasing as challenging world problems require expertise across diverse fields. Despite the apparent conceptual boundaries of scientific fields, a formal description for their evolution is lacking. Here we describe a novel approach to study the dynamics and evolution of scientific ideas and fields using a network-based analysis. We build a idea network consisting of American Physical Society Pacs numbers as nodes representing scientific concepts. Two Pacs numbers are linked in the network if there exist publications that reference them simultaneously. We locate scientific fields using an overlapping community finding algorithm and describe the time evolution of these fields using a community evolution method over the course of 1985-2006. We find that the communities we find map to scientific fields, the lifetime of these fields strongly depends on their size, impact and activity, and longest living communities are least volatile. The described approach to quantify the evolution of ideas is expected to be relevant in making predictions about the future of science and how to guide its development.

  19. Reasoning in Design: Idea Generation Condition Effects on Reasoning Processes and Evaluation of Ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer-Petersen, Claus Lundgaard; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2015-01-01

    to investigate idea generation sessions of two industry cases. Reasoning was found to appear in sequences of alternating reasoning types where the initiating reasoning type was decisive. The study found that abductive reasoning led to more radical ideas, whereas deductive reasoning led to ideas being for project...... requirements, but having a higher proportion being rejected as not valuable. The study sheds light on the conditions that promote these reasoning types. The study is one of the first of its kind and advances an understanding of reasoning in design by empirical means and suggests a relationship between......Reasoning is at the core of design activity and thinking. Thus, understanding and explaining reasoning in design is fundamental to understand and support design practice. This paper investigates reasoning in design and its relationship to varying foci at the stage of idea generation and subsequent...

  20. Drawing, Visualisation and Young Children's Exploration of "Big Ideas"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    It is in the visualisation of ideas, and the expression or representation of our ideas, that we can bring something more clearly into consciousness. A drawing might be seen as an externalisation of a concept or idea. Drawing has the potential to play a mediating role in the visualisation of ideas and concepts in relation to young children…

  1. Surprisal analysis of Glioblastoma Multiform (GBM) microRNA dynamics unveils tumor specific phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadran, Sohila; Remacle, Francoise; Levine, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    Gliomablastoma multiform (GBM) is the most fatal form of all brain cancers in humans. Currently there are limited diagnostic tools for GBM detection. Here, we applied surprisal analysis, a theory grounded in thermodynamics, to unveil how biomolecule energetics, specifically a redistribution of free energy amongst microRNAs (miRNAs), results in a system deviating from a non-cancer state to the GBM cancer -specific phenotypic state. Utilizing global miRNA microarray expression data of normal and GBM patients tumors, surprisal analysis characterizes a miRNA system response capable of distinguishing GBM samples from normal tissue biopsy samples. We indicate that the miRNAs contributing to this system behavior is a disease phenotypic state specific to GBM and is therefore a unique GBM-specific thermodynamic signature. MiRNAs implicated in the regulation of stochastic signaling processes crucial in the hallmarks of human cancer, dominate this GBM-cancer phenotypic state. With this theory, we were able to distinguish with high fidelity GBM patients solely by monitoring the dynamics of miRNAs present in patients' biopsy samples. We anticipate that the GBM-specific thermodynamic signature will provide a critical translational tool in better characterizing cancer types and in the development of future therapeutics for GBM.

  2. Cloud Surprises in Moving NASA EOSDIS Applications into Amazon Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlin, Brett

    2017-01-01

    NASA ESDIS has been moving a variety of data ingest, distribution, and science data processing applications into a cloud environment over the last 2 years. As expected, there have been a number of challenges in migrating primarily on-premises applications into a cloud-based environment, related to architecture and taking advantage of cloud-based services. What was not expected is a number of issues that were beyond purely technical application re-architectures. We ran into surprising network policy limitations, billing challenges in a government-based cost model, and difficulty in obtaining certificates in an NASA security-compliant manner. On the other hand, this approach has allowed us to move a number of applications from local hosting to the cloud in a matter of hours (yes, hours!!), and our CMR application now services 95% of granule searches and an astonishing 99% of all collection searches in under a second. And most surprising of all, well, you'll just have to wait and see the realization that caught our entire team off guard!

  3. Some new ideas for Tandem Mirror blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neef, W.S. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The Tandem Mirror Reactor, with its cylindrical central cell, has led to numerous blanket designs taking advantage of the simple geometry. Also many new applications for fusion neutrons are now being considered. To the pure fusion electricity producers and hybrids producing fissile fuel, we are adding studies of synthetic fuel producers and fission-suppressed hybrids. The three blanket concepts presented are new ideas and should be considered illustrative of the breadth of Livermore's application studies. They are not meant to imply fully analyzed designs

  4. String cosmology basic ideas and general results

    CERN Document Server

    Veneziano, Gabriele

    1995-01-01

    After recalling a few basic concepts from cosmology and string theory, I will outline the main ideas/assumptions underlying (our own group's approach to) string cosmology and show how these lead to the definition of a two-parameter family of ``minimal" models. I will then briefly explain how to compute, in terms of those parameters, the spectrum of scalar, tensor and electromagnetic perturbations, and mention their most relevant physical consequences. More details on the latter part of this talk can be found in Maurizio Gasperini's contribution to these proceedings.

  5. Technology Development: From Idea to Implementation - 12131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spires, Renee H. [Savannah River Remediation (United States)

    2012-07-01

    There are good ideas and new technologies proposed every day to solve problems within the DOE complex. A process to transition a new technology from inception to the decision to launch a project with baselines is described. Examples from active technology development projects within Savannah River Remediation (SRR) will be used to illustrate the points. The process includes decision points at key junctures leading to preliminary design. At that point, normal project management tools can be employed. The technology development steps include proof-of-principle testing, scaled testing and analysis, and conceptual design. Tools are used that define the scope necessary for each step of technology development. The tools include use of the DOE technology readiness guide, Consolidated Hazards Analysis (CHA) and internal checklists developed by Savannah River Remediation. Integration with operating or planned facilities is also included. The result is a roadmap and spreadsheet that identifies each open question and how it may be answered. Performance criteria are developed that enable simple decisions to be made after the completion of each step. Conceptual design tasks should begin as the technology development continues. The most important conceptual design tasks at this point in the process include process flow diagrams (PFDs), high level Process and Instrumentation Drawings (P and IDs), and general layout drawings. These should influence the design of the scaled simulant testing. Mechanical and electrical drawings that support cost and schedule development should also be developed. An early safety control strategy developed from the CHA will also influence the cost. The combination of test results, calculations and early design output with rough order of magnitude cost and schedule information provide input into the decisions to proceed with a project and data to establish the baseline. This process can be used to mature any new technology, especially those that must be

  6. Parametric Cherenkov radiation (development of idea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buts, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    Some physical results of researches about charged particles radiation in mediums with a periodic heterogeneity and in periodic potential are reported. The development of ideas Parametric Cherenkov Radiation has shown, that in mediums, which have even a weak degree of a periodic heterogeneity of an permittivity or potential, the nonrelativistic oscillators can radiated as relativistic. They effectively radiate the high numbers of harmonics. In particular, in the carried out experiments the ultra-violet radiation was excited at action on a crystal of intensive ten-centimetric radiation. These results give the reasons to hope for making of nonrelativistic lasers on free electrons

  7. Mechatronics ideas, challenges, solutions and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kaliński, Krzysztof; Szewczyk, Roman; Kaliczyńska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent advances and developments in control, automation, robotics, and measuring techniques. It presents contributions of top experts in the fields, focused on both theory and industrial practice. In particular the book is devoted to new ideas, challenges, solutions and applications of Mechatronics. The particular chapters present a deep analysis of a specific technical problem which is in general followed by a numerical analysis and simulation, and results of an implementation for the solution of a real world problem. The presented theoretical results, practical solutions and guidelines will be useful for both researchers working in the area of engineering sciences and for practitioners solving industrial problems. .

  8. New ideas and developments in calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    The challenges for calorimeter performance in the next decade are reviewed. Some new ideas for calorimeters are described: (1) the test of a parallel plate calorimeter; (2) the use of vacuum photodiodes for calorimeters operating in a magnetic field; (3) the attempt to build high pressure gas sealed tubes as ion chambers in hadron calorimeters; (4) the progress in the attempt to mold plastic loaded with heavy metal for the inert material in gas calorimeters; and (5) the use of the limited streamer mode in calorimeters

  9. La idea del Geocoaching como herramienta interdisciplinar

    OpenAIRE

    Grau Martínez, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Treball Final de Grau en Mestre o Mestra d'Educació Primària. Codi: MP1040. Curs acadèmic: 2016/2017 Con este trabajo se pretende demostrar que existen alternativas activas y dinámicas que favorecen notablemente el aprendizaje significativo y la interdisciplinariedad de algunas asignaturas, en este caso, la educación física y las ciencias sociales y naturales. Para ello, en dicho trabajo se propone utilizar la idea del “geocaching” como base y herramienta para realizar una serie de sesi...

  10. Generating Ideas for New Mobile TV Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh

    2010-01-01

    Mobile TV is still in its infancy in respect to identifying new services/content, which deploy the technology convergence of broadcasting, Internet and radio while satisfying the user with respect to interactivity, sociability and content, and at the same time fit the small screen of a mobile phone....... This paper reports on a semi-field trial performed with a group of young, IT literate users provided with handheld devices and the possibility of watching mobile TV as a basis for creation of ideas for more advanced services. The results shows that this group of users looks for personalized services...

  11. Future prospects of the TPC idea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nygren, D R [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    1981-04-01

    General aspects affecting TPC size, readout plane characteristics and operation in the LEP environment are presented, with the general conclusion that modest improvements relative to PEP-4 can be realized in several areas. The problem of positive ion reduction is discussed according to two qualitatively new operating modes, asynchronous and synchronous gating. Either gating mode appears to offer a means to eliminate almost completely the ion return flux. Some speculative ideas involving 3-component gas mixtures, low-mass components and parallel plane geometry are presented as future possibilities.

  12. HACER PARA PENSAR: IDEAS, ESPACIOS Y HERRAMIENTAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Urrea Giraldo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el presente ensayo se busca compartir la experiencia de aprendizaje diseñada y desarrollada por un grupo interdisciplinario de profesores y profesoras de la Universidad de Costa Rica. La actividad contó con la participación de docentes de distintas disciplinas académicas. La propuesta se concretó en un taller que utilizó el lenguaje de programación Scratch y las tarjetas Pico, como oportunidad para modelar un ambiente de aprendizaje construccionista. Ideas poderosas, espacios y herramientas se pusieron a disposición de los y las participantes para la construcción de historias digitales, modelos y simulaciones. El objetivo final fue que los y las profesoras pudieran vivenciar, a través de una experiencia práctica, el ambiente de aprendizaje construccionista, las ideas y las herramientas, para que más adelante las pudieran extrapolar en sus propias disciplinas y cursos.

  13. Lexis in Political Ideas on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renugah Ramanathan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ideologies in political discourse have been keen research topics as they provide various views of an issue or event. The prominent aspect of ideology is that it attempts to bridge the political activism to the social world that reflects the authenticity of political figures. This study aims to compare the ideological notions in the political tweets of Prime Minister Najib Tun Razak (henceforth, Najib and Prime Minister Narendra Modi (henceforth, Modi during the election campaigns. The discourse between both the political premiers are compared in relation to their active participation on Twitter in Asia. Data were collected over a period of 3 months during the election campaigns of both the countries which were from February to April 2013 in Malaysia and January to March 2014 in India. The study follows the qualitative research design by employing Fairclough’s three dimensional model in analyzing the lexical choices and the formation of ideas. The presence of various ideologies in the tweets portray the consensual power of the political leaders as the citizens accepts the former’s principles, ideologies and moral values. Hence, this study is significant because the study increases political awareness among citizens and provides insights on how language is employed by both leaders from different political coalition. Besides, this study produces knowledge that helps society to understand how 140 character can be a powerful tool in disseminating ideas during national elections and making election a success.

  14. Vascular legacy: HOPE ADVANCEs to EMPA-REG and LEADER: A Surprising similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently reported cardiovascular outcome studies on empagliflozin (EMPA-REG and liraglutide (LEADER have spurred interest in this field of diabetology. This commentary compares and contrasts these studies with two equally important outcome trials conducted using blood pressure lowering agents. A comparison with MICROHOPE (using ramipril and ADVANCE (using perindopril + indapamide blood pressure arms throws up interesting facts. The degree of blood pressure lowering, dissociation between cardiovascular and cerebrovascular benefits, and discordance between renal and retinal outcomes are surprisingly similar in these trials, conducted using disparate molecules. The time taken to achieve such benefits is similar for all drugs except empagliflozin. Such discussion helps inform rational and evidence-based choice of therapy and forms the framework for future research.

  15. Self-organizing weights for Internet AS-graphs and surprisingly simple routing metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholz, Jan Carsten; Greiner, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The transport capacity of Internet-like communication networks and hence their efficiency may be improved by a factor of 5–10 through the use of highly optimized routing metrics, as demonstrated previously. The numerical determination of such routing metrics can be computationally demanding...... to an extent that prohibits both investigation of and application to very large networks. In an attempt to find a numerically less expensive way of constructing a metric with a comparable performance increase, we propose a local, self-organizing iteration scheme and find two surprisingly simple and efficient...... metrics. The new metrics have negligible computational cost and result in an approximately 5-fold performance increase, providing distinguished competitiveness with the computationally costly counterparts. They are applicable to very large networks and easy to implement in today's Internet routing...

  16. Probing Critical Point Energies of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Surprising Indirect Gap of Single Layer WSe 2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chendong

    2015-09-21

    By using a comprehensive form of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have revealed detailed quasi-particle electronic structures in transition metal dichalcogenides, including the quasi-particle gaps, critical point energy locations, and their origins in the Brillouin zones. We show that single layer WSe surprisingly has an indirect quasi-particle gap with the conduction band minimum located at the Q-point (instead of K), albeit the two states are nearly degenerate. We have further observed rich quasi-particle electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of atomic structures and spin-orbit couplings. Such a local probe for detailed electronic structures in conduction and valence bands will be ideal to investigate how electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides are influenced by variations of local environment.

  17. Probing Critical Point Energies of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Surprising Indirect Gap of Single Layer WSe 2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chendong; Chen, Yuxuan; Johnson, Amber; Li, Ming-yang; Li, Lain-Jong; Mende, Patrick C.; Feenstra, Randall M.; Shih, Chih Kang

    2015-01-01

    By using a comprehensive form of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have revealed detailed quasi-particle electronic structures in transition metal dichalcogenides, including the quasi-particle gaps, critical point energy locations, and their origins in the Brillouin zones. We show that single layer WSe surprisingly has an indirect quasi-particle gap with the conduction band minimum located at the Q-point (instead of K), albeit the two states are nearly degenerate. We have further observed rich quasi-particle electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of atomic structures and spin-orbit couplings. Such a local probe for detailed electronic structures in conduction and valence bands will be ideal to investigate how electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides are influenced by variations of local environment.

  18. Surprising judgments about robot drivers: Experiments on rising expectations and blaming humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Danielson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available N-Reasons is an experimental Internet survey platform designed to enhance public participation in applied ethics and policy. N-Reasons encourages individuals to generate reasons to support their judgments, and groups to converge on a common set of reasons pro and con various issues.  In the Robot Ethics Survey some of the reasons contributed surprising judgments about autonomous machines. Presented with a version of the trolley problem with an autonomous train as the agent, participants gave unexpected answers, revealing high expectations for the autonomous machine and shifting blame from the automated device to the humans in the scenario. Further experiments with a standard pair of human-only trolley problems refine these results. While showing the high expectations even when no autonomous machine is involved, human bystanders are only blamed in the machine case. A third experiment explicitly aimed at responsibility for driverless cars confirms our findings about shifting blame in the case of autonomous machine agents. We conclude methodologically that both results point to the power of an experimental survey based approach to public participation to explore surprising assumptions and judgments in applied ethics. However, both results also support using caution when interpreting survey results in ethics, demonstrating the importance of qualitative data to provide further context for evaluating judgments revealed by surveys. On the ethics side, the result about shifting blame to humans interacting with autonomous machines suggests caution about the unintended consequences of intuitive principles requiring human responsibility.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v9i1.1727

  19. Discovery of a general method of solving the Schrödinger and dirac equations that opens a way to accurately predictive quantum chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuji, Hiroshi

    2012-09-18

    Just as Newtonian law governs classical physics, the Schrödinger equation (SE) and the relativistic Dirac equation (DE) rule the world of chemistry. So, if we can solve these equations accurately, we can use computation to predict chemistry precisely. However, for approximately 80 years after the discovery of these equations, chemists believed that they could not solve SE and DE for atoms and molecules that included many electrons. This Account reviews ideas developed over the past decade to further the goal of predictive quantum chemistry. Between 2000 and 2005, I discovered a general method of solving the SE and DE accurately. As a first inspiration, I formulated the structure of the exact wave function of the SE in a compact mathematical form. The explicit inclusion of the exact wave function's structure within the variational space allows for the calculation of the exact wave function as a solution of the variational method. Although this process sounds almost impossible, it is indeed possible, and I have published several formulations and applied them to solve the full configuration interaction (CI) with a very small number of variables. However, when I examined analytical solutions for atoms and molecules, the Hamiltonian integrals in their secular equations diverged. This singularity problem occurred in all atoms and molecules because it originates from the singularity of the Coulomb potential in their Hamiltonians. To overcome this problem, I first introduced the inverse SE and then the scaled SE. The latter simpler idea led to immediate and surprisingly accurate solution for the SEs of the hydrogen atom, helium atom, and hydrogen molecule. The free complement (FC) method, also called the free iterative CI (free ICI) method, was efficient for solving the SEs. In the FC method, the basis functions that span the exact wave function are produced by the Hamiltonian of the system and the zeroth-order wave function. These basis functions are called complement

  20. Idea-based, transformative experiences in science: What are they and how do you foster them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Kevin James

    Many have argued that science education should enrich students' lives, but, surprisingly, this issue has not been systematically addressed. Much of the work in science education has focused on the issue of how enriched experience leads to the development of conceptual understanding, but relatively little work has focused on the issue of how conceptual understanding leads to the development of enriched experience. This dissertation is comprised of two articles, which address the latter issue. The first article, entitled "Applying Pragmatism and Deweyan Aesthetics to Science Education: A Look at How Concepts Can Enrich Everyday Experience," develops the construct of an idea-based, transformative experience (a particular type of enriched experience) and an understanding of the role that concepts play in such experience, by synthesizing Dewey's writings on experience, aesthetics, and education. Such experience is centrally defined by an expansion of perception, meaning, and value which results from active use of a concept. Three illustrative examples of idea-based, transformative experiences are provided. Implications include a focus on idea-based, transformative experience as the goal of science education. A discussion of how this goal compares, contrasts, and relates to the standard goals of conceptual understanding/change and the development of thinking/participatory skills is provided. The second article, entitled, "Teaching for Idea-based, Transformative Experiences in Science," is a report of a study which examines the effectiveness of two related teaching elements (the artistic crafting of content and the modeling and scaffolding of perception, meaning, and value) at fostering idea-based, transformative experiences. The elements were used in teaching a unit on adaptation and evolution in a high school zoology class and student outcomes were compared with those of students in a roughly equivalent class where case-based methods were used. Results indicate that a

  1. Atom history, from intuitive ideas to reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radvanyi, P.

    2007-01-01

    This book gathers the ground scientific texts that have stood out as milestones in the way scientists have built their understanding of the atom over centuries. From the very intuitive ideas of Greek philosophers to the most recent results on ultra-cold atoms, via the discovery of natural radioactivity or the existence of the neutron, about 55 articles written by prestigious physicists have been organized into 16 chapters. Each chapter being dedicated to a topic such as molecules, spectroscopy, electrons, X-rays, atom mass, artificial radioactivity..., begins with a commentary that draws the scientific context of that time, describes the links between the articles and highlights the importance of the discoveries. (A.C.)

  2. Ideas for future synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, A.; Hassenzahl, W.; Meddahi, M.

    1992-03-01

    Synchrotron light sources have advanced in the past two-to-three decades through three ''generations,'' from irritating parasitic sources on high-energy physics accelerators to dedicated electron and position storage rings of unprecedented low emittance, utilizing undulator and wiggler magnets. The evolution through these three generations followed a predicable, science-driven, course towards brighter beams of VUV- and x-radiation. The requirements of future light sources is not so clear. The limit on how emittance has certainly not been reached, and diffraction-limited sources at shorter wavelengths would be the natural progression from previous generations. However, scientists are now looking at other radiation characteristics that might better serve their needs, for example, more coherent power, fast switching polarization, ultra-short (sub-picosecond) time structure, and synchronized beams for pump-probe experiments. This paper discusses some current ideas that might drive the fourth-generation synchrotron light source

  3. Irrational ideas. Older vs. younger inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, L A; Jacobsen, R; Harrison, W R

    1985-04-01

    The relationship to age of irrational beliefs among psychiatric inpatients has not been explored using the rational-emotive model. This study addressed the following two questions: 1) Do older and younger psychiatric inpatients differ in irrational beliefs? 2) Do older depressives differ from older nondepressives in irrational beliefs? Upon admission to a large medical center, 58 younger (less than 45 years old) and 54 older (greater than 55 years old) subjects were assessed on a battery of psychological tests, including the Idea Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory. Results showed that older and younger inpatients did not differ on irrational beliefs. Results also showed that older and younger groups of depressives did not differ on the irrationality scores. When a correlational analysis was used, depression was related to irrationality within the older group but not within the younger group.

  4. Gesturing Gives Children New Ideas About Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Cook, Susan Wagner; Mitchell, Zachary A.

    2009-01-01

    How does gesturing help children learn? Gesturing might encourage children to extract meaning implicit in their hand movements. If so, children should be sensitive to the particular movements they produce and learn accordingly. Alternatively, all that may matter is that children move their hands. If so, they should learn regardless of which movements they produce. To investigate these alternatives, we manipulated gesturing during a math lesson. We found that children required to produce correct gestures learned more than children required to produce partially correct gestures, who learned more than children required to produce no gestures. This effect was mediated by whether children took information conveyed solely in their gestures and added it to their speech. The findings suggest that body movements are involved not only in processing old ideas, but also in creating new ones. We may be able to lay foundations for new knowledge simply by telling learners how to move their hands. PMID:19222810

  5. Innovative safety ideas for fusion experimental machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.J.; Gouge, M.; Piet, S.J.; Merrill, B.J.; Holland, D.F.; Sze, D.K.

    1990-01-01

    Throughout the early stages of design of fusion experimental devices, such as ITER, safety experts have worked with designers to incorporate safety features into the design. Recent efforts have focused on passive safety features. Although designs of near-term fusion machines may appear consistent with expected regulatory requirements, the safety characteristics can potentially be more attractive. Here, a variety of suggestions that appear promising in terms of improving safety are given. These include new concepts, innovative technologies, further support of past concepts, and possible modification to operating scenarios. Some technical discussion on the feasibility of the proposals is provided. The ideas are generally conceptual at this stage and require further assessment and development work. However, each has the potential for enhancing the safety of experimental devices. 33 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs

  6. Small Talk: Children's Everyday `Molecule' Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, Cheryl

    2013-08-01

    This paper reports on 6-11-year-old children's `sayings and doings' (Harré 2002) as they explore molecule artefacts in dialectical-interactive teaching interviews (Fleer, Cultural Studies of Science Education 3:781-786, 2008; Hedegaard et al. 2008). This sociocultural study was designed to explore children's everyday awareness of and meaning-making with cultural molecular artefacts. Our everyday world is populated with an ever increasing range of molecular or nanoworld words, symbols, images, and games. What do children today say about these artefacts that are used to represent molecular world entities? What are the material and social resources that can influence a child's everyday and developing scientific ideas about `molecules'? How do children interact with these cognitive tools when given expert assistance? What meaning-making is afforded when children are socially and materially assisted in using molecular tools in early chemical and nanoworld thinking? Tool-dependent discursive studies show that provision of cultural artefacts can assist and direct developmental thinking across many domains of science (Schoultz et al., Human Development 44:103-118, 2001; Siegal 2008). Young children's use of molecular artefacts as cognitive tools has not received much attention to date (Jakab 2009a, b). This study shows 6-11-year-old children expressing everyday ideas of molecular artefacts and raising their own questions about the artefacts. They are seen beginning to domesticate (Erneling 2010) the words, symbols, and images to their own purposes when given the opportunity to interact with such artefacts in supported activity. Discursive analysis supports the notion that using `molecules' as cultural tools can help young children to begin `putting on molecular spectacles' (Kind 2004). Playing with an interactive game (ICT) is shown to be particularly helpful in assisting children's early meaning-making with representations of molecules, atoms, and their chemical symbols.

  7. Ideas and integrity; how ideas of what is important influence scholarly work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wesel, Maarten

    Recent big cases of scientific misconduct have led to an increase in debates about integrity of scientists and their work. These cases do not originate out of nothing but are the extremes of trends in contemporary science. Inspired by the Weberian notion about the functioning of ideas in the conduct

  8. Ideas Para Fortalecer Las Destrezas en Matematicas. Ideas for Strengthening Mathematics Skills. Spanish Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Bilingual Education.

    Presented is an overview of some specific schemes that have been used successfully by teachers throughout New York State to strengthen basic mathematics skills. Components offer ideas that have been successful with primary, intermediate, and secondary students. The contents of this Spanish language edition are identical to the English language and…

  9. Ideas transformed into business enhancing entrepreneurship exploring the "best idea of The Netherlands" case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harry, D.M.; Brezet, J.C.; Harkema, S.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004 a private initiative started in the Netherlands, to stimulate innovation and the cooperation between students and industry. This resulted in the development of a television formula "The Best Idea of the Netherlands", in which students and Dutch citizens in general are challenged to enter in

  10. Europe in a Labyrinth and the Material Power of Ideas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hauser, Michael

    -, March 25 (2015) ISSN 1476-5888 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Europe * Greece * austerities * ideas Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion https://www.opendemocracy.net/michael-hauser/europe-in-labyrinth-and-material-power-of-ideas

  11. A Modified Proportional Navigation Guidance for Accurate Target Hitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moharampour

    2010-03-01

    First, the pure proportional navigation guidance (PPNG in 3-dimensional state is explained in a new point of view. The main idea is based on the distinction between angular rate vector and rotation vector conceptions. The current innovation is based on selection of line of sight (LOS coordinates. A comparison between two available choices for LOS coordinates system is proposed. An improvement is made by adding two additional terms. First term includes a cross range compensator which is used to provide and enhance path observability, and obtain convergent estimates of state variables. The second term is new concept lead bias term, which has been calculated by assuming an equivalent acceleration along the target longitudinal axis. Simulation results indicate that the lead bias term properly provides terminal conditions for accurate target interception.

  12. Informal Evaluation and Institutionalization of Neoteric Technology Ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Frank; Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw; Müller, Sune Dueholm

    2015-01-01

    in existing institutionalized technologies within the organization and that emerging technologies introduce neoteric ideas to the organization. Furthermore, we argue that when attempting to introduce technology-based ideas, human actors will focus their attention on ideas embedded in existing...... theories of creativity, Scandinavian institutionalism, and empirical data from two Danish organizations, this article investigates the interplay between creativity, technology, and human sensemaking in the process of translating and transforming technology ideas into full-fledged technological innovations....

  13. The circulation of ideas in firms and markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmann, T.F.; Perotti, E.C.

    2011-01-01

    Novel early stage ideas face uncertainty on the expertise needed to elaborate them, which creates a need to circulate them widely to find a match. Yet as information is not excludable, shared ideas may be stolen, reducing incentives to innovate. Still, in idea-rich environments inventors may share

  14. Impact of Text on Idea Generation: An Electroencephalography Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lingyun; Xiang, Wei; Chai, Chunlei; Wang, Changlu; Liu, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Sketching is widely used as a creative tool, playing a significant role in industrial design. Designers commonly use sketching to generate and evaluate ideas, leading to subsequent development of the most promising ideas. The current study examined the use of text in the idea generation sketching process among novices and experts. The…

  15. Ideas versus Labor: What Do Children Value in Artistic Creation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Vivian; Shaw, Alex; Olson, Kristina R.

    2013-01-01

    As scientists, we primarily award authorship, as well as legal patents, to those who generate ideas, often without formally crediting others who executed the actual experiments. However, little is known about how and when people come to value ideas. Here, we investigate whether young children also value ideas over labor. In Study 1, we found that…

  16. Transforming Ethnomathematical Ideas in Western Mathematics Curriculum Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson-Jones, Amelia

    2008-01-01

    When ethnomathematical ideas, that is, the mathematical ideas of different cultural groups, are included in mathematics curriculum texts they can become part of the learning experience in various ways. Once included in western classroom mathematics texts, the ethnomathematical ideas become transformed. The transformations involve changes in form…

  17. IDEAS international contamination database: a compilation of published internal contamination cases. A tool for the internal dosimetry community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtgen, C.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the IDEAS project was to develop General Guidelines for the Assessment of Internal Dose from Monitoring Data. The project was divided into 5 Work Packages for the major tasks. Work Package 1 entitled Collection of incorporation cases was devoted to the collection of data by means of bibliographic research (survey of the open literature), contacting and collecting data from specific organisations and using information from existing databases on incorporation cases. To ensure that the guidelines would be applicable to a wide range of practical situations, a database of cases of internal contamination including monitoring data suitable for dose assessment was compiled. The IDEAS Bibliography database and the IDEAS Internal Contamination database were prepared and some reference cases were selected for use in Work Package 3. The other Work packages of the IDEAS Project (WP-2 Preparation of evaluation software, WP-3 Evaluation of incorporation cases, WP-4 Development of the general guidelines and WP-5 Practical testing of general guidelines) have been described in detail elsewhere and can be found on the IDEAS website. A search for reference from the open literature, which contained information on cases of internal contamination from which intake and committed doses could be assessed, has been compiled into a database. The IDEAS Bibliography Database includes references to papers which might (but were not certain to) contain such information, or which included references to papers which contained such information. This database contains the usual bibliographical information: authors' name(s), year of publication, title of publication and the journal or report number. Up to now, a comprehensive Bibliography Database containing 563 references has been compiled. Not surprisingly more than half of the references are from Health Physics and Radiation Protection Dosimetry Journals.The next step was for the partners of the IDEAS project to obtain the references

  18. Cerebral metastasis masquerading as cerebritis: A case of misguiding history and radiological surprise!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral metastases usually have a characteristic radiological appearance. They can be differentiated rather easily from any infective etiology. Similarly, positive medical history also guides the neurosurgeon towards the possible diagnosis and adds to the diagnostic armamentarium. However, occasionally, similarities on imaging may be encountered where even history could lead us in the wrong direction and tends to bias the clinician. We report a case of a 40-year-old female with a history of mastoidectomy for otitis media presenting to us with a space occupying lesion in the right parietal region, which was thought pre-operatively as an abscess along with the cerebritis. Surprisingly, the histopathology proved it to be a metastatic adenocarcinoma. Hence, a ring enhancing lesion may be a high grade neoplasm/metastasis/abscess, significant gyral enhancement; a feature of cerebritis is not linked with a neoplastic etiology more often. This may lead to delayed diagnosis, incorrect prognostication and treatment in patients having coincidental suggestive history of infection. We review the literature and highlight the key points helping to differentiate an infective from a neoplastic pathology which may look similar at times.

  19. Surprise responses in the human brain demonstrate statistical learning under high concurrent cognitive demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Marta Isabel; Teng, Chee Leong James; Taylor, Jeremy Alexander; Rowe, Elise Genevieve; Mattingley, Jason Brett

    2016-06-01

    The ability to learn about regularities in the environment and to make predictions about future events is fundamental for adaptive behaviour. We have previously shown that people can implicitly encode statistical regularities and detect violations therein, as reflected in neuronal responses to unpredictable events that carry a unique prediction error signature. In the real world, however, learning about regularities will often occur in the context of competing cognitive demands. Here we asked whether learning of statistical regularities is modulated by concurrent cognitive load. We compared electroencephalographic metrics associated with responses to pure-tone sounds with frequencies sampled from narrow or wide Gaussian distributions. We showed that outliers evoked a larger response than those in the centre of the stimulus distribution (i.e., an effect of surprise) and that this difference was greater for physically identical outliers in the narrow than in the broad distribution. These results demonstrate an early neurophysiological marker of the brain's ability to implicitly encode complex statistical structure in the environment. Moreover, we manipulated concurrent cognitive load by having participants perform a visual working memory task while listening to these streams of sounds. We again observed greater prediction error responses in the narrower distribution under both low and high cognitive load. Furthermore, there was no reliable reduction in prediction error magnitude under high-relative to low-cognitive load. Our findings suggest that statistical learning is not a capacity limited process, and that it proceeds automatically even when cognitive resources are taxed by concurrent demands.

  20. Pseudohalide (SCN(-))-Doped MAPbI3 Perovskites: A Few Surprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Ansuman; Chulliyil, Ramya; Subbiah, Anand S; Khan, Tuhin; Chattoraj, Shyamtanu; Chowdhury, Arindam; Sarkar, Shaibal K

    2015-09-03

    Pseudohalide thiocyanate anion (SCN(-)) has been used as a dopant in a methylammonium lead tri-iodide (MAPbI3) framework, aiming for its use as an absorber layer for photovoltaic applications. The substitution of SCN(-) pseudohalide anion, as verified using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, results in a comprehensive effect on the optical properties of the original material. Photoluminescence measurements at room temperature reveal a significant enhancement in the emission quantum yield of MAPbI3-x(SCN)x as compared to MAPbI3, suggestive of suppression of nonradiative channels. This increased intensity is attributed to a highly edge specific emission from MAPbI3-x(SCN)x microcrystals as revealed by photoluminescence microscopy. Fluoresence lifetime imaging measurements further established contrasting carrier recombination dynamics for grain boundaries and the bulk of the doped material. Spatially resolved emission spectroscopy on individual microcrystals of MAPbI3-x(SCN)x reveals that the optical bandgap and density of states at various (local) nanodomains are also nonuniform. Surprisingly, several (local) emissive regions within MAPbI3-x(SCN)x microcrystals are found to be optically unstable under photoirradiation, and display unambiguous temporal intermittency in emission (blinking), which is extremely unusual and intriguing. We find diverse blinking behaviors for the undoped MAPbI3 crystals as well, which leads us to speculate that blinking may be a common phenomenon for most hybrid perovskite materials.

  1. Surprises from a Deep ASCA Spectrum of the Broad Absorption Line Quasar PHL 5200

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Smita; Matt, G.; Green, P. J.; Elvis, M.; Singh, K. P.

    2002-01-01

    We present a deep (approx. 85 ks) ASCA observation of the prototype broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO) PHL 5200. This is the best X-ray spectrum of a BALQSO yet. We find the following: (1) The source is not intrinsically X-ray weak. (2) The line-of-sight absorption is very strong, with N(sub H) = 5 x 10(exp 23)/sq cm. (3) The absorber does not cover the source completely; the covering fraction is approx. 90%. This is consistent with the large optical polarization observed in this source, implying multiple lines of sight. The most surprising result of this observation is that (4) the spectrum of this BALQSO is not exactly similar to other radio-quiet quasars. The hard X-ray spectrum of PHL 5200 is steep, with the power-law spectral index alpha approx. 1.5. This is similar to the steepest hard X-ray slopes observed so far. At low redshifts, such steep slopes are observed in narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies, believed to be accreting at a high Eddington rate. This observation strengthens the analogy between BALQSOs and NLS1 galaxies and supports the hypothesis that BALQSOs represent an early evolutionary state of quasars. It is well accepted that the orientation to the line of sight determines the appearance of a quasar: age seems to play a significant role as well.

  2. From Lithium-Ion to Sodium-Ion Batteries: Advantages, Challenges, and Surprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Prasant Kumar; Yang, Liangtao; Brehm, Wolfgang; Adelhelm, Philipp

    2018-01-02

    Mobile and stationary energy storage by rechargeable batteries is a topic of broad societal and economical relevance. Lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology is at the forefront of the development, but a massively growing market will likely put severe pressure on resources and supply chains. Recently, sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have been reconsidered with the aim of providing a lower-cost alternative that is less susceptible to resource and supply risks. On paper, the replacement of lithium by sodium in a battery seems straightforward at first, but unpredictable surprises are often found in practice. What happens when replacing lithium by sodium in electrode reactions? This review provides a state-of-the art overview on the redox behavior of materials when used as electrodes in lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries, respectively. Advantages and challenges related to the use of sodium instead of lithium are discussed. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Effect of Temperature Shock and Inventory Surprises on Natural Gas and Heating Oil Futures Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, John Wei-Shan; Lin, Chien-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of temperature shock on both near-month and far-month natural gas and heating oil futures returns by extending the weather and storage models of the previous study. Several notable findings from the empirical studies are presented. First, the expected temperature shock significantly and positively affects both the near-month and far-month natural gas and heating oil futures returns. Next, significant temperature shock has effect on both the conditional mean and volatility of natural gas and heating oil prices. The results indicate that expected inventory surprises significantly and negatively affects the far-month natural gas futures returns. Moreover, volatility of natural gas futures returns is higher on Thursdays and that of near-month heating oil futures returns is higher on Wednesdays than other days. Finally, it is found that storage announcement for natural gas significantly affects near-month and far-month natural gas futures returns. Furthermore, both natural gas and heating oil futures returns are affected more by the weighted average temperature reported by multiple weather reporting stations than that reported by a single weather reporting station. PMID:25133233

  4. Surprises from the resolution of operator mixing in N=4 SYM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, Massimo; Rossi, Giancarlo; Stanev, Yassen S.

    2004-01-01

    We reexamine the problem of operator mixing in N=4 SYM. Particular attention is paid to the correct definition of composite gauge invariant local operators, which is necessary for the computation of their anomalous dimensions beyond lowest order. As an application we reconsider the case of operators with naive dimension Δ 0 =4, already studied in the literature. Stringent constraints from the resummation of logarithms in power behaviours are exploited and the role of the generalized N=4 Konishi anomaly in the mixing with operators involving fermions is discussed. A general method for the explicit (numerical) resolution of the operator mixing and the computation of anomalous dimensions is proposed. We then resolve the order g 2 mixing for the 15 (purely scalar) singlet operators of naive dimension Δ 0 =6. Rather surprisingly we find one isolated operator which has a vanishing anomalous dimension up to order g 4 , belonging to an apparently long multiplet. We also solve the order g 2 mixing for the 26 operators belonging to the representation 20' of SU(4). We find an operator with the same one-loop anomalous dimension as the Konishi multiplet

  5. The Ultraviolet Surprise. Efficient Soft X-Ray High Harmonic Generation in Multiply-Ionized Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popmintchev, Dimitar; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Dollar, Franklin; Mancuso, Christopher; Perez-Hernandez, Jose A.; Chen, Ming-Chang; Hankla, Amelia; Gao, Xiaohui; Shim, Bonggu; Gaeta, Alexander L.; Tarazkar, Maryam; Romanov, Dmitri A.; Levis, Robert J.; Gaffney, Jim A.; Foord, Mark; Libby, Stephen B.; Jaron-Becker, Agnieskzka; Becker, Andreas; Plaja, Luis; Muranane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Popmintchev, Tenio

    2015-01-01

    High-harmonic generation is a universal response of matter to strong femtosecond laser fields, coherently upconverting light to much shorter wavelengths. Optimizing the conversion of laser light into soft x-rays typically demands a trade-off between two competing factors. Reduced quantum diffusion of the radiating electron wave function results in emission from each species which is highest when a short-wavelength ultraviolet driving laser is used. But, phase matching - the constructive addition of x-ray waves from a large number of atoms - favors longer-wavelength mid-infrared lasers. We identified a regime of high-harmonic generation driven by 40-cycle ultraviolet lasers in waveguides that can generate bright beams in the soft x-ray region of the spectrum, up to photon energies of 280 electron volts. Surprisingly, the high ultraviolet refractive indices of both neutral atoms and ions enabled effective phase matching, even in a multiply ionized plasma. We observed harmonics with very narrow linewidths, while calculations show that the x-rays emerge as nearly time-bandwidt-limited pulse trains of ~100 attoseconds

  6. A Review of Ideas Concerning Life Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindilis, L. M.

    2014-10-01

    Since the times of Antiquity the and for a long time the idea of self-origination of life was the dominant one. It reappeared again after microorganisms were discovered (XVII century). The possibility of abiogenesis at microbial level was discussed for more than a century. Pateur demonstrated that spontaneous origination of microorganisms in sterile broth was due to those same microorganisms transported by dust particles. Thus proving that every form of life originates from the parental life form. So the question arises: how did the first microorganisms appear on the Earth. There are three possible versions: 1) accidental origination of a viable form; 2) primal organisms were transported to the Earth from outer space; 3) they were formed on the Earth in the process of prebiotic chemical evolution. We discuss the problems of prebiotic evolution from simple monomers up to living cells. An important item of nowadays conceptions of life origination is the hypothesis of the ancient world of RNA as possible precursor of life on Earth. The discovery in carbonaceous chondrites of traces of bacterial life evidences the existence of life in the Solar System even before the formation of the Earth. The idea of life as brought to the Earth out of Cosmos originated under the impression of self-origination hypothesis downfall. It went through several stages (Helmholtz, W. Thompson, XIX century; Arrhenius, early XX century; Hoyle and Wickramasinghe, second half of XX century) and presently evokes constantly growing interest. The panspermia theory does not solve the problem of origination of life, only moves it onto other planets. According to V.A. Mazur, the probability of accidental formation of RNA molecule is negligible not only on the Earth, but in the whole Universe over all the time span of its existence. But it is practically equal to unit in the domain formed at the inflation stage of the evolution of the Universe. A.D.Panov considered panspermia in the Galaxy at the level

  7. Some advanced accelerator projects and ideas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses projects and ideas represented, as follows: The motivation is to secure high gradients to reduce power to a reasonable amount, and reduce the length as a consequence of the high gradient; a promising solution is offered by a possibility of having a free electron laser in conjunction with induction units resulting in the following steps: A free electron laser (FEL) to generate high peak power (30 GHz, 10 times the frequency at SLAC, so the wave length is one centimeter instead of ten centimeters); translate this radiation to a conventional high gradient accelerator structure, a conventional linac so that it results in stability and all the positive things known about ordinary linacs; this becomes a power source; use induction units to pump up low energy beams and accelerate little bunches of 10'' electrons up to a few hundred GeV; the schematic of such a system is exemplified with a low energy beam which is a kilo-amp of tens of MeVs; between the FEL sections, energy returns with induction units; and wave guides take rf power to a conventional linac structure - a high gradient linac structure

  8. Observations on the Chinese idea of fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Sjöholm

    1967-02-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history of Chinese religion, ideas of fate are present. The earliest forms of Chinese writing occur on thousands of tortoise shells found 65 years ago in the province of Honan. At that time inscriptions on bronze vessels from the first millennium B.C. were already known. But the new material was more difficult to interpret. The amount of material has grown since then: there are now about 100 000 inscribed shells and bones, some hundreds of whole tortoise shields with inscriptions as well as other archaeological material. One third of the signs has been deciphered. The inscriptions are mostly quite brief and contain oracle formulas. The people of the Shang-Yin dynasty (1500-1028 B.C. knew the useful and the beautiful. What did the oracle stand for? Did it represent something necessary? An oracular technique had been developed, "which consisted in touching shells or bones on one side with a little red-hot rod and interpreting according to certain patterns the cracks that arose on the other side as the answers of the ancestral spirits to the questions of the kings. After the consultation of the oracle the questions and often the answers were inscribed beside the cracks. Often also pure memoranda concerning weather, war expeditions etc. were inscribed.

  9. Confederation: a key idea of Artigas’ "system"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Aguerre

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The books of Prof. Arturo Ardao dedicated to Confederacy as one of the fundamental aspects of Artigas´s ideology have triggered the analysis, from a political point of view, of Artigas´s texts, and those of some of his followers who supported his “system” (as Artigas , in his letters, called the institutional form he was hoping to introduce during the revolutionary process in the territories of the Río de la Plata. That system was directed to the achievement of sovereignty and independence for the Eastern Province (Provincia Oriental within the framework of confederal agreements similar to those that had led in the United States to the Confederation and Perpetual Union of 1781.Against the opinion of many historians, publicists and jurists who postulate that Artigas’ ideas were of a federalist persuasion, we will argue, through a brief review of some basic fundamental documents, that he adhered to a confederal system.

  10. Revising the IDEA Student Ratings of Instruction System 2002-2011 Data. IDEA Technical Report No. 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Stephen L.; Li, Dan; Brown, Ron; Guo, Meixi; Sullivan, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the processes undertaken to revise the IDEA Student Ratings of Instruction (SRI) system. The previous revision occurred in 1999, as described in IDEA Technical Report No. 11, "Revising the IDEA System for Obtaining Student Ratings of Instructors and Courses" (Hoyt, Chen, Pallett, & Gross, 1999). The procedures…

  11. Explanatory models of health and disease: surprises from within the former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I Andreeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Extract The review of anthropological theories as applied to public health by Jennifer J. Carroll (Carroll, 2013 published in this issue of TCPHEE made me recollect my first and most surprising discoveries of how differently same things can be understood in different parts of the world. Probably less unexpectedly, these impressions concern substance abuse and addiction behaviors, similarly to many examples deployed by Jennifer J. Carroll. The first of these events happened soon after the break-up of the Soviet Union when some of the most active people from the West rushed to discover what was going on behind the opening iron curtain. A director of an addiction clinic, who had just come into contact with a Dutch counterpart, invited me to join the collaboration and the innovation process he planned to launch. Being a participant of the exchange program started within this collaboration, I had an opportunity to discover how addictive behaviors were understood and explained in books (English, 1961; Kooyman, 1992; Viorst, 1986 recommended by the colleagues in the Netherlands and, as I could observe with my own eyes, addressed in everyday practice. This was a jaw-dropping contrast to what I learnt at the soviet medical university and some post-graduate courses, where all the diseases related to alcohol, tobacco, or drug abuse were considered predominantly a result of the substance intake. In the Soviet discourse, the intake itself was understood as 'willful and deliberate' or immoral behavior which, in some cases, was to be rectified in prison-like treatment facilities. In the West, quite oppositely, substance abuse was seen rather as a consequence of a constellation of life-course adversities thoroughly considered by developmental psychology. This approach was obviously deeply ingrained in how practitioners diagnosed and treated their patients.

  12. Metaproteomics of cellulose methanisation under thermophilic conditions reveals a surprisingly high proteolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Fan; Bize, Ariane; Guillot, Alain; Monnet, Véronique; Madigou, Céline; Chapleur, Olivier; Mazéas, Laurent; He, Pinjing; Bouchez, Théodore

    2014-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on Earth. Optimising energy recovery from this renewable but recalcitrant material is a key issue. The metaproteome expressed by thermophilic communities during cellulose anaerobic digestion was investigated in microcosms. By multiplying the analytical replicates (65 protein fractions analysed by MS/MS) and relying solely on public protein databases, more than 500 non-redundant protein functions were identified. The taxonomic community structure as inferred from the metaproteomic data set was in good overall agreement with 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing and fluorescent in situ hybridisation analyses. Numerous functions related to cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis and fermentation catalysed by bacteria related to Caldicellulosiruptor spp. and Clostridium thermocellum were retrieved, indicating their key role in the cellulose-degradation process and also suggesting their complementary action. Despite the abundance of acetate as a major fermentation product, key methanogenesis enzymes from the acetoclastic pathway were not detected. In contrast, enzymes from the hydrogenotrophic pathway affiliated to Methanothermobacter were almost exclusively identified for methanogenesis, suggesting a syntrophic acetate oxidation process coupled to hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Isotopic analyses confirmed the high dominance of the hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Very surprising was the identification of an abundant proteolytic activity from Coprothermobacter proteolyticus strains, probably acting as scavenger and/or predator performing proteolysis and fermentation. Metaproteomics thus appeared as an efficient tool to unravel and characterise metabolic networks as well as ecological interactions during methanisation bioprocesses. More generally, metaproteomics provides direct functional insights at a limited cost, and its attractiveness should increase in the future as sequence databases are growing exponentially.

  13. [Fall from height--surprising autopsy diagnosis in primarily unclear initial situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyma, Christian; Doberentz, Elke; Madea, Burkhard

    2012-01-01

    External post-mortem examination and first police assessments are often not consistent with subsequent autopsy results. This is all the more surprising the more serious the injuries found at autopsy are. Such discrepancies result especially from an absence of gross external injuries, as demonstrated by four examples. A 42-year-old, externally uninjured male was found at night time in a helpless condition in the street and died in spite of resuscitation. Autopsy showed severe polytrauma with traumatic brain injury and lesions of the thoracic and abdominal organs. A jump from the third floor was identified as the cause. At dawn, a twenty-year-old male was found dead on the grounds of the adjacent house. Because of the blood-covered head the police assumed a traumatic head injury by strike impact. The external examination revealed only abrasions on the forehead and to a minor extent on the back. At autopsy a midfacial fracture, a trauma of the thorax and abdomen and fractures of the spine and pelvis were detected. Afterwards investigations showed that the man, intoxicated by alcohol, had fallen from the flat roof of a multistoried house. A 77-year-old man was found unconscious on his terrace at day time; a cerebral seizure was assumed. He was transferred to emergency care where he died. The corpse was externally inconspicuous. Autopsy revealed serious traumatic injuries of the brain, thorax, abdomen and pelvis, which could be explained by a fall from the balcony. A 47-year-old homeless person without any external injuries was found dead in a barn. An alcohol intoxication was assumed. At autopsy severe injuries of the brain and cervical spine were found which were the result of a fall from a height of 5 m. On the basis of an external post-mortem examination alone gross blunt force trauma cannot be reliably excluded.

  14. Technological monitoring radar: a weak signals interpretation tool for the identification of strategic surprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalton Ozaki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current competitive scenario, marked by rapid and constant changes, it is vital that companies actively monitor the business environment, in search of signs which might anticipate changes. This study poses to propose and discuss a tool called Technological Monitoring Radar, which endeavours to address the following query: “How can a company systematically monitor the environment and capture signs that anticipate opportunities and threats concerning a particular technology?”. The literature review covers Competitive Intelligence, Technological Intelligence, Environmental Analysis and Anticipative Monitoring. Based on the critical analysis of the literature, a tool called Technological Monitoring Radar is proposed comprising five environments to be monitored (political, economical, technological, social and competition each of which with key topics for analysis. To exemplify the use of the tool, it is applied to the smartphone segment in an exclusively reflexive manner, and without the participation of a specific company. One of the suggestions for future research is precisely the application of the proposed methodology in an actual company. Despite the limitation of this being a theoretical study, the example demonstrated the tool´s applicability. The radar prove to be very useful for a company that needs to monitor the environment in search of signs of change. This study´s main contribution is to relate different fields of study (technological intelligence, environmental analysis and anticipative monitoring and different approaches to provide a practical tool that allows a manager to identify and better visualize opportunities and threats, thus avoiding strategic surprises in the technological arena.Key words: Technological monitoring. Technological intelligence. Competitive intelligence. Weak signals.

  15. The genome of Pelobacter carbinolicus reveals surprising metabolic capabilities and physiological features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aklujkar, Muktak [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Haveman, Shelley [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; DiDonatoJr, Raymond [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Brown, Peter [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Lovley, Derek [University of Massachusetts, Amherst

    2012-01-01

    Background: The bacterium Pelobacter carbinolicus is able to grow by fermentation, syntrophic hydrogen/formate transfer, or electron transfer to sulfur from short-chain alcohols, hydrogen or formate; it does not oxidize acetate and is not known to ferment any sugars or grow autotrophically. The genome of P. carbinolicus was sequenced in order to understand its metabolic capabilities and physiological features in comparison with its relatives, acetate-oxidizing Geobacter species. Results: Pathways were predicted for catabolism of known substrates: 2,3-butanediol, acetoin, glycerol, 1,2-ethanediol, ethanolamine, choline and ethanol. Multiple isozymes of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, ATP synthase and [FeFe]-hydrogenase were differentiated and assigned roles according to their structural properties and genomic contexts. The absence of asparagine synthetase and the presence of a mutant tRNA for asparagine encoded among RNA-active enzymes suggest that P. carbinolicus may make asparaginyl-tRNA in a novel way. Catabolic glutamate dehydrogenases were discovered, implying that the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle can function catabolically. A phosphotransferase system for uptake of sugars was discovered, along with enzymes that function in 2,3-butanediol production. Pyruvate: ferredoxin/flavodoxin oxidoreductase was identified as a potential bottleneck in both the supply of oxaloacetate for oxidation of acetate by the TCA cycle and the connection of glycolysis to production of ethanol. The P. carbinolicus genome was found to encode autotransporters and various appendages, including three proteins with similarity to the geopilin of electroconductive nanowires. Conclusions: Several surprising metabolic capabilities and physiological features were predicted from the genome of P. carbinolicus, suggesting that it is more versatile than anticipated.

  16. A surprisingly simple correlation between the classical and quantum structural networks in liquid water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Peter; Fanourgakis, George S.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2017-08-01

    Nuclear quantum effects in liquid water have profound implications for several of its macroscopic properties related to the structure, dynamics, spectroscopy, and transport. Although several of water's macroscopic properties can be reproduced by classical descriptions of the nuclei using interaction potentials effectively parameterized for a narrow range of its phase diagram, a proper account of the nuclear quantum effects is required to ensure that the underlying molecular interactions are transferable across a wide temperature range covering different regions of that diagram. When performing an analysis of the hydrogen-bonded structural networks in liquid water resulting from the classical (class) and quantum (qm) descriptions of the nuclei with two interaction potentials that are at the two opposite ends of the range in describing quantum effects, namely the flexible, pair-wise additive q-TIP4P/F, and the flexible, polarizable TTM3-F, we found that the (class) and (qm) results can be superimposed over the temperature range T = 250-350 K using a surprisingly simple, linear scaling of the two temperatures according to T(qm) = α T(class) + ΔT, where α = 0.99 and ΔT = -6 K for q-TIP4P/F and α = 1.24 and ΔT = -64 K for TTM3-F. This simple relationship suggests that the structural networks resulting from the quantum and classical treatment of the nuclei with those two very different interaction potentials are essentially similar to each other over this extended temperature range once a model-dependent linear temperature scaling law is applied.

  17. A post-genomic surprise. The molecular reinscription of race in science, law and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duster, Troy

    2015-03-01

    The completion of the first draft of the Human Genome Map in 2000 was widely heralded as the promise and future of genetics-based medicines and therapies - so much so that pundits began referring to the new century as 'The Century of Genetics'. Moreover, definitive assertions about the overwhelming similarities of all humans' DNA (99.9 per cent) by the leaders of the Human Genome Project were trumpeted as the end of racial thinking about racial taxonomies of human genetic differences. But the first decade of the new century brought unwelcomed surprises. First, gene therapies turned out to be far more complicated than any had anticipated - and instead the pharmaceutical industry turned to a focus on drugs that might be 'related' to population differences based upon genetic markers. While the language of 'personalized medicine' dominated this frame, research on racially and ethnically designated populations differential responsiveness to drugs dominated the empirical work in the field. Ancestry testing and 'admixture research' would play an important role in a new kind of molecular reification of racial categories. Moreover, the capacity of the super-computer to map differences reverberated into personal identification that would affect both the criminal justice system and forensic science, and generate new levels of concern about personal privacy. Social scientists in general, and sociologists in particular, have been caught short by these developments - relying mainly on assertions that racial categories are socially constructed, regionally and historically contingent, and politically arbitrary. While these assertions are true, the imprimatur of scientific legitimacy has shifted the burden, since now 'admixture research' can claim that its results get at the 'reality' of human differentiation, not the admittedly flawed social constructions of racial categories. Yet what was missing from this framing of the problem: 'admixture research' is itself based upon socially

  18. Six rules for accurate effective forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffo, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The primary goal of forecasting is to identify the full range of possibilities facing a company, society, or the world at large. In this article, Saffo demythologizes the forecasting process to help executives become sophisticated and participative consumers of forecasts, rather than passive absorbers. He illustrates how to use forecasts to at once broaden understanding of possibilities and narrow the decision space within which one must exercise intuition. The events of 9/11, for example, were a much bigger surprise than they should have been. After all, airliners flown into monuments were the stuff of Tom Clancy novels in the 1990s, and everyone knew that terrorists had a very personal antipathy toward the World Trade Center. So why was 9/11 such a surprise? What can executives do to avoid being blind-sided by other such wild cards, be they radical shifts in markets or the seemingly sudden emergence of disruptive technologies? In describing what forecasters are trying to achieve, Saffo outlines six simple, commonsense rules that smart managers should observe as they embark on a voyage of discovery with professional forecasters. Map a cone of uncertainty, he advises, look for the S curve, embrace the things that don't fit, hold strong opinions weakly, look back twice as far as you look forward, and know when not to make a forecast.

  19. Efficient reconfigurable hardware architecture for accurately computing success probability and data complexity of linear attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, Andrey; Kavun, Elif Bilge; Tischhauser, Elmar

    2012-01-01

    An accurate estimation of the success probability and data complexity of linear cryptanalysis is a fundamental question in symmetric cryptography. In this paper, we propose an efficient reconfigurable hardware architecture to compute the success probability and data complexity of Matsui's Algorithm...... block lengths ensures that any empirical observations are not due to differences in statistical behavior for artificially small block lengths. Rather surprisingly, we observed in previous experiments a significant deviation between the theory and practice for Matsui's Algorithm 2 for larger block sizes...

  20. Equipment upgrade - Accurate positioning of ion chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doane, Harry J.; Nelson, George W.

    1990-01-01

    Five adjustable clamps were made to firmly support and accurately position the ion Chambers, that provide signals to the power channels for the University of Arizona TRIGA reactor. The design requirements, fabrication procedure and installation are described

  1. Market learns how to handle imbalance. TenneT surprised by persistent balance disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2003-01-01

    Up until 1992 the electric power balance in the Netherlands was, on an hourly basis, among the least accurate in Europe. At present, the network is even more stable than in the days before liberalisation. TenneT (the Dutch Transmission System Operator) and the market parties have spent a lot of time and energy on maintaining the balance and now the question arises whether this is sufficient or a little less would be sufficient as well. Because control involves cost, while current results are a bit better than was expected beforehand [nl

  2. The distinction between key ideas in teaching school physics and key ideas in the discipline of physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zongyi

    2001-05-01

    The distinction between key ideas in teaching a high school science and key ideas in the corresponding discipline of science has been largely ignored in scholarly discourse about what science teachers should teach and about what they should know. This article clarifies this distinction through exploring how and why key ideas in teaching high school physics differ from key ideas in the discipline of physics. Its theoretical underpinnings include Dewey's (1902/1990) distinction between the psychological and the logical and Harré's (1986) epistemology of science. It analyzes how and why the key ideas in teaching color, the speed of light, and light interference at the high school level differ from the key ideas at the disciplinary level. The thesis is that key ideas in teaching high school physics can differ from key ideas in the discipline in some significant ways, and that the differences manifest Dewey's distinction. As a result, the article challenges the assumption of equating key ideas in teaching a high school science with key ideas in the corresponding discipline of science, and the assumption that having a college degree in science is sufficient to teach high school science. Furthermore, the article expands the concept of pedagogical content knowledge by arguing that key ideas in teaching high school physics constitute an essential component.

  3. Ideas for physical interpretation of the USLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseva, S.

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop sustainable systems of agriculture that satisfy the present and the future needs of the mankind, there must be reliable information on the constrains and potential of the land resource. The UNEP Project GLASOD (GLobal Assessment of SOil Degradation) recognized erosion by water as the most important soil degradation type, representing more than a half of all soil degradation. Soil erosion by water refers to a series of processes leading to soil depletion and export of sediment. It takes place through three main processes: (i) mechanical disruption, slaking, compaction, dispersion and detachment of soil particles, aggregates and clods from the soil mass due to the impact of raindrops and the overland flow; (ii) movement of detached material by gravity or by overland flow and (iii) deposition. Planning for soil and water conservation measures requires knowledge of the relations between the driving forces that cause loss of soil (e.g. the erosivity of rainfall, the slope of the land, the erodibility of soil) and the factors that help to reduce such loss (e.g. the plant cover, the conservation practices and measures, the soil resistance). The first developed and one of the most widely-used models for effective conservation planning based on predictions of average annual soil erosion rates and able to estimate soil loss over a wide range of situations is the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The USLE approach to soil erosion description is empirical and based on statistical relationships undermining its universal applicability. Further I will discuss ideas for introducing deterministic elements in the USLE approach for estimating the cover and management factor C and the soil erodibility factor K. The approach for estimating cover and management factor was applied for the purposes of a geographic information system for soil erosion risk assessments on the territory of Bulgaria at a scale of 1: 100 000. Values of mean monthly canopy cover c

  4. Modern Sedimentation along the SE Bangladesh Coast Reveal Surprisingly Low Accumulation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, C.; Mustaque, S.; Mondal, D. R.; Akhter, S. H.; Iqbal, M.

    2016-12-01

    Recent sediments recovered along the SE coast of Bangladesh, from Teknaf to Cox's Bazar and drainage basin analyses reveal sediment sources and very low sedimentation rates of 1mm/year. These low rates are surprisingly low given that this coast is adjacent to the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta with a yearly discharge of 1GT. The Teknaf anticline (elevation 200 m), part of the western Burma fold-thrust belt dominates the topography extending across and along the Teknaf peninsula. It is thought to have begun evolving since the Miocene (Alam et al. 2003 & Allen et al. 2008). Presently the anticline foothills on the west are flanked by uplifted terraces, the youngest linked to coseismic displacement during the 1762 earthquake (Mondal et al. 2015), and a narrow beach 60-200 m in width. Petrography, semi-quantitative bulk mineralogy and SEM/EDX analyses were conducted on sediments recovered along the west coast from 1-4 m deep trenches and three 4-8 m deep drill holes. GIS mapping of drainage basins and quartz-feldspar-lithic (QFL) ternary plots based on grain counting show mixing of sediments from multiple sources: Himalayan provenance of metamorphic and igneous origin (garnet-mostly almandine, tourmaline, rutile, kyanite, zircon, sillimanite and clinopyroxene) similar to Uddin et al. (2007); Brahmaputra provenance of igneous and metamorphic origin (amphibole, epidote, plagioclase 40% Na and 60% Ca, apatite, ilmenite, magnetite, Cr-spinel and garnet-mostly grossular,) as indicated by Garzanti et al. (2010) & Rahman et al. (2016) and Burmese sources (cassiterite and wolframite) (Zaw 1990 & Searle et al. 2007). Low sedimentation rates are the result of two main factors: 1. Strong longshore currents from the south-east that interact with high tidal ranges as evidenced by the morphology of sand waves and ridge and runnel landforms along the beach. 2. Streams draining the Teknaf anticline are dry during the winter and during summer monsoon rains, the sediments bypass the narrow

  5. From Young Children's Ideas about Germs to Ideas Shaping a Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergazaki, Marida; Saltapida, Konstantina; Zogza, Vassiliki

    2010-11-01

    This paper is concerned with highlighting young children’s ideas about the nature, location and appearance of germs, as well as their reasoning strands about germs’ ontological category and biological functions. Moreover, it is concerned with exploring how all these could be taken into account for shaping a potentially fruitful learning environment. Conducting individual, semi-structured interviews with 35 preschoolers (age 4.5-5.5) of public kindergartens in the broader area of Patras, we attempted to trace their ideas about what germs are, where they may be found, whether they are good or bad and living or non-living and how they might look like in a drawing. Moreover, children were required to attribute a series of biological functions to dogs, chairs and germs, and finally to create a story with germs holding a key-role. The analysis of our qualitative data within the “NVivo” software showed that the informants make a strong association of germs with health and hygiene issues, locate germs mostly in our body and the external environment, are not familiar with the ‘good germs’-idea, and draw germs as ‘human-like’, ‘animal-like’ or ‘abstract’ entities. Moreover, they have significant difficulties not only in employing biological functions as criteria for classifying germs in the category of ‘living’, but also in just attributing such functions to germs using a warrant. Finally, the shift from our findings to a 3-part learning environment aiming at supporting preschoolers in refining their initial conceptualization of germs is thoroughly discussed in the paper.

  6. The 2002 HBR list. Breakthrough ideas for today's business agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    In the last year, war broke out, the economy took a nosedive, and an alarming number of businesses went belly up. Thus it is with some urgency that we bring you this year's list of the seven best new business ideas to help you find your way through these complex times. History Returns. Many thought that the fall of the Berlin Wall marked the beginning of a new world order, one in which history didn't matter. But September 11, 2001, put an end to that theory. And it raised serious questions about globalization, security, and strategy. Enter the Everyday Leader--at Last. CEOs are used to getting all the glory, but leaders outside the limelight--middle managers and tempered radicals--are beginning to receive the attention they deserve. The Internet Is Not About You. The real value of the Internet may lie less in connecting individuals than in connecting databases, servers, and devices--a web not of people but of machines. Mind Your Behavior. Behavioral scientists are beginning to be able to accurately predict the ways individuals and crowds will respond to stimuli, and the implications for business are profound. Don't Delight Your Customers Away. Companies have wooed and coddled customers for too long. The truth is, people delight in being teased and are repelled by those who try too hard to befriend them. Games Are for Losers. Financial game playing and verbal politicking are seriously damaging businesses. Honesty is more than an admirable virtue; it's the foundation of every lasting enterprise. Three Cheers for Creativity (Sometimes). Creativity and best-practice replication are fundamentally different undertakings. Managers who mix the two achieve creativity that is merely incremental and replication that is sadly inept.

  7. Managing Front-End Innovation through Idea Markets at Novozymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauto, Giancarlo; Valentin, Finn; Hatzack, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Online collaboration is a powerful tool for boosting idea generation in large corporations. However, management may experience an overload of proposals from employees. To improve front-end innovation, the Danish industrial biotech company Novozymes implemented an internal idea competition in which...... a relatively small number of highly motivated participants screened their colleagues' inventions through an "idea market." The idea competition fulfilled its goals of generating two ideas with high growth potential within a short time, uncovering and recombining old proposals that inventors had not previously...... been able to advance in the organization and focusing managerial attention on the selection process. The campaign is an effective tool to recombine existing knowledge that had not been utilized. The process demonstrated that asking participants to comment on proposals improves idea generation...

  8. A Group Creativity Support System for Dynamic Idea Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Idea evaluation is necessary in most modern organizations to identify the level of novelty and usefulness of new ideas. However, current idea evaluation research hinders creativity by primarily supporting convergent thinking (narrowing down ideas to a few tangible solutions), while divergent...... thinking (the development of wildly creative and novel thoughts patterns) is discounted. In this paper, this current view of idea evaluation is challenged through the development of a prototype that supports dynamic idea evaluation. The prototype uses knowledge created during evaluative processes...... to facilitate divergent thinking in a Group Creativity Support System (GCSS) designed from state-of-the-art research. The prototype is interpretively explored through a field experiment in a Danish IS research department. Consequently, the prototype demonstrates the ability to including divergent thinking...

  9. Inefficiencies in the sale of ideas: theory and empirics

    OpenAIRE

    Allain , Marie-Laure; Henry , Emeric; Kyle , Margaret

    2011-01-01

    The sale of ideas (e.g. through licensing) facilitates vertical specialization and the division of labor between research and development. This specialization can improve the overall efficiency of the innovative process. However, these gains depend on the timing of the sale: the buyer of an idea should assume development at the stage at which he has an efficiency advantage. We show that in an environment with asymmetric information about the value of the idea and where this asymmetry decrease...

  10. The Influence of Established Ideas in Emerging Development Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejerskov, Adam Moe

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how ideas and practices may find their way into and entail significant changes in organisations as these enter into new fields and are increasingly confronted with dominant normative frameworks. Drawing on sociological institutional perspectives, I conceptualise three...... analytical processes occurring as ideas find their way into development organisations: i) emergence; ii) international negotiation and consensus production; and iii) external negotiation and appropriation. I then empirically explore these processes through a case study of how ideas and practices on gender...

  11. Christian Ideas in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Brad

    2014-10-01

    The revival of intellectual history in recent years, to which the series Ideas in Context has contributed, owes much to showing how ideas, beliefs, and aspirations inform all areas of human life. In the Reformation era, disagreements about Christian ideas disrupted society at large. Nearly all studies of Western Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries must address the consequences of these disagreements, including the books noted here by Todd, Van Gelderen, Tuck, Kusukawa, and Hoepfl.

  12. Designing an idea screening framework for employee-driven innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Ciriello, Raffaele Fabio; Richter, Alexander; Schwabe, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    As ever more companies encourage their employees to realize innovations, a surplus of ideas that exceeds the available resources to implement them has become reality in many organizations. With this paper, we follow recent calls for designing IT-supported, comprehensive, multi-attributive idea screening throughout the whole innovation cycle. Our Idea Screening Framework is grounded in literature and empirical data we collected from a two-year field study in a multinational European banking so...

  13. Surprisingly low frequency attenuation effects in long tubes when measuring turbulent fluxes at tall towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrom, Andreas; Brændholt, Andreas; Pilegaard, Kim

    2016-01-01

    The eddy covariance technique relies on the fast and accurate measurement of gas concentration fluctuations. While for some gasses robust and compact sensors are available, measurement of, e.g., non CO2 greenhouse gas fluxes is often performed with sensitive equipment that cannot be run on a tower...... without massively disturbing the wind field. To measure CO and N2O fluxes, we installed an eddy covariance system at a 125 m mast, where the gas analyser was kept in a laboratory close to the tower and the sampling was performed using a 150 m long tube with a gas intake at 96 m height. We investigated...... by reducing both the water vapour dilution correction and the cross sensitivity effects on the N2O and CO flux measurements. Here we present the set-up of the concentration step change experiment and its results and compare them with recently developed theories for the behaviour of gases in turbulent tube...

  14. Distributed Idea Screening in Stage–gate Development Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder; Christensen, Bo T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the gate screening of ideas in engineering design, by examination of the validity of employee voting schemes and biases associated with such voting. After conducting an employee-driven innovation project at a major producer of disposable medical equipment, 99 ideas had...... to be screened for further development. Inspired by the concept of ‘wisdom of the crowd’, all ideas were individually rated by a broad selection of employees, and the ratings were used to investigate two biases in employee voting: visual complexity and endowment effect/ownership of ideas. The visual complexity...

  15. More accurate picture of human body organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, J.

    1985-01-01

    Computerized tomography and nucler magnetic resonance tomography (NMRT) are revolutionary contributions to radiodiagnosis because they allow to obtain a more accurate image of human body organs. The principles are described of both methods. Attention is mainly devoted to NMRT which has clinically only been used for three years. It does not burden the organism with ionizing radiation. (Ha)

  16. Fast and accurate methods for phylogenomic analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warnow Tandy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species phylogenies are not estimated directly, but rather through phylogenetic analyses of different gene datasets. However, true gene trees can differ from the true species tree (and hence from one another due to biological processes such as horizontal gene transfer, incomplete lineage sorting, and gene duplication and loss, so that no single gene tree is a reliable estimate of the species tree. Several methods have been developed to estimate species trees from estimated gene trees, differing according to the specific algorithmic technique used and the biological model used to explain differences between species and gene trees. Relatively little is known about the relative performance of these methods. Results We report on a study evaluating several different methods for estimating species trees from sequence datasets, simulating sequence evolution under a complex model including indels (insertions and deletions, substitutions, and incomplete lineage sorting. The most important finding of our study is that some fast and simple methods are nearly as accurate as the most accurate methods, which employ sophisticated statistical methods and are computationally quite intensive. We also observe that methods that explicitly consider errors in the estimated gene trees produce more accurate trees than methods that assume the estimated gene trees are correct. Conclusions Our study shows that highly accurate estimations of species trees are achievable, even when gene trees differ from each other and from the species tree, and that these estimations can be obtained using fairly simple and computationally tractable methods.

  17. Accurate overlaying for mobile augmented reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W; van der Schaaf, A; Lagendijk, RL; Jansen, F.W.

    1999-01-01

    Mobile augmented reality requires accurate alignment of virtual information with objects visible in the real world. We describe a system for mobile communications to be developed to meet these strict alignment criteria using a combination of computer vision. inertial tracking and low-latency

  18. Accurate activity recognition in a home setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kasteren, T.; Noulas, A.; Englebienne, G.; Kröse, B.

    2008-01-01

    A sensor system capable of automatically recognizing activities would allow many potential ubiquitous applications. In this paper, we present an easy to install sensor network and an accurate but inexpensive annotation method. A recorded dataset consisting of 28 days of sensor data and its

  19. Highly accurate surface maps from profilometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medicus, Kate M.; Nelson, Jessica D.; Mandina, Mike P.

    2013-04-01

    Many aspheres and free-form optical surfaces are measured using a single line trace profilometer which is limiting because accurate 3D corrections are not possible with the single trace. We show a method to produce an accurate fully 2.5D surface height map when measuring a surface with a profilometer using only 6 traces and without expensive hardware. The 6 traces are taken at varying angular positions of the lens, rotating the part between each trace. The output height map contains low form error only, the first 36 Zernikes. The accuracy of the height map is ±10% of the actual Zernike values and within ±3% of the actual peak to valley number. The calculated Zernike values are affected by errors in the angular positioning, by the centering of the lens, and to a small effect, choices made in the processing algorithm. We have found that the angular positioning of the part should be better than 1?, which is achievable with typical hardware. The centering of the lens is essential to achieving accurate measurements. The part must be centered to within 0.5% of the diameter to achieve accurate results. This value is achievable with care, with an indicator, but the part must be edged to a clean diameter.

  20. 3rd Semester and Master’s Thesis Ideas 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report contain a list of project ideas proposed by the scientific staff at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, and a number of companies. Most of the project ideas in this catalogue may form the basis for long and short candidate projects as well as regular 3rd semester...

  1. 3rd Semester and Master’s Thesis Ideas 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The following pages contain a list of project ideas proposed by the scientific staff at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, and a number of companies. Most of the project ideas in this catalogue may form the basis for long and short master projects as well as regular 3rd...

  2. 3rd Semester and Master’s Thesis Ideas 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan

    The report contain a list of project ideas proposed by the scientific staff at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, and a number of companies. Most of the project ideas in this catalogue may form the basis for long and short candidate projects as well as regular 3rd semester...

  3. The consumption of management ideas: A cognitive perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossem, A.; Heusinkveld, H.S.; Buelens, M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Building on recent research that emphasizes the role of managers as central in the adoption and implementation of management ideas, the purpose of this paper is to explore the reasons why managers may vary in their responses toward these ideas. Design/methodology/approach – Drawing on a

  4. Potential Cost Savings Ideas for FAA and Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-04

    The intent of this paper is to catalogue potential cost-savings ideas which : impact both the FAA and the aviation community. These ideas have come from : various sources including MITRE, Coopers & Lybrand (C&L), FAA studies, General : Accounting Off...

  5. Antecedents and Consequences of Reflexivity in New Product Idea Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammedi, W.; van Riel, A.C.R.; Sasovova, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Pre-development activities, such as new product idea screening, are considered to play an important role in innovation success. At the screening stage, a management team evaluates new product and service ideas and makes a first go/no-go decision under high levels of uncertainty and ambiguity. Paying

  6. Idea Management: Perspectives from Leadership, Learning, and Network Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Deichmann (Dirk)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation, we focus on how leadership styles, individual learning behaviors, and social network structures drive or inhibit organizational members to repeatedly generate and develop innovative ideas. Taking the idea management programs of three multinational companies as the

  7. Mathematics Teachers' Ideas about Mathematical Models: A Diverse Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Alfredo; Wilkerson-Jerde, Michelle H.; Tobin, Roger G.; Brizuela, Bárbara M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the ideas that mathematics teachers (grades 5-9) have regarding mathematical models of real-world phenomena, and explores how teachers' ideas differ depending on their educational background. Participants were 56 United States in-service mathematics teachers. We analyzed teachers' written responses to three open-ended…

  8. Investigating Student Ideas about Cosmology I: Distances and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Kim; Camarillo, Carmen T.; Nickerson, Melissa D.; Trouille, Laura E.; Bailey, Janelle M.; Cochran, Geraldine L.; Cominsky, Lynn R.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, powerful new observations and advances in computation and visualization have led to a revolution in our understanding of the structure of the Universe. As the field of cosmology advances, it is of interest to study how student ideas relate to scientific understanding. In this paper, we examine in-depth undergraduate students' ideas on…

  9. Educating Global Citizens: A Good "Idea" or an Organisational Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Kathleen; Barker, Michelle; Harris, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Higher education emphasises training and skills for employment, yet while the "idea" of educating global citizens appears in university discourse, there is limited evidence demonstrating how the "idea" of the global citizen translates into practice. Recent research emphasises a desire for graduates to be local and global…

  10. Art Therapy: Profession or Idea? A Feminist Aesthetic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Catherine

    2000-01-01

    Examines whether art therapy is a profession or an idea by exploring the differences implied by the words "profession" and "idea" and comparing them with the author's experiences as a art therapist. Specifically examines this question in light of the prevalent and distinguishing characteristics of those in the profession. (Author/MKA)

  11. Acoustic particle detection - From early ideas to future benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahnhauer, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    The history of acoustic neutrino detection technology is shortly reviewed from the first ideas 50 years ago to the detailed R and D programs of the last decade. The physics potential of ultra-high energy neutrino interaction studies is discussed for some examples. Ideas about the necessary detector size and suitable design are presented.

  12. Handling management ideas: Gatekeeping, editors and professional magazines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, J.; Heusinkveld, H.S.; Benders, J.

    2014-01-01

    While business media are important in the transfer of management ideas, there has been little attention to the question how media-internal processes shape the way the media address these ideas. Our study shows how editorial norms and routines at professional magazines interact with external

  13. Towards a New Framework of Idea Management as Actor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anna Rose Vagn

    2013-01-01

    Management of innovation idea development in front-end innovation of R&D organizations has shown to be a challenging task. This paper presents the preliminary results of a PhD project concerning idea management in front-end innovation of R&D organizations. Through theoretical and empirical invest...

  14. Secondary Students' Understanding of Basic Ideas of Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadi, Kyriaki; Halkia, Krystallia

    2012-01-01

    A major topic that has marked "modern physics" is the theory of special relativity (TSR). The present work focuses on the possibility of teaching the basic ideas of the TSR to students at the upper secondary level in such a way that they are able to understand and learn the ideas. Its aim is to investigate students' learning processes towards the…

  15. Fourth Graders Make Inventions Using SCAMPER and Animal Adaptation Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mahjabeen; Carignan, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    This study explores to what extent the SCAMPER (Substitute, Combine, Adapt, Modify, Put to another use, Eliminate, and Rearrange) technique combined with animal adaptation ideas learned through form and function analogy activities can help fourth graders generate creative ideas while augmenting their inventiveness. The sample consisted of 24…

  16. Antecedents and Consequences of Reflexivity in New Product Idea Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammedi, W.; Riel, A.C.R. van; Sasovova, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Pre-development activities, such as new product idea screening, are considered to play an important role in innovation success. At the screening stage, a management team evaluates new product and service ideas and makes a first go/no-go decision under high levels of uncertainty and ambiguity. The

  17. Ludwik Fleck on proto-ideas in medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, S

    2000-01-01

    and his nominalist view on medical taxonomy. Finally, I discuss four philosophical problems implied by Fleck's concept of proto-ideas: (a) the problem of combining two conflicting perspectives on the history of science (b) the problem of accounting for the notion of 'continuity' within a nonrealist theory......'Proto-idea' was a central concept in the thinking of the Polish microbiologist and philosopher of science Ludwik Fleck (1896-1961). Based on studies of the origin of the modern concept of syphilis, Fleck claimed that many established scientific facts are best understood as interpretations...... of prescientific, somewhat hazy 'proto-ideas' in the framework of a certain 'thought-style'. As an example, Fleck saw the modern knowledge of infection as an interpretation of the ancient proto-idea of diseases as caused by minute 'animalcules'. However, the epistemological aspects of the concept of proto-ideas...

  18. Generating original ideas: The neural underpinning of originality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayseless, Naama; Eran, Ayelet; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2015-08-01

    One of the key aspects of creativity is the ability to produce original ideas. Originality is defined in terms of the novelty and rarity of an idea and is measured by the infrequency of the idea compared to other ideas. In the current study we focused on divergent thinking (DT) - the ability to produce many alternate ideas - and assessed the neural pathways associated with originality. Considering that generation of original ideas involves both the ability to generate new associations and the ability to overcome automatic common responses, we hypothesized that originality would be associated with activations in regions related to associative thinking, including areas of the default mode network (DMN) such as medial prefrontal areas, as well as with areas involved in cognitive control and inhibition. Thirty participants were scanned while performing a DT task that required the generation of original uses for common objects. The results indicate that the ability to produce original ideas is mediated by activity in several regions that are part of the DMN including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Furthermore, individuals who are more original exhibited enhanced activation in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC), which was also positively coupled with activity in the left occipital-temporal area. These results are in line with the dual model of creativity, according to which original ideas are a product of the interaction between a system that generates ideas and a control system that evaluates these ideas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cloud Surprises Discovered in Moving NASA EOSDIS Applications into Amazon Web Services… and #6 Will Shock You!

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, B. D.; Pawloski, A. W.

    2017-12-01

    NASA ESDIS has been moving a variety of data ingest, distribution, and science data processing applications into a cloud environment over the last 2 years. As expected, there have been a number of challenges in migrating primarily on-premises applications into a cloud-based environment, related to architecture and taking advantage of cloud-based services. What was not expected is a number of issues that were beyond purely technical application re-architectures. From surprising network policy limitations, billing challenges in a government-based cost model, and obtaining certificates in an NASA security-compliant manner to working with multiple applications in a shared and resource-constrained AWS account, these have been the relevant challenges in taking advantage of a cloud model. And most surprising of all… well, you'll just have to wait and see the "gotcha" that caught our entire team off guard!

  20. The influence of psychological resilience on the relation between automatic stimulus evaluation and attentional breadth for surprised faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grol, Maud; De Raedt, Rudi

    2015-01-01

    The broaden-and-build theory relates positive emotions to resilience and cognitive broadening. The theory proposes that the broadening effects underly the relation between positive emotions and resilience, suggesting that resilient people can benefit more from positive emotions at the level of cognitive functioning. Research has investigated the influence of positive emotions on attentional broadening, but the stimulus in the target of attention may also influence attentional breadth, depending on affective stimulus evaluation. Surprised faces are particularly interesting as they are valence ambiguous, therefore, we investigated the relation between affective evaluation--using an affective priming task--and attentional breadth for surprised faces, and how this relation is influenced by resilience. Results show that more positive evaluations are related to more attentional broadening at high levels of resilience, while this relation is reversed at low levels. This indicates that resilient individuals can benefit more from attending to positively evaluated stimuli at the level of attentional broadening.

  1. How to get radical creative ideas into a leader's mind? Leader's achievement goals and subordinates' voice of creative ideas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, Roy B.L.; Janssen, Onne; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2015-01-01

    In the present research we investigated when and why leaders tend to oppose or adopt radical creative ideas voiced by their subordinates. In a field study (Study 1, N=127) we showed that leaders' performance goals were positively related to their tendency to oppose radical creative ideas, whereas

  2. Team play with a powerful and independent agent: operational experiences and automation surprises on the Airbus A-320

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarter, N. B.; Woods, D. D.

    1997-01-01

    Research and operational experience have shown that one of the major problems with pilot-automation interaction is a lack of mode awareness (i.e., the current and future status and behavior of the automation). As a result, pilots sometimes experience so-called automation surprises when the automation takes an unexpected action or fails to behave as anticipated. A lack of mode awareness and automation surprises can he viewed as symptoms of a mismatch between human and machine properties and capabilities. Changes in automation design can therefore he expected to affect the likelihood and nature of problems encountered by pilots. Previous studies have focused exclusively on early generation "glass cockpit" aircraft that were designed based on a similar automation philosophy. To find out whether similar difficulties with maintaining mode awareness are encountered on more advanced aircraft, a corpus of automation surprises was gathered from pilots of the Airbus A-320, an aircraft characterized by high levels of autonomy, authority, and complexity. To understand the underlying reasons for reported breakdowns in human-automation coordination, we also asked pilots about their monitoring strategies and their experiences with and attitude toward the unique design of flight controls on this aircraft.

  3. Accurate guitar tuning by cochlear implant musicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lu

    Full Text Available Modern cochlear implant (CI users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼ 30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task.

  4. Accurate estimation of indoor travel times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentow, Thor Siiger; Blunck, Henrik; Stisen, Allan

    2014-01-01

    The ability to accurately estimate indoor travel times is crucial for enabling improvements within application areas such as indoor navigation, logistics for mobile workers, and facility management. In this paper, we study the challenges inherent in indoor travel time estimation, and we propose...... the InTraTime method for accurately estimating indoor travel times via mining of historical and real-time indoor position traces. The method learns during operation both travel routes, travel times and their respective likelihood---both for routes traveled as well as for sub-routes thereof. InTraTime...... allows to specify temporal and other query parameters, such as time-of-day, day-of-week or the identity of the traveling individual. As input the method is designed to take generic position traces and is thus interoperable with a variety of indoor positioning systems. The method's advantages include...

  5. On accurate determination of contact angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.

    1992-01-01

    Methods are proposed that exploit a microgravity environment to obtain highly accurate measurement of contact angle. These methods, which are based on our earlier mathematical results, do not require detailed measurement of a liquid free-surface, as they incorporate discontinuous or nearly-discontinuous behavior of the liquid bulk in certain container geometries. Physical testing is planned in the forthcoming IML-2 space flight and in related preparatory ground-based experiments.

  6. Software Estimation: Developing an Accurate, Reliable Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    based and size-based estimates is able to accurately plan, launch, and execute on schedule. Bob Sinclair, NAWCWD Chris Rickets , NAWCWD Brad Hodgins...Office by Carnegie Mellon University. SMPSP and SMTSP are service marks of Carnegie Mellon University. 1. Rickets , Chris A, “A TSP Software Maintenance...Life Cycle”, CrossTalk, March, 2005. 2. Koch, Alan S, “TSP Can Be the Building blocks for CMMI”, CrossTalk, March, 2005. 3. Hodgins, Brad, Rickets

  7. Highly Accurate Prediction of Jobs Runtime Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Reiner-Benaim, Anat; Grabarnick, Anna; Shmueli, Edi

    2016-01-01

    Separating the short jobs from the long is a known technique to improve scheduling performance. In this paper we describe a method we developed for accurately predicting the runtimes classes of the jobs to enable this separation. Our method uses the fact that the runtimes can be represented as a mixture of overlapping Gaussian distributions, in order to train a CART classifier to provide the prediction. The threshold that separates the short jobs from the long jobs is determined during the ev...

  8. Accurate multiplicity scaling in isotopically conjugate reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golokhvastov, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    The generation of accurate scaling of mutiplicity distributions is presented. The distributions of π - mesons (negative particles) and π + mesons in different nucleon-nucleon interactions (PP, NP and NN) are described by the same universal function Ψ(z) and the same energy dependence of the scale parameter which determines the stretching factor for the unit function Ψ(z) to obtain the desired multiplicity distribution. 29 refs.; 6 figs

  9. Categorizing ideas about trees: a tree of trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisler, Marie; Lecointre, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore whether matrices and MP trees used to produce systematic categories of organisms could be useful to produce categories of ideas in history of science. We study the history of the use of trees in systematics to represent the diversity of life from 1766 to 1991. We apply to those ideas a method inspired from coding homologous parts of organisms. We discretize conceptual parts of ideas, writings and drawings about trees contained in 41 main writings; we detect shared parts among authors and code them into a 91-characters matrix and use a tree representation to show who shares what with whom. In other words, we propose a hierarchical representation of the shared ideas about trees among authors: this produces a "tree of trees." Then, we categorize schools of tree-representations. Classical schools like "cladists" and "pheneticists" are recovered but others are not: "gradists" are separated into two blocks, one of them being called here "grade theoreticians." We propose new interesting categories like the "buffonian school," the "metaphoricians," and those using "strictly genealogical classifications." We consider that networks are not useful to represent shared ideas at the present step of the study. A cladogram is made for showing who is sharing what with whom, but also heterobathmy and homoplasy of characters. The present cladogram is not modelling processes of transmission of ideas about trees, and here it is mostly used to test for proximity of ideas of the same age and for categorization.

  10. Highly accurate symplectic element based on two variational principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Guanghui; Tian, Jia

    2018-02-01

    For the stability requirement of numerical resultants, the mathematical theory of classical mixed methods are relatively complex. However, generalized mixed methods are automatically stable, and their building process is simple and straightforward. In this paper, based on the seminal idea of the generalized mixed methods, a simple, stable, and highly accurate 8-node noncompatible symplectic element (NCSE8) was developed by the combination of the modified Hellinger-Reissner mixed variational principle and the minimum energy principle. To ensure the accuracy of in-plane stress results, a simultaneous equation approach was also suggested. Numerical experimentation shows that the accuracy of stress results of NCSE8 are nearly the same as that of displacement methods, and they are in good agreement with the exact solutions when the mesh is relatively fine. NCSE8 has advantages of the clearing concept, easy calculation by a finite element computer program, higher accuracy and wide applicability for various linear elasticity compressible and nearly incompressible material problems. It is possible that NCSE8 becomes even more advantageous for the fracture problems due to its better accuracy of stresses.

  11. The place of highly accurate methods by RNAA in metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.; Danko, B.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Samczynski, Z.

    2006-01-01

    With the introduction of physical metrological concepts to chemical analysis which require that the result should be accompanied by uncertainty statement written down in terms of Sl units, several researchers started to consider lD-MS as the only method fulfilling this requirement. However, recent publications revealed that in certain cases also some expert laboratories using lD-MS and analyzing the same material, produced results for which their uncertainty statements did not overlap, what theoretically should not have taken place. This shows that no monopoly is good in science and it would be desirable to widen the set of methods acknowledged as primary in inorganic trace analysis. Moreover, lD-MS cannot be used for monoisotopic elements. The need for searching for other methods having similar metrological quality as the lD-MS seems obvious. In this paper, our long-time experience on devising highly accurate ('definitive') methods by RNAA for the determination of selected trace elements in biological materials is reviewed. The general idea of definitive methods based on combination of neutron activation with the highly selective and quantitative isolation of the indicator radionuclide by column chromatography followed by gamma spectrometric measurement is reminded and illustrated by examples of the performance of such methods when determining Cd, Co, Mo, etc. lt is demonstrated that such methods are able to provide very reliable results with very low levels of uncertainty traceable to Sl units

  12. Mental models accurately predict emotion transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Mark A; Tamir, Diana I

    2017-06-06

    Successful social interactions depend on people's ability to predict others' future actions and emotions. People possess many mechanisms for perceiving others' current emotional states, but how might they use this information to predict others' future states? We hypothesized that people might capitalize on an overlooked aspect of affective experience: current emotions predict future emotions. By attending to regularities in emotion transitions, perceivers might develop accurate mental models of others' emotional dynamics. People could then use these mental models of emotion transitions to predict others' future emotions from currently observable emotions. To test this hypothesis, studies 1-3 used data from three extant experience-sampling datasets to establish the actual rates of emotional transitions. We then collected three parallel datasets in which participants rated the transition likelihoods between the same set of emotions. Participants' ratings of emotion transitions predicted others' experienced transitional likelihoods with high accuracy. Study 4 demonstrated that four conceptual dimensions of mental state representation-valence, social impact, rationality, and human mind-inform participants' mental models. Study 5 used 2 million emotion reports on the Experience Project to replicate both of these findings: again people reported accurate models of emotion transitions, and these models were informed by the same four conceptual dimensions. Importantly, neither these conceptual dimensions nor holistic similarity could fully explain participants' accuracy, suggesting that their mental models contain accurate information about emotion dynamics above and beyond what might be predicted by static emotion knowledge alone.

  13. Mental models accurately predict emotion transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Mark A.; Tamir, Diana I.

    2017-01-01

    Successful social interactions depend on people’s ability to predict others’ future actions and emotions. People possess many mechanisms for perceiving others’ current emotional states, but how might they use this information to predict others’ future states? We hypothesized that people might capitalize on an overlooked aspect of affective experience: current emotions predict future emotions. By attending to regularities in emotion transitions, perceivers might develop accurate mental models of others’ emotional dynamics. People could then use these mental models of emotion transitions to predict others’ future emotions from currently observable emotions. To test this hypothesis, studies 1–3 used data from three extant experience-sampling datasets to establish the actual rates of emotional transitions. We then collected three parallel datasets in which participants rated the transition likelihoods between the same set of emotions. Participants’ ratings of emotion transitions predicted others’ experienced transitional likelihoods with high accuracy. Study 4 demonstrated that four conceptual dimensions of mental state representation—valence, social impact, rationality, and human mind—inform participants’ mental models. Study 5 used 2 million emotion reports on the Experience Project to replicate both of these findings: again people reported accurate models of emotion transitions, and these models were informed by the same four conceptual dimensions. Importantly, neither these conceptual dimensions nor holistic similarity could fully explain participants’ accuracy, suggesting that their mental models contain accurate information about emotion dynamics above and beyond what might be predicted by static emotion knowledge alone. PMID:28533373

  14. Generating breakthrough new product ideas feeding the innovation funnel

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Senior executives are experiencing a shortage of game-changing ideas that drive growth. This book explains how to feed the innovation funnel with a steady stream of breakthrough new product ideas, providing numerous examples of the methods, approaches and techniques used by leading companies such as Motorola and Procter & Gamble. Learn more about the impact you can make by leveraging an innovation strategy, voice-of-customer research, external ideas via open innovation, employees? creative talent and fundamental research. Establish a proactive Discovery Stage that focuses on the drivers of innovation performance to transform your organization into an innovation machine.

  15. Third Semester and Master’s Thesis Ideas 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The following pages contain a list of project ideas proposed by the scientific staff at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, and a number of companies. The project ideas in this catalogue may form the basis for long and short master projects as well as regular 3rd semester...... as supervisors. Questions regarding details about each proposed project should be directed at the contact persons. The contact details can be found via a person search on the university home page. Furthermore, other ideas for projects may be discussed with a potential supervisor. In this aspect the proposals...

  16. 50 quantum physics ideas you really need to know

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Following on from the highly successful 50 Physics Ideas You Really Need to Know, author Joanne Baker consolidates the foundation concepts of physics and moves on to present clear explanations of the most cutting-edge area of science: quantum physics. With 50 concise chapters covering complex theories and their advanced applications - from string theory to black holes, and quarks to quantum computing - alongside informative two-colour illustrations, this book presents key ideas in straightforward, bite-sized chunks. Ideal for the layperson, this book will challenge the way you understand the world. The ideas explored include: Theory of relativity; Schrodinger's cat; Nuclear forces: fission and fusion; Antimatter; Superconductivity.

  17. Idea Hubs as Nexus of Collective Creativity in Digital Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciriello, Raffaele; Richter, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Digital innovation radically transforms the nature of corporate innovation practices, implying a growing need for deeper understanding its origins and outcomes. In this paper, we conceptualize the focal points of social networking in digital innovation as idea hubs. We focus our analysis...... on instances of idea hubs in two multinational European software companies, where we conducted a case study over a two-year period, and collected data in form of interviews, digital documents, and participant observations. In doing so, we identify a set of social networking practices in which idea hubs serve...... of digital artifacts individuals can choose from, offline interaction still plays a major role in facilitating digital innovation....

  18. An interface between I-DEAS and DYNA3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andress, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The I-DEAS software package can be used interactively to generate 3-dimensional finite element models for subsequent analysis. This memorandum describes techniques which allow I-DEAS to be used for the generation of finite element models for the code DYNA3D which is being used at Winfrith for impact analysis. In particular, it is shown how impacting and sliding interfaces can be defined conveniently even though the I-DEAS software does not directly support this feature of the DYNA3D code. A simple example is included to illustrate the use of the techniques described in this memorandum. (author)

  19. The Mathematics of Infinity A Guide to Great Ideas

    CERN Document Server

    Faticoni, Theodore G

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition ". . . an enchanting book for those people in computer science or mathematics who are fascinated by the concept of infinity."—Computing Reviews ". . . a very well written introduction to set theory . . . easy to read and well suited for self-study . . . highly recommended."—Choice The concept of infinity has fascinated and confused mankind for centuries with theories and ideas that cause even seasoned mathematicians to wonder. The Mathematics of Infinity: A Guide to Great Ideas, Second Edition uniquely explores how we can manipulate these ideas when

  20. How New Economic Ideas Changed the Danish Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt; Andersen, Jørgen Goul

    2009-01-01

    of the independent causal effects of economic ideas because the Social Democrats pursued policies that compromised with the party's historically rooted positions and with the preferences of their electorate. Ideas and solutions did not come in one fixed package, however. But the new paradigm established some basic......The article argues that new economic ideas have exerted an independent causal effect on policy change in three major areas in the Danish welfare state; unemployment insurance, early retirement and taxation. Thereby the Danish case bears resemblance to the paradigmatic shift from Keynesianism...

  1. Zombie economics: how dead ideas still walk among us

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quiggin, John

    2010-01-01

    .... The crisis seemed to have killed off these ideas, but they still live on in the minds of many--members of the public, commentators, politicians, economists, and even those charged with cleaning up the mess...

  2. Canada-Africa grants spur novel ideas, networks | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-22

    Jun 22, 2016 ... Canada-Africa grants spur novel ideas, networks ... networks involving African and Canadian academic researchers. ... Remarkable new research into HIV prevention among the "choice disabled" — vulnerable groups less ...

  3. Idea work between object worlds - political process in product development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gish, Liv; Clausen, Christian

    product ideas come from a variety of sources, but how do they actually emerge, develop, gain momentum and stabilise (van de Ven 1986) in an organisational setting including a diversity of knowledge domains and perspectives? This paper illustrates how an STS approach including notions of translation......Concerns for companies’ ability to innovate are increasingly focused on so called ‘front-end innovation’ being identified as a space where ideas for new products are created, exchanged and developed. The work with product ideas is claimed as being crucial to the innovation process in companies. New...... of actor networks (Callon 1986), object worlds (Bucciarelli 2005) and political process theory (Dawson et al 2000) can inform the staging of innovative work with product ideas. The paper reports on an in-depth case study of the development of a new product, the so called “A” labelled Alpha Pro circulation...

  4. Primary school mathematics teachers' ideas, beliefs, and practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kofi.mereku

    African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences Vol. 12, 2016. 45 ... The study explored Ghanaian primary school mathematics teachers' ideas, beliefs and ...... Journal of science and technology, 24(2), 106 -115. Palmer ...

  5. Teaching Abstract Concepts: Keys to the World of Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatley, Joannis K.; Gittinger, Dennis J.

    1990-01-01

    Specific teaching strategies to help hearing-impaired secondary students comprehend abstract concepts include (1) pinpointing facts and fallacies, (2) organizing information visually, (3) categorizing ideas, and (4) reinforcing new vocabulary and concepts. Figures provide examples of strategy applications. (DB)

  6. What Ideas Do Students Associate with "Biotechnology" and "Genetic Engineering"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ruaraidh; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

    2000-01-01

    Explores the ideas that students aged 16-19 associate with the terms 'biotechnology' and 'genetic engineering'. Indicates that some students see biotechnology as risky whereas genetic engineering was described as ethically wrong. (Author/ASK)

  7. Understanding Students’ Ideas about the Geometry of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Kimberly A.; Conlon, Mallory; Bailey, Janelle M.

    2017-06-01

    As astronomers further develop an understanding of the geometry of the Universe, it is essential to study students’ ideas so that instructors can communicate the field’s current status more effectively to their students. In this study, we examine undergraduate students’ pre- instruction ideas in general education astronomy courses (ASTRO 101) at three institutions through pre-course surveys given during the first week of instruction [N ~ 265]. We also examine students’ post-instruction ideas at a single institution through exam questions [N ~ 75] and interviews. Responses are analyzed through an iterative process of identifying self-emergent themes. We examine not only what students think the curvature of the universe is, but also "how we know." We find that many students think the Universe is “round” or that we cannot measure its curvature. Additionally, popular visualizations may enforce incorrect ideas.

  8. Ideas from the global climate change hotspot research | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-05-09

    May 9, 2017 ... Ideas from the global climate change hotspot research ... The Collaborative Adaptation Research Initiative in Africa and Asia (CARIAA) ... the decisions they need to make about investment choices and development options, ...

  9. Who's bringing you hot ideas and how are you responding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Thomas H; Prusak, Laurence; Wilson, H James

    2003-02-01

    There's an unsung hero in your organization. It's the person who's bringing in new ideas from the outside about how to manage better. These aren't your product and service innovators--those people are celebrated loudly and often. This is the manager who, for instance, first uttered the phrase "balance scorecard" in your hallways, or "real options," or "intellectual capital." Managerial innovation is an increasingly important source of competitive advantage--especially given the speed with which product innovations are copied--but it doesn't happen automatically. It takes a certain kind of person to welcome new management ideas and usher them into an organization. The authors recently studied 100 such people to find out how they translate new ideas into action in their organizations. They discovered that they are a distinct type of practitioner; that is to say, they resemble their counterparts in other organizations more than they resemble their own colleagues, and they share a common way of working. "Idea practitioners," as the authors call them, begin by scouting for ideas. All of them are avid readers of management literature and enthusiastic participants in business conferences; many are friendly with business gurus. Once they've identified an idea that seems to hold promise, they tailor it to fit their organizations' specific needs. Next, they actively sell the idea--to senior executives, to the rank and file, to middle managers. And finally, they get the ball rolling by participating in small-scale experiments. But when those take off, they get out of the way and let others execute. In this article, the authors identify the characteristics of idea practitioners and offer strategies for managing them wisely.

  10. Introducing an Image Processing Base Idea for Outdoor Children Caring

    OpenAIRE

    Hooman Jafarabadi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper application of artificial intelligence for baby and children caring is studied. Then a new idea for injury prevention and safety announcement is presented by using digital image processing. The paper presents the structure of the proposed system. The system determines the possibility of the dangers for children and babies in yards, gardens and swimming pools or etc. In the presented idea, multi camera System is used and receiver videos are processed to find ...

  11. Sometimes the Best Ideas Come from Outside Your Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poetz, Marion; Franke, Nikolaus; Schreier, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The article offers guidance to businesses for accessing knowledge from analogous fields to tap for ideas and expertise that include identifying distant analogous fields, applying effective search methods, and selecting advanced analogous fields.......The article offers guidance to businesses for accessing knowledge from analogous fields to tap for ideas and expertise that include identifying distant analogous fields, applying effective search methods, and selecting advanced analogous fields....

  12. FINANCING OF NEW BUSINESS IDEAS IN SMALL ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Dumitru Tantau; Laurentiu Catalin Fratila; Daniela Liliana Hincu

    2008-01-01

    Financing represents a central element of entrepreneurship. Financial resources allow developing new business projects and start up of activities of small enterprises. Unfortunately, the restrict credit politics for small enterprises and the absence of their resources represent important obstacle for implementation of new business ideas. In our research, we try to identify the main problems which oppose to the promotion of business ideas in small enterprises.

  13. Development of Euler's ideas at the Moscow State Regional University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vysikaylo, P. I.; Belyaev, V. V.

    2018-03-01

    In honor of the 250th anniversary of Euler's discovery of three libration points in Russia in 1767 in the area of two rotating gravitational attractors in 2017 an International Interdisciplinary Conference “Euler Readings MRSU 2017” was held in Moscow Region State University (MRSU). The Conference demonstrated that the Euler's ideas continue to remain relevant at the present time. This paper summarizes the main achievements on the basis of Leonard Euler's ideas presented at the Conference.

  14. Uncovering Student Ideas in Astronomy 45 Formative Assessment Probes

    CERN Document Server

    Keeley, Page

    2012-01-01

    What do your students know-or think they know-about what causes night and day, why days are shorter in winter, and how to tell a planet from a star? Find out with this book on astronomy, the latest in NSTA's popular Uncovering Student Ideas in Science series. The 45 astronomy probes provide situations that will pique your students' interest while helping you understand how your students think about key ideas related to the universe and how it operates.

  15. LA IDEA EJEMPLAR COMO INCLUSIVAMENTE PRÁCTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Llano

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Scholastic, the exemplary idea was used to theorize about poiesis as related to external objects. The purpose of the author is to show that precisely this idea should be related to the action known as praxis, to the creation of the human being as such, to the decision regarding one’s own way of living. In order to unfold this purpose, the author enters into dialogue with two philosophical stances having historical import, namely, Marxism and Existentialism.

  16. Ideas of Physical Forces and Differential Calculus in Ancient India

    OpenAIRE

    Girish, T. E.; Nair, C. Radhakrishnan

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the context and development of the ideas of physical forces and differential calculus in ancient India by studying relevant literature related to both astrology and astronomy since pre-Greek periods. The concept of Naisargika Bala (natural force) discussed in Hora texts from India is defined to be proportional to planetary size and inversely related to planetary distance. This idea developed several centuries prior to Isaac Newton resembles fundamental physical forces in natur...

  17. Drive of Open Source Idea Generation for Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Zahidul

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to introduce the source of idea generation for innovation. The scope is limited to provide general knowledge about relevant issues of the co-creation of products which play significant role for innovation. In product innovation, it is necessary to consider external valuable work and talent. Firms increasingly use open source models to collect external ideas for innovation, for instance, by means of websites where customers, suppliers and other external parties can sub...

  18. Robust and accurate vectorization of line drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilaire, Xavier; Tombre, Karl

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents a method for vectorizing the graphical parts of paper-based line drawings. The method consists of separating the input binary image into layers of homogeneous thickness, skeletonizing each layer, segmenting the skeleton by a method based on random sampling, and simplifying the result. The segmentation method is robust with a best bound of 50 percent noise reached for indefinitely long primitives. Accurate estimation of the recognized vector's parameters is enabled by explicitly computing their feasibility domains. Theoretical performance analysis and expression of the complexity of the segmentation method are derived. Experimental results and comparisons with other vectorization systems are also provided.

  19. The first accurate description of an aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Wilfried

    2006-12-01

    As technology has advanced, the scientific study of auroral phenomena has increased by leaps and bounds. A look back at the earliest descriptions of aurorae offers an interesting look into how medieval scholars viewed the subjects that we study.Although there are earlier fragmentary references in the literature, the first accurate description of the aurora borealis appears to be that published by the German Catholic scholar Konrad von Megenberg (1309-1374) in his book Das Buch der Natur (The Book of Nature). The book was written between 1349 and 1350.

  20. Accurate Charge Densities from Powder Diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindzus, Niels; Wahlberg, Nanna; Becker, Jacob

    Synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction has in recent years advanced to a level, where it has become realistic to probe extremely subtle electronic features. Compared to single-crystal diffraction, it may be superior for simple, high-symmetry crystals owing to negligible extinction effects and minimal...... peak overlap. Additionally, it offers the opportunity for collecting data on a single scale. For charge densities studies, the critical task is to recover accurate and bias-free structure factors from the diffraction pattern. This is the focal point of the present study, scrutinizing the performance...

  1. Arbitrarily accurate twin composite π -pulse sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torosov, Boyan T.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2018-04-01

    We present three classes of symmetric broadband composite pulse sequences. The composite phases are given by analytic formulas (rational fractions of π ) valid for any number of constituent pulses. The transition probability is expressed by simple analytic formulas and the order of pulse area error compensation grows linearly with the number of pulses. Therefore, any desired compensation order can be produced by an appropriate composite sequence; in this sense, they are arbitrarily accurate. These composite pulses perform equally well as or better than previously published ones. Moreover, the current sequences are more flexible as they allow total pulse areas of arbitrary integer multiples of π .

  2. Systematization of Accurate Discrete Optimization Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Ovchinnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of study of this paper is to define accurate methods for solving combinatorial optimization problems of structural synthesis. The aim of the work is to systemize the exact methods of discrete optimization and define their applicability to solve practical problems.The article presents the analysis, generalization and systematization of classical methods and algorithms described in the educational and scientific literature.As a result of research a systematic presentation of combinatorial methods for discrete optimization described in various sources is given, their capabilities are described and properties of the tasks to be solved using the appropriate methods are specified.

  3. Accurate shear measurement with faint sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jun; Foucaud, Sebastien; Luo, Wentao

    2015-01-01

    For cosmic shear to become an accurate cosmological probe, systematic errors in the shear measurement method must be unambiguously identified and corrected for. Previous work of this series has demonstrated that cosmic shears can be measured accurately in Fourier space in the presence of background noise and finite pixel size, without assumptions on the morphologies of galaxy and PSF. The remaining major source of error is source Poisson noise, due to the finiteness of source photon number. This problem is particularly important for faint galaxies in space-based weak lensing measurements, and for ground-based images of short exposure times. In this work, we propose a simple and rigorous way of removing the shear bias from the source Poisson noise. Our noise treatment can be generalized for images made of multiple exposures through MultiDrizzle. This is demonstrated with the SDSS and COSMOS/ACS data. With a large ensemble of mock galaxy images of unrestricted morphologies, we show that our shear measurement method can achieve sub-percent level accuracy even for images of signal-to-noise ratio less than 5 in general, making it the most promising technique for cosmic shear measurement in the ongoing and upcoming large scale galaxy surveys

  4. How Accurately can we Calculate Thermal Systems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D; Blomquist, R N; Dean, C; Heinrichs, D; Kalugin, M A; Lee, M; Lee, Y; MacFarlan, R; Nagaya, Y; Trkov, A

    2004-01-01

    I would like to determine how accurately a variety of neutron transport code packages (code and cross section libraries) can calculate simple integral parameters, such as K eff , for systems that are sensitive to thermal neutron scattering. Since we will only consider theoretical systems, we cannot really determine absolute accuracy compared to any real system. Therefore rather than accuracy, it would be more precise to say that I would like to determine the spread in answers that we obtain from a variety of code packages. This spread should serve as an excellent indicator of how accurately we can really model and calculate such systems today. Hopefully, eventually this will lead to improvements in both our codes and the thermal scattering models that they use in the future. In order to accomplish this I propose a number of extremely simple systems that involve thermal neutron scattering that can be easily modeled and calculated by a variety of neutron transport codes. These are theoretical systems designed to emphasize the effects of thermal scattering, since that is what we are interested in studying. I have attempted to keep these systems very simple, and yet at the same time they include most, if not all, of the important thermal scattering effects encountered in a large, water-moderated, uranium fueled thermal system, i.e., our typical thermal reactors

  5. Accurate control testing for clay liner permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, R J

    1991-08-01

    Two series of centrifuge tests were carried out to evaluate the use of centrifuge modelling as a method of accurate control testing of clay liner permeability. The first series used a large 3 m radius geotechnical centrifuge and the second series a small 0.5 m radius machine built specifically for research on clay liners. Two permeability cells were fabricated in order to provide direct data comparisons between the two methods of permeability testing. In both cases, the centrifuge method proved to be effective and efficient, and was found to be free of both the technical difficulties and leakage risks normally associated with laboratory permeability testing of fine grained soils. Two materials were tested, a consolidated kaolin clay having an average permeability coefficient of 1.2{times}10{sup -9} m/s and a compacted illite clay having a permeability coefficient of 2.0{times}10{sup -11} m/s. Four additional tests were carried out to demonstrate that the 0.5 m radius centrifuge could be used for linear performance modelling to evaluate factors such as volumetric water content, compaction method and density, leachate compatibility and other construction effects on liner leakage. The main advantages of centrifuge testing of clay liners are rapid and accurate evaluation of hydraulic properties and realistic stress modelling for performance evaluations. 8 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Communication Management and Trust: Their Role in Building Resilience to "Surprises" Such As Natural Disasters, Pandemic Flu, and Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. H. Longstaff

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In times of public danger such as natural disasters and health emergencies, a country's communication systems will be some of its most important assets because access to information will make individuals and groups more resilient. Communication by those charged with dealing with the situation is often critical. We analyzed reports from a wide variety of crisis incidents and found a direct correlation between trust and an organization's preparedness and internal coordination of crisis communication and the effectiveness of its leadership. Thus, trust is one of the most important variables in effective communication management in times of "surprise."

  7. Illusions and delusions: relating experimentally-induced false memories to anomalous experiences and ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip R Corlett

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The salience hypothesis of psychosis rests on a simple but profound observation that subtle alterations in the way that we perceive and experience stimuli have important consequences for how important these stimuli become for us, how much they draw our attention, how they embed themselves in our memory and, ultimately, how they shape our beliefs. We put forward the idea that a classical memory illusion – the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM effect – offers a useful way of exploring processes related to such aberrant belief formation. The illusion occurs when, as a consequence of its relationship to previous stimuli, a stimulus is asserted to be remembered even when has not been previously presented. Such illusory familiarity is thought to be generated by the surprising fluency with which the stimulus is processed. In this respect, the illusion relates directly to the salience hypothesis and may share common cognitive underpinnings with aberrations of perception and attribution that are found in psychosis. In this paper, we explore the theoretical importance of this experimentally-induced illusion in relation to the salience model of psychosis. We present data showing that, in healthy volunteers, the illusion relates directly to self reported anomalies of experience and magical thinking. We discuss this finding in terms of the salience hypothesis and of a broader Bayesian framework of perception and cognition which emphasizes the salience both of predictable and unpredictable experiences..

  8. Accurate metacognition for visual sensory memory representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R E; Sligte, Ilja G; Barrett, Adam B; Seth, Anil K; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Lamme, Victor A F

    2014-04-01

    The capacity to attend to multiple objects in the visual field is limited. However, introspectively, people feel that they see the whole visual world at once. Some scholars suggest that this introspective feeling is based on short-lived sensory memory representations, whereas others argue that the feeling of seeing more than can be attended to is illusory. Here, we investigated this phenomenon by combining objective memory performance with subjective confidence ratings during a change-detection task. This allowed us to compute a measure of metacognition--the degree of knowledge that subjects have about the correctness of their decisions--for different stages of memory. We show that subjects store more objects in sensory memory than they can attend to but, at the same time, have similar metacognition for sensory memory and working memory representations. This suggests that these subjective impressions are not an illusion but accurate reflections of the richness of visual perception.

  9. An accurate nonlinear Monte Carlo collision operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.X.; Okamoto, M.; Nakajima, N.; Murakami, S.

    1995-03-01

    A three dimensional nonlinear Monte Carlo collision model is developed based on Coulomb binary collisions with the emphasis both on the accuracy and implementation efficiency. The operator of simple form fulfills particle number, momentum and energy conservation laws, and is equivalent to exact Fokker-Planck operator by correctly reproducing the friction coefficient and diffusion tensor, in addition, can effectively assure small-angle collisions with a binary scattering angle distributed in a limited range near zero. Two highly vectorizable algorithms are designed for its fast implementation. Various test simulations regarding relaxation processes, electrical conductivity, etc. are carried out in velocity space. The test results, which is in good agreement with theory, and timing results on vector computers show that it is practically applicable. The operator may be used for accurately simulating collisional transport problems in magnetized and unmagnetized plasmas. (author)

  10. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.D.

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperatures in the range of about 1800/sup 0/ to 2700/sup 0/C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  11. Accurate Modeling Method for Cu Interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kenta; Kitahara, Hiroshi; Asai, Yoshihiko; Sakamoto, Hideo; Okada, Norio; Yasuda, Makoto; Oda, Noriaki; Sakurai, Michio; Hiroi, Masayuki; Takewaki, Toshiyuki; Ohnishi, Sadayuki; Iguchi, Manabu; Minda, Hiroyasu; Suzuki, Mieko

    This paper proposes an accurate modeling method of the copper interconnect cross-section in which the width and thickness dependence on layout patterns and density caused by processes (CMP, etching, sputtering, lithography, and so on) are fully, incorporated and universally expressed. In addition, we have developed specific test patterns for the model parameters extraction, and an efficient extraction flow. We have extracted the model parameters for 0.15μm CMOS using this method and confirmed that 10%τpd error normally observed with conventional LPE (Layout Parameters Extraction) was completely dissolved. Moreover, it is verified that the model can be applied to more advanced technologies (90nm, 65nm and 55nm CMOS). Since the interconnect delay variations due to the processes constitute a significant part of what have conventionally been treated as random variations, use of the proposed model could enable one to greatly narrow the guardbands required to guarantee a desired yield, thereby facilitating design closure.

  12. Knowing a winning business idea when you see one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W C; Mauborgne, R

    2000-01-01

    Identifying which business ideas have real commercial potential is fraught with uncertainty, and even the most admired companies have stumbled. It's not as if they don't know what the challenges of innovation are. A new product has to offer customers exceptional utility at an attractive price, and the company must be able to deliver it at a tidy profit. But the uncertainties surrounding innovation are so great that even the most insightful managers have a hard time evaluating the commercial readiness of new business ideas. In this article, W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne introduce three tools that managers can use to help strip away some of that uncertainty. The first tool, "the buyer utility map," indicates how likely it is that customers will be attracted to a new business idea. The second, "the price corridor of the mass," identifies what price will unlock the greatest number of customers. And the third tool, "the business model guide," offers a framework for figuring out whether and how a company can profitably deliver the new idea at the targeted price. Applying the tools, though, is not the end of the story. Many innovations have to overcome adoption hurdles--strong resistance from stakeholders inside and outside the company. Often overlooked in the planning process, adoption hurdles can make or break the commercial viability of even the most powerful new ideas. The authors conclude by discussing how managers can head off negative reactions from stakeholders.

  13. Approaching system equilibrium with accurate or not accurate feedback information in a two-route system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-mei; Xie, Dong-fan; Li, Qi

    2015-02-01

    With the development of intelligent transport system, advanced information feedback strategies have been developed to reduce traffic congestion and enhance the capacity. However, previous strategies provide accurate information to travelers and our simulation results show that accurate information brings negative effects, especially in delay case. Because travelers prefer to the best condition route with accurate information, and delayed information cannot reflect current traffic condition but past. Then travelers make wrong routing decisions, causing the decrease of the capacity and the increase of oscillations and the system deviating from the equilibrium. To avoid the negative effect, bounded rationality is taken into account by introducing a boundedly rational threshold BR. When difference between two routes is less than the BR, routes have equal probability to be chosen. The bounded rationality is helpful to improve the efficiency in terms of capacity, oscillation and the gap deviating from the system equilibrium.

  14. Argumentation and Reasoning in Design: An Empirical Analysis of the Effects of Verbal Reasoning on Idea Value in Group Idea Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer-Petersen, Claus L.; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2016-01-01

    Reasoning is argumentative and is at the core of design activity and thinking. Understanding the influence of reasoning on the value of ideas is key to support design practice. The paper aims to show the effect of verbal reasoning on the value of ideas. Protocol analyses of four industry cases...... doing idea generation shows that framing by certainty and deductive reasoning lead to useful incremental ideas while framing by uncertainty and abductive reasoning lead to radical ideas. The paper concludes that the way of framing ideas is indicative of how ideas add value to on-going design processes....

  15. Ideas in Public Management Reform for the 2010s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    management to what has been the dominant paradigm in recent years, the New Public Management (NPM). “Self-styled” means that they explicitly present themselves as alternatives to NPM and address the shortcomings in NPM to promote alternative conceptualizations. They include Digital-Era Governance, Public......The purpose of this paper is to discuss the three key ideas for an agenda for the public sector that are emerging as dominant ideas in the 2010’s in the literature on public organizations. The paper examines a select number of self-styled conceptual alternatives from the literature on public...... Value Management (PVM), Collaborative Governance, also known to some as the New Public Governance (NPG). The paper takes each of these as broad categories, and proposes that each shelters sub-categories of ideas. DEG: transparency, social media and shared service centers. PVM: strategy...

  16. Business and theology – the idea of value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saghaug, Kristin Falck; Lindgren, Peter

    2011-01-01

    , but addresses value in such a way that it contributes to a further compartmentalization of life. This paper presents research in the intersection of business, art and theology, and how this may inflict on the idea of value and go beyond the compartmentalization of business values and personal values. Design......Purpose – The idea of “value” is increasingly depicted from a number of areas. Within the business domain the accounting area has had a huge influence (Lindgreen and Wynstra 2005) as well as the strategic approach of “value” in a business model (BM) (Hamel 2002), the perception of value/cost (Chan...... Kim and Mauborgne 2005), the customer as co-creating value (Prahalad and Ramaswamy 2004) as well as understanding value in network is increasing (Chesbrough 2007). Common for the examples from the business dimension are that they do not engage the idea of value and its connectedness to ontology...

  17. Ideas and institutions in global governance - the case of microcredit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Peter

    There is a growing demand for effective strategic problem solving in relation to a wide array of global policy problems such as AIDS, poverty, global warming, etc. This makes the introduction of new policy ideas for institutional change increasingly important in global governance. But researchers...... need a new approach in order to better grasp the complexity in global problem solving. We need to know more about how ideas emerge, spread and transform in a complex, networked global environment. New literature on institutional dynamics can inform the literature on global governance networks......, especially when it comes to the meta-governance of global networks. Based on a case study of microcredit and its emergence as a policy idea in development policy, the paper will illustrate the use of institutional dynamic conceptualisation in global governance....

  18. Policy Ideas, Knowledge Regimes and Comparative Political Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.; Pedersen, Ove K.

    2015-01-01

    Despite much attention to how ideas affect policy making, where these ideas come from is a blind spot in comparative political economy. We show that an important source of policy ideas are knowledge regimes—fields of policy research organizations. We show as well that the organization of knowledge...... to restore it by transforming their knowledge regimes, albeit in ways that are still shaped by the surrounding political and economic institutions. The effectiveness of their efforts is not guaranteed. The argument is based on an analysis of the evolution of knowledge regimes since the 1970s in the USA...... regimes is heavily influenced by the organization of their surrounding political economies such that knowledge regimes have particular national characters. Furthermore, when people perceive that the utility of their knowledge regime for the rest of the political economy breaks down, they often try...

  19. Idea management in support of pharmaceutical front end innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Annabeth

    2012-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry faces continuing pressures from rising R&D costs and depreciating value of patents, as patent lives is eroded by testing procedures and pressures from public authorities to cut health care costs. These challenges have increased the focus on shortening development times......, which again put pressure on the efficiency of front end innovation (FEI). In the attempt to overcome these various challenges pharmaceutical companies are looking for new models to support FEI. This paper explores in what way idea management can be applied as a tool in facilitation of front end...... innovation in practice. First I show through a literature study, how idea management and front end innovation are related and may support each other. Hereafter I apply an exploratory case study of front end innovation in eight medium to large pharmaceutical companies in examination of how idea management...

  20. Can this kind of idea be a patent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jae Bok

    2004-08-01

    This book mentions patent such as application, what is patents, patent law, procedure and patent attorney, which includes business idea is patent. Is internet domain name or name-brand? We can make a big money with others idea, the difference among patent, trademark, utility model rights and registration of design, priority system, new weapon in digital period, patent is a knife and a shield, the cost from application to registration, what is hunting of patent information, writing document for patent, patent examination and patent lawyer.

  1. The Economist guide to management ideas and gurus

    CERN Document Server

    Hindle, Tom

    2008-01-01

    This insightful guide, which has proven hugely popular around the world in hardback, not only includes the most significant ideas that have influenced the management of business over the past century, but it also includes entries on the most influential business thinkers of the past and present. Entries on ideas include: Active Inertia; Disruptive Technology; Genchi Genbutsu (Japanese for "Go and See for Yourself"); The Halo Effect; The Long Tail; Pareto Principle; Six Sigma;, Skunkworks; SWOT analysis; Thin Slicing; Tipping Point; Triple Bottom Line.

  2. Can this kind of idea be a patent?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jae Bok

    2004-08-15

    This book mentions patent such as application, what is patents, patent law, procedure and patent attorney, which includes business idea is patent. Is internet domain name or name-brand? We can make a big money with others idea, the difference among patent, trademark, utility model rights and registration of design, priority system, new weapon in digital period, patent is a knife and a shield, the cost from application to registration, what is hunting of patent information, writing document for patent, patent examination and patent lawyer.

  3. CONTRIBUTING FACTORS TOWARDS DIFFICULTIES IN GENERATING IDEAS AMONG TECHNICAL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Yee Mei Heong

    2013-01-01

    Idea is a thought or collection of thoughts that are important to decision making and problem solving.  The purpose of this research was to analysis the factors contributing to difficulty in generating ideas among technical students.  A total of 375 technical students from four technical universities in Malaysia were randomly selected as samples.  A set of questionnaires was developed and used as research instrument.  The findings indicated that a total of 319 (85.1%) technical students faced...

  4. Sexo y embarazo: ideas de profesionales de la salud

    OpenAIRE

    López,José Salvador Sapién; Basulto,Diana Isela Córdoba

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo fue conocer las ideas de profesionales de salud sobre sexo y embarazo. Se hizo un análisis de contenido de registros escritos sobre los discursos de profesionales que impartían un diplomado de educación perinatal en un hospital público de la ciudad de México. Sus ideas fueron que: es mejor el embarazo planeado; las mujeres embarazadas deben ser atractivas y sensuales para sus compañeros; el sexo no tiene que ser coital ni eliminarse en este período, salvo prescripción médica; algu...

  5. Accurate measurements of neutron activation cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semkova, V.

    1999-01-01

    The applications of some recent achievements of neutron activation method on high intensity neutron sources are considered from the view point of associated errors of cross sections data for neutron induced reaction. The important corrections in -y-spectrometry insuring precise determination of the induced radioactivity, methods for accurate determination of the energy and flux density of neutrons, produced by different sources, and investigations of deuterium beam composition are considered as factors determining the precision of the experimental data. The influence of the ion beam composition on the mean energy of neutrons has been investigated by measurement of the energy of neutrons induced by different magnetically analysed deuterium ion groups. Zr/Nb method for experimental determination of the neutron energy in the 13-15 MeV energy range allows to measure energy of neutrons from D-T reaction with uncertainty of 50 keV. Flux density spectra from D(d,n) E d = 9.53 MeV and Be(d,n) E d = 9.72 MeV are measured by PHRS and foil activation method. Future applications of the activation method on NG-12 are discussed. (author)

  6. Implicit time accurate simulation of unsteady flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buuren, René; Kuerten, Hans; Geurts, Bernard J.

    2001-03-01

    Implicit time integration was studied in the context of unsteady shock-boundary layer interaction flow. With an explicit second-order Runge-Kutta scheme, a reference solution to compare with the implicit second-order Crank-Nicolson scheme was determined. The time step in the explicit scheme is restricted by both temporal accuracy as well as stability requirements, whereas in the A-stable implicit scheme, the time step has to obey temporal resolution requirements and numerical convergence conditions. The non-linear discrete equations for each time step are solved iteratively by adding a pseudo-time derivative. The quasi-Newton approach is adopted and the linear systems that arise are approximately solved with a symmetric block Gauss-Seidel solver. As a guiding principle for properly setting numerical time integration parameters that yield an efficient time accurate capturing of the solution, the global error caused by the temporal integration is compared with the error resulting from the spatial discretization. Focus is on the sensitivity of properties of the solution in relation to the time step. Numerical simulations show that the time step needed for acceptable accuracy can be considerably larger than the explicit stability time step; typical ratios range from 20 to 80. At large time steps, convergence problems that are closely related to a highly complex structure of the basins of attraction of the iterative method may occur. Copyright

  7. Spectrally accurate initial data in numerical relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Nicholas A.

    Einstein's theory of general relativity has radically altered the way in which we perceive the universe. His breakthrough was to realize that the fabric of space is deformable in the presence of mass, and that space and time are linked into a continuum. Much evidence has been gathered in support of general relativity over the decades. Some of the indirect evidence for GR includes the phenomenon of gravitational lensing, the anomalous perihelion of mercury, and the gravitational redshift. One of the most striking predictions of GR, that has not yet been confirmed, is the existence of gravitational waves. The primary source of gravitational waves in the universe is thought to be produced during the merger of binary black hole systems, or by binary neutron stars. The starting point for computer simulations of black hole mergers requires highly accurate initial data for the space-time metric and for the curvature. The equations describing the initial space-time around the black hole(s) are non-linear, elliptic partial differential equations (PDE). We will discuss how to use a pseudo-spectral (collocation) method to calculate the initial puncture data corresponding to single black hole and binary black hole systems.

  8. A stiffly accurate integrator for elastodynamic problems

    KAUST Repository

    Michels, Dominik L.

    2017-07-21

    We present a new integration algorithm for the accurate and efficient solution of stiff elastodynamic problems governed by the second-order ordinary differential equations of structural mechanics. Current methods have the shortcoming that their performance is highly dependent on the numerical stiffness of the underlying system that often leads to unrealistic behavior or a significant loss of efficiency. To overcome these limitations, we present a new integration method which is based on a mathematical reformulation of the underlying differential equations, an exponential treatment of the full nonlinear forcing operator as opposed to more standard partially implicit or exponential approaches, and the utilization of the concept of stiff accuracy which ensures that the efficiency of the simulations is significantly less sensitive to increased stiffness. As a consequence, we are able to tremendously accelerate the simulation of stiff systems compared to established integrators and significantly increase the overall accuracy. The advantageous behavior of this approach is demonstrated on a broad spectrum of complex examples like deformable bodies, textiles, bristles, and human hair. Our easily parallelizable integrator enables more complex and realistic models to be explored in visual computing without compromising efficiency.

  9. Geodetic analysis of disputed accurate qibla direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksono, Tono; Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali; Sari, Zamah

    2018-04-01

    Muslims perform the prayers facing towards the correct qibla direction would be the only one of the practical issues in linking theoretical studies with practice. The concept of facing towards the Kaaba in Mecca during the prayers has long been the source of controversy among the muslim communities to not only in poor and developing countries but also in developed countries. The aims of this study were to analyse the geodetic azimuths of qibla calculated using three different models of the Earth. The use of ellipsoidal model of the Earth could be the best method for determining the accurate direction of Kaaba from anywhere on the Earth's surface. A muslim cannot direct himself towards the qibla correctly if he cannot see the Kaaba due to setting out process and certain motions during the prayer this can significantly shift the qibla direction from the actual position of the Kaaba. The requirement of muslim prayed facing towards the Kaaba is more as spiritual prerequisite rather than physical evidence.

  10. Surprising finding on colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griglione, Nicole; Naik, Jahnavi; Christie, Jennifer

    2010-02-01

    A 48-year-old man went to his primary care physician for his annual physical. He told his physician that for the past few years, he had intermittent, painless rectal bleeding consisting of small amounts of blood on the toilet paper after defecation. He also mentioned that he often spontaneously awoke, very early in the morning. His past medical history was unremarkable. The patient was born in Cuba but had lived in the United States for more than 30 years. He was divorced, lived alone, and had no children. He had traveled to Latin America-including Mexico, Brazil, and Cuba-off and on over the past 10 years. His last trip was approximately 2 years ago. His physical exam was unremarkable. Rectal examination revealed no masses or external hemorrhoids; stool was brown and Hemoccult negative. Labs were remarkable for eosinophilia ranging from 10% to 24% over the past several years (the white blood cell count ranged from 5200 to 5900/mcL). A subsequent colonoscopy revealed many white, thin, motile organisms dispersed throughout the colon. The organisms were most densely populated in the cecum. Of note, the patient also had nonbleeding internal hemorrhoids. An aspiration of the organisms was obtained and sent to the microbiology lab for further evaluation. What is your diagnosis? How would you manage this condition?

  11. Surprising quantum bounces

    CERN Document Server

    Nesvizhevsky, Valery

    2015-01-01

    This unique book demonstrates the undivided unity and infinite diversity of quantum mechanics using a single phenomenon: quantum bounces of ultra-cold particles. Various examples of such "quantum bounces" are: gravitational quantum states of ultra-cold neutrons (the first observed quantum states of matter in a gravitational field), the neutron whispering gallery (an observed matter-wave analog of the whispering gallery effect well known in acoustics and for electromagnetic waves), and gravitational and whispering gallery states for anti-matter atoms that remain to be observed. These quantum states are an invaluable tool in the search for additional fundamental short-range forces, for exploring the gravitational interaction and quantum effects of gravity, for probing physics beyond the standard model, and for furthering studies into the foundations of quantum mechanics, quantum optics, and surface science.

  12. More Supernova Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    originated in South America. E veryone appreciates the beauty of dai- sies, chrysanthemums, and sunfl ow- ers, and many of us enjoy eating lettuce ...few fossils. On page 1621 of this issue, Barreda et al. ( 1) describe an unusually well-preserved new fossil that sheds light on the history of

  13. Surprising radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Radiation doses received by the human body can be measured indirectly and retrospectively by counting the tracks left by particles in ordinary objects like pair of spectacles, glassware, compact disks...This method has been successfully applied to determine neutron radiation doses received 50 years ago on the Hiroshima site. Neutrons themselves do not leave tracks in bulk matter but glass contains atoms of uranium that may fission when hurt by a neutron, the recoil of the fission fragments generates a track that is detectable. The most difficult is to find adequate glass items and to evaluate the radiation shield they benefited at their initial place. The same method has been used to determine the radiation dose due to the pile-up of radon in houses. In that case the tracks left by alpha particles due to the radioactive decay of polonium-210 have been counted on the superficial layer of the window panes. Other materials like polycarbonate plastics have been used to determine the radiation dose due to heavy io...

  14. More statistics, less surprise

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso & the LHCb collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration has recently announced new results for a parameter that measures the CP violation effect in particles containing charm quarks. The new values obtained with a larger data set and with a new independent method are showing that the effect is smaller than previous measurements had  suggested. The parameter is back into the Standard Model picture.   CP violation signals – in particles containing charm quarks, such as the D0 particle, is a powerful probe of new physics. Indeed, such effects could result in unexpected values of parameters whose expectation values in the Standard Model are known. Although less precise than similar approaches used in particles made of b quarks, the investigation of the charm system has proven  to be intriguing. The LHCb collaboration has reported new measurements of ΔACP, the difference in CP violation between the D0→K+K– and D0→π+π– decays. The results are ob...

  15. Globalization and the diffusion of ideas: why we should acknowledge the roots of mainstream ideas in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Emilie; Hajizadeh, Mohammad; El-Bialy, Rowan; Bidisha, Sayema Haque

    2014-06-01

    Although globalization has created ample opportunities and spaces to share experiences and information, the diffusion of ideas, especially in global health, is primarily influenced by the unequal distribution of economic, political and scientific powers around the world. These ideas in global health are generally rooted in High-Income Countries (HICs), and then reach Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). We argue that acknowledging and addressing this invisible trend would contribute to a greater degree of open discussions in global health. This is expected to favor innovative, alternative, and culturally sound solutions for persistent health problems and reducing inequities.

  16. Consumers as co-creators of new product ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Krystallis, Athanasios; Guerrero, Luis

    2016-01-01

    development process as a firm-centred activity. This study uses projective and creative research techniques to involve consumers in the process of modification and creation of new aquaculture product ideas. We provide guidelines for the use of these techniques in the new product development process, as well...

  17. The Role of the DSM in IDEA Case Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2011-01-01

    The school psychologist plays a central role in eligibility and other determinations under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) not only at the school level but also, upon formal disputes, at the successive adjudicative levels of impartial hearing officers and courts. One of the sources of professional confusion that requires…

  18. The ADA and IDEA Basics: Inclusion of Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motwani, Mona

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the American with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The ADA is a federal civil rights law that was passed in 1990 with the aim of securing equal rights for persons with disabilities in the employment, housing, government, transportation, and public accommodation contexts. It…

  19. Musical Example to Visualize Abstract Quantum Mechanical Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Forrest W.; Seaney, Kyser D.; Grubb, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum mechanics is a notoriously difficult subject to learn, due to a lack of real-world analogies that might help provide an intuitive grasp of the underlying ideas. Discrete energy levels and absorption and emission wavelengths in atoms are sometimes described as uniquely quantum phenomena, but are actually general to spatially confined waves…

  20. Music Education for Every Child – Idea or Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Bačlija Susić

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary pedagogical, psychological and sociological research highlight the need for music education available to every child. Starting from the fundamental point of view according to which music affects the development of the child's whole personality, this idea stands out in history since the 17th century. Various educators in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century emphasized the importance of music education for every child. With historical and theoretical overview of this idea, this paper tries to examine the possibility of its realization in contemporary educational practice. The Venezuelan music education program El Sistema, that promotes humanistic idea of changing society through classical music education stands out as a unique example of a good practice. As a form of music education which particularly promotes the idea of availability of music to every child, the conception of Functional Music Pedagogy by the Croatian music pedagogue Elly Bašić (1908-1998 was shown as well. Considering the status of music in American educational policy, it is indicated as a significant change, in which the music is recognized as an educational priority for the first time in the history of education and it became the basic academic subject in the American federal education policy plan, as well as unprecedentedly incorporated in the federal law.

  1. Understanding Social Work in the History of Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soydan, Haluk

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this article is to present a theoretical frame of reference for the study and assessment of social work from the perspective of a history of ideas. Method: The study employed an analysis of primary and secondary historical sources. Results: Social work as a practice and research field is embedded in the genesis of modern…

  2. A.N. Prior’s Ideas on Tensed Ontology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, David; Schärfe, Henrik; Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A.N. Prior’s work with Peirce’s philosophy and investigations into the formalisation of temporal ontology give rise to some important questions regarding time and existence. Some answers to these questions are considered in this paper, which deals mainly with A.N. Prior’s ideas on time...

  3. Analysis of the "Harmony" Education Ideas in Chinese Taijiquan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shiliang

    2011-01-01

    In this article, many methods such as the literature study are used to analyze the harmony ideas in the sport, the education, and the development of Taijiquan, and the deep meanings contained in these three aspects are expounded in detail, and the conclusion indicates that Taijiquan is very important both for the public body-building and for the…

  4. Local Agenda 21 - from global idea to local action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte

    1999-01-01

    The article give a status of the Danish works with Local Agenda 21 and discusses Local Agenda 21 as a planning tool. It describes the idea of Local Agenda 21 as a large meeting, which everybody attends. This picture is elaborated and discussed form different angles: the items on the agenda...

  5. Determining the Main Idea: Instructional Strategies That Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to identify the main idea through close reading of informational text is a higher-level skill students develop in elementary grades as a foundation for the acquisition of other critical skills in later grades. This article provides instructional strategies for this important skill as well as for improving reading comprehension.

  6. Disruptive Ideas for Power Grid Security and Resilience With DER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Erfan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-23

    This presentation by Erfan Ibrahim was prepared for NREL's 2017 Cybersecurity and Reslience Workshop on distributed energy resource (DER) best practices. The presentation provides an overview of NREL's Cyber-Physical Systems Security and Resilience R&D Center, the Center's approach to cybersecurity, and disruptive ideas for power grid security and resilience with DER.

  7. Farmers Ideas of Climate Change and Strategies for Adaptation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers Ideas of Climate Change and Strategies for Adaptation in Northern Part of Katsina State. ... The study reveals that changes in temperature and precipitation cause changes in crop varieties, changes in planting dates, a shorter growing season, and increased use of water conservation techniques. Various adaptation ...

  8. My Journey with Peter: Moving Ideas that Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Dale A.

    2012-01-01

    Youth development lost a pioneer and a champion, Peter Benson, in October. Benson was a pioneer whose ideas mattered and a champion of approaches to research and its use in the community that has made a difference around the world. Benson's work, life, and spirit have helped transform people's understanding of young people, what it takes to…

  9. People-Things and Data-Ideas: Bipolar Dimensions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Louis; Su, Rong; Rounds, James

    2011-01-01

    We examined a longstanding assumption in vocational psychology that people-things and data-ideas are bipolar dimensions. Two minimal criteria for bipolarity were proposed and examined across 3 studies: (a) The correlation between opposite interest types should be negative; (b) after correcting for systematic responding, the correlation should be…

  10. Better library and learning space projects, trends, ideas

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Les

    2014-01-01

    What are the most important things a 21st-century library should do with its space? This title includes chapters that address this critical question, capturing the insights and practical ideas of international librarians, educators and designers to offer you a 'creative resource bank' that helps to transform your library and learning spaces.

  11. IDEA: An Interdisciplinary Unit Comparing "Don Quixote" to "Hamlet."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mary J. G.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an idea for teaching language through content-based instruction in which a high school Spanish class studying a shortened abridged version of Cervantes'"Don Quixote" and an English class reading Shakespeare's "Hamlet," did a simple comparative analysis of the two texts. (Author/VWL)

  12. Investigating Student Ideas about Cosmology II: Composition of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Kim; Nickerson, Melissa D.; Bailey, Janelle M.; Trouille, Laura E.; Cochran, Geraldine L.; Camarillo, Carmen T.; Cominsky, Lynn R.

    2013-01-01

    Continuing our work from a previous study (Coble et al. 2013), we examine undergraduates' ideas on the composition of the Universe as they progress through a general education astronomy integrated lecture and laboratory course with a focus on active learning. The study was conducted over five semesters at an urban minority-serving institution. The…

  13. Development of IDEA product for GOES-R aerosol data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai; Hoff, Raymond M.; Kondragunta, Shobha

    2009-08-01

    The NOAA GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) will have nearly the same capabilities as NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to generate multi-wavelength retrievals of aerosol optical depth (AOD) with high temporal and spatial resolution, which can be used as a surrogate of surface particulate measurements such as PM2.5 (particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 μm). To prepare for the launch of GOES-R and its application in the air quality forecasting, we have transferred and enhanced the Infusing satellite Data into Environmental Applications (IDEA) product from University of Wisconsin to NOAA NESDIS. IDEA was created through a NASA/EPA/NOAA cooperative effort. The enhanced IDEA product provides near-real-time imagery of AOD derived from multiple satellite sensors including MODIS Terra, MODIS Aqua, GOES EAST and GOES WEST imager. Air quality forecast guidance is produced through a trajectory model initiated at locations with high AOD retrievals and/or high aerosol index (AI) from OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument). The product is currently running at http://www.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/smcd/spb/aq/. The IDEA system will be tested using the GOES-R ABI proxy dataset, and will be ready to operate with GOES-R aerosol data when GOES-R is launched.

  14. The idea of atmosphere: Social psychology and other prolegomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahir Navalles Gomez

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The history of social psychology in this article differs from the standard versions. This is due to the fact that I call on contribtuons from different interlocutors, some of them from outside the discipline of social psychology. Their theorical insights provide a clue to the idea hidden in the background of social psychology –the idea of "atmosphere". I begin by setting out what official social psychology has held in contempt – its own past, its own unofficial history. I also make a case for the work of certain authors who have been ignored within social psychology, and introduce others who have cautiously developed the idea of 'atmosphere'. I trace how 'atmosphere' became the central metaphor which historically informed the discipline of social psychology, taking account of the work of historians and philosophers, as well as sociologists and philologists. 'Atmosphere' is the origin of social psychology, an idea that results in a nostalgic psychology, an historical psychology and a collective psychology.

  15. 78 FR 64253 - NASA Asteroid Initiative Idea Synthesis Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice: 13-124] NASA Asteroid Initiative Idea.... SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces that the agency will resume the NASA... INFORMATION CONTACT: Michele Gates, Senior Technical Advisor, NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission...

  16. Ideas of Elementary Students about Reducing the "Greenhouse Effect."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Claire; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents the results of a questionnaire given to 563 elementary students to study their ideas of actions that would reduce the greenhouse effect. Most of the children (87%) appreciated that planting trees would help reduce global warming. During interviews it was discovered that children were confused between the greenhouse effect and ozone layer…

  17. Essays and Explorations: Studies in Ideas, Language, and Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Morton W.

    Seventeen reprinted essays and an unpublished one are contained in this collection and organized under five headings: History of Ideas, Approaches to Medieval Literature, Chaucer and Fourteenth-Century English Literature, Language and Linguistics, and Essay-Reviews. Topics discussed include the origin of the concept of the Seven Cardinal Sins;…

  18. The Idea of Labyrinth ("Migong") in Chinese Building Tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hui

    2012-01-01

    The concept of labyrinth as a design idea is prevalent throughout the history of Western architecture. In the late-eighteenth century when the Western Jesuits built a labyrinth as a part of a "Western-like" garden within the Chinese imperial garden Yuanming Yuan, the labyrinth appeared exotic and enjoyable for the Chinese. This essay…

  19. Teaching through Trade Books: What We Do with Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, Christine Anne

    2016-01-01

    Creative thinking is important to scientists and engineers as they frame their work and engage in the practices of their fields. Elementary-age children need opportunities to think about and develop an idea from its inception through to its conclusion to expand their thinking and engage in scientific processes. Generating and expanding on ideas…

  20. Management Matters. Display and Promotion Ideas for Library Media Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2005-01-01

    School library media centers should be warm and inviting places where the environment entices children to read and explore. Creative bulletin board and case displays along with other exhibits help to make the library media center an exciting place. Bulletin board displays that promote authors, books, and exciting ideas motivate children to find…

  1. Teachers' Ideas about Health: Implications for Health Promotion at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglioretti, Massimo; Velasco, Veronica; Celata, Corrado; Vecchio, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The study explores the relationships among teachers' health representations, their ideas about health promotion, their working conditions and their involvement in health-promotion activities at school. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 107 teachers in 86 schools in Milan (Italy). The questionnaire was structured in four…

  2. Research Ideas for the Journal of Health & Medical Economics: Opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this Opinion article is to discuss some ideas that might lead to papers that are suitable for publication in the Journal of Health and Medical Economics. The suggestions include the affordability and sustainability of universal health care insurance, monitoring and

  3. Convergence of Crowdsourcing Ideas: A Cognitive Load perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Shixuan; de Vreede, Gert-Jan; Cheng, Xusen

    2017-01-01

    and satisfaction with the convergence process and outcomes. We propose an experimental study that adopts Cognitive Load Theory as its theoretical lens to investigate the effects of task complexity, idea presentation, and instructional guidance on convergence quality and satisfaction. This study has the potential...

  4. Generating Ideas in Jazz Improvisation: Where Theory Meets Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Idea generation is an integral component of jazz improvising. This article merges theoretical origins and practical experiences through the examination of two seminal works from Pressing and Sudnow. A comparative analysis yields three common sources with distinct characteristics. The greater body of jazz literature supports this potential link…

  5. Cellular Automata Ideas in Digital Circuits and Switching Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwak, Pawel P.

    1985-01-01

    Presents two examples which illustrate the usefulness of ideas from cellular automata. First, Lee's algorithm is recalled and its cellular nature shown. Then a problem from digraphs, which has arisen from analyzing predecessing configurations in the famous Conway's "game of life," is considered. (Author/JN)

  6. Ideas: NCTM Standards-Based Instruction, Grades K-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Michael C., Ed.

    This document is a collection of activity-based mathematics lessons for grades K-4 from the "Ideas" department in "Arithmetic Teacher: Mathematics Education through the Middle Grades." Each lesson includes background information, objectives, directions, extensions, and student worksheets. A matrix is included which correlates…

  7. Ideas: NCTM Standards-Based Instruction, Grades 5-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Michael C., Ed.

    This document is a collection of activity-based mathematics lessons for grades 5-8 from the "Ideas" department in "Arithmetic Teacher: Mathematics Education through the Middle Grades." Each lesson includes background information, objectives, directions, extensions, and student worksheets. A matrix is included which correlates…

  8. Is There an Australian Idea of a University?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Chris

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the idea of a university as it exists and is discussed in Australia at the beginning of the 21st century. Australia's history and partly derivative culture provide the relatively unintellectual context for sceptical utilitarianism in relation to a system which has expanded rapidly and is frequently described as being in…

  9. Democracy and equity: The idea of the just state (Rechtsstaat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recent publication of a special number of the SAJP dedicated to a discussion of Samantha Vice's thoughts on being a white South African prompted this reflection on justice, equity and the modern idea of the state – against the background of moral feelings of guilt and shame, cultural diversity and merging identities.

  10. The Idea of a University and the Increasing Pressures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Idea of a University and the Increasing Pressures of Utilitarianism: A Critical Reflection on Addis Ababa University. ... Journal Home > Vol 1, No 1 (2003) > ... The paper then gives us an overview of the history of Addis Ababa University with particular emphasis to the pressures that have affected its missions and aims.

  11. Curriculum, Knowledge, and the Idea of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudien, Crain

    2015-01-01

    South Africa is an important social space in world history and politics for understanding how the modern world comes to deal with the questions of social difference, and the encounter of people with different civilizational histories. In this essay I argue that a particular racial idea inflected this encounter. One of the ways in which this…

  12. Marx and Education. Routledge Key Ideas in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyon, Jean

    2011-01-01

    There was only one Karl Marx, but there have been a multitude of Marxisms. This concise, introductory book by internationally renowned scholar Jean Anyon centers on the ideas of Marx that have been used in education studies as a guide to theory, analysis, research, and practice. "Marx and Education" begins with a brief overview of basic Marxist…

  13. From Mateev's baryogenesis ideas to contemporary cosmological constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirilova, D.

    2011-01-01

    Mateev's ideas on baryogenesis and the possibility to constrain new physics on the basis of cosmological observations present the first impulse for the development of the physical cosmology and astroparticle physics in Bulgaria. Contemporary cosmological models of baryogenesis, leptogenesis, primordial nucleosynthesis and cosmological constraints on new physics are discussed

  14. Georg Cantor i idea jedności nauki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Dadaczyński

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available G. Cantor presented - in an unpublished paper (1884 - a vision of the unity of science. He argued all sciences can be reduced directly to the set theory. A source of this idea was for Cantor the unity of mathematics (on the basis of set theory. Cantor represented thesis about the unity of science irrespective of the representatives of positivism (E. Mach.

  15. Thinking in Another Way: Ideas for Sustainable Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Inclusion implies that someone has been excluded and that some are able to prevent others from participation in significant community, economic and political activities. The processes of inclusion and exclusion reflect ideas about how the world is to be seen and understood, about who is to be attended to and who ignored, and about how institutions…

  16. On Kant's idea of humanity as an end in itself

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyholm, S.R.

    2016-01-01

    Writers like Christine Korsgaard and Allen Wood understand Kant's idea of rational nature as an end in itself as a commitment to a substantive value. This makes it hard for them to explain the supposed equivalence between the universal law and humanity formulations of the categorical imperative,

  17. Primary Student Teachers' Ideas about Teaching a Physics Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahtee, Maija; Johnston, Jane

    2006-01-01

    This study examines Finnish and English primary student teachers' ideas when planning to teach a physics topic during their science education studies. Many primary student teachers lack sufficient subject knowledge, which prevents them from constructing the scientific pedagogical content knowledge that enables them to concentrate on pupils'…

  18. Idea Bank: The Protein Résumé

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo, Tami; Crowther, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    The Idea Bank column provides tips and techniques for creative teaching, in about 1,000 words. As students use increasingly diverse internet sources, it becomes hard to tell whether their answers are truly original. A general solution to this dilemma is to ask students to present information in a format that they are unlikely to encounter in books…

  19. Ideas for Changing Educational Systems, Educational Policy and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Pat; Lingard, Bob; Wrigley, Terry

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues the need for new ideas to assist in the creation of a new social imaginary post-neo-liberalism to frame rethought educational systems, policy and schooling. This is an attempt to reclaim progressive, democratic and social justice purposes for schooling well beyond dominant human capital renditions. While acknowledging the…

  20. CATÁSTROFES Y SOSTENIBILIDAD: ALGUNAS IDEAS PARA EL AULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Pedrinaci

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se subraya la relevancia social de las catástrofes naturales y su relación con el desarrollo sostenible, se exponen algunas de las razones que recomiendan abordar su estudio en los cursos de ciencias de la educación secundaria y se sugieren ideas y actividades para su tratamiento en el aula.