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Sample records for surprise sadness fear

  1. Neural Responses to Rapid Facial Expressions of Fear and Surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Facial expression recognition is mediated by a distributed neural system in humans that involves multiple, bilateral regions. There are six basic facial expressions that may be recognized in humans (fear, sadness, surprise, happiness, anger, and disgust; however, fearful faces and surprised faces are easily confused in rapid presentation. The functional organization of the facial expression recognition system embodies a distinction between these two emotions, which is investigated in the present study. A core system that includes the right parahippocampal gyrus (BA 30, fusiform gyrus, and amygdala mediates the visual recognition of fear and surprise. We found that fearful faces evoked greater activity in the left precuneus, middle temporal gyrus (MTG, middle frontal gyrus, and right lingual gyrus, whereas surprised faces were associated with greater activity in the right postcentral gyrus and left posterior insula. These findings indicate the importance of common and separate mechanisms of the neural activation that underlies the recognition of fearful and surprised faces.

  2. Hidden sources of joy, fear, and sadness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogert, Brigitte; Numminen-Kontti, Taru; Gold, Benjamin;

    2016-01-01

    Music is often used to regulate emotions and mood. Typically, music conveys and induces emotions even when one does not attend to them. Studies on the neural substrates of musical emotions have, however, only examined brain activity when subjects have focused on the emotional content of the music....... Here we address with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) the neural processing of happy, sad, and fearful music with a paradigm in which 56 subjects were instructed to either classify the emotions (explicit condition) or pay attention to the number of instruments playing (implicit condition...... to be associated with the cognitive processing of music and emotion recognition and regulation. Moreover, happiness in music was associated with activity in the bilateral auditory cortex, left parahippocampal gyrus, and supplementary motor area, whereas the negative emotions of sadness and fear corresponded...

  3. Voices of fear and anxiety and sadness and depression: the effects of speech rate and loudness on fear and anxiety and sadness and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegman, A W; Boyle, S

    1993-08-01

    Two studies investigated the role of expressive vocal behavior (specifically, speech rate and loudness) in fear and anxiety and in sadness and depression. In the first study, participants spoke about personally experienced fear and anxiety-arousing and neutral events using 3 different voice styles: fast and loud, normal, and slow and soft. In the second study, participants spoke about personally experienced sad or depressing and neutral events using the same 3 voice styles. In both studies, the participants' highest levels of subjective affective and cardiovascular (CV) arousal occurred when they spoke about the emotional events in a mood-congruent voice style: fast and loud in the case of fear and anxiety, and slow and soft in the case of sadness or depression. Mood-incongruent voice styles canceled the heightened levels of CV arousal normally associated with these negative emotions. The voice-style manipulation had no significant effect on the participants' levels of CV arousal during the neutral discussions.

  4. Cardiovascular, electrodermal, and respiratory response patterns to fear- and sadness-inducing films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibig, Sylvia D; Wilhelm, Frank H; Roth, Walton T; Gross, James J

    2007-09-01

    Responses to fear- and sadness-inducing films were assessed using a broad range of cardiovascular (heart rate, T-wave amplitude, low- and high-frequency heart rate variability, stroke volume, preejection period, left-ventricular ejection time, Heather index, blood pressure, pulse amplitude and transit time, and finger temperature), electrodermal (level, response rate, and response amplitude), and respiratory (rate, tidal volume and its variability, inspiratory flow rate, duty cycle, and end-tidal pCO(2)) measures. Subjective emotional experience and facial behavior (Corrugator Supercilii and Zygomaticus Major EMG) served as control measures. Results indicated robust differential physiological response patterns for fear, sadness, and neutral (mean classification accuracy 85%). Findings are discussed in terms of the fight-flight and conservation-withdrawal responses and possible limitations of a valence-arousal categorization of emotion in affective space.

  5. Distinctive mood induction effects of fear or sadness on anger and aggressive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun eZhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A recent study has reported that the successful implementation of cognitive regulation of emotion depends on higher-level cognitive functions, such as top-down control, which may be impaired in stressful situations. This calls for a need of cognition free self-regulatory strategies that do not require top-down control. In contrast to the cognitive regulation of emotion that emphasizes the role of cognition, traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine views the relationship among different types of emotions as promoting or counteracting each other, without the involvement of cognition, which provides an insightful perspective for developing cognition free regulatory strategies. In this study, we examined two hypotheses regarding the modulation of anger and aggressive behavior: sadness counteracts anger or aggressive behavior, whereas fear promotes anger or aggressive behavior. Participants were first provoked by reading the extremely negative feedback on their viewpoints (Study 1 or by watching anger-inducing movie clips (Study 2; then, these angry participants were assigned to three equivalent groups and view sad, fear, or neutral materials respectively to evoke the corresponding emotions. The results found participants yielded a lower level of aggressive behavior when sadness was induced afterward, and a higher level of anger when fear was induced afterward. These results provided evidence supporting the hypothesis of mutual promotion or counteraction relationships among these types of emotion and implied a cognition free approach for regulating anger and aggressive behavior.

  6. Differences between musicians and non-musicians in neuro-affective processing of sadness and fear expressed in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mona; Gutyrchik, Evgeny; Bao, Yan; Zaytseva, Yuliya; Carl, Petra; Welker, Lorenz; Pöppel, Ernst; Reiser, Maximilian; Blautzik, Janusch; Meindl, Thomas

    2014-04-30

    Music is known to convey and evoke emotional states. Musical training has been argued to lead to changes in neural architecture and enhanced processing of emotions. It is not clear, however, whether musical training is also associated with changes in behavioral and neural responses to musically conveyed discrete emotions. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the responses to three musically conveyed emotions (happiness, sadness, fear) in a group of musicians and a group of non-musicians. We find that musicians rate sadness and fear as significantly more arousing than non-musicians, and that musical training is associated with specific neural activations: In response to sadness expressed in music, musicians show activation increases in the right prefrontal cortex, specifically in the superior and middle frontal gyri. In response to fear, musicians show activation increases in the right parietal cortex, specifically in the supramarginal and inferior parietal gyri. No specific activations were observed in response to happiness. Our results highlight the strong association between musical training and altered processing of "negative" emotions on both the behavioral and on the neural level.

  7. Regulating sadness and fear from outside and within: mothers' emotion socialization and adolescents' parasympathetic regulation predict the development of internalizing difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Paul D; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Kendziora, Kimberly T; Brand, Ann; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2014-11-01

    Multilevel models of developmental psychopathology implicate both characteristics of the individual and their rearing environment in the etiology of internalizing problems and disorders. Maladaptive regulation of fear and sadness, the core of anxiety and depression, arises from the conjoint influences of ineffective parasympathetic regulation of emotion and ineffective emotion socialization experiences. In 171 youths (84 female, M = 13.69 years, SD = 1.84), we measured changes of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in response to sadness- and fear-inducing film clips and maternal supportive and punitive responses to youths' internalizing emotions. Youths and mothers reported on youths' internalizing problems and anxiety and depression symptoms concurrently and 2 years later at Time 2. Maternal supportive emotion socialization predicted fewer, and punitive socialization predicted more, mother-reported internalizing problems at Time 2 only for youths who showed RSA suppression to fear-inducing films. More RSA suppression to sadness-inducing films predicted more youth-reported internalizing problems at Time 2 in girls only. In addition, less supportive emotion socialization predicted more youth-reported depression symptoms at Time 2 only for girls who showed more RSA suppression to sadness. RSA suppression to sadness versus fear might reflect different patterns of atypical parasympathetic regulation of emotional arousal, both of which increase the risk for internalizing difficulties in youths, and especially girls, who lack maternal support for regulating emotions.

  8. Specificity of Cognitive Vulnerability in Fear and Sad Affect: Anxiety Sensitivity, Looming Cognitive Style and Hopelessness in Emotion Reactivity and Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Palacio Gonzalez, Adriana; Clark, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive models of the pathogenesis of anxiety and depressive disorders identify looming cognitive style (LCS) and anxiety sensitivity (AS) as vulnerability factors specifically related to anxiety disorders, whereas hopelessness (HS) is considered more applicable to depression. Given...... their dimensional perspective most cognitive models of psychopathology may also be extended to explain normal emotional responses. To investigate the effect of cognitive vulnerability on the reactivity and regulation of negative emotion, 183 undergraduates were assigned to watch a sad or fearful movie clip. Then......, all participants retrieved positive memories in an expressive writing task. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that LCS was uniquely associated with greater fear reactivity. AS and HS were significant predictors of greater fear and sadness after a down-regulation task, respectively...

  9. Sad or Fearful? The Influence of Body Posture on Adults' and Children's Perception of Facial Displays of Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondloch, Catherine J.

    2012-01-01

    The current research investigated the influence of body posture on adults' and children's perception of facial displays of emotion. In each of two experiments, participants categorized facial expressions that were presented on a body posture that was congruent (e.g., a sad face on a body posing sadness) or incongruent (e.g., a sad face on a body…

  10. Anger, Sadness and Fear in Response to Breaking Crime and Accident News Stories: How Emotions Influence Support for Alcohol-Control Public Policies via Concern about Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solloway, Tyler; Slater, Michael D; Chung, Adrienne; Goodall, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Prior research shows that discrete emotions, notably anger and fear, can explain effects of news articles on health and alcohol-control policy support. This study advances prior work by coding expressed emotional responses to messages (as opposed to directly manipulated emotions or forced responses), incorporating and controlling for central thoughts, including sadness (a particularly relevant response to tragic stories), and examining concern's mediating role between emotion and policy support. An experiment with a national online adult panel had participants read one of 60 violent crime or accident news stories, each manipulated to mention or withhold alcohol's causal contribution. Multi-group structural equation models suggest that stories not mentioning alcohol had a direct effect on policy support via fear and central thoughts, unmediated by concern. When alcohol was mentioned, sadness and anger affects alcohol-control support through concern. Findings help confirm that emotional responses are key in determining news story effects on public support of health policies.

  11. Electrophysiological correlates of fearful and sad distraction on target processing in adolescents with attention deficit-hyperactivity symptoms and affective disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony eSinghal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we used event-related brain potentials (ERP as neural markers of cognitive operations to examine emotion and attentional processing in a population of high-risk adolescents with mental health problems that included ADHD, anxiety, and depression. We included a healthy control group for comparison purposes, and employed a modified version of the emotional oddball paradigm, consisting of frequent distracters (scrambled pictures, infrequent distracters (sad, fearful, and neutral pictures and infrequent targets (circles. Participants were instructed to make a right hand button press to targets and a left hand button press to all other stimuli. EEG/ERP recordings were taken using a high-density 256-channel recording system. Behavioral data showed that for both clinical and non-clinical adolescents, reaction time was slowest in response to the fearful images. Electrophysiological data differentiated emotion and target processing between clinical and non-clinical adolescents. In the clinical group we observed a larger P100 and Late Positive Potential (LPP in response to fearful compared to sad or neutral pictures. There were no differences in these ERPs in the healthy sample. Emotional modulation of target processing was also identified in the clinical sample, where we observed an increase in P300 amplitude, and a larger sustained LPP in response to targets that followed emotional pictures (fear & sad compared to targets that followed neutral pictures or other targets. There were no differences in these target ERPs for the healthy participants. Taken together, we suggest that these data provide important and novel evidence of affective and attention dysfunction in this clinical population of adolescents, and offer an example of the disruptive effects of emotional reactivity on basic cognition.

  12. Children can discriminate the authenticity of happy but not sad or fearful facial expressions, and use an immature intensity-only strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawel, Amy; Palermo, Romina; O'Kearney, Richard; McKone, Elinor

    2015-01-01

    Much is known about development of the ability to label facial expressions of emotion (e.g., as happy or sad), but rather less is known about the emergence of more complex emotional face processing skills. The present study investigates one such advanced skill: the ability to tell if someone is genuinely feeling an emotion or just pretending (i.e., authenticity discrimination). Previous studies have shown that children can discriminate authenticity of happy faces, using expression intensity as an important cue, but have not tested the negative emotions of sadness or fear. Here, children aged 8-12 years (n = 85) and adults (n = 57) viewed pairs of faces in which one face showed a genuinely-felt emotional expression (happy, sad, or scared) and the other face showed a pretend version. For happy faces, children discriminated authenticity above chance, although they performed more poorly than adults. For sad faces, for which our pretend and genuine images were equal in intensity, adults could discriminate authenticity, but children could not. Neither age group could discriminate authenticity of the fear faces. Results also showed that children judged authenticity based on intensity information alone for all three expressions tested, while adults used a combination of intensity and other factor/s. In addition, novel results show that individual differences in empathy (both cognitive and affective) correlated with authenticity discrimination for happy faces in adults, but not children. Overall, our results indicate late maturity of skills needed to accurately determine the authenticity of emotions from facial information alone, and raise questions about how this might affect social interactions in late childhood and the teenage years.

  13. Children can discriminate the authenticity of happy but not sad or fearful facial expressions, and use an immature intensity-only strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy eDawel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Much is known about development of the ability to label facial expressions of emotion (e.g., as happy or sad, but rather less is known about the emergence of more complex emotional face processing skills. The present study investigates one such advanced skill: the ability to tell if someone is genuinely feeling an emotion or just pretending (i.e., authenticity discrimination. Previous studies have shown that children can discriminate authenticity of happy faces, using expression intensity of the happy expressions as an important cue, but have not tested the negative emotions of sadness or fear. Here, children aged 8-12 years (n = 85 and adults (n = 57 viewed pairs of faces in which one face showed a genuinely-felt emotional expression (happy, sad, or scared and the other face showed a pretend version. For happy faces, children discriminated authenticity above chance, although they performed more poorly than adults. For sad faces, for which our pretend and genuine images were equal in intensity, adults could discriminate authenticity, but children could not. Neither age group could discriminate authenticity of the fear faces. Results also showed that children judged authenticity based on intensity information alone for all three expressions tested, while adults used a combination of intensity and other factor/s. In addition, novel results show that individual differences in empathy (both cognitive and affective correlated with authenticity discrimination for happy faces in adults, but not children. Overall, our results indicate late maturity of skills needed to accurately determine the authenticity of emotions from facial information alone, and raise questions about how this might affect social interactions in late childhood and the teenage years.

  14. Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SAD and Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNE – reliability and the preliminary assessment of validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobański, Jerzy A.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Assessment of reliability, cross-validity and usefulness in everyday clinical practice of two related tools: Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SAD and Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNE.Material and method. Analysis of tests results of 453 females and 172 males diagnosed in the years 2008-2010 in the Outpatient Clinic for Neurotic and Behavioral Disorders of the Cracow University Hospital, including, inter alia, results of the questionnaires SAD and FNE. The scales have been, with the consent of their authors (R. Friend and the copyright holder (APA, translated into Polish and back-translated. Subjects also completed the symptom checklist KO ‘0 ‘(n = 512, and neurotic personality questionnaire KON-2006 (n = 505, as well as the NEO-PI-R personality inventory (n = 46. The reliability and cross-validity coefficients of Polish versions were assessed in the patient population and their results were compared with those of the group of 75 medical students.Results. The translation was verified by retranslation. The reliability coefficients of Polish version of the SAD and FNE scales turned out to be high - Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.94 for both scales, Guttman’s split-half reliability coefficient 0.93. Correlations with symptom checklist KO ‘0 ‘and neurotic personality questionnaire KON-2006, as well as with the NEO-PI-R personality inventory were significant and indicate a good cross-validity of the analyzed tools. The average results in the patient population for both scales were significantly higher than the results in the preliminary control group of medical students.Conclusions. Polish versions of SAD and FNE questionnaires, like their other translations from English, proved to be reliable and have a high cross-validity with other original Polish tools used in the diagnosis of neurotic disorders, which allows to recommend them to be used in further studies, also in comparing healthy persons with those suffering from

  15. This May Come As a Surprise : How Prior Knowledge of Information in a Fear Appeal is Associated with Message Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, C. J. M.; Davis, Burt

    2016-01-01

    Two related studies were performed aimed at finding if and how prior knowledge of threat and efficacy information in a fear appeal message is associated with message outcomes (attitude and behavioural intentions). the extended Parallel Process model (ePPm) (Witte 1992; 1998) served as theoretical fr

  16. Sadness and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Sadness and Depression KidsHealth > For Kids > Sadness and Depression A A ... big difference in your life. When Sadness Is Depression When you're in a sad mood, it ...

  17. Sadness and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Sadness and Depression KidsHealth > For Kids > Sadness and Depression Print A ... big difference in your life. When Sadness Is Depression When you're in a sad mood, it ...

  18. Ontological Surprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leahu, Lucian

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how we might rethink design as the technological crafting of human-machine relations in the context of a machine learning technique called neural networks. It analyzes Google’s Inceptionism project, which uses neural networks for image recognition. The surprising output of...... a hybrid approach where machine learning algorithms are used to identify objects as well as connections between them; finally, it argues for remaining open to ontological surprises in machine learning as they may enable the crafting of different relations with and through technologies....

  19. Surprise Trips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias; Kawash, Raghid; Andersen, Lisbet Møller

    We report on a platform that augments the natural experience of exploration in diverse indoor and outdoor environments. The system builds on the theme of surprises in terms of user expectations and finding points of interest. It utilizes physical icons as representations of users' interests and a...

  20. The paradox of music-evoked sadness: an online survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liila Taruffi

    Full Text Available This study explores listeners' experience of music-evoked sadness. Sadness is typically assumed to be undesirable and is therefore usually avoided in everyday life. Yet the question remains: Why do people seek and appreciate sadness in music? We present findings from an online survey with both Western and Eastern participants (N = 772. The survey investigates the rewarding aspects of music-evoked sadness, as well as the relative contribution of listener characteristics and situational factors to the appreciation of sad music. The survey also examines the different principles through which sadness is evoked by music, and their interaction with personality traits. Results show 4 different rewards of music-evoked sadness: reward of imagination, emotion regulation, empathy, and no "real-life" implications. Moreover, appreciation of sad music follows a mood-congruent fashion and is greater among individuals with high empathy and low emotional stability. Surprisingly, nostalgia rather than sadness is the most frequent emotion evoked by sad music. Correspondingly, memory was rated as the most important principle through which sadness is evoked. Finally, the trait empathy contributes to the evocation of sadness via contagion, appraisal, and by engaging social functions. The present findings indicate that emotional responses to sad music are multifaceted, are modulated by empathy, and are linked with a multidimensional experience of pleasure. These results were corroborated by a follow-up survey on happy music, which indicated differences between the emotional experiences resulting from listening to sad versus happy music. This is the first comprehensive survey of music-evoked sadness, revealing that listening to sad music can lead to beneficial emotional effects such as regulation of negative emotion and mood as well as consolation. Such beneficial emotional effects constitute the prime motivations for engaging with sad music in everyday life.

  1. The paradox of music-evoked sadness: an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taruffi, Liila; Koelsch, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This study explores listeners' experience of music-evoked sadness. Sadness is typically assumed to be undesirable and is therefore usually avoided in everyday life. Yet the question remains: Why do people seek and appreciate sadness in music? We present findings from an online survey with both Western and Eastern participants (N = 772). The survey investigates the rewarding aspects of music-evoked sadness, as well as the relative contribution of listener characteristics and situational factors to the appreciation of sad music. The survey also examines the different principles through which sadness is evoked by music, and their interaction with personality traits. Results show 4 different rewards of music-evoked sadness: reward of imagination, emotion regulation, empathy, and no "real-life" implications. Moreover, appreciation of sad music follows a mood-congruent fashion and is greater among individuals with high empathy and low emotional stability. Surprisingly, nostalgia rather than sadness is the most frequent emotion evoked by sad music. Correspondingly, memory was rated as the most important principle through which sadness is evoked. Finally, the trait empathy contributes to the evocation of sadness via contagion, appraisal, and by engaging social functions. The present findings indicate that emotional responses to sad music are multifaceted, are modulated by empathy, and are linked with a multidimensional experience of pleasure. These results were corroborated by a follow-up survey on happy music, which indicated differences between the emotional experiences resulting from listening to sad versus happy music. This is the first comprehensive survey of music-evoked sadness, revealing that listening to sad music can lead to beneficial emotional effects such as regulation of negative emotion and mood as well as consolation. Such beneficial emotional effects constitute the prime motivations for engaging with sad music in everyday life.

  2. The Paradox of Music-Evoked Sadness: An Online Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taruffi, Liila; Koelsch, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This study explores listeners’ experience of music-evoked sadness. Sadness is typically assumed to be undesirable and is therefore usually avoided in everyday life. Yet the question remains: Why do people seek and appreciate sadness in music? We present findings from an online survey with both Western and Eastern participants (N = 772). The survey investigates the rewarding aspects of music-evoked sadness, as well as the relative contribution of listener characteristics and situational factors to the appreciation of sad music. The survey also examines the different principles through which sadness is evoked by music, and their interaction with personality traits. Results show 4 different rewards of music-evoked sadness: reward of imagination, emotion regulation, empathy, and no “real-life” implications. Moreover, appreciation of sad music follows a mood-congruent fashion and is greater among individuals with high empathy and low emotional stability. Surprisingly, nostalgia rather than sadness is the most frequent emotion evoked by sad music. Correspondingly, memory was rated as the most important principle through which sadness is evoked. Finally, the trait empathy contributes to the evocation of sadness via contagion, appraisal, and by engaging social functions. The present findings indicate that emotional responses to sad music are multifaceted, are modulated by empathy, and are linked with a multidimensional experience of pleasure. These results were corroborated by a follow-up survey on happy music, which indicated differences between the emotional experiences resulting from listening to sad versus happy music. This is the first comprehensive survey of music-evoked sadness, revealing that listening to sad music can lead to beneficial emotional effects such as regulation of negative emotion and mood as well as consolation. Such beneficial emotional effects constitute the prime motivations for engaging with sad music in everyday life. PMID:25330315

  3. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and making you feel moody. Less often, SAD causes depression in the spring or early summer. Treatment for ... play a role in SAD. Reduced sunlight can cause a drop in serotonin that may trigger depression. Melatonin levels. The change in season can disrupt ...

  4. Charming surprise

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2011-01-01

    The CP violation in charm quarks has always been thought to be extremely small. So, looking at particle decays involving matter and antimatter, the LHCb experiment has recently been surprised to observe that things might be different. Theorists are on the case.   The study of the physics of the charm quark was not in the initial plans of the LHCb experiment, whose letter “b” stands for “beauty quark”. However, already one year ago, the Collaboration decided to look into a wider spectrum of processes that involve charm quarks among other things. The LHCb trigger allows a lot of these processes to be selected, and, among them, one has recently shown interesting features. Other experiments at b-factories have already performed the same measurement but this is the first time that it has been possible to achieve such high precision, thanks to the huge amount of data provided by the very high luminosity of the LHC. “We have observed the decay modes of t...

  5. Charming surprise

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2011-01-01

    The CP violation in charm quarks has always been thought to be extremely small. So, looking at particle decays involving matter and antimatter, the LHCb experiment has recently been surprised to observe that things might be different. Theorists are on the case. The study of the physics of the charm quark was not in the initial plans of the LHCb experiment, whose letter “b” stands for “beauty quark”. However, already one year ago, the Collaboration decided to look into a wider spectrum of processes that involve charm quarks among other things. The LHCb trigger allows a lot of these processes to be selected, and, among them, one has recently shown interesting features. Other experiments at b-factories have already performed the same measurement but this is the first time that it has been possible to achieve such high precision, thanks to the huge amount of data provided by the very high luminosity of the LHC. “We have observed the decay modes of the D0, a pa...

  6. Main: SAD201 [AT Atlas

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SAD201 SAD2 Diversification of protein structural analysis technologies by the SAIL... method Diversification of protein structural analysis technologies by the SAIL method Masatsune Kainosho Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University SAD201.csml ...

  7. Main: SAD101 [AT Atlas

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SAD101 SAD1 Structural Analysis of Membrane Protein Complexes by Solid-State NMR St...ructural Analysis of Membrane Protein Complexes by Solid-State NMR Toshimichi Fujiwara Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University SAD101.csml ...

  8. SAD effects on grantmanship

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano, George A

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a state of depression induced by a lack of sufficient sunlight that occurs at high latitudes during the fall and winter. One effect of SAD is that causes people to be more risk-adverse, an effect that should be considered by granting agencies of high latitude countries. Funding agencies often have programmes aimed at high-risk, innovative research. However, the time of the year during which these purposefully high-risk proposals are evaluated usually does not take into consideration the effects of SAD. In high-latitude countries (e.g., Canada, UK, Nordic and Baltic countries), evaluating proposals for high-risk programmes during the late fall might significantly detract from the very purpose of such programmes. At this time of the year, grant evaluators might be in a darkness-induced state of mild depression. As such, evaluators might be more likely to opt for safe investments, more of the same, the well established, which is the antithesis of innovative research.

  9. Sad music induces pleasant emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. One possible answer to this question is that we may actually feel positive emotions when we listen to sad music. This suggestion may appear to be counterintuitive; however, in this study, by dividing musical emotion into perceived emotion and felt emotion, we investigated this potential emotional response to music. We hypothesized that felt and perceived emotion may not actually coincide in this respect: sad music would be perceived as sad, but the experience of listening to sad music would evoke positive emotions. A total of 44 participants listened to musical excerpts and provided data on perceived and felt emotions by rating 62 descriptive words or phrases related to emotions on a scale that ranged from 0 (not at all) to 4 (very much). The results revealed that the sad music was perceived to be more tragic, whereas the actual experiences of the participants listening to the sad music induced them to feel more romantic, more blithe, and less tragic emotions than they actually perceived with respect to the same music. Thus, the participants experienced ambivalent emotions when they listened to the sad music. After considering the possible reasons that listeners were induced to experience emotional ambivalence by the sad music, we concluded that the formulation of a new model would be essential for examining the emotions induced by music and that this new model must entertain the possibility that what we experience when listening to music is vicarious emotion.

  10. Sad Music Induces Pleasant Emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AI eKAWAKAMI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. One possible answer to this question is that we may actually feel positive emotions when we listen to sad music. This suggestion may appear to be counterintuitive; however, in this study, by dividing musical emotion into perceived emotion and felt emotion, we investigated this potential emotional response to music. We hypothesized that felt and perceived emotion may not actually coincide in this respect: sad music would be perceived as sad, but the experience of listening to sad music would evoke positive emotions. A total of 44 participants listened to musical excerpts and provided data on perceived and felt emotions by rating 62 descriptive words or phrases related to emotions on a scale that ranged from 0 (not at all to 4 (very much. The results revealed that the sad music was perceived to be more tragic, whereas the actual experiences of the participants listening to the sad music induced them to feel more romantic, more blithe, and less tragic emotions than they actually perceived with respect to the same music. Thus, the participants experienced ambivalent emotions when they listened to the sad music. After considering the possible reasons that listeners were induced to experience emotional ambivalence by the sad music, we concluded that the formulation of a new model would be essential for examining the emotions induced by music and that this new model must entertain the possibility that what we experience when listening to music is vicarious emotion.

  11. Pain, Sadness, Aggression and Joy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2007-01-01

    Based on film examples and evolutionary psychology, the article discusses why viewers are fascinated not only with funny and pleasure-evoking films, but also with sad and disgust-evoking ones. The article argues that a series of adaptations modify simple pleasure-unpleasure-mechanisms. Besides di......: attachment, cognitive film theory, coping and emotions, evolutionary psychology, hedonic valence, melodrama, sadness, tragedy....

  12. Neuroticism modifies psychophysiological responses to fearful films.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Reynaud

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuroticism is a personality component frequently found in anxious and depressive psychiatric disorders. The influence of neuroticism on negative emotions could be due to its action on stimuli related to fear and sadness, but this remains debated. Our goal was thus to better understand the impact of neuroticism through verbal and physiological assessment in response to stimuli inducing fear and sadness as compared to another negative emotion (disgust. METHODS: Fifteen low neurotic and 18 high neurotic subjects were assessed on an emotional attending task by using film excerpts inducing fear, disgust, and sadness. We recorded skin conductance response (SCR and corrugator muscle activity (frowning as indices of emotional expression. RESULTS: SCR was larger in high neurotic subjects than in low neurotics for fear relative to sadness and disgust. Moreover, corrugator activity and SCR were larger in high than in low neurotic subjects when fear was induced. CONCLUSION: After decades of evidence that individuals higher in neuroticism experience more intense emotional reactions to even minor stressors, our results indicate that they show greater SCR and expressive reactivity specifically to stimuli evoking fear rather than to those inducing sadness or disgust. Fear processing seems mainly under the influence of neuroticism. This modulation of autonomic activity by neurotics in response to threat/fear may explain their increased vulnerability to anxious psychopathologies such as PTSD (post traumatic stress disorder.

  13. Glad to be sad, and other examples of benign masochism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We provide systematic evidence for the range and importance of hedonic reversals as a major source of pleasure, and incorporate these findings into the theory of benign masochism. Twenty-nine different initially aversive activities are shown to produce pleasure (hedonic reversals in substantial numbers of individuals from both college student and Mechanical Turk samples. Hedonic reversals group, by factor analysis, into sadness, oral irritation, fear, physical activity/exhaustion, pain, strong alcohol-related tastes, bitter tastes, and disgust. Liking for sad experiences (music, novels, movies, paintings forms a coherent entity, and is related to enjoyment of crying in response to sad movies. For fear and oral irritation, individuals also enjoy the body's defensive reactions. Enjoyment of sadness is higher in females across domains. We explain these findings in terms of benign masochism, enjoyment of negative bodily reactions and feelings in the context of feeling safe, or pleasure at ``mind over body''. In accordance with benign masochism, for many people, the favored level of initially negative experiences is just below the level that cannot be tolerated.

  14. Glad to be sad, and other examples of benign masochism

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    We provide systematic evidence for the range and importance of hedonic reversals as a major source of pleasure, and incorporate these findings into the theory of benign masochism. Twenty-nine different initially aversive activities are shown to produce pleasure (hedonic reversals) in substantial numbers of individuals from both college student and Mechanical Turk samples. Hedonic reversals group, by factor analysis, into sadness, oral irritation, fear, physical activity/exhaustion, pain, stro...

  15. More Supernova Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    SEP 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE More Supernova Surprises 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...PERSPECTIVES More Supernova Surprises ASTRONOMY J. Martin Laming Spectroscopic observations of the supernova SN1987A are providing a new window into high...a core-collapse supernova ) have stretched and motivated research that has expanded our knowledge of astrophysics. The brightest such event in

  16. Sad Music Moves Those Who Are Empathetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160987.html Sad Music Moves Those Who Are Empathetic They become engrossed ... 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Many people find sad music relaxing but to those who are very empathetic, ...

  17. Sudden Arrhythmia Death Syndromes (SADS) Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Cleveland, Jr. Young Investigator Awards in Cardiac Channelopathy Research 5/4/2016 - SADS Foundation Announces Courts K. Cleveland, Jr. Young Investigator Awards in Cardiac Channelopathy Research 7/6/2015 - The SADS Foundation Supports ...

  18. Agoraphobia: Fear of Fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musetto, Andrew P.

    1984-01-01

    Agoraphobia is a complex phobia in which individuals react with intense anxiety to certain stress situations. Basically, agoraphobics live in fear of becoming afraid. Describes the psychotherapeutic treatment that helps agoraphobics to become more self-sufficient and to face their fears by understanding themselves better. (CS)

  19. Surprises with Nonrelativistic Naturalness

    CERN Document Server

    Horava, Petr

    2016-01-01

    We explore the landscape of technical naturalness for nonrelativistic systems, finding surprises which challenge and enrich our relativistic intuition already in the simplest case of a single scalar field. While the immediate applications are expected in condensed matter and perhaps in cosmology, the study is motivated by the leading puzzles of fundamental physics involving gravity: The cosmological constant problem and the Higgs mass hierarchy problem.

  20. Portraying disease: Sorolla's Sad Legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lage, Juan F; Pérez-Espejo, Miguel Angel; Galarza, Marcelo

    2012-07-01

    In 1899, the Spanish painter Joaquín Sorolla represented, in a large canvas, a group of children probably with sequels of poliomyelitis bathing at Valencia's beach. The title of this painting was Sad Legacy. This work contributed to the international diffusion of Sorolla's artistic creation. We briefly report some facts regarding the painter and his work referring to those portraits of children and especially of sick children.

  1. Do Learners Fear More than Fear Itself: The Role of Fear in Law Students Educational Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Jeffrey; O'Neil, Jennifer; Grimes, Ashley; Bryson, Laura

    2014-01-01

    While previous research has examined the various relationships between fear and learning in K-12 academic settings, the relationship is surprisingly unexplored amongst law students. Using a descriptive qualitative approach, we examine the role fear plays in law students' learning experiences. Through a series of semi-structured interviews a few…

  2. Surprises in astrophysical gasdynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Balbus, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Much of astrophysics consists of the study of ionised gas under the influence of gravitational and magnetic fields. Thus, it is not possible to understand the astrophysical universe without a detailed knowledge of the dynamics of magnetised fluids. Fluid dynamics is, however, a notoriously tricky subject, in which it is all too easy for one's a priori intuition to go astray. In this review, we seek to guide the reader through a series of illuminating yet deceptive problems, all with an enlightening twist. We cover a broad range of topics including the instabilities acting in accretion discs, the hydrodynamics governing the convective zone of the Sun, the magnetic shielding of a cooling galaxy cluster, and the behaviour of thermal instabilities and evaporating clouds. The aim of this review is to surprise and intrigue even veteran astrophysical theorists with an idiosynchratic choice of problems and counterintuitive results. At the same time, we endeavour to bring forth the fundamental ideas, to set out import...

  3. Surprises in astrophysical gasdynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbus, Steven A.; Potter, William J.

    2016-06-01

    Much of astrophysics consists of the study of ionized gas under the influence of gravitational and magnetic fields. Thus, it is not possible to understand the astrophysical universe without a detailed knowledge of the dynamics of magnetized fluids. Fluid dynamics is, however, a notoriously tricky subject, in which it is all too easy for one’s a priori intuition to go astray. In this review, we seek to guide the reader through a series of illuminating yet deceptive problems, all with an enlightening twist. We cover a broad range of topics including the instabilities acting in accretion discs, the hydrodynamics governing the convective zone of the Sun, the magnetic shielding of a cooling galaxy cluster, and the behaviour of thermal instabilities and evaporating clouds. The aim of this review is to surprise and intrigue even veteran astrophysical theorists with an idiosyncratic choice of problems and counterintuitive results. At the same time, we endeavour to bring forth the fundamental ideas, to set out important assumptions, and to describe carefully whatever novel techniques may be appropriate to the problem at hand. By beginning at the beginning, and analysing a wide variety of astrophysical settings, we seek not only to make this review suitable for fluid dynamic veterans, but to engage novice recruits as well with what we hope will be an unusual and instructive introduction to the subject.

  4. Surprises in astrophysical gasdynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbus, Steven A; Potter, William J

    2016-06-01

    Much of astrophysics consists of the study of ionized gas under the influence of gravitational and magnetic fields. Thus, it is not possible to understand the astrophysical universe without a detailed knowledge of the dynamics of magnetized fluids. Fluid dynamics is, however, a notoriously tricky subject, in which it is all too easy for one's a priori intuition to go astray. In this review, we seek to guide the reader through a series of illuminating yet deceptive problems, all with an enlightening twist. We cover a broad range of topics including the instabilities acting in accretion discs, the hydrodynamics governing the convective zone of the Sun, the magnetic shielding of a cooling galaxy cluster, and the behaviour of thermal instabilities and evaporating clouds. The aim of this review is to surprise and intrigue even veteran astrophysical theorists with an idiosyncratic choice of problems and counterintuitive results. At the same time, we endeavour to bring forth the fundamental ideas, to set out important assumptions, and to describe carefully whatever novel techniques may be appropriate to the problem at hand. By beginning at the beginning, and analysing a wide variety of astrophysical settings, we seek not only to make this review suitable for fluid dynamic veterans, but to engage novice recruits as well with what we hope will be an unusual and instructive introduction to the subject.

  5. Friendship and the Socialization of Sadness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Rachel; Cohen, Robert; Parra, Gilbert R.; Kitzmann, Katherine M.; Sharp, Katianne M. Howard

    2015-01-01

    Children's ability to manage the expression of sadness is critical to their development and adjustment. Although parents have been the primary focus of research examining sadness socialization, many acknowledge the influence of other agents such as children's peers. The present research evaluated one type of emotion socialization--reactions to…

  6. How sadness and happiness influence ethnic stereotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žeželj Iris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidental affective states tend to influence stereotyping in counterintuitive way: experimentally induced happiness leads to more stereotyping while experimentally induced sadness leads to less stereotyping. It was therefore predicted that happy subjects would a. would make more stereotype-consistent errors in memory task; b. attribute more stereotypical features to a specific ethnic group, and c. be less sensitive to ethnic discrimination in comparison to sad subjects. In a sample of 90 high school students from Belgrade, Serbia, differently valenced affects were successfully induced using 'autobiographic recollection' procedure. Experiment 1 showed that happy and sad subjects did not differ in the number of stereotype consistent errors in memory task. In experiment 2, however, happy subjects in comparison to sad subjects attributed more stereotypic traits to a non-stereotypical exemplar of a national category and expected him to behave more stereotypically in the future. Additionally, in thought listing task, happy subjects recorded more irrelevant and less story-focused thoughts in comparison to sad subjects. Finally, in Experiment 3 (N=66 sad subjects demonstrated more sensitivity to ethnic discrimination in comparison to happy subjects. These findings are discussed in terms of the impact of emotional experience on social information-processing strategies.

  7. Surprise... Surprise..., An Empirical Investigation on How Surprise is Connected to Customer Satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vanhamme (Joëlle)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis research investigates the specific influence of the emotion of surprise on customer transaction-specific satisfaction. Four empirical studies-two field studies (a diary study and a cross section survey) and two experiments-were conducted. The results show that surprise positively

  8. Surprise... Surprise..., An Empirical Investigation on How Surprise is Connected to Customer Satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vanhamme (Joëlle)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis research investigates the specific influence of the emotion of surprise on customer transaction-specific satisfaction. Four empirical studies-two field studies (a diary study and a cross section survey) and two experiments-were conducted. The results show that surprise positively [n

  9. Social fear conditioning as an animal model of social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Iulia; Neumann, Inga D; Slattery, David A

    2013-01-01

    Social fear and avoidance of social situations represent the main behavioral symptoms of social anxiety disorder (SAD), a disorder that is poorly elucidated and has rather unsatisfactory therapeutic options. Therefore, animal models are needed to study the underlying etiology of the disorder and possible novel treatment approaches. However, the current paradigms modeling SAD-like symptoms in rodents are not specific, as they induce numerous other behavioral deficits in addition to social fear and avoidance. Here, we describe the protocol for the social fear conditioning paradigm, an animal model of SAD that specifically induces social fear of unfamiliar con-specifics without potentially confounding alterations in other behavioral measures. Theoretical and practical considerations for performing the social fear conditioning paradigm in both rats and mice, as well as for the analysis and interpretation of the obtained data, are described in detail.

  10. Fear and Anxiety in the Dimensions of Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria POPCZYK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper I am concerned with various manifestations of aesthetic fear and anxiety, thatis, fear and anxiety triggered by works of art, which I discuss from aesthetic as well as anthropologicalperspectives. I analyse the link between fear and pleasure in catharsis, in EdmundBurke’s notion of the sublime, and in reference to Goya’s Black Paintings and to Paul Virilio’sthought. Both aesthetic fear and aesthetic anxiety exist alongside other emotions, such as pityand sadness, and, most notably, alongside pleasure which is autonomous or which arises froma fascination with evil.

  11. Cloning and Functional Characterization of SAD Genes in Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Bian, Chun Song; Xu, Jian Fei; Pang, Wan fu; Liu, Jie; Duan, Shao Guang; Lei, Zun-Guo; Jiwan, Palta; Jin, Li-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD), locating in the plastid stroma, is an important fatty acid biosynthetic enzyme in higher plants. SAD catalyzes desaturation of stearoyl-ACP to oleyl-ACP and plays a key role in determining the homeostasis between saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids, which is an important player in cold acclimation in plants. Here, four new full-length cDNA of SADs (ScoSAD, SaSAD, ScaSAD and StSAD) were cloned from four Solanum species, Solanum commersonii, S. acaule, S. cardiophyllum and S. tuberosum, respectively. The ORF of the four SADs were 1182 bp in length, encoding 393 amino acids. A sequence alignment indicated 13 amino acids varied among the SADs of three wild species. Further analysis showed that the freezing tolerance and cold acclimation capacity of S. commersonii are similar to S. acaule and their SAD amino acid sequences were identical but differed from that of S. cardiophyllum, which is sensitive to freezing. Furthermore, the sequence alignments between StSAD and ScoSAD indicated that only 7 different amino acids at residues were found in SAD of S. tuberosum (Zhongshu8) against the protein sequence of ScoSAD. A phylogenetic analysis showed the three wild potato species had the closest genetic relationship with the SAD of S. lycopersicum and Nicotiana tomentosiformis but not S. tuberosum. The SAD gene from S. commersonii (ScoSAD) was cloned into multiple sites of the pBI121 plant binary vector and transformed into the cultivated potato variety Zhongshu 8. A freeze tolerance analysis showed overexpression of the ScoSAD gene in transgenic plants significantly enhanced freeze tolerance in cv. Zhongshu 8 and increased their linoleic acid content, suggesting that linoleic acid likely plays a key role in improving freeze tolerance in potato plants. This study provided some new insights into how SAD regulates in the freezing tolerance and cold acclimation in potato. PMID:25825911

  12. Surprise as a design strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, G.D.S.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Imagine yourself queuing for the cashier’s desk in a supermarket. Naturally, you have picked the wrong line, the one that does not seem to move at all. Soon, you get tired of waiting. Now, how would you feel if the cashier suddenly started to sing? Many of us would be surprised and, regardless of

  13. Surprise as a design strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, G.D.S.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Imagine yourself queuing for the cashier’s desk in a supermarket. Naturally, you have picked the wrong line, the one that does not seem to move at all. Soon, you get tired of waiting. Now, how would you feel if the cashier suddenly started to sing? Many of us would be surprised and, regardless of th

  14. Enhanced discriminative fear learning of phobia-irrelevant stimuli in spider-fearful individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina eMosig

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Avoidance is considered as a central hallmark of all anxiety disorders. The acquisition and expression of avoidance which leads to the maintenance and exacerbation of pathological fear is closely linked to Pavlovian and operant conditioning processes. Changes in conditionability might represent a key feature of all anxiety disorders but the exact nature of these alterations might vary across different disorders. To date, no information is available on specific changes in conditionability for disorder-irrelevant stimuli in specific phobia (SP. The first aim of this study was to investigate changes in fear acquisition and extinction in spider-fearful individuals as compared to non-fearful participants by using the de novo fear conditioning paradigm. Secondly, we aimed to determine whether differences in the magnitude of context-dependent fear retrieval exist between spider-fearful and non-fearful individuals. Our findings point to an enhanced fear discrimination in spider-fearful individuals as compared to non-fearful individuals at both the physiological and subjective level. The enhanced fear discrimination in spider-fearful individuals was neither mediated by increased state anxiety, depression, nor stress tension. Spider-fearful individuals displayed no changes in extinction learning and/or fear retrieval. Surprisingly, we found no evidence for context-dependent modulation of fear retrieval in either group. Here we provide first evidence that spider-fearful individuals show an enhanced discriminative fear learning of phobia-irrelevant (de novo stimuli. Our findings provide novel insights into the role of fear acquisition and expression for the development and maintenance of maladaptive responses in the course of SP.

  15. Social skills training versus cognitive therapy for social anxiety disorder characterized by fear of blushing, trembling, or sweating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bögels, S.M.; Voncken, M.

    2008-01-01

    Current interpersonal models suggest that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by interpersonal difficulties. Individuals with SAD and fear of showing bodily symptoms also suffer from interpersonal problems, such as not being open and avoidance of expressing insecurity. Training in social

  16. Social skills training versus cognitive therapy for social anxiety disorder characterized by fear of blushing, trembling, or sweating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bögels, S.M.; Voncken, M.

    2008-01-01

    Current interpersonal models suggest that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by interpersonal difficulties. Individuals with SAD and fear of showing bodily symptoms also suffer from interpersonal problems, such as not being open and avoidance of expressing insecurity. Training in social

  17. Enjoying Sad Music: Paradox or Parallel Processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Emery

    2016-01-01

    Enjoyment of negative emotions in music is seen by many as a paradox. This article argues that the paradox exists because it is difficult to view the process that generates enjoyment as being part of the same system that also generates the subjective negative feeling. Compensation theories explain the paradox as the compensation of a negative emotion by the concomitant presence of one or more positive emotions. But compensation brings us no closer to explaining the paradox because it does not explain how experiencing sadness itself is enjoyed. The solution proposed is that an emotion is determined by three critical processes-labeled motivational action tendency (MAT), subjective feeling (SF) and Appraisal. For many emotions the MAT and SF processes are coupled in valence. For example, happiness has positive MAT and positive SF, annoyance has negative MAT and negative SF. However, it is argued that in an aesthetic context, such as listening to music, emotion processes can become decoupled. The decoupling is controlled by the Appraisal process, which can assess if the context of the sadness is real-life (where coupling occurs) or aesthetic (where decoupling can occur). In an aesthetic context sadness retains its negative SF but the aversive, negative MAT is inhibited, leaving sadness to still be experienced as a negative valanced emotion, while contributing to the overall positive MAT. Individual differences, mood and previous experiences mediate the degree to which the aversive aspects of MAT are inhibited according to this Parallel Processing Hypothesis (PPH). The reason for hesitancy in considering or testing PPH, as well as the preponderance of research on sadness at the exclusion of other negative emotions, are discussed.

  18. Screening for social fears and social anxiety disorder in psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, Kristy L; Zimmerman, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The ability of a diagnostic interview to identify all individuals with a particular psychiatric disorder depends, in part, on the performance of the interview's initial screening questions. The Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition (SCID) is the most widely used research diagnostic interview, yet little research has examined the performance of the SCID screening questions. Because social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most frequent psychiatric disorders, we examined the performance of the SCID screening question in the SAD module to detect social fears and SAD. The incremental validity of a more comprehensive list of social fears was examined by determining how many patients were diagnosed with SAD in those who were originally missed by the SCID screening question. Five percent of those originally missed by the SCID screening question subsequently received a lifetime diagnosis of SAD, and there was a significant increase in the prevalence of social fears after patients were cued by the social fears list. The most commonly reported fears missed by the SCID screening question included speaking in a group, with sexually attractive others, and with authority figures. Results suggest that perhaps these fears could be added to the SCID screening question to capture individuals missed by the SCID screening question and to provide more comprehensive information for treatment purposes.

  19. Not to be forgotten: The bombing of Novi Sad: An ecological black area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nježić Zvonko B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, the second largest Yugoslav city Novi Sad was one of the cities that bore the brunt of the bombing. According to NATO press releases, the bombing targeted oil refineries, roads, bridges, and telecommunications relay stations, facilities which had used for military purposes. The bombing of Novi Sad's refinery caused fires which burned 50000 tons of crude oil, sending toxins and carcinogens into the air and contaminating groundwater. The bombing of the city caused great damage to local civilians, including severe pollution and widespread ecological damage, health consequences which will remain for years as well as permanent psychological consequences caused by almost 3 months of trauma and fear.

  20. Spacetime Average Density (SAD) Cosmological Measures

    CERN Document Server

    Page, Don N

    2014-01-01

    The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmolo...

  1. Brazilian rescue plan sparks surprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to Financial Times,when Guido Mantega,Brazil's finance minister,suddenly proposed a “Bric” rescue package for the eurozone this week,he caught not only other world leaders by surprise but also many of his fellow countrymen.Even as officials from other members of the so-called Bric grouping,Russia,India and China,said it was the first they heard of the idea,many ordinary Brazilians expressed shock at the notion of bailing out the world's richest trading bloc.

  2. Some Surprises in Relativistic Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, N O

    2016-01-01

    General Relativity has had tremendous success both on the theoretical and the experimental fronts for over a century now. However, the contents of the theory are far from exhausted. Only very recently, with the detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes, we have started probing the behavior of gravity in the strongly non-linear regime. Even today, the studies of black holes keep revealing more and more paradoxes and bizarre results. In this paper, inspired by David Hilbert's startling observation, we show that, contrary to the conventional wisdom, a freely falling test particle feels gravitational repulsion by a black hole as seen by the asymptotic observer. We dig deeper into this surprising behavior of relativistic gravity and offer some explanations.

  3. Modeling of Parameters of Subcritical Assembly SAD

    CERN Document Server

    Petrochenkov, S; Puzynin, I

    2005-01-01

    The accepted conceptual design of the experimental Subcritical Assembly in Dubna (SAD) is based on the MOX core with a nominal unit capacity of 25 kW (thermal). This corresponds to the multiplication coefficient $k_{\\rm eff} =0.95$ and accelerator beam power 1 kW. A subcritical assembly driven with the existing 660 MeV proton accelerator at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research has been modelled in order to make choice of the optimal parameters for the future experiments. The Monte Carlo method was used to simulate neutron spectra, energy deposition and doses calculations. Some of the calculation results are presented in the paper.

  4. Social fear conditioning: a novel and specific animal model to study social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Iulia; Neumann, Inga D; Slattery, David A

    2012-05-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a major health concern with high lifetime prevalence. The current medication is rather unspecific and, despite considerable efforts, its efficacy is still unsatisfactory. However, there are no appropriate and specific animal models available to study the underlying etiology of the disorder. Therefore, we aimed to establish a model of specific social fear in mice and use this social fear conditioning (SFC) model to assess the therapeutic efficacy of the benzodiazepine diazepam and of the antidepressant paroxetine; treatments currently used for SAD patients. We show that by administering electric foot shocks (2-5, 1 s, 0.7 mA) during the investigation of a con-specific, the investigation of unfamiliar con-specifics was reduced for both the short- and long-term, indicating lasting social fear. The induced fear was specific to social stimuli and did not lead to other behavioral alterations, such as fear of novelty, general anxiety, depression, and impaired locomotion. We show that social fear was dose-dependently reversed by acute diazepam, at doses that were not anxiolytic in a non-social context, such as the elevated plus maze. Finally, we show that chronic paroxetine treatment reversed social fear. All in all, we demonstrated robust social fear after exposure to SFC in mice, which was reversed with both acute benzodiazepine and chronic antidepressant treatment. We propose the SFC model as an appropriate animal model to identify the underlying etiology of SAD and possible novel treatment approaches.

  5. Fearful responding to interoceptive exposure in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collimore, Kelsey C; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2014-03-01

    There is accumulating evidence suggesting that anxiety sensitivity (AS) may play a role in social anxiety disorder (SAD; e.g., Ball, Otto, Pollack, Uccello, & Rosenbaum, 1995). Precedent research has demonstrated the role of AS in panic disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder, and subsequently, treatment techniques aimed at reducing AS (i.e., interoceptive exposure (IE)) have been studied in these populations (Schmidt & Trakowski, 2004; Wald & Taylor, 2008). The purpose of this study was to examine the types of responses elicited during IE exercises among individuals with SAD. This study describes the responses of individuals with SAD (n = 37) and nonclinical control participants (n = 28) to six IE exercises. Significant differences in responses to the IE exercises were found between participants with SAD and nonclinical controls. However, there were no significant differences in responses to the exercises among persons with SAD, depending on whether the exercises were completed in private versus group settings. Similarity to symptoms during naturally occurring anxiety significantly predicted fearful responding across all exercises in persons with SAD. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Some Surprising Introductory Physics Facts and Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallmann, A. James

    2016-01-01

    In the entertainment world, people usually like, and find memorable, novels, short stories, and movies with surprise endings. This suggests that classroom teachers might want to present to their students examples of surprising facts associated with principles of physics. Possible benefits of finding surprising facts about principles of physics are…

  7. Explaining Sad People’s Memory Advantage for Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Peter J.; Marquardt, Zoe; Young, Isabel; Goodenough, Imogen

    2017-01-01

    Sad people recognize faces more accurately than happy people (Hills et al., 2011). We devised four hypotheses for this finding that are tested between in the current study. The four hypotheses are: (1) sad people engage in more expert processing associated with face processing; (2) sad people are motivated to be more accurate than happy people in an attempt to repair their mood; (3) sad people have a defocused attentional strategy that allows more information about a face to be encoded; and (4) sad people scan more of the face than happy people leading to more facial features to be encoded. In Experiment 1, we found that dysphoria (sad mood often associated with depression) was not correlated with the face-inversion effect (a measure of expert processing) nor with response times but was correlated with defocused attention and recognition accuracy. Experiment 2 established that dysphoric participants detected changes made to more facial features than happy participants. In Experiment 3, using eye-tracking we found that sad-induced participants sampled more of the face whilst avoiding the eyes. Experiment 4 showed that sad-induced people demonstrated a smaller own-ethnicity bias. These results indicate that sad people show different attentional allocation to faces than happy and neutral people. PMID:28261138

  8. Animal models of social avoidance and social fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Iulia; Neumann, Inga D

    2013-10-01

    Social fear and avoidance of social situations represent the main behavioral symptoms of social anxiety disorder (SAD), a highly prevalent anxiety disorder that is poorly elucidated and has rather unsatisfactory therapeutic options. Therefore, animal models are needed to study the underlying etiology and pathophysiology of SAD and to verify the efficacy of possible novel treatment approaches. In this review, we describe and discuss the most important paradigms that have been shown to induce social avoidance and fear in rodents, including foot shock exposure, restraint stress, social isolation, social instability, social defeat, conditioned defeat, social defeat/overcrowding, chronic subordinate colony housing, chronic mild stress, maternal separation and social fear conditioning. We also describe some of the behavioral paradigms used to assess social avoidance and fear in rodents, including the social interaction test, the social preference-avoidance test, the social approach-avoidance test, the three-chambered social approach test, the partition test and the modified Y-maze test. We focus on the behavioral alterations these paradigms induce, especially on social interaction, general anxiety and depressive-like behavior given that SAD is strongly comorbid with anxiety and affective disorders.

  9. Young Galaxy's Magnetism Surprises Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Astronomers have made the first direct measurement of the magnetic field in a young, distant galaxy, and the result is a big surprise. Looking at a faraway protogalaxy seen as it was 6.5 billion years ago, the scientists measured a magnetic field at least 10 times stronger than that of our own Milky Way. They had expected just the opposite. The GBT Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF The scientists made the discovery using the National Science Foundation's ultra-sensitive Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. "This new measurement indicates that magnetic fields may play a more important role in the formation and evolution of galaxies than we have realized," said Arthur Wolfe, of the University of California-San Diego (UCSD). At its great distance, the protogalaxy is seen as it was when the Universe was about half its current age. According to the leading theory, cosmic magnetic fields are generated by the dynamos of rotating galaxies -- a process that would produce stronger fields with the passage of time. In this scenario, the magnetic fields should be weaker in the earlier Universe, not stronger. The new, direct magnetic-field measurement comes on the heels of a July report by Swiss and American astronomers who made indirect measurements that also implied strong magnetic fields in the early Universe. "Our results present a challenge to the dynamo model, but they do not rule it out," Wolfe said. There are other possible explanations for the strong magnetic field seen in the one protogalaxy Wolfe's team studied. "We may be seeing the field close to the central region of a massive galaxy, and we know such fields are stronger toward the centers of nearby galaxies. Also, the field we see may have been amplified by a shock wave caused by the collision of two galaxies," he said. The protogalaxy studied with the GBT, called DLA-3C286, consists of gas with little or no star formation occurring in it. The astronomers suspect that

  10. Childhood and Adult Sexual Abuse, Rumination on Sadness, and Dysphoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Michael; Mendelson, Morris; Giannopoulos, Constantina; Csank, Patricia A. R.; Holm, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The study addressed the hypothesis that adults reporting sexual abuse are more likely to exhibit a general tendency to ruminate on sadness. The relations between reported abuse, rumination on sadness, and dysphoria were also examined. Method: Undergraduate students (101 women and 100 men) reported on childhood and adult sexual abuse and…

  11. Sadness, Suicidality and Grades. NBER Working Paper No. 16239

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimone, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the past year relationship between GPA and experiencing a combination of two primary depression symptoms, feeling sad and losing interest in usual activities for at least two consecutive weeks, among high school students during 2001-2009. The GPA loss associated with sadness, as defined above, falls from slightly less than a…

  12. Ball driven type MEMS SAD for artillery fuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Jin Oh; Jeong, Ji-hun; Eom, Junseong; Lee, Seung S.; Lee, Chun Jae; Ryu, Sung Moon; Oh, Jong Soo

    2017-01-01

    The SAD (safety and arming device) is an indispensable fuse component that ensures safe and reliable performance during the use of ammunition. Because the application of electronic devices for smart munitions is increasing, miniaturization of the SAD has become one of the key issues for next-generation artillery fuses. Based on MEMS technology, various types of miniaturized SADs have been proposed and fabricated. However, none of them have been reported to have been used in actual munitions due to their lack of high impact endurance and complicated explosive train arrangements. In this research, a new MEMS SAD using a ball driven mechanism, is successfully demonstrated based on a UV LIGA (lithography, electroplating and molding) process. Unlike other MEMS SADs, both high impact endurance and simple structure were achieved by using a ball driven mechanism. The simple structural design also simplified the fabrication process and increased the processing yield. The ball driven type MEMS SAD performed successfully under the desired safe and arming conditions of a spin test and showed fine agreement with the FEM simulation result, conducted prior to its fabrication. A field test was also performed with a grenade launcher to evaluate the SAD performance in the firing environment. All 30 of the grenade samples equipped with the proposed MEMS SAD operated successfully under the high-G setback condition.

  13. Use of the SADS Diagnostic Interview in Evaluating Legal Insanity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Richard; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined clinical usefulness of the Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) diagnostic interview in evaluations of criminal responsibility. Findings, based on 78 evaluations from a forensic clinic, indicated that SADS successfully differentiated between sane and insane evaluatees. Differences were primarily in severity of symptoms…

  14. Fears and Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Fears and Phobias KidsHealth > For Teens > Fears and Phobias Print A ... help and support to overcome them. previous continue Phobias A phobia is an intense fear reaction to ...

  15. Incubation of fear

    OpenAIRE

    Pickens, Charles L.; Golden, Sam A.; Nair, Sunila G.

    2013-01-01

    While fear and anxiety can grow over time in anxiety disorders, most efforts to model this phenomenon with fear conditioning in rodents causes fear that remains stable or decreases across weeks or months. Here, we describe several methods to induce conditioned fear that grows over the course of 1 month and is sustained for at least 2 months using an extended fear conditioning approach. These methods include a very reliable standard method that causes multiple fear measures to increase over mo...

  16. Evaluative Appraisals of Environmental Mystery and Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Jack L.; Cubukcu, Ebru

    2011-01-01

    This study used a desktop virtual environment (VE) of 15 large-scale residential streets to test the effects of environmental mystery and surprise on response. In theory, mystery and surprise should increase interest and visual appeal. For each VE, participants walked through an approach street and turned right onto a post-turn street. We designed…

  17. Evaluative Appraisals of Environmental Mystery and Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Jack L.; Cubukcu, Ebru

    2011-01-01

    This study used a desktop virtual environment (VE) of 15 large-scale residential streets to test the effects of environmental mystery and surprise on response. In theory, mystery and surprise should increase interest and visual appeal. For each VE, participants walked through an approach street and turned right onto a post-turn street. We designed…

  18. Analyst Information Precision and Small Earnings Surprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Bissessur; D. Veenman

    2014-01-01

    Prior research attributes zero and small positive earnings surprises to managers’ incentives for earnings management. In contrast, this study introduces and empirically tests an explanation for zero and small positive earnings surprises based on predictable variation in analyst forecast errors. We a

  19. Cognitive and Social Perspectives on Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhami, Mundler

    2007-01-01

    Meanings of "surprise" are wide and include uplifting and engaging facets like wonder and amazement on the one hand as well as ones that may be of the opposite nature like interruption and disrupt on the other. Pedagogically, educators who use surprise in class activities are focusing on students being "taken aback" by a situation, hopefully…

  20. The Pleasures of Sad Music: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew eSachs

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sadness is generally seen as a negative emotion, a response to distressing and adverse situations. In an aesthetic context, however, sadness is often associated with some degree of pleasure, as suggested by the ubiquity and popularity, throughout history, of music, plays, films and paintings with a sad content. Here, we focus on the fact that music regarded as sad is often experienced as pleasurable. Compared to other art forms, music has an exceptional ability to evoke a wide-range of feelings and is especially beguiling when it deals with grief and sorrow. Why is it, then, that while human survival depends on preventing painful experiences, mental pain often turns out to be explicitly sought through music? In this article we consider why and how sad music can become pleasurable. We offer a framework to account for how listening to sad music can lead to positive feelings, contending that this effect hinges on correcting an ongoing homeostatic imbalance. Sadness evoked by music is found pleasurable (1 when it is perceived as non-threatening; (2 when it is aesthetically pleasing; and (3 when it produces psychological benefits such as mood regulation, and empathic feelings, caused, for example, by recollection of and reflection on past events. We also review neuroimaging studies related to music and emotion and focus on those that deal with sadness. Further exploration of the neural mechanisms through which stimuli that usually produce sadness can induce a positive affective state could help the development of effective therapies for disorders such as depression, in which the ability to experience pleasure is attenuated.

  1. The pleasures of sad music: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Matthew E.; Damasio, Antonio; Habibi, Assal

    2015-01-01

    Sadness is generally seen as a negative emotion, a response to distressing and adverse situations. In an aesthetic context, however, sadness is often associated with some degree of pleasure, as suggested by the ubiquity and popularity, throughout history, of music, plays, films and paintings with a sad content. Here, we focus on the fact that music regarded as sad is often experienced as pleasurable. Compared to other art forms, music has an exceptional ability to evoke a wide-range of feelings and is especially beguiling when it deals with grief and sorrow. Why is it, then, that while human survival depends on preventing painful experiences, mental pain often turns out to be explicitly sought through music? In this article we consider why and how sad music can become pleasurable. We offer a framework to account for how listening to sad music can lead to positive feelings, contending that this effect hinges on correcting an ongoing homeostatic imbalance. Sadness evoked by music is found pleasurable: (1) when it is perceived as non-threatening; (2) when it is aesthetically pleasing; and (3) when it produces psychological benefits such as mood regulation, and empathic feelings, caused, for example, by recollection of and reflection on past events. We also review neuroimaging studies related to music and emotion and focus on those that deal with sadness. Further exploration of the neural mechanisms through which stimuli that usually produce sadness can induce a positive affective state could help the development of effective therapies for disorders such as depression, in which the ability to experience pleasure is attenuated. PMID:26257625

  2. The pleasures of sad music: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Matthew E; Damasio, Antonio; Habibi, Assal

    2015-01-01

    Sadness is generally seen as a negative emotion, a response to distressing and adverse situations. In an aesthetic context, however, sadness is often associated with some degree of pleasure, as suggested by the ubiquity and popularity, throughout history, of music, plays, films and paintings with a sad content. Here, we focus on the fact that music regarded as sad is often experienced as pleasurable. Compared to other art forms, music has an exceptional ability to evoke a wide-range of feelings and is especially beguiling when it deals with grief and sorrow. Why is it, then, that while human survival depends on preventing painful experiences, mental pain often turns out to be explicitly sought through music? In this article we consider why and how sad music can become pleasurable. We offer a framework to account for how listening to sad music can lead to positive feelings, contending that this effect hinges on correcting an ongoing homeostatic imbalance. Sadness evoked by music is found pleasurable: (1) when it is perceived as non-threatening; (2) when it is aesthetically pleasing; and (3) when it produces psychological benefits such as mood regulation, and empathic feelings, caused, for example, by recollection of and reflection on past events. We also review neuroimaging studies related to music and emotion and focus on those that deal with sadness. Further exploration of the neural mechanisms through which stimuli that usually produce sadness can induce a positive affective state could help the development of effective therapies for disorders such as depression, in which the ability to experience pleasure is attenuated.

  3. Native sulfur/chlorine SAD phasing for serial femtosecond crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Takanori [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Song, Changyong [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Suzuki, Mamoru [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Osaka University, 3-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nango, Eriko; Kobayashi, Jun [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Masuda, Tetsuya [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Inoue, Shigeyuki [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Mizohata, Eiichi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nakatsu, Toru [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Kyoto University, 46-29 Yoshida Shimoadachi-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Rie [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Shimamura, Tatsuro [Kyoto University, Yoshidakonoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Nureki, Osamu [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Iwata, So [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Kyoto University, Yoshidakonoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Sugahara, Michihiro, E-mail: msuga@spring8.or.jp [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2015-11-27

    Sulfur SAD phasing facilitates the structure determination of diverse native proteins using femtosecond X-rays from free-electron lasers via serial femtosecond crystallography. Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) allows structures to be determined with minimal radiation damage. However, phasing native crystals in SFX is not very common. Here, the structure determination of native lysozyme from single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) by utilizing the anomalous signal of sulfur and chlorine at a wavelength of 1.77 Å is successfully demonstrated. This sulfur SAD method can be applied to a wide range of proteins, which will improve the determination of native crystal structures.

  4. One-Session Exposure Treatment for Social Anxiety with Specific Fear of Public Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindo, Cindy S.; Gonzalez-Prendes, A. Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of one-session, exposure-based therapy, to treat social anxiety disorder (SAD) with specific fear of public speaking. Methods: A quasi-experimental pre-posttest design with repeated measures-within-subject Analysis of Variance and paired sample t-tests was used to compare pretest, posttest…

  5. Posttrauma Numbing of Fear, Detachment, and Arousal Predict Delinquent Behaviors in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwood, Maureen A.; Bell, Debora J.; Horan, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    This study elaborated on associations between youth's trauma-related emotional numbing across multiple affective domains (e.g., fear, sadness, happiness, anger) and delinquent behaviors. The study also examined whether the effects of posttrauma emotional numbing varied by the occurrence of posttrauma arousal symptoms. Participants were 123 middle…

  6. One-Session Exposure Treatment for Social Anxiety with Specific Fear of Public Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindo, Cindy S.; Gonzalez-Prendes, A. Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of one-session, exposure-based therapy, to treat social anxiety disorder (SAD) with specific fear of public speaking. Methods: A quasi-experimental pre-posttest design with repeated measures-within-subject Analysis of Variance and paired sample t-tests was used to compare pretest, posttest…

  7. Effect of regulating anger and sadness on decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Paul Lucian; Hofmann, Stefan G; Heilman, Renata M; Curtiss, Joshua

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of reappraisal, acceptance, and rumination for regulating anger and sadness on decision-making. Participants (N = 165) were asked to recall two autobiographical events in which they felt intense anger and sadness, respectively. Participants were then instructed to reappraise, accept, ruminate, or not use any strategies to regulate their feelings of anger and sadness. Following this manipulation, risk aversion, and decision-making strategies were measured using a computer-based measure of risk-taking and a simulated real-life decision-making task. Participants who were instructed to reappraise their emotions showed the least anger and sadness, the most adaptive decision-making strategies, but the least risk aversion as compared to the participants in the other conditions. These findings suggest that emotion regulation strategies of negative affective states have an immediate effect on decision-making and risk-taking behaviors.

  8. The SAD Cycle for the Bucharest Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan STEFANESCU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The SAD effect is a calendar anomaly linked to the few length of the daylight during the autumn and the winter. In this paper we investigate the presence of this seasonal effect on the Romanian capital market. We find evidences of a significant SAD effect for an important index of the Bucharest Stock Exchange. We also identify some differences of this anomaly from before and during the crisis.

  9. Sadness prediction and response: effects of age and agreeableness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, Ann; Andreoletti, Carrie; Isaacowitz, Derek M

    2010-04-01

    Research has suggested that both age and personality play a role in emotional experience and regulation, but these variables have not been considered together to determine the relative contribution of each. This study simultaneously examined age and agreeableness differences in the experience of sad stimuli. Participants were 46 younger adults (age, M = 22.04 years, SD = 5.41 years) and 48 older adults (age, M = 74.23, SD = 7.82 years). Participants were asked to predict how sad stimuli (i.e., sad photos) would make them feel and were then measured on their actual reaction to the stimuli (reactivity) as well as on their emotional recovery. Agreeableness, but not age, was related to predicted levels of sadness, such that the more agreeable, the higher the predicted sadness (beta = 0.37). In contrast to expectations, prediction accuracy was not related to age or agreeableness. For emotional reactivity, agreeableness (beta = 0.16), but not age, was related to reactivity to sad stimuli (i.e., more agreeable, higher reactivity). Finally, age (beta = 0.14) was significantly related to emotional recovery such that the older adults reported lower levels of sadness at posttest than did the younger adults. Similarly, people who were more agreeable also reported better emotional recovery (beta = 0.15). These relationships were not affected by depression or pretest sadness ratings. Overall, these findings suggest distinct roles for age and agreeableness in predicting different components of the emotion regulation process. An individual with advanced age, high levels of agreeableness, or both may be well-positioned for resilience throughout the emotion regulation process.

  10. Sad man's nose: Emotion induction and olfactory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohr, Elena L R; Erwin, Elena; Croy, Ilona; Hummel, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Emotional and olfactory processing is frequently shown to be closely linked both anatomically and functionally. Depression, a disease closely related to the emotional state of sadness, has been shown to be associated with a decrease in olfactory sensitivity. The present study focuses on the state of sadness in n = 31 healthy subjects in order to investigate the specific contribution of this affective state in the modulation of olfactory processing. A sad or indifferent affective state was induced using 2 movies that were presented on 2 separate days. Afterward, chemosensory-evoked potentials were recorded after stimulation with an unpleasant (hydrogen sulfide: "rotten eggs") or a pleasant (phenyl ethyl alcohol: "rose") odorant. Latencies of N1 and P2 peaks were longer after induction of the sad affective state. Additionally, amplitudes were lower in a sad affective state when being stimulated with the unpleasant odorant. Processing of olfactory input has thus been reduced under conditions of the sad affective state. We argue that the affective state per se could at least partially account for the reduced olfactory sensitivity in depressed patients. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to show influence of affective state on chemosensory event-related potentials. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. A toolkit for detecting technical surprise.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, Michael Wayne; Foehse, Mark C.

    2010-10-01

    The detection of a scientific or technological surprise within a secretive country or institute is very difficult. The ability to detect such surprises would allow analysts to identify the capabilities that could be a military or economic threat to national security. Sandia's current approach utilizing ThreatView has been successful in revealing potential technological surprises. However, as data sets become larger, it becomes critical to use algorithms as filters along with the visualization environments. Our two-year LDRD had two primary goals. First, we developed a tool, a Self-Organizing Map (SOM), to extend ThreatView and improve our understanding of the issues involved in working with textual data sets. Second, we developed a toolkit for detecting indicators of technical surprise in textual data sets. Our toolkit has been successfully used to perform technology assessments for the Science & Technology Intelligence (S&TI) program.

  12. Deciphering network community structure by surprise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aldecoa, Rodrigo; Marín, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    .... A fundamental, unsolved problem is how to characterize the community structure of a network. Here, using both standard and novel benchmarks, we show that maximization of a simple global parameter, which we call Surprise...

  13. A Surprising Culprit Behind Celiac Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_164503.html A Surprising Culprit Behind Celiac Disease? Study suggests harmless viruses may set stage ... typically harmless type of virus might sometimes trigger celiac disease, a new study suggests. Celiac disease is ...

  14. Reduced recognition of fear and sadness in post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poljac, E.; Montagne, B.; Haan, E.H.F. de

    2011-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with impairments in emotional experience and expression. The current study examined the recognition of emotional facial expressions in PTSD patients and matched healthy controls, both in terms of accuracy and sensitivity. The task involved short

  15. Acquisition of CS-US contingencies during Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction in social anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinak, Christine A; Mori, Shoko; Lyons, Maryssa; Milad, Mohammed R; Phan, K Luan

    2017-01-01

    Fear-based disorders, like social anxiety disorder (SAD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are characterized by an exaggerated fear response and avoidance to trigger cues, suggesting a transdiagnostic mechanism of psychopathology. Current theories suggest that abnormalities in conditioned fear is a primary contributor to the pathophysiology of these disorders. The primary goal of this study was to compare acquisition of conditioned stimulus (CS) and aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) contingencies during fear learning and extinction in individuals with SAD and PTSD. In a standard Pavlovian fear conditioning-extinction paradigm we measured subjective US expectancy ratings to different CSs in patients with SAD (n=16) compared to patients with PTSD (n=13) and healthy controls (n=15) RESULTS: Both patient groups (SAD, PTSD) acquired differential conditioning between a CS that predicted US (CS+) and a CS that never predicted the US (CS-), however, both groups reported an increased expectancy that the US would occur following the CS-. Additionally, the PTSD group overestimated that the US would occur in general. Neither patient group showed evidence of successful extinction of the CS+-US contingency nor differentiated their expectation of US occurrence between the CS+ and CS- during extinction learning. Group sample sizes were small and we did not include a trauma-exposed group without PTSD CONCLUSIONS: Both SAD and PTSD generalize expectations of an aversive outcome across CSs, even when a CS never signals an aversive outcome and PTSD may tend to over-expect threat. Fear learning and extinction abnormalities may be a core feature underlying shared symptoms across fear-based disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fear of being laughed at and social anxiety: A preliminary psychometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Carretero-Dios

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the relationship between questionnaire measures of social phobia and gelotophobia. A sample of 211 Colombian adults filled in Spanish versions of the Social Anxiety and Distress scale (SAD; Watson & Friend, 1969, the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (FNE; Watson & Friend, 1969 and the GELOPH (Ruch & Proyer, 2008. Results confirmed that both Social Anxiety and Distress and Fear of Negative Evaluation scale overlapped with the fear of being laughed at without being identical with it. The SAD and FNE correlated highly with the GELOPH but not all high scorers in these scales expressed a fear of being laughed at. Furthermore, an item factor analysis yielded three factors that were mostly loaded by items of the respective scales. This three-factor structure was verified using confirmatory factor analysis. A measure model where one general factor of social anxiety was specified, or another one where two different factors were defined (gelotophobia vs. social anxiety assessed by SAD and FNE showed a very poor fit to the data. It is concluded that the fear of being laughed cannot fully be accounted for by these measures of social phobia.

  17. Surprises in numerical expressions of physical constants

    CERN Document Server

    Amir, Ariel; Tokieda, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    In science, as in life, `surprises' can be adequately appreciated only in the presence of a null model, what we expect a priori. In physics, theories sometimes express the values of dimensionless physical constants as combinations of mathematical constants like pi or e. The inverse problem also arises, whereby the measured value of a physical constant admits a `surprisingly' simple approximation in terms of well-known mathematical constants. Can we estimate the probability for this to be a mere coincidence, rather than an inkling of some theory? We answer the question in the most naive form.

  18. Fear in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Fear is powerful and pervasive in English schools and central to many education discourses. However, it has received very little "focussed" attention in the education literature, despite the increasing interest afforded to it in other disciplines. Understanding how fear works is extremely important as fear and wellbeing are inextricably…

  19. A climate of fear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garner, Tom Alexander; Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework that incorporates fear, acoustics, thought processing and digital game sound theory; with the potential to not only improve understanding of our relationship with fear, but also generate a foundation for reliable and significant manipulation of the fear experience....

  20. Fear of evaluation in social anxiety: mediation of attentional bias to human faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluis, Rachel A; Boschen, Mark J

    2014-12-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a debilitating psychological disorder characterised by excessive fears of one or more social or performance situations, where there is potential for evaluation by others. A recently expanded cognitive-behavioural model of SAD emphasizes that both the fear of negative evaluation (FNE) and the fear of positive evaluation (FPE) contribute to enduring symptoms of SAD. Research also suggests that socially anxious individuals may show biases toward threat relevant stimuli, such as angry faces. The current study utilised a modified version of the pictorial dot-probe task in order to examine whether FNE and FPE mediate the relationship between social anxiety and an attentional bias. A group of 38 participants with moderate to high levels of self-reported social anxiety were tested in groups of two to four people and were advised that they would be required to deliver an impromptu speech. All participants then completed an assessment of attentional bias using angry-neutral, happy-neutral, and angry-happy face pairs. Conditions were satisfied for only one mediation model, indicating that the relationship between social anxiety and attentional avoidance of angry faces was mediated by FPE. These findings have important clinical implications for types of treatment concerning cognitive symptoms of SAD, along with advancing models of social anxiety. Limitations and ideas for future research from the current study were also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Surprising Connections between Partitions and Divisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Thomas J.; Hassen, Abdulkadir; Chandrupatla, Tirupathi R.

    2007-01-01

    The sum of the divisors of a positive integer is one of the most interesting concepts in multiplicative number theory, while the number of ways of expressing a number as a sum is a primary topic in additive number theory. In this article, we describe some of the surprising connections between and similarities of these two concepts.

  2. Surprises from extragalactic propagation of UHECRs

    CERN Document Server

    Boncioli, Denise; Grillo, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-high energy cosmic ray experimental data are now of very good statistical significance even in the region of the expected GZK feature. The identification of their sources requires sophisticate analysis of their propagation in the extragalactic space. When looking at the details of this propagation some unforeseen features emerge. We will discuss some of these "surprises".

  3. Amoris Laetitia: Joy, Sadness and Hopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Seifert

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present essay begins, in its first section, with a mention of the wealth of beautiful thoughts that Amoris Laetitia (AL enriches us with, and of the wonderful core of the message of AL, the merciful love of God for every human being expressed in the words of Christ cited above. It then concentrates on a small portion of the assertions of AL, but which are likely to have the strongest effect and give cause for concern and sadness.The second part concerns the question who the couples in “irregular situations” are, to whom AL wants to grant access to the sacraments, and whether admitting them (without repentance and will to change their life to sacramental absolution of sins and Eucharist is compatible with the Gospel, Church doctrine and human reason. Four fundamentally different answers that dominate the current discussion as to who these couples admitted to the sacraments are according to AL are discussed critically, to show that a clear statement about which of them is true and which are blatantly false, desperately is needed to avert chaos: No “irregular couples” at all? All “irregular couples”? Some, carefully examined, couples in irregular situations?“Irregular couples” who have not celebrated marriage in the Church but only entered a “marriage of conscience,” which AL for the first time in the history of the Church permits and recognizes?Since the second reply authorizes any sacrilege and transforms the holy Temple of God into a temple of Satan, this reply cannot be the one the Pope intends to give. But as it is nonetheless proposed by high dignitaries in the Church and the Pope has remained silent about it, it seems necessary to break this silence and to reject this second blasphemous response in the sharpest possible terms.The third answer is most likely the one meant by Francis. It asserts that the couples admitted to the sacraments must be subjected to a thorough discernment in order to see whether they are so

  4. The Pleasure Evoked by Sad Music Is Mediated by Feelings of Being Moved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuoskoski, Jonna K.; Eerola, Tuomas

    2017-01-01

    Why do we enjoy listening to music that makes us sad? This question has puzzled music psychologists for decades, but the paradox of “pleasurable sadness” remains to be solved. Recent findings from a study investigating the enjoyment of sad films suggest that the positive relationship between felt sadness and enjoyment might be explained by feelings of being moved (Hanich et al., 2014). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feelings of being moved also mediated the enjoyment of sad music. In Experiment 1, 308 participants listened to five sad music excerpts and rated their liking and felt emotions. A multilevel mediation analysis revealed that the initial positive relationship between liking and felt sadness (r = 0.22) was fully mediated by feelings of being moved. Experiment 2 explored the interconnections of perceived sadness, beauty, and movingness in 27 short music excerpts that represented independently varying levels of sadness and beauty. Two multilevel mediation analyses were carried out to test competing hypotheses: (A) that movingness mediates the effect of perceived sadness on liking, or (B) that perceived beauty mediates the effect of sadness on liking. Stronger support was obtained for Hypothesis A. Our findings suggest that – similarly to the enjoyment of sad films – the aesthetic appreciation of sad music is mediated by being moved. We argue that felt sadness may contribute to the enjoyment of sad music by intensifying feelings of being moved. PMID:28377740

  5. Older Chinese adults' fear of intimacy with helping professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Heather; Poulin, John; Ingersoll, Travis; Deng, Rong

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes older Chinese adults have about engaging in counseling-based services as measured by a fear of intimacy with helping professionals scale. Data were collected from 150 older adults living in Chongqing, China. Information from this study will be helpful in developing effective strategies for the provision of social work services in China. In contrast with previous research, attitudes about intimacy with helping professionals varied and were normally distributed. Significant predictors of fear of intimacy were level of trust, mental health stigma, family support and friend support. Surprisingly, family and friend support had opposite associations with fear of intimacy. Family support was related to higher fear and friend support to lower fear. The cultural implications of these findings for researchers and social workers working with elderly Chinese clients are discussed.

  6. Does Religious Involvement Generate or Inhibit Fear of Crime?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Matthews

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In victimology, fear of crime is understood as an emotional response to the perceived threat of crime. Fear of crime has been found to be affected by several variables besides local crime rates and personal experiences with victimization. This study examines the relationship between religion and fear of crime, an underexplored topic in the criminological literature. This gap is rather surprising given the central role religion has been found to play in shaping the attitudes and perceptions of congregants. In particular, religion has been found to foster generalized trust, which should engender lower levels of distrust or misanthropy, including that which is directed towards a general fear of crime. OLS regression was performed using data from the West Georgia Area Survey (n = 380. Controlling for demographic, community involvement, and political ideology variables, frequency of religious attendance was significantly and negatively associated with fear of property crime. This relationship remained even after a perceived neighborhood safety variable was introduced to the model. However, religious attendance was not significantly related to fear of violent crime, and religious orientation was unrelated to fear of property and violent crime. These results suggest that religious involvement conditionally reduces fear of crime, and the authors recommend that future research explore relationships between religion and fear of crime.

  7. From Unresolved Anger to Sadness: Identifying Physiological Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Daniel; Diamond, Gary M.

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to identify physiological correlates of unresolved anger and sadness, and the shift between these emotions, in a context similar to that of emotion-focused, experiential psychotherapy. Twenty-seven university students reporting unresolved anger toward an attachment figure were induced to experience and express unresolved…

  8. Both happy and sad melodies modulate tonic human heat pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huixuan; Chen, Andrew C N

    2009-09-01

    The mechanism of music effects on pain perception remains to be elucidated. To determine which component (mood or valence) of music is more important in music-induced hypoalgesia, we compared the effects of 2 melodies with different moods (happy vs sad) but with the same degree of valence (pleasant vs unpleasant) to an affective neutral lecture and a control (baseline) on the objective and subjective responses to tonic heat pain. Our hypothesis was that if mood was the key component, the happy melody would reduce pain, whereas the sad one would exacerbate pain; and if valence is the key component, the 2 melodies would both alleviate pain. Twenty females participated in this study which consisted of 4 conditions (baseline, happy melody, sad melody, and lecture). Pain tolerance time (PTT), pain intensity, and distress dynamics and the characteristics of pain were measured. A newly devised multiple affective rating scale (MARS) was employed to assess the subjective experience of auditory perception. Both happy and sad melodies of equal valence resulted in significant lower pain ratings during the pain test and were in contrast to the mood prediction. These results indicate that the valence of music, rather than the mood it induced, appears to be the most likely mediator of the hypoalgesic effect of the different music. This article provides new evidence that the valence of music is more crucial than mood in affective pain modulation. This finding gives impetus for health professionals to manage pain more effectively in patients with proper music.

  9. Beyond Sadness : The Multi-Emotional Trajectory of Melodrama

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanich, Julian; Menninghaus, Winfried

    In this article we investigate the astonishing variety of emotions that a brief scene in a film melodrama can evoke. We thus take issue with the reductive view of melodrama that limits this genre’s emotional effects to sadness, pity, and tear-jerking potential. Through a close analysis of a

  10. Radar Design to Protect Against Surprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Technological and doctrinal surprise is about rendering preparations for conflict as irrelevant or ineffective . For a sensor, this means essentially rendering the sensor as irrelevant or ineffective in its ability to help determine truth. Recovery from this sort of surprise is facilitated by flexibility in our own technology and doctrine. For a sensor, this mean s flexibility in its architecture, design, tactics, and the designing organizations ' processes. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory manage d and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000.

  11. Surprise Leads to Noisier Perceptual Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta I Garrido

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Surprising events in the environment can impair task performance. This might be due to complete distraction, leading to lapses during which performance is reduced to guessing. Alternatively, unpredictability might cause a graded withdrawal of perceptual resources from the task at hand and thereby reduce sensitivity. Here we attempt to distinguish between these two mechanisms. Listeners performed a novel auditory pitch—duration discrimination, where stimulus loudness changed occasionally and incidentally to the task. Responses were slower and less accurate in the surprising condition, where loudness changed unpredictably, than in the predictable condition, where the loudness was held constant. By explicitly modelling both lapses and changes in sensitivity, we found that unpredictable changes diminished sensitivity but did not increase the rate of lapses. These findings suggest that background environmental uncertainty can disrupt goal-directed behaviour. This graded processing strategy might be adaptive in potentially threatening contexts, and reflect a flexible system for automatic allocation of perceptual resources.

  12. Radar Design to Protect Against Surprise.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2015-02-01

    Technological and doctrinal surprise is about rendering preparations for conflict as irrelevant or ineffective . For a sensor, this means essentially rendering the sensor as irrelevant or ineffective in its ability to help determine truth. Recovery from this sort of surprise is facilitated by flexibility in our own technology and doctrine. For a sensor, this mean s flexibility in its architecture, design, tactics, and the designing organizations ' processes. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory manage d and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000.

  13. Surprise-Based Learning for Autonomous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-28

    for scientific theories containing recursive theoretical terms". British Journal of Philosophy of Science, 44. 641-652, 1993. Piaget J.. "The Origins...paradigm stems from Piaget’s theory of Developmental Psychology [5], Herben Simon’s theory on dual-space search for knowledge and problem solving [6...34, Twenty-First Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, Edinburgh, Scotland, July 2005. [34] Itti L., Baldi P., "A Surprising Theory of

  14. Exogenous Glucocorticoids Decrease Subgenual Cingulate Activity Evoked by Sadness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheimer, Keith D; Abelson, James L; Taylor, Stephan F; Martis, Brian; Welsh, Robert C; Warner, Christine; Samet, Mira; Manduzzi, Andrea; Liberzon, Israel

    2013-01-01

    The glucocorticoid hormone cortisol is known to have wide-ranging effects on a variety of physiological systems, including the morphology and physiology of the amygdala and hippocampus. Disruptions of cortisol regulation and signaling are also linked with psychiatric disorders involving emotional disturbances. Although there is much evidence to suggest a relationship between cortisol signaling and the brain physiology underlying emotion, few studies have attempted to test for direct effects of cortisol on the neurophysiology of emotion. We administered exogenous synthetic cortisol (hydrocortisone, HCT) using two different dosing regimens (25 mg/day over 4 days, 100 mg single dose), in a double-blind placebo-controlled functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. During fMRI scanning, healthy subjects viewed images designed to induce happy, sad, and neutral emotional states. Subjective emotional reactions were collected for each experimental stimulus after fMRI scanning. Mood ratings were also collected throughout the 4 days of the study. Both dose regimens of HCT resulted in decreased subgenual cingulate activation during sadness conditions. The 25 mg/day regimen also resulted in higher arousal ratings of sad stimuli. No effects of HCT were observed on any mood ratings. Few reliable effects of HCT were observed on brain activity patterns or subjective emotional responses to stimuli that were not sad. The inhibitory effects of cortisol on sadness-induced subgenual cingulate activity may have critical relevance to the pathophysiology of major depression, as both subgenual hyperactivity and decreased sensitivity to cortisol signaling have been documented in patients with depression. PMID:23303057

  15. Being Moved by Unfamiliar Sad Music is Associated with High Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomas Eerola

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paradox of enjoying listening to music that evokes sadness is yet to be fully understood. Unlike prior studies that have explored potential explanations related to lyrics, memories, and mood regulation, we investigated the types of emotions induced by unfamiliar, instrumental sad music, and whether these responses are consistently associated with certain individual difference variables. One hundred and two participants were drawn from a representative sample to minimise self-selection bias. The results suggest that the emotional responses induced by unfamiliar sad music could be characterized in terms of three underlying factors: Relaxing sadness, Moving sadness, and Nervous sadness. Relaxing sadness was characterized by felt and perceived peacefulness and positive valence. Moving sadness captured an intense experience that involved feelings of sadness and being moved. Nervous sadness was associated with felt anxiety, perceived scariness and negative valence. These interpretations were supported by indirect measures of felt emotion. Experiences of Moving sadness were strongly associated with high trait empathy and emotional contagion, but not with other previously suggested traits such as absorption or nostalgia-proneness. Relaxing sadness and Nervous sadness were not significantly predicted by any of the individual difference variables. The findings are interpreted within a theoretical framework of embodied emotions.

  16. Being Moved by Unfamiliar Sad Music Is Associated with High Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eerola, Tuomas; Vuoskoski, Jonna K.; Kautiainen, Hannu

    2016-01-01

    The paradox of enjoying listening to music that evokes sadness is yet to be fully understood. Unlike prior studies that have explored potential explanations related to lyrics, memories, and mood regulation, we investigated the types of emotions induced by unfamiliar, instrumental sad music, and whether these responses are consistently associated with certain individual difference variables. One hundred and two participants were drawn from a representative sample to minimize self-selection bias. The results suggest that the emotional responses induced by unfamiliar sad music could be characterized in terms of three underlying factors: Relaxing sadness, Moving sadness, and Nervous sadness. Relaxing sadness was characterized by felt and perceived peacefulness and positive valence. Moving sadness captured an intense experience that involved feelings of sadness and being moved. Nervous sadness was associated with felt anxiety, perceived scariness and negative valence. These interpretations were supported by indirect measures of felt emotion. Experiences of Moving sadness were strongly associated with high trait empathy and emotional contagion, but not with other previously suggested traits such as absorption or nostalgia-proneness. Relaxing sadness and Nervous sadness were not significantly predicted by any of the individual difference variables. The findings are interpreted within a theoretical framework of embodied emotions. PMID:27695424

  17. Attachment Without Fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David C

    2009-12-01

    John Bowlby hypothesized an attachment system that interacts with caregiving, exploration, and fear systems in the brain, with a particular emphasis on fear. Neurobiological research confirms many of his hypotheses and also raises some new questions. A psychological model based on this neurobiological research is presented here. The model extends conventional attachment theory by describing additional attachment processes independent of fear. In this model, the attachment elements of trust, openness, and dependence interact with the caregiving elements of caring, empathy, and responsibility.

  18. Attachment Without Fear

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, David C.

    2009-01-01

    John Bowlby hypothesized an attachment system that interacts with caregiving, exploration, and fear systems in the brain, with a particular emphasis on fear. Neurobiological research confirms many of his hypotheses and also raises some new questions. A psychological model based on this neurobiological research is presented here. The model extends conventional attachment theory by describing additional attachment processes independent of fear. In this model, the attachment elements of trust, o...

  19. Fear in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Janne Winther

    2006-01-01

    Fear is generally considered to be an undesirable emotional state that may reduce welfare, growth and reproductive performance in animals. Fear in horses is additionally problematic, because fear reactions can cause serious injury to both horse and human. Horses are primarily used for sports and leisure for a large number of children and young women. Unfortunately, horse riding ranks as one of the most dangerous sports in terms of the number and seriousness of accidents, and the ability of a ...

  20. Pupil size tracks perceptual content and surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Niels A; Meindertsma, Thomas; van Loon, Anouk M; Lamme, Victor A F; Bonneh, Yoram S; Donner, Tobias H

    2015-04-01

    Changes in pupil size at constant light levels reflect the activity of neuromodulatory brainstem centers that control global brain state. These endogenously driven pupil dynamics can be synchronized with cognitive acts. For example, the pupil dilates during the spontaneous switches of perception of a constant sensory input in bistable perceptual illusions. It is unknown whether this pupil dilation only indicates the occurrence of perceptual switches, or also their content. Here, we measured pupil diameter in human subjects reporting the subjective disappearance and re-appearance of a physically constant visual target surrounded by a moving pattern ('motion-induced blindness' illusion). We show that the pupil dilates during the perceptual switches in the illusion and a stimulus-evoked 'replay' of that illusion. Critically, the switch-related pupil dilation encodes perceptual content, with larger amplitude for disappearance than re-appearance. This difference in pupil response amplitude enables prediction of the type of report (disappearance vs. re-appearance) on individual switches (receiver-operating characteristic: 61%). The amplitude difference is independent of the relative durations of target-visible and target-invisible intervals and subjects' overt behavioral report of the perceptual switches. Further, we show that pupil dilation during the replay also scales with the level of surprise about the timing of switches, but there is no evidence for an interaction between the effects of surprise and perceptual content on the pupil response. Taken together, our results suggest that pupil-linked brain systems track both the content of, and surprise about, perceptual events.

  1. Re-exploring the influence of sad mood on music preference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedman, R.S.; Gordis, E.; Förster, J.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted three experiments to rectify methodological limitations of prior studies on selective exposure to music and, thereby, clarify the nature of the impact of sad mood on music preference. In all studies, we experimentally manipulated mood (sad vs. neutral in Experiments 1 and 2; sad vs. neu

  2. Children's specific fears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, H; Vostanis, P; Dogra, N; Doos, L; Ford, T; Goodman, R

    2009-11-01

    Most children experience some degree of fear during their development. Specific fears are considered as an appropriate response provided that they are proportionate to the intensity of the perceived threat. Our aim is to present the prevalence of specific fears among children in the Great Britain, their socio-demographic correlates, in particular their association with ethnicity. Data on the child's experience of specific fears were obtained from parents of a national representative sample of 5- to 16-year-olds using the Development and Well-Being Assessment. Biographic, socio-demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the child and the family were included in the questionnaire. About one-third of children were assessed by their parents as having at least one of 12 specific fears. The most commonly reported fears were animals (11.6%), blood/injections (10.8%) and the dark (6.3%). Just less than 1% of all children were assessed according to International Classification of Diseases research diagnostic criteria as having a specific phobia. Biographic, socio-demographic and socioeconomic factors were independently associated with a greater likelihood of a child having particular fears. The most marked associations were fears of the dark, loud noises, imagined supernatural beings in younger children and fear of animals among girls and all non-white groups. Although fears are only labelled as phobias when they impair functioning and interfere with life, they can cause personal distress to children and also can interfere with their daily activities. Children's fears differ in nature across different ethnic groups. Culturally mediated beliefs, values and traditions may play a role in their expression.

  3. Brief fear preexposure facilitates subsequent fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Satoshi; Sakaguchi, Tetsuya; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2015-06-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that occurs following an unexpected exposure to a severe psychological event. A history of a brief trauma is reported to affect a risk for future PTSD development; however, little is known about the mechanisms by which a previous trauma exposure drives the sensitivity to a late-coming trauma. Using a mouse PTSD model, we found that a prior foot shock enhances contextual fear conditioning. This shock-induced facilitation of fear conditioning (i.e., priming effect) persisted for 7 days and was prevented by MK801, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist. Other types of trauma, such as forced swimming or tail pinch, did not induce a priming effect on fear conditioning. Thus, a trauma is unlikely generalized to modify the sensitivity to other traumatic experiences. The behavioral procedure employed in this study may be a useful tool to elucidate the etiology of PTSD.

  4. Happy alone? Sad young men in East Asian gay cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, C

    2000-01-01

    This essay chooses as its texts three films representing contemporary gay male subjects from each of the "three" China's: HK, Taiwan, and the Mainland. Relocating the homoerotic image of the "sad young man," a trope popular from Hollywood rebellion films of the 1950s and 1960s, to contemporary China, I discuss how this masculine icon has been transformed from one of heroic rebellion to one of existential isolation. Indeed, as the politics of both the outmoded Confucian family and fractured Chinese nationhood intersect, what the sad young (gay) man rebels against is a political fluctuation which is no longer fixed; as the young man's opposition is no longer fixed, so too does he become alienated even from his own rebellious cause.

  5. Coping with Fear of Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Comes Next After Finishing Treatment Coping With Fear of Recurrence Having a Baby After Cancer: Pregnancy ... treatment and preparing for the future. Coping With Fear of Recurrence Learn ways to manage the fear ...

  6. Fearing religious satire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Dennis Meyhoff

    2015-01-01

    The article examines the history of the fear of religious satire in modern Europe. The article argues that this fear primarily concerns the potential dissolution of 'the social bond of society' or 'the moral and social order'. From the 17th Century until today, censorship measures and blasphemy...

  7. Fearing religious satire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Dennis Meyhoff

    2015-01-01

    The article examines the history of the fear of religious satire in modern Europe. The article argues that this fear primarily concerns the potential dissolution of 'the social bond of society' or 'the moral and social order'. From the 17th Century until today, censorship measures and blasphemy l...

  8. A Real Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffins, Paul

    2007-01-01

    For years, mainstream thinking about math anxiety assumed that people fear math because they are bad at it. However, a growing body of research shows a much more complicated relationship between math ability and anxiety. It is true that people who fear math have a tendency to avoid math-related classes, which decreases their math competence.…

  9. The relation between mindfulness and fear of negative evaluation over the course of cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Mark; Schmertz, Stefan K; Price, Matthew; Masuda, Akihiko; Anderson, Page L

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the relation between mindfulness and fear of negative evaluation over the course of nonmindfulness based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD). We expected that higher levels of mindfulness would be associated with a more positive response to treatment. This study is a secondary report from a randomized controlled trial in which participants (N = 65) diagnosed with SAD were randomly assigned to receive 8 weeks of 1 of 2 manualized treatments (exposure group therapy, n = 33; or virtual reality exposure therapy, n = 32) either immediately or following an 8 week waiting period. Fear of negative evaluation decreased following treatment and was negatively related to mindfulness throughout treatment and follow-up. Mindfulness did not moderate treatment outcome. These findings indicate that while mindfulness is related to fear, it is not a moderator of symptom reduction in nonmindfulness-based treatment. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed. 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  10. Flexible parasympathetic responses to sadness facilitate spontaneous affect regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Jonathan P; Hamilton, Jessica L; Fresco, David M; Alloy, Lauren B

    2017-07-01

    The ability of the parasympathetic nervous system to flexibly adapt to changes in environmental context is thought to serve as a physiological indicator of self-regulatory capacity, and deficits in parasympathetic flexibility appear to characterize affective disorders such as depression. However, whether parasympathetic flexibility (vagal withdrawal to emotional or environmental challenges such as sadness, and vagal augmentation during recovery from sadness) could facilitate the effectiveness of adaptive affect regulation strategies is not known. In a study of 178 undergraduate students, we evaluated whether parasympathetic flexibility in response to a sad film involving loss would enhance the effectiveness of regulatory strategies (reappraisal, distraction, and suppression) spontaneously employed to reduce negative affect during a 2-min uninstructed recovery period following the induction. Parasympathetic reactivity and recovery were indexed by fluctuations in respiratory sinus arrhythmia and high-frequency heart rate variability. Cognitive reappraisal and distraction were more effective in attenuating negative affect among individuals with more parasympathetic flexibility, particularly greater vagal augmentation during recovery, relative to individuals with less parasympathetic flexibility. In contrast, suppression was associated with less attenuation of negative affect, but only among individuals who also had less vagal withdrawal during the sad film. Alternative models provided partial support for reversed directionality, with reappraisal predicting greater parasympathetic recovery, but only when individuals also experienced greater reductions in negative affect. These results suggest that contextually appropriate parasympathetic reactivity and recovery may facilitate the success of affect regulation. Impairments in parasympathetic flexibility could confer risk for affective disorders due to attenuated capacity for effective self-regulation. © 2017 Society for

  11. The Biology of Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphs, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Each of us has felt afraid, and we can all recognize fear in many animal species. Yet there is no consensus in the scientific study of fear. Some argue that “fear” is a psychological construct rather than discoverable through scientific investigation. Others argue that the term “fear” cannot properly be applied to animals because we cannot know whether they feel afraid. Studies in rodents show that there are highly specific brain circuits for fear, whereas findings from human neuroimaging seem to make the opposite claim. Here I review the field and urge three approaches that could reconcile the debates. For one, we need a broadly comparative approach that would identify core components of fear conserved across phylogeny. This also pushes us towards the second point of emphasis: an ecological theory of fear that is essentially functional. Finally, we should aim even to incorporate the conscious experience of being afraid, reinvigorating the study of feelings across species. PMID:23347946

  12. The Causes of School Fear

    OpenAIRE

    Hrbáčková, Martina

    2008-01-01

    My bachelor thesis addresses fear of school, especially its causes. It also briefly defines scolinophobia and anxiety related to fear. The causes of school fear are divided into three ranges: child´s personality, family and school environment. The causes of school fear should be sought within the individual himself, but also in the family. I concentrate especially on education of children, which can have the effect of arousing fear. The biggest part on the origin of fear has the school enviro...

  13. The Effect of Sad Facial Expressions on Weight Judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trent D Weston

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the body weight evaluation (e.g., normal or overweight of others relies on perceptual impressions, it also can be influenced by other psychosocial factors. In this study, we explored the effect of task-irrelevant emotional facial expressions on judgments of body weight and the relationship between emotion-induced weight judgment bias and other psychosocial variables including attitudes towards obese person. Forty-four participants were asked to quickly make binary body weight decisions for 960 randomized sad and neutral faces of varying weight levels presented on a computer screen. The results showed that sad facial expressions systematically decreased the decision threshold of overweight judgments for male faces. This perceptual decision bias by emotional expressions was positively correlated with the belief that being overweight is not under the control of obese persons. Our results provide experimental evidence that task-irrelevant emotional expressions can systematically change the decision threshold for weight judgments, demonstrating that sad expressions can make faces appear more overweight than they would otherwise be judged.

  14. Some surprising facts about (the problem of) surprising facts (from the Dusseldorf Conference, February 2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, D

    2014-03-01

    A common intuition about evidence is that if data x have been used to construct a hypothesis H, then x should not be used again in support of H. It is no surprise that x fits H, if H was deliberately constructed to accord with x. The question of when and why we should avoid such "double-counting" continues to be debated in philosophy and statistics. It arises as a prohibition against data mining, hunting for significance, tuning on the signal, and ad hoc hypotheses, and as a preference for predesignated hypotheses and "surprising" predictions. I have argued that it is the severity or probativeness of the test--or lack of it--that should determine whether a double-use of data is admissible. I examine a number of surprising ambiguities and unexpected facts that continue to bedevil this debate.

  15. Stroke Recovery: Surprising Influences and Residual Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argye E. Hillis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is startling individual variability in the degree to which people recover from stroke and the duration of time over which recovery of some symptoms occurs. There are a variety of mechanisms of recovery from stroke which take place at distinct time points after stroke and are influenced by different variables. We review recent studies from our laboratory that unveil some surprising findings, such as the role of education in chronic recovery. We also report data showing that the consequences that most plague survivors of stroke and their caregivers are loss of high level cortical functions, such as empathy or written language. These results have implications for rehabilitation and management of stroke.

  16. Surprises and mysteries in urban soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groffman, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the Baltimore Ecosystem Study, one of two urban long-term ecological research (LTER) projects funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, we are using "the watershed approach" to integrate ecological, physical and social sciences. Urban and suburban watershed input/output budgets for nitrogen have shown surprisingly high retention which has led to detailed analysis of sources and sinks in soils these watersheds. Home lawns, thought to be major sources of reactive nitrogen in suburban watersheds, have more complex coupled carbon and nitrogen dynamics than previously thought, and are likely the site of much nitrogen retention. Riparian zones, thought to be an important sink for reactive nitrogen in many watersheds, have turned out be nitrogen sources in urban watersheds due to hydrologic changes that disconnect streams from their surrounding landscape. Urban effects on atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and nitrogen deposition have strong effects on soil nitrogen cycling processes and soil:atmosphere fluxes of nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane. Efforts to manage urban soils and watersheds through geomorphic stream restoration, creation of stormwater management features and changes in lawn and forest management can have significant effects on watershed carbon and nitrogen dynamics. Urban soils present a basic and applied science frontier that challenges our understanding of biological, physical, chemical and social science processes. The watershed approach provides an effective platform for integrating these disciplines and for articulating critical questions that arise from surprising results. This approach can help us to meet the challenge of urban soils, which is critical to achieving sustainability goals in cities across the world.

  17. Regulating Anger under Stress via Cognitive Reappraisal and Sadness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported the failure of cognitive emotion regulation (CER, especially in regulating unpleasant emotions under stress. The underlying reason for this failure was the application of CER depends heavily on the executive function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC, but this function can be impaired by stress-related neuroendocrine hormones. This observation highlights the necessity of developing self-regulatory strategies that require less top-down cognitive control. Based on traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine, which examine how different types of emotions promote or counteract one another, we have developed a novel emotion regulation strategy whereby one emotion is used to alter another. For example, our previous experiment showed that sadness induction (after watching a sad film could reduce aggressive behavior associated with anger [i.e., “sadness counteracts anger” (SCA] (Zhan et al., 2015. Relative to the CER strategy requiring someone to think about certain cognitive reappraisals to reinterpret the meaning of an unpleasant situation, watching a film or listening to music and experiencing the emotion contained therein seemingly requires less cognitive effort and control; therefore, this SCA strategy may be an alternative strategy that compensates for the limitations of cognitive regulation strategies, especially in stressful situations. The present study was designed to directly compare the effects of the CER and SCA strategy in regulating anger and anger-related aggression in stressful and non-stressful conditions. Participants’ subjective feeling of anger, anger-related aggressive behavior, skin conductance, and salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels were measured. Our findings revealed that acute stress impaired one’s ability to use CR to control angry responses provoked by others, whereas stress did not influence the efficiency of the SCA strategy. Compared with sadness or neutral emotion induction, CER

  18. Regulating Anger under Stress via Cognitive Reappraisal and Sadness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jun; Wu, Xiaofei; Fan, Jin; Guo, Jianyou; Zhou, Jianshe; Ren, Jun; Liu, Chang; Luo, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have reported the failure of cognitive emotion regulation (CER), especially in regulating unpleasant emotions under stress. The underlying reason for this failure was the application of CER depends heavily on the executive function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), but this function can be impaired by stress-related neuroendocrine hormones. This observation highlights the necessity of developing self-regulatory strategies that require less top-down cognitive control. Based on traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine, which examine how different types of emotions promote or counteract one another, we have developed a novel emotion regulation strategy whereby one emotion is used to alter another. For example, our previous experiment showed that sadness induction (after watching a sad film) could reduce aggressive behavior associated with anger [i.e., "sadness counteracts anger" (SCA)] (Zhan et al., 2015). Relative to the CER strategy requiring someone to think about certain cognitive reappraisals to reinterpret the meaning of an unpleasant situation, watching a film or listening to music and experiencing the emotion contained therein seemingly requires less cognitive effort and control; therefore, this SCA strategy may be an alternative strategy that compensates for the limitations of cognitive regulation strategies, especially in stressful situations. The present study was designed to directly compare the effects of the CER and SCA strategy in regulating anger and anger-related aggression in stressful and non-stressful conditions. Participants' subjective feeling of anger, anger-related aggressive behavior, skin conductance, and salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels were measured. Our findings revealed that acute stress impaired one's ability to use CR to control angry responses provoked by others, whereas stress did not influence the efficiency of the SCA strategy. Compared with sadness or neutral emotion induction, CER induction was found to

  19. Affinity for Poetry and Aesthetic Appreciation of Joyful and Sad Poems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraxenberger, Maria; Menninghaus, Winfried

    2017-01-01

    Artworks with sad and affectively negative content have repeatedly been reported to elicit positive aesthetic appreciation. This topic has received much attention both in the history of poetics and aesthetics as well as in recent studies on sad films and sad music. However, poetry and aesthetic evaluations of joyful and sad poetry have received only little attention in empirical studies to date. We collected beauty and liking ratings for 24 sad and 24 joyful poems from 128 participants. Following previous studies, we computed an integrated measure for overall aesthetic appreciation based on the beauty and liking ratings to test for differences in appreciation between joyful and sad poems. Further, we tested whether readers' judgments are related to their affinity for poetry. Results show that sad poems are rated significantly higher for aesthetic appreciation than joyful poems, and that aesthetic appreciation is influenced by the participants' affinity for poetry. PMID:28119649

  20. Distribution of serine/threonine kinase SAD-B in mouse peripheral nerve synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Akari; Harada, Kenu; Hida, Yamato; Kitajima, Isao; Ohtsuka, Toshihisa

    2011-05-11

    The serine/threonine kinase SAD regulates neural functions such as axon/dendrite polarization and neurotransmitter release. In the vertebrate central nervous system, SAD-B, a homolog of Caenorhabditis elegans SAD-1, is associated with synaptic vesicles and the active zone cytomatrix in nerve terminals. However, the distribution of SAD-B in the peripheral nervous system remains elusive. Here, we show that SAD-B is specifically localized to neuromuscular junctions. Although the active zone protein bassoon showed a punctated signal indicating its localization to motor end plates, SAD-B shows relatively diffuse localization indicating its association with both the active zone and synaptic vesicles. Therefore, SAD kinase may regulate neurotransmitter release from motor end plates in a similar manner to its regulation of neurotransmitter release in the central nervous system.

  1. Population distribution of the sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD from a representative sample of US adults: comparison of SAD, waist circumference and body mass index for identifying dysglycemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry S Kahn

    Full Text Available The sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD measured in supine position is an alternative adiposity indicator that estimates the quantity of dysfunctional adipose tissue in the visceral depot. However, supine SAD's distribution and its association with health risk at the population level are unknown. Here we describe standardized measurements of SAD, provide the first, national estimates of the SAD distribution among US adults, and test associations of SAD and other adiposity indicators with prevalent dysglycemia.In the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, supine SAD was measured ("abdominal height" between arms of a sliding-beam caliper at the level of the iliac crests. From 4817 non-pregnant adults (age ≥ 20; response rate 88% we used sample weights to estimate SAD's population distribution by sex and age groups. SAD's population mean was 22.5 cm [95% confidence interval 22.2-22.8]; median was 21.9 cm [21.6-22.4]. The mean and median values of SAD were greater for men than women. For the subpopulation without diagnosed diabetes, we compared the abilities of SAD, waist circumference (WC, and body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2 to identify prevalent dysglycemia (HbA1c ≥ 5.7%. For age-adjusted, logistic-regression models in which sex-specific quartiles of SAD were considered simultaneously with quartiles of either WC or BMI, only SAD quartiles 3 (p<0.05 vs quartile 1 and 4 (p<0.001 vs quartile 1 remained associated with increased dysglycemia. Based on continuous adiposity indicators, analyses of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC indicated that the dysglycemia model fit for SAD (age-adjusted was 0.734 for men (greater than the AUC for WC, p<0.001 and 0.764 for women (greater than the AUC for WC or BMI, p<0.001.Measured inexpensively by bedside caliper, SAD was associated with dysglycemia independently of WC or BMI. Standardized SAD measurements may enhance assessment of dysfunctional adiposity.

  2. Study of Fear of Crime in High Crime Areas in Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Ahmadi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated fear of crime in the case of personal and neighborhood related variables. Aquestionnaire survey conducted in two high crime areas (Ahnmadino and Dehpialeh in Shiraz-Iran, among300 residents. Results showed that among personal variables, gender had significant relationship with fearand surprisingly males were more fearful than females. Other personal variables didn't have significantrelationship with fear of crime (age, education, ethnicity, income, home ownership. But neighborhoodrelated variables (incivility, neighborhood attachment, and neighborhood quality and crime perception inneighborhood significantly related to fear of crime. In regression multivariate analysis only incivilityentered and explained 19 percent of dependent variable.

  3. The conceptualization model problem—surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, John

    2005-03-01

    The foundation of model analysis is the conceptual model. Surprise is defined as new data that renders the prevailing conceptual model invalid; as defined here it represents a paradigm shift. Limited empirical data indicate that surprises occur in 20-30% of model analyses. These data suggest that groundwater analysts have difficulty selecting the appropriate conceptual model. There is no ready remedy to the conceptual model problem other than (1) to collect as much data as is feasible, using all applicable methods—a complementary data collection methodology can lead to new information that changes the prevailing conceptual model, and (2) for the analyst to remain open to the fact that the conceptual model can change dramatically as more information is collected. In the final analysis, the hydrogeologist makes a subjective decision on the appropriate conceptual model. The conceptualization problem does not render models unusable. The problem introduces an uncertainty that often is not widely recognized. Conceptual model uncertainty is exacerbated in making long-term predictions of system performance. C'est le modèle conceptuel qui se trouve à base d'une analyse sur un modèle. On considère comme une surprise lorsque le modèle est invalidé par des données nouvelles; dans les termes définis ici la surprise est équivalente à un change de paradigme. Des données empiriques limitées indiquent que les surprises apparaissent dans 20 à 30% des analyses effectuées sur les modèles. Ces données suggèrent que l'analyse des eaux souterraines présente des difficultés lorsqu'il s'agit de choisir le modèle conceptuel approprié. Il n'existe pas un autre remède au problème du modèle conceptuel que: (1) rassembler autant des données que possible en utilisant toutes les méthodes applicables—la méthode des données complémentaires peut conduire aux nouvelles informations qui vont changer le modèle conceptuel, et (2) l'analyste doit rester ouvert au fait

  4. THE FEAR OF FEAR CONCEPT - EVIDENCE IN FAVOR OF MULTIDIMENSIONALITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ARRINDELL, WA

    In recent years, questions have been raised regarding the dimensionality of existing measures of fear of fear. This is an important issue that needs to be addressed if the dimensions(s) of any scale purporting to assess fear of fear are to guide theory and research. One of the most widely used

  5. THE FEAR OF FEAR CONCEPT - EVIDENCE IN FAVOR OF MULTIDIMENSIONALITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ARRINDELL, WA

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, questions have been raised regarding the dimensionality of existing measures of fear of fear. This is an important issue that needs to be addressed if the dimensions(s) of any scale purporting to assess fear of fear are to guide theory and research. One of the most widely used measu

  6. Surprising characteristics of visual systems of invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín-Moro, J; Hernández-Verdejo, J L; Jiménez-Gahete, A E

    2017-01-01

    To communicate relevant and striking aspects about the visual system of some close invertebrates. Review of the related literature. The capacity of snails to regenerate a complete eye, the benefit of the oval shape of the compound eye of many flying insects as a way of stabilising the image during flight, the potential advantages related to the extreme refractive error that characterises the ocelli of many insects, as well as the ability to detect polarised light as a navigation system, are some of the surprising capabilities present in the small invertebrate eyes that are described in this work. The invertebrate eyes have capabilities and sensorial modalities that are not present in the human eye. The study of the eyes of these animals can help us to improve our understanding of our visual system, and inspire the development of optical devices. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Surprises from Saturn: Implications for Other Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, A. J.

    2014-05-01

    The exploration of Saturn by Cassini has provided many surprises regarding: Saturn's rapidly rotating magnetosphere, interactions with its diverse moons, and interactions with the solar wind. Enceladus, orbiting at 4 Saturn radii (RS), was found to have plumes of water vapour and ice which are the dominant source for the inner magnetosphere. Charged water clusters, charged dust and photoelectrons provide key populations in the 'dusty plasma' observed. Direct pickup is seen near Enceladus and field-aligned currents create a spot in Saturn's aurora. At Titan, orbiting at 20 RS, unexpected heavy negative and positive ions are seen in the ionosphere, which provide the source for Titan's haze. Ionospheric plasma is seen in Titan's tail, enabling ion escape to be estimated at 7 tonnes per day. Saturn's ring ionosphere was seen early in the mission and a return will be made in 2017. In addition, highly accelerated electrons are seen at Saturn's high Mach number (MA˜100) quasi-parallel bow shock. Here we review some of these key new results, and discuss the implications for other solar system objects.

  8. Nuclear fear revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2010-10-01

    In 1988 the science historian Spencer Weart published a groundbreaking book called Nuclear Fear: A History of Images, which examined visions of radiation damage and nuclear disaster in newspapers, television, film, literature, advertisements and popular culture.

  9. Fears and Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to school if the weather forecast predicts a storm. She might feel terrible distress and fear when ... with a particular thing or situation. A tiny brain structure called the amygdala (pronounced: uh-MIG-duh- ...

  10. What do midwives fear?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Hannah Grace; Caplice, Shea

    2014-12-01

    There is evidence that a significant number of women are fearful about birth but less is known about the fears of maternity health providers and how their fear may impact on the women they care for. The aim of this study was to determine the top fears midwives in Australia and New Zealand hold when it comes to caring for childbearing women. From 2009 to 2011, 17 workshops were held in Australia and New Zealand supporting over 700 midwives develop skills to keep birth normal. During the workshop midwives were asked to write their top fear on a piece of paper and return it to the presenters. Similar concepts were grouped together to form 8 major categories. In total 739 fears were reported and these were death of a baby (n=177), missing something that causes harm (n=176), obstetric emergencies (n=114), maternal death (n=83), being watched (n=68), being the cause of a negative birth experience (n=52), dealing with the unknown (n=36) and losing passion and confidence around normal birth (n=32). Student midwives were more concerned about knowing what to do, while homebirth midwives were mostly concerned with being blamed if something went wrong. There was consistency between the 17 groups of midwives regarding top fears held. Supporting midwives with workshops such as dealing with grief and loss and managing fear could help reduce their anxiety. Obstetric emergency skills workshops may help midwives feel more confident, especially those dealing with shoulder dystocia and PPH as they were most commonly recorded. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Light enhances learned fear

    OpenAIRE

    Warthen, Daniel M.; Wiltgen, Brian J.; Provencio, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    The ability to learn, remember, and respond to emotional events is a powerful survival strategy. However, dysregulated behavioral and physiological responses to these memories are maladaptive. To fully understand learned fear and the pathologies that arise during response malfunction we must reveal the environmental variables that influence learned fear responses. Light, a ubiquitous environmental feature, modulates cognition and anxiety. We hypothesized that light modulates responses to lear...

  12. A survey on virtual environment applications to fear of public speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanni, F; Conversano, C; Del Debbio, A; Landi, P; Carlini, M; Fanciullacci, C; Bergamasco, M; Di Fiorino, A; Dell'Osso, L

    2013-06-01

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is one of the most prevalent anxiety disorders in Europe and comprises the fear of public speaking as its typical sub-type. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is the intervention of choice for SAD, and it includes exposure to anxiety-provoking stimuli to induce systematic desensitization and reduce anxiety. Similarly, exposure therapy per se has been used and found effective, although it is not as specific as CBT for the treatment of SAD. Interestingly, exposure to anxiety-provoking situations can be achieved in Virtual Environments (VEs) through the simulation of social situations allowing individuals with public speaking anxiety to live and develop real exposure-like reactions. The Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) is the treatment of anxiety disorders based on such VEs. This article aims to provide an overview of the scientific literature related to the applications of Virtual Reality to the treatment of fear of public speaking. We conducted the literature review on PubMed and Google Scholar for studies including the fear-of-public-speaking VEs. Reviewed studies addressed two main aspects: the design parameters of the VEs for adequate reactions to synthetic social stimuli, and the efficacy of VEs for fear of public speaking treatment. VEs resulted effective for triggering as-if-real reactions in relation to public speaking. VE-based exposures reduced public speaking anxiety measurements, decreased scores and maintained them at 3 month follow-up. Studies comparing VRET to pharmacological therapy are lacking, and there are few randomized controlled trials that compare VRET to CBT, especially on fear of public speaking treatment.

  13. Recognizing induced emotions of happiness and sadness from dance movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Edith; Vansteenkiste, Pieter; Lenoir, Matthieu; Lesaffre, Micheline; Leman, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Recent research revealed that emotional content can be successfully decoded from human dance movement. Most previous studies made use of videos of actors or dancers portraying emotions through choreography. The current study applies emotion induction techniques and free movement in order to examine the recognition of emotional content from dance. Observers (N = 30) watched a set of silent videos showing depersonalized avatars of dancers moving to an emotionally neutral musical stimulus after emotions of either sadness or happiness had been induced. Each of the video clips consisted of two dance performances which were presented side-by-side and were played simultaneously; one of a dancer in the happy condition and one of the same individual in the sad condition. After every film clip, the observers were asked to make forced-choices concerning the emotional state of the dancer. Results revealed that observers were able to identify the emotional state of the dancers with a high degree of accuracy. Moreover, emotions were more often recognized for female dancers than for their male counterparts. In addition, the results of eye tracking measurements unveiled that observers primarily focus on movements of the chest when decoding emotional information from dance movement. The findings of our study show that not merely portrayed emotions, but also induced emotions can be successfully recognized from free dance movement.

  14. Recognizing induced emotions of happiness and sadness from dance movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Van Dyck

    Full Text Available Recent research revealed that emotional content can be successfully decoded from human dance movement. Most previous studies made use of videos of actors or dancers portraying emotions through choreography. The current study applies emotion induction techniques and free movement in order to examine the recognition of emotional content from dance. Observers (N = 30 watched a set of silent videos showing depersonalized avatars of dancers moving to an emotionally neutral musical stimulus after emotions of either sadness or happiness had been induced. Each of the video clips consisted of two dance performances which were presented side-by-side and were played simultaneously; one of a dancer in the happy condition and one of the same individual in the sad condition. After every film clip, the observers were asked to make forced-choices concerning the emotional state of the dancer. Results revealed that observers were able to identify the emotional state of the dancers with a high degree of accuracy. Moreover, emotions were more often recognized for female dancers than for their male counterparts. In addition, the results of eye tracking measurements unveiled that observers primarily focus on movements of the chest when decoding emotional information from dance movement. The findings of our study show that not merely portrayed emotions, but also induced emotions can be successfully recognized from free dance movement.

  15. Prevalence of internet addiction among schoolchildren in Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ač-Nikolić Eržebet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Internet use has increased rapidly all over the world. Excessive Internet use tends to lead to the creation of a non-chemical addiction, most commonly known as “Internet addiction.” Objective. The aim of this study was an assessment of the prevalence of Internet use and Internet addiction among school children aged 14-18 years in the Municipality of Novi Sad, Serbia, and influence of sociodemographic variables on Internet use. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Novi Sad among final-year students from elementary and first- and second-year students from high schools. The prevalence of Internet addiction was assessed by using Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire. Results. Out of 553 participants, 62.7% were females, and the average age was 15.6 years. The sample consisted of 153 elementary school students and 400 high school students. Majority of respondents had a computer in their household. Our study showed widespread Internet use among adolescents. Facebook and YouTube were among most visited web-sites. The main purpose of Internet use was entertainment. Estimated prevalence of Internet addiction was high (18.7%, mostly among younger adolescents (p=0.013. Conclusion. Internet addiction was found in every fifth adolescent. Accessibility and availability of Internet use is constantly growing and therefore it is necessary to define more sensitive diagnostic tools for the assessment of Internet addiction and its underlying causes, in order to implement effective preventive programs.

  16. Prevalence of Internet Addiction among Schoolchildren in Novi Sad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ac-Nikolić, Erzebet; Zarić, Dragana; Nićiforović-Šurković, Olja

    2015-01-01

    Internet use has increased rapidly all over the world. Excessive Internet use tends to lead to the creation of a non-chemical addiction, most commonly known as "Internet addiction." The aim of this study was an assessment of the prevalence of Internet use and Internet addiction among school children aged 14-18 years in the Municipality of Novi Sad, Serbia, and influence of sociodemographic variables on Internet use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Novi Sad among final-year students from elementary and first- and second-year students from high schools.The prevalence of Internet addiction was assessed by using Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire. Out of 553 participants, 62.7% were females, and the average age was 15.6 years. The sample consisted of 153 elementary school students and 400 high school students. Majority of respondents had a computer in their household. Our study showed widespread Internet use among adolescents. Facebook and YouTube were among most visited web-sites. The main purpose of Internet use was entertainment. Estimated prevalence of Internet addiction was high (18.7%), Mostly among younger adolescents (p = 0.013). Internet addiction was found in every fifth adolescent. Accessibility and availability of Internet use is constantly growing and therefore it is necessary to define more sensitive diagnostic tools for the assessment of Internet addiction and its underlying causes, in order to implement effective preventive programs.

  17. Mona Lisa is always happy – and only sometimes sad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaci, Emanuela; Fischer, Andreas; Heinrichs, Markus; van Elst, Ludger Tebartz; Kornmeier, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    The worldwide fascination of da Vinci’s Mona Lisa has been dedicated to the emotional ambiguity of her face expression. In the present study we manipulated Mona Lisa’s mouth curvature as one potential source of ambiguity and studied how a range of happier and sadder face variants influences perception. In two experimental conditions we presented different stimulus ranges with different step sizes between stimuli along the happy-sad axis of emotional face expressions. Stimuli were presented in random order and participants indicated the perceived emotional face expression (first task) and the confidence of their response (second task). The probability of responding ‘happy’ to the original Mona Lisa was close to 100%. Furthermore, in both conditions the perceived happiness of Mona Lisa variants described sigmoidal functions of the mouth curvature. Participants’ confidence was weakest around the sigmoidal inflection points. Remarkably, the sigmoidal functions, as well as confidence values and reaction times, differed significantly between experimental conditions. Finally, participants responded generally faster to happy than to sad faces. Overall, the original Mona Lisa seems to be less ambiguous than expected. However, perception of and reaction to the emotional face content is relative and strongly depends on the used stimulus range. PMID:28281547

  18. Mona Lisa is always happy - and only sometimes sad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaci, Emanuela; Fischer, Andreas; Heinrichs, Markus; van Elst, Ludger Tebartz; Kornmeier, Jürgen

    2017-03-10

    The worldwide fascination of da Vinci's Mona Lisa has been dedicated to the emotional ambiguity of her face expression. In the present study we manipulated Mona Lisa's mouth curvature as one potential source of ambiguity and studied how a range of happier and sadder face variants influences perception. In two experimental conditions we presented different stimulus ranges with different step sizes between stimuli along the happy-sad axis of emotional face expressions. Stimuli were presented in random order and participants indicated the perceived emotional face expression (first task) and the confidence of their response (second task). The probability of responding 'happy' to the original Mona Lisa was close to 100%. Furthermore, in both conditions the perceived happiness of Mona Lisa variants described sigmoidal functions of the mouth curvature. Participants' confidence was weakest around the sigmoidal inflection points. Remarkably, the sigmoidal functions, as well as confidence values and reaction times, differed significantly between experimental conditions. Finally, participants responded generally faster to happy than to sad faces. Overall, the original Mona Lisa seems to be less ambiguous than expected. However, perception of and reaction to the emotional face content is relative and strongly depends on the used stimulus range.

  19. Recognizing Induced Emotions of Happiness and Sadness from Dance Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Edith; Vansteenkiste, Pieter; Lenoir, Matthieu; Lesaffre, Micheline; Leman, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Recent research revealed that emotional content can be successfully decoded from human dance movement. Most previous studies made use of videos of actors or dancers portraying emotions through choreography. The current study applies emotion induction techniques and free movement in order to examine the recognition of emotional content from dance. Observers (N = 30) watched a set of silent videos showing depersonalized avatars of dancers moving to an emotionally neutral musical stimulus after emotions of either sadness or happiness had been induced. Each of the video clips consisted of two dance performances which were presented side-by-side and were played simultaneously; one of a dancer in the happy condition and one of the same individual in the sad condition. After every film clip, the observers were asked to make forced-choices concerning the emotional state of the dancer. Results revealed that observers were able to identify the emotional state of the dancers with a high degree of accuracy. Moreover, emotions were more often recognized for female dancers than for their male counterparts. In addition, the results of eye tracking measurements unveiled that observers primarily focus on movements of the chest when decoding emotional information from dance movement. The findings of our study show that not merely portrayed emotions, but also induced emotions can be successfully recognized from free dance movement. PMID:24587026

  20. Light enhances learned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warthen, Daniel M; Wiltgen, Brian J; Provencio, Ignacio

    2011-08-16

    The ability to learn, remember, and respond to emotional events is a powerful survival strategy. However, dysregulated behavioral and physiological responses to these memories are maladaptive. To fully understand learned fear and the pathologies that arise during response malfunction we must reveal the environmental variables that influence learned fear responses. Light, a ubiquitous environmental feature, modulates cognition and anxiety. We hypothesized that light modulates responses to learned fear. Using tone-cued fear conditioning, we found that light enhances behavioral responses to learned fear in C57BL/6J mice. Mice in light freeze more in response to a conditioned cue than mice in darkness. The absence of significant freezing during a 2-wk habituation period and during intertrial intervals indicated that light specifically modulates freezing to the learned acoustic cue rather than the context of the experimental chamber. Repeating our assay in two photoreceptor mutant models, Pde6b(rd1/rd1) and Opn4(-/-) mice, revealed that light-dependent enhancement of conditioned fear is driven primarily by the rods and/or cones. By repeating our protocol with an altered lighting regimen, we found that lighting conditions acutely modulate responses when altered between conditioning and testing. This is manifested either as an enhancement of freezing when light is added during testing or as a depression of freezing when light is removed during testing. Acute enhancement, but not depression, requires both rod/cone- and melanopsin-dependent photoreception. Our results demonstrate a modulation by light of behavioral responses to learned fear.

  1. The prevalence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in Greenland is related to latitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Mogens; Dam, Henrik; Ali, Fatuma; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in Greenlanders and Danes living at four different latitudes in Greenland. A Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) was mailed to 6021 men and women between the ages of 18 and 59 years living in four different municipalities in Greenland. The recipients were randomly selected from the National Population Register. Approximately 9% of the respondents met the criteria for SAD, and the incidence of SAD varied between a southern municipality and three northern municipalities. The prevalence of SAD was particularly high in northern municipalities. No significant difference was found in the prevalence of SAD between Greenlanders and Danes. The results are comparable with other population studies that have reported a high prevalence of SAD in arctic areas. The clinical implications of our findings and the possibilities for introducing light therapy should be assessed in future studies.

  2. A Shocking Surprise in Stephan's Quintet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This false-color composite image of the Stephan's Quintet galaxy cluster clearly shows one of the largest shock waves ever seen (green arc). The wave was produced by one galaxy falling toward another at speeds of more than one million miles per hour. The image is made up of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and a ground-based telescope in Spain. Four of the five galaxies in this picture are involved in a violent collision, which has already stripped most of the hydrogen gas from the interiors of the galaxies. The centers of the galaxies appear as bright yellow-pink knots inside a blue haze of stars, and the galaxy producing all the turmoil, NGC7318b, is the left of two small bright regions in the middle right of the image. One galaxy, the large spiral at the bottom left of the image, is a foreground object and is not associated with the cluster. The titanic shock wave, larger than our own Milky Way galaxy, was detected by the ground-based telescope using visible-light wavelengths. It consists of hot hydrogen gas. As NGC7318b collides with gas spread throughout the cluster, atoms of hydrogen are heated in the shock wave, producing the green glow. Spitzer pointed its infrared spectrograph at the peak of this shock wave (middle of green glow) to learn more about its inner workings. This instrument breaks light apart into its basic components. Data from the instrument are referred to as spectra and are displayed as curving lines that indicate the amount of light coming at each specific wavelength. The Spitzer spectrum showed a strong infrared signature for incredibly turbulent gas made up of hydrogen molecules. This gas is caused when atoms of hydrogen rapidly pair-up to form molecules in the wake of the shock wave. Molecular hydrogen, unlike atomic hydrogen, gives off most of its energy through vibrations that emit in the infrared. This highly disturbed gas is the most turbulent molecular hydrogen ever seen. Astronomers were surprised not only by the turbulence

  3. Suicidality in primary care patients who present with sadness and anhedonia: a prospective European study

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Küstner, Berta; Jones, Rebeca; Švab, Igor; Maaroos, Heidi; Xavier, Miguel; Geerlings, Mirjam; TORRES-GONZÁLEZ, FRANCISCO; Nazareth, Irwin; Motrico-Martínez, Emma; Montón-Franco, Carmen; Gil-de-Gómez, María José; Sánchez-Celaya, Marta; Díaz-Barreiros, Miguel Ángel; Vicens-Caldentey, Catalina; King, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Sadness and anhedonia (loss of interest in activities) are central symptoms of major depression. However, not all people with these symptoms meet diagnostic criteria for major depression. We aimed to assess the importance of suicidality in the outcomes for primary care patients who present with sadness and anhedonia. Method Cohort study of 2,599 unselected primary care attenders in six European countries followed up at 6 and 12 months. Results 1) In patients with sadness and/or anh...

  4. Serotonergic Modulation of Conditioned Fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith R. Homberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conditioned fear plays a key role in anxiety disorders as well as depression and other neuropsychiatric conditions. Understanding how neuromodulators drive the associated learning and memory processes, including memory consolidation, retrieval/expression, and extinction (recall, is essential in the understanding of (individual differences in vulnerability to these disorders and their treatment. The human and rodent studies I review here together reveal, amongst others, that acute selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI treatment facilitates fear conditioning, reduces contextual fear, and increases cued fear, chronic SSRI treatment reduces both contextual and cued fear, 5-HT1A receptors inhibit the acquisition and expression of contextual fear, 5-HT2A receptors facilitates the consolidation of cued and contextual fear, inactivation of 5-HT2C receptors facilitate the retrieval of cued fear memory, the 5-HT3 receptor mediates contextual fear, genetically induced increases in serotonin levels are associated with increased fear conditioning, impaired cued fear extinction, or impaired extinction recall, and that genetically induced 5-HT depletion increases fear conditioning and contextual fear. Several explanations are presented to reconcile seemingly paradoxical relationships between serotonin levels and conditioned fear.

  5. Streptococcal Adhesin P (SadP) contributes to Streptococcus suis adhesion to the human intestinal epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Maria Laura; Willemse, Niels; Zaccaria, Edoardo; Pannekoek, Yvonne; van der Ende, Arie; Schultsz, Constance

    2017-01-01

    Background Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen, causing meningitis and septicemia. We previously demonstrated that the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is an entry site for zoonotic S. suis infection. Here we studied the contribution of Streptococcal adhesin Protein (SadP) to host-pathogen interaction at GIT level. Methods SadP expression in presence of Intestinal Epithelial Cells (IEC) was compared with expression of other virulence factors by measuring transcript levels using quantitative Real Time PCR (qRT-PCR). SadP variants were identified by phylogenetic analysis of complete DNA sequences. The interaction of SadP knockout and complementation mutants with IEC was tested in vitro. Results Expression of sadP was significantly increased in presence of IEC. Sequence analysis of 116 invasive strains revealed five SadP sequence variants, correlating with genotype. SadP1, present in zoonotic isolates of clonal complex 1, contributed to binding to both human and porcine IEC and translocation across human IEC. Antibodies against the globotriaosylceramide Gb3/CD77 receptor significantly inhibited adhesion to human IEC. Conclusion SadP is involved in the host-pathogen interaction in the GIT. Differences between SadP variants may determine different affinities to the Gb3/CD77 host-receptor, contributing to variation in adhesion capacity to host IEC and thus to S. suis zoonotic potential. PMID:28407026

  6. Emetophobia: A fear of vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, Abhijeet D; Gawande, Sushil; Tadke, Rahul; Kirpekar, Vivek C; Bhave, Sudhir H

    2013-10-01

    Emetophobia is an intense, irrational fear of vomiting including fear of feeling nausea, seeing or hearing another person vomit, or seeing vomitus itself. It may occur at any age and we need to understand its symptomatology. We report a case of emetophobic child whose fear of vomiting started after an attack of acute appendicitis. In the initial stage, fear was limited to vomiting, later it became generalized to a fear of seeing the vomitus, worries that parents may suffer vomiting, fear of vomiting in public places followed by avoiding social activities. Patient improved on short course of anti-anxiety drugs and Graded Exposure Therapy.

  7. SAD5 Stereo Correlation Line-Striping in an FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalpando, Carlos Y.; Morfopoulos, Arin C.

    2011-01-01

    High precision SAD5 stereo computations can be performed in an FPGA (field-programmable gate array) at much higher speeds than possible in a conventional CPU (central processing unit), but this uses large amounts of FPGA resources that scale with image size. Of the two key resources in an FPGA, Slices and BRAM (block RAM), Slices scale linearly in the new algorithm with image size, and BRAM scales quadratically with image size. An approach was developed to trade latency for BRAM by sub-windowing the image vertically into overlapping strips and stitching the outputs together to create a single continuous disparity output. In stereo, the general rule of thumb is that the disparity search range must be 1/10 the image size. In the new algorithm, BRAM usage scales linearly with disparity search range and scales again linearly with line width. So a doubling of image size, say from 640 to 1,280, would in the previous design be an effective 4 of BRAM usage: 2 for line width, 2 again for disparity search range. The minimum strip size is twice the search range, and will produce an output strip width equal to the disparity search range. So assuming a disparity search range of 1/10 image width, 10 sequential runs of the minimum strip size would produce a full output image. This approach allowed the innovators to fit 1280 960 wide SAD5 stereo disparity in less than 80 BRAM, 52k Slices on a Virtex 5LX330T, 25% and 24% of resources, respectively. Using a 100-MHz clock, this build would perform stereo at 39 Hz. Of particular interest to JPL is that there is a flight qualified version of the Virtex 5: this could produce stereo results even for very large image sizes at 3 orders of magnitude faster than could be computed on the PowerPC 750 flight computer. The work covered in the report allows the stereo algorithm to run on much larger images than before, and using much less BRAM. This opens up choices for a smaller flight FPGA (which saves power and space), or for other algorithms

  8. Double dissociation of amygdala and hippocampal contributions to trace and delay fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybuck, Jonathan D; Lattal, K Matthew

    2011-01-19

    A key finding in studies of the neurobiology of learning memory is that the amygdala is critically involved in Pavlovian fear conditioning. This is well established in delay-cued and contextual fear conditioning; however, surprisingly little is known of the role of the amygdala in trace conditioning. Trace fear conditioning, in which the CS and US are separated in time by a trace interval, requires the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. It is possible that recruitment of cortical structures by trace conditioning alters the role of the amygdala compared to delay fear conditioning, where the CS and US overlap. To investigate this, we inactivated the amygdala of male C57BL/6 mice with GABA (A) agonist muscimol prior to 2-pairing trace or delay fear conditioning. Amygdala inactivation produced deficits in contextual and delay conditioning, but had no effect on trace conditioning. As controls, we demonstrate that dorsal hippocampal inactivation produced deficits in trace and contextual, but not delay fear conditioning. Further, pre- and post-training amygdala inactivation disrupted the contextual but the not cued component of trace conditioning, as did muscimol infusion prior to 1- or 4-pairing trace conditioning. These findings demonstrate that insertion of a temporal gap between the CS and US can generate amygdala-independent fear conditioning. We discuss the implications of this surprising finding for current models of the neural circuitry involved in fear conditioning.

  9. Nutritional status of preschool children in Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stupar Dušan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional status of preschool children (preparatory group - before starting school, aged 6 to 7 years. The survey was conducted in four kindergartens preschool 'Happy Childhood' in Novi Sad, in a sample of 209 children (116 boys and 92 girls. Anthropometric measurements were carried out in October 2012. Based on the results calculated BMI (body mass index (weight (kg / body height2 (m2 and determined the degree of nutritional status of each child. Parameter values of BMI were adjusted by age and gender. Survey results show that 116 boys, 72.41% has an normal weight, under nutrition were 5.17%, while moderate nutritional abnormalities observed at 13.79%, obesity was found in 8.62% boys. The girls have similar results, namely obesity was 9.78%, prone to obesity 7.61%, the optimal weight of 75% and under nutrition 7.61% girls.

  10. Service quality of B&B hotels in Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivkov Milan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Providing quality service is a priority for service companies. The quality of services being offered to customers is considered to be a means by which hotels obtain a competitive advantage in the market. The aim of this study was to identify the effects of customer satisfaction on their loyalty and frequency of re-visit intention in the hotels in Novi Sad. The research results indicate that management teams of analyzed hotels understand the needs of their guests quite well. Based on the results of descriptive statistical analysis and the results of the regression analysis, it is concluded that the quality of restaurant services is of a great importance to total guest satisfaction. The quality of services in the accommodation sector still has a great significance in the entire hotel offer, but not decisive.

  11. The Influence of Negative Surprise on Hedonic Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Kieling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After some time using a product or service, the consumer tends to feel less pleasure with consumption. This reduction of pleasure is known as hedonic adaptation. One of the emotions that interfere in this process is surprise. Based on two experiments, we suggest that negative surprise – differently to positive – influences with the level of pleasure foreseen and experienced by the consumer. Study 1 analyzes the influence of negative (vs. positive surprise on the consumer’s post-purchase hedonic adaptation expectation. Results showed that negative surprise influences the intensity of adaptation, augmenting its strength. Study 2 verifies the influence of negative (vs positive surprise over hedonic adaptation. The findings suggested that negative surprise makes adaptation happen more intensively and faster as time goes by, which brings consequences to companies and consumers in the post-purchase process, such as satisfaction and loyalty.

  12. Panic Disorder: When Fear Overwhelms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have: Sudden and repeated panic attacks of overwhelming anxiety and fear A feeling of being out of control, or ... to react differently to the physical sensations of anxiety and fear that occur during panic attacks. For more information ...

  13. Are fear memories erasable?-reconsolidation of learned fear with fear-relevant and fear-irrelevant stimuli

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golkar, Armita; Bellander, Martin; Olsson, Andreas; Ohman, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of fear learning have demonstrated that a single reminder exposure prior to extinction training can prevent the return of extinguished fear by disrupting the process of reconsolidation...

  14. Fear of the Formal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    term this ‘fear of the formal’, outlining key elements of its genealogy and exploring its contemporary manifestation in relation to recent and ongoing reforms of organisational life in a range of contexts. At the same time, we seek to indicate the continuing constitutive significance of formality...

  15. Pursued by fear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lonneke van Noije; Jurjen Iedema

    2017-01-01

    Original title: Achtervolgd door angst. This publication focuses on fear of victimisation as one of the most urgent aspects of subjective unsafety. Dutch research on subjective unsafety often uses a standard question drawn from the series of national Safety Monitors published by Statistics Netherla

  16. Citizens in fear?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janneke Oppelaar; Karin Wittebrood

    2006-01-01

    Original title: Angstige burgers How afraid are citizens of crime, and has that fear increased or decreased in recent years? Which factors make people feel unsafe and how susceptible are they to influence? This publication looks extensively at these questions. As well as an overview of the scientif

  17. Dorky Poll Scientific Fears

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The questions posed in yesterday's posts about hopes for 2008 were half of what we were asked by the Powers That Be. The other half: What scientific development do you fear you'll be blogging or reading about in 2008?

  18. Effects of Surprisal and Locality on Danish Sentence Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Kizach, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    An eye-tracking experiment in Danish investigates two dominant accounts of sentence processing: locality-based theories that predict a processing advantage for sentences where the distance between the major syntactic heads is minimized, and the surprisal theory which predicts that processing time...... constructions with two postverbal NP-objects. An eye-tracking experiment showed a clear advantage for local syntactic relations, with only a marginal effect of lexicalised surprisal and no effect of syntactic surprisal. We conclude that surprisal has a relatively marginal effect, which may be clearest for verbs...

  19. Fear of Reinjury in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chao-Jung; Meierbachtol, Adam; George, Steven Z; Chmielewski, Terese L

    A sports injury has both physical and psychological consequences for the athlete. A common postinjury psychological response is elevated fear of reinjury. To provide an overview of the implications of fear of reinjury on the rehabilitation of athletes, including clinical methods to measure fear of reinjury; the impact of fear of reinjury on rehabilitation outcomes, including physical impairments, function, and return to sports rate; and potential interventions to address fear of reinjury during rehabilitation. PubMed was searched for articles published in the past 16 years (1990-2016) relating to fear of reinjury in athletes. The reference lists of the retrieved articles were searched for additionally relevant articles. Clinical review. Level 3. Fear of reinjury after a sports injury can negatively affect the recovery of physical impairments, reduce self-report function, and prevent a successful return to sport. Athletes with high fear of reinjury might benefit from a psychologically informed practice approach to improve rehabilitation outcomes. The application of psychologically informed practice would be to measure fear of reinjury in the injured athletes and provide interventions to reduce fear of reinjury to optimize rehabilitation outcomes. Fear of reinjury after a sports injury can lead to poor rehabilitation outcomes. Incorporating principles of psychologically informed practice into sports injury rehabilitation could improve rehabilitation outcomes for athletes with high fear of reinjury.

  20. METUS REVEALED. HOBBES ON FEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFFAELLA SANTI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Fear is a universal emotion, experienced by everybody. When it becomes collective and social, it can enter into the processes of political imagination, being used for political purposes. This article is a brief examination of the meanings and functions of fear(s in Hobbes’s thought. Some of his views may be ‘historically’ related to his own time, the Seventeenth Century, and others may be linked and confined to his own theory. However, his reflections on the importance of the perturbatio animi of fear for human psychology, and its impact on human interactions and collective behaviour, are still interesting for us today. The various meanings of fear highlighted by Hobbes (especially in his political works: Elements of Law, De cive, and Leviathan are here synthetically reconstructed, with particular emphasis on fear as passion, expectation and will, and on fear in his various social aspects: mutual fear and fear of death, which give rise to the political community; fear of punishment and fear for the laws, which help to maintain the State and finally, fear of invisible power and timor Dei, from which religion originates, and the religious power that Hobbes wanted to be held by the State.

  1. Parental Socialization of Sadness Regulation in Middle Childhood: The Role of Expectations and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, Michael C.; Zeman, Janice L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this study investigated mothers' and fathers' socialization of their children's sadness. The particular focus was an examination of how socialization practices changed when parents' expectancies concerning their child's sadness management abilities were violated. Methods included an experimental manipulation and direct observation…

  2. Responses to Children's Sadness: Mothers' and Fathers' Unique Contributions and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, Michael C.; Zeman, Janice L.; Sanders, Wesley M.

    2014-01-01

    Parental socialization of children's sadness was examined through self-report, spouse report, and a parent-child sadness discussion task. A total of 79 two-parent, predominantly White, middle-class families participated with one child in grades 2-5 (44 sons; M = 9 years, 8 months). Analyses revealed that mothers and fathers respond differently to…

  3. Emotional time travel: Emotion regulation and the overestimation of future anger and sadness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, W.W.; van Dillen, L.F.; Seip, E.C.; Rotteveel, M.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we examined the role of four specific forms of reappraisal in people's overestimation of their future experiences of anger and sadness. Results show that forecasters predicted to experience more intense anger and sadness following social exclusion than experiencers actually felt

  4. Emotional time travel: Emotion regulation and the overestimation of future anger and sadness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, W.W.; van Dillen, L.F.; Seip, E.C.; Rotteveel, M.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we examined the role of four specific forms of reappraisal in people's overestimation of their future experiences of anger and sadness. Results show that forecasters predicted to experience more intense anger and sadness following social exclusion than experiencers actually

  5. Cognitive-behavioral treatment for chronic nightmares in trauma-exposed persons: assessing physiological reactions to nightmare-related fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhudy, Jamie L; Davis, Joanne L; Williams, Amy E; McCabe, Klanci M; Bartley, Emily J; Byrd, Patricia M; Pruiksma, Kristi E

    2010-04-01

    Cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBTs) that target nightmares are efficacious for ameliorating self-reported sleep problems and psychological distress. However, it is important to determine whether these treatments influence objective markers of nightmare-related fear, because fear and concomitant physiological responses could promote nightmare chronicity and sleep disturbance. This randomized, controlled study (N=40) assessed physiological (skin conductance, heart rate, facial electromyogram) and subjective (displeasure, fear, anger, sadness, arousal) reactions to personally relevant nightmare imagery intended to evoke nightmare-related fear. Physiological assessments were conducted at pretreatment as well as 1-week, 3-months, and 6-months posttreatment. Results of mixed effects analysis of variance models suggested treatment reduced physiological and subjective reactions to nightmare imagery, gains that were generally maintained at the 6-month follow-up. Potential implications are discussed.

  6. Social anxiety disorder and quality of life: How fears of negative and positive evaluation relate to specific domains of life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryman, M Taylor; Gardner, Shani; Weeks, Justin W; Heimberg, Richard G

    2016-03-01

    Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) experience functional impairment in social, educational, and occupational arenas, contributing to poor quality of life. Previous research using the Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI) has identified four distinct domains of quality of life among individuals with SAD: Achievement, Personal Growth, Social Functioning, and Surroundings. The present study was designed to investigate how fear of negative evaluation (FNE) and fear of positive evaluation (FPE) relate to the four QOLI domains among individuals with SAD. We also examined the relationships of FNE and FPE to Satisfaction and Importance ratings on the QOLI. Individuals with SAD (N=129) completed a battery of questionnaires prior to initiating treatment. FNE and FPE showed distinct relationships with the four QOLI domains, even after controlling for demographic characteristics and comorbid depression. Both FNE and FPE were associated with ratings of Satisfaction with the QOLI domains, but neither was associated with ratings of Importance. Our findings highlight the differential impacts of FNE and FPE on SAD. Treatment implications are discussed.

  7. Fear conditioning to subliminal fear relevant and non fear relevant stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottmar V Lipp

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that conscious visual awareness is not a prerequisite for human fear learning. For instance, humans can learn to be fearful of subliminal fear relevant images--images depicting stimuli thought to have been fear relevant in our evolutionary context, such as snakes, spiders, and angry human faces. Such stimuli could have a privileged status in relation to manipulations used to suppress usually salient images from awareness, possibly due to the existence of a designated sub-cortical 'fear module'. Here we assess this proposition, and find it wanting. We use binocular masking to suppress awareness of images of snakes and wallabies (particularly cute, non-threatening marsupials. We find that subliminal presentations of both classes of image can induce differential fear conditioning. These data show that learning, as indexed by fear conditioning, is neither contingent on conscious visual awareness nor on subliminal conditional stimuli being fear relevant.

  8. Predicting Sympathy and Prosocial Behavior from Young Children’s Dispositional Sadness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Alison; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Reiser, Mark; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D.; Liew, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether dispositional sadness predicted children's prosocial behavior and if sympathy mediated this relation. Constructs were measured when children (N = 256 at Time 1) were 18-, 30-, and 42-months old. Mothers and non-parental caregivers rated children’s sadness; mothers, caregivers, and fathers rated children’s prosocial behavior; sympathy (concern and hypothesis testing) and prosocial behavior (indirect and direct, as well as verbal at older ages) were assessed with a task in which the experimenter feigned injury. In a panel path analysis, 30-month dispositional sadness predicted marginally higher 42-month sympathy; in addition, 30-month sympathy predicted 42-month sadness. Moreover, when controlling for prior levels of prosocial behavior, 30-month sympathy significantly predicted reported and observed prosocial behavior at 42 months. Sympathy did not mediate the relation between sadness and prosocial behavior (either reported or observed). PMID:25663753

  9. Surprise and Sense Making: Undergraduate Placement Experiences in SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Andreas; Thomas, Rhodri; Jameson, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore undergraduate placement experiences in tourism and hospitality SMEs, focusing on the notions of surprise and sense making. It aims to argue that surprises and sense making are important elements not only of the adjustment process when entering new work environments, but also of the learning experience that…

  10. Comparison of two uncertainty dressing methods: SAD VS DAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardon, Jérémy; Mathevet, Thibault; Le-Lay, Matthieu; Gailhard, Joël

    2014-05-01

    Hydrological Ensemble Prediction Systems (HEPSs) allow a better representation of meteorological and hydrological forecast uncertainties and improve human expertise of hydrological forecasts. An operational HEPS has been developed at EDF (French Producer of Electricity) since 2008 and is being used since 2010 on a hundred of watersheds in France. Depending on the hydro-meteorological situation, streamflow forecasts could be issued on a daily basis and are used to help dam management operations during floods or dam works within the river. A part of this HEPS is characterized by a streamflow ensemble post-processing, where a large human expertise is solicited. The aim of post-processing methods is to achieve better overall performances, by dressing hydrological ensemble forecasts with hydrological model uncertainties. The present study compares two post-processing methods, which are based on a logarithmic representation of the residuals distribution of the Rainfall-Runoff (RR) model, based on "perfect" forcing forecasts - i.e. forecasts with observed meteorological variables as inputs. The only difference between the two post-processing methods lies in the sampling of the perfect forcing forecasts for the estimation of the residuals statistics: (i) a first method, referred here as Statistical Analogy Dressing (SAD) model and used for operational HEPS, estimates beforehand the statistics of the residuals by streamflow sub-samples of quantile class and lead-time, since RR model residuals are not homoscedastic. (ii) an alternative method, referred as Dynamical Analogy Dressing (DAD) model, estimates the statistics of the residuals using the N most similar perfect forcing forecasts. The selection of this N forecasts is based on streamflow range and variation. On a set of 20 watersheds used for operational forecasts, both models were evaluated with perfect forcing forecasts and with ensemble forecasts. Results show that both approaches ensure a good post-processing of

  11. Serotonin in fear conditioning processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Elizabeth P

    2015-01-15

    This review describes the latest developments in our understanding of how the serotonergic system modulates Pavlovian fear conditioning, fear expression and fear extinction. These different phases of classical fear conditioning involve coordinated interactions between the extended amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortices. Here, I first define the different stages of learning involved in cued and context fear conditioning and describe the neural circuits underlying these processes. The serotonergic system can be manipulated by administering serotonin receptor agonists and antagonists, as well as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and these can have significant effects on emotional learning and memory. Moreover, variations in serotonergic genes can influence fear conditioning and extinction processes, and can underlie differential responses to pharmacological manipulations. This research has considerable translational significance as imbalances in the serotonergic system have been linked to anxiety and depression, while abnormalities in the mechanisms of conditioned fear contribute to anxiety disorders.

  12. Fear of holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Geoff G; Wilkins, Arnold J

    2013-10-01

    Phobias are usually described as irrational and persistent fears of certain objects or situations, and causes of such fears are difficult to identify. We describe an unusual but common phobia (trypophobia), hitherto unreported in the scientific literature, in which sufferers are averse to images of holes. We performed a spectral analysis on a variety of images that induce trypophobia and found that the stimuli had a spectral composition typically associated with uncomfortable visual images, namely, high-contrast energy at midrange spatial frequencies. Critically, we found that a range of potentially dangerous animals also possess this spectral characteristic. We argue that although sufferers are not conscious of the association, the phobia arises in part because the inducing stimuli share basic visual characteristics with dangerous organisms, characteristics that are low level and easily computed, and therefore facilitate a rapid nonconscious response.

  13. Is Fear Really Persuasive

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Persuasive communication has been used for ages, from the great Ancient Greece to modern days, in order to modify people's ways of thinking and acting. It has a tremendous role to play when it comes to advertising, even more so if considering social advertising campaigns. One of the determinants that were scrutinized before through research in the field of persuasive communication is the appeal to fear, which is frequently used in public health campaigns, such as antismoking advertising. In s...

  14. SAD PROCESSOR FOR MULTIPLE MACROBLOCK MATCHING IN FAST SEARCH VIDEO MOTION ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehal N. Shah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Motion estimation is a very important but computationally complex task in video coding. Process of determining motion vectors based on the temporal correlation of consecutive frame is used for video compression. In order to reduce the computational complexity of motion estimation and maintain the quality of encoding during motion compensation, different fast search techniques are available. These block based motion estimation algorithms use the sum of absolute difference (SAD between corresponding macroblock in current frame and all the candidate macroblocks in the reference frame to identify best match. Existing implementations can perform SAD between two blocks using sequential or pipeline approach but performing multi operand SAD in single clock cycle with optimized recourses is state of art. In this paper various parallel architectures for computation of the fixed block size SAD is evaluated and fast parallel SAD architecture is proposed with optimized resources. Further SAD processor is described with 9 processing elements which can be configured for any existing fast search block matching algorithm. Proposed SAD processor consumes 7% fewer adders compared to existing implementation for one processing elements. Using nine PE it can process 84 HD frames per second in worse case which is good outcome for real time implementation. In average case architecture process 325 HD frames per second.

  15. VULNERABLE FACTORS OF SADNESS AMONG ADOLESCENTS ININDONESIA: AN EXPLORATORY INDIGENOUS RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwartarini W. Yuniarti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is an unstable period in human’s life. Hurlock (2003called it as the phase of storm and stress. They easily get sad and angry.Aimed of this study was to identify the causes of sadness among male andfemale adolescents in order to prevent adolescent’s sadness. A total numberof 412 senior high school students (males =163 and females = 249completed open-ended questions asking about what makes them sad. Thesampling used in this research was the non-random sampling technique.Data analyzed by categorizing, open coding and cross tabulation. The resultsshowed that females feel sad when they have relationship problems (40,2%, deal with unexpected events (35, 3%, then personal problems (14,1%. Unlike female adolescents, the greatest cause of sadness for maleswas unexpected life events (42, 3%, then relationship problems (27%,and personal problems (15, 3%. This study concluded that femaleadolescents were more vulnerable towards relationship problems whichmade them sad, whilst male adolescents were more vulnerable towardlife’s distress.

  16. Cognitive vulnerability and dental fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer A John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cognitive Vulnerability Model proposes that perceptions of certain characteristics of a situation are critical determinants of fear. Although the model is applicable to all animal, natural environment and situational fears, it has not yet been applied specifically to dental fear. This study therefore aimed to examine the association between dental fear and perceptions of dental visits as uncontrollable, unpredictable and dangerous. Methods The study used a clustered, stratified national sample of Australians aged 15 years and over. All participants were asked in a telephone interview survey to indicate their level of dental fear. Participants who received an oral examination were subsequently provided with a self-complete questionnaire in which they rated their perceptions of uncontrollability, unpredictability and dangerousness associated with dental visiting. Results 3937 participants were recruited. Each of the three vulnerability-related perceptions was strongly associated with the prevalence of high dental fear. In a logistic regression analysis, uncontrollability and dangerousness perceptions were significantly associated with high dental fear after controlling for age and sex. However, unpredictability perceptions did not have a statistically significant independent association with dental fear after controlling for all other variables. Conclusion Results are mostly consistent with the Cognitive Vulnerability Model of the etiology of fear, with perceptions of uncontrollability, unpredictability and dangerousness each showing a strong bivariate relationship with high dental fear prevalence. However, more extensive measures of vulnerability perceptions would be valuable in future investigations.

  17. Are fear memories erasable?–reconsolidation of learned fear with fear-relevant and fear-irrelevant stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Armita eGolkar; Martin eBellander; Andreas eOlsson; Arne eÖhman

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of fear learning have demonstrated that a single reminder exposure prior to extinction training can prevent the return of extinguished fear by disrupting the process of reconsolidation. These findings have however proven hard to replicate in humans. Given the significant implications of preventing the return of fear, the purpose of the present study was to further study the prerequisites for the putative effects of disrupting reconsolidation. In two experiments, w...

  18. Defense Science Board (DSB) Summer Study Report on Strategic Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    DSB Summer Study Report on Strategic Surprise July 2015 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden...SUBTITLE DSB Summer Study Report on Strategic Surprise 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Defense Science Board ( DSB ),The Pentagon ,OUSD(AT&L

  19. Postural status of preschool children in Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanov Romana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in Novi Sad in the preschool institutions of 'Radosno detinjstvo' on a sample of 423 preschool children of both sexes, ages 6 and 7. The subject of this paper are postural disorders on the spinal column in the sagittal and frontal planes, as well as foot deformities. The aim of the research is to determine the frequency of disorder of postural status of the spine (kyphosis, lordosis and scoliosis and deviation from the normal status of the foot, and the analysis of the differences between boys and girls. Assessment of the postural status of the feet was performed by means of using the Pedikom computer system for digital computerised pedography. Assessment of spine postural status was done by means of SpineScan portable device. Data were analysed according to the frequency for the assessment of spinal status, the status of the foot, all according gender. Significance of the gender-conditioned differences was determined by the Chi-square test. The results indicate that in the examined population, the most common posture is lordotic bad posture, 41.31% with male examinees and 36.66% with female examinees. A statistically significant difference in relation to sexual dimorphism was found for the parameter of scoliotic bad posture (Sig. = 0.008. In terms of deviation from the normal status of the feet, in the examined population, pronating foot level I accounts for 43.23%, pronating foot level II accounts for 16.66% and high-arched foot accounts for 10.16%. Quantitative results indicate the need for corrective gymnastic to correct but also prevent postural deformities by introducing of the same as an everyday directed activity of preschool population.

  20. Neuronal circuits of fear extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herry, Cyril; Ferraguti, Francesco; Singewald, Nicolas; Letzkus, Johannes J; Ehrlich, Ingrid; Lüthi, Andreas

    2010-02-01

    Fear extinction is a form of inhibitory learning that allows for the adaptive control of conditioned fear responses. Although fear extinction is an active learning process that eventually leads to the formation of a consolidated extinction memory, it is a fragile behavioural state. Fear responses can recover spontaneously or subsequent to environmental influences, such as context changes or stress. Understanding the neuronal substrates of fear extinction is of tremendous clinical relevance, as extinction is the cornerstone of psychological therapy of several anxiety disorders and because the relapse of maladaptative fear and anxiety is a major clinical problem. Recent research has begun to shed light on the molecular and cellular processes underlying fear extinction. In particular, the acquisition, consolidation and expression of extinction memories are thought to be mediated by highly specific neuronal circuits embedded in a large-scale brain network including the amygdala, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and brain stem. Moreover, recent findings indicate that the neuronal circuitry of extinction is developmentally regulated. Here, we review emerging concepts of the neuronal circuitry of fear extinction, and highlight novel findings suggesting that the fragile phenomenon of extinction can be converted into a permanent erasure of fear memories. Finally, we discuss how research on genetic animal models of impaired extinction can further our understanding of the molecular and genetic bases of human anxiety disorders.

  1. The cost of fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    What should parents do when they detect indications of more predators nearby that might eat their babies? This scenario is commonly faced by parents in the wild, and the consequences are important. The number of offspring that organisms produce has a major influence on fitness and, when averaged across a population, affects whether this population will increase or decrease. Offspring production thus has critical implications for evolution via fitness, and ecology and conservation via demography. On page 1398 of this issue, Zanette et al. (1) show that the fear of predation can, by itself, strongly affect the number of offspring produced over an annual cycle by song sparrows (see the figure).

  2. Mercury-induced crystallization and SAD phasing of the human Fe65-PTB1 domain

    OpenAIRE

    Radzimanowski, Jens; Ravaud, Stéphanie; Beyreuther, Konrad; Sinning, Irmgard; Wild, Klemens

    2008-01-01

    Crystals of the phosphotyrosine-binding domain 1 (PTB1) of the neuronal adaptor protein Fe65 grown in the presence of a mercury derivative show a dramatic improvement in resolution, permitting SAD phasing.

  3. Fears, phobias, and preparedness: toward an evolved module of fear and fear learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, A; Mineka, S

    2001-07-01

    An evolved module for fear elicitation and fear learning with 4 characteristics is proposed. (a) The fear module is preferentially activated in aversive contexts by stimuli that are fear relevant in an evolutionary perspective. (b) Its activation to such stimuli is automatic. (c) It is relatively impenetrable to cognitive control. (d) It originates in a dedicated neural circuitry, centered on the amygdala. Evidence supporting these propositions is reviewed from conditioning studies, both in humans and in monkeys; illusory correlation studies; studies using unreportable stimuli; and studies from animal neuroscience. The fear module is assumed to mediate an emotional level of fear learning that is relatively independent and dissociable from cognitive learning of stimulus relationships.

  4. Common Fears and Their Relationship to Dental Fear and Utilization of the Dentist

    OpenAIRE

    Fiset, Louis; Milgram, Peter; Weinstein, Philip; Melnick, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    Common fears were studied by household telephone interviews and mail survey in Seattle, Washington, to determine their relationship to dental fear and to utilization of the dentist. Dental fear was either the first or second most common fear, with a prevalence estimated between 183 and 226 persons per 1000 population. Dental fear was associated with fears of heights, flying, and enclosures. Respondents with multiple common fears other than fear of dentistry were more likely to delay or cancel...

  5. SADNESS AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN DIFFERENT SOCIAL SETTINGS IN INDONESIA: AN INDIGENOUS PSYCHOLOGY STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Kwartarini W. Yuniarti; Moh. Abdul Hakim; Novita Dewi Anjarsari

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is a transition period filled with a state of storm and stress. These conditions contribute in increasing the level of adolescents' unhappiness. Each adolescent has a different meaning of sadness depending on their belief. The previous studies stated that Indonesian had positive attitudes towards sad moments. The aim of this research was to discover the meaning of unhappiness among adolescents raised in large cities, rural and urban areas. A total of 426 senior high school student...

  6. Memorable experiences with sad music-reasons, reactions and mechanisms of three types of experiences.

    OpenAIRE

    Tuomas Eerola; Henna-Riikka Peltola

    2016-01-01

    Reactions to memorable experiences of sad music were studied by means of a survey administered to a convenience (N = 1577), representative (N = 445), and quota sample (N = 414). The survey explored the reasons, mechanisms, and emotions of such experiences. Memorable experiences linked with sad music typically occurred in relation to extremely familiar music, caused intense and pleasurable experiences, which were accompanied by physiological reactions and positive mood changes in about a third...

  7. Exploring Fear: Rousseau, Dewey, and Freire on Fear and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Andrea; Stengel, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Fear is not the first feature of educational experience associated with the best-known progressive educational theorists--Jean-Jacques Rousseau, John Dewey, and Paolo Freire. But each of these important thinkers did, in fact, have something substantive to say about how fear functions in the processes of learning and growth. Andrea English and…

  8. Growing up to be fearful? Social evaluative fears during adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumter, Sindy Resita

    2010-01-01

    This thesis studies the normal developmental pattern of social evaluative fears from childhood to adolescence. We have investigated age differences in self-reported social fears and physical responses during a public speaking task. In addition, youth's perceptions of speaking in public were studied

  9. Growing up to be fearful? Social evaluative fears during adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumter, Sindy Resita

    2010-01-01

    This thesis studies the normal developmental pattern of social evaluative fears from childhood to adolescence. We have investigated age differences in self-reported social fears and physical responses during a public speaking task. In addition, youth's perceptions of speaking in public were studied

  10. Fear of pain in children and adolescents with neuropathic pain and complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Laura E

    2016-02-01

    A significant proportion of children and adolescents with chronic pain endorse elevated pain-related fear. Pain-related fear is associated with high levels of disability, depressive symptoms, and school impairment. Because of faulty nerve signaling, individuals with neuropathic pain and complex regional pain syndrome may be more prone to develop pain-related fear as they avoid use of and neglect the affected body area(s), resulting in exacerbated symptoms, muscle atrophy, maintenance of pain signaling, and ongoing pain-related disability. Not surprisingly, effective treatments for elevated pain-related fears involve exposure to previously avoided activities to downregulate incorrect pain signaling. In the context of intensive interdisciplinary pain treatment of youth with neuropathic pain, decreasing pain-related fear is associated with improved physical and psychological functioning, whereas high initial pain-related fear is a risk factor for less treatment responsiveness. An innovative approach to targeting pain-related fear and evidence of a neural response to treatment involving decoupling of the amygdala with key fear circuits in youth with complex regional pain syndrome suggest breakthroughs in our ability to ameliorate these issues.

  11. PIPE-chipSAD: a pipeline for the analysis of high density arrays of bacterial transcriptomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bottini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available PIPE-chipSAD is a pipeline for bacterial transcriptome studies based on high-density microarray experiments. The main algorithm chipSAD, integrates the analysis of the hybridization signal with the genomic position of probes and identifies portions of the genome transcribing for mRNAs. The pipeline includes a procedure, align-chipSAD, to build a multiple alignment of transcripts originating in the same locus in multiple experiments and provides a method to compare mRNA expression across different conditions. Finally, the pipeline includes anno-chipSAD a method to annotate the detected transcripts in comparison to the genome annotation. Overall, our pipeline allows transcriptional profile analysis of both coding and non-coding portions of the chromosome in a single framework. Importantly, due to its versatile characteristics, it will be of wide applicability to analyse, not only microarray signals, but also data from other high throughput technologies such as RNA-sequencing.The current PIPE-chipSAD implementation is written in Python programming language and is freely available at https://github.com/silviamicroarray/chipSAD.

  12. The minor third communicates sadness in speech, mirroring its use in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Meagan E; Bharucha, Jamshed J

    2010-06-01

    There is a long history of attempts to explain why music is perceived as expressing emotion. The relationship between pitches serves as an important cue for conveying emotion in music. The musical interval referred to as the minor third is generally thought to convey sadness. We reveal that the minor third also occurs in the pitch contour of speech conveying sadness. Bisyllabic speech samples conveying four emotions were recorded by 9 actresses. Acoustic analyses revealed that the relationship between the 2 salient pitches of the sad speech samples tended to approximate a minor third. Participants rated the speech samples for perceived emotion, and the use of numerous acoustic parameters as cues for emotional identification was modeled using regression analysis. The minor third was the most reliable cue for identifying sadness. Additional participants rated musical intervals for emotion, and their ratings verified the historical association between the musical minor third and sadness. These findings support the theory that human vocal expressions and music share an acoustic code for communicating sadness.

  13. Regulation of sadness via acceptance or suppression in adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra; Lackner, Helmut Karl; Sadohara, Chiharu; Svaldi, Jennifer

    2014-12-15

    Emotion dysregulation is a recognized symptom of adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study is to induce sadness in adults suffering from ADHD and to investigate the impact of emotion regulation strategies on sadness intensity, and psychophysiological measures. Thirty-six adults diagnosed with ADHD were randomly assigned to either expressive suppression (SUPP) or acceptance (ACC) of emotion. Sadness was induced using a film clip. Participants estimated the intensity of sadness and the perception of being overwhelmed with emotion before (T1), immediately after (T2) and 2 min after the film (T3). Physiological measures were obtained. Sadness induction was effective in both conditions. The perception of being overwhelmed with emotion increased between T1 and T2 in both conditions, but persisted until T3 only in the expressive suppression condition whereas a decrease was observed in the acceptance condition. In ADHD expressive suppression of sadness seems to be associated to a prolonged recovery from the perception of being overwhelmed with emotion. Emotion-regulation via acceptance in contrast appears to allow faster recovery from the perception of being overwhelmed with emotion. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify suppression as a critical mediator between an induced emotion and delayed recovery from emotional reactions in adult ADHD.

  14. Fear Extinction Memory Consolidation Requires Potentiation of Pontine-Wave Activity during REM Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Subimal; O'Malley, Matthew W .

    2013-01-01

    Sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation within multiple memory systems including contextual fear extinction memory, but little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this process. Here, we show that fear extinction training in rats, which extinguished conditioned fear, increased both slow-wave sleep and rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep. Surprisingly, 24 h later, during memory testing, only 57% of the fear-extinguished animals retained fear extinction memory. We found that these animals exhibited an increase in phasic pontine-wave (P-wave) activity during post-training REM sleep, which was absent in the 43% of animals that failed to retain fear extinction memory. The results of this study provide evidence that brainstem activation, specifically potentiation of phasic P-wave activity, during post-training REM sleep is critical for consolidation of fear extinction memory. The results of this study also suggest that, contrary to the popular hypothesis of sleep and memory, increased sleep after training alone does not guarantee consolidation and/or retention of fear extinction memory. Rather, the potentiation of specific sleep-dependent physiological events may be a more accurate predictor for successful consolidation of fear extinction memory. Identification of this unique mechanism will significantly improve our present understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie the sleep-dependent regulation of emotional memory. Additionally, this discovery may also initiate development of a new, more targeted treatment method for clinical disorders of fear and anxiety in humans that is more efficacious than existing methods such as exposure therapy that incorporate only fear extinction. PMID:23467372

  15. Fear extinction memory consolidation requires potentiation of pontine-wave activity during REM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Subimal; O'Malley, Matthew W

    2013-03-06

    Sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation within multiple memory systems including contextual fear extinction memory, but little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this process. Here, we show that fear extinction training in rats, which extinguished conditioned fear, increased both slow-wave sleep and rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep. Surprisingly, 24 h later, during memory testing, only 57% of the fear-extinguished animals retained fear extinction memory. We found that these animals exhibited an increase in phasic pontine-wave (P-wave) activity during post-training REM sleep, which was absent in the 43% of animals that failed to retain fear extinction memory. The results of this study provide evidence that brainstem activation, specifically potentiation of phasic P-wave activity, during post-training REM sleep is critical for consolidation of fear extinction memory. The results of this study also suggest that, contrary to the popular hypothesis of sleep and memory, increased sleep after training alone does not guarantee consolidation and/or retention of fear extinction memory. Rather, the potentiation of specific sleep-dependent physiological events may be a more accurate predictor for successful consolidation of fear extinction memory. Identification of this unique mechanism will significantly improve our present understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie the sleep-dependent regulation of emotional memory. Additionally, this discovery may also initiate development of a new, more targeted treatment method for clinical disorders of fear and anxiety in humans that is more efficacious than existing methods such as exposure therapy that incorporate only fear extinction.

  16. Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias KidsHealth > For Parents > Anxiety, Fears, ... unsettling experiences and challenging situations of life. Many Anxieties and Fears Are Normal Anxiety is defined as " ...

  17. Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias KidsHealth > For Parents > Anxiety, Fears, ... unsettling experiences and challenging situations of life. Many Anxieties and Fears Are Normal Anxiety is defined as " ...

  18. Heritability of fear: Ukrainian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Filiptsova

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: The conducted research demonstrated genetic component presence for nine types of fear – psychic disorder development, complications in personal life, making responsible decisions, senility, closed spaces, sexual dysfunction, suicide commission, speaking in public, and aggressive behavior possibility to relatives. It helps to consider these fear perspectives for further molecular-genetic analysis in Ukraine.

  19. Fear responses to media entertainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Buijzen, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Most experts on childhood fears agree that some fears are necessary for the healthy cognitive and emotional development of children (e.g., Fraiberg, 1959; Sarafino, 1986). But they also agree that being confronted with shocking events that go beyond a child’s processing ability can have a negative

  20. The learning of fear extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furini, Cristiane; Myskiw, Jociane; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2014-11-01

    Recent work on the extinction of fear-motivated learning places emphasis on its putative circuitry and on its modulation. Extinction is the learned inhibition of retrieval of previously acquired responses. Fear extinction is used as a major component of exposure therapy in the treatment of fear memories such as those of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is initiated and maintained by interactions between the hippocampus, basolateral amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which involve feedback regulation of the latter by the other two areas. Fear extinction depends on NMDA receptor activation. It is positively modulated by d-serine acting on the glycine site of NMDA receptors and blocked by AP5 (2-amino-5-phosphono propionate) in the three structures. In addition, histamine acting on H2 receptors and endocannabinoids acting on CB1 receptors in the three brain areas mentioned, and muscarinic cholinergic fibers from the medial septum to hippocampal CA1 positively modulate fear extinction. Importantly, fear extinction can be made state-dependent on circulating epinephrine, which may play a role in situations of stress. Exposure to a novel experience can strongly enhance the consolidation of fear extinction through a synaptic tagging and capture mechanism; this may be useful in the therapy of states caused by fear memory like PTSD.

  1. Immunization against social fear learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkar, Armita; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Social fear learning offers an efficient way to transmit information about potential threats; little is known, however, about the learning processes that counteract the social transmission of fear. In three separate experiments, we found that safety information transmitted from another individual (i.e., demonstrator) during preexposure prevented subsequent observational fear learning (Experiments 1-3), and this effect was maintained in a new context involving direct threat confrontation (Experiment 3). This protection from observational fear learning was specific to conditions in which information about both safety and danger was transmitted from the same demonstrator (Experiments 2-3) and was unaffected by increasing the number of the safety demonstrators (Experiment 3). Collectively, these findings demonstrate that observational preexposure can limit social transmission of fear. Future research is needed to better understand the conditions under which such effects generalize across individual demonstrators. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. [Phenomenon of dental fear].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R; Birn, H

    1990-01-01

    Odontophobia is a rather unique phobia with special psychosomatic components that impact on the dental health of odontophobic persons. It also has psychosocial components largely as a result of destruction of the teeth and subsequent embarrassment that can affect a person and cause a vicious cycle of dental fear. The phenomenon is facilitated by misunderstandings and myths generated by both patients and dentists. The most common reasons given in the literature for such strong fears of dental treatment are: 1) bad experiences in childhood for 85% of cases, 2) feeling of powerlessness and lack of control over personal emotional reactions and over the social situation in the dental chair, 3) social learning processes in which the image of the dentist is cast in a negative light by the mass media or by the person's relatives or friends and 4) that the person has other psychologic problems (in 20% of cases), such as serious phobias and/or neuroses. A strategy of researching and thus tackling the problem is presented which focuses on three essential targets that require studying and change: 1) the community at large and their image of the dentist, 2) the patient role and 3) the dentist role. Various model projects are presented along with their diagnostic systems. These are seen to focus in varying degrees on different elements of the target groups that effect the dentist-patient relationship but the need to come out into the community and make the social environment right for these patients is an important factor in all strategies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. [Fear of falling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde Tirado, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    Fear of falling (FF) can be considered as a protective response to a real threat, preventing the elderly from performing activities with high risk of falling, but can also lead to a restriction of the activities that will result in a long-term adverse effect on social, physical or cognitive functions. There is a prevalence of FF in 30% in the elderly who have no history of falls, and double that in those with a history of falling. Its prevalence is increased in women and with advanced age. Several scales have been developed to measure the psychological effects of FF, among which are noted are, the Fall Efficacy Scale (FES), the Activities-specific Balance and Confidence Scale (ABC), and the survey of activities and fear of falling in the elderly (SAFE). It has negative consequences in the functionality, the subjective feeling of well-being, and in the consequent loss of independence. The functional and physical deterioration, or the quality of life is clearly related to the FF, although it has not been established if these factors are cause or effect. Multiple interventions have been recommended, bringing about changes that reinforce their confidence to carry out activities. Interventions and research should promote a realistic and appropriate approach to the risk of falls and teach the elderly to perform activities safely. The reduction in FF is an important goal in itself to improve the subjective feeling of well-being, and the benefits could be increased if this reduction was also accompanied by an increase in safe behaviour, social participation, and activities of the daily life.

  4. Effects of chemosignals from sad tears and postprandial plasma on appetite and food intake in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Jung Oh

    Full Text Available Chemosignals from human body fluids may modulate biological functions in humans. The objective of this study was to examine whether chemosignals from human sad tears and postprandial plasma modulate appetite. We obtained fasting and postprandial plasma from male participants and sad tears and saline, which was trickled below the eyelids, from female volunteers. These samples were then randomly distributed to male participants to sniff with a band-aid containing 100 µl of each fluid on four consecutive days in a double-blind fashion. We checked appetite by a visual analogue scale (VAS and food intake by measuring the consumption of a test meal. In addition, the serum levels of total testosterone and LH were measured. Twenty men (mean age 26.3±4.6 years were enrolled in this study. They could not discriminate between the smell of fasting and postprandial plasma and the smell of sad tears and trickled saline. Appetite and the amount of food intake were not different between the groups. Although the VAS ratings of appetite correlated with the food intake upon sniffing fasting plasma, postprandial plasma, and trickled saline, there was no such correlation upon sniffing sad tears. In addition, the decrease in serum testosterone levels from the baseline was greater with sad tears than with the trickled saline (-28.6±3.3% vs. -14.0±5.2%; P = 0.019. These data suggest that chemosignals from human sad tears and postprandial plasma do not appear to reduce appetite and food intake. However, further studies are necessary to examine whether sad tears may alter the appetite-eating behavior relation.

  5. Ethical Conduct of Employees in Tourist Organizations in Novi Sad (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Jovičić

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The conduct of employees in tourism, but also all the other factors that participate indirectly in the tourism industry of Novi Sad contributes greatly to creating the image of Novi Sad in the domestic and international market. In that sense, ethical conduct and respect of the code of ethics is the basis of acquiring a good image of Novi Sad and improving the tourist product of Novi Sad. Business ethics includes principles and rules of conduct based on general and business culture and the principles and rules that dominate in interpersonal communication. The complex of factors, which interact, influence ethical behavior of those who are directly and indirectly employed in tourism industry. Those are characteristics that each individual have, which he/she brings into the organization, and also the culture of the organization. The subject of this paper is to explore forms of unethical behavior in organizations that are directly or indirectly involved in the tourism industry, with which tourists and local population meet in Novi Sad. The aim of this work is to come to conclusions analyzing, which will help us to see the current situation and take measures that will improve the tourist product of Novi Sad. The study concluded that organizations that participate in the creation of tourist product of Novi Sad mostly do not have an ethical code of conduct, and those that have it, do not apply it to the necessary extent. In that sense it is necessary to motivate employees and to properly implement a code of ethics through ethical training, which is usually present in organizations only in normative, without the employees knowing the content of this code, as well as its importance for the organization and reflecting on the wider social level.

  6. Fear and Loathing in the Air: Combat Fear and Stress in the Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    such as phobic fear of flying and acquired fear of flying to describe fear and anxiety related to aviation in a non-combat environment, but, for...describe three terms that relate specifically to anxiety and flying: manifestations of apprehension (MOA), fear of flying (FOF), and phobic fear of...fear and stress. Background In addition to its more obvious physical destruction, combat has also produced casualties of the mind. Fear, anxiety

  7. Avoiding surprises when implementing a single quality system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donawa, Maria

    2009-01-01

    European medical device manufacturers are sometimes surprised to learn that operating ISO 13485 alone is not sufficient to meet United States (US) quality system requirements. This article discusses important considerations for meeting US and European requirements when operating under a single quality system.

  8. Reconsiderations: Donald Murray and the Pedagogy of Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Toward the end of his life, Donald Murray felt that his approach to writing instruction was no longer appreciated by journals in his field. Nevertheless, his emphasis on encouraging students to surprise themselves through informal writing still has considerable value. (Contains 1 note.)

  9. Reconsiderations: Donald Murray and the Pedagogy of Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Toward the end of his life, Donald Murray felt that his approach to writing instruction was no longer appreciated by journals in his field. Nevertheless, his emphasis on encouraging students to surprise themselves through informal writing still has considerable value. (Contains 1 note.)

  10. Errors and surprise in patients with focal brain lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ullsperger, M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent theories of performance monitoring suggest that not only errors and negative action outcomes but also valence-free expectancy violations can trigger cognitive and behavioral adaptations. EEG and fMRI evidence suggests that monitoring of both errors and surprising but valence-free action

  11. METUS REVEALED. HOBBES ON FEAR

    OpenAIRE

    RAFFAELLA SANTI

    2011-01-01

    Fear is a universal emotion, experienced by everybody. When it becomes collective and social, it can enter into the processes of political imagination, being used for political purposes. This article is a brief examination of the meanings and functions of fear(s) in Hobbes’s thought. Some of his views may be ‘historically’ related to his own time, the Seventeenth Century, and others may be linked and confined to his own theory. However, his reflections on the importance of the perturbatio ani...

  12. Emotional Tears Facilitate the Recognition of Sadness and the Perceived Need for Social Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn J. H. Balsters

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The tearing effect refers to the relevance of tears as an important visual cue adding meaning to human facial expression. However, little is known about how people process these visual cues and their mediating role in terms of emotion perception and person judgment. We therefore conducted two experiments in which we measured the influence of tears on the identification of sadness and the perceived need for social support at an early perceptional level. In two experiments (1 and 2, participants were exposed to sad and neutral faces. In both experiments, the face stimuli were presented for 50 milliseconds. In experiment 1, tears were digitally added to sad faces in one condition. Participants demonstrated a significant faster recognition of sad faces with tears compared to those without tears. In experiment 2, tears were added to neutral faces as well. Participants had to indicate to what extent the displayed individuals were in need of social support. Study participants reported a greater perceived need for social support to both sad and neutral faces with tears than to those without tears. This study thus demonstrated that emotional tears serve as important visual cues at an early (pre-attentive level.

  13. Implicit happiness and sadness are associated with ease and difficulty: evidence from sequential priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasauskaite, Ruta; Gendolla, Guido H E; Bolmont, Mylène; Freydefont, Laure

    2017-01-01

    Three experiments tested the hypothesis of implicit associations between happiness and the performance ease concept and between sadness and the performance difficulty concept. All three studies applied a sequential priming paradigm: participants categorized emotion words (Experiment 1) or facial expressions (Experiment 2) as positive or negative or as referring to ease or difficulty (Experiment 3). These targets were preceded by briefly flashed ease- or difficulty-related words or neutral non-words (Experiments 1 and 2) or by happy, sad, or neutral facial expressions (Experiment 3) as primes. As predicted, all three experiments revealed increases in reaction times in the sequential priming task from congruent trials (happiness/ease and sadness/difficulty) over neutral trials to incongruent trials (sadness/ease and happiness/difficulty). The findings provide evidence for implicit associative links of happiness with ease and sadness with difficulty, as posited by the implicit-affect-primes-effort model (Gendolla, Int J Psychophysiol 86:123-135, 2012; Soc Pers Psychol Compass 9:606-619, 2015).

  14. Puerarin attenuates learning and memory impairments and inhibits oxidative stress in STZ-induced SAD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shan-shan; Yang, Wei-na; Jin, Hui; Ma, Kai-ge; Feng, Gai-feng

    2015-12-01

    Puerarin (PUE), an isoflavone purified from the root of Pueraria lobata (Chinese herb), has been reported to attenuate learning and memory impairments in the transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we tested PUE in a sporadic AD (SAD) mouse model which was induced by the intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The mice were administrated PUE (25, 50, or 100mg/kg/d) for 28 days. Learning and memory abilities were assessed by the Morris water maze test. After behavioral test, the biochemical parameters of oxidative stress (glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutases (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA)) were measured in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The SAD mice exhibited significantly decreased learning and memory ability, while PUE attenuated these impairments. The activities of GSH-Px and SOD were decreased while MDA was increased in the SAD animals. After PUE treatment, the activities of GSH-Px and SOD were elevated, and the level of MDA was decreased. The middle dose PUE was more effective than others. These results indicate that PUE attenuates learning and memory impairments and inhibits oxidative stress in STZ-induced SAD mice. PUE may be a promising therapeutic agent for SAD.

  15. Development of a brief validated geriatric depression screening tool: the SLU "AM SAD".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakkamparambil, Binu; Chibnall, John T; Graypel, Ernest A; Manepalli, Jothika N; Bhutto, Asif; Grossberg, George T

    2015-08-01

    Combining five commonly observed symptoms of late-life depression to develop a short depression screening tool with similar sensitivity and specificity as the conventional, more time-consuming tools. We developed the St. Louis University AM SAD (Appetite, Mood, Sleep, Activity, and thoughts of Death) questionnaire. The frequency of each symptom in the prior 2 weeks is quantified as 0, 1, or 2. Patients 65 years or older from our clinics were administered the AM SAD, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the St. Louis University Mental Status Exam (SLUMS). 100 patients were selected. AM SAD correlation with GDS was 0.72 and MADRS 0.80. AM SAD yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 79% and 62% against diagnosis of depression; of 88% and 62% with GDS-15; and 92% and 71% with MADRS. The AM SAD can be reliably used as a short depression screening tool in patients with a SLUMS score of 20 or higher. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Frequency, stability and differentiation of self-reported school fear and truancy in a community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metzke Christa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surprisingly little is known about the frequency, stability, and correlates of school fear and truancy based on self-reported data of adolescents. Methods Self-reported school fear and truancy were studied in a total of N = 834 subjects of the community-based Zurich Adolescent Psychology and Psychopathology Study (ZAPPS at two times with an average age of thirteen and sixteen years. Group definitions were based on two behavioural items of the Youth Self-Report (YSR. Comparisons included a control group without indicators of school fear or truancy. The three groups were compared across questionnaires measuring emotional and behavioural problems, life-events, self-related cognitions, perceived parental behaviour, and perceived school environment. Results The frequency of self-reported school fear decreased over time (6.9 vs. 3.6% whereas there was an increase in truancy (5.0 vs. 18.4%. Subjects with school fear displayed a pattern of associated internalizing problems and truants were characterized by associated delinquent behaviour. Among other associated psychosocial features, the distress coming from the perceived school environment in students with school fear is most noteworthy. Conclusion These findings from a community study show that school fear and truancy are frequent and display different developmental trajectories. Furthermore, previous results are corroborated which are based on smaller and selected clinical samples indicating that the two groups display distinct types of school-related behaviour.

  17. Genes, Fears, Phobias, and Phobic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Gregory

    1990-01-01

    Surveyed literature on genetics and fears and phobias to determine what might be heritable. Found, for ordinary fears among the general population, heredity appears to contribute mainly to a trait of general fearfulness and may be a major reason for the strong intercorrelation among different fears. Found evidence of little environmental…

  18. Unusual Fears in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Aggarwal, Richa; Baker, Courtney; Mathapati, Santosh; Molitoris, Sarah; Mayes, Rebecca D.

    2013-01-01

    Unusual fears have long been recognized as common in autism, but little research exists. In our sample of 1033 children with autism, unusual fears were reported by parents of 421 (41%) of the children, representing 92 different fears. Many additional children had common childhood fears (e.g., dogs, bugs, and the dark). More than half of children…

  19. AMYGDALA MICROCIRCUITS CONTROLLING LEARNED FEAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvarci, Sevil; Pare, Denis

    2014-01-01

    We review recent work on the role of intrinsic amygdala networks in the regulation of classically conditioned defensive behaviors, commonly known as conditioned fear. These new developments highlight how conditioned fear depends on far more complex networks than initially envisioned. Indeed, multiple parallel inhibitory and excitatory circuits are differentially recruited during the expression versus extinction of conditioned fear. Moreover, shifts between expression and extinction circuits involve coordinated interactions with different regions of the medial prefrontal cortex. However, key areas of uncertainty remain, particularly with respect to the connectivity of the different cell types. Filling these gaps in our knowledge is important because much evidence indicates that human anxiety disorders results from an abnormal regulation of the networks supporting fear learning. PMID:24908482

  20. Fear, Fiction, and the Adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grixti, Joe

    1982-01-01

    The popularity of horror fiction among adolescents is discussed in terms of the use of grammar for social interaction, personal development, and emotional therapy during a developmental stage characterized by fear and emotional upheaval. (MSE)

  1. The special status of sad infant faces: age and valence differences in adults' cortical face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colasante, Tyler; Mossad, Sarah I; Dudek, Joanna; Haley, David W

    2016-12-20

    Understanding the relative and joint prioritization of age- and valence-related face characteristics in adults' cortical face processing remains elusive because these two characteristics have not been manipulated in a single study of neural face processing. We used electroencephalography to investigate adults' P1, N170, P2 and LPP responses to infant and adult faces with happy and sad facial expressions. Viewing infant vs adult faces was associated with significantly larger P1, N170, P2 and LPP responses, with hemisphere and/or participant gender moderating this effect in select cases. Sad faces were associated with significantly larger N170 responses than happy faces. Sad infant faces were associated with significantly larger N170 responses in the right hemisphere than all other combinations of face age and face valence characteristics. We discuss the relative and joint neural prioritization of infant face characteristics and negative facial affect, and their biological value as distinct caregiving and social cues.

  2. Anger and sadness as adaptive emotion expression strategies in response to negative competence and warmth evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Pinar; Storme, Martin; Myszkowski, Nils

    2016-12-01

    Previous literature suggested that anger and sadness may be necessary to restore social bonds in the face of immediate relationship threat. The present research compared the social effectiveness of expressing anger and sadness in response to a negative personal evaluation. Results indicated that target anger in response to a negative competence evaluation, and target sadness in response to a negative warmth evaluation, had the most positive effects on the evaluators' subjectively perceived persuasiveness of the targets' communication (Study 1) and on the subjectively perceived fluency of the interaction by both interaction partners (Study 2). Results are discussed in light of the social functionality of emotion expression and the importance of interpersonal emotion congruency with evaluation content.

  3. Temporal pole activity during perception of sad faces, but not happy faces, correlates with neuroticism trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimura, Koji; Konishi, Seiki; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2009-03-27

    It is known that the temporal cortex is involved in perception of emotional facial expressions, and the involvement is relatively independent of the emotional valence of those expressions. The present study revealed a valence-dependent aspect of the temporal cortex through individual differences analyses involving the neuroticism trait, one of the representative affective personality traits. Functional MRI was administered while subjects classified expressions of faces, and neuroticism scores were obtained from individual subjects. Significant brain activity was observed in the temporal pole (TP) during perception of both happy and sad expressions relative to neutral expressions. Correlational analyses revealed that TP activity during perception of sad expressions, but not happy expressions, correlated with the neuroticism scores. These results demonstrate differential roles for the temporal cortex in perception of happy and sad faces, and suggest that TP recruitment during understanding of negative emotions is dependent on the personality of the individuals.

  4. Together we cry: Social motives and preferences for group-based sadness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat, Roni; Halperin, Eran; Mannheim, Ittay; Tamir, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Group-based emotions play an important role in helping people feel that they belong to their group. People are motivated to belong, but does this mean that they actively try to experience group-based emotions to increase their sense of belonging? In this investigation, we propose that people may be motivated to experience even group-based emotions that are typically considered unpleasant to satisfy their need to belong. To test this hypothesis, we examined people's preferences for group-based sadness in the context of the Israeli National Memorial Day. In two correlational (Studies 1a and 1b) and two experimental (Studies 2 and 3) studies, we demonstrate that people with a stronger need to belong have a stronger preference to experience group-based sadness. This effect was mediated by the expectation that experiencing sadness would be socially beneficial (Studies 1 and 2). We discuss the implications of our findings for understanding motivated emotion regulation and intergroup relations.

  5. [Pain and fear in animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, K

    1993-02-01

    Pain and fear are feelings of reluctance, which result in a behaviour of avoidance. They are protective mechanisms and are only partly approachable to the quantification with natural scientific methods. It will pointed to the central role of the diencephalon, limbic system and the cerebral cortex concerning the processing and valuation of mental state. The recognition of clinical symptoms and precise behavioural observations are an essential aid to assess the state of pain and fear in animals.

  6. Fear and aggression in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzunova Krasimira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the concepts of fear, phobia and aggression in dogs were precisely defined, as well as their underlying causes. The behavioural activities specific for these conditions were indicated. The accompanying symptoms were consistently explained. The causes that the development of pathological fear leads to aggression in dogs as well as the ex various therapy options depending on the clinical signs were presented.

  7. Fear across the senses: brain responses to music, vocalizations and facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubé, William; Angulo-Perkins, Arafat; Peretz, Isabelle; Concha, Luis; Armony, Jorge L

    2015-03-01

    Intrinsic emotional expressions such as those communicated by faces and vocalizations have been shown to engage specific brain regions, such as the amygdala. Although music constitutes another powerful means to express emotions, the neural substrates involved in its processing remain poorly understood. In particular, it is unknown whether brain regions typically associated with processing 'biologically relevant' emotional expressions are also recruited by emotional music. To address this question, we conducted an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study in 47 healthy volunteers in which we directly compared responses to basic emotions (fear, sadness and happiness, as well as neutral) expressed through faces, non-linguistic vocalizations and short novel musical excerpts. Our results confirmed the importance of fear in emotional communication, as revealed by significant blood oxygen level-dependent signal increased in a cluster within the posterior amygdala and anterior hippocampus, as well as in the posterior insula across all three domains. Moreover, subject-specific amygdala responses to fearful music and vocalizations were correlated, consistent with the proposal that the brain circuitry involved in the processing of musical emotions might be shared with the one that have evolved for vocalizations. Overall, our results show that processing of fear expressed through music, engages some of the same brain areas known to be crucial for detecting and evaluating threat-related information.

  8. Fear across the senses: brain responses to music, vocalizations and facial expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Perkins, Arafat; Peretz, Isabelle; Concha, Luis; Armony, Jorge L.

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic emotional expressions such as those communicated by faces and vocalizations have been shown to engage specific brain regions, such as the amygdala. Although music constitutes another powerful means to express emotions, the neural substrates involved in its processing remain poorly understood. In particular, it is unknown whether brain regions typically associated with processing ‘biologically relevant’ emotional expressions are also recruited by emotional music. To address this question, we conducted an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study in 47 healthy volunteers in which we directly compared responses to basic emotions (fear, sadness and happiness, as well as neutral) expressed through faces, non-linguistic vocalizations and short novel musical excerpts. Our results confirmed the importance of fear in emotional communication, as revealed by significant blood oxygen level-dependent signal increased in a cluster within the posterior amygdala and anterior hippocampus, as well as in the posterior insula across all three domains. Moreover, subject-specific amygdala responses to fearful music and vocalizations were correlated, consistent with the proposal that the brain circuitry involved in the processing of musical emotions might be shared with the one that have evolved for vocalizations. Overall, our results show that processing of fear expressed through music, engages some of the same brain areas known to be crucial for detecting and evaluating threat-related information. PMID:24795437

  9. Impact of civil war on emotion recognition: the denial of sadness in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umiltà, Maria Allessandra; Wood, Rachel; Loffredo, Francesca; Ravera, Roberto; Gallese, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    Studies of children with atypical emotional experience demonstrate that childhood exposure to high levels of hostility and threat biases emotion perception. This study investigates emotion processing, in former child soldiers and non-combatant civilians. All participants have experienced prolonged violence exposure during childhood. The study, carried out in Sierra Leone, aimed to examine the effects of exposure to and forced participation in acts of extreme violence on the emotion processing of young adults war survivors. A total of 76 young, male adults (38 former child soldier survivors and 38 civilian survivors) were tested in order to assess participants' ability to identify four different facial emotion expressions from photographs and movies. Both groups were able to recognize facial expressions of emotion. However, despite their general ability to correctly identify facial emotions, participants showed a significant response bias in their recognition of sadness. Both former soldiers and civilians made more errors in identifying expressions of sadness than in the other three emotions and when mislabeling sadness participants most often described it as anger. Conversely, when making erroneous identifications of other emotions, participants were most likely to label the expressed emotion as sadness. In addition, while for three of the four emotions participants were better able to make a correct identification the greater the intensity of the expression, this pattern was not observed for sadness. During movies presentation the recognition of sadness was significantly worse for soldiers. While both former child soldiers and civilians were found to be able to identify facial emotions, a significant response bias in their attribution of negative emotions was observed. Such bias was particularly pronounced in former child soldiers. These findings point to a pervasive long-lasting effect of childhood exposure to violence on emotion processing in later life.

  10. The South African dysphagia screening tool (SADS: A screening tool for a developing context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calli Ostrofsky

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Notwithstanding its value, there are challenges and limitations to implementing a dysphagia screening tool from a developed contexts in a developing context. The need for a reliable and valid screening tool for dysphagia that considers context, systemic rules and resources was identified to prevent further medical compromise, optimise dysphagia prognosis and ultimately hasten patients’ return to home or work.Methodology: To establish the validity and reliability of the South African dysphagia screening tool (SADS for acute stroke patients accessing government hospital services. The study was a quantitative, non-experimental, correlational cross-sectional design with a retrospective component. Convenient sampling was used to recruit 18 speech-language therapists and 63 acute stroke patients from three South African government hospitals. The SADS consists of 20 test items and was administered by speech-language therapists. Screening was followed by a diagnostic dysphagia assessment. The administrator of the tool was not involved in completing the diagnostic assessment, to eliminate bias and prevent contamination of results from screener to diagnostic assessment. Sensitivity, validity and efficacy of the screening tool were evaluated against the results of the diagnostic dysphagia assessment. Cohen’s kappa measures determined inter-rater agreement between the results of the SADS and the diagnostic assessment.Results and conclusion: The SADS was proven to be valid and reliable. Cohen’s kappa indicated a high inter-rater reliability and showed high sensitivity and adequate specificity in detecting dysphagia amongst acute stroke patients who were at risk for dysphagia. The SADS was characterised by concurrent, content and face validity. As a first step in establishing contextual appropriateness, the SADS is a valid and reliable screening tool that is sensitive in identifying stroke patients at risk for dysphagia within government

  11. Mismatch negativity of sad syllables is absent in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Pang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD is an important and highly prevalent mental disorder characterized by anhedonia and a lack of interest in everyday activities. Additionally, patients with MDD appear to have deficits in various cognitive abilities. Although a number of studies investigating the central auditory processing of low-level sound features in patients with MDD have demonstrated that this population exhibits impairments in automatic processing, the influence of emotional voice processing has yet to be addressed. To explore the automatic processing of emotional prosodies in patients with MDD, we analyzed the ability to detect automatic changes using event-related potentials (ERPs. METHOD: This study included 18 patients with MDD and 22 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Subjects were instructed to watch a silent movie but to ignore the afferent acoustic emotional prosodies presented to both ears while continuous electroencephalographic activity was synchronously recorded. Prosodies included meaningless syllables, such as "dada" spoken with happy, angry, sad, or neutral tones. The mean amplitudes of the ERPs elicited by emotional stimuli and the peak latency of the emotional differential waveforms were analyzed. RESULTS: The sad MMN was absent in patients with MDD, whereas the happy and angry MMN components were similar across groups. The abnormal sad emotional MMN component was not significantly correlated with the HRSD-17 and HAMA scores, respectively. CONCLUSION: The data indicate that patients with MDD are impaired in their ability to automatically process sad prosody, whereas their ability to process happy and angry prosodies remains normal. The dysfunctional sad emotion-related MMN in patients with MDD were not correlated with depression symptoms. The blunted MMN of sad prosodies could be considered a trait of MDD.

  12. Impact of civil war on emotion recognition: the denial of sadness in Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alessandra eUmilta'

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of children with atypical emotional experience demonstrate that childhood exposure to high levels of hostility and threat biases emotion perception. This study investigates emotion processing, in former child soldiers and non-combatant civilians. All participants have experienced prolonged violence exposure during childhood. The study, carried out in Sierra Leone, aimed to examine the effects of exposure to and forced participation in acts of extreme violence on the emotion processing of young adults war survivors. A total of 76 young, male adults (38 former child soldier survivors and 38 civilian survivors were tested in order to assess participants’ ability to identify four different facial emotion expressions from photographs and movies. Both groups were able to recognize facial expressions of emotion. However, despite their general ability to correctly identify facial emotions, participants showed a significant response bias in their recognition of sadness. Both former soldiers and civilians made more errors in identifying expressions of sadness than in the other three emotions and when mislabeling sadness participants most often described it as anger. Conversely, when making erroneous identifications of other emotions, participants were most likely to label the expressed emotion as sadness. In addition, while for three of the four emotions participants were better able to make a correct identification the greater the intensity of the expression, this pattern was not observed for sadness. During movies presentation the recognition of sadness was significantly worse for soldiers. While both former child soldiers and civilians were found to be able to identify facial emotions, a significant response bias in their attribution of negative emotions was observed. Such bias was particularly pronounced in former child soldiers. These findings point to a pervasive long-lasting effect of childhood exposure to violence on emotion processing

  13. Anxiety, Sadness, and Emotion Specificity: The Role of Music in Consumer Emotion and Advertisement Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Septianto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although music could diversely influence consumer judgment process and behavior, it is still unclear whether music can evoke discrete emotions on consumers and influence consumer evaluation toward certain advertisements. This research proposes that music could evoke sad and anxious emotion on consumers; subsequently, consumers would regulate their negative emotions in accordance to their emotion orientations: Consumers who feel sad would show high evaluation toward happy-themed advertisement, while consumers who feel anxious would show high evaluation toward calm-themed advertisement. This paper concludes with the discussion of theoretical and practical implications and conclusion of this study.

  14. Sleeping beauties in theoretical physics 26 surprising insights

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Thanu

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses a fascinating set of questions in theoretical physics which will both entertain and enlighten all students, teachers and researchers and other physics aficionados. These range from Newtonian mechanics to quantum field theory and cover several puzzling issues that do not appear in standard textbooks. Some topics cover conceptual conundrums, the solutions to which lead to surprising insights; some correct popular misconceptions in the textbook discussion of certain topics; others illustrate deep connections between apparently unconnected domains of theoretical physics; and a few provide remarkably simple derivations of results which are not often appreciated. The connoisseur of theoretical physics will enjoy a feast of pleasant surprises skilfully prepared by an internationally acclaimed theoretical physicist. Each topic is introduced with proper background discussion and special effort is taken to make the discussion self-contained, clear and comprehensible to anyone with an undergraduate e...

  15. The June surprises: balls, strikes, and the fog of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Charles

    2013-04-01

    At first, few constitutional experts took seriously the argument that the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act exceeded Congress's power under the commerce clause. The highly political opinions of two federal district judges - carefully chosen by challenging plaintiffs - of no particular distinction did not shake that confidence that the act was constitutional. This disdain for the challengers' arguments was only confirmed when the act was upheld by two highly respected conservative court of appeals judges in two separate circuits. But after the hostile, even mocking questioning of the government's advocate in the Supreme Court by the five Republican-appointed justices, the expectation was that the act would indeed be struck down on that ground. So it came as no surprise when the five opined the act did indeed exceed Congress's commerce clause power. But it came as a great surprise when Chief Justice John Roberts, joined by the four Democrat-appointed justices, ruled that the act could be sustained as an exercise of Congress's taxing power - a ground urged by the government almost as an afterthought. It was further surprising, even shocking, that Justices Antonin Scalia, Anthony Kennedy, Clarence Thomas, and Samuel Alito not only wrote a joint opinion on the commerce clause virtually identical to that of their chief, but that in writing it they did not refer to or even acknowledge his opinion. Finally surprising was the fact that Justices Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Stephen Breyer joined the chief in holding that aspects of the act's Medicaid expansion were unconstitutional. This essay ponders and tries to unravel some of these puzzles.

  16. Subjective fear, interference by threat, and fear associations independently predict fear-related behavior in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, A.M.; Kleinherenbrink, A.V.; Simons, C.; de Gier, E.; Klein, S.; Allart, E.; Bögels, S.M.; Becker, E.S.; Rinck, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives: Several information-processing models highlight the independent roles of controlled and automatic processes in explaining fearful behavior. Therefore, we investigated whether direct measures of controlled processes and indirect measures of automatic processes predict uniqu

  17. Dishabituation processes in height fear and dental fear: an indirect test of the non-associative model of fear acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, R; Waldie, K E; Craske, M G; Menzies, R G; McGee, R

    2000-09-01

    The fear dishabituation hypothesis described in the non-associative model of fear acquisition was tested in a longitudinal birth cohort study. Results were consistent with height fear and phobia dishabituation. That is, 're-emergence' of a fear of heights occurred between age 11 and 18 years among individuals who reported higher levels of non-specific stress at age 15. Interestingly, there was no evidence for dental fear dishabituation--a finding consistent with the non-associative model of fear acquisition. Strengths and weaknesses of the study were considered and the results discussed in relation to laboratory-based findings on (dis)habituation.

  18. Hippocampal Processing of Ambiguity Enhances Fear Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadi, Ugwechi; Lim, Seh Hong; Liu, Elizabeth; Baratta, Michael V; Goosens, Ki A

    2017-02-01

    Despite the ubiquitous use of Pavlovian fear conditioning as a model for fear learning, the highly predictable conditions used in the laboratory do not resemble real-world conditions, in which dangerous situations can lead to unpleasant outcomes in unpredictable ways. In the current experiments, we varied the timing of aversive events after predictive cues in rodents and discovered that temporal ambiguity of aversive events greatly enhances fear. During fear conditioning with unpredictably timed aversive events, pharmacological inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus or optogenetic silencing of cornu ammonis 1 cells during aversive negative prediction errors prevented this enhancement of fear without affecting fear learning for predictable events. Dorsal hippocampal inactivation also prevented ambiguity-related enhancement of fear during auditory fear conditioning under a partial-reinforcement schedule. These results reveal that information about the timing and occurrence of aversive events is rapidly acquired and that unexpectedly timed or omitted aversive events generate hippocampal signals to enhance fear learning.

  19. Influence of Trait Empathy on the Emotion Evoked by Sad Music and on the Preference for it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai eKawakami

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Some people experience pleasant emotion when listening to sad music. Therefore, they can enjoy listening to it. In the current study, we aimed to investigate such apparently paradoxical emotional mechanisms and focused on the influence of individuals’ trait empathy, which has been reported to associate with emotional responses to sad music and a preference for it. Eighty-four elementary school children (42 males and 42 females, mean age 11.9 years listened to two kinds of sad music and rated their emotional state and liking towards them. In addition, trait empathy was assessed using the IRI scale, which comprises four sub-components: Empathic Concern, Personal Distress, Perspective Taking, and Fantasy. We conducted a path analysis and tested our proposed model that hypothesized that trait empathy and its sub-components would affect the preference for sad music directly or indirectly, mediated by the emotional response to the sad music. Our findings indicated that fantasy, a sub-component of trait empathy, was directly associated with liking sad music. Additionally, perspective taking ability, another sub-component of trait empathy, was correlated with the emotional response to sad music. Furthermore, the experience of pleasant emotions contributed to liking sad music.

  20. Responses to Children's Sadness: Mothers' and Fathers' Unique Contributions and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, Michael C.; Zeman, Janice L.; Sanders, Wesley M.

    2014-01-01

    Parental socialization of children's sadness was examined through self-report, spouse report, and a parent-child sadness discussion task. A total of 79 two-parent, predominantly White, middle-class families participated with one child in grades 2-5 (44 sons; M = 9 years, 8 months). Analyses revealed that mothers and fathers respond…

  1. Maternal Socialization of Children's Anger, Sadness, and Physical Pain in Two Communities in Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Vaishali Vidhatri; Martini, Tanya Susan

    2009-01-01

    Despite the recognition of cultural influences in child socialization, little is known about socialization of emotion in children from different cultures. This study examined (a) Gujarati Indian mothers' reports concerning their beliefs, affective and behavioral responses to their children's displays of anger, sadness, and physical pain, and (b)…

  2. Prophylactic treatment of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) by using light visors : Bright white or infrared light?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, Y; Beersma, DGM; Bouhuys, AL; van den Hoofdakker, RH

    1999-01-01

    Background: Thirty-eight patients with SAD participated in a light visor study addressing two questions. 1. Can the development of a depressive episode be prevent ed by daily exposure to bright light started before symptom onset in early fall and continued throughout the winter? 2. Does the light ha

  3. Parental Personality and Its Relationship to Socialization of Sadness in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Eleanor; Brand, Ann E.

    The relationship between parental personality traits and how parents socialize their children's emotions is largely unexplored. This study examined the association of personality traits such as Neuroticism and Agreeableness, and emotion traits such as Anxiety and Trait Depression to the strategies parents use to socialize their children's sadness,…

  4. Prophylactic treatment of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) by using light visors : Bright white or infrared light?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, Y; Beersma, DGM; Bouhuys, AL; van den Hoofdakker, RH

    1999-01-01

    Background: Thirty-eight patients with SAD participated in a light visor study addressing two questions. 1. Can the development of a depressive episode be prevent ed by daily exposure to bright light started before symptom onset in early fall and continued throughout the winter? 2. Does the light

  5. Maternal Socialization of Children's Anger, Sadness, and Physical Pain in Two Communities in Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Vaishali Vidhatri; Martini, Tanya Susan

    2009-01-01

    Despite the recognition of cultural influences in child socialization, little is known about socialization of emotion in children from different cultures. This study examined (a) Gujarati Indian mothers' reports concerning their beliefs, affective and behavioral responses to their children's displays of anger, sadness, and physical pain, and (b)…

  6. SADNESS AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN DIFFERENT SOCIAL SETTINGS IN INDONESIA: AN INDIGENOUS PSYCHOLOGY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwartarini W. Yuniarti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a transition period filled with a state of storm and stress. These conditions contribute in increasing the level of adolescents' unhappiness. Each adolescent has a different meaning of sadness depending on their belief. The previous studies stated that Indonesian had positive attitudes towards sad moments. The aim of this research was to discover the meaning of unhappiness among adolescents raised in large cities, rural and urban areas. A total of 426 senior high school students between 14­17 years old (urban=151, rural=215, metropolitan=60, were asked to complete open-ended questionnaires by answering the question "What is the meaning behind the sad moments that you describe?" The data was categorized, and then analyzed descriptively. The result shows that 54.2% of the respondents (56.3% of urban, 52.6% of rural, and 55.0% of large city view unhappy moments as a learning process to maturity. There was no significant difference among adolescents indifferent social settings. This finding demonstrated that Indonesian adolescents cope the sad moments by self-reflections and attempt to adjust themselves towards unpleasant situations.

  7. Parent and child acceptability and staff evaluation of K-SADS-PL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Merete Juul; Thomsen, Per Hove; Bilenberg, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Standardised diagnostic interviews are used increasingly in child and adolescent psychiatry; yet little is known about the attitudes towards such interviews among parents, children and staff members. In this study, we have aimed to assess (1) the K-SADS-PL's acceptability to parents and children (2...

  8. The Influence of Mother-Child Emotion Regulation Strategies on Children's Expression of Anger and Sadness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Silk, Jennifer S.; Morris, Michael D. S.; Steinberg, Laurence; Aucoin, Katherine J.; Keyes, Angela W.

    2011-01-01

    In a sample of 153 children from preschool through second grade, relations between the use of emotion regulation strategy and children's expression of anger and sadness were coded during an observational task in which children were intentionally disappointed in the presence of the mother. Multilevel modeling was used to examine strategy use and…

  9. Neural Substrates for Processing Task-Irrelevant Sad Images in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihong; Huettel, Scott; De Bellis, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Neural systems related to cognitive and emotional processing were examined in adolescents using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ten healthy adolescents performed an emotional oddball task. Subjects detected infrequent circles (targets) within a continual stream of phase-scrambled images (standards). Sad and neutral…

  10. Sad and happy emotion discrimination in music by children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopyan, Talar; Manno, Francis A M; Papsin, Blake C; Gordon, Karen A

    2016-01-01

    Children using cochlear implants (CIs) develop speech perception but have difficulty perceiving complex acoustic signals. Mode and tempo are the two components used to recognize emotion in music. Based on CI limitations, we hypothesized children using CIs would have impaired perception of mode cues relative to their normal hearing peers and would rely more heavily on tempo cues to distinguish happy from sad music. Study participants were children with 13 right CIs and 3 left CIs (M = 12.7, SD = 2.6 years) and 16 normal hearing peers. Participants judged 96 brief piano excerpts from the classical genre as happy or sad in a forced-choice task. Music was randomly presented with alterations of transposed mode, tempo, or both. When music was presented in original form, children using CIs discriminated between happy and sad music with accuracy well above chance levels (87.5%) but significantly below those with normal hearing (98%). The CI group primarily used tempo cues, whereas normal hearing children relied more on mode cues. Transposing both mode and tempo cues in the same musical excerpt obliterated cues to emotion for both groups. Children using CIs showed significantly slower response times across all conditions. Children using CIs use tempo cues to discriminate happy versus sad music reflecting a very different hearing strategy than their normal hearing peers. Slower reaction times by children using CIs indicate that they found the task more difficult and support the possibility that they require different strategies to process emotion in music than normal.

  11. Verbal and facial-emotional Stroop tasks reveal specific attentional interferences in sad mood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isaac, L.; Vrijsen, J.N.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Oostrom, I.I.H. van; Speckens, A.E.M.; Becker, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    Mood congruence refers to the tendency of individuals to attend to information more readily when it has the same emotional content as their current mood state. The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether attentional interference occurred for participants in sad mood states for emotionally

  12. Misery is not miserly: sad and self-focused individuals spend more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryder, Cynthia E; Lerner, Jennifer S; Gross, James J; Dahl, Ronald E

    2008-06-01

    Misery is not miserly: Sadness increases the amount of money that decision makers give up to acquire a commodity. The present research investigated when and why the misery-is-not-miserly effect occurs. Drawing on William James's concept of the material self, we tested a model specifying relationships among sadness, self-focus, and the amount of money that decision makers spend. Consistent with our Jamesian hypothesis, results demonstrated that the misery-is-not-miserly effect occurs only when self-focus is high. That is, self-focus moderates the effect of sadness on spending. Moreover, mediational analyses revealed that, at sufficiently high levels, self-focus mediates (explains) the relationship between sadness and spending. Because the study used real commodities and real money, the results hold implications for everyday decisions, as well as implications for the development of theory. For example, economic theories of spending may benefit from incorporating psychological theories -- specifically, theories of emotion and the self -- into their models.

  13. Relations among Sadness Regulation, Peer Acceptance, and Social Functioning in Early Adolescence: The Role of Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry-Parrish, Carisa; Zeman, Janice

    2011-01-01

    Using a multi-informant approach, this study examined emotion regulation within the social context of White and Black adolescent peer groups by assessing two aspects of sadness expression management (i.e., inhibition, disinhibition) and their linkages to peer acceptance and social functioning as a function of gender and ethnicity. Seventh- and…

  14. Cognitive reactivity to sad mood: The importance of the first depressive episode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Zorica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive reactivity to sad mood refers to the degree to which a mild dysphoric state reactivates negative thinking patterns. In this research, the contribution of the history of depression, the length of the current depressive episode and the intensity of the depressive symptoms were assessed in explaining the cognitive reactivity to sad mood measured with the Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity (LEIDS. The sample consisted of 123 depressed outpatients. The results of principal components analysis suggested a three-factor solution of the LEIDS. The intensity of depressive symptoms, the history of depression and the length of the current depressive episode were all significant in explaining cognitive reactivity to sad mood. We have also found out a significant effect of interaction of the history of depression and the length of the current depressive episode, which demonstrated that a prolonged depression does not induce a stronger cognitive reactivity to sad mood during the relapse of a depressive episode, while during the first depressive episode a longer duration of depression does induce a stronger cognitive reactivity. Such a result demonstrates that the length of the first depressive episode, regardless of its intensity, is crucially important for the formation of cognitive reactivity.

  15. Streptococcal Adhesin P (SadP) contributes to Streptococcus suis adhesion to the human intestinal epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrando, Maria Laura; Willemse, Niels; Zaccaria, Edoardo; Pannekoek, Yvonne; Ende, van der Arie; Schultsz, Constance

    2017-01-01

    Background Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen, causing meningitis and septicemia. We previously demonstrated that the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is an entry site for zoonotic S. suis infection. Here we studied the contribution of Streptococcal adhesin Protein (SadP) to hostpathogen

  16. The Experience of Anger and Sadness in Everyday Problems Impacts Age Differences in Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Coats, Abby Heckman

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined regulation of the discrete emotions anger and sadness in adolescents through older adults in the context of describing everyday problem situations. The results support previous work; in comparison to younger age groups, older adults reported that they experienced less anger and reported that they used more passive and fewer…

  17. Analyzing The Ballad of the Sad Café with Actantial Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽华

    2012-01-01

      The actantial model is an appropriate and universal way to analyze the deep structure of any novel. By analyzing Car⁃son McCullers’famous novel The Ballad of the Sad Café with actantial model, the theme and the beauty of the novel are easier to acquire.

  18. The relationship between coping style and loneliness in adolescents: can "sad passivity" be adaptive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buskirk, A M; Duke, M P

    1991-06-01

    The authors' purpose in this paper was to examine how the use of the "sad passive" coping style may be related to adolescent self-reported loneliness. Subjects were asked to complete the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1980) to determine self-reported loneliness and the Coping with Loneliness Questionnaire (CLQ; Rubenstein & Shaver, 1980) in order to examine coping styles. We hypothesized that those adolescents whose coping strategies fell into the category of sad passivity described by Rubenstein and Shaver would indicate greater loneliness than those adolescents whose coping strategies fell into other categories. Results indicated that sad passivity was used by both lonely and nonlonely adolescents, but that nonlonely youngsters resorted to this method only temporarily and in preparation for a more active coping style. Lonely teens, on the other hand, appeared to remain in the sad-passive mode to a maladaptive degree. These results were discussed in terms of their importance for theories of adolescent loneliness and for possible intervention strategies.

  19. Scaffolding Young Children's Prosocial Responsiveness: Preschoolers' Responses to Adult Sadness, Anger, and Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Susanne A.; And Others

    Two studies investigated children's responsiveness to an adult's negative emotions (anger, sadness, and pain). The studies also evaluated effects of adult scaffolding (labeling and explaining negative emotions, and requesting help). In the first study, subjects were 55 preschool children between the ages of 33 and 56 months. During individual play…

  20. The Sad, the Mad and the Bad: Co-Existing Discourses of Girlhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Three significant, prevailing and overlapping narratives of teenage girls have dominated North American popular consciousness since the early 1990s: the sad girl, victimized by male privilege and misogyny of adolescence and beyond; the mad grrrls who rejected this vulnerability through music and media; and the bad girls of much current popular…

  1. Inducing sadness and anxiousness through visual media: Measurement techniques and persistence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijsters, A.; Redi, J.; Ruyter, B.E.R. de; Heynderickx, I.

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of negative moods (sadness and anxiousness) induced by three visual Mood Induction Procedures (MIP) was investigated. The evolution of the mood after the MIP was monitored for a period of 8 minutes with the Self-Assessment Manikin (every 2 minutes) and with recordings of skin

  2. Genetic load on amygdala hypofunction during sadness in nonaffected brothers of schizophrenia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habel, U.; Klein, M.; Shah, N.J.; Toni, I.; Zilles, K.; Falkai, P.; Schneider, F.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In a previous study, the authors reported that patients with schizophrenia show subcortical-limbic hypoactivity during sadness. In this study, they capitalized on those findings in order to assess the genetic influence of negative mood experience in schizophrenia patients. Brain activity

  3. Inducing sadness and anxiousness through visual media: measurement techniques and persistence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kuijsters (Andre); J.A. Redi (Judith); B. de Ruyter (Boris); I. Heynderickx (Ingrid)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe persistence of negative moods (sadness and anxiousness) induced by three visual Mood Induction Procedures (MIP) was investigated. The evolution of the mood after the MIP was monitored for a period of 8 min with the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM; every 2 min) and with recordings of

  4. Modulation of brain resting-state networks by sad mood induction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harrison, Ben J; Pujol, Jesus; Ortiz, Hector; Fornito, Alex; Pantelis, Christos; Yücel, Murat

    2008-01-01

    ... of subjects during scanning. In this study, we examined healthy subjects (n = 24) with a mood induction paradigm during two continuous fMRI recordings to assess the effects of a change in self-generated mood state (neutral to sad...

  5. A Functional MRI Study of Happy and Sad Emotions in Music with and without Lyrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattico, Elvira; Alluri, Vinoo; Bogert, Brigitte; Jacobsen, Thomas; Vartiainen, Nuutti; Nieminen, Sirke; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Musical emotions, such as happiness and sadness, have been investigated using instrumental music devoid of linguistic content. However, pop and rock, the most common musical genres, utilize lyrics for conveying emotions. Using participants' self-selected musical excerpts, we studied their behavior and brain responses to elucidate how lyrics interact with musical emotion processing, as reflected by emotion recognition and activation of limbic areas involved in affective experience. We extracted samples from subjects' selections of sad and happy pieces and sorted them according to the presence of lyrics. Acoustic feature analysis showed that music with lyrics differed from music without lyrics in spectral centroid, a feature related to perceptual brightness, whereas sad music with lyrics did not diverge from happy music without lyrics, indicating the role of other factors in emotion classification. Behavioral ratings revealed that happy music without lyrics induced stronger positive emotions than happy music with lyrics. We also acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging data while subjects performed affective tasks regarding the music. First, using ecological and acoustically variable stimuli, we broadened previous findings about the brain processing of musical emotions and of songs versus instrumental music. Additionally, contrasts between sad music with versus without lyrics recruited the parahippocampal gyrus, the amygdala, the claustrum, the putamen, the precentral gyrus, the medial and inferior frontal gyri (including Broca's area), and the auditory cortex, while the reverse contrast produced no activations. Happy music without lyrics activated structures of the limbic system and the right pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, whereas auditory regions alone responded to happy music with lyrics. These findings point to the role of acoustic cues for the experience of happiness in music and to the importance of lyrics for sad musical emotions.

  6. A functional MRI study of happy and sad emotions in music with and without lyrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira eBrattico

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Musical emotions, such as happiness and sadness, have been investigated using instrumental music devoid of linguistic content. However, pop and rock, the most common musical genres, utilize lyrics for conveying emotions. Using participants’ self-selected musical excerpts, we studied their behavior and brain responses to elucidate how lyrics interact with musical emotion processing, as reflected by emotion recognition and activation of limbic areas involved in affective experience. We extracted samples from subjects’ selections of sad and happy pieces and sorted them according to the presence of lyrics. Acoustic feature analysis showed that music with lyrics differed from music without lyrics in spectral centroid, a feature related to perceptual brightness, whereas sad music with lyrics did not diverge from happy music without lyrics, indicating the role of other factors in emotion classification. Behavioral ratings revealed that happy music without lyrics induced stronger positive emotions than happy music with lyrics. We also acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data while subjects performed affective tasks regarding the music. First, using ecological and acoustically variable stimuli, we broadened previous findings about the brain processing of musical emotions and of songs versus instrumental music. Additionally, contrasts between sad music with versus without lyrics recruited the parahippocampal gyrus, the amygdala, the claustrum, the putamen, the precentral gyrus, the medial and inferior frontal gyri (including Broca’s area, and the auditory cortex, while the reverse contrast produced no activations. Happy music without lyrics activated structures of the limbic system and the right pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, whereas auditory regions alone responded to happy music with lyrics. These findings point to the role of acoustic cues for the experience of happiness in music and to the importance of lyrics

  7. A Functional MRI Study of Happy and Sad Emotions in Music with and without Lyrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattico, Elvira; Alluri, Vinoo; Bogert, Brigitte; Jacobsen, Thomas; Vartiainen, Nuutti; Nieminen, Sirke; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Musical emotions, such as happiness and sadness, have been investigated using instrumental music devoid of linguistic content. However, pop and rock, the most common musical genres, utilize lyrics for conveying emotions. Using participants’ self-selected musical excerpts, we studied their behavior and brain responses to elucidate how lyrics interact with musical emotion processing, as reflected by emotion recognition and activation of limbic areas involved in affective experience. We extracted samples from subjects’ selections of sad and happy pieces and sorted them according to the presence of lyrics. Acoustic feature analysis showed that music with lyrics differed from music without lyrics in spectral centroid, a feature related to perceptual brightness, whereas sad music with lyrics did not diverge from happy music without lyrics, indicating the role of other factors in emotion classification. Behavioral ratings revealed that happy music without lyrics induced stronger positive emotions than happy music with lyrics. We also acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging data while subjects performed affective tasks regarding the music. First, using ecological and acoustically variable stimuli, we broadened previous findings about the brain processing of musical emotions and of songs versus instrumental music. Additionally, contrasts between sad music with versus without lyrics recruited the parahippocampal gyrus, the amygdala, the claustrum, the putamen, the precentral gyrus, the medial and inferior frontal gyri (including Broca’s area), and the auditory cortex, while the reverse contrast produced no activations. Happy music without lyrics activated structures of the limbic system and the right pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, whereas auditory regions alone responded to happy music with lyrics. These findings point to the role of acoustic cues for the experience of happiness in music and to the importance of lyrics for sad musical emotions

  8. Pathological fear of cot death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weightman, H; Dalal, B M; Brockington, I F

    1998-01-01

    Cot death (sudden infant death syndrome) is one of the most common causes of death in the first year of life. Four cases with a pathological fear of cot death are presented. All the patients were depressed and in 2 cases the fear of cot death had an obsessional quality. In all cases there were complications during pregnancy (miscarriage, threatened abortion, recurrent vomiting in last trimester). In 1 case, the patient knew 3 mothers who had suffered cot deaths; in another, the infant was gravely ill in the neonatal period. Pathological fear of cot death can be recognised by the presence of two central features - overvigilance and excessive nocturnal checking of the baby's breathing. Therapeutic interventions are discussed.

  9. Does persisting fear sustain catatonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, M; Shorter, E

    2017-11-01

    To examine the psychological substrate of catatonia. Reviewing the historical descriptions and explanations of catatonic behaviours by clinicians from its delineation in the 19th century to the present. Patients with catatonia are often haunted by fears and terrors; this has not been widely appreciated, and certainly was lost from view in the days when catatonia was considered a subtype of schizophrenia. The report contributes to resolving a major question in catatonia: is the mind in stupor inactive, as the blank state that we picture in anesthetized patients, or is the mind active, so preoccupied as to exclude all other influences. Persistent fear occupies the mind of catatonic patients. The signs of catatonia are adaptations to persistent fear, akin to tonic immobilization. The relief afforded by sedation supports this interpretation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Fear of heights in infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Karen E; Kretch, Kari S; LoBue, Vanessa

    2014-02-01

    Based largely on the famous "visual cliff" paradigm, conventional wisdom is that crawling infants avoid crossing the brink of a dangerous drop-off because they are afraid of heights. However, recent research suggests that the conventional wisdom is wrong. Avoidance and fear are conflated, and there is no compelling evidence to support fear of heights in human infants. Infants avoid crawling or walking over an impossibly high drop-off because they perceive affordances for locomotion-the relations between their own bodies and skills and the relevant properties of the environment that make an action such as descent possible or impossible.

  11. The Fear of Art and the Art of Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Stephanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective teachers often walk into my course, Arts in the Elementary Classroom, carrying a guarded consciousness that constrains unencumbered artistic exploration. My responsibility as their instructor is to question mantras that reflect insecurity in process and make pedagogical use of their fears. Through studying the nature of these fears…

  12. Fear Not: Neurobiological Mechanisms of Fear and Anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumpers, F.

    2012-01-01

    Fear is a common, core emotion. Moreover, anxiety disorders are among the most common form of psychiatric disease. In this thesis neuroimaging, genetic, pharmacological, brain stimulation and behavioral techniques were used in healthy subjects and specific patient populations to shed more light on t

  13. Estimations of expectedness and potential surprise in possibility theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prade, Henri; Yager, Ronald R.

    1992-01-01

    This note investigates how various ideas of 'expectedness' can be captured in the framework of possibility theory. Particularly, we are interested in trying to introduce estimates of the kind of lack of surprise expressed by people when saying 'I would not be surprised that...' before an event takes place, or by saying 'I knew it' after its realization. In possibility theory, a possibility distribution is supposed to model the relative levels of mutually exclusive alternatives in a set, or equivalently, the alternatives are assumed to be rank-ordered according to their level of possibility to take place. Four basic set-functions associated with a possibility distribution, including standard possibility and necessity measures, are discussed from the point of view of what they estimate when applied to potential events. Extensions of these estimates based on the notions of Q-projection or OWA operators are proposed when only significant parts of the possibility distribution are retained in the evaluation. The case of partially-known possibility distributions is also considered. Some potential applications are outlined.

  14. 10 years of surprises at Saturn: CAPS and INMS highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, A. J.; Waite, J. H.

    2014-04-01

    The Cassini mission at Saturn has provided many surprises on Saturn's rapidly rotating magnetosphere and its interaction with the diverse moons, as well as its interaction with the solar wind. One of the early discoveries was the water-rich composition of the magnetosphere. Its structure and dynamics indicate remarkable injections, periodicities and interchange events. Enceladus, orbiting at 4 RS, was found to have plumes of water vapour and ice which are the dominant source for the inner magnetosphere. Charged water clusters, charged dust and photoelectrons provide key populations in the 'dusty plasma' seen here, as well as chemical complexity in the plume material. Direct pickup is seen near Enceladus and field aligned currents create a spot in Saturn's aurora. At Titan, orbiting at 20 RS, heavy negative and positive ions are seen in the ionosphere, as well as neutrals, all of which have surprising chemical complexity. These provide the source for Titan's haze. Ionospheric plasma is seen in Titan's tail, enabling ion escape to be estimated at 7 tonnes per day. Saturn's ring ionosphere was seen early in the mission, which was oxygen rich and produced photoelectrons; a return will be made in 2017. At Rhea, pickup positive and negative ions indicated weak atmospheres sustained by energetic particle impact, seen in the neutrals also. A weak atmosphere was also seen at Dione. The exosphere production process operates at Jupiter's moons also. Here we review some of the key new results, and discuss the implications for other solar system contexts.

  15. HAPPY Team Entry to NIST OpenSAD Challenge: A Fusion of Short-Term Unsupervised and Segment i-Vector Based Speech Activity Detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnunen, Tomi; Sholokhov, Alexey; Khoury, Elie

    2016-01-01

    . SADs come in both unsupervised and supervised flavors, the latter requiring a labeled training set. Our solution fuses six base SADs (2 supervised and 4 unsupervised). The individually best SAD, in terms of detection cost function (DCF), is supervised and uses adaptive segmentation with i......Speech activity detection (SAD), the task of locating speech segments from a given recording, remains challenging under acoustically degraded conditions. In 2015, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) coordinated OpenSAD bench-mark. We summarize “HAPPY” team effort to Open- SAD......-vectors to represent the segments. Fusion of the six base SADs yields a relative decrease of 9.3 % in DCF over this SAD. Further, relative decrease of 17.4 % is obtained by incorporating channel detection side information....

  16. Fear and Leadership in Union Organizing Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Murphy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article adopts a mobilization framework to examine the crucial actions of workplace activists in overcoming fear of employer reprisal during union organizing campaigns in hostile environments. The article explores fear as part of the organizing process in two ways; first, we examine how fear can act as a stimulus for workplace activists to take action in an attempt to overcome the source of that fear. Second, we examine fear as an inhibiting factor in organizing, whereby the presence of fear hinders individuals from taking action. Using qualitative data from interviews conducted with workplace activists across a variety of campaigns in Ireland, this article examines the process through which workplace activists conquer their own sense of fear and undertake the task of mobilizing colleagues toward collective action in pursuit of union representation amid fear of employer reprisal.

  17. Fear at the Great Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHARLOTTE SPIRES

    2011-01-01

    “I’m not going on anything that takes me more than two feet off the ground," Grace was saying.This was classic Grace:She has a morbid fear of-well,everything actually,but in this particular case it was her phobia of heights,heights and cable cars combined specifically.

  18. Fear at the Great Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHARLOTTE; SPIRES

    2011-01-01

    "i’m not going on anything that takes me more than two feet off the ground," Grace was saying.This was classic Grace: She has a morbid fear of—well, everything actually,but in this particular case it was her phobia of heights, heights and cable cars combined specifically.

  19. Heritability of fear: Ukrainian experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    O.V. Filiptsova

    2014-08-04

    Aug 4, 2014 ... Evaluation and decomposition of total phenotypic variance were performed according to the ... of fear – psychic disorder development, complications in personal life, making responsible ... notypic variation (VP) that is due to variation in genetic val- ... Ukraine is a population with a unique history and cultural.

  20. 33 CFR 165.530 - Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC. 165.530 Section 165.530 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.530 Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC. (a) Location. The following area is...

  1. Fear of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and fear of other illness in suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; Jallinoja, P T; Henriksson, M M;

    1994-01-01

    other suicides. Suicidal fear of AIDS calls for evaluation of sexual and other risk behaviour, but fear of AIDS was largely generated by the extensive media coverage. Fear of other somatic illness was more diverse in origin and related to illness experiences. Suicidal fear of illness calls...

  2. A chemical-genetic strategy reveals distinct temporal requirements for SAD-1 kinase in neuronal polarization and synapse formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokat Kevan M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurons assemble into a functional network through a sequence of developmental processes including neuronal polarization and synapse formation. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the serine/threonine SAD-1 kinase is essential for proper neuronal polarity and synaptic organization. To determine if SAD-1 activity regulates the establishment or maintenance of these neuronal structures, we examined its temporal requirements using a chemical-genetic method that allows for selective and reversible inactivation of its kinase activity in vivo. Results We generated a PP1 analog-sensitive variant of SAD-1. Through temporal inhibition of SAD-1 kinase activity we show that its activity is required for the establishment of both neuronal polarity and synaptic organization. However, while SAD-1 activity is needed strictly when neurons are polarizing, the temporal requirement for SAD-1 is less stringent in synaptic organization, which can also be re-established during maintenance. Conclusion This study reports the first temporal analysis of a neural kinase activity using the chemical-genetic system. It reveals that neuronal polarity and synaptic organization have distinct temporal requirements for SAD-1.

  3. 76 FR 25665 - No Fear Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... COMMISSION No Fear Act AGENCY: American Battle Monuments Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The American... FEAR Act), as implemented by the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) regulations at 5 CFR part 724... Retaliation Act of 2002,'' which is now known as the No FEAR Act. See Public Law 107-174, codified at 5 U.S.C...

  4. Neurobiology of Fear and Specific Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, René

    Fear, which can be expressed innately or after conditioning, is triggered when a danger or a stimulus predicting immediate danger is perceived. Its role is to prepare the body to face this danger. However, dysfunction in fear processing can lead to psychiatric disorders in which fear outweighs the danger or possibility of harm. Although recognized…

  5. COVARIATION BIAS AND THE RETURN OF FEAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Peter; VANDENHOUT, MA; MERCKELBACH, H

    1995-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that phobic fear is accompanied by a covariation bias, i.e. that phobic Ss tend to overassociate fear relevant stimuli and aversive outcomes. Such a covariation bias seems to be a fairly direct and powerful way to confirm danger expectations and enhance fear. Therefore

  6. Women's Fear of Crime: A Rural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jo; Panelli, Ruth; Kraack, Anna

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines women's experience of fear of crime in rural areas. It argues that much existing research on issues of gender, fear and safety have focused on urban areas and that as a result we know relatively little about women's experience of fear in a rural context. As well as arguing that we need to redress the balance and respond to the…

  7. Gun Attitudes and Fear of Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Linda; Weeks, Kyle; Murphy, Marie Mackay

    1997-01-01

    Using three studies, examined the relationship between attitudes toward guns and fear of crime. Findings indicate a connection between fear of crime and attitudes toward guns: people higher in fear of crime favored gun control. Results also established a relationship between stereotypical beliefs about gun victims and support for gun control. (RJM)

  8. HAPPY Team Entry to NIST OpenSAD Challenge: A Fusion of Short-Term Unsupervised and Segment i-Vector Based Speech Activity Detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnunen, Tomi; Sholokhov, Alexey; Khoury, Elie;

    2016-01-01

    Speech activity detection (SAD), the task of locating speech segments from a given recording, remains challenging under acoustically degraded conditions. In 2015, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) coordinated OpenSAD bench-mark. We summarize “HAPPY” team effort to Open- SAD. S...

  9. Measured Zero Net Energy Performance: Results, Lessons, and Surprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Carrie; LaRue, Anna; Pigman, Margaret; Roberts, Jon; Kaneda, David; Connelly, Dylan; Elliott, John; Pless, Shanti; Pande, Abhijeet; Dean, Edward; Anbarlilar, Can

    2016-08-26

    As more and more zero net energy (ZNE) buildings are built and monitored, we can learn from both careful case studies of individual projects as well as a broader perspective of trends over time. In a forum sponsored by Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E), eight expert speakers discussed: results and lessons from monitoring occupied ZNE buildings; best practices for setting performance targets and getting actionable performance information, and; things that have surprised them about monitored ZNE buildings. This paper distills the content of the forum by laying out the most common hurdles that are encountered in setting up monitoring projects, frequent performance issues that the monitoring uncovers, and lessons learned that can be applied to future projects.

  10. Surprising hair analysis results following acute carbofuran intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulaurent, S; Gaulier, J M; Zouaoui, K; Moesch, C; François, B; Lachâtre, G

    2011-10-10

    We present two non fatal cases of intoxication with carbofuran (CBF) documented by hair analysis. Carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran (OHCBF, its main metabolite) hair concentrations were determined using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The obtained results were surprising if we consider several hair analyses previously published and based on a theory of the presence of xenobiotic in the only segment that comprised its intake. Among the two intoxication cases, we noticed the presence of CBF and OHCBF in hair segments corresponding to 45 days before, and more than 100 days after, the day of intoxication. Additionally, repeated hair samplings and subsequent analysis revealed a decrease of the carbofuran's concentration during the hair life.

  11. Physics Nobel prize 2004: Surprising theory wins physics Nobel

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    From left to right: David Politzer, David Gross and Frank Wilczek. For their understanding of counter-intuitive aspects of the strong force, which governs quarks inside protons and neutrons, on 5 October three American physicists were awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics. David J. Gross (Kavli Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara), H. David Politzer (California Institute of Technology), and Frank Wilczek (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) made a key theoretical discovery with a surprising result: the closer quarks are together, the weaker the force - opposite to what is seen with electromagnetism and gravity. Rather, the strong force is analogous to a rubber band stretching, where the force increases as the quarks get farther apart. These physicists discovered this property of quarks, known as asymptotic freedom, in 1976. It later became a key part of the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the Standard Model, the current best theory to describe the interac...

  12. Probability and Surprisal in Auditory Comprehension of Morphologically Complex Words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Baayen, R. Harald

    2012-01-01

    Two auditory lexical decision experiments document for morphologically complex words two points at which the probability of a target word given the evidence shifts dramatically. The first point is reached when morphologically unrelated competitors are no longer compatible with the evidence....... Adapting terminology from Marslen-Wilson (1984), we refer to this as the word’s initial uniqueness point (UP1). The second point is the complex uniqueness point (CUP) introduced by Balling and Baayen (2008), at which morphologically related competitors become incompatible with the input. Later initial...... in the course of the word co-determines response latencies. The presence of effects of surprisal, both at the initial uniqueness point of complex words, and cumulatively throughout the word, challenges the Shortlist B model of Norris and McQueen (2008), and suggests that a Bayesian approach to auditory...

  13. 2014 Presidential elections in Romania – surprising result or strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Mihalache

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The presidential elections in Romania which took place in November 2014 were won by Klaus Iohannis, who clearly defeated the incumbent prime-minister Victor Ponta by 10%. The result was considered by many a surprise, as none of the opinion polls were able to predict it. This article reveals a part of the strategy of Klaus Iohannis’s campaign and it offers a few clues about how this is result was possible, without having the aim to explain it fully. As the authors were accountable for strategy and political message in the electoral campaign for Klaus Iohannis, the scientific approach is combined with the inside view, to provide the reader a better understanding of the November 2014 events.

  14. Instructor Manual for Social Awareness and Influence Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Paul Ekman and others has found that facial expressions for six basic emotions (surprise, happiness, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust) are...project a certain image. ♦ According to Dr. Ekman cues to “real emotions ” can often be observed in the first few microseconds of an interaction...associated with the following emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust, and contempt) - Describe the fundamental attribution

  15. Common fears and their relationship to dental fear and utilization of the dentist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiset, L; Milgrom, P; Weinstein, P; Melnick, S

    1989-01-01

    Common fears were studied by household telephone interviews and mail survey in Seattle, Washington, to determine their relationship to dental fear and to utilization of the dentist. Dental fear was either the first or second most common fear, with a prevalence estimated between 183 and 226 persons per 1000 population. Dental fear was associated with fears of heights, flying, and enclosures. Respondents with multiple common fears other than fear of dentistry were more likely to delay or cancel dental appointments, report a longer period since their last visit to the dentist, and report poorer oral health and less satisfaction with oral appearance. Over 22 percent of the dentally fearful group reported two or more accompanying common fears.

  16. Startle potentiation to uncertain threat as a psychophysiological indicator of fear-based psychopathology: An examination across multiple internalizing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorka, Stephanie M; Lieberman, Lynne; Shankman, Stewart A; Phan, K Luan

    2017-01-01

    Heightened reactivity to uncertain threat (U-threat) is an important individual difference factor that may characterize fear-based internalizing psychopathologies (IPs) and distinguish them from distress/misery IPs. To date, however, the majority of existing research examining reactivity to U-threat has been within individuals with panic disorder and major depressive disorder (MDD) and no prior study has directly tested this hypothesis across multiple IPs. The current study therefore explored whether heightened reactivity to U-threat is a psychophysiological indicator of fear-based psychopathology across 5 groups: current (a) social anxiety disorder (SAD); (b) specific phobia (SP); (c) generalized anxiety disorder (GAD); (d) MDD; and (c) individuals with no history of psychopathology (controls). All 160 adults completed a well-validated threat-of-shock task designed to probe responses to predictable (P-) and U-threat. Startle eyeblink potentiation was recorded as an index of aversive arousal. Results indicated that individuals with SAD and SP evidenced greater startle potentiation to U-threat, but not P-threat, relative to individuals with GAD, MDD, and controls (who did not differ). The current findings, along with the prior panic disorder and MDD literature, suggest that heightened reactivity to U-threat is a psychophysiological indicator of fear-based disorders and could represent a neurobiological organizing principle for internalizing psychopathology. The findings also suggest that individuals with fear disorders generally display a hypersensitivity to uncertain aversive events, which could contribute to their psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Recognizing Student Fear: The Elephant in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, T. Scott; Baskin, Janice J.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding fear, its causes, and its impact on students can be important for educators who seek ways to help students manage their fears. This paper explores common types of student fears such as performance-based anxiety, fear of failure, fear of being laughed at, and cultural components of fear that impact learning. The cognitive, emotional,…

  18. Recognizing Student Fear: The Elephant in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, T. Scott; Baskin, Janice J.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding fear, its causes, and its impact on students can be important for educators who seek ways to help students manage their fears. This paper explores common types of student fears such as performance-based anxiety, fear of failure, fear of being laughed at, and cultural components of fear that impact learning. The cognitive, emotional,…

  19. Exploring the concept of climate surprises. A review of the literature on the concept of surprise and how it is related to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, M.H.; Moore, C.M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Streets, D.G.; Bhatti, N.; Rosa, C.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Stewart, T.R. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report examines the concept of climate surprise and its implications for environmental policymaking. Although most integrated assessment models of climate change deal with average values of change, it is usually the extreme events or surprises that cause the most damage to human health and property. Current models do not help the policymaker decide how to deal with climate surprises. This report examines the literature of surprise in many aspects of human society: psychology, military, health care, humor, agriculture, etc. It draws together various ways to consider the concept of surprise and examines different taxonomies of surprise that have been proposed. In many ways, surprise is revealed to be a subjective concept, triggered by such factors as prior experience, belief system, and level of education. How policymakers have reacted to specific instances of climate change or climate surprise in the past is considered, particularly with regard to the choices they made between proactive and reactive measures. Finally, the report discusses techniques used in the current generation of assessment models and makes suggestions as to how climate surprises might be included in future models. The report concludes that some kinds of surprises are simply unpredictable, but there are several types that could in some way be anticipated and assessed, and their negative effects forestalled.

  20. Brain regions involved in the recognition of happiness and sadness in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalfa, Stéphanie; Schon, Daniele; Anton, Jean-Luc; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2005-12-19

    Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to test for the lateralization of the brain regions specifically involved in the recognition of negatively and positively valenced musical emotions. The manipulation of two major musical features (mode and tempo), resulting in the variation of emotional perception along the happiness-sadness axis, was shown to principally involve subcortical and neocortical brain structures, which are known to intervene in emotion processing in other modalities. In particular, the minor mode (sad excerpts) involved the left orbito and mid-dorsolateral frontal cortex, which does not confirm the valence lateralization model. We also show that the recognition of emotions elicited by variations of the two perceptual determinants rely on both common (BA 9) and distinct neural mechanisms.

  1. Improvement of autobiographic memory recovery by means of sad music in Alzheimer's Disease type dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilán García, Juan José; Iodice, Rosario; Carro, Juan; Sánchez, José Antonio; Palmero, Francisco; Mateos, Ana María

    2012-06-01

    Autobiographic memory undergoes progressive deterioration during the evolution of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this study was to analyze mechanisms which facilitate recovery of autobiographic memories. We used a repeatedly employed mechanism, music, with the addition of an emotional factor. Autobiographic memory provoked by a variety of sounds (music which was happy, sad, lacking emotion, ambient noise in a coffee bar and no sound) was analyzed in a sample of 25 patients with AD. Emotional music, especially sad music for remote memories, was found to be the most effective kind for recall of autobiographic experiences. The factor evoking the memory is not the music itself, but rather the emotion associated with it, and is useful for semantic rather than episodic memory.

  2. Ambivalent Emotions in Music : We Like Sad Music When It Makes Us Happy

    OpenAIRE

    Weth, Karim; Kickinger, Max

    2013-01-01

    We often react ambivalently to a piece of music, simultaneously experiencing both sadness and happiness, and attributing both emotions to the musical content. Two experiments were conducted (1) to empirically test for ambivalent emotions and (2) to investigate the amount of musical information necessary to elicit such emotions. In experiment 1, synthesized musical excerpts were manipulated in tempo (fast/slow) and mode (major/minor). By using unipolar scales, listeners could independently rat...

  3. Sodium intake and dietary sources of sodium in undergraduate students from Novi Sad, Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Jovičić-Bata Jelena; Grujičić Maja; Rađen Slavica; Novaković Budimka

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. Data on sodium intake and sources of sodium in the diet in Serbia are limited. The aim of this study was to estimate the sodium intake and identify the sources of sodium in the diet of undergraduate students attending the University of Novi Sad. Methods. Students completed a questionnaire to gather data on their gender, age and university faculty attended, and then a 24 h dietary recall. The sodium intake of the students was calculated using...

  4. American Muslims’ Anger and Sadness about In-group Social Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Mosquera, Patricia M.; Khan, Tasmiha; Selya, Arielle

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel study on the role of gender in perceptions of and emotions about in-group social image among American Muslims. Two hundred and five (147 females, 58 males) American Muslims completed a questionnaire on how Muslims feel in U.S. society. The study measured both stereotypical (i.e., ‘frightening,’ ‘oppressed’) as well as non-stereotypical in-group social images (i.e., ‘powerful,’ ‘honorable’). In particular, participants were asked how much they believe Muslims are seen as ‘frightening,’ ‘oppressed,’ ‘honorable,’ and ‘powerful’ in U.S. society, and how much anger and sadness they feel about the way U.S. society views Muslims. Participants believed Muslims are seen in stereotypical ways (i.e., as ‘frightening’ and ‘oppressed’) more than in non-stereotypical ways (i.e., as ‘powerful’ and ‘honorable’). Moreover, perceived in-group social image as ‘powerful’ or ‘honorable’ did not predict the intensity of felt anger or sadness. In contrast, the more participants believed Muslims are seen as ‘frightening,’ the more intense their anger and sadness. Furthermore, responses to perceived social image as ‘oppressed’ were moderated by gender. American Muslim female participants believed that Muslims are seen as ‘oppressed’ in U.S. society to a greater extent than male participants did. In addition, perceived social image as ‘oppressed’ only predicted anger for female participants: the more female participants believed Muslims are seen as ‘oppressed,’ the more intense their anger. This study contributes to the scarce literature on American Muslims in psychology, and shows that both anger and sadness are relevant to the study of perceived social image. PMID:28123374

  5. The Fear of Cockroaches Questionnaire (FCQ)

    OpenAIRE

    Scandola, Michele; Bastinelli, Alessia; Spoto, Andrea; Vidotto, Giulio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the Fear of Cockroaches Questionnaire (FCQ) in general Italian population. The FCQ is an 18-item self-report questionnaire assessing fear of cockroaches. It was translated in Italian and modified as a cockroach adaption of the Fear of Spiders Questionnaire. Data obtained from 329 (mean age 24.21 ± 4.08 years) undergraduates revealed that the FCQ allowed discrimination between high fear and low fear subjects. Exploratory Factor Analysis revealed a mono-fac...

  6. Child implant users’ imitation of happy- and sad-sounding speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jueyu Wang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear implants have enabled many congenitally or prelingually deaf children to acquire their native language and communicate successfully on the basis of electrical rather than acoustic input. Nevertheless, degraded spectral input provided by the device reduces the ability to perceive emotion in speech. We compared the vocal imitations of 5- to 7-year-old deaf children who were highly successful bilateral implant users with those of a control sample of children who had normal hearing. First, the children imitated several happy and sad sentences produced by a child model. When adults in Experiment 1 rated the similarity of imitated to model utterances, ratings were significantly higher for the hearing children. Both hearing and deaf children produced poorer imitations of happy than sad utterances because of difficulty matching the greater pitch modulation of the happy versions. When adults in Experiment 2 rated electronically filtered versions of the utterances, which obscured the verbal content, ratings of happy and sad utterances were significantly differentiated for deaf as well as hearing children. The ratings of deaf children, however, were significantly less differentiated. Although deaf children’s utterances exhibited culturally typical pitch modulation, their pitch modulation was reduced relative to that of hearing children. One practical implication is that therapeutic interventions for deaf children could expand their focus on suprasegmental aspects of speech perception and production, especially intonation patterns.

  7. SbSAD: An Integrated Service-based Software Design Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Dbouk

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Phased software engineering process continues to be the most popular paradigm leading to devise and drawing-up all system architectural designs. In this paper we trying to explore and examine the most significant software engineering activity: Software architectural design. In this paper we discuss and evaluate an integrated service-based (the common and modern architectural styles upon which many systems are currently based software architectural design framework called SbSAD. SbSAD is, mainly, built on top a proprietary micro-phased design process. In this paper, we first reconsider and refine such process in order to become more flexible. We, then, trying to evaluate this process by providing one devoted CASE-like prototype built using java technologies. Our approach consists of building overall software architectures while being based on the concept of business front-end services. The experiments show that: applying such strategy may cause some confliction with the so known SOA and may disorient both readers and designers. However, at the end, we testify that our service-based process should not have any direct connection with the SOA style. Working on some re-drawing and mapping rules leading to transcript SbSAD into SOA could characterize our future works.

  8. Facial and affective reactions to tastes and their modulation by sadness and joy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greimel, Ellen; Macht, Michael; Krumhuber, Eva; Ellgring, Heiner

    2006-09-30

    This study examined adults' affective and facial reactions to tastes which differ in quality and valence, and the impact of sadness and joy on these reactions. Thirty-six male and female subjects participated voluntarily. Subjects each tasted 6 ml of a sweet chocolate drink, a bitter quinine solution (0.0015 M) and a bitter-sweet soft drink. Following a baseline period, either joy or sadness was induced using film clips before the same taste stimuli were presented for a second time. Subjects rated the drinks' pleasantness and intensity of taste immediately after each stimulus presentation. Facial reactions were videotaped and analysed using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS [P. Ekman, W.V. Friesen, Facial Action Coding System: Manual. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press; 1978., P. Ekman, W. Friesen, J. Hager, Facial Action Coding System. Salt Lake City, Utah: Research Nexus; 2002.]). The results strongly indicated that the tastes produced specific facial reactions that bear strong similarities to the facial reactivity patterns found in human newborns. The data also suggest that some adults' facial reactions serve additional communicative functions. Emotions modulated taste ratings, but not facial reactions to tastes. In particular, ratings of the sweet stimulus were modulated in congruence with emotion quality, such that joy increased and sadness decreased the pleasantness and sweetness of the sweet stimulus. No emotion-congruent modulation was found for the pleasantness and intensity ratings of the bitter or the bitter-sweet stimulus. This 'robustness' of bitter taste ratings may reflect a biologically meaningful mechanism.

  9. Emotional expressions in antismoking television advertisements: consequences of anger and sadness framing on pathways to persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunny Jung; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    The authors conducted an experiment among U.S. college students (N = 115) to assess the effects of anger- and sadness-framed television antismoking advertisements on viewers' emotional response, impressions of the speaker, source likability, and empathy toward the speaker. The study was based on the fundamental assumptions of discrete emotions and was operationalized using the principles of universal facial expressions. The authors also constructed a path model to investigate how these variables predicted one's attitude toward smoking, attitude toward the tobacco industry, and intentions to smoke. Supporting study hypotheses, the anger-framed message increased the perceived dominance of the speaker relative to the other conditions. Perceived dominance, in turn, was negatively associated with smoking attitudes and, indirectly, smoking intentions. Contrary to study hypotheses, the sadness-framed message did not increase sad emotional responses, source likability, or empathy relative to the no emotion-framed message. The anger-framed message unexpectedly appeared to decrease these outcomes. Empathy and source likability were associated with positive attitudes toward the tobacco industry, but these attitudes did not predict intentions to smoke. The authors discuss the implications of these findings.

  10. Memorable Experiences with Sad Music-Reasons, Reactions and Mechanisms of Three Types of Experiences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomas Eerola

    Full Text Available Reactions to memorable experiences of sad music were studied by means of a survey administered to a convenience (N = 1577, representative (N = 445, and quota sample (N = 414. The survey explored the reasons, mechanisms, and emotions of such experiences. Memorable experiences linked with sad music typically occurred in relation to extremely familiar music, caused intense and pleasurable experiences, which were accompanied by physiological reactions and positive mood changes in about a third of the participants. A consistent structure of reasons and emotions for these experiences was identified through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses across the samples. Three types of sadness experiences were established, one that was genuinely negative (Grief-Stricken Sorrow and two that were positive (Comforting Sorrow and Sweet Sorrow. Each type of emotion exhibited certain individual differences and had distinct profiles in terms of the underlying reasons, mechanisms, and elicited reactions. The prevalence of these broad types of emotional experiences suggested that positive experiences are the most frequent, but negative experiences were not uncommon in any of the samples. The findings have implications for measuring emotions induced by music and fiction in general, and call attention to the non-pleasurable aspects of these experiences.

  11. Memorable Experiences with Sad Music-Reasons, Reactions and Mechanisms of Three Types of Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eerola, Tuomas; Peltola, Henna-Riikka

    2016-01-01

    Reactions to memorable experiences of sad music were studied by means of a survey administered to a convenience (N = 1577), representative (N = 445), and quota sample (N = 414). The survey explored the reasons, mechanisms, and emotions of such experiences. Memorable experiences linked with sad music typically occurred in relation to extremely familiar music, caused intense and pleasurable experiences, which were accompanied by physiological reactions and positive mood changes in about a third of the participants. A consistent structure of reasons and emotions for these experiences was identified through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses across the samples. Three types of sadness experiences were established, one that was genuinely negative (Grief-Stricken Sorrow) and two that were positive (Comforting Sorrow and Sweet Sorrow). Each type of emotion exhibited certain individual differences and had distinct profiles in terms of the underlying reasons, mechanisms, and elicited reactions. The prevalence of these broad types of emotional experiences suggested that positive experiences are the most frequent, but negative experiences were not uncommon in any of the samples. The findings have implications for measuring emotions induced by music and fiction in general, and call attention to the non-pleasurable aspects of these experiences.

  12. SAD-B Phosphorylation of CAST Controls Active Zone Vesicle Recycling for Synaptic Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumiko Mochida

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Short-term synaptic depression (STD is a common form of activity-dependent plasticity observed widely in the nervous system. Few molecular pathways that control STD have been described, but the active zone (AZ release apparatus provides a possible link between neuronal activity and plasticity. Here, we show that an AZ cytomatrix protein CAST and an AZ-associated protein kinase SAD-B coordinately regulate STD by controlling reloading of the AZ with release-ready synaptic vesicles. SAD-B phosphorylates the N-terminal serine (S45 of CAST, and S45 phosphorylation increases with higher firing rate. A phosphomimetic CAST (S45D mimics CAST deletion, which enhances STD by delaying reloading of the readily releasable pool (RRP, resulting in a pool size decrease. A phosphonegative CAST (S45A inhibits STD and accelerates RRP reloading. Our results suggest that the CAST/SAD-B reaction serves as a brake on synaptic transmission by temporal calibration of activity and synaptic depression via RRP size regulation.

  13. Side effects of being blue: influence of sad mood on visual statistical learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Bertels

    Full Text Available It is well established that mood influences many cognitive processes, such as learning and executive functions. Although statistical learning is assumed to be part of our daily life, as mood does, the influence of mood on statistical learning has never been investigated before. In the present study, a sad vs. neutral mood was induced to the participants through the listening of stories while they were exposed to a stream of visual shapes made up of the repeated presentation of four triplets, namely sequences of three shapes presented in a fixed order. Given that the inter-stimulus interval was held constant within and between triplets, the only cues available for triplet segmentation were the transitional probabilities between shapes. Direct and indirect measures of learning taken either immediately or 20 minutes after the exposure/mood induction phase revealed that participants learned the statistical regularities between shapes. Interestingly, although participants from the sad and neutral groups performed similarly in these tasks, subjective measures (confidence judgments taken after each trial revealed that participants who experienced the sad mood induction showed increased conscious access to their statistical knowledge. These effects were not modulated by the time delay between the exposure/mood induction and the test phases. These results are discussed within the scope of the robustness principle and the influence of negative affects on processing style.

  14. Dental Fear among Medical and Dental Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hakim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the prevalence and level of dental fear among health related undergraduates and to identify factors causing such fear using Kleinknecht’s Dental Fear Survey (DFS questionnaire. Methods. Kleinknecht’s DFS questionnaire was used to assess dental fear and anxiety among the entire enrollment of the medical and dental undergraduates’ of the University of Malaya. Results. Overall response rate was 82.2%. Dental students reported higher prevalence of dental fear (96.0% versus 90.4%. However, most of the fear encountered among dental students was in the low fear category as compared to their medical counterpart (69.2 versus 51.2%. Significantly more medical students cancelled dental appointment due to fear compared to dental students (P=0.004. “Heart beats faster” and “muscle being tensed” were the top two physiological responses experienced by the respondents. “Drill” and “anesthetic needle” were the most fear provoking objects among respondents of both faculties. Conclusion. Dental fear and anxiety are a common problem encountered among medical and dental undergraduates who represent future health care professionals. Also, high level of dental fear and anxiety leads to the avoidance of the dental services.

  15. Validation of Fear of Partner Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, K Daniel; Foran, Heather; Cohen, Shiri

    2013-10-01

    Therapists have a responsibility to ascertain if psychological aggression, physical aggression, sexual aggression exist, and if there is fear of the partner. A fear of partner measure was evaluated in 100 couples who sought relationship feedback. Fear of partner's psychological, physical, and sexual aggression was related to actual reports of such behavior. For both men and women, fear of speaking in front of partner and fear of being in therapy with partner were related to reports of psychological aggression perpetrated by the partner, dominance, and isolation by the partner, and one's own marital dissatisfaction. Among respondents who were aggressed against, more men than women reported fear of participating in therapy with their partner. The measure herein can be used to determine the extent of fear of aggression by partners and to assist in the decision-making about the appropriateness of marital therapy and divorce mediation.

  16. Activation of the same mGluR5 receptors in the amygdala causes divergent effects on specific versus indiscriminate fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammed Mostafizur; Kedia, Sonal; Fernandes, Giselle; Chattarji, Sumantra

    2017-05-30

    Although mGluR5-antagonists prevent fear and anxiety, little is known about how the same receptor in the amygdala gives rise to both. Combining in vitro and in vivo activation of mGluR5 in rats, we identify specific changes in intrinsic excitability and synaptic plasticity in basolateral amygdala neurons that give rise to temporally distinct and mutually exclusive effects on fear-related behaviors. The immediate impact of mGluR5 activation is to produce anxiety manifested as indiscriminate fear of both tone and context. Surprisingly, this state does not interfere with the proper encoding of tone-shock associations that eventually lead to enhanced cue-specific fear. These results provide a new framework for dissecting the functional impact of amygdalar mGluR-plasticity on fear versus anxiety in health and disease.

  17. Neural correlates of fear: insights from neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garfinkel SN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sarah N Garfinkel,1,2 Hugo D Critchley1,2 1Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science, 2Department of Psychiatry, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK Abstract: Fear anticipates a challenge to one's well-being and is a reaction to the risk of harm. The expression of fear in the individual is a constellation of physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and experiential responses. Fear indicates risk and will guide adaptive behavior, yet fear is also fundamental to the symptomatology of most psychiatric disorders. Neuroimaging studies of normal and abnormal fear in humans extend knowledge gained from animal experiments. Neuroimaging permits the empirical evaluation of theory (emotions as response tendencies, mental states, and valence and arousal dimensions, and improves our understanding of the mechanisms of how fear is controlled by both cognitive processes and bodily states. Within the human brain, fear engages a set of regions that include insula and anterior cingulate cortices, the amygdala, and dorsal brain-stem centers, such as periaqueductal gray matter. This same fear matrix is also implicated in attentional orienting, mental planning, interoceptive mapping, bodily feelings, novelty and motivational learning, behavioral prioritization, and the control of autonomic arousal. The stereotyped expression of fear can thus be viewed as a special construction from combinations of these processes. An important motivator for understanding neural fear mechanisms is the debilitating clinical expression of anxiety. Neuroimaging studies of anxiety patients highlight the role of learning and memory in pathological fear. Posttraumatic stress disorder is further distinguished by impairment in cognitive control and contextual memory. These processes ultimately need to be targeted for symptomatic recovery. Neuroscientific knowledge of fear has broader relevance to understanding human and societal behavior. As yet, only some of

  18. The Phenomenon of Dental Fear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod

    Odontophobia is a rather unique phobia with special psychosomatic components that impact on the dental health of odontophobic persons. It also has psychosocial components largely as a result of destruction of the teeth and subsequent embarrassment that can affect a person and cause a vicious cycle...... of dental fear (see fig. 1). The phenomenon is facilitated by misunderstandings and myths generated by both patients and dentists (see table 1 for examples). The most common reasons given in the literature for such strong fears of dental treatment are: 1) bad experiences in childhood for 85% of cases, 2......) feeling of powerlessness and lack of control over personal emotional reactions and over the social situation in the dental chair, 3) social learning processes in which the image of the dentist is cast in a negative light by the mass media or by the person's relatives or friends and 4) that the person has...

  19. From MAD to SAD: The Italian experience for the low-frequency aperture array of SKA1-LOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolli, P.; Pupillo, G.; Virone, G.; Farooqui, M. Z.; Lingua, A.; Mattana, A.; Monari, J.; Murgia, M.; Naldi, G.; Paonessa, F.; Perini, F.; Pluchino, S.; Rusticelli, S.; Schiaffino, M.; Schillirò, F.; Tartarini, G.; Tibaldi, A.

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes two small aperture array demonstrators called Medicina and Sardinia Array Demonstrators (MAD and SAD, respectively). The objectives of these instruments are to acquire experience and test new technologies for a possible application to the low-frequency aperture array of the low-frequency telescope of the Square Kilometer Array phase 1 (SKA1-LOW). The MAD experience was concluded in 2014, and it turned out to be an important test bench for implementing calibration techniques based on an artificial source mounted in an aerial vehicle. SAD is based on 128 dual-polarized Vivaldi antennas and is 1 order of magnitude larger than MAD. The architecture and the station size of SAD, which is along the construction phase, are more similar to those under evaluation for SKA1-LOW, and therefore, SAD is expected to provide useful hints for SKA1-LOW.

  20. The surprising diversity of clostridial hydrogenases: a comparative genomic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calusinska, Magdalena; Happe, Thomas; Joris, Bernard; Wilmotte, Annick

    2010-06-01

    Among the large variety of micro-organisms capable of fermentative hydrogen production, strict anaerobes such as members of the genus Clostridium are the most widely studied. They can produce hydrogen by a reversible reduction of protons accumulated during fermentation to dihydrogen, a reaction which is catalysed by hydrogenases. Sequenced genomes provide completely new insights into the diversity of clostridial hydrogenases. Building on previous reports, we found that [FeFe] hydrogenases are not a homogeneous group of enzymes, but exist in multiple forms with different modular structures and are especially abundant in members of the genus Clostridium. This unusual diversity seems to support the central role of hydrogenases in cell metabolism. In particular, the presence of multiple putative operons encoding multisubunit [FeFe] hydrogenases highlights the fact that hydrogen metabolism is very complex in this genus. In contrast with [FeFe] hydrogenases, their [NiFe] hydrogenase counterparts, widely represented in other bacteria and archaea, are found in only a few clostridial species. Surprisingly, a heteromultimeric Ech hydrogenase, known to be an energy-converting [NiFe] hydrogenase and previously described only in methanogenic archaea and some sulfur-reducing bacteria, was found to be encoded by the genomes of four cellulolytic strains: Clostridum cellulolyticum, Clostridum papyrosolvens, Clostridum thermocellum and Clostridum phytofermentans.

  1. Atom Surprise: Using Theatre in Primary Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Ran; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet

    2011-10-01

    Early exposure to science may have a lifelong effect on children's attitudes towards science and their motivation to learn science in later life. Out-of-class environments can play a significant role in creating favourable attitudes, while contributing to conceptual learning. Educational science theatre is one form of an out-of-class environment, which has received little research attention. This study aims to describe affective and cognitive learning outcomes of watching such a play and to point to connections between theatrical elements and specific outcomes. "Atom Surprise" is a play portraying several concepts on the topic of matter. A mixed methods approach was adopted to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of children (grades 1-6) from two different school settings who watched the play. Data were gathered using questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Analysis suggested that in both schools children's knowledge on the topic of matter increased after the play with younger children gaining more conceptual knowledge than their older peers. In the public school girls showed greater gains in conceptual knowledge than boys. No significant changes in students' general attitudes towards science were found, however, students demonstrated positive changes towards science learning. Theatrical elements that seemed to be important in children's recollection of the play were the narrative, props and stage effects, and characters. In the children's memory, science was intertwined with the theatrical elements. Nonetheless, children could distinguish well between scientific facts and the fictive narrative.

  2. Novelty biases attention and gaze in a surprise trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, Gernot; Herwig, Arvid

    2016-01-01

    While the classical distinction between task-driven and stimulus-driven biasing of attention appears to be a dichotomy at first sight, there seems to be a third category that depends on the contrast or discrepancy between active representations and the upcoming stimulus, and may be termed novelty, surprise, or prediction failure. For previous demonstrations of the discrepancy-attention link, stimulus-driven components (saliency) may have played a decisive role. The present study was conducted to evaluate the discrepancy-attention link in a display where novel and familiar stimuli are equated for saliency. Eye tracking was used to determine fixations on novel and familiar stimuli as a proxy for attention. Results show a prioritization of attention by the novel color, and a de-prioritization of the familiar color, which is clearly present at the second fixation, and spans over the next couple of fixations. Saliency, on the other hand, did not prioritize items in the display. The results thus reinforce the notion that novelty captures and binds attention.

  3. A Well-Known But Still Surprising Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2014-12-01

    The bicycle generator is often mentioned as an example of a method to produce electric energy. It is cheap and easily accessible, so it is a natural example to use in teaching. There are different types, but I prefer the old side-wall dynamo. The most common explanation of its working principle seems to be something like the illustration in Fig. 1. The illustration is taken from a popular textbook in the Norwegian junior high school.1 Typically it is explained as a system of a moving magnet or coils that directly results in a varying magnetic field through the coils. According to Faraday's law a voltage is induced in the coils. Simple and easy! A few times I have had a chance to glimpse into a bicycle generator, and I was somewhat surprised to sense that the magnet rotated parallel to the turns of the coil. How could the flux through the coil change and induce a voltage when the magnet rotated parallel to the turns of the coil? When teaching electromagnetic induction I have showed the students a dismantled generator and asked them how this could work. They naturally found that this was more difficult to understand than the principle illustrated in Fig. 1. Other authors in this journal have discussed even more challenging questions concerning electric generators.2,3

  4. Putting the Fear Back Again (and Within Individuals): Revisiting the Role of Fear in Persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lijiang

    2017-11-01

    The overwhelming majority of fear appeal research came from the between-individuals approach and yielded consistent evidence for a linear fear-persuasion relationship. A recent review suggested that the within-individuals approach might be more appropriate. Studies that measured fear at multiple time points have consistently revealed a curvilinear association between fear and persuasion predicted by the drive model. A Web-based experiment (N = 454) using tobacco warning labels was conducted to replicate the inverted-U shape curvilinear relationship between fear and persuasion, and to revisit the role of fear in fear appeal theories. Results showed that the inverted-U fear curve positively predicted persuasion and reduced maladaptive responses, and that the linear trajectory of fear positively predicted maladaptive responses and failure of persuasion.

  5. REM-Enriched Naps Are Associated with Memory Consolidation for Sad Stories and Enhance Mood-Related Reactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Médhi Gilson; Gaétane Deliens; Rachel Leproult; Alice Bodart; Antoine Nonclercq; Rudy Ercek; Philippe Peigneux

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that emotion and affect modulate the relation between sleep and cognition. In the present study, we investigated the role of rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep in mood regulation and memory consolidation for sad stories. In a counterbalanced design, participants (n = 24) listened to either a neutral or a sad story during two sessions, spaced one week apart. After listening to the story, half of the participants had a short (45 min) morning nap. The other half had a long...

  6. Predictive validity of the K-SADS-PL 2009 version in school-aged and adolescent outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarbin, Håkan; Andersson, Markus; Råstam, Maria; Ivarsson, Tord

    2017-05-01

    The schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-age children (K-SADS) is one of the most commonly used standardized diagnostic interviews in child and adolescent psychiatry. Validity studies are scarce, and limited to concurrent validity with other measures and clinical diagnoses. To evaluate the K-SADS interview in an outpatient child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) setting with a Longitudinal Expert All Data (LEAD) procedure. CAP residents performed a K-SADS-PL interview with the revised 2009 version containing the new PDD section on 239 clinically referred outpatients of 6-17 years old and their parent(s). A consensus LEAD diagnosis by two senior clinicians 1.2 (SD = 0.6) years later was based on clinical records including the K-SADS and subsequent information from further assessments, information from teachers and other informants, outcome of treatment, and at least three visits after the K-SADS. Predictive validity for K-SADS vs LEAD diagnoses were good-to-excellent for broader categories of anxiety disorders (κ = 0.94), depressive (κ = 0.91), behavioural (κ = 0.91) and tic (κ = 0.81) disorders, good for ADHD (κ = 0.80), and good-to-moderate for autism spectrum disorders (κ = 0.62). Bipolar, psychotic, and eating disorders were too few to be analysed. The K-SADS diagnoses elicited from an interview with the child and one from parents on one occasion have an excellent validity for most major child psychiatric disorders. ADHD can be reliably diagnosed at one visit, but clinicians need to stay alert for possible undiagnosed ADHD. Diagnosing autism with K-SADS-PL 2009 version at one visit is not advisable.

  7. Fear patterns: a new approach to designing road safety advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algie, Jennifer; Rossiter, John R

    2010-01-01

    This research studies fear patterns within fear appeal anti-speeding television commercials. A pattern of fear is the sequence of fear arousal and fear reduction, if any, that is felt by the viewing audience when exposed to a fear appeal advertisement. Many road safety advertisers use fear appeals, such as "shock" advertising, that result in fear arousal, leaving the viewer feeling extremely tense. The moment-to-moment reactions of young drivers to 12 road safety commercials are gauged using a dynamic, temporal measure of fear. The fear patterns generated from each ad are analyzed and a new perspective on creating fear appeal road safety advertisements, with an emphasis on fear-relief, fear-partial relief, and fear-only patterns, is discussed.

  8. REM-Enriched Naps Are Associated with Memory Consolidation for Sad Stories and Enhance Mood-Related Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Médhi Gilson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that emotion and affect modulate the relation between sleep and cognition. In the present study, we investigated the role of rapid-eye movement (REM sleep in mood regulation and memory consolidation for sad stories. In a counterbalanced design, participants (n = 24 listened to either a neutral or a sad story during two sessions, spaced one week apart. After listening to the story, half of the participants had a short (45 min morning nap. The other half had a long (90 min morning nap, richer in REM and N2 sleep. Story recall, mood evolution and changes in emotional response to the re-exposure to the story were assessed after the nap. Although recall performance was similar for sad and neutral stories irrespective of nap duration, sleep measures were correlated with recall performance in the sad story condition only. After the long nap, REM sleep density positively correlated with retrieval performance, while re-exposure to the sad story led to diminished mood and increased skin conductance levels. Our results suggest that REM sleep may not only be associated with the consolidation of intrinsically sad material, but also enhances mood reactivity, at least on the short term.

  9. REM-Enriched Naps Are Associated with Memory Consolidation for Sad Stories and Enhance Mood-Related Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Médhi; Deliens, Gaétane; Leproult, Rachel; Bodart, Alice; Nonclercq, Antoine; Ercek, Rudy; Peigneux, Philippe

    2015-12-29

    Emerging evidence suggests that emotion and affect modulate the relation between sleep and cognition. In the present study, we investigated the role of rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep in mood regulation and memory consolidation for sad stories. In a counterbalanced design, participants (n = 24) listened to either a neutral or a sad story during two sessions, spaced one week apart. After listening to the story, half of the participants had a short (45 min) morning nap. The other half had a long (90 min) morning nap, richer in REM and N2 sleep. Story recall, mood evolution and changes in emotional response to the re-exposure to the story were assessed after the nap. Although recall performance was similar for sad and neutral stories irrespective of nap duration, sleep measures were correlated with recall performance in the sad story condition only. After the long nap, REM sleep density positively correlated with retrieval performance, while re-exposure to the sad story led to diminished mood and increased skin conductance levels. Our results suggest that REM sleep may not only be associated with the consolidation of intrinsically sad material, but also enhances mood reactivity, at least on the short term.

  10. Surprise disrupts cognition via a fronto-basal ganglia suppressive mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Jan R; Jenkinson, Ned; Brittain, John-Stuart; Voets, Sarah H E M; Aziz, Tipu Z; Aron, Adam R

    2016-04-18

    Surprising events markedly affect behaviour and cognition, yet the underlying mechanism is unclear. Surprise recruits a brain mechanism that globally suppresses motor activity, ostensibly via the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia. Here, we tested whether this suppressive mechanism extends beyond skeletomotor suppression and also affects cognition (here, verbal working memory, WM). We recorded scalp-EEG (electrophysiology) in healthy participants and STN local field potentials in Parkinson's patients during a task in which surprise disrupted WM. For scalp-EEG, surprising events engage the same independent neural signal component that indexes action stopping in a stop-signal task. Importantly, the degree of this recruitment mediates surprise-related WM decrements. Intracranially, STN activity is also increased post surprise, especially when WM is interrupted. These results suggest that surprise interrupts cognition via the same fronto-basal ganglia mechanism that interrupts action. This motivates a new neural theory of how cognition is interrupted, and how distraction arises after surprising events.

  11. The Shadow of Physical Harm? Examining the Unique and Gendered Relationship Between Fear of Murder Versus Fear of Sexual Assault on Fear of Violent Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Samantha; Cook, Carrie L

    2015-09-01

    The shadow hypothesis regarding the impact of fear of sexual assault on fear of violent crime suggests that female fear of crime is characterized by concern about sexual assault as a contemporaneous victimization event during a violent crime event. Recent research has found that other types of crime, namely physical assault, may also be feared as a contemporaneous offense. We know of no research that has examined the unique impact of fear of murder versus fear of sexual assault on fear of violent crime. There is also a lack of research that explores how these two types of fear uniquely affect men and women. In addition to gender, we examine factors that have been suggested in previous research to correlate with fear of crime: race, victimization, vicarious victimization, and perceived risk. Through survey methodology, this research examines the unique relationship between both fear of murder and fear of sexual assault and fear of three types of violent crime for men and women. Results suggest differences in how fear of murder and fear of sexual assault are related to fear of other types of violence for men and women. Specifically, fear of murder is important in estimating male fear of robbery and aggravated assault. However, fear of sexual assault is almost as important as fear of murder for men in estimating fear of home invasion. Similarly, for women, fear of sexual assault and fear of murder both are significant factors associated with fear of violent crime, and differences between the levels of significance are marginal. This study is a first to examine whether murder may also be feared as a contemporaneous offense. The results are informative in identifying what drives fear of crime, particularly violent crime, for both men and women. Avenues for future research are discussed.

  12. Retention of perceptual generalization of fear extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappens, Meike; Schroijen, Mathias; Van den Bergh, Omer; Van Diest, Ilse

    2015-12-01

    Fear reduction obtained during a fear extinction procedure can generalize from the extinction stimulus to other perceptually similar stimuli. Perceptual generalization of fear extinction typically follows a perceptual gradient, with increasing levels of fear reduction the more a stimulus resembles the extinction stimulus. The current study aimed to investigate whether perceptual generalization of fear extinction can be observed also after a retention interval of 24h. Fear was acquired to three geometrical figures of different sizes (CS(+), CS1(+) and CS2(+)) by consistently pairing them with a short-lasting suffocation experience (US). Three other geometrical figures that were never followed by the US served as control stimuli (CS(-), CS1(-), CS2(-)). Next, only the CS(+) was extinguished by presenting it in the absence of the US. One day later, fear responses to all stimuli were assessed without any US-presentation. Outcome measures included startle blink EMG, skin conductance, US expectancy, respiratory rate and tidal volume. On day 2 spontaneous recovery of fear was observed in US expectancy and tidal volume, but not in the other outcomes. Evidence for the retention of fear extinction generalization was present in US expectancy and skin conductance, but a perceptual gradient in the retention of generalized fear extinction could not be observed.

  13. Glucocorticoids reduce phobic fear in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soravia, Leila M; Heinrichs, Markus; Aerni, Amanda; Maroni, Caroline; Schelling, Gustav; Ehlert, Ulrike; Roozendaal, Benno; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2006-04-04

    Phobias are characterized by excessive fear, cued by the presence or anticipation of a fearful situation. Whereas it is well established that glucocorticoids are released in fearful situations, it is not known whether these hormones, in turn, modulate perceived fear. As extensive evidence indicates that elevated glucocorticoid levels impair the retrieval of emotionally arousing information, they might also inhibit retrieval of fear memory associated with phobia and, thereby, reduce phobic fear. Here, we investigated whether acutely administrated glucocorticoids reduced phobic fear in two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in 40 subjects with social phobia and 20 subjects with spider phobia. In the social phobia study, cortisone (25 mg) administered orally 1 h before a socio-evaluative stressor significantly reduced self-reported fear during the anticipation, exposure, and recovery phase of the stressor. Moreover, the stress-induced release of cortisol in placebo-treated subjects correlated negatively with fear ratings, suggesting that endogenously released cortisol in the context of a phobic situation buffers fear symptoms. In the spider phobia study, repeated oral administration of cortisol (10 mg), but not placebo, 1 h before exposure to a spider photograph induced a progressive reduction of stimulus-induced fear. This effect was maintained when subjects were exposed to the stimulus again 2 days after the last cortisol administration, suggesting that cortisol may also have facilitated the extinction of phobic fear. Cortisol treatment did not reduce general, phobia-unrelated anxiety. In conclusion, the present findings in two distinct types of phobias indicate that glucocorticoid administration reduces phobic fear.

  14. Memory suppression trades prolonged fear and sleep-dependent fear plasticity for the avoidance of current fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Honma, Motoyasu; Yoshiike, Takuya; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2013-07-01

    Sleep deprivation immediately following an aversive event reduces fear by preventing memory consolidation during homeostatic sleep. This suggests that acute insomnia might act prophylactically against the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) even though it is also a possible risk factor for PTSD. We examined total sleep deprivation and memory suppression to evaluate the effects of these interventions on subsequent aversive memory formation and fear conditioning. Active suppression of aversive memory impaired retention of event memory. However, although the remembered fear was more reduced in sleep-deprived than sleep-control subjects, suppressed fear increased, and seemed to abandon the sleep-dependent plasticity of fear. Active memory suppression, which provides a psychological model for Freud's ego defense mechanism, enhances fear and casts doubt on the potential of acute insomnia as a prophylactic measure against PTSD. Our findings bring into question the role of sleep in aversive-memory consolidation in clinical PTSD pathophysiology.

  15. Properties and Surprises of Solar Activity XXIII Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishkov, V. N.

    2010-12-01

    The main properties of the 23rd cycle match almost completely those of average-magnitude solar cycles, and some of the features of the cycle may indicate a change in the generation mode of magnetic fields in the solar convection zone. If this is the case, the Sun enters a period of intermediate and weak cycles of solar activity (SA) in terms of the Wolf number, which may last for 3 to 6 solar cycles. The main development stages of solar cycle 23 are the following: minimum of solar cycle 22: April 1996 (W* = 8.0); maximum of the smoothed relative sunspot number: April 2000; global polarity reversal of the general solar magnetic field: July to December 2000; secondary maximum of the relative sunspot number: November 2001; maximum of the 10.7-cm radio flux: February 2002; phase of the cycle maximum: October 1999 to June 2002; beginning of the decrease phase: July 2002; the point of minimum of the current SA cycle: December 2008. Solar cycle 23 has presented two powerful flare-active sunspot groups, in September 2005 and December 2006 (+5.5 and +6.6 years from the maximum) which by flare potential occupy 4th and 20th place among the most flare-active regions for the last four solar cycles. The unprecedented duration of the relative sunspot numbers fall that has led to already record duration of the last solar cycle among authentic cycles (since 1849) became the next surprise of development of solar activity during the last cycle. The phase of the minimum began in May 2005 and lasted for 4.5 years. Thus, the new solar cycle 24 has begun in January 2009.

  16. Dracunculiasis eradication - Finishing the job before surprises arise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin Jelle Visser

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dracunculiasis(Guinea worm disease) is a preventable waterborne parasitic disease that affects the poorest people living in remote rural areas in sub-SaharanAfrican countries, who do not have access to safe drinking water.The Guinea Worm Eradication Program, a25-year old campaign to rid the world ofGuineaWorm disease has now reached its final stage accelerating to zero cases in all endemic countries.During the19th and20th centuries, dracunculiasis was common in much ofSouthernAsia and theAfrican continent.The overall number of cases has been reduced tremendously by≥99%, from the3.32 million cases estimated to have occurred in1986 inAfrica to only1797 cases reported in2010 reported in only five countries(Sudan,Mali,Ethiopia,Chad andGhana) andAsia free of the disease.This achievement is unique in its kind - the only previously eradicated disease is smallpox, a viral infection for which vaccination was possible - and it has been achieved through primary community-based prevention and health education programs.Most efforts need to be taken in two countries,SouthSudan(comprising94% or1698 out of1797 of the cases reported world-wide in2010) andMali because of frequent movements of nomads in a vast area inside and outsideMali’s borders.All factors favourable to dracunculiasis eradication are available including adequate financial resources, community and political support and high levels of advocacy.Thus there is no reason that this disabling parasitic disease cannot be eradicated soon before surprises arise such as new civil conflicts in currently endemic countries.

  17. The genetic covariation between fear conditioning and self-report fears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettema, John M; Annas, Peter; Neale, Michael C; Fredrikson, Mats; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2008-03-15

    Fear conditioning is a traditional model for the acquisition of phobias, whereas behavioral therapies use processes underlying extinction to treat phobic and other anxiety disorders. Furthermore, fear conditioning has been proposed as an endophenotype for genetic studies of anxiety disorders. Although prior studies have demonstrated that fear conditioning and self-report fears are heritable, no studies have determined whether they share a common genetic basis. We obtained fear conditioning data from 173 twin pairs from the Swedish Twin Registry who also provided self-report ratings of 16 common fears. With multivariate structural equation modeling, we analyzed factor-derived scores for the subjective fear ratings together with the electrophysiologic skin conductance responses during habituation, acquisition, and extinction to determine the extent of their genetic covariation. Phenotypic correlations between experimental and self-report fear measures were modest and, counter-intuitively, negative (i.e., subjects who reported themselves as more fearful had smaller electrophysiologic responses). Best-fit models estimated a significant (negative) genetic correlation between them, although genetic factors underlying fear conditioning accounted for only 9% of individual differences in self-report fears. Experimentally derived fear conditioning measures share only a small portion of the genetic factors underlying individual differences in subjective fears, cautioning against relying too heavily on the former as an endophenotype for genetic studies of phobic disorders.

  18. Specific and social fears in children and adolescents: separating normative fears from problem indicators and phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Paola P; Pan, Pedro M; Hoffmann, Mauricio S; Wakschlag, Lauren S; Rohde, Luis A; Miguel, Euripedes C; Pine, Daniel S; Manfro, Gisele G; Salum, Giovanni A

    2017-01-01

    To distinguish normative fears from problematic fears and phobias. We investigated 2,512 children and adolescents from a large community school-based study, the High Risk Study for Psychiatric Disorders. Parent reports of 18 fears and psychiatric diagnosis were investigated. We used two analytical approaches: confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)/item response theory (IRT) and nonparametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. According to IRT and ROC analyses, social fears are more likely to indicate problems and phobias than specific fears. Most specific fears were normative when mild; all specific fears indicate problems when pervasive. In addition, the situational fear of toilets and people who look unusual were highly indicative of specific phobia. Among social fears, those not restricted to performance and fear of writing in front of others indicate problems when mild. All social fears indicate problems and are highly indicative of social phobia when pervasive. These preliminary findings provide guidance for clinicians and researchers to determine the boundaries that separate normative fears from problem indicators in children and adolescents, and indicate a differential severity threshold for specific and social fears.

  19. Women's fear of crime: the role of fear for the well-being of significant others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesch, G S

    2000-01-01

    A number of explanations have been suggested in the literature for the finding that women consistently report higher levels of fear of crime than males. The "shadow" hypothesis argues that fear of crime among females reflects fear of sexual assault. The "intimate" hypothesis argues that women's fear of crime is the result of exposure to intimate violence. Females' fear of crime is expected to be explained by their fear of partners' violence. The main argument of this article is that women's fear of crime might be the result of traditional family gender roles. When asked, women might express fear not only for their own well-being but for that of their children. A survey of a representative sample of women in the third largest city of Israel was used to test this assumption. Women's fear of crime was found to be affected by fear of sexual assault and fear of violent partners. In addition, consistent with the argument of this study, women's fear of violent and sexual victimization of their children had a significant effect on their perception of fear. Future directions for research are suggested.

  20. Living in fear of your child's pain: the Parent Fear of Pain Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Laura E; Smith, Allison; Kaczynski, Karen; Basch, Molly

    2015-04-01

    Fear and avoidance have been consistently associated with poor pain-related outcomes in children. In the context of the pediatric pain experience, parent distress and behaviors can be highly influential. This study validated the Parent Fear of Pain Questionnaire (PFOPQ) to assess a parent's fears and avoidance behaviors associated with their child's pain. Using the PFOPQ in conjunction with measures of parent and child pain-related variables, we tested the interpersonal fear-avoidance model (IFAM). The sample comprised 321 parents and their child with chronic or new-onset pain who presented to a multidisciplinary outpatient pain clinic. An exploratory factor analysis yielded a 4-factor structure for the PFOPQ consisting of Fear of Pain, Fear of Movement, Fear of School, and Avoidance. As hypothesized, Fear of Pain was most closely related to parent pain catastrophizing and child fear of pain, whereas Avoidance was most closely related to parent protective behaviors and child avoidance of activities. In testing the IFAM, parent behavior contributed directly and indirectly to child avoidance, whereas parent fear and catastrophizing contributed indirectly to child avoidance through parent behavior and child fear and catastrophizing, in turn, influencing child functional disability levels. This study provides the first measure of parent pain-related fears and avoidance behaviors and evaluates the theorized IFAM. These results underscore the important influence of parents on child pain-related outcomes and put forth a psychometrically sound measure to assess parent fear and avoidance in the context of their child's pain.

  1. Retrieving fear memories, as time goes by…

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Monte, Fabricio H.; Quirk, Gregory J.; Li, Bo; Penzo, Mario A.

    2016-01-01

    Fear conditioning researches have led to a comprehensive picture of the neuronal circuit underlying the formation of fear memories. In contrast, knowledge about the retrieval of fear memories is much more limited. This disparity may stem from the fact that fear memories are not rigid, but reorganize over time. To bring clarity and raise awareness on the time-dependent dynamics of retrieval circuits, we review current evidence on the neuronal circuitry participating in fear memory retrieval at both early and late time points after conditioning. We focus on the temporal recruitment of the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, and its BDNFergic efferents to the central nucleus of the amygdala, for the retrieval and maintenance of fear memories. Finally, we speculate as to why retrieval circuits change across time, and the functional benefits of recruiting structures such as the paraventricular nucleus into the retrieval circuit. PMID:27217148

  2. Fear activation and distraction during the emotional processing of claustrophobic fear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telch, M.J.; Valentiner, D.P.; Ilai, D.; Young, P.R.; Powers, M.B.; Smits, J.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    We tested several hypotheses derived from the emotional processing theory of fear reduction by manipulating claustrophobic participants' focus of attention during in vivo exposure. Sixty participants displaying marked claustrophobic fear were randomized to one of four exposure conditions. Each

  3. Sadness might isolate you in a non-smelling world: olfactory perception and depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schablitzky, Sylvia; Pause, Bettina M.

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) occurs with a high prevalence among mental illnesses. MDD patients experience sadness and hopelessness, with blunted affective reactivity. However, such depressive episodes are also key symptoms in other depressive disorders, like Bipolar Disorder (BPD) or Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). Moreover, depressive symptoms can also be found in healthy individuals, but are experienced as less severe or for a shorter duration than in patients. Here, it is aimed to summarize studies investigating odor perception in depression, including depressive states in healthy individuals and patient populations. Odor perception in depression has been assessed with psychophysical methods (olfactory sensitivity, odor identification, and discrimination), and odor ratings (intensity, emotional valence, familiarity). In addition, some studies investigated affective reactions to odors, and physiological and anatomical correlates of odor perception in depression. The summary reveals that MDD is associated with reduced olfactory sensitivity. However, odor identification and discrimination scores seem to be unaffected by depression. The reduced olfactory sensitivity might be associated with a reduced ability to encode olfactory information and a reduced volume of the olfactory bulb. While similar processes seem to occur in healthy individuals experiencing depressive states, they have not been observed in BPD or SAD patients. However, in order to conclude that the reduced olfactory sensitivity is directly linked to depression, it is suggested that studies should implement control measures of cognitive performances or perceptual abilities in other stimulus modalities. It is concluded that the reduced olfactory performance in MDD patients seems to be disorder-, modality-, and test-specific, and that the application of an appropriate olfactory and cognitive test-battery might be highly useful in the differential diagnosis of MDD. PMID:24570666

  4. Sodium intake and dietary sources of sodium in undergraduate students from Novi Sad, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić-Bata Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Data on sodium intake and sources of sodium in the diet in Serbia are limited. The aim of this study was to estimate the sodium intake and identify the sources of sodium in the diet of undergraduate students attending the University of Novi Sad. Methods. Students completed a questionnaire to gather data on their gender, age and university faculty attended, and then a 24 h dietary recall. The sodium intake of the students was calculated using the dietary recall data and data on the sodium content of foods. The contribution of different food groups as well as of specific foodstuffs to the total sodium intake was calculated. Results. The mean estimated sodium intake of the students was 3,938.5 ± 1,708.1 mg/day. The sodium intake of 89.1% of the surveyed students exceeded the guideline for sodium intake, the majority of the sodium coming from processed foods (78.9% of the total sodium intake. The food groups that contributed the most to the total sodium intake of the students were meat and meat products (21.7% and cereals and cereal-based products (18.6%. Bread and other bakery products were responsible for 13.1% of the total sodium intake. Conclusion. High sodium intake in students of the University of Novi Sad puts them at high risk of developing high blood pressure. The food industry should work towards reformulating products with high sodium content, especially bread and other bakery products. Efforts should be taken to reduce sodium intake among undergraduate students in Novi Sad.

  5. Sadness might isolate you in a non-smelling world: Olfactory perception and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia eSchablitzky

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD occurs with a high prevalence among the mental illnesses. MDD patients experience sadness and hopelessness, with blunted affective reactivity. However, such depressive episodes are also key symptoms in other depressive disorders, like Bipolar Disorder (BPD or Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD. Moreover, depressive symptoms can also be found in healthy individuals, but are experienced as less severe or for a shorter duration than in patients. Here, it is aimed to summarize studies investigating odor perception in depression, including depressive states in healthy individuals and patient populations. Odor perception in depression has been assessed with psychophysical methods (olfactory sensitivity, odor identification and discrimination, and odor ratings (intensity, emotional valence, familiarity. In addition, some studies investigated affective reactions to odors, and physiological and anatomical correlates of odor perception in depression. The summary reveals that MDD is associated with a reduced olfactory sensitivity. However, odor identification and discrimination scores seem to be unaffected by depression. The reduced olfactory sensitivity might be associated with a reduced ability to encode olfactory information and a reduced volume of the olfactory bulb. While similar processes seem to occur in healthy individuals experiencing depressive states, they cannot be observed in BPD or SAD patients. However, in order to conclude that the reduced olfactory sensitivity is directly linked to depression, it is suggested that studies should implement control measures of cognitive performances or perceptual abilities in other stimulus modalities. It is concluded that the reduced olfactory performance in MDD patients seems to be disorder-, modality-, and test-specific, and that the application of an appropriate olfactory and cognitive test-battery might be highly useful in the differential diagnosis of MDD.

  6. Duelo, tristeza y rechazo del inconsciente // Mourning, sadness and rejection of the subconscious

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vargas Castro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente texto se articulan desarrollos realizados por Freud y Lacan a propósito del duelo con el fin de responder a la relación entre éste y lo que Lacan propone en Televisión sobre la tristeza y el rechazo del inconsciente. Para tales fines, se parte de las preguntas e intentos de respuestas dadas por Freud en el plano de la economía libidinal a propósito del duelo, para pasar a los desarrollos de orden ético y moral que Lacan plantea a propósito de la tristeza. De esta forma, el rechazo del inconsciente presente en las psicosis se distingue del que tiene lugar en el duelo, al considerar la tristeza un afecto que dará cuenta del rechazo del deseo del Otro. // This text articulates developments made by Freud and Lacan about mourning to attempt a response on how this relates to Lacan‟s proposal in Television about sadness and rejection of the unconscious. To do this, the text departs from the questions and answers given by Freud in the field of the economy of the libido referring to mourning and then moves on to the ethical and moral aspects that Lacan refers about sadness. Consequently, from this perspective the rejection of the unconscious in the psychosis is different from the one that takes place in mourning, considering sadness as an affection that will evidence the rejection of the desire of the Other.

  7. Surprising Sensitivities in Simulations of Radiative Convective Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drotos, Gabor; Becker, Tobias; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Stevens, Bjorn

    2017-04-01

    The climate and climate-sensitivity of a global model run in radiative equilibrium is explored. Results from simulations with ECHAM6.3 coupled to a slab ocean and run in a wide range of configurations are presented. Simulations both with and without a parameterised representation of deep convection are conducted for CO2 concentrations ranging from one eighth of present day values to thirty-two times the present day, and for variations in the solar constant of more than a factor of two. Very long simulations, in some case more than a thousand years, are performed to adequately sample the attractor of the different climate states of the model, and provide robust estimates of the system's climate sensitivity parameter. For the standard configuration of the model the climate sensitivity progressively decreases from very large values (6-7K) for the coldest climates to well below 1 K for the warmest climates. For very high CO2 levels (16 and 32 times the present value) fluctuations of globally averaged temperature as large as 10 K arise on decadal time-scales. These fluctuations manifest as quasi-period coolings, driven by large and persistent global scale decks of stratiform low clouds, so that for a period of several years global temperatures drop to levels below the lowest temperatures of the climate with present day values of CO2. The same configuration of the model has more modest sensitivities when the insolation is reduced, but runaway warming results for small (10%) increases. Simulations without parameterised convection have colder (by roughly 10K) climates and smaller (1K) sensitivities, allowing a stable climate with earth-like temperatures even for insolation much (50%) larger than the present day. Such values of insolation are possible because over a large range of the insolation the climate sensitivity parameter is very near zero. The surprising sensitivities of the system, and the limit-cycle like behaviour of the very CO2 rich climates, can be traced to

  8. Development and Validation of Acupuncture Fear Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Sun Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Strong aversions to acupuncture have been an obstacle to understanding its intrinsic action of acupuncture. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of fear of acupuncture treatment. Our study aims to develop and validate an instrument that evaluates a patient’s fear of acupuncture treatment. Methods. We have developed an acupuncture fear scale, a 16-item instrument which assesses the acupuncture fear score and uses it to survey 275 participants in South Korea, thus testing the reliability and validity of the instrument. Results. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.935. Test-retest reliability (Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient among 33 participants out of 275 ranged from 0.565 to 0.797 (P<0.001. Principal component analysis revealed two factors accounting for 68% of the variance, which are painful sensation and possible adverse events, respectively. The acupuncture fear scale was positively correlated with the total of fear of pain questionnaire-III (r=0.423, P<0.001. Conclusions. The acupuncture fear scale can be a valid and reliable instrument that can measure fear of acupuncture treatment. These results strongly suggest that it would be a clinically useful tool to assess fear of acupuncture in the acupuncture clinic setting and an important instrument to understand the complex social-behavioral component of acupuncture modality.

  9. ON PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS AND FEAR OF DENTISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena IORGA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety and fear are normal reactions in humans when situations are evaluating as being painful. In medical dentistry, anxiety and fear characterize in fact o problematic patient with special reactions during dental interventions and avoidance behavior, both behaviors having a great impact on patient’s dental health. The paper presents some aspects on the psychological profile of odontophobics, causes and consequences of dental fear on patient’s dental health, and some considerations on psychological interventions meant at reducing anxiety and fear during dental treatment.

  10. Fertility attitudes and the fear of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelter, J W; Whitlock, J L; Epley, R J

    1979-12-01

    An attempt to test empirically the general proposition that fear of death is related to certain attitudes about fertility, particularly expected number of children. Analysis of data collected from 355 undergraduates at a midwestern U.S. university showed this proposition to be generally supported and dependent, in part, on respondents' sex. Those who are more fearful of death tend to perceive procreation as a means for others to reduce fear of death, and also tend to expect having a greater number of children than those whose fear is less. Although the interrelationships of the variables appears somewhat complex, they provide an empirical reference for further research linking mortality to fertility.

  11. Examining the nature of fear of flying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins-Gilligan, Janice; Dygdon, Judith A; Conger, Anthony J

    2011-10-01

    The nature of fear of flying (FOF) is not well understood. It is commonly assumed to be a fear learned from flight-specific experiences. However, existing literature suggests that FOF is a manifestation of fears of other stimuli (e.g., heights) embedded in the flying situation, but not specific to it. This study compared the level of prediction of FOF attained from flight-specific conditioning experiences (specifically, classical conditioning experiences in direct, observational, and verbal modes) with the level of prediction attained from flight-embedded fears. There were 109 university students who completed the Flight Anxiety Situations Questionnaire (FAS) and the Fear Survey Schedule, Version III (FSS) as well as demographic and flying experience questionnaires built for this study. All FOF measures were highly predicted by at least one flight-embedded fear. Conversely, conditioning experiences predicted only four of five FOF measures and this prediction was not strong. In general, conditioning experiences did not behave as in previous studies of conditioning and fear. The results suggest that FOF is based more on several flight-embedded innate fears than on learned fears. The implications of these results for FOF emergence and prevention are discussed.

  12. Seasonal variations of bisphenol A in the Danube River by the municipality of Novi Sad, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Maja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variations of bisphenol A (BPA were investigated in the Danube along the Novi Sad bank, Serbia using solid-phase extraction followed by gas chromatographic mass spectrometric method. The obtained results confirmed the presence of BPA above the limit of quantification (6 ng/L in 22 out of 32 water samples at all eight sampling sites. Тhe BPA concentration varied from 1 for autumn, spring and summer. The high potential risk which is attributed to the elevated summer concentrations is probably the result of the increased human activates and weather conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46009

  13. Remote sensing of St. Augustine Decline (SAD) disease. [spectral reflectance of healthy and diseased grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odle, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory and field spectral reflectance measurements of healthy and infected St. Augustine grass were made using several different instruments. Spectral differences between healthy and infected grass occured in the visible and near infrared regions. Multiband and color infrared photographs were taken of healthy and diseased turf from ground-based platforms and low altitude aircraft. Qualitative (density slicing) and quantitative (transmission densitometry) analyses revealed distinct tonal differences between healthy and St. Augustine disease (SAD) infected grass. Similar experiments are described for determining if healthy and diseased grass can be distinguished from waterstressed grass and grass deficient in either nitrogen or iron.

  14. Fear of pregnancy and childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofberg, K; Ward, M R

    2003-09-01

    Pregnancy is a major life event for all women. However, when a psychiatric disorder is added to or exacerbated by the pregnancy then the problem requires expert knowledge from more than one area of medicine. This paper looks at pregnancy and the relationship with depression, eating disorders, and pathological fear of childbirth or tokophobia. It also examines the outcome for these women and their babies. Mental illness is a serious concern. It is now recognised that death from suicide is the leading cause of maternal death overall. Research in these areas is relatively sparse but an attempt is made to collate what is known.

  15. Factors of Child Dental Fear : A Literature Review of Dental Fear in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Nakata, Ayumi; Sato, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To provide an overview of the literature investigating dental fear in children during the past ten years and to review factors of child dental fear. Methods. The literature was systematically retrieved from an electronic database. The thirty four literatures which were written about the fear of dentistry, psychology and behavior during dental treatment were chosen. Results. The terms of fear being used were “Shika-kyoufu”, “Dental fear”, etc. However, the terms were not de...

  16. Fear learning circuitry is biased toward generalization of fear associations in posttraumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Morey, R.A.; Dunsmoor, J E; Haswell, C C; Brown, V M; Vora, A; Weiner, J.; Stjepanovic, D; Wagner, H R; ,; Brancu, Mira; Marx, Christine E.; Naylor, Jennifer C.; Van Voorhees, Elizabeth; Taber, Katherine H.; Beckham, Jean C.

    2015-01-01

    Fear conditioning is an established model for investigating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, symptom triggers may vaguely resemble the initial traumatic event, differing on a variety of sensory and affective dimensions. We extended the fear-conditioning model to assess generalization of conditioned fear on fear processing neurocircuitry in PTSD. Military veterans (n=67) consisting of PTSD (n=32) and trauma-exposed comparison (n=35) groups underwent functional magnetic resonance ...

  17. Stars Form Surprisingly Close to Milky Way's Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way has surprisingly helped spawn a new generation of stars, according to observations from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This novel mode of star formation may solve several mysteries about the supermassive black holes that reside at the centers of nearly all galaxies. "Massive black holes are usually known for violence and destruction," said Sergei Nayakshin of the University of Leicester, United Kingdom, and coauthor of a paper on this research in an upcoming issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. "So it's remarkable that this black hole helped create new stars, not just destroy them." Black holes have earned their fearsome reputation because any material -- including stars -- that falls within the so-called event horizon is never seen again. However, these new results indicate that the immense disks of gas known to orbit many black holes at a "safe" distance from the event horizon can help nurture the formation of new stars. Animation of Stars Forming Around Black Hole Animation of Stars Forming Around Black Hole This conclusion came from new clues that could only be revealed in X-rays. Until the latest Chandra results, astronomers have disagreed about the origin of a mysterious group of massive stars discovered by infrared astronomers to be orbiting less than a light year from the Milky Way's central black hole, a.k.a. Sagittarius A*, or Sgr A*. At such close distances to Sgr A*, the standard model for star formation predicts that gas clouds from which stars form should have been ripped apart by tidal forces from the black hole. Two models to explain this puzzle have been proposed. In the disk model, the gravity of a dense disk of gas around Sgr A* offsets the tidal forces and allows stars to form; in the migration model, the stars formed in a star cluster far away from the black hole and migrated in to form the ring of massive stars. The migration scenario predicts about a

  18. Childhood dental fear in the Netherlands: prevalence and normative data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Berge, M.; Hoogstraten, J.; Prins, P.J.M.; Veerkamp, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to present normative data on dental fear for the Dutch child population, by identifying not only highly fearful children but also children at risk for developing this high dental fear. METHODS: Fear distribution of samples of high and low fearful children was studied,

  19. Blurring Aversive Memory: Exploring a Novel Route to Fear Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leer, A.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of pathological fear typically involves exposure to the feared stimulus. This procedure is effective in reducing fear in the short term. However, many patients relapse, i.e. show a return of fear. The present thesis explored a novel route to counter the renewal of fear. Previous research

  20. Blurring Aversive Memory : Exploring a Novel Route to Fear Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leer, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of pathological fear typically involves exposure to the feared stimulus. This procedure is effective in reducing fear in the short term. However, many patients relapse, i.e. show a return of fear. The present thesis explored a novel route to counter the renewal of fear. Previous research

  1. Blurring Aversive Memory: Exploring a Novel Route to Fear Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leer, A.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of pathological fear typically involves exposure to the feared stimulus. This procedure is effective in reducing fear in the short term. However, many patients relapse, i.e. show a return of fear. The present thesis explored a novel route to counter the renewal of fear. Previous research h

  2. Forming Competing Fear Learning and Extinction Memories in Adolescence Makes Fear Difficult to Inhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kathryn D.; Richardson, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Fear inhibition is markedly impaired in adolescent rodents and humans. The present experiments investigated whether this impairment is critically determined by the animal's age at the time of fear learning or their age at fear extinction. Male rats (n = 170) were tested for extinction retention after conditioning and extinction at different ages.…

  3. I can see, hear, and smell your fear : Comparing olfactory and audiovisual media in fear communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Jasper H B|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/373435754; Semin, Gün R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072830409; Smeets, Monique A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/141926600

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that humans can become fearful after exposure to olfactory fear signals, yet these studies have reported the effects of fear chemosignals without examining emotion-relevant input from traditional communication modalities (i.e., vision, audition). The question that we pursued

  4. Forming Competing Fear Learning and Extinction Memories in Adolescence Makes Fear Difficult to Inhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kathryn D.; Richardson, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Fear inhibition is markedly impaired in adolescent rodents and humans. The present experiments investigated whether this impairment is critically determined by the animal's age at the time of fear learning or their age at fear extinction. Male rats (n = 170) were tested for extinction retention after conditioning and extinction at different ages.…

  5. Generalization of Conditioned Fear along a Dimension of Increasing Fear Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; Mitroff, Stephen R.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which fear generalization in humans is determined by the amount of fear intensity in nonconditioned stimuli relative to a perceptually similar conditioned stimulus. Stimuli consisted of graded emotionally expressive faces of the same identity morphed between neutral and fearful endpoints. Two…

  6. Hippocampal Structural Plasticity Accompanies the Resulting Contextual Fear Memory Following Stress and Fear Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giachero, Marcelo; Calfa, Gaston D.; Molina, Victor A.

    2013-01-01

    The present research investigated the resulting contextual fear memory and structural plasticity changes in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) following stress and fear conditioning. This combination enhanced fear retention and increased the number of total and mature dendritic spines in DH. Intra-basolateral amygdala (BLA) infusion of midazolam prior to…

  7. Disgust and Fear-Related UCS-Expectancy Bias in Blood-Fearful Individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Overveld, Mark; de Jong, Peter J.; Peters, Madelon L.

    2010-01-01

    People with specific fears tend to overestimate the occurrence of unpleasant consequences in situations involving their feared objects. Such expectancy bias logically acts in a way to confirm phobic fear and avoidance. Increasing evidence suggests that blood phobia is qualitatively different from

  8. Fear generalization in humans: impact of prior non-fearful experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervliet, B.; Kindt, M.; Vansteenwegen, D.; Hermans, D.

    2010-01-01

    Fear generalization lies at the heart of many anxiety problems, and is therefore an important target for prevention and/or treatment. Here, we investigated whether fear generalization towards a specific stimulus can be weakened by prior non-fearful experiences with that stimulus. Using the standard

  9. Fear of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and fear of other illness in suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; Jallinoja, P T; Henriksson, M M

    1994-01-01

    Suicide victims with fear of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or other somatic illness were compared for psychosocial and health-related characteristics, triggers and content of fear. Fear of AIDS cases (n = 28), 2% of the 1-year Finnish suicide population (n = 1397), were younger and fe...

  10. How fear appeals work : motivational biases in the processing of fear-arousing health communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, E.H.H.J.

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the study of fear appeals, i.e. messages in which people are presented with fear-arousing health information, in order to convince them they should alter unhealthy habits and adopt healthy lifestyles. Fear appeals typically start with the presentation of the negative con

  11. I can see, hear, and smell your fear : Comparing olfactory and audiovisual media in fear communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Jasper H B; Semin, Gün R.; Smeets, Monique A M

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that humans can become fearful after exposure to olfactory fear signals, yet these studies have reported the effects of fear chemosignals without examining emotion-relevant input from traditional communication modalities (i.e., vision, audition). The question that we pursued

  12. Disgust and Fear-Related UCS-Expectancy Bias in Blood-Fearful Individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Overveld, Mark; de Jong, Peter J.; Peters, Madelon L.

    2010-01-01

    People with specific fears tend to overestimate the occurrence of unpleasant consequences in situations involving their feared objects. Such expectancy bias logically acts in a way to confirm phobic fear and avoidance. Increasing evidence suggests that blood phobia is qualitatively different from ot

  13. Carbon Dioxide: Surprising Effects on Decision Making and Neurocognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2013-01-01

    The occupants of modern submarines and the International Space Station (ISS) have much in common as far as their air quality is concerned. Air is polluted by materials offgassing, use of utility compounds, leaks of systems chemicals, and anthropogenic sources. The primary anthropogenic compound of concern to submariners and astronauts has been carbon dioxide (CO2). NASA and the US Navy rely on the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRC-COT) to help formulate exposure levels to CO2 that are thought to be safe for exposures of 3-6 months. NASA calls its limits Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs). Years of experience aboard the ISS and a recent publication on deficits in decision making in ground-based subjects exposed briefly to 0.25% CO2 suggest that exposure levels that have been presumed acceptable to preserve health and performance need to be reevaluated. The current CO2 exposure limits for 3-6 months set by NASA and the UK Navy are 0.7%, and the limit for US submariners is 0.5%, although the NRC-COT recommended a 90-day level of 0.8% as safe a few years ago. NASA has set a 1000-day SMAC at 0.5% for exploration-class missions. Anecdotal experience with ISS operations approaching the current 180-day SMAC of 0.7% suggest that this limit is too high. Temporarily, NASA has limited exposures to 0.5% until further peer-reviewed data become available. In the meantime, a study published last year in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives (Satish U, et al. 2012) demonstrated that complexdecision- making performance is somewhat affected at 0.1% CO2 and becomes "dysfunctional" for at least half of the 9 indices of performance at concentrations approaching 0.25% CO2. The investigators used the Strategic Management Simulation (SMS) method of testing for decisionmaking ability, and the results were so surprising to the investigators that they declared that their findings need to be independently confirmed. NASA has responded to the

  14. Are seismic hazard assessment errors and earthquake surprises unavoidable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Why earthquake occurrences bring us so many surprises? The answer seems evident if we review the relationships that are commonly used to assess seismic hazard. The time-span of physically reliable Seismic History is yet a small portion of a rupture recurrence cycle at an earthquake-prone site, which makes premature any kind of reliable probabilistic statements about narrowly localized seismic hazard. Moreover, seismic evidences accumulated to-date demonstrate clearly that most of the empirical relations commonly accepted in the early history of instrumental seismology can be proved erroneous when testing statistical significance is applied. Seismic events, including mega-earthquakes, cluster displaying behaviors that are far from independent or periodic. Their distribution in space is possibly fractal, definitely, far from uniform even in a single segment of a fault zone. Such a situation contradicts generally accepted assumptions used for analytically tractable or computer simulations and complicates design of reliable methodologies for realistic earthquake hazard assessment, as well as search and definition of precursory behaviors to be used for forecast/prediction purposes. As a result, the conclusions drawn from such simulations and analyses can MISLEAD TO SCIENTIFICALLY GROUNDLESS APPLICATION, which is unwise and extremely dangerous in assessing expected societal risks and losses. For example, a systematic comparison of the GSHAP peak ground acceleration estimates with those related to actual strong earthquakes, unfortunately, discloses gross inadequacy of this "probabilistic" product, which appears UNACCEPTABLE FOR ANY KIND OF RESPONSIBLE SEISMIC RISK EVALUATION AND KNOWLEDGEABLE DISASTER PREVENTION. The self-evident shortcomings and failures of GSHAP appeals to all earthquake scientists and engineers for an urgent revision of the global seismic hazard maps from the first principles including background methodologies involved, such that there becomes: (a) a

  15. Qualitative Analysis of Emotions: Fear and Thrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Christopher Buckley

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available People can speak, and this provides opportunities to analyse human emotions using perceived experiences communicated via language, as well as through measurement and imaging techniques that are also applicable to other higher animal species. Here I compare four qualitative methodological approaches to test if, and how, thrill depends on fear. I use 8 high-risk, high-skill, real-life outdoor adventure recreation activities to provide the test circumstances. I present data from: >4000 person-days of participant observation; interviews with 40 expert practitioners; retrospective autoethnography of 50 critical incidents over 4 decades; and experimental autoethnography of 60 events. Results from different methods are congruent, but different approaches yield different insights. The principal findings are as follows. Individuals differ in their fear and thrill responses. The same individual may have different responses on different occasions. Fear boosts performance, but panic causes paralysis. Anxiety or apprehension prior to a risky action or event differs from fear experienced during the event itself. The intensity of pre-event fear generally increases with the immediacy of risk to life, and time to contemplate that risk. Fear must be faced assessed and overcome in order to act. Thrill can occur either during after a high-risk event. Thrill can occur without fear, and fear without thrill. Below a lower threshold of perceived risk, thrill can occur without fear. Between a lower and upper threshold, thrill increases with fear. Beyond the upper threshold, thrill vanishes but fear remains. This there is a sawtooth relation between fear and thrill. Perceived danger generates intense focus and awareness. Fear and other emotions can disappear during intense concentration and focus. Under high risk, the usual emotional sequence is fear before the action or event, then focus during the action or event, then thrill, relief, or triumph afterwards. The

  16. Qualitative Analysis of Emotions: Fear and Thrill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Ralf C

    2016-01-01

    People can speak, and this provides opportunities to analyze human emotions using perceived experiences communicated via language, as well as through measurement and imaging techniques that are also applicable to other higher animal species. Here I compare four qualitative methodological approaches to test if, and how, thrill depends on fear. I use eight high-risk, high-skill, real-life outdoor adventure recreation activities to provide the test circumstances. I present data from: >4000 person-days of participant observation; interviews with 40 expert practitioners; retrospective autoethnography of 50 critical incidents over 4 decades; and experimental autoethnography of 60 events. Results from different methods are congruent, but different approaches yield different insights. The principal findings are as follows. Individuals differ in their fear and thrill responses. The same individual may have different responses on different occasions. Fear boosts performance, but panic causes paralysis. Anxiety or apprehension prior to a risky action or event differs from fear experienced during the event itself. The intensity of pre-event fear generally increases with the immediacy of risk to life, and time to contemplate that risk. Fear must be faced, assessed and overcome in order to act. Thrill can occur either during or after a high-risk event. Thrill can occur without fear, and fear without thrill. Below a lower threshold of perceived risk, thrill can occur without fear. Between a lower and upper threshold, thrill increases with fear. Beyond the upper threshold, thrill vanishes but fear remains. This there is a sawtooth relation between fear and thrill. Perceived danger generates intense focus and awareness. Fear and other emotions can disappear during intense concentration and focus. Under high risk, the usual emotional sequence is fear before the action or event, then focus during the action or event, then thrill, relief, or triumph afterward. The emotionless state

  17. Durable fear memories require PSD-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Paul J.; Pinard, Courtney R.; Camp, Marguerite C.; Feyder, Michael; Sah, Anupam; Bergstrom, Hadley; Graybeal, Carolyn; Liu, Yan; Schlüter, Oliver; Grant, Seth G.N.; Singewald, Nicolas; Xu, Weifeng; Holmes, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic fear memories are highly durable but also dynamic, undergoing repeated reactivation and rehearsal over time. While overly persistent fear memories underlie anxiety disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder, the key neural and molecular mechanisms underlying fear memory durability remain unclear. Post-synaptic density 95 (PSD-95) is a synaptic protein regulating glutamate receptor anchoring, synaptic stability and certain types of memory. Employing a loss-of-function mutant mouse lacking the guanylate kinase domain of PSD-95 (PSD-95GK), we analyzed the contribution of PSD-95 to fear memory formation and retrieval, and sought to identify the neural basis of PSD-95-mediated memory maintenance using ex vivo immediate-early gene mapping, in vivo neuronal recordings and viral-mediated knockdown approaches. We show that PSD-95 is dispensable for the formation and expression of recent fear memories, but essential for the formation of precise and flexible fear memories and for the maintenance of memories at remote time points. The failure of PSD-95GK mice to retrieve remote cued fear memories was associated with hypoactivation of the infralimbic cortex (IL) (not anterior cingulate (ACC) or prelimbic cortex), reduced IL single-unit firing and bursting, and attenuated IL gamma and theta oscillations. Adeno-associated PSD-95 virus-mediated knockdown in the IL, not ACC, was sufficient to impair recent fear extinction and remote fear memory, and remodel IL dendritic spines. Collectively, these data identify PSD-95 in the IL as a critical mechanism supporting the durability of fear memories over time. These preclinical findings have implications for developing novel approaches to treating trauma-based anxiety disorders that target the weakening of overly persistent fear memories. PMID:25510511

  18. Durable fear memories require PSD-95.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, P J; Pinard, C R; Camp, M C; Feyder, M; Sah, A; Bergstrom, H C; Graybeal, C; Liu, Y; Schlüter, O M; Grant, S G; Singewald, N; Xu, W; Holmes, A

    2015-07-01

    Traumatic fear memories are highly durable but also dynamic, undergoing repeated reactivation and rehearsal over time. Although overly persistent fear memories underlie anxiety disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder, the key neural and molecular mechanisms underlying fear memory durability remain unclear. Postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95) is a synaptic protein regulating glutamate receptor anchoring, synaptic stability and certain types of memory. Using a loss-of-function mutant mouse lacking the guanylate kinase domain of PSD-95 (PSD-95(GK)), we analyzed the contribution of PSD-95 to fear memory formation and retrieval, and sought to identify the neural basis of PSD-95-mediated memory maintenance using ex vivo immediate-early gene mapping, in vivo neuronal recordings and viral-mediated knockdown (KD) approaches. We show that PSD-95 is dispensable for the formation and expression of recent fear memories, but essential for the formation of precise and flexible fear memories and for the maintenance of memories at remote time points. The failure of PSD-95(GK) mice to retrieve remote cued fear memory was associated with hypoactivation of the infralimbic (IL) cortex (but not the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) or prelimbic cortex), reduced IL single-unit firing and bursting, and attenuated IL gamma and theta oscillations. Adeno-associated virus-mediated PSD-95 KD in the IL, but not the ACC, was sufficient to impair recent fear extinction and remote fear memory, and remodel IL dendritic spines. Collectively, these data identify PSD-95 in the IL as a critical mechanism supporting the durability of fear memories over time. These preclinical findings have implications for developing novel approaches to treating trauma-based anxiety disorders that target the weakening of overly persistent fear memories.

  19. Implementing the K-SADS-PL as a standard diagnostic tool: Effects on clinical diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuschek, Tina; Jaeger, Sonia; Stadelmann, Stephanie; Dölling, Katrin; Grunewald, Madlen; Weis, Steffi; von Klitzing, Kai; Döhnert, Mirko

    2016-02-28

    Diagnostic interviews are valuable tools for generating reliable and valid psychiatric diagnoses. However, little is known about the diagnostic effects of implementing such an interview into the standard diagnostic procedure of a child psychiatric clinic. Therefore, we reviewed discharge diagnoses of psychiatric patients (age: 8-12 years; combined sample of inpatients and day hospital patients) over two intervals before and after implementing the semi-structured diagnostic interview K-SADS-PL as a diagnostic tool during intake. Each interval was a two year period spanning from 2009-2010 (pre sample; n=177) and from 2012-2013 (post sample; n=132). The number of diagnoses per patient and the co-morbidity rate increased significantly in the post sample. Furthermore, the percentage of children with a nonspecific diagnosis "other mixed disorders of conduct and emotions" (ICD-10: F92.8) decreased significantly after using the K-SADS-PL. Regarding the main diagnostic categories, a significant increase in the number of anxiety disorders and stress-related and somatoform disorders was found in the post sample. The results suggest that implementing a semi-structured interview into the daily routine of child psychiatry may have a substantial impact on discharge diagnoses. Practical implications are discussed and ideas for future research are given.

  20. Constructing from Discord: The Word and the Nation in My Sad Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaimee Faith J. Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As a first place winner of the Centennial Literary Prize, Eric Gamalinda’s My Sad Republic (2000 is inextricably tied to discourses about the nation and its formation. In particular, it demonstrates the mutually constitutive relationship between the nation and the novel. My Sad Republic’s participation in the political project of nation-building is revealed not only in its entry and subsequent success in a large-scale government-sponsored contest, but also in its documentation of the components of nation-formation. Furthermore, the novel mimics the heterogeneous composition of the nation through its combination of historical, marvelous and romantic elements, as well as through the multiplicity of voices that its characters represent. Paradoxically, however, the novel also shows how the very diversity of individuals that constitute the nation inevitably leads to violent conflicts that hinder the actualization of the nation. The novel hence encourages the idea of self-sacrifice, the surrender of various personal agenda for the sake of a single national interest. At the same time, it also shows how the inherently problematic construction of the nation can be imagined only through literature, specifically the novel. The nation, in other words, depends on the novel not only for the promotion of nationalist ideals, but also for its very existence.

  1. Sad mood increases pain sensitivity upon thermal grill illusion stimulation: implications for central pain processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettger, Michael Karl; Schwier, Christiane; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    In different fields of neuroscience research, illusions have successfully been used to unravel underlying mechanisms of stimulus processing. One such illusion existing for the field of pain research is the so-called thermal grill illusion. Here, painful sensations are elicited by interlacing warm and cold bars, with stimulus intensities (temperatures) of these bars being below the respective heat pain or cold pain thresholds. To date, the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon are not completely understood. There is some agreement, however, that the sensation evoked by this stimulation is generated by central nervous interactions. Therefore, we followed two approaches in this study: firstly, we aimed at developing and validating a water-driven device which might be used in fMRI scanners in future studies - subject to minor adaptations. Secondly, we aimed to interfere with this illusion by induction of a sad mood state, a procedure which is suggested to influence central nervous structures that are also involved in pain processing. The newly developed device induced thermal grill sensations similar to those reported in the literature. Induction of sad, but not neutral mood states, resulted in higher pain and unpleasantness ratings of the painful illusion. These findings might be of importance for the understanding of pain processing in healthy volunteers, but putatively even more so in patients with major depressive disorder. Moreover, our results might indicate that central nervous structures involved in the affective domain or cognitive domain of pain processing might be involved in the perception of the illusion.

  2. The role and importance of Sokolski dom in development of Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Dimitrije

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this paper analyses the socio-economic conditions that preceded the construction of the Sokolski dom in Novi Sad. The construction of this building of great cultural and historical value, during the process of transformation and enlargement of the main square throughout the interwar period, has made a significant impact on the further development of the central areas of the city. The realization of the building was part of the opening of the city towards the Danube, and thus it sets an architectural framework for future spatial development. In addition, architectural and stylistic features of this cultural monument are presented, occupying an important place in the oeuvre of architect Đorđe Tabaković, one of the most important creators of the modern period. Afterwards the research points to the significant stages through which this institution has passed in its history, with emphasis on the different social, cultural and political influences and consequences which have followed. Finally, it has been concluded that Sokolsko društvo, from its establishment until the present day, as a commissioner and a regular user of the facility, has great social significance and impact on the cultural, educational and sports development of the population of Novi Sad.

  3. Sad and happy facial emotion recognition impairment in progressive supranuclear palsy in comparison with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontieri, Francesco E; Assogna, Francesca; Stefani, Alessandro; Pierantozzi, Mariangela; Meco, Giuseppe; Benincasa, Dario; Colosimo, Carlo; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2012-08-01

    The severity of motor and non-motor symptoms of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) has a profound impact on social interactions of affected individuals and may, consequently, contribute to alter emotion recognition. Here we investigated facial emotion recognition impairment in PSP with respect to Parkinson's disease (PD), with the primary aim of outlining the differences between the two disorders. Moreover, we applied an intensity-dependent paradigm to examine the different threshold of encoding emotional faces in PSP and PD. The Penn emotion recognition test (PERT) was used to assess facial emotion recognition ability in PSP and PD patients. The 2 groups were matched for age, disease duration, global cognition, depression, anxiety, and daily L-Dopa intake. PSP patients displayed significantly lower recognition of sad and happy emotional faces with respect to PD ones. This applied to global recognition, as well as to low-intensity and high-intensity facial emotion recognition. These results indicate specific impairment of recognition of sad and happy facial emotions in PSP with respect to PD patients. The differences may depend upon diverse involvement of cortical-subcortical loops integrating emotional states and cognition between the two conditions, and might represent a neuropsychological correlate of the apathetic syndrome frequently encountered in PSP.

  4. It’s sad but I like it: The neural dissociation between musical emotions and liking in experts and laypersons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira eBrattico

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotion-related areas of the brain, such as the medial frontal cortices, amygdala and striatum are activated during listening to sad or happy music as well as during listening to pleasurable music. Indeed, in music, like in other arts, sad and happy emotions might co-exist and be distinct from emotions of pleasure or enjoyment. Here we aimed at discerning the neural correlates of sadness or happiness in music as opposed those related to musical enjoyment. We further investigated whether musical expertise modulates the neural activity during affective listening of music. To these aims, 13 musicians and 16 non-musicians brought to the lab their most liked and disliked musical pieces with a happy and sad connotation. Based on a listening test, we selected the most representative 18-sec excerpts of the emotions of interest for each individual participant. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI recordings were obtained while subjects listened to and rated the excerpts. The cortico-thalamo-striatal reward circuit and motor areas were more active during liked than disliked music, whereas only the auditory cortex and the right amygdala were more active for disliked over liked music. These results discern the brain structures responsible for the perception of sad and happy emotions in music from those related to musical enjoyment. We also obtained novel evidence for functional differences in the limbic system associated with musical expertise, by showing enhanced liking-related activity in fronto-insular and cingulate areas in musicians.

  5. It's Sad but I Like It: The Neural Dissociation Between Musical Emotions and Liking in Experts and Laypersons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattico, Elvira; Bogert, Brigitte; Alluri, Vinoo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Eerola, Tuomas; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Emotion-related areas of the brain, such as the medial frontal cortices, amygdala, and striatum, are activated during listening to sad or happy music as well as during listening to pleasurable music. Indeed, in music, like in other arts, sad and happy emotions might co-exist and be distinct from emotions of pleasure or enjoyment. Here we aimed at discerning the neural correlates of sadness or happiness in music as opposed those related to musical enjoyment. We further investigated whether musical expertise modulates the neural activity during affective listening of music. To these aims, 13 musicians and 16 non-musicians brought to the lab their most liked and disliked musical pieces with a happy and sad connotation. Based on a listening test, we selected the most representative 18 sec excerpts of the emotions of interest for each individual participant. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings were obtained while subjects listened to and rated the excerpts. The cortico-thalamo-striatal reward circuit and motor areas were more active during liked than disliked music, whereas only the auditory cortex and the right amygdala were more active for disliked over liked music. These results discern the brain structures responsible for the perception of sad and happy emotions in music from those related to musical enjoyment. We also obtained novel evidence for functional differences in the limbic system associated with musical expertise, by showing enhanced liking-related activity in fronto-insular and cingulate areas in musicians.

  6. Fu Works of Sadness in Literary Selection%《文选》“哀伤”赋略论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯莉

    2012-01-01

    The Fu in Literary Selection is divided into 15 categories according to their topics, in which the number of Fu works under the term of Fu of sadness is the most. The topic of sadness can be traced back to The Book of Songs. With full features in both contents and artistic expression, Fu of sadness is representative. Sadness Fu writings in different historical stages have different characters, not only displaying the development of Fu of sad- hess, but also highlighting the rationality and important value of Literary Selection in selecting articles.%《文选》将赋按照题材分为十五类目,其中"哀伤"一目选赋篇数最多;"哀伤"题材最早可上溯至先秦的《诗经》;"哀伤"赋选文无论在内容题材上还是艺术表现上都极富特色,具有代表性;不同历史阶段哀伤赋创作的不同特征,既呈现了哀伤赋的发展流变,也凸显了《文选》"哀伤"赋选文的合理性和重要价值。

  7. It's Sad but I Like It: The Neural Dissociation Between Musical Emotions and Liking in Experts and Laypersons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattico, Elvira; Bogert, Brigitte; Alluri, Vinoo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Eerola, Tuomas; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Emotion-related areas of the brain, such as the medial frontal cortices, amygdala, and striatum, are activated during listening to sad or happy music as well as during listening to pleasurable music. Indeed, in music, like in other arts, sad and happy emotions might co-exist and be distinct from emotions of pleasure or enjoyment. Here we aimed at discerning the neural correlates of sadness or happiness in music as opposed those related to musical enjoyment. We further investigated whether musical expertise modulates the neural activity during affective listening of music. To these aims, 13 musicians and 16 non-musicians brought to the lab their most liked and disliked musical pieces with a happy and sad connotation. Based on a listening test, we selected the most representative 18 sec excerpts of the emotions of interest for each individual participant. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings were obtained while subjects listened to and rated the excerpts. The cortico-thalamo-striatal reward circuit and motor areas were more active during liked than disliked music, whereas only the auditory cortex and the right amygdala were more active for disliked over liked music. These results discern the brain structures responsible for the perception of sad and happy emotions in music from those related to musical enjoyment. We also obtained novel evidence for functional differences in the limbic system associated with musical expertise, by showing enhanced liking-related activity in fronto-insular and cingulate areas in musicians. PMID:26778996

  8. Oxygen-dependent regulation of c-di-GMP synthesis by SadC controls alginate production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Annika; Hammerbacher, Anna Silke; Bastian, Mike; Nieken, Karen Jule; Klockgether, Jens; Merighi, Massimo; Lapouge, Karine; Poschgan, Claudia; Kölle, Julia; Acharya, K Ravi; Ulrich, Martina; Tümmler, Burkhard; Unden, Gottfried; Kaever, Volkhard; Lory, Stephen; Haas, Dieter; Schwarz, Sandra; Döring, Gerd

    2016-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces increased levels of alginate in response to oxygen-deprived conditions. The regulatory pathway(s) that links oxygen limitation to increased synthesis of alginate has remained elusive. In the present study, using immunofluorescence microscopy, we show that anaerobiosis-induced alginate production by planktonic PAO1 requires the diguanylate cyclase (DGC) SadC, previously identified as a regulator of surface-associated lifestyles. Furthermore, we found that the gene products of PA4330 and PA4331, located in a predicted operon with sadC, have a major impact on alginate production: deletion of PA4330 (odaA, for oxygen-dependent alginate synthesis activator) caused an alginate production defect under anaerobic conditions, whereas a PA4331 (odaI, for oxygen-dependent alginate synthesis inhibitor) deletion mutant produced alginate also in the presence of oxygen, which would normally inhibit alginate synthesis. Based on their sequence, OdaA and OdaI have predicted hydratase and dioxygenase reductase activities, respectively. Enzymatic assays using purified protein showed that unlike OdaA, which did not significantly affect DGC activity of SadC, OdaI inhibited c-di-GMP production by SadC. Our data indicate that SadC, OdaA and OdaI are components of a novel response pathway of P. aeruginosa that regulates alginate synthesis in an oxygen-dependent manner. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Versatility of Fear-potentiated Startle Paradigms for Assessing Human Conditioned Fear Extinction and Return of Fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Davin Norrholm

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Fear conditioning methodologies have often been employed as testable models for assessing learned fear responses in individuals with anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and specific phobia. One frequently used paradigm is measurement of the acoustic startle reflex under conditions that mimic anxiogenic and fear-related conditions. For example, fear-potentiated startle is the relative increase in the frequency or magnitude of the acoustic startle reflex in the presence of a previously neutral cue (e.g., colored shape; termed the conditioned stimulus or CS+ that has been repeatedly paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (e.g., airblast to the larynx. Our group has recently used fear-potentiated startle paradigms to demonstrate impaired fear extinction in civilian and combat populations with PTSD. In the current study, we examined the use of either visual or auditory CSs in a fear extinction protocol that we have validated and applied to human clinical conditions. This represents an important translational bridge in that numerous animal studies of fear extinction, upon which much of the human work is based, have employed the use of auditory CSs as opposed to visual CSs. Participants in both the visual and auditory groups displayed robust fear-potentiated startle to the CS+, clear discrimination between the reinforced CS+ and non-reinforced CS-, significant extinction to the previously reinforced CS+, and marked spontaneous recovery. We discuss the current results as they relate to future investigations of PTSD-related impairments in fear processing in populations with diverse medical and psychiatric histories.

  10. Fear of Public Speaking: How Can I Overcome It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fear of public speaking: How can I overcome it? How can I overcome my fear of public speaking? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. Fear of public speaking is a common phobia. It can range from ...

  11. Visual Search for Basic Emotional Expressions in Autism; Impaired Processing of Anger, Fear and Sadness, but a Typical Happy Face Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farran, Emily K.; Branson, Amanda; King, Ben J.

    2011-01-01

    Facial expression recognition was investigated in 20 males with high functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger syndrome (AS), compared to typically developing individuals matched for chronological age (TD CA group) and verbal and non-verbal ability (TD V/NV group). This was the first study to employ a visual search, "face in the crowd" paradigm with a…

  12. Methylphenidate Enhances Extinction of Contextual Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Antony D.; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Lattal, K. Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin) is a norepinephrine and dopamine transporter blocker that is widely used in humans for treatment of attention deficit disorder and narcolepsy. Although there is some evidence that targeted microinjections of MPH may enhance fear acquisition, little is known about the effect of MPH on fear extinction. Here, we show…

  13. The neural dynamics of fear memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    While much of what we learn will be forgotten over time, fear memory appears to be particularly resilient to forgetting. Our understanding of how fearful events are transformed into durable memory, and how this memory subsequently influences the processing of (novel) stimuli, is limited. Studying

  14. Drug Induced Arousal and Fear Appeals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckner, C. William; Rogers, Ronald W.

    It is hypothesized that the drug, epinephrine, used in conjunction with a fear arousing film on the consquences of smoking would be more effective than either alone in increasing fear and negative attitudes toward smoking and, resultantly, in reducing cigarette consumption. The experimenters assigned 119 subjects to the four cells of a 2x2…

  15. Fear of Crime Among the Aged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Frank; Kleiman, Michael B.

    1976-01-01

    Compares the patterns of fear of crime among the aged and the non-aged. Four key specifying variables were used in the analysis--sex, race, socioeconomic status, and size of community. Findings indicated that elderly respondents who were either female, black, or metropolitan residents possessed extremely high fear rates. (Author)

  16. Fear of Crime and Residential Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyea, Michael J.; Zingraff, Matthew T.

    1988-01-01

    Explores relationship between fear of crime and residential location. Studies sample of more than 3,000 North Carolina residents. Results indicate that rural residents have significantly lower fear of crime than urban counterparts when known correlates are controlled. Discusses implications for future research. (Author/TES)

  17. Dissociating response systems: erasing fear from memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Soeter; M. Kindt

    2010-01-01

    In addition to the extensive evidence in animals, we previously showed that disrupting reconsolidation by noradrenergic blockade produced amnesia for the original fear response in humans. Interestingly, the declarative memory for the fear association remained intact. These results asked for a solid

  18. State anxiety modulates the return of fear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhn, Manuel; Mertens, Gaetan; Lonsdorf, Tina B

    2016-01-01

    Current treatments for anxiety disorders are effective but limited by the high frequency of clinical relapse. Processes underlying relapse are thought to be experimentally modeled in fear conditioning experiments with return fear (ROF) inductions. Thereby reinstatement-induced ROF might be considere

  19. Stressor controllability modulates fear extinction in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Catherine A; Gorun, Alyson; Reddan, Marianne C; Ramirez, Franchesca; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2014-09-01

    Traumatic events are proposed to play a role in the development of anxiety disorders, however not all individuals exposed to extreme stress experience a pathological increase in fear. Recent studies in animal models suggest that the degree to which one is able to control an aversive experience is a critical factor determining its behavioral consequences. In this study, we examined whether stressor controllability modulates subsequent conditioned fear expression in humans. Participants were randomly assigned to an escapable stressor condition, a yoked inescapable stressor condition, or a control condition involving no stress exposure. One week later, all participants underwent fear conditioning, fear extinction, and a test of extinction retrieval the following day. Participants exposed to inescapable stress showed impaired fear extinction learning and increased fear expression the following day. In contrast, escapable stress improved fear extinction and prevented the spontaneous recovery of fear. Consistent with the bidirectional controllability effects previously reported in animal models, these results suggest that one's degree of control over aversive experiences may be an important factor influencing the development of psychological resilience or vulnerability in humans.

  20. Multidimensional Treatment of Fear of Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelter, Jon W.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a multidimensional conception of fear of death and provides subscales for measuring suggested dimensions (fear of the dying process, of the dead, of being destroyed, for significant others, of the unknown, of conscious death, for body after death, and of premature death). Evidence for construct validity is provided. (Author/BEF)

  1. The neural dynamics of fear memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M. Visser

    2016-01-01

    While much of what we learn will be forgotten over time, fear memory appears to be particularly resilient to forgetting. Our understanding of how fearful events are transformed into durable memory, and how this memory subsequently influences the processing of (novel) stimuli, is limited. Studying fe

  2. The Old English Language of Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Erik A.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the development of the Old English vocabulary for fear under the influence of the Latinate discourse of Christian doctrine. The first chapter arranges the Old English words for fear into etymologically organized families and describes their incidence and usage across attested corpus of Old English, using the Dictionary…

  3. SAD2 in Arabidopsis Functions in Trichome Initiation through Mediating GL3 Function and Regulating GL1,TTG1 and GL2 Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Gao; Ximing Gong; Wanhong Cao; Jinfeng Zhao; Liqin Fu; Xuechen Wang; Karen S. Schumaker; Yan Guo

    2008-01-01

    Most genes identified that control Arabidopsls trichome initiation and formation are transcription factors or regulatory components in transcriptional networks and include GLABROUS1 (GL1), GLABRA2 (GL2), GLABRA3 (GL3) and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1). Herein, we report that an importin β-like protein, SENSITIVE TO ABA AND DROUGHT2 (SAD2),is required for trichome initiation. Mutations in SAD2 disrupted trichome initiation resulting in reduced trichome number,but had no effect on trichome development or root hair number and development. Expression levels of GL1, MYB23, GL2 and TTG1 were reduced in shoots of sad2 mutants while expression levels of GL3 and ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 (EGL3)were enhanced. Overexpression of GL3 increased trichome numbers in wild type but not in sad2 mutants, indicating that the function of the GL3 protein is altered in the sad2 mutants. In contrast, overexpression of GFP-GL1 decreased trichome number in both wild type and sad2. Double mutant analysis of gl1 sad2 and gl3 sad2 indicated that SAD2 functions genetically, at least in part, in the same pathway with these two genes. Co-immunoprecipitation indicated that the sad2 mutation does not disrupt formation of the TTG1-GL3-GL1 complex. Analysis of GFP fusions of GL1, GL2, GL3 and TTG1 suggested that these proteins are most likely not direct cargo of SAD2. Our data suggest that SAD2 is involved in trichome initiation by regulating these nuclear genes.

  4. Remembering the object you fear: brain potentials during recognition of spiders in spider-fearful individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw M Michalowski

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigated long-term memory for unpleasant, neutral and spider pictures in 15 spider-fearful and 15 non-fearful control individuals using behavioral and electrophysiological measures. During the initial (incidental encoding, pictures were passively viewed in three separate blocks and were subsequently rated for valence and arousal. A recognition memory task was performed one week later in which old and new unpleasant, neutral and spider pictures were presented. Replicating previous results, we found enhanced memory performance and higher confidence ratings for unpleasant when compared to neutral materials in both animal fearful individuals and controls. When compared to controls high animal fearful individuals also showed a tendency towards better memory accuracy and significantly higher confidence during recognition of spider pictures, suggesting that memory of objects prompting specific fear is also facilitated in fearful individuals. In line, spider-fearful but not control participants responded with larger ERP positivity for correctly recognized old when compared to correctly rejected new spider pictures, thus showing the same effects in the neural signature of emotional memory for feared objects that were already discovered for other emotional materials. The increased fear memory for phobic materials observed in the present study in spider-fearful individuals might result in an enhanced fear response and reinforce negative beliefs aggravating anxiety symptomatology and hindering recovery.

  5. Fear of Crime: The Influence of General Fear, Risk, and Time Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadee, Derek; Ng Ying, Nikita K; Chadee, Mary; Heath, Linda

    2016-05-24

    Prior research on fear of crime has focused less on psychological causes than on sociological and demographic factors. This study, however, introduces time perspective (TP) as an important psychological variable in the understanding of fear of crime. Specifically, the article assesses the relationship between TP as a stable personality factor and the mediation of risk and general fear on fear of crime levels. Data were collected using the survey method from a sample of 375 respondents utilizing the following scales: Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) consisting of five TP subscales, Ferraro's perceived risk of victimization and fear of crime scales, and a general (non-crime) fear scale measuring pragmatic and abstract fear. Path analysis shows no significant direct relationships between the five TP subscales and fear of crime. However, indirect effects are observed for Past Negative TP and Present Fatalistic TP, with general fear (pragmatic and abstract) and risk of victimization mediating the relationship, and pragmatic fear having the greatest significant effect size. Results are discussed in the context of risk and general fear sensitivity and construal level theory. We conclude with recommendations for future research.

  6. Expression of freezing and fear-potentiated startle during sustained fear in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daldrup, T; Remmes, J; Lesting, J; Gaburro, S; Fendt, M; Meuth, P; Kloke, V; Pape, H-C; Seidenbecher, T

    2015-03-01

    Fear-potentiated acoustic startle paradigms have been used to investigate phasic and sustained components of conditioned fear in rats and humans. This study describes a novel training protocol to assess phasic and sustained fear in freely behaving C57BL/6J mice, using freezing and/or fear-potentiated startle as measures of fear, thereby, if needed, allowing in vivo application of various techniques, such as optogenetics, electrophysiology and pharmacological intervention, in freely behaving animals. An auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm, with pseudo-randomized conditioned-unconditioned stimulus presentations at various durations, is combined with repetitive brief auditory white noise burst presentations during fear memory retrieval 24 h after fear conditioning. Major findings are that (1) a motion sensitive platform built on mechano-electrical transducers enables measurement of startle responses in freely behaving mice, (2) absence or presence of startle stimuli during retrieval as well as unpredictability of a given threat determine phasic and sustained fear response profiles and (3) both freezing and startle responses indicate phasic and sustained components of behavioral fear, with sustained freezing reflecting unpredictability of conditioned stimulus (CS)/unconditioned stimulus (US) pairings. This paradigm and available genetically modified mouse lines will pave the way for investigation of the molecular and neural mechanisms relating to the transition from phasic to sustained fear.

  7. Supermagnetic Neutron Star Surprises Scientists, Forces Revision of Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    magnetars because their magnetic fields are 100-1,000 times stronger than those of typical pulsars. It is the decay of those incredibly strong fields that powers their strange X-ray emission. "The magnetic field from a magnetar would make an aircraft carrier spin around and point north quicker than a compass needle moves on Earth," said David Helfand, of Columbia University. A magnetar's field is 1,000 trillion times stronger than Earth's, Helfand pointed out. The new object -- named XTE J1810-197 -- was first discovered by NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer when it emitted a strong burst of X-rays in 2003. While the X-rays were fading in 2004, Jules Halpern of Columbia University and collaborators identified the magnetar as a radio-wave emitter using the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in New Mexico. Any radio emission is highly unusual for a magnetar. Because magnetars had not been seen to regularly emit radio waves, the scientists presumed that the radio emission was caused by a cloud of particles thrown off the neutron star at the time of its X-ray outburst, an idea they soon would realize was wrong. With knowledge that the magnetar emitted some form of radio waves, Camilo and his colleagues observed it with the Parkes radio telescope in Australia in March and immediately detected astonishingly strong radio pulsations every 5.5 seconds, corresponding to the previously-determined rotation rate of the neutron star. As they continued to observe XTE J1810-197, the scientists got more surprises. Whereas most pulsars become weaker at higher radio frequencies, XTE J1810-197 does not, remaining a strong emitter at frequencies up to 140 GHz, the highest frequency ever detected from a radio pulsar. In addition, unlike normal pulsars, the object's radio emission fluctuates in strength from day to day, and the shape of the pulsations changes as well. These variations likely indicate that the magnetic fields around the pulsar are changing

  8. Chandra Finds Surprising Black Hole Activity In Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Scientists at the Carnegie Observatories in Pasadena, California, have uncovered six times the expected number of active, supermassive black holes in a single viewing of a cluster of galaxies, a finding that has profound implications for theories as to how old galaxies fuel the growth of their central black holes. The finding suggests that voracious, central black holes might be as common in old, red galaxies as they are in younger, blue galaxies, a surprise to many astronomers. The team made this discovery with NASA'S Chandra X-ray Observatory. They also used Carnegie's 6.5-meter Walter Baade Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile for follow-up optical observations. "This changes our view of galaxy clusters as the retirement homes for old and quiet black holes," said Dr. Paul Martini, lead author on a paper describing the results that appears in the September 10 issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters. "The question now is, how do these black holes produce bright X-ray sources, similar to what we see from much younger galaxies?" Typical of the black hole phenomenon, the cores of these active galaxies are luminous in X-ray radiation. Yet, they are obscured, and thus essentially undetectable in the radio, infrared and optical wavebands. "X rays can penetrate obscuring gas and dust as easily as they penetrate the soft tissue of the human body to look for broken bones," said co-author Dr. Dan Kelson. "So, with Chandra, we can peer through the dust and we have found that even ancient galaxies with 10-billion-year-old stars can have central black holes still actively pulling in copious amounts of interstellar gas. This activity has simply been hidden from us all this time. This means these galaxies aren't over the hill after all and our theories need to be revised." Scientists say that supermassive black holes -- having the mass of millions to billions of suns squeezed into a region about the size of our Solar System -- are the engines in the cores of

  9. Introducing fear of crime to risk research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jonathan

    2006-02-01

    This article introduces the fear of crime to risk research, noting a number of areas for future interdisciplinary study. First, the article analyzes both the career of the concept of fear of crime and the politics of fear. Second, it considers research and theory on the psychology of risk, particularly the interplay between emotion and cognition, and what might be called the risk as image perspective. Third, the article speculates how people learn about risk and suggests how to customize a social amplification of risk framework to fear of crime. Finally, the article advances the argument that fear of crime may be an individual response to community social order and a generalized attitude toward the moral trajectory of society. Each of these areas of discussion has implications for future theoretical developments within risk research; each highlights how risk research can contribute to the social scientific understanding of an important issue of the day.

  10. Joint hypermobility, fears, and chocolate consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailhez, Guillem; Rosado, Silvia; Bulbena Cabré, Andrea; Bulbena, Antonio

    2011-11-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate joint hypermobility, an inherited disorder of the connective tissue significantly associated with anxiety disorders, in a sample of nonclinical students in relation to the frequency of severe fears and consumption of chocolate, coffee, cigarettes, and alcohol. One hundred fifty students completed the Hakim and Grahame Simple Questionnaire to detect hypermobility and the self-administered modified Wolpe Fear Scale (100 items). Severe fears and daily consumption of cigarettes, alcohol, coffee, and chocolate were compared with the hypermobility scores. We found significant differences when comparing severe fears between the groups with and without hypermobility (7.6 vs. 11; p = 0.001), reinforcing the hypothesis that the intensity of fears is greater in subjects with hypermobility. Only the frequency of chocolate intake was significantly higher among subjects with hypermobility (31.2% vs. 51.2%; p = 0.038) and may correspond to attempts of self-treatment of the collagen condition.

  11. Specific fears and phobias. Epidemiology and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, G C; Magee, W J; Eaton, W W; Wittchen, H U; Kessler, R C

    1998-09-01

    Data on eight specific fears representing DSM-III-R simple phobia were analysed to evaluate: (a) their prevalence and (b) the validity of subtypes of specific phobia defined by DSM-IV. A modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was administered to a probability sample of 8098 community respondents. Correlates of responses to questions concerning these fears were analysed. The most prevalent specific fears were of animals among women, and of heights among men. Slight evidence was found for specific phobia subtypes. Number of fears, independent of type, powerfully predicted impairment, comorbidity, illness course, demographic features, and family psychopathology. Number of specific fears may mark a general predisposition to psychopathology. More detailed information is needed to resolve the question of specific phobia subtypes.

  12. Developmental aspects of fear: Comparing the acquisition and generalization of conditioned fear in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Miriam A; Reinhard, Julia; Reif, Andreas; Domschke, Katharina; Romanos, Marcel; Deckert, Jürgen; Pauli, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Most research on human fear conditioning and its generalization has focused on adults whereas only little is known about these processes in children. Direct comparisons between child and adult populations are needed to determine developmental risk markers of fear and anxiety. We compared 267 children and 285 adults in a differential fear conditioning paradigm and generalization test. Skin conductance responses (SCR) and ratings of valence and arousal were obtained to indicate fear learning. Both groups displayed robust and similar differential conditioning on subjective and physiological levels. However, children showed heightened fear generalization compared to adults as indexed by higher arousal ratings and SCR to the generalization stimuli. Results indicate overgeneralization of conditioned fear as a developmental correlate of fear learning. The developmental change from a shallow to a steeper generalization gradient is likely related to the maturation of brain structures that modulate efficient discrimination between danger and (ambiguous) safety cues.

  13. Trait Anxiety Is Associated with Negative Interpretations When Resolving Valence Ambiguity of Surprised Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gewnhi; Vasey, Michael W; Kim, Grace; Hu, Dixie D; Thayer, Julian F

    2016-01-01

    The current research examines whether trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretation bias when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces. To further isolate the neuro-cognitive mechanism, we presented angry, happy, and surprised faces at broad spatial frequency (BSF), high spatial frequency (HSF), and low spatial frequency (LSF) and asked participants to determine the valence of each face. High trait anxiety was associated with more negative interpretations of BSF (i.e., intact) surprised faces. However, the modulation of trait anxiety on the negative interpretation of surprised faces disappeared at HSF and LSF. The current study provides evidence that trait anxiety modulates negative interpretations of BSF surprised faces. However, the negative interpretation of LSF surprised faces appears to be a robust default response that occurs regardless of individual differences in trait anxiety.

  14. Trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretations when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gewnhi Park

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The current research examines whether trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretation bias when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces. To further isolate the neuro-cognitive mechanism, we presented angry, happy, and surprised faces at broad, high, and low spatial frequency and asked participants to determine the valence of each face. High trait anxiety was associated with more negative interpretations of broad spatial frequency (i.e., intact surprised faces. However, the modulation of trait anxiety on the negative interpretation of surprised faces disappeared at high and low spatial frequencies. The current study provides evidence that trait anxiety modulates negative interpretations of broad spatial frequency surprised faces. However, the negative interpretation of low spatial frequency surprised faces appears to be a robust default response that occurs regardless of individual differences in trait anxiety.

  15. Effects of Surprisal and Locality on Danish Sentence Processing: An Eye-Tracking Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Kizach, Johannes

    2017-03-22

    An eye-tracking experiment in Danish investigates two dominant accounts of sentence processing: locality-based theories that predict a processing advantage for sentences where the distance between the major syntactic heads is minimized, and the surprisal theory which predicts that processing time increases with big changes in the relative entropy of possible parses, sometimes leading to anti-locality effects. We consider both lexicalised surprisal, expressed in conditional trigram probabilities, and syntactic surprisal expressed in the manipulation of the expectedness of the second NP in Danish constructions with two postverbal NP-objects. An eye-tracking experiment showed a clear advantage for local syntactic relations, with only a marginal effect of lexicalised surprisal and no effect of syntactic surprisal. We conclude that surprisal has a relatively marginal effect, which may be clearest for verbs in verb-final languages, while locality is a robust predictor of sentence processing.

  16. Equal pain – Unequal fear response: Enhanced susceptibility of tooth pain to fear conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lukas Meier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental fear conditioning in humans is widely used as a model to investigate the neural basis of fear learning and to unravel the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. It has been observed that fear conditioning depends on stimulus salience and subject vulnerability to fear. It is further known that the prevalence of dental-related fear and phobia is exceedingly high in the population. Dental phobia is unique as no other body part is associated with a specific phobia. Therefore, we hypothesized that painful dental stimuli exhibit an enhanced susceptibility to fear conditioning when comparing to equal perceived stimuli applied to other body sites. Differential susceptibility to pain-related fear was investigated by analyzing responses to an unconditioned stimulus (UCS applied to the right maxillary canine (UCS-c versus the right tibia (UCS-t. For fear conditioning, UCS-c and USC-t consisted of painful electric stimuli, carefully matched at both application sites for equal intensity and quality perception. UCSs were paired to simple geometrical forms which served as conditioned stimuli (CS+. Unpaired CS+ were presented for eliciting and analyzing conditioned fear responses. Outcome parameter were 1 skin conductance changes and 2 time-dependent brain activity (BOLD responses in fear-related brain regions such as the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, insula, thalamus, orbitofrontal cortex and medial prefrontal cortex.A preferential susceptibility of dental pain to fear conditioning was observed, reflected by heightened skin conductance responses and enhanced time-dependent brain activity (BOLD responses in the fear network. For the first time, this study demonstrates fear-related neurobiological mechanisms that point towards a superior conditionability of tooth pain. Beside traumatic dental experiences our results offer novel evidence that might explain the high prevalence of dental-related fears in the population.

  17. Equal pain-Unequal fear response: enhanced susceptibility of tooth pain to fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Michael L; de Matos, Nuno M P; Brügger, Mike; Ettlin, Dominik A; Lukic, Nenad; Cheetham, Marcus; Jäncke, Lutz; Lutz, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Experimental fear conditioning in humans is widely used as a model to investigate the neural basis of fear learning and to unravel the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. It has been observed that fear conditioning depends on stimulus salience and subject vulnerability to fear. It is further known that the prevalence of dental-related fear and phobia is exceedingly high in the population. Dental phobia is unique as no other body part is associated with a specific phobia. Therefore, we hypothesized that painful dental stimuli exhibit an enhanced susceptibility to fear conditioning when comparing to equal perceived stimuli applied to other body sites. Differential susceptibility to pain-related fear was investigated by analyzing responses to an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) applied to the right maxillary canine (UCS-c) vs. the right tibia (UCS-t). For fear conditioning, UCS-c and USC-t consisted of painful electric stimuli, carefully matched at both application sites for equal intensity and quality perception. UCSs were paired to simple geometrical forms which served as conditioned stimuli (CS+). Unpaired CS+ were presented for eliciting and analyzing conditioned fear responses. Outcome parameter were (1) skin conductance changes and (2) time-dependent brain activity (BOLD responses) in fear-related brain regions such as the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, insula, thalamus, orbitofrontal cortex, and medial prefrontal cortex. A preferential susceptibility of dental pain to fear conditioning was observed, reflected by heightened skin conductance responses and enhanced time-dependent brain activity (BOLD responses) in the fear network. For the first time, this study demonstrates fear-related neurobiological mechanisms that point toward a superior conditionability of tooth pain. Beside traumatic dental experiences our results offer novel evidence that might explain the high prevalence of dental-related fears in the population.

  18. The Subcritical Assembly in Dubna (SAD)—Part II: Research program for ADS-demo experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudowski, Waclaw; Shvetsov, Valery; Polanski, Aleksander; Broeders, Cornelis

    2006-06-01

    Subcritical Assembly in Dubna (SAD), a project funded by the International Science and Technology Centre, driven in collaboration with many European partners, may become the first Accelerator Driven Subcritical experiment coupling an existing proton accelerator of 660 MeV with a compact MQX-fuelled subcritical core. The main objective of the SAD experiment is to study physics of Accelerator Driven System ranging from a very deep subcriticality up to keff of 0.98. All experiences with subcriticality monitoring from previous subcritical experiments like MUSE, Yalina and IBR-30 booster mode will be verified in order to select the most reliable subcriticality monitoring technique. Particular attention will be given to validation of the core power-beam current relation. Moreover, some studies have been done to assess possibility of power upgrade for SAD.

  19. Some extinct plant taxa on the territory of Novi Sad and their vulnerability status in Vojvodina and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đakić Žarko S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural habitats on the territory of Novi Sad are almost fully destroyed today, as well as their characteristic plant taxa. The reason for disappearance of natural habitats is the development of suburban communities, which is an irreversible process. Plant taxa, specific for wet, salty, and sandy ecosystems grew on those habitats twenty years ago and earlier. This paper presents the overview of 9 taxa (Suaeda maritima subsp. maritima, Androsace elongata subsp. elongata, Cirsium boujartii subsp. boujartii, Aster sedifolius subsp. canus, Blackstonia perfoliata subsp. serotina, Plantago maritima subsp. maritima, Salvia nutans, Allium angulosum, and Typha schuttleworthii. These taxa presented integral parts of autochthonous flora of Novi Sad. Since some of these taxa were found in the field 21 years ago and some even 93 years ago, they are extinct from the flora of Novi Sad.

  20. The effects of sad mood on memory in older adults: a test of the mood congruence effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Bob G; Maines, Michele L; Robinson, Gia S

    2002-12-01

    Mood congruence effects have long been studied in younger adults, but not in older adults. Socioemotional selectivity theory (SST) suggests that mood congruence could operate differently in older adults. One hundred and nineteen younger and 78 older adults were randomly assigned to sad or neutral mood inductions, using combined Velten and music induction procedures. Results indicated that during sad mood induction both older and younger adults showed enhanced recall of sad words on delayed word list recall task and in autobiographical memory. However, only older adults displayed mood congruence effects on lexical ambiguity and lower recall of positive words in the word list task. Results provided partial support for developmental effects on mood congruence derived from SST.

  1. On 'the fear of death' as the primary anxiety: how and why Klein differs from Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blass, Rachel B

    2014-08-01

    It is well known that Melanie Klein held the view that 'fear of death' is the primary source of anxiety and that her position is explicitly opposed to that of Sigmund Freud, who maintained that that fear cannot in any way or form be a source of anxiety. In a previous article on Freud's Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety (Blass, 2013), the author argued that, counter to what is commonly portrayed in the literature, Freud's considerations for rejecting the fear of death as a source of anxiety were based on relational and experiential factors that are usually associated with Kleinian psychoanalysis. In light of this affinity of Freud with Klein a question arises as to the actual source of their differences in this context. The present paper offers an answer to this question. The author first presents some of her earlier findings on what led Freud to reject the fear of death as a source of anxiety and then turns to investigate Klein's considerations for accepting it. This takes us beyond her explicit statements on this matter and sheds new light on the relationship of her views regarding death and anxiety and those of Freud. In turn this deepens the understanding of the relationship of Freud and Klein's conceptualizations of the psyche and its internal object relations, pointing to both surprising common ground and foundational differences. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  2. Fear of Death in Gulliver’s Travels

    OpenAIRE

    Chunhong Yang

    2015-01-01

    Critics pay little attention to fear of death in Gulliver’s Travels. This paper aims to deal with the issue with Freud’s theory. According to Freud, fear of death results in death drive. In Gulliver’s Travels, the episodes of the Struldbruggs and the Houyhnhnms reveal fear of death. In the episode of Struldbruggs, fear of death is illustrated through fear of abandonment and fear of loss. Fear of abandonment and fear of loss cause the Struldbruggs to long for physical death to end emotional de...

  3. European Union: fears and hopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles ROUET

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution analyses some data from Eurobarometer 83, spring 2015, especially to draw a map of Fears. The European Union is a divided space and one of the main consequences of the budget (financial crisis of Greece, followed by the crisis caused by the arrival of thousands of immigrants is an enhanced communication difficulty between the Western and Eastern parts of the EU But all citizens have some new rights with the European Citizenship, which are additional. One of the main issues for the future could be to change the fundamental basis of the Union, thus trying to organize a new articulation between local and supranational, with another role for States, for example to change the organisation of European elections, and to pursue the connection of public spaces with mobility.

  4. Trait Anxiety Is Associated with Negative Interpretations When Resolving Valence Ambiguity of Surprised Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Gewnhi Park; Vasey, Michael W.; Grace Kim; Dixie D Hu; Thayer, Julian F

    2016-01-01

    The current research examines whether trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretation bias when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces. To further isolate the neuro-cognitive mechanism, we presented angry, happy, and surprised faces at broad, high, and low spatial frequency and asked participants to determine the valence of each face. High trait anxiety was associated with more negative interpretations of broad spatial frequency (i.e., intact) surprised faces. However, the mo...

  5. Fearfulness and sex in F2 Roman rats: males display more fear though both sexes share the same fearfulness traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Raúl; Gil, Luis; Gray, Jeffrey A; Driscoll, Peter; Flint, Jonathan; Dawson, Gerard R; Giménez-Llort, Lydia; Escorihuela, Rosa M; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto; Tobeña, Adolf

    2003-04-01

    The pattern of sex differences in a large sample (about 400 for each sex) of F2-generation rats, derived from inbred Roman high- and low-avoidance strains differing in fearfulness and brain functioning, was investigated. We obtained measures from responses to a battery of novel/threatening tests [open field (OF), plus maze (PM), hole board (HB), activity (A), and acoustic startle reflex (ASR)] as well as learned fear paradigms [classical fear conditioning (CFC) and shuttlebox avoidance conditioning (SAC)]. The results showed that almost all behaviors assessed fit with a pattern of unidirectional sex effects characterized by male rats as being more fearful than females: males defecated more than females in the OF, PM, HB, ASR, and CFC; ambulated less in the OF, PM, A, and SAC; showed more self-grooming in PM and HB; explored the open arms of the PM and the holes of the HB less; displayed enhanced ASR; and showed poorer performance in the SAC task. We applied two factor analyses to each sex showing that, in general, they shared a common three-factor structure: a Learned Fear Factor comprising SAC and CFC responding, a Fear of Heights/Open Spaces Factor with the highest loadings for open arm behavior in the PM, and an Emotional Reactivity Factor, mainly grouping defecations, ambulation, and self-grooming. These results indicate that the essential components of fearful behavior are similar for both sexes in an inbred but genetically heterogeneous population.

  6. HDAC I inhibition in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus differentially modulates predator-odor fear learning and generalization

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    Robin K Yuan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although predator odors are ethologically relevant stimuli for rodents, the molecular pathways and contribution of some brain regions involved remain elusive. Inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs in the dorsal hippocampus has been shown to enhance shock-induced contextual fear learning, but it is unknown if HDACs have differential effects along the dorso-ventral hippocampal axis during predator odor fear learning. We injected MS-275, a class I HDAC inhibitor, bilaterally in the dorsal or ventral hippocampus of mice and found that it had no effects on innate anxiety in either region. We then assessed the effects of MS-275 at different stages of fear learning along the longitudinal hippocampal axis. Animals were injected with MS-275 or vehicle after context pre-exposure (pre-conditioning injections, when a representation of the context is first formed, or after exposure to coyote urine (post-conditioning injections, when the context becomes associated with predator odor. When MS-275 was administered after context pre-exposure, dorsally injected animals showed enhanced fear in the training context but were able to discriminate it from a neutral environment. Conversely, ventrally injected animals did not display enhanced learning in the training context but generalized the fear response to a neutral context. However, when MS-275 was administered after conditioning, there were no differences between MS-275 or vehicle control groups in either the dorsal or ventral hippocampus. Surprisingly, all groups displayed generalization to a neutral context, suggesting that predator odor exposure followed by the restraint necessary for the injections leads to fear generalization. These results may elucidate distinct functions of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus in predator odor-induced fear conditioning as well as some of the molecular mechanisms underlying fear generalization.

  7. A Neural Mechanism for Surprise-related Interruptions of Visuospatial Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Jan R

    2016-11-30

    Surprising perceptual events recruit a fronto-basal ganglia mechanism for inhibition, which suppresses motor activity following surprise. A recent study found that this inhibitory mechanism also disrupts the maintenance of verbal working memory (WM) after surprising tones. However, it is unclear whether this same mechanism also relates to surprise-related interruptions of non-verbal WM. We tested this hypothesis using a change-detection task, in which surprising tones impaired visuospatial WM. Participants also performed a stop-signal task (SST). We used independent component analysis and single-trial scalp-electroencephalogram to test whether the same inhibitory mechanism that reflects motor inhibition in the SST relates to surprise-related visuospatial WM decrements, as was the case for verbal WM. As expected, surprising tones elicited activity of the inhibitory mechanism, and this activity correlated strongly with the trial-by-trial level of surprise. However, unlike for verbal WM, the activity of this mechanism was unrelated to visuospatial WM accuracy. Instead, inhibition-independent activity that immediately succeeded the inhibitory mechanism was increased when visuospatial WM was disrupted. This shows that surprise-related interruptions of visuospatial WM are not effected by the same inhibitory mechanism that interrupts verbal WM, and instead provides evidence for a 2-stage model of distraction.

  8. [Social anxiety and self-esteem: Hungarian validation of the "Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale - Straightforward Items"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perczel-Forintos, Dóra; Kresznerits, Szilvia

    2017-06-01

    Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is the third most frequent emotional disorder with 13-15% prevalence rate, it remains unrecognized very often. Social phobia is associated with low self-esteem, high self-criticism and fear of negative evaluation by others. It shows high comorbidity with depression, alcoholism, drug addiction and eating disorders. To adapt the widely used "Fear of Negative Evaluation" (FNE) social phobia questionnaire. Anxiety and mood disorder patients (n = 255) completed the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (30, 12 and 8 item-versions) as well as social cognition, anxiety and self-esteem questionnaires. All the three versions of the FNE have strong internal validity (α>0.83) and moderate significant correlation with low self-esteem, negative social cognitions and anxiety. The short 8-item BFNE-S has the strongest disciminative value in differentiating patients with social phobia and with other emotional disorders. The Hungarian version of the BFNE-S is an effective tool for the quick recognition of social phobia. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(22): 843-850.

  9. Exposure treatment in multiple contexts attenuates return of fear via renewal in high spider fearful individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandarian-Balooch, Siavash; Neumann, David L; Boschen, Mark J

    2015-06-01

    Research has demonstrated that after exposure treatment, re-exposure to a previously feared stimulus outside of the treatment context can result in renewal of fear. The current study investigated whether conducting exposure treatment in multiple real-life contexts can attenuate renewal of fear. Forty-six moderate to high spider fearful individuals were randomly allocated to groups that received exposure treatment in either one context or three contexts. Follow-up testing was conducted one week and four weeks after exposure in the treatment context or a novel context. Renewal of fear was found for the single extinction context group when exposed to the feared object in a novel context with self-report of fear, heart rate, and behavioural avoidance. However, renewal of fear was attenuated for the multiple extinction context group. The sample included moderate to high spider fearful participants rather than clients with spider phobia, potentially limiting the generalisability of the findings to clinical populations. Using multiple extinction contexts in combination with other methods of attenuating renewal (e.g., context similarity) may provide a means to reduce the risk of renewal of fear. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mild to severe social fears: ranking types of feared social situations using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crome, Erica; Baillie, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Social anxiety disorder is one of the most common mental disorders, and is associated with long term impairment, distress and vulnerability to secondary disorders. Certain types of social fears are more common than others, with public speaking fears typically the most prevalent in epidemiological surveys. The distinction between performance- and interaction-based fears has been the focus of long-standing debate in the literature, with evidence performance-based fears may reflect more mild presentations of social anxiety. This study aims to explicitly test whether different types of social fears differ in underlying social anxiety severity using item response theory techniques. Different types of social fears were assessed using items from three different structured diagnostic interviews in four different epidemiological surveys in the United States (n=2261, n=5411) and Australia (n=1845, n=1497); and ranked using 2-parameter logistic item response theory models. Overall, patterns of underlying severity indicated by different fears were consistent across the four samples with items functioning across a range of social anxiety. Public performance fears and speaking at meetings/classes indicated the lowest levels of social anxiety, with increasing severity indicated by situations such as being assertive or attending parties. Fears of using public bathrooms or eating, drinking or writing in public reflected the highest levels of social anxiety. Understanding differences in the underlying severity of different types of social fears has important implications for the underlying structure of social anxiety, and may also enhance the delivery of social anxiety treatment at a population level.

  11. Prefrontal NMDA receptors expressed in excitatory neurons control fear discrimination and fear extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Philip A; Corches, Alex; Lovelace, Jonathan W; Westbrook, Kevin B; Mendoza, Michael; Korzus, Edward

    2015-03-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are critically involved in various learning mechanisms including modulation of fear memory, brain development and brain disorders. While NMDARs mediate opposite effects on medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) interneurons and excitatory neurons, NMDAR antagonists trigger profound cortical activation. The objectives of the present study were to determine the involvement of NMDARs expressed specifically in excitatory neurons in mPFC-dependent adaptive behaviors, specifically fear discrimination and fear extinction. To achieve this, we tested mice with locally deleted Grin1 gene encoding the obligatory NR1 subunit of the NMDAR from prefrontal CamKIIα positive neurons for their ability to distinguish frequency modulated (FM) tones in fear discrimination test. We demonstrated that NMDAR-dependent signaling in the mPFC is critical for effective fear discrimination following initial generalization of conditioned fear. While mice with deficient NMDARs in prefrontal excitatory neurons maintain normal responses to a dangerous fear-conditioned stimulus, they exhibit abnormal generalization decrement. These studies provide evidence that NMDAR-dependent neural signaling in the mPFC is a component of a neural mechanism for disambiguating the meaning of fear signals and supports discriminative fear learning by retaining proper gating information, viz. both dangerous and harmless cues. We also found that selective deletion of NMDARs from excitatory neurons in the mPFC leads to a deficit in fear extinction of auditory conditioned stimuli. These studies suggest that prefrontal NMDARs expressed in excitatory neurons are involved in adaptive behavior.

  12. Comparing electric shock and a fearful screaming face as unconditioned stimuli for fear learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Catherine R; Lieberman, Lynne; Hajcak, Greg

    2012-12-01

    The potency of an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) can impact the degree of fear learning. One of the most common and effective UCSs is an electric shock, which is inappropriate for certain populations (e.g., children). To address this need, a novel fear learning paradigm was recently developed that uses a fearful female face and scream as the UCS. The present study directly compared the efficacy of the screaming female UCS and a traditional shock UCS in two fear learning paradigms. Thirty-six young adults completed two fear learning tasks and a measure of trait anxiety; fear learning was indexed with fear-potentiated startle (FPS) and self-reported fear ratings. Results indicated comparable FPS across the two tasks. However, larger overall startle responses were exhibited in the shock task, and participants rated the shock UCS and overall task as more aversive than the screaming female. In addition, trait anxiety was only related to FPS in the fear learning task that employed a shock as the UCS. Taken together, results indicate that, although both UCS paradigms can be used for fear conditioning (i.e., to produce differences between CS+ and CS-), the shock UCS paradigm is more aversive and potentially more sensitive to individual differences in anxiety.

  13. Fear inhibition in high trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindt, Merel; Soeter, Marieke

    2014-01-01

    Trait anxiety is recognized as an individual risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders but the neurobiological mechanisms remain unknown. Here we test whether trait anxiety is associated with impaired fear inhibition utilizing the AX+/BX- conditional discrimination procedure that allows for the independent evaluation of startle fear potentiation and inhibition of fear. Sixty undergraduate students participated in the study--High Trait Anxious: n = 28 and Low Trait Anxious: n = 32. We replicated earlier findings that a transfer of conditioned inhibition for startle responses requires contingency awareness. However, contrary to the fear inhibition hypothesis, our data suggest that high trait anxious individuals show a normal fear inhibition of conditioned startle responding. Only at the cognitive level the high trait anxious individuals showed evidence for impaired inhibitory learning of the threat cue. Together with other findings where impaired fear inhibition was only observed in those PTSD patients who were either high on hyperarousal symptoms or with current anxiety symptoms, we question whether impaired fear inhibition is a biomarker for the development of anxiety disorders.

  14. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF FEAR LEARNING AND MEMORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Joshua P.; Cain, Christopher K.; Ostroff, Linnaea E.; LeDoux, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    Pavlovian fear conditioning is a useful behavioral paradigm for exploring the molecular mechanisms of learning and memory because a well-defined response to a specific environmental stimulus is produced through associative learning processes. Synaptic plasticity in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) underlies this form of associative learning. Here we summarize the molecular mechanisms that contribute to this synaptic plasticity in the context of auditory fear conditioning, the form of fear conditioning best understood at the molecular level. We discuss the neurotransmitter systems and signaling cascades that contribute to three phases of auditory fear conditioning: acquisition, consolidation, and reconsolidation. These studies suggest that multiple intracellular signaling pathways, including those triggered by activation of Hebbian processes and neuromodulatory receptors, interact to produce neural plasticity in the LA and behavioral fear conditioning. Together, this research illustrates the power of fear conditioning as a model system for characterizing the mechanisms of learning and memory in mammals, and potentially for understanding fear related disorders, such as PTSD and phobias. PMID:22036561

  15. Rapid experimental SAD phasing and hot-spot identification with halogenated fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph D. Bauman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through X-ray crystallographic fragment screening, 4-bromopyrazole was discovered to be a `magic bullet' that is capable of binding at many of the ligand `hot spots' found in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT. The binding locations can be in pockets that are `hidden' in the unliganded crystal form, allowing rapid identification of these sites for in silico screening. In addition to hot-spot identification, this ubiquitous yet specific binding provides an avenue for X-ray crystallographic phase determination, which can be a significant bottleneck in the determination of the structures of novel proteins. The anomalous signal from 4-bromopyrazole or 4-iodopyrazole was sufficient to determine the structures of three proteins (HIV-1 RT, influenza A endonuclease and proteinase K by single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD from single crystals. Both compounds are inexpensive, readily available, safe and very soluble in DMSO or water, allowing efficient soaking into crystals.

  16. Entertainment during the fast of the Serbian peasant youth in Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Višekruna Danka

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Gatherings of the Serbian peasant youth for various forms of entertainment like Šabac, Bubalice, Ježalo... during the six-week Great Easter Fast (when they did not go to the kolo dance, their main and popular entertainment were a reflection of the strict observation of the patriarchal and Christian norms symbolized by the Fast. The participants in Šabac, Bubalice... were more serious, almost sad due to the mourning of the Christ’s passion and crucifixion. They entertained in the games without music, songs, merriment clamour, laughter, anything which is otherwise the essence of entertainment and games. Some of the games, e.g. Peacock (Paun. Passing Swallows.

  17. SAD in the Anthropocene: Brenda Hillman’s Ecopoetics of Affect

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    Laurel Peacock

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on three collections of poetry by California poet Brenda Hillman, Cascadia, Practical Water, and Pieces of Air in the Epic, reading for the ways in which the poems model an affective interrelation between human and environment. These three works each focus on a traditional element (earth, water, air in order to explore its co-constitution with the human, treating the element as active, or, in Jane Bennett’s term, “vibrant matter.” In the Anthropocene, it is no longer an “intentional fallacy” to attribute human emotions to the environment or its elements. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD is used throughout the article as a way to conceptualise this interrelation of human with environment; SAD suggests that in this era human and environment alike are disordered. I argue that, rather than staging a lyric subject regarding a landscape, Hillman’s poems create a confusion of subject/object and foreground/background relations in which the origins of affects are impossible to determine and harms circulate. Affect is vital in understanding human motivations in relation to climate change, and Hillman’s ecopoetic practice is an example of how we can shift our understanding of our affective relationship to the environment. Linguistic experimentation can shift awareness toward an understanding of the link between “what it felt like to have been a subject” and “what it felt like to have been earth” as well as what it feels like now to be indeterminately both, intertwined and in crisis.

  18. Sadness, socialisation and shifted perceptions: school pupils' stories of a pre-nursing scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Michelle; Smith, Annetta; Kyle, Richard G

    2014-06-01

    Providing opportunities for aspirant nurses to obtain pre-nursing experience features prominently in the UK Government's response to The Francis Inquiry. Evidence from the USA suggests that pre-nursing experiences, such as summer camps, have the potential to contribute to effective nurse recruitment, selection and retention strategies. However, few similar pre-nursing experiences exist in the UK, and none have been evaluated. This paper reports the experiences of participation in a pilot pre-nursing scholarship among secondary school pupils in Scotland. To explore pupils' experiences of a pre-nursing scholarship to inform future design and delivery of similar programmes in the UK and internationally. Qualitative focus group study. Two university campuses in Scotland. Twenty-two secondary school students (all female, aged 15-18 years). Two focus groups were facilitated through the use of 'anecdote circles' to elicit pupils' stories of their scholarship experience. Anecdote circles allowed each pupil to share their story in turn and then collectively assemble, figuratively and physically through interlocking written cards, shared stories of the scholarship. Discussions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed thematically. Three stories emerged: 1) sadness; 2) socialisation; and, 3) shifted perceptions. Sad stories were transformative affirming the pupils' desire to become a nurse. Stories of socialisation revealed how demonstrating practical skills affirmed the pupils' ability and suitability to nurse. Perceptions of the life and work of a (student) nurse, their future career, and the lives of older adults, shifted through the scholarship, especially during practice learning experience. Storytelling revealed how a pre-nursing scholarship helped secondary school pupils to decide whether to pursue a nursing career by providing an opportunity to explore their ability, suitability and desire for nursing. The practice learning experience emerged

  19. Modulation of brain resting-state networks by sad mood induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben J Harrison

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in the nature of slow variations of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD signal observed in functional MRI resting-state studies. In humans, these slow BOLD variations are thought to reflect an underlying or intrinsic form of brain functional connectivity in discrete neuroanatomical systems. While these 'resting-state networks' may be relatively enduring phenomena, other evidence suggest that dynamic changes in their functional connectivity may also emerge depending on the brain state of subjects during scanning. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we examined healthy subjects (n = 24 with a mood induction paradigm during two continuous fMRI recordings to assess the effects of a change in self-generated mood state (neutral to sad on the functional connectivity of these resting-state networks (n = 24. Using independent component analysis, we identified five networks that were common to both experimental states, each showing dominant signal fluctuations in the very low frequency domain (approximately 0.04 Hz. Between the two states, we observed apparent increases and decreases in the overall functional connectivity of these networks. Primary findings included increased connectivity strength of a paralimbic network involving the dorsal anterior cingulate and anterior insula cortices with subjects' increasing sadness and decreased functional connectivity of the 'default mode network'. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings support recent studies that suggest the functional connectivity of certain resting-state networks may, in part, reflect a dynamic image of the current brain state. In our study, this was linked to changes in subjective mood.

  20. TO FEAR OR NOT TO FEAR ON CYBERCRIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Bernik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To understand cybercrime and its various forms, one must be familiar with criminality in general. How individuals perceive crime, and how much they fear it is further influenced by news media (Crawford, 2007. Van Duyne (2009, who monitored criminality, wrote about changes which started to be noticed twenty years ago and have shaped a new Europe, a territory without inner borders, and so with more mobility and opportunities for the Europeans. But these novelties and changes in the way we work have also caused certain new problems. It can be said that perpetrators of crimes, who are no longer hindered by state borders, now know no geographical limitations. Vander Baken and Van Daele (2009, for example, have researched mobility in connection to transnational criminality. Von Lampe (2007 has established that perpetrators no longer act individually, but frequently work in cooperation with one another. Crime and mobility are being “greased” by money, and have become a part of everyday life (Van Duyne, 2009. An individual’s perception and understanding of criminality is also biased on certain cultural myths in regard to crime (Meško and Eman, 2009.

  1. The Trans-Pacific Partnership: Should We "Fear the Fear"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Helen L.; Hanefeld, Johanna; Smith, Richard D.

    2017-01-01

    RLabonté et al entitle their paper in this issue of the International Journal of Health Policy and Management "The Trans-Pacific Partnership: Is It Everything We Feared for Health?" Tantalisingly, they do not directly answer the question they pose, and in this commentary, we suggest that it is the wrong question; we should not ‘fear’ the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) at all, rather we should ask how we are to respond. The public health community is right to be concerned with the potential implications of trade and investment agreements (TIAs) for health, particularly with shifts from multilateral to regional/bilateral agreements including provisions with greater risk to public health. But it is critical to understand also the potential health benefits, and especially the mitigating policy and governance mechanisms to respond to adverse TIA implications. Given entrenched and divergent sectoral worldviews and perspectives between trade and health communities on these issues, achieving the requisite understanding will also likely require characterisation of these perspectives and identification of areas of common understanding and agreed solutions. PMID:28812829

  2. Religiosity, fear of death and suicide acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelter, J W

    1979-01-01

    The present research was an attempt to test two hypotheses derived from a recently proposed social psychological model of suicide: The acceptability of suicide is a decreasing function of religiosity and fear of death. Questionnaire data were collected for 205 undergraduates at a midwestern university in 1978. The questionnaire included several measures of religiosity, a factor analysis multidimensional fear of death scale, and a suicide acceptability scale. Results, showing that all of the religiosity measures and certain types of fear of death were significantly related to the acceptability of suicide, supported to the hypotheses under examination.

  3. Surprisal-based comparison between a symbolic and a connectionist model of sentence processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, S.L.; Taatgen, N.; van Rijn, H.

    2009-01-01

    The 'unlexicalized surprisal' of a word in sentence context is defined as the negative logarithm of the probability of the word's part-of-speech given the sequence of previous parts-of-speech of the sentence. Unlexicalized surprisal is known to correlate with word reading time. Here, it is shown

  4. The role of surprising events in a math game on proportional reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, P.; Oostendorp, van H.; Vrugte, ter J.; Jong, de T.; Vandercruysse, S.; Elen, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether surprising events can be used to stimulate students’ playful learning in a GBL environment in the domain of proportional reasoning. The assumed effect of surprise is that unexpected events interrupt an expectation and therefore triggers the player to evaluate the new situ

  5. Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; LaBar, Kevin S; Adcock, R Alison

    2016-10-01

    Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal representations of the environment, and surprising events are indications for encoding new representations of the environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system, including the hippocampus and surrounding cortex, encodes surprising events and is influenced by motivational state. Because behavior reflects the goals of an individual, we investigated whether motivational valence (i.e., pursuing rewards versus avoiding punishments) also impacts neural and mnemonic encoding of surprising events. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants encountered perceptually unexpected events either during the pursuit of rewards or avoidance of punishments. Despite similar levels of motivation across groups, reward and punishment facilitated the processing of surprising events in different medial temporal lobe regions. Whereas during reward motivation, perceptual surprises enhanced activation in the hippocampus, during punishment motivation surprises instead enhanced activation in parahippocampal cortex. Further, we found that reward motivation facilitated hippocampal coupling with ventromedial PFC, whereas punishment motivation facilitated parahippocampal cortical coupling with orbitofrontal cortex. Behaviorally, post-scan testing revealed that reward, but not punishment, motivation resulted in greater memory selectivity for surprising events encountered during goal pursuit. Together these findings demonstrate that neuromodulatory systems engaged by anticipation of reward and punishment target separate components of the medial temporal lobe, modulating medial temporal lobe sensitivity and connectivity. Thus, reward and punishment motivation yield distinct neural contexts for learning, with distinct consequences for how surprises are incorporated into predictive mnemonic models of the environment.

  6. No effect of trait anxiety on differential fear conditioning or fear generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrents-Rodas, David; Fullana, Miquel A; Bonillo, Albert; Caseras, Xavier; Andión, Oscar; Torrubia, Rafael

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that individuals with anxiety disorders exhibit deficits in fear inhibition and excessive generalization of fear, but little data exist on individuals at risk from these disorders. The present study examined the role of trait anxiety in the acquisition and generalization of fear in 126 healthy participants selected on the basis of their trait-anxiety scores. Measures of conditioning included fear-potentiated startle, skin conductance response and online risk ratings for the unconditioned stimulus. Contrary to our hypotheses, trait anxiety did not have any effect either on the acquisition or the generalization of fear. Our results suggest that these fear conditioning processes are not impaired in individuals at risk from anxiety.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Methylocaldum sp. SAD2, a Methanotrophic Strain That Can Convert Raw Biogas to Methanol in the Presence of Hydrogen Sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiangdong; Ge, Xumen; Li, Yebo; Yu, Zhongtang

    2017-08-10

    The draft genome sequence of Methylocaldum sp. SAD2, a methanotrophic strain isolated from a hydrogen sulfide-rich anaerobic digester, is reported here. Strain SAD2 possesses genes for methane oxidation in the presence of H2S. Copyright © 2017 Wei et al.

  8. Effects of sleep on memory for conditioned fear and fear extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Germain, Anne; Milad, Mohammed R.

    2015-01-01

    Learning and memory for extinction of conditioned fear is a basic mammalian mechanism for regulating negative emotion. Sleep promotes both the consolidation of memory and the regulation of emotion. Sleep can influence consolidation and modification of memories associated with both fear and its extinction. After brief overviews of the behavior and neural circuitry associated with fear conditioning, extinction learning and extinction memory in the rodent and human, interactions of sleep with th...

  9. Forming competing fear learning and extinction memories in adolescence makes fear difficult to inhibit

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Kathryn D.; Richardson, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Fear inhibition is markedly impaired in adolescent rodents and humans. The present experiments investigated whether this impairment is critically determined by the animal's age at the time of fear learning or their age at fear extinction. Male rats (n = 170) were tested for extinction retention after conditioning and extinction at different ages. We examined neural correlates of impaired extinction retention by detection of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase immunoreactivity (pMA...

  10. Specific and social fears in children and adolescents: separating normative fears from problem indicators and phobias

    OpenAIRE

    Laporte,Paola P.; Pan,Pedro M.; Hoffmann,Mauricio S.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Rohde, Luis A.; MIGUEL, Euripedes C.; Pine, Daniel S.; Manfro,Gisele G.; Giovanni A. Salum

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To distinguish normative fears from problematic fears and phobias. Methods: We investigated 2,512 children and adolescents from a large community school-based study, the High Risk Study for Psychiatric Disorders. Parent reports of 18 fears and psychiatric diagnosis were investigated. We used two analytical approaches: confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)/item response theory (IRT) and nonparametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: According to IRT and ROC ana...

  11. Effects of attention manipulations on motivated attention to feared and nonfeared negative distracters in spider fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Joakim; Wiens, Stefan

    2013-11-09

    When people view emotional and neutral pictures, the emotional pictures capture more attention than do neutral pictures. In support, studies with event-related potentials have shown that the early posterior negativity (EPN) and the late positive potential (LPP) to emotional versus neutral pictures are enhanced when pictures are attended. However, this motivated attention decreases when voluntary attention is directed away from the pictures. Most previous studies included only generally emotional pictures of either negative or positive valence. Because people with spider fear report intense fear of spiders, we examined whether directing attention away from emotional pictures at fixation decreases motivated attention less strongly for spiders than for generally negative distracters. We recorded event-related potentials from 128 channels to study whether manipulations of attention (i.e., spatial attention and perceptual load) decrease the EPN and the LPP to emotional distracters less strongly for spiders than for fear-irrelevant negative pictures in people with spider fear. Results confirmed that the EPN and the LPP to spiders (vs. neutral pictures) were particularly enhanced in participants with spider fear compared to participants without spider fear. When attention was directed away from the pictures, the EPN and the LPP to spiders (vs. neutral pictures) decreased similarly in fearful and nonfearful participants. Further, in fearful participants, the decrease in the EPN and the LPP was similar for spiders and for fear-irrelevant negative pictures. Our findings suggest that for people with spider fear, directing attention away from emotional pictures at fixation decreases motivated attention to these distracters similarly for spiders as for fear-irrelevant negative pictures. These findings imply that attention to spiders in spider fear does not exceed the level of attention expected from the spider pictures' high arousal and negative valence (i.e., their intrinsic

  12. How leader displays of happiness and sadness influence follower performance: Emotional contagion and creative versus analytical performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, V.A.; van Knippenberg, D.; van Kleef, G.A.; Wisse, B.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have found mixed results regarding the influence of positive and negative leader affect on follower performance. We propose that both leader happiness and leader sadness can be beneficial for follower performance contingent on whether the task concerns creative or analytical perform

  13. [The foundation and development of the Department of Pharmacy of the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad (2000-2007)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Jovan

    2007-01-01

    THE DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACY: The first 50 pharmacy students were enrolled at the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad in the academic year 2000/2001. The Institute of Pharmacy was established on July 10, 2001. The Department of Pharmacy was established on December 18, 2001, with more than 150 faculty members. Since then, 82 students have graduated with honours. Visiting professors from Athens, Skopje, Reading (Great Britain) and Banja Luka, and professors of the Faculty of Science and Mathematics and the Faculty of Technical Sciences in Novi Sad, together with the professors and associates of the the Faculty of Medicine, are members of the Faculty of the Department of Pharmacy. ACTIVITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACY: The Department offers a 5-year undergraduate program in pharmacy, practical courses in pharmacy, takes part in higher education reform in accordance with the Bologna objectives, organizes visits to Europen centers of the pharmaceutical industry, and provides mentoring activities in relation to writing a graduation paper. The First Balkan Congress of Phramacy Students was held March 7-12, 2006 in Novi Sad. The Department of Pharmacy of the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad has achieved the objectives set for it when it was established.

  14. How leader displays of happiness and sadness influence follower performance: Emotional contagion and creative versus analytical performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, V.A.; van Knippenberg, D.; van Kleef, G.A.; Wisse, B.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have found mixed results regarding the influence of positive and negative leader affect on follower performance. We propose that both leader happiness and leader sadness can be beneficial for follower performance contingent on whether the task concerns creative or analytical

  15. How leader displays of happiness and sadness influence follower performance : Emotional contagion and creative versus analytical performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Victoria A.; van Knippenberg, Daan; van Kleef, Gerben A.; Wisse, Barbara

    Previous studies have found mixed results regarding the influence of positive and negative leader affect on follower performance. We propose that both leader happiness and leader sadness can be beneficial for follower performance contingent on whether the task concerns creative or analytical

  16. The foundation and development of the department of pharmacy of the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad (2000-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Jovan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Department of Pharmacy. The first 50 pharmacy students were enrolled at the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad in the academic year 2000/2001. The Institute of Pharmacy was established on July 10, 2001. The Department of Pharmacy was established on December 18, 2001, with more than 150 faculty members. Since then, 82 students have graduated with honours. Visiting professors from Athens, Skopje, Reading (Great Britain and Banja Luka, and professors of the Faculty of Science and Mathematics and the Faculty of Technical Sciences in Novi Sad, together with the professors and associates of the Faculty of Medicine, are members of the Faculty of the Department of Pharmacy. Activities of the Department of Pharmacy. The Department offers a 5-year undergraduate program in pharmacy, practical courses in pharmacy, takes part in higher education reform in accordance with the Bologna objectives, organizes visits to European centers of the pharmaceutical industry, and provides mentoring activities in relation to writing a graduation paper. The First Balkan Congress of Pharmacy Students was held March 7-12, 2006 in Novi Sad. The Department of Pharmacy of the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad has achieved the objectives set for it when it was Established.

  17. An Age-Related Mechanism of Emotion Regulation: Regulating Sadness Promotes Children's Learning by Broadening Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth L.

    2016-01-01

    Emotion regulation predicts positive academic outcomes like learning, but little is known about "why". Effective emotion regulation likely promotes learning by broadening the scope of what may be attended to after an emotional event. One hundred twenty-six 6- to 13-year-olds' (54% boys) regulation of sadness was examined for changes in…

  18. Testing the McSad depression specific classification system in patients with somatic conditions : validity and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papageorgiou, Katerina; Vermeulen, Karin M.; Schroevers, Maya J.; Buskens, Erik; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Valuations of depression are useful to evaluate depression interventions offered to patients with chronic somatic conditions. The only classification system to describe depression developed specifically for valuation purposes is the McSad, but it has not been used among somatic patients.

  19. How leader displays of happiness and sadness influence follower performance : Emotional contagion and creative versus analytical performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Victoria A.; van Knippenberg, Daan; van Kleef, Gerben A.; Wisse, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have found mixed results regarding the influence of positive and negative leader affect on follower performance. We propose that both leader happiness and leader sadness can be beneficial for follower performance contingent on whether the task concerns creative or analytical perform

  20. Social Factors That Predict Fear of Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Jonathan S.; Thomas, Jessica; Jones, Stevy; Mahoney, Lauren; Dukes, Kristina; Treadway, Jodi

    2016-01-01

    Fear of academic success is ultimately a fear of social exclusion. Therefore, various forms of social inclusion may alleviate this fear. Three studies tested the hypothesis that social inclusion variables negatively predict fear of success. In Study 1, middle and high school students (n = 129) completed surveys of parental involvement, parental…

  1. Social Modulation of Associative Fear Learning by Pheromone Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredy, Timothy W.; Barad, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Mice communicate through visual, vocal, and olfactory cues that influence innate, nonassociative behavior. We here report that exposure to a recently fear-conditioned familiar mouse impairs acquisition of conditioned fear and facilitates fear extinction, effects mimicked by both an olfactory chemosignal emitted by a recently fear-conditioned…

  2. Social Modulation of Associative Fear Learning by Pheromone Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredy, Timothy W.; Barad, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Mice communicate through visual, vocal, and olfactory cues that influence innate, nonassociative behavior. We here report that exposure to a recently fear-conditioned familiar mouse impairs acquisition of conditioned fear and facilitates fear extinction, effects mimicked by both an olfactory chemosignal emitted by a recently fear-conditioned…

  3. Latina Teenagers: Victimization, Identity, and Fear of Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madriz, Esther

    1997-01-01

    Studied the impact of victimization and fear of crime on 56 Latina teenagers in urban and suburban areas. Fear of crime was associated not only with the variables traditionally correlated with fear of crime, but also with feelings of identity. Also examined were coping mechanisms Latina teenagers used to deal with those fears. (SLD)

  4. Can prepared fear conditioning result from verbal instructions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, Gaëtan; Raes, An K.; De Houwer, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary fear-relevant stimuli such as snakes or spiders are thought to be prepared to elicit fear reactions. This implies that the acquisition of conditioned fear responses is facilitated when these stimuli serve as conditioned stimuli (CSs). Moreover, extinction of conditioned fear responses i

  5. A Longitudinal Examination of Fear Reactions in Victims of Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Karen S.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Investigated fear reactions in rape victims for one year following their assaults. Following the assault, victims were significantly more fearful than nonvictim controls. Although their overall fearfulness declined somewhat and stabilized by two months postassault, victims remained significantly more fearful than nonvictim controls at 12 months…

  6. Reducing Fear of the Laboratory Rat: A Participant Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Nigel

    1994-01-01

    Reports on the use of participant modeling in a study of 56 college-level students to reduce fear of laboratory rats. Discovers that even mild exposure reduced fear significantly. Finds that women were more fearful initially but that their fear reduction was equal to that of men. (CFR)

  7. War versus Ghosts: Children's Fears in Different Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarifa, Fatos; Kloep, Marion

    1996-01-01

    Surveyed Albanian and Swedish children to compare fears and determine if fear of war is a main worry of schoolchildren in an unstable country. Reported criminals, animals, and darkness as top fears of Albanian children while war, environment, and death were top fears of Swedish children. Suggests sociocultural context as an important explanatory…

  8. The influence of serotonin on fear learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hindi Attar

    Full Text Available Learning of associations between aversive stimuli and predictive cues is the basis of Pavlovian fear conditioning and is driven by a mismatch between expectation and outcome. To investigate whether serotonin modulates the formation of such aversive cue-outcome associations, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and dietary tryptophan depletion to reduce brain serotonin (5-HT levels in healthy human subjects. In a Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm, 5-HT depleted subjects compared to a non-depleted control group exhibited attenuated autonomic responses to cues indicating the upcoming of an aversive event. These results were closely paralleled by reduced aversive learning signals in the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex, two prominent structures of the neural fear circuit. In agreement with current theories of serotonin as a motivational opponent system to dopamine in fear learning, our data provide first empirical evidence for a role of serotonin in representing formally derived learning signals for aversive events.

  9. Fear of Success Theory and Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rosann Webb; Eggleton, Richard

    1980-01-01

    Reports on a study to determine the relationships of such variables as age, race, sex, marital status, and work experience to the fear of the effects of success, focusing primarily on female librarians. (FM)

  10. Fear of Crime in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Brown

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study provides analyses of data on crime-associated trepidation obtained from surveys administered to college students in South Korea. The survey contained questions about, and the analyses distinguished between, offense-specific fears (fear of burglary and fear of home invasion, perceived risk of victimization (day and night, and crime avoidance behaviors (avoidance of nocturnal activity and avoidance of particular areas. Regression analyses of the data show that victimization was not consistently associated with crime-associated trepidation, while gender significantly impacted all measures of concern about crime. Women were more likely than men to report being fearful, perceiving risk, and crime avoidance behaviors. Building upon prior scholarship (for example, Madriz 1997; Stanko 1989 and considering the social context in which the data were gathered, it is herein suggested that the gendered variation in crime-associated anxiety may reflect patriarchal power relations. The methodological and policy implications of the study are also discussed.

  11. Psychology: Fear and hope in climate messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Paul C.

    2012-08-01

    Scientists often expect fear of climate change and its impacts to motivate public support of climate policies. A study suggests that climate change deniers don't respond to this, but that positive appeals can change their views.

  12. The influence of serotonin on fear learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindi Attar, Catherine; Finckh, Barbara; Büchel, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Learning of associations between aversive stimuli and predictive cues is the basis of Pavlovian fear conditioning and is driven by a mismatch between expectation and outcome. To investigate whether serotonin modulates the formation of such aversive cue-outcome associations, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and dietary tryptophan depletion to reduce brain serotonin (5-HT) levels in healthy human subjects. In a Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm, 5-HT depleted subjects compared to a non-depleted control group exhibited attenuated autonomic responses to cues indicating the upcoming of an aversive event. These results were closely paralleled by reduced aversive learning signals in the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex, two prominent structures of the neural fear circuit. In agreement with current theories of serotonin as a motivational opponent system to dopamine in fear learning, our data provide first empirical evidence for a role of serotonin in representing formally derived learning signals for aversive events.

  13. Linking fearfulness and coping styles in fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Silva, P.I.M.; Conceição, L.E.C.; Costas, B.; Höglund, E.; Overli, O.; Schrama, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Consistent individual differences in cognitive appraisal and emotional reactivity, including fearfulness, are important personality traits in humans, non-human mammals, and birds. Comparative studies on teleost fishes support the existence of coping styles and behavioral syndromes also in poikilothe

  14. The effect of disgust and fear modeling on children's disgust and fear for animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Chris; Cakır, Kübra; Põldsam, Liine; Reynolds, Gemma

    2014-08-01

    Disgust is a protective emotion associated with certain types of animal fears. Given that a primary function of disgust is to protect against harm, increasing children's disgust-related beliefs for animals may affect how threatening they think animals are and their avoidance of them. One way that children's disgust beliefs for animals might change is via vicarious learning: by observing others responding to the animal with disgust. In Experiment 1, children (ages 7-10 years) were presented with images of novel animals together with adult faces expressing disgust. Children's fear beliefs and avoidance preferences increased for these disgust-paired animals compared with unpaired control animals. Experiment 2 used the same procedure and compared disgust vicarious learning with vicarious learning with fear faces. Children's fear beliefs and avoidance preferences for animals again increased as a result of disgust vicarious learning, and animals seen with disgust or fear faces were also rated more disgusting than control animals. The relationship between increased fear beliefs and avoidance preferences for animals was mediated by disgust for the animals. The experiments demonstrate that children can learn to believe that animals are disgusting and threatening after observing an adult responding with disgust toward them. The findings also suggest a bidirectional relationship between fear and disgust with fear-related vicarious learning leading to increased disgust for animals and disgust-related vicarious learning leading to increased fear and avoidance.

  15. Prevalence of dental fear and phobia relative to other fear and phobia subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterink, Floor M D; de Jongh, Ad; Hoogstraten, Johan

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to estimate the point prevalence of dental fear and dental phobia relative to 10 other common fears and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV-TR subtypes of specific phobia. Data were also analysed to examine differences with regard to severity, presence of distressing recollections of fear-related events, gender, and prevalence across age. Data were obtained by means of a survey of 1,959 Dutch adults, 18-93 yr of age. Phobias were assessed based on DSM-IV-TR criteria, whereas severity of present fears was assessed using visual analogue scales. The prevalence of dental fear was 24.3%, which is lower than for fear of snakes (34.8%), heights (30.8%), and physical injuries (27.2%). Among phobias, dental phobia was the most common (3.7%), followed by height phobia (3.1%) and spider phobia (2.7%). Fear of dental treatment was associated with female gender, rated as more severe than any other fear, and was most strongly associated with intrusive re-experiencing (49.4%). The findings suggest that dental fear is a remarkably severe and stable condition with a long duration. The high prevalence of dental phobia in the Netherlands is intriguing and warrants investigation in other countries.

  16. Part 2: Fear of contagion, fear of intimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botnick, M R

    2000-01-01

    In this second part of the trilogy, I review the concepts of panic, the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, and how internally inconsistent opinions and attitudes can be made consistent (or consonant). The theory explains, in some measure, how AIDS has been socialized into our thinking about identity, and goes beyond a medical condition. The pervasive identification of gay men with HIV and AIDS has resulted for many in an over-identification with fears of contagion and on a societal level in a fear of all gays as pools of contagion. The conversion of dissonance to consonance has taken many forms; within the gay community it has resulted in the rejection of the "100% safe-100% of the time" safe-sex message, and the adoption (for many) of a new form of deviant label-someone who is not in conformity with the social norm of gay community sexual behavior. However, we shall see that this so-called norm is a sham-that many gay men do not, as a rule, practice safe(r) sex on a consistent basis. This information indicates that the educational efforts of the last decade have at best lost their potency, and at worst were less than efficacious to begin with. The dissonant messages have also informed both the construction of the gay community and its interpretation of what it means to be gay. The result has been a tri-lateral perception of HIV and AIDS as either a medical, political or a social phenomenon. This fragmented understanding has exacerbated the already polarized ASOs and GSOs in that each has determined its ideology based on a particular interpretation of HIV and AIDS. This polarization has been operationalized by the GSOs and ASOs primarily in the manner by which they define their target markets, and more importantly, in the manner by which they exclude certain gays from participation. At the extreme, some gay men feel entirely left out of the community, and are consequently unable to convert their dissonance regarding being gay into consonance, if only by developing

  17. Fear of pain potentiates nocebo hyperalgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslaksen PM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Per M Aslaksen,1 Peter S Lyby2 1Department of Psychology, Research Group for Cognitive Neuroscience, The Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; 2Catosenteret Rehabilitation Center, Son, Norway Abstract: Nocebo hyperalgesia has received sparse experimental attention compared to placebo analgesia. The aim of the present study was to investigate if personality traits and fear of pain could predict experimental nocebo hyperalgesia. One hundred and eleven healthy volunteers (76 females participated in an experimental study in which personality traits and fear of pain were measured prior to induction of thermal heat pain. Personality traits were measured by the Big-Five Inventory-10. Fear of pain was measured by the Fear of Pain Questionnaire III. Heat pain was induced by a PC-controlled thermode. Pain was measured by a computerized visual analog scale. Stress levels during the experiment were measured by numerical rating scales. The participants were randomized to a Nocebo group or to a no-treatment Natural History group. The results revealed that pain and stress levels were significantly higher in the Nocebo group after nocebo treatment. Mediation analysis showed that higher levels of the Fear of Pain Questionnaire III factor "fear of medical pain" significantly increased stress levels after nocebo treatment and that higher stress levels were associated with increased nocebo hyperalgesic responses. There were no significant associations between any of the personality factors and the nocebo hyperalgesic effect. The results from the present study suggest that dispositional fear of pain might be a useful predictor for nocebo hyperalgesia and emotional states concomitant with expectations of increased pain. Furthermore, measurement of traits that are specific to pain experience is probably better suited for prediction of nocebo hyperalgesic responses compared to broad measures of personality

  18. Serotonin, Amygdala and Fear: Assembling the Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Bocchio, Marco; McHugh, Stephen B.; Bannerman, David M; Sharp, Trevor; Capogna, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The fear circuitry orchestrates defense mechanisms in response to environmental threats. This circuitry is evolutionarily crucial for survival, but its dysregulation is thought to play a major role in the pathophysiology of psychiatric conditions in humans. The amygdala is a key player in the processing of fear. This brain area is prominently modulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). The 5-HT input to the amygdala has drawn particular interest because genetic an...

  19. Convergent validity of K-SADS-PL by comparison with CBCL in a Portuguese speaking outpatient population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordin Isabel A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different diagnostic interviews in child and adolescent psychiatry have been developed in English but valid translations of instruments to other languages are still scarce especially in developing countries, limiting the comparison of child mental health data across different cultures. The present study aims to examine the convergent validity of the Brazilian version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children/Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL by comparison with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, a parental screening measure for child/adolescent emotional/behavior problems. Methods An experienced child psychiatrist blind to CBCL results applied the K-SADS-PL to a consecutive sample of 78 children (6-14 years referred to a public child mental health outpatient clinic (response rate = 75%. Three K-SADS-PL parameters were considered regarding current disorders: parent screen interview rates, clinician summary screen interview rates, and final DSM-IV diagnoses. Subjects were classified according to the presence/absence of any affective/anxiety disorder, any disruptive disorder, and any psychiatric disorder based on K-SADS-PL results. All subjects obtained T-scores on CBCL scales (internalizing, externalizing, total problems. Results Significant differences in CBCL mean T-scores were observed between disordered and non-disordered children. Compared to children who screened negative, children positive for any affective/anxiety disorder, any disruptive disorder, and any psychiatric disorder had a higher internalizing, externalizing and total problem T-score mean, respectively. Highly significant differences in T-score means were also found when examining final diagnoses, except for any affective/anxiety disorder. Conclusions Evidence of convergent validity was found when comparing K-SADS-PL results with CBCL data.

  20. Beyond fear: the role of peritraumatic responses in posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms among female crime victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Shireen L; Kaysen, Debra; Gutner, Cassidy A; Griffin, Michael G; Resick, Patricia A

    2008-06-01

    This study examines peritraumatic (and posttrauma) responses in a sample of female crime victims who had been sexually or physically assaulted within the previous 2 months. Women were interviewed about their emotional and behavioral responses during the trauma and assessed for posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptomatology. Results indicate that women experience a wide range of behavioral and emotional responses during a traumatic event and that these responses have implications for posttrauma adjustment. Women who experienced behaviors typical of a freeze response are more likely to have a greater degree of symptomatology after the assault. Peritraumatic emotions, other than fear, such as sadness, humiliation, and anger, also appear to be related to posttrauma depression symptoms. These findings highlight the necessity of exploring the full range of possible reactions during a trauma.