WorldWideScience

Sample records for surplus trailing cables

  1. 30 CFR 77.605 - Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Breaking trailing cable and power cable... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.605 Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections. Trailing cable and power cable connections between cables and to power sources shall not be...

  2. 30 CFR 75.603 - Temporary splice of trailing cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary splice of trailing cable. 75.603... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.603 Temporary splice of trailing cable. One temporary splice may be made in any trailing cable. Such trailing cable...

  3. 30 CFR 75.607 - Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Breaking trailing cable and power cable... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.607 Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections. Trailing cable and power cable connections...

  4. 30 CFR 77.606 - Energized trailing cables; handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Energized trailing cables; handling. 77.606... COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.606 Energized trailing cables; handling. Energized medium- and high-voltage trailing cables shall be handled only by persons wearing protective rubber gloves (see § 77.606-1...

  5. 30 CFR 75.828 - Trailing cable pulling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trailing cable pulling. 75.828 Section 75.828... Longwalls § 75.828 Trailing cable pulling. The trailing cable must be de-energized prior to being pulled by any equipment other than the continuous mining machine. The cable manufacturer's recommended...

  6. 30 CFR 75.600 - Trailing cables; flame resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trailing cables; flame resistance. 75.600 Section 75.600 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... cables; flame resistance. Trailing cables used in coal mines shall meet the requirements established...

  7. 30 CFR 75.907 - Design of trailing cables for medium-voltage circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Design of trailing cables for medium-voltage... Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 75.907 Design of trailing cables for medium-voltage circuits. Trailing cables for medium-voltage circuits shall include grounding conductors, a ground check...

  8. 30 CFR 77.804 - High-voltage trailing cables; minimum design requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage trailing cables; minimum design... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.804 High-voltage trailing cables; minimum design requirements. (a) High-voltage trailing cables used in resistance grounded systems shall...

  9. 30 CFR 75.810 - High-voltage trailing cables; splices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage trailing cables; splices. 75.810... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.810 High-voltage trailing cables; splices. In the case of high-voltage cables used as...

  10. 30 CFR 18.35 - Portable (trailing) cables and cords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... trip setting as near as practicable to the maximum starting-current-inrush value, but the setting shall... conductor of a current-carrying capacity consistent with the Insulated Power Cable Engineers Association (IPCEA) standards. (See Tables 1 and 2 in Appendix I.) (2) Have current-carrying conductors not...

  11. STI571 reduces TRAIL-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells: c-Abl activation by the death receptor leads to stress kinase-dependent cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Duen-Yi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an effort to achieve better cancer therapies, we elucidated the combination cancer therapy of STI571 (an inhibitor of Bcr-Abl and clinically used for chronic myelogenous leukemia and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, a developing antitumor agent in leukemia, colon, and prostate cancer cells. Methods Colon cancer (HCT116, SW480, prostate cancer (PC3, LNCaP and leukemia (K562 cells were treated with STI571 and TRAIL. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay and sub-G1 appearance. Protein expression and kinase phosphorylation were determined by Western blotting. c-Abl and p73 activities were inhibited by target-specific small interfering (siRNA. In vitro kinase assay of c-Abl was conducted using CRK as a substrate. Results We found that STI571 exerts opposite effects on the antitumor activity of TRAIL. It enhanced cytotoxicity in TRAIL-treated K562 leukemia cells and reduced TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HCT116 and SW480 colon cancer cells, while having no effect on PC3 and LNCaP cells. In colon and prostate cancer cells, TRAIL caused c-Abl cleavage to the active form via a caspase pathway. Interestingly, JNK and p38 MAPK inhibitors effectively blocked TRAIL-induced toxicity in the colon, but not in prostate cancer cells. Next, we found that STI571 could attenuate TRAIL-induced c-Abl, JNK and p38 activation in HCT116 cells. In addition, siRNA targeting knockdown of c-Abl and p73 also reduced TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity, rendering HCT116 cells less responsive to stress kinase activation, and masking the cytoprotective effect of STI571. Conclusions All together we demonstrate a novel mediator role of p73 in activating the stress kinases p38 and JNK in the classical apoptotic pathway of TRAIL. TRAIL via caspase-dependent action can sequentially activate c-Abl, p73, and stress kinases, which contribute to apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Through the inhibition of c-Abl-mediated apoptotic p73 signaling, STI571 reduces

  12. Effects of wheeled cable skidder on rut formation in skid trail-a case study in Hyrcanian forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meghdad Jourgholami; Baris Majnounian

    2011-01-01

    The impact of skidding operations on forest soils can be di- vided into three major categories: soil profile disturbance, soil compac- tion, and soil puddling and rutting. The present study was designed as a factorial experiment in the Kheyrud Forest with a Timberjack cable skidder to evaluate the influences of number of machine passes and soil moisture of skid trails on rutting over a fine-grained soil, and to quantify these effects. The effects of soil moisture of 20%-30%, 30%-40% and 40%-50% and different levels of compaction were studied. Compaction treatments were applied using different numbers of skidding passes (1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 times). Result shows that an increase in the number of machine passes could increase rut depth, but the majority of rutting was occurred after the initial few machine passes. Also rut depth at soil moisture of 40%-50% was higher than rut depths at soil moisture of 30%-40% and 20%-30%. The average rut depth in soil with 20%-30%, 30%-40% and 40%-50% moisture was 17, 22 and 35 cm, respectively. Rut depths were increased significantly with soil moisture and number of machine passes. It is suggested that skidding operations should be planned when soil conditions are dry in order to minimize rutting., but if skidding must be done under wet conditions, the operations should be stopped when machine traffic could create deep ruts.

  13. SURPLUS DILEMMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    On top of yuan revaluation and a huge trade surplus, the Chinese Government must also address ballooning forex reserves At the end of 2005, China's foreign exchange surplus totaled $818.87 billion, a leap of $208.9 billion over the previous year and an amount that is expected to have topped Japan's to become the world's largest.

  14. Trails, Other - Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This trails map layer represents off-road recreational trail features and important road connections that augment Utah’s recreational trail network. This map layer...

  15. Surplus Value & Income Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshizawa,Masayasu

    1993-01-01

    Introduction 1. Marx's Theory of Surplus-Value 1.1. Use-Value and Exchange-Value 1.2. Surplus-Value 1.3. Variable Capital and Constant Capital 2. Implications of Marx's Theory of Surplus-Value 2.1. First Implication-Exploitation 2.2. Second Implication-Deviation of Price from Value 2.3. Third Implication-Capitalist Corporation 3. Capital Accumulation and Income Distribution 3.1. The Effect of Capital Accumulation 3.2. Fall in the Rate of Profit 4. Conclusion 

  16. Benefits of a Surplus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China has growing surplus in its trade and capital accounts, which have prompted warnings and criticism from both domestic and foreign economists. Some think this represents an imbalance in international payments and suggest China speed up the appreciation of the yuan to adjust that imbalance. But Qu Hongbin, Chief China Economist for HSBC, and Ma Xiaoping, an economic analyst, argue that the double-surplus issue should be viewed from a broader perspective. In their article in The Economic Observer, they...

  17. Slowdown Trade Surplus Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leo Zhao

    2008-01-01

    @@ According to Ma Kai's economic planning report submitted to the NPC session on March 5th.(Ma Kai is the Minister in charge of the National Development and Reform Commission),the government has listed the slowdown in trade surplus growth and the steady expansion of,external investment as major tasks for 2008.

  18. 'Nonprofits' need surplus too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D W

    1982-01-01

    By definition profit refers to the difference between revenue and expenses. In for-profit organizations profit or surplus gives a return to the owners of the company and serves as a source of financing for capital acquisitions and working capital. Nonprofit organizations, which are not allowed a surplus, don't suffer on the first count because they have no owners. But they do suffer on the second count because, if expected to grow, they need to finance asset replacement and growth. In these days when funds for long-term debt are becoming scarcer, this author asserts, the need for regulators to allow 'nonprofits' to keep a surplus is increasing. In this article, he argues for a surplus and then discusses how managers and regulators can determine how much a nonprofit organization should be allowed. He presents a combination of a modified version of the return-on-asset pricing model used in for-profit organizations and a model for assessing working capital needs associated with growth.

  19. Racism and Surplus Repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Howard

    1983-01-01

    Explores the relationship between Herbert Marcuse's theory of "surplus repression" and Freud's theory of the "unconscious" with respect to latent, hidden, covert, or subliminal aspects of racism in the United States. Argues that unconscious racism, manifested in evasion/avoidance, acting out/projection, and attempted justification, perpetuates…

  20. Greenway Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — View the Town’s current and proposed greenway system, including connectors and street side trails.A greenway is a linear parcel of land set aside to preserve open...

  1. Superconductor cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Arnaud; Schmidt, Frank; Marzahn, Erik

    2010-05-04

    A superconductor cable is described, having a superconductive flexible cable core (1) , which is laid in a cryostat (2, 3, 4), in which the cable core (1) runs in the cryostat (2, 3, 4) in the form of a wave or helix at room temperature.

  2. Happy trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    From nearby Rocky Mountain peaks to wide open eastern plains to the Denver skyline 25 miles off, Boulder, Colorado sits amidst a dramatic assortment of changing meteorological phenomena that makes it an ideal location for weather watching.Last month, the Mesa Laboratory of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), located on the southwest edge of Boulder, cut the ribbon for what is believed to be the first interpretative weather trail in the United States, and the third in the world. The Walter Orr Roberts Weather Trail, named for the NCAR founder, leads visitors along an easy, half-mile loop annotated with 11 signs about the weather.

  3. High Surplus Means High Profits?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2007-01-01

    @@ In recent years,China has been in the limelight worldwide due to its constant high trade surplus.Its trade surplus hit US$ 24.974 billion in August, a record high and an increase of US$ 624 million versus the previous month, according to the latest data from China Customs.

  4. Superior Hiking Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  5. Superior Hiking Trail Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  6. Cable tensiometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, B.V

    1989-05-30

    This patent describes a weight beam for measuring load on a cable. The weight beam consists of: a beam body; load cell means mounted on the beam body, the load cell means being spaced a predetermined distance from the beam body; clamp means connected to the load cell means and adapted to grip a cable whose tension is to be measured; and adjusting means connected to the load cell to deflect the cable and put the load cell under a tension load, the clamp means and the adjusting means being structurally distinct.

  7. Superconductor cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Arnaud; Schmidt, Frank (Langenhagen, DE

    2009-12-15

    A superconductor cable includes a superconductive cable core (1) and a cryostat (2) enclosing the same. The cable core (1) has a superconductive conductor (3), an insulation (4) surrounding the same and a shielding (5) surrounding the insulation (4). A layer (3b) of a dielectric or semiconducting material is applied to a central element (3a) formed from a normally conducting material as a strand or tube and a layer (3c) of at least one wire or strip of superconductive material is placed helically on top. The central element (3a) and the layer (3c) are connected to each other in an electrically conducting manner at the ends of the cable core (1).

  8. Looking Through the Trade Surplus Prism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Huge trade surplus attracks more and more attention to the China's economy operation,a controversial topic on people's lips as well. The years from 2005 to 2007,China's most rapid trade surplus growing period,have witnessed China's continuous trade surplus growing,breaking out the threshold of US$100 billion,and 200 billion US Dollar successivcly.

  9. Behind the Ever-Widening Trade Surplus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2007-01-01

    @@ China's trade surplus has been on the rise since 2005.The surplus hit US$ 32.1 billion in 2004,and has soared to us$177.5 billion in 2006.The Chinese government has made the reduction of the trade surplus one of its major macro-economic goals since last September.

  10. Minnesota State Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — State trails maintained by Minnesota DNR Division of Parks and Trails. These have multiple use status with specific activities supported in designated sections....

  11. Surplus yeast tank failing catastrophically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2016-01-01

    GOOD REASON FOR CAUTION I A large surplus yeast tank shot into the air leaving the floor plate and the contents behind. Although not designed for overpressure, the tank was kept at “very slight overpressure” to suppress nuisance foaming. The brewery was unaware of the hazards of compressed air. T....... The accident described in this article serves to illustrate that care should be taken if a tank originally designed for atmospheric pressure is modified to operate at slight overpressure.......GOOD REASON FOR CAUTION I A large surplus yeast tank shot into the air leaving the floor plate and the contents behind. Although not designed for overpressure, the tank was kept at “very slight overpressure” to suppress nuisance foaming. The brewery was unaware of the hazards of compressed air...

  12. Cable Sliding at Supports in Cable Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏建东

    2004-01-01

    To develop an effective numerical method for the cable sliding problem in cable structures, two-node catenary cable element was built to model the cables based on analytical solution of elastic catenary. Cooperated with Newton method, continuation method was used to solve the nonlinear equations. This approach is more efficient than using Newton method only and has a wider range to select initial values for the process to converge. The relationship between the tension on a cable segment and its unstrained length was derived and used to calculate the unbalanced cable tensions at the supports. An example is presented to show the correctness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  13. VT Cable Systems 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VT Cable dataset (CABLE2013) includes lines depicting the extent of Vermont's cable modem broadband system as of 6/30/2013 in addition to...

  14. Cable Television Service; Cable Television Relay Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Register, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The rules and regulations of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) concerning cable television service and cable relay service are presented along with the comments of the National Cable Television Association, the National Association of Broadcasters, the Association of Maximum Service Telecasters, and a major group of program suppliers.…

  15. Habit formation, surplus consumption and return predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Hyde, Stuart; Vinther Møller, Stig

    2010-01-01

    -varying risk-free rate. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future stock and bond returns. We find that, although there are important cross-country differences and economically significant pricing errors, for the majority of countries in our sample the model gets...... empirical support in a variety of different dimensions, including reasonable estimates of risk-free rates. Further, for the majority of countries the surplus consumption ratio captures time-variation in expected returns. Together with the price-dividend ratio, the surplus consumption ratio contains...... significant information about future stock returns, also during the 1990s. In addition, in most countries the surplus consumption ratio is also a powerful predictor of future bond returns. Thus, the surplus consumption ratio captures time-varying expected returns in both stock and bond markets....

  16. Cable Tensiometer for Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnelee, Mark (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The invention is a cable tensiometer that can be used on aircraft for real-time, in-flight cable tension measurements. The invention can be used on any aircraft cables with high precision. The invention is extremely light-weight, hangs on the cable being tested and uses a dual bending beam design with a high mill-volt output to determine tension.

  17. A Trail of Roses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2015-01-01

    as a trail of roses through Danish 1960s art. The trail leads from Nielsen’s reading of Stein’s rose to the Danish composer Henning Christiansen, who put the sentence to music in his orchestral work A Rose for Miss Stein (1965). The chain of roses was continued by the painter and performance artist John...

  18. Safer cables; Des cables plus surs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-02-01

    Sixteen years after its adoption, the European construction products directive (CPD) will have soon a strong impact on the characteristics of electrical and communication cables used in European buildings and facilities. Among the six main requirements of this directive, the fire protection safety is a growing up concern and the electric cables have to be tested with respect to their fire resistance to become conformable with the directive. The cable industry has taken up the challenge. (J.S.)

  19. DIRBE Comet Trails

    CERN Document Server

    Arendt, Richard G

    2014-01-01

    Re-examination of the COBE DIRBE data reveals the thermal emission of several comet dust trails. The dust trails of 1P/Halley, 169P/NEAT, and 3200 Phaethon have not been previously reported. The known trails of 2P/Encke, and 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 are also seen. The dust trails have 12 and 25 micron surface brightnesses of <0.1 and <0.15 MJy/sr, respectively, which is <1% of the zodiacal light intensity. The trails are very difficult to see in any single daily image of the sky, but are evident as rapidly moving linear features in movies of the DIRBE data. Some trails are clearest when crossing through the orbital plane of the parent comet, but others are best seen at high ecliptic latitudes as the Earth passes over or under the dust trail. All these comets have known associations with meteor showers. This re-examination also reveals one additional comet and 13 additional asteroids that had not previously been recognized in the DIRBE data.

  20. DRBE comet trails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arendt, Richard G., E-mail: Richard.G.Arendt@nasa.gov [CREST/UMBC, Code 665, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Re-examination of the Cosmic Background Explorer Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) data reveals the thermal emission of several comet dust trails. The dust trails of 1P/Halley, 169P/NEAT, and 3200 Phaethon have not been previously reported. The known trails of 2P/Encke and 73P/Schwassmann–Wachmann 3 are also seen. The dust trails have 12 and 25 μm surface brightnesses of <0.1 and <0.15 MJy sr{sup −1}, respectively, which is <1% of the zodiacal light intensity. The trails are very difficult to see in any single daily image of the sky, but are evident as rapidly moving linear features in movies of the DIRBE data. Some trails are clearest when crossing through the orbital plane of the parent comet, but others are best seen at high ecliptic latitudes as the Earth passes over or under the dust trail. All these comets have known associations with meteor showers. This re-examination also reveals 1 additional comet and 13 additional asteroids that had not previously been recognized in the DIRBE data.

  1. 45 CFR 12.7 - Applications for surplus real property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applications for surplus real property. 12.7 Section 12.7 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION DISPOSAL AND UTILIZATION OF SURPLUS REAL PROPERTY FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PURPOSES § 12.7 Applications for surplus real property. Applications for surplus real...

  2. UtilityTelecom_CABLE2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The VT Cable System dataset (CABLE2005) includes lines depicting the extent of Vermont's cable system as of 12/31/2005. Numerous cable companies provide service in...

  3. TourismTrails_GMNFTRAILS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — GMNFTRAILS contains minor Forest Service roads and all trails within the proclamation boundary of the Green Mountain National Forest and many of the public roads and...

  4. State Park Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set is a collection of ArcView shapefiles (by park) of trails within statutory boundaries of individual MN State Parks, State Recreation Areas and State...

  5. Minnesota Water Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This shapefile describes water trails in the State of Minnesota as designated through legislation and recognized by the Department of Natural Resources. The...

  6. Continental Divide Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This shapefile was created to show the proximity of the Continental Divide to the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail in New Mexico. This work was done as part...

  7. Cable Television: Franchising Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Walter S.; And Others

    This volume is a comprehensive reference guide to cable television technology and issues of planning, franchising, and regulating a cable system. It is intended for local government officials and citizens concerned with the development of cable television systems in their communities, as well as for college and university classes in…

  8. Cable Television: Franchising Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Walter S.; And Others

    This volume is a comprehensive reference guide to cable television technology and issues of planning, franchising, and regulating a cable system. It is intended for local government officials and citizens concerned with the development of cable television systems in their communities, as well as for college and university classes in…

  9. Colleges and Cable Franchising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Neal D.

    After noting issues of audience appeal and financial and philosophical support for educational broadcasting, this paper urges community colleges to play an active role in the process of cable franchising. The paper first describes a cable franchise as a contract between a government unit and the cable television (CATV) company which specifies what…

  10. Cable Supported Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    Cable supported bridges in the form of suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridges are distinguished by their ability to overcome large spans.The book concentrates on the synthesis of cable supported bridges, covering both design and construction aspects. The analytical part covers simple methods...

  11. Certification trails for data structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gregory F.; Masson, Gerald M.

    1993-01-01

    Certification trails are a recently introduced and promising approach to fault detection and fault tolerance. The applicability of the certification trail technique is significantly generalized. Previously, certification trails had to be customized to each algorithm application; trails appropriate to wide classes of algorithms were developed. These certification trails are based on common data-structure operations such as those carried out using these sets of operations such as those carried out using balanced binary trees and heaps. Any algorithms using these sets of operations can therefore employ the certification trail method to achieve software fault tolerance. To exemplify the scope of the generalization of the certification trail technique provided, constructions of trails for abstract data types such as priority queues and union-find structures are given. These trails are applicable to any data-structure implementation of the abstract data type. It is also shown that these ideals lead naturally to monitors for data-structure operations.

  12. The confining trailing string

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiritsis, Elias [APC, Université Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Obs. de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité,Bâtiment Condorcet, F-75205, Paris Cedex 13 (UMR du CNRS 7164) (France); Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Crete Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of Crete,71003 Heraklion (Greece); Mazzanti, Liuba [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University,3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Nitti, Francesco [APC, Université Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Obs. de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité,Bâtiment Condorcet, F-75205, Paris Cedex 13 (UMR du CNRS 7164) (France)

    2014-02-19

    We extend the holographic trailing string picture of a heavy quark to the case of a bulk geometry dual to a confining gauge theory. We compute the classical trailing confining string solution for a static as well as a uniformly moving quark. The trailing string is infinitely extended and approaches a confining horizon, situated at a critical value of the radial coordinate, along one of the space-time directions, breaking boundary rotational invariance. We compute the equations for the fluctuations around the classical solutions, which are used to obtain boundary force correlators controlling the Langevin dynamics of the quark. The imaginary part of the correlators has a non-trivial low-frequency limit, which gives rise to a viscous friction coefficient induced by the confining vacuum. The vacuum correlators are used to define finite-temperature dressed Langevin correlators with an appropriate high-frequency behavior.

  13. The confining trailing string

    CERN Document Server

    Kiritsis, E; Nitti, F

    2014-01-01

    We extend the holographic trailing string picture of a heavy quark to the case of a bulk geometry dual to a confining gauge theory. We compute the classical trailing confining string solution for a static as well as a uniformly moving quark. The trailing string is infinitely extended and approaches a confining horizon, situated at a critical value of the radial coordinate, along one of the space-time directions, breaking boundary rotational invariance. We compute the equations for the fluctuations around the classical solutions, which are used to obtain boundary force correlators controlling the Langevin dynamics of the quark. The imaginary part of the correlators has a non-trivial low-frequency limit, which gives rise to a viscous friction coefficient induced by the confining vacuum. The vacuum correlators are used to define finite-temperature dressed Langevin correlators with an appropriate high-frequency behavior.

  14. Cable Television for Librarians. Cable Television Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Wallace C.

    1973-01-01

    The development of cable television, its present state, and future prospects, including a possible role for libraries, are discussed. (Other conference materials are LI 503071 and 503073 through 503084.) (SJ)

  15. Third party interference monitoring based on distributed fiber sensor and field trail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yongjun; Tan, Dongjie; Juan, Zheng; Wang, Likun; Chen, Pengchao [PetroChina Pipeline R and D Center (China)

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes a novel pipeline third party interference (TPI) monitoring system, which detects micro vibration along pipeline, through fiber cable laying in one ditch. A special optical path was designed by redundant optical fiber cores among fiber cable. This new sensor technology detects illegal excavation through detect phase changes. This innovative signal analysis technology avoids the disturbance of light intensity fluctuation and phase fading. Excavator, digging and impact of freely falling body were used to test this pipeline monitoring system. Different type of cable, such as straight buried cable, steel wire armored cable and silicone tube, were all test in order to test sensitivity. Field trail shows that this system can detect, alarm and. locate different third party interference along pipeline. (author)

  16. Allegheny County Blazed Trails Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Shows the location of blazed trails in all Allegheny County parks. This is the same data used in the Allegheny County Parks Trails Mobile App, available for Apple...

  17. Allegheny County Blazed Trails Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Shows the location of blazed trails in all Allegheny County parks. This is the same data used in the Allegheny County Parks Trails Mobile App, available for Apple...

  18. Cable Tester Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Cables are very important electrical devices that carry power and signals across multiple instruments. Any fault in a cable can easily result in a catastrophic outcome. Therefore, verifying that all cables are built to spec is a very important part of Electrical Integration Procedures. Currently, there are two methods used in lab for verifying cable connectivity. (1) Using a Break-Out Box and an ohmmeter this method is time-consuming but effective for custom cables and (2) Commercial Automated Cable Tester Boxes this method is fast, but to test custom cables often requires pre-programmed configuration files, and cables used on spacecraft are often uniquely designed for specific purposes. The idea is to develop a semi-automatic continuity tester that reduces human effort in cable testing, speeds up the electrical integration process, and ensures system safety. The JPL-Cable Tester Box is developed to check every single possible electrical connection in a cable in parallel. This system indicates connectivity through LED (light emitting diode) circuits. Users can choose to test any pin/shell (test node) with a single push of a button, and any other nodes that are shorted to the test node, even if they are in the same connector, will light up with the test node. The JPL-Cable Tester Boxes offers the following advantages: 1. Easy to use: The architecture is simple enough that it only takes 5 minutes for anyone to learn how operate the Cable Tester Box. No pre-programming and calibration are required, since this box only checks continuity. 2. Fast: The cable tester box checks all the possible electrical connections in parallel at a push of a button. If a cable normally takes half an hour to test, using the Cable Tester Box will improve the speed to as little as 60 seconds to complete. 3. Versatile: Multiple cable tester boxes can be used together. As long as all the boxes share the same electrical potential, any number of connectors can be tested together.

  19. Electrical power cable engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Thue, William A

    2011-01-01

    Fully updated, Electrical Power Cable Engineering, Third Edition again concentrates on the remarkably complex design, application, and preparation methods required to terminate and splice cables. This latest addition to the CRC Press Power Engineering series covers cutting-edge methods for design, manufacture, installation, operation, and maintenance of reliable power cable systems. It is based largely on feedback from experienced university lecturers who have taught courses on these very concepts.The book emphasizes methods to optimize vital design and installation of power cables used in the

  20. Trade Surplus Drops,more Rebate Cutting?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Almost everyone was surprised when the China Customs released the latest export and import statistics on April, 10th:6.87 billion US dollars,China’s favorable balance of trade in March.But only one month earlier,the trade surplus

  1. The (Surplus) Value of Scientific Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Gerhard

    1996-01-01

    Discusses research on scientific communication. Topics include theory-less and formal technical/natural scientific models of scientific communication; social-scientific, power-sensitive models; the sociology of scientific communication; sciences as fields of competition; fraud and deception; potential surplus value across subject information…

  2. Double-Blade Sword: Trade Surplus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eva

    2007-01-01

    @@ In the famous animation Saint Saiya,the golden saint of Gemini, Saga,Left audience the deepest impression of being an angel at one side and a demon at the other.So does China's trade surplus.It is a double-blade sword.

  3. Overview of surplus weapons plutonium disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy, G.

    1996-05-01

    The safe disposition of surplus weapons useable plutonium is a very important and urgent task. While the functions of long term storage and disposition directly relate to the Department`s weapons program and the environmental management program, the focus of this effort is particularly national security and nonproliferation.

  4. UtilityTelecom_CABLE2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The VT Cable dataset (CABLE2013) includes lines depicting the extent of Vermont's cable modem broadband system as of 6/30/2013 in addition to those companies who do...

  5. 45 CFR 12.8 - Assignment of surplus real property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assignment of surplus real property. 12.8 Section 12.8 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION DISPOSAL AND UTILIZATION OF SURPLUS REAL PROPERTY FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PURPOSES § 12.8 Assignment of surplus real property. (a) Notice of interest in a specific...

  6. 26 CFR 1.815-3 - Shareholders surplus account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shareholders surplus account. 1.815-3 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Distributions to Shareholders § 1.815-3 Shareholders surplus account. (a) In general... maintain a shareholders surplus account. This account shall be established as of January 1, 1958, and...

  7. Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online

  8. Multistrand superconductor cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Albert R.

    1985-01-01

    Improved multistrand Rutherford-type superconductor cable is produced by using strands which are preformed, prior to being wound into the cable, so that each strand has a variable cross section, with successive portions having a substantially round cross section, a transitional oval cross section, a rectangular cross section, a transitional oval cross section, a round cross section and so forth, in repetitive cycles along the length of the strand. The cable is wound and flattened so that the portions of rectangular cross section extend across the two flat sides of the cable at the strand angle. The portions of round cross section are bent at the edges of the flattened cable, so as to extend between the two flat sides. The rectangular portions of the strands slide easily over one another, so as to facilitate flexing and bending of the cable, while also minimizing the possibility of causing damage to the strands by such flexing or bending. Moreover, the improved cable substantially maintains its compactness and cross-sectional shape when the cable is flexed or bent.

  9. Tracking Online Trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Man; Edgar-Nevill, Denis; Wang, Yongquan; Xu, Rongsheng

    Traceability is a key to the investigation of the internet criminal and a cornerstone of internet research. It is impossible to prevent all internet misuse but may be possible to identify and trace the users, and then take appropriate action. This paper presents the value of traceability within the email/-newsposting utilities, the technologies being using to hide identities, the difficulties in locating the traceable data and the challenges in tracking online trails.

  10. The design decision trail

    OpenAIRE

    Attenburrow, Derek H

    2012-01-01

    This was a published paper presented at the International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education on the 6th and 7th of September 2012 at the Artisis University College, Antwerp, Belgium. The Design Decision Trail is a student produced, visual narrative of a design project. It includes the signposting of key design decision points within the edited from the project. It is used to share information with student peers, tutors and potential employers. It is now being used in both ...

  11. Keeping Food Alive: Surplus Food Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sedef Sert; Paola Garrone; Marco Melacini

    2014-01-01

    This paper is motivated by the paradoxical reality of food waste in a world of food insecurity, which is an important issue even for developed countries. Today, in Europe,nearly 43.6 million people are estimated to be food insecure, while European countries are reported to generate 179 kg per capita of food waste every year. Previous empirical studies highlight the potential of surplus food management, i.e. managerial processes and practices that strike a balance between social, environmental...

  12. Cable Television; A Bibliographic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenung, James

    This bibliographic review of publications in the field of cable television begins with an introduction to cable television and an outline of the history and development of cable television. Particular attention is given to the regulatory activities of the Federal Communications Commission and the unfulfilled potential of cable television. The…

  13. BCDC Bay Trail Alignment 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Bay Trail provides easily accessible recreational opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts, including hikers, joggers, bicyclists and skaters. It also offers a...

  14. BCDC Bay Trail Alignment 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Bay Trail provides easily accessible recreational opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts, including hikers, joggers, bicyclists and skaters. It also offers a...

  15. End moldings for cable dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roose, L.D.

    1993-12-31

    End moldings for high-voltage cables are described wherein the dielectric insulator of the cable is heated and molded to conform to a desired shape. As a consequence, high quality substantially bubble- free cable connectors suitable for mating to premanufactured fittings are made. Disclosed are a method for making the cable connectors either in the field or in a factory, molds suitable for use with the method, and the molded cable connectors, themselves.

  16. Robotic Arm Biobarrier Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on the 14th Martian day of the mission (June 7, 2008), shows the cable that held the Robotic Arm's biobarrier in place during flight has snapped. The cable's springs retracted to release the biobarrier right after landing. To the lower right of the image a spring is visible. Extending from that spring is a length of cable that snapped during the biobarrier's release. A second spring separated from the cable when it snapped and has been photographed on the ground under the lander near one of the legs. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Robotic Arm Biobarrier Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on the 14th Martian day of the mission (June 7, 2008), shows the cable that held the Robotic Arm's biobarrier in place during flight has snapped. The cable's springs retracted to release the biobarrier right after landing. To the lower right of the image a spring is visible. Extending from that spring is a length of cable that snapped during the biobarrier's release. A second spring separated from the cable when it snapped and has been photographed on the ground under the lander near one of the legs. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. The "Owl Trail"--A Sensory Awareness Rope Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Robert B.

    1978-01-01

    Constructed and experienced by students engaged in an outdoor education class at East Stroudsburg State College in Pennsylvania, the "Owl Trail" is a self guided rope trail (600 yards in length) employing such devices as sensory corrals, bridges, and "go to" ropes (ropes attached to the main rope which provide side trip…

  19. Buoyant Cable Antenna System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-02

    comprise a mechanical jacket surrounding a hollow core enclosing the seismic sensor and signal transfer means. Elongated axial stress elements for...to S. H. Bittleston, discloses a semi-dry marine seismic streamer cable that consists of a number of connected streamer cable sections which each...transmitting axial loads and a radial reinforcement member for relieving radial loads are provided in the jacket . The core is filled with a fluid or fluid

  20. Modeling of cable vibration effects of cable-stayed bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The analysis of dynamic responses of cable-stayed bridges subjected to wind and earthquake loads generallyconsiders only the motions of the bridge deck and pylons. The influence of the stay cable vibration on the responses of the bridgeis either ignored or considered by approximate procedures. The transverse vibration of the stay cables, which can be significant insome cases, are usually neglected in previous research. In the present study, a new three-node cable element has been developed tomodel the transverse motions of the cables. The interactions between the cable behavior and the other parts of the bridgesuperstructure are considered by the concept of dynamic stiffness. The nonlinear effect of the cable caused by its self-weight isincluded in the formulation. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed model.The impact of cable vibration behavior on the dynamic characteristics of cable-stayed bridges is discussed.

  1. Aerodynamic stability of cable-supported bridges using CFRP cables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin-jun; YING Lei-dong

    2007-01-01

    To gain understanding of the applicability of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) cable in cable-supported bridges, based on the Runyang Bridge and Jinsha Bridge, a suspension bridge using CFRP cables and a cable-stayed bridge using CFRP stay cables are designed, in which the cable's cross-sectional area is determined by the principle of equivalent axial stiffness.Numerical investigations on the aerodynamic stability of the two bridges are conducted by 3D nonlinear aerodynamic stability analysis. The results showed that as CFRP cables are used in cable-supported bridges, for suspension bridge, its aerodynamic stability is superior to that of the case using steel cables due to the great increase of the torsional frequency; for cable-stayed bridge,its aerodynamic stability is basically the same as that of the case using steel stay cables. Therefore as far as the wind stability is considered, the use of CFRP cables in cable-supported bridges is feasible, and the cable's cross-sectional area should be determined by the principle of equivalent axial stiffness.

  2. AC Cable: Yokohama Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Takato

    High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables can transmit large amounts of electricity in a compact size with minimal losses. Therefore, they are expected to save the construction cost of underground lines in urban areas and decrease transmission losses. Several HTS cables have recently been demonstrated in networks around the world, and full-scale commercialization is expected in the near future. In Japan, the development of compact HTS cables suitable for urban deployment has been underway since the early 1990s. In 2007, a national project was started to verify their operational performance and long-term reliability in the grid. An HTS cable 240 m long was installed at the Asahi substation of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) in Yokohama; then a joint, terminations and cooling system was constructed in 2011. After successful performance tests, the cable was connected to the grid for the first time in Japan, and started to deliver electricity to 70,000 households in October 2012. This trouble-free in-grid service continued for over a year. We can conclude that the HTS cable system performs well and has the stability required for long-term in-grid operations.

  3. The NO TRAIL to YES TRAIL in cancer therapy (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Yeun; Huerta-Yepez, Sara; Vega, Mario; Baritaki, Stavroula; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Bonavida, Benjamin

    2007-10-01

    Treatment of cancer patients with conventional therapies (chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, immunotherapy and radiation) respond initially well and experience prolonged tumor-free survival. However, in many patients tumor recurrences and relapses occur and such tumors exhibit the resistant phenotype i.e. cross-resistance to various cytotoxic and apoptotic agents. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies are currently being explored and are based on a better understanding of the underlying biochemical and molecular mechanisms of tumor cell resistance. Hence, novel sensitizing agents that can modify the tumor dysregulated apoptotic gene products can reverse resistance when used in combination with subtoxic doses of cytotoxic reagents. Targeted anti-tumor therapies are the current choice in the treatment of resistant tumors. One such targeted therapy is the application of TRAIL or TRAIL agonist monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) (anti-DR4 and anti-DR5) because, unlike Fas ligand and TNF-alpha, they are not cytotoxic to normal tissues. TRAIL as monotherapy will only be effective against TRAIL sensitive tumors, however, most tumors are resistant to TRAIL and their sensitization can restore their sensitivity to TRAIL apoptosis. We present, herein, one potential novel sensitizing agent, namely, nitric oxide (NO) that has been shown to sensitize TRAIL-resistant tumor cells to TRAIL apoptosis via its inhibitory effect on the transcription factors NF-kappaB and Yin Yang 1 (YY1), concomitantly with upregulation of DR5. We propose the therapeutic application of NO donors as sensitizing agents used in combination with TRAIL/DR4 or DR5 mAbs in the treatment of TRAIL-resistant tumors.

  4. Savannah River Site Surplus Facilities Available for Reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, R.M.; Owens, M.B.; Lentz, D.W.

    1995-09-14

    The purpose of this document is to provide a current, centralized list of Savannah River Site facilities, which are surplus and available for reuse. These surplus facilities may be made available for other DOE site missions, commercial economic development reuse, or other governmental reuse. SRS procedures also require that before new construction can be approved, available surplus facilities are screened for possible reuse in lieu of the proposed new construction.

  5. Cable-Dispensing Cart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredberg, Alan S.

    2003-01-01

    A versatile cable-dispensing cart can support as many as a few dozen reels of cable, wire, and/or rope. The cart can be adjusted to accommodate reels of various diameters and widths, and can be expanded, contracted, or otherwise reconfigured by use of easily installable and removable parts that can be carried onboard. Among these parts are dispensing rods and a cable guide that enables dispensing of cables without affecting the direction of pull. Individual reels can be mounted on or removed from the cart without affecting the other reels: this feature facilitates the replacement or reuse of partially depleted reels, thereby helping to reduce waste. Multiple cables, wires, or ropes can be dispensed simultaneously. For maneuverability, the cart is mounted on three wheels. Once it has been positioned, the cart is supported by rubber mounts for stability and for prevention of sliding or rolling during dispensing operations. The stability and safety of the cart are enhanced by a low-center-of-gravity design. The cart can readily be disassembled into smaller units for storage or shipping, then reassembled in the desired configuration at a job site.

  6. VT Cable Modem Systems 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VT Cable Modem dataset (CABLEMOD2013) includes lines depicting the extent of Vermont's cable modem broadband system as of 6/30/2013. This data...

  7. VT Cable Modem Systems 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VT Cable Modem dataset (CABLEMOD2005) includes lines depicting the extent of Vermont's cable modem broadband system as of 12/31/2005. This...

  8. Cable historical operating temperature estimator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon de, F.; St-Roch, P.; Beauregard, C. [Cyme International, St-Bruno, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    A tool designed to accurately determine the thermal age of underground cables was described. The cable historical operating temperature estimate (CHOTE) is a software application designed to identify which cables have exceeded their normal and emergency operating temperatures. CHOTE is also capable of predicting when cables are likely to reach their maximum design temperature in the future. The system operates by processing archived loading information from data acquisition systems in order to automatically analyze all the thermal sections of a system. Cables that exceed their emergency and normal temperatures for the longest amount of time are ranked first, and outputs display when and where the hot spots have occurred. CHOTE is also able to study the impact of the addition of new cables and to determine the remaining ampacity of cables installed in a given duct bank. It was concluded that the CHOTE system can help in the efficient management of cable repairs and installations. 28 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Space Flight Cable Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spak, Kaitlin

    2013-01-01

    This work concentrates the modeling efforts presented in last year's VSGC conference paper, "Model Development for Cable-Harnessed Beams." The focus is narrowed to modeling of space-flight cables only, as a reliable damped cable model is not yet readily available and is necessary to continue modeling cable-harnessed space structures. New experimental data is presented, eliminating the low-frequency noise that plagued the first year's efforts. The distributed transfer function method is applied to a single section of space flight cable for Euler-Bernoulli and shear beams. The work presented here will be developed into a damped cable model that can be incorporated into an interconnected beam-cable system. The overall goal of this work is to accurately predict natural frequencies and modal damping ratios for cabled space structures.

  10. VT Green Mountain National Forest - Long Trail and Appalachian Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) GMNFTRAILS contains minor Forest Service roads and all trails within the proclamation boundary of the Green Mountain National Forest and many of...

  11. Coal Discovery Trail officially opens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinger, C. [Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Sparwood, BC (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    The opening of the 30-kilometre Coal Discovery Trail in August is described. The trail, through a pine, spruce, and larch forest, extends from Sparwood to Fernie and passes through Hosmer, a historic mining site. The trail, part of the Elk Valley Coal Discovery Centre, will be used for hiking, bicycling, horseback riding, and cross-country skiing. The Coal Discovery Centre will provide an interpretive centre that concentrates on history of coal mining and miners, preservation of mining artifacts and sites, and existing technology. 3 figs.

  12. The Vulnerability Framework Integrates Various Models of Generating Surplus Revenue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniaci, Vincent

    2004-01-01

    Budgets operationalize the strategic planning process, and institutions must have surplus revenue to be able to cope with future operations. There are three approaches to generate surplus revenue: increased revenue, decreased cost, and reallocation of resources. Extending their earlier work, where they established strategic benchmarks for annual…

  13. The assessment of labour surplus in agricultural farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Marcysiak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polish agriculture is characterised by high labour surplus in agricultural farms. The aim of the study is showing the methods used for assessment of labour surplus in agricultural farms. The assessment was made considering two criteria: objective and subjective.

  14. 50 CFR 30.1 - Surplus range animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Surplus range animals. 30.1 Section 30.1... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range Animals § 30.1 Surplus range animals. Range animals on fenced wildlife refuge areas, including buffalo and longhorn cattle,...

  15. 50 CFR 30.2 - Disposition of surplus range animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of surplus range animals. 30.2... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range Animals § 30.2 Disposition of surplus range animals. Disposition shall be made only during regularly scheduled...

  16. A stochastic surplus production model in continuous time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Wæver; Berg, Casper Willestofte

    2017-01-01

    Surplus production modelling has a long history as a method for managing data-limited fish stocks. Recent advancements have cast surplus production models as state-space models that separate random variability of stock dynamics from error in observed indices of biomass. We present a stochastic su...

  17. Ionizing radiation effects on ISS ePTFE jacketed cable assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, S. L.; Golden, J. L.; Lorenz, M. J.; Pedley, M. D.

    2003-09-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), which is susceptible to embrittlement by ionizing radiation, is used as a primary material in the Mobile Transporter's (MT) Trailing Umbilical System (TUS) cable on the International Space Station (ISS). The TUS cable provides power and data service between the ISS truss and the MT. The TUS cable is normally stowed in an uptake reel and is fed out to follow the MT as it moves along rails on the ISS truss structure. For reliable electrical and mechanical performance, TUS cable polymeric materials must be capable of >3.5% elongation without cracking or breaking. The MT TUS cable operating temperature on ISS is expected to range between -100°C and +130°C. The on-orbit functional life requirement for the MT TUS cable is 10 years. Analysis and testing were performed to verify that the MT TUS cable would be able to meet full-life mechanical and electrical performance requirements, despite progressive embrittlement by the natural ionizing radiation environment. Energetic radiation belt electrons (trapped electrons) are the principal contributor to TUS cable radiation dose. TUS cable specimens were irradiated, in vacuum, with both energetic electrons and gamma rays. Electron beam energy was chosen to minimize charging effects on the non-conductive ePTFE (expanded PTFE) targets. Tensile testing was then performed, over the expected range of operating temperatures, as a function of radiation dose. When compared to the expected in-flight radiation dose/depth profile, atomic oxygen (AO) erosion of the radiation damaged TUS cable jacket surfaces is more rapid than the development of radiation induced embrittlement of the same surfaces. Additionally, the layered construction of the jacket prevents crack growth propagation, leaving the inner layer material compliant with the design elongation requirements. As a result, the TUS cable insulation design was verified to meet performance life requirements.

  18. How Large Is China’s Rural Surplus Labor Force?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓河; 马建蕾

    2008-01-01

    The existence of surplus labor in the countryside and transfer of agricultural labor to non-agricultural sectors is a common phenomenon in economic development.Supply of rural surplus labor will change with the transfer of labor.By calculating the di erence between the agricultural labor force and current demand of laborin agriculture,this paper seeks to estimate the total amount of China’s rural surplus labor as identified by age,gender and education.Results indicate that there areroughly 110 million rural surplus laborers,of which 50%are aged above 40 years old,55.37%are women,and 42.96%have received an education below primaryschool.Currently,China’s rural surplus labor supply falls short of non-agricultural industry demand.

  19. The Danish Superconducting Cable Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The design and construction of a superconducting cable is described. The cable has a room temperature dielectric design with the cryostat placed inside the electrical insulation.BSCCO 2223 superconducting tapes wound in helix form around a former are used as the cable conductor. Results from...

  20. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, Roger, A.

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  1. Economical Aspects of Superconducting Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, Masayoshi

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cables are expected to resolve technical problems with power grids because they put large-capacity, low-loss power transmission into a compact package. One problem is replacing old 275-kV oil filled (OF) cables with cross-linked polyethylene insulated vinyl sheath cables (XLPE cables). This is difficult because XLPE cable has a lower transmission capacity than OF cable. In addition, the high concentration of public infrastructure underground makes it extremely difficult to build new ones. However, if 66-kV HTS cables can be installed inside existing underground conduits and can achieve a power capacity equivalent to conventional 275-kV cables, construction costs could be significantly reduced. Moreover, if XLPE cables are used for a 1,000 MVA-class transmission line, then three circuits of nine 275-kV single-core cables would be required, which would incur a transmission loss of 90 W/m/cct. Three circuits of three 66-kV Three-in-One HTS cables, however, with an AC loss of 1 W/m/ph@3 kA, heat invasion of 2 W/m, and cooling system efficiency of 0.1, would reduce transmission loss to less than three-fifths that of XLPE cables.

  2. Geothermal Prospects in a Shrinking Power Surplus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geyer, John D.

    1989-03-21

    The western power surplus is finite and electric load growth is persistent. Concerns about availability and environmental effects will overshadow life-cycle cost in selection of tomorrow's sources. Geothermal's growth and achievements qualify it as a preferred resource for the 1990s and beyond but its merits remain largely unknown in political and financial circles. Near-term needs include power sales contracts after 1990, improved comfort for banks and utilities with reservoir assessment techniques and mitigation of financial risks at pilot plants on new fields. Institutional, not technical, issues will dominate geothermal energy's growth, performance, image and utility relationships in the 1990s.

  3. Pediatrics and Cable Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, Edward; And Others

    The Department of Community Medicine of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine (New York City), in cooperation with the TelePrompTer Corporation and with funding from the Health Services and Mental Health Administration of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, has developed a bidirectional television system using coaxial cable which links…

  4. Cable Aerodynamic Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleissl, Kenneth

    to a categorization of the different control technics together with an identification of two key mechanisms for reduction of the design drag force. During this project extensive experimental work examining the aerodynamics of the currently used cable surface modifications together with new innovative proposals have...

  5. Comparison of cable ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaček, Vít; Kohout, Tomáš

    2010-03-01

    Two cable types, which currently are used in nuclear power plants (NPP) and which are composed by jacket/insulation materials, i.e. PVC/PVC and PVC/PE, were exposed to accelerated ageing conditions, in order to simulate their behavior after 10 years in service. The cables were aged under two different test conditions: With relatively high accelerating ageing speed:Radiation ageing was carried out at room temperature at a dose rate of 2900 Gy/h, followed by thermal ageing at 100 °C. This accelerated ageing condition was fairly fast, but still in compliance with the standards. With moderate ageing speed:The radiation and thermal ageing was performed simultaneously (superimposed) at a dose rate of 2.7-3.7Gy/h and a temperature of 68-70 °C. Such a test condition seems to be very close to the radiation and temperature impact onto the cables in the real NPP service. Finally, mechanical properties were measured to characterize the ageing status of the cables. The purpose of this study was to compare degradation effects, derived from both ageing methods, and to demonstrate that results obtained from high values of accelerating parameters and from fast ageing simulation can be very different from reality. The observed results corroborated this assumption.

  6. Lightweight Electric Power Cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    8I~ .4 111 162 MICROCi Pi RL’ LUHION TESI CHARI "LIGHTWEIGHT ELECTRIC POWER CABLE" FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT SEPTEMBER 30, 1981 to SEPTEMBER 30, 1982... Vulcanized by heat to crosslink. TPE (Thermoplastic Elastomer) - Polymers having elastomeric proper- ties. Used as thermoplastics - melt formed by

  7. Handbook for photovoltaic cabling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, D. N.

    1980-08-01

    This volume, originally written as part of the Interim Performance Criteria Document Development Implementation Plan and Procedures for Photovoltaic Energy Systems, is an analysis of the several factors to be considered in selecting cabling for photovoltaic purposes. These factors, correspoonding to chapter titles, are electrical, structural, safety, durability/reliability, and installation. A glossary of terms used within the volume is included for reference.

  8. Flat conductor cable commercialization project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, P.; Wadsworth, E.

    1977-01-01

    An undercarpet flat conductor cable and a baseboard flat conductor cable system were studied for commercialization. The undercarpet system is designed for use in office and commercial buildings. It employs a flat power cable, protected by a grounded metal shield, that terminates in receptacles mounted on the floor. It is designed to interface with a flat conductor cable telephone system. The baseboard system consists of a flat power cable mounted in a plastic raceway; both the raceway and the receptacles are mounted on the surface of the baseboard. It is designed primarily for use in residential buildings, particularly for renovation and concrete and masonry construction.

  9. Tapping the television cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, M; Findlay, A; Canac, J F; Vergez, A

    1996-01-01

    Immediate access to patient data is essential to support good clinical decision making and support. However, away from the surgery, the doctor is currently unable to have any access to the clinical database. Solutions exist to support remote access, such as modems or radio data networks, but these are slow, with typical speeds in the 2-10 kbaud region. We propose a novel solution, to use the TV cable already installed in many homes. Using this technology, a suitably equipped computer (RF modern) is capable of connecting at speeds in excess of 500 kbaud and will run applications in exactly the same way as if connected to a surgery network: the cable TV becomes a LAN, but on a metropolitan scale. Brunel University, in collaboration with the Cable Corporation, has been piloting such a network. Issues include not only levels of service, but also security on the network and access, since the data are being effectively received in every home. However, close scrutiny of channel use can create closed networks reserved for specific users. The technology involves use of an RF modem to transmit data on a reverse channel (based at 16 MHz) on each subnet to a router at the head end of the cable network. This frequency translates the packet and retransmits it to all the subnets on a forward channel (based at 178 MHz). Each channel occupies the bandwidth normally allocated to one TV channel. Access is based on a modified CSMA/CD protocol, so treating the cable network as single multiple access network. The modem comes as a standard card installed in a PC and appears much as an ethernet card, but at reduced speed. With an NDIS driver it is quite able to support almost any network software, and has successfully demonstrated Novell and TCP/IP. We describe the HomeWorker network and the results from a pilot study being undertaken to determine the performance of the system and its impact on working practice.

  10. The social surplus of broadband initiatives in compulsory education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Peter Parsons

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the New Zealand government embarked upon an ambitious programme of broadband infrastructure investment, a process that will continue until at least 2019. Part of this investment is specifically targeted at compulsory education, with initiatives that include bringing fibre connections to the school gate, supporting on-site network upgrades (including wireless and providing teaching, learning and support services delivered through these networks. Such investments are not made without some projections of the likely rate of return, but calculating return on investment (ROI in educational broadband is complex, as it encompasses a range of factors. This article reports on an interview-based study engaging a range of stakeholders in educational broadband provision. The study utilises a research model that considers the various elements of social surplus, namely; producer surplus (savings, producer surplus (profit and consumer surplus (perceived value over and above cost, to explore the elements of social surplus that have been used to define educational broadband ROI calculations and justify the scale of investment. The results indicate that all three components of social surplus are relevant, though the concept of profit can only be seen in the broader context of long term contributions to the economy. A note of caution is that projections of ROI based only on positive returns fail to acknowledge the potential for some innovations to actually increase costs. Further, purely quantitative models do not properly take into account qualitative components of consumer surplus.

  11. Trail Pheromone Disruption of Argentine Ant Trail Formation and Foraging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Stringer, L.D.; Snook, K.; Banko, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Trail pheromone disruption of invasive ants is a novel tactic that builds on the development of pheromone-based pest management in other insects. Argentine ant trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, was formulated as a micro-encapsulated sprayable particle and applied against Argentine ant populations in 400 m2 field plots in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. A widely dispersed point source strategy for trail pheromone disruption was used. Traffic rates of ants in bioassays of treated filter paper, protected from rainfall and sunlight, indicated the presence of behaviorally significant quantities of pheromone being released from the formulation for up to 59 days. The proportion of plots, under trade wind conditions (2-3 m s-1), with visible trails was reduced for up to 14 days following treatment, and the number of foraging ants at randomly placed tuna-bait cards was similarly reduced. The success of these trail pheromone disruption trials in a natural ecosystem highlights the potential of this method for control of invasive ant species in this and other environments. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

  12. Trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail formation and foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Peck, Robert W; Stringer, Lloyd D; Snook, Kirsten; Banko, Paul C

    2010-01-01

    Trail pheromone disruption of invasive ants is a novel tactic that builds on the development of pheromone-based pest management in other insects. Argentine ant trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, was formulated as a micro-encapsulated sprayable particle and applied against Argentine ant populations in 400 m2 field plots in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. A widely dispersed point source strategy for trail pheromone disruption was used. Traffic rates of ants in bioassays of treated filter paper, protected from rainfall and sunlight, indicated the presence of behaviorally significant quantities of pheromone being released from the formulation for up to 59 days. The proportion of plots, under trade wind conditions (2–3 m s−1), with visible trails was reduced for up to 14 days following treatment, and the number of foraging ants at randomly placed tuna-bait cards was similarly reduced. The success of these trail pheromone disruption trials in a natural ecosystem highlights the potential of this method for control of invasive ant species in this and other environments.

  13. Method to improve superconductor cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, A.R.

    1984-03-08

    A method is disclosed of making a stranded superconductor cable having improved flexing and bending characteristics. In such method, a plurality of superconductor strands are helically wound around a cylindrical portion of a mandrel which tapers along a transitional portion to a flat end portion. The helically wound strands form a multistrand hollow cable which is partially flattened by pressure rollers as the cable travels along the transitional portion. The partially flattened cable is impacted with repeated hammer blows as the hollow cable travels along the flat end portion. The hammer blows flatten both the internal and the external surfaces of the strands. The cable is fully flattened and compacted by two sets of pressure rollers which engage the flat sides and the edges of the cable after it has traveled away from the flat end portion of the mandrel. The flattened internal surfaces slide easily over one another when the cable is flexed or bent so that there is very little possibility that the cable will be damaged by the necessary flexing and bending required to wind the cable into magnet coils.

  14. EIGENFREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF CABLE STRUCTURES WITH INCLINED CABLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William Paulsen; Greg Slayton

    2006-01-01

    The approximate eigenfrequencies for the in-plane vibrations of a cable structure consisting of inclined cables, together with point masses at various points were computed. It was discovered that the classical transfer matrix method was inadequate for this task, and hence the larger exterior matrices were used to determine the eigenfrequency equation. Then predictions of the dynamics of the general cable structure based on the asymptotic estimates of the exterior matrices were made.

  15. 14 CFR 23.689 - Cable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cable systems. 23.689 Section 23.689... Systems § 23.689 Cable systems. (a) Each cable, cable fitting, turnbuckle, splice, and pulley used must meet approved specifications. In addition— (1) No cable smaller than 1/8 inch diameter may be used...

  16. Transfert de risques et création de surplus

    OpenAIRE

    Courtault, Jean-Michel; Jean-Pascal GAYANT

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we use the certain benefit function of Luenberger, which is a generalization of the notion of distributable surplus by Allais, to characterize the classical notions of willingness to pay and willingness to accept. These concepts allow us to study the transfer of one or several risks between two agents or more. Specifically, we determine the conditions under which the maximization of the total distributable surplus leads to a Pareto efficient allocation of risks.; Dans cet artic...

  17. Surplus analysis for variable annuities with a GMDB option

    OpenAIRE

    Haberman, S; Piscopo, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the insurance surplus for a Variable Annuity contract with a Guaranteed Minimum Death Benefit (GMDB) option. Initially, we derive the first two moments of the distribution of the surplus; and subsequently, we develop the whole distribution using a stochastic model which involves an integrated analysis of financial and mortality risk for a portfolio of annuities with GMDB embedded options. We offer a model according which the premium can be modified as per the forecas...

  18. Cable networks, services, and management

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Cable Networks, Services, and Management is the first book to cover cable networks, services, and their management, in-depth, for network operators, engineers, researchers, and students. Thirteen experts in various fields have contributed their knowledge of network architectures and services, Operations, Administration, Maintenance, Provisioning, Troubleshooting (OAMPT) for residential and business services, cloud, Software Defined Networks (SDN), as well as virtualization concepts and their applications as part of the future directions of cable networks. The book begins by introducing architecture and services for Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) 3.0/ 3.1, Converged Cable Access Platform (CCAP), Content Distribution Networks (CDN, IP TV, and Packet Cable and Wi-Fi for Residential Services. Topics that are discussed in proceeding chapters include: operational systems and management architectures, service orders, provisioning, fault manageme t, performance management, billing systems a...

  19. Technology for long cable erection of a thousand-meter scale cable-stayed bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rao Huarong; Deng Huibin

    2009-01-01

    In the background of the construction of Sutong Yangtze River Bridge (short as Sutong Bridge), the cable construction method and techniques of a thousand-meter scale cable-stayed bridge are introduced. Some key construction techniques, such as outspreading cable on deck, installing cable at pylon, pulling and fixing cable at the attachment with decks and cable PE sheath protection are discussed.

  20. Trails, Other, Proposed and existing recreational trails (excluding snowmobile trails). Proposed trails are coded as high, medium, or low priority., Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Manitowoc County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Trails, Other dataset current as of 2010. Proposed and existing recreational trails (excluding snowmobile trails). Proposed trails are coded as high, medium, or low...

  1. Dynamic testing of cable structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caetano Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of dynamic testing in the study of cable structures. In this context, the identification of cable force based on vibration measurements is discussed. Vibration and damping assessment are then introduced as the focus of dynamic monitoring systems, and particular aspects of the structural behaviour under environmental loads are analysed. Diverse application results are presented to support the discussion centred on cable-stayed bridges, roof structures, a guyed mast and a transmission line.

  2. Cable Bacteria in Freshwater Sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kristiansen, Michael; Frederiksen, Rasmus B.; Dittmer, Anders Lindequist; Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Trojan, Daniela; Schreiber, Lars; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Schramm, Andreas; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2015-01-01

    In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the fre...

  3. The Trail Inventory of Aransas [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Aransas National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  4. Alaska gold rush trails study: Preliminary draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Preliminary study draft, with maps, of seven gold rush trails in Alaska, to determine suitability for inclusion in the National Scenic Trails system and their...

  5. Recreational Trails in the State of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This file represents the locations of trails in Iowa. The original trail file was created by the Iowa Department of Transportation (IDOT), and included developed...

  6. Electromagnetic transients in power cables

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Filipe Faria

    2013-01-01

    From the more basic concepts to the most advanced ones where long and laborious simulation models are required, Electromagnetic Transients in Power Cables provides a thorough insight into the study of electromagnetic transients and underground power cables. Explanations and demonstrations of different electromagnetic transient phenomena are provided, from simple lumped-parameter circuits to complex cable-based high voltage networks, as well as instructions on how to model the cables.Supported throughout by illustrations, circuit diagrams and simulation results, each chapter contains exercises,

  7. STATIC ANALYSIS OF CABLE STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yan; LAN Wei-ren

    2006-01-01

    Based on the nonlinear geometric relation between strain and displacement for flexible cable, the equilibrium equation under self-weight and influence of temperature was established and an analytical solution of displacement and tension distribution defined in Eulerian coordinate system was accurately obtained. The nonlinear algebraic equations caused by cable structure were solved directly using the modified Powell hybrid algorithm with high precision routine DNEQNE of Fortran. For example, a cable structure consisting of three cables jointly supported by a vertical spring and all the other ends fixed was calculated and compared with various methods by other scholars.

  8. Historical Reflection on Deviation in Transfer Policy of Agricultural Surplus Labor at Early Stage of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengjun; ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    This paper firstly made an analysis on transfer of agricultural surplus labor in the end of the 20 th century. On this basis,it made reflection on policy of agricultural surplus labor. Then,it stated that there is a great deviation of transfer of agricultural surplus labor from practical requirement and pointed out basic internationally recognized ideas of agricultural surplus labor transfer. Finally,it came up with recommendations for formulating agricultural surplus labor transfer.

  9. 75 FR 32555 - Consolidated Audit Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Exchange Commission 17 CFR Part 242 Consolidated Audit Trail; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... CFR Part 242 RIN 3235-AK51 Consolidated Audit Trail AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION... maintain a consolidated order tracking system, or consolidated audit trail, with respect to the trading...

  10. Global variation of meteor trail plasma turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Dyrud

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the first global simulations on the occurrence of meteor trail plasma irregularities. These results seek to answer the following questions: when a meteoroid disintegrates in the atmosphere, will the resulting trail become plasma turbulent? What are the factors influencing the development of turbulence? and how do these trails vary on a global scale? Understanding meteor trail plasma turbulence is important because turbulent meteor trails are visible as non-specular trails to coherent radars. Turbulence also influences the evolution of specular radar meteor trails; this fact is important for the inference of mesospheric temperatures from the trail diffusion rates, and their usage for meteor burst communication. We provide evidence of the significant effect that neutral atmospheric winds and ionospheric plasma density have on the variability of meteor trail evolution and on the observation of non-specular meteor trails. We demonstrate that trails are far less likely to become and remain turbulent in daylight, explaining several observational trends for non-specular and specular meteor trails.

  11. Review: on TRAIL for malignant glioma therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijlen, J M A; Bremer, E; Mooij, J J A; den Dunnen, W F A; Helfrich, W

    2010-04-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a devastating cancer with a median survival of around 15 months. Significant advances in treatment have not been achieved yet, even with a host of new therapeutics under investigation. Therefore, the quest for a cure for GBM remains as intense as ever. Of particular interest for GBM therapy is the selective induction of apoptosis using the pro-apoptotic tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). TRAIL signals apoptosis via its two agonistic receptors TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2. TRAIL is normally present as homotrimeric transmembrane protein, but can also be processed into a soluble trimeric form (sTRAIL). Recombinant sTRAIL has strong tumouricidal activity towards GBM cells, with no or minimal toxicity towards normal human cells. Unfortunately, GBM is a very heterogeneous tumour, with multiple genetically aberrant clones within one tumour. Consequently, any single agent therapy is likely to be not effective enough. However, the anti-GBM activity of TRAIL can be synergistically enhanced by a variety of conventional and novel targeted therapies, making TRAIL an ideal candidate for combinatorial strategies. Here we will, after briefly detailing the biology of TRAIL/TRAIL receptor signalling, focus on the promises and pitfalls of recombinant TRAIL as a therapeutic agent alone and in combinatorial therapeutic approaches for GBM.

  12. The Healthy Trail Food Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dorcas S.

    An 800-mile canoe trip down a Canadian river provided the testing ground for the tenets of this trail food book. On the seven week expedition two pounds of food per person per day at a daily cost of $1.70 were carried. The only perishables were cheese, margarine, and onions. Recipes and menu ideas from that expedition are provided along with…

  13. Cable ampacity. A Finnish perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, R.J.; Lehtonen, M.

    2006-07-01

    This report is primarily the practical application of a new method to calculate cable conductor temperatures in real time. A brief summary of various thermal parameter measurements in southern Finland is provided, an algorithm to compute cable temperatures in real time when both moisture migration and overall moisture content change are occurring is outlined, potential outcomes of extended loading are demonstrated, installation configurations are compared, steady-state and cyclic ratings are given for HV and MV installations, and emergency loading scenarios are evaluated. A more rational approach to cable rating in Finnish conditions is established. Conservative transient-based rating tends to give back the ampacity that might be lost due to worst possible environmental conditions for installed cables. Nevertheless, it is suggested that MV cables be derated by 20 % from their nominal catalogue ratings. orig.)

  14. Length of a Hanging Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Costello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shape of a cable hanging under its own weight and uniform horizontal tension between two power poles is a catenary. The catenary is a curve which has an equation defined by a hyperbolic cosine function and a scaling factor. The scaling factor for power cables hanging under their own weight is equal to the horizontal tension on the cable divided by the weight of the cable. Both of these values are unknown for this problem. Newton's method was used to approximate the scaling factor and the arc length function to determine the length of the cable. A script was written using the Python programming language in order to quickly perform several iterations of Newton's method to get a good approximation for the scaling factor.

  15. Cable Bacteria in Freshwater Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kristiansen, Michael; Frederiksen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable...... marine cable bacteria, with the genus Desulfobulbus as the closest cultured lineage. The results of the present study indicate that electric currents mediated by cable bacteria could be important for the biogeochemistry in many more environments than anticipated thus far and suggest a common evolutionary...... bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the freshwater stream Giber Å, Denmark, was incubated in the laboratory. After 2 weeks, pH signatures...

  16. Photonic-powered cable assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Stephen N.; Appel, Titus James; Wrye, IV, Walter C.

    2013-01-22

    A photonic-cable assembly includes a power source cable connector ("PSCC") coupled to a power receive cable connector ("PRCC") via a fiber cable. The PSCC electrically connects to a first electronic device and houses a photonic power source and an optical data transmitter. The fiber cable includes an optical transmit data path coupled to the optical data transmitter, an optical power path coupled to the photonic power source, and an optical feedback path coupled to provide feedback control to the photonic power source. The PRCC electrically connects to a second electronic device and houses an optical data receiver coupled to the optical transmit data path, a feedback controller coupled to the optical feedback path to control the photonic power source, and a photonic power converter coupled to the optical power path to convert photonic energy received over the optical power path to electrical energy to power components of the PRCC.

  17. Uncovering the complexity of ant foraging trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Grüter, Christoph; Jones, Sam M; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2012-01-01

    The common garden ant Lasius niger use both trail pheromones and memory of past visits to navigate to and from food sources. In a recent paper we demonstrated a synergistic effect between route memory and trail pheromones: the presence of trail pheromones results in experienced ants walking straighter and faster. We also found that experienced ants leaving a pheromone trail deposit less pheromone. Here we focus on another finding of the experiment: the presence of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), which are used as home range markers by ants, also affects pheromone deposition behavior. When walking on a trail on which CHCs are present but trail pheromones are not, experienced foragers deposit less pheromone on the outward journey than on the return journey. The regulatory mechanisms ants use during foraging and recruitment behavior is subtle and complex, affected by multiple interacting factors such as route memory, travel direction and the presence trail pheromone and home-range markings.

  18. Habit Formation, Surplus Consumption and Return Predictability: International Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Hyde, Stuart; Møller, Stig V.

    On an international post World War II dataset, we use an iterated GMM pro- cedure to estimate and test the Campbell-Cochrane (1999) habit formation model. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future asset returns. We find that, although there are impor......On an international post World War II dataset, we use an iterated GMM pro- cedure to estimate and test the Campbell-Cochrane (1999) habit formation model. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future asset returns. We find that, although...... there are important cross-country differences, for the majority of countries in our sample the model gets empirical support in a variety of diffrent dimensions, including reasonable estimates of risk- free rates, and the model dominates the time-separable power utility model in terms of pricing errors. Further......, for the majority of countries the surplus consumption ratio captures time-variation in expected returns. Together with the price-dividend ratio, the surplus consumption ratio contains significant information about future stock returns, also during the 1990s. Finally, in most countries the surplus con- sumption...

  19. Habit Formation, Surplus Consumption and Return Predictability: International Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Hyde, Stuart; Møller, Stig V.

    On an international post World War II dataset, we use an iterated GMM pro- cedure to estimate and test the Campbell-Cochrane (1999) habit formation model. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future asset returns. We find that, although there are impor......On an international post World War II dataset, we use an iterated GMM pro- cedure to estimate and test the Campbell-Cochrane (1999) habit formation model. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future asset returns. We find that, although...... there are important cross-country differences, for the majority of countries in our sample the model gets empirical support in a variety of diffrent dimensions, including reasonable estimates of risk- free rates, and the model dominates the time-separable power utility model in terms of pricing errors. Further......, for the majority of countries the surplus consumption ratio captures time-variation in expected returns. Together with the price-dividend ratio, the surplus consumption ratio contains significant information about future stock returns, also during the 1990s. Finally, in most countries the surplus con- sumption...

  20. Transfer of Rural Surplus Labor and Vocational Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces about the rural surplus labor transfer.According to the paper,the transfer of rural surplus labor in China presents such fundamental characteristics as randomness and non-thoroughness,scope and field constraint,and hysteretic nature of employment and industrial structure conversion.Besides,the causes of the difficulties in the transfer of rural surplus labor lie in the barriers from the system and policy,structural imbalance of industry and low quality of rural labor.The paper studies the correlation between the quality and the transfer of rural surplus labor FORCE in a systematical way from three aspects,which are the correlations between rural labor quality and the transfer difficulty & speed,the transfer scope & field and the employment stability & income after transfer respectively.Moreover,the paper carries out analysis of the special effects of vocational education on the transfer of rural surplus labor in China,which shows that vocational education is a help in the improvement of cultural qualities,labor skills and physical & mental health of rural labor.

  1. A Note on Realistic Dividends in Actuarial Surplus Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Avanzi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Because of the profitable nature of risk businesses in the long term, de Finetti suggested that surplus models should allow for cash leakages, as otherwise the surplus would unrealistically grow (on average to infinity. These leakages were interpreted as ‘dividends’. Subsequent literature on actuarial surplus models with dividend distribution has mainly focussed on dividend strategies that either maximise the expected present value of dividends until ruin or lead to a probability of ruin that is less than one (see Albrecher and Thonhauser, Avanzi for reviews. An increasing number of papers are directly interested in modelling dividend policies that are consistent with actual practice in financial markets. In this short note, we review the corporate finance literature with the specific aim of fleshing out properties that dividend strategies should ideally satisfy, if one wants to model behaviour that is consistent with practice.

  2. THE CLOWER CONSTRAINTS MODEL DARI SURPLUS ATAU DEFISIT FISKAL PEMERINTAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonni Manurung

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has something as a purpose to building the empirical models and the new hypothesis between the broad money, surpluses or fiscal deficit, the general price index or inflation rate, demand for monetary base and demand for bank deposit. This study also head for optimal interest rate for bank deposit at the given value of broad money, surplus or fiscal deficit, general price index, demand for monetary base, and demand for bank deposit. The model build consist to balance central bank, intertemporal budget constraint at the maximum expected utility for hold monetary base and bank deposit. The evaluation of the surplus or fiscal deficit stabilization is with the alteration of the requirement reserve ratio, Gross Domestic Product, general price index and interest rate. The results of the study show that the requirement reserve ratio, Gross Domestic Product, general price index and interest rate is very respect to surplus or deficit fiscal. The contribution requirement reserve ratio and interest rate for surplus or deficit fiscal are relatively high. This results show that the clower constraint model can explain the necessary of fiscal and monetary coordinate. Fiscal policy still weak and cause the real business cycle slow down, high inflation and interest rate. The other hands, monetary policy is very strong and cause fiscal surplus is relatively high. The prudent of government and monetary authority are needed to build the fiscal and monetary policy for create the dynamic economy, lower inflation, requirement reserve ratio and interest rate, and the monetary and fiscal dynamic equilibrium. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Studi ini bertujuan membuat model empiris dan hipotesis baru tentang faktor-faktor broad money, surplus dan defisit fiskal, tingkat bunga secara umum, atau tingkat inflasi, permintaan uang primer dan deposito. Selain itu studi ini juga mencari tingkat suku bunga deposito optimal pada nilai tertentu dari faktor-faktor tersebut

  3. Does China's Huge External Surplus Imply an Undervalued Renminbi?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anthony J. Makin

    2007-01-01

    A pegged exchange rate regime has been pivotal to China's export-led development strategy. However, its huge trade surpluses and massive build up of international reserves have been matched by large deficits for major trading partners, creating acute policy concerns abroad, especially in the USA. This paper provides a straightforward conceptual framework for interpreting the effect of China's exchange rate policy on its own trade balance and that of trading partners in the context of discrepant economic growth rates. It shows how pegging the exchange rate when output is outstripping expenditure induces China's trade surpluses and counterpart deficits for its trading partners. An important corollary is that given its strictly regulated capital account, China's persistently large surpluses imply a significantly undervalued renminbi, which should gradually become more flexible.

  4. Cable Bacteria in Freshwater Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kristiansen, Michael; Frederiksen, Rasmus B; Dittmer, Anders Lindequist; Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Trojan, Daniela; Schreiber, Lars; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Schramm, Andreas; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2015-09-01

    In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the freshwater stream Giber Å, Denmark, was incubated in the laboratory. After 2 weeks, pH signatures and electric fields indicated electron transfer between vertically separated anodic and cathodic half-reactions. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed the presence of Desulfobulbaceae filaments. In addition, in situ measurements of oxygen, pH, and electric potential distributions in the waterlogged banks of Giber Å demonstrated the presence of distant electric redox coupling in naturally occurring freshwater sediment. At the same site, filamentous Desulfobulbaceae with cable bacterium morphology were found to be present. Their 16S rRNA gene sequence placed them as a distinct sister group to the known marine cable bacteria, with the genus Desulfobulbus as the closest cultured lineage. The results of the present study indicate that electric currents mediated by cable bacteria could be important for the biogeochemistry in many more environments than anticipated thus far and suggest a common evolutionary origin of the cable phenotype within Desulfobulbaceae with subsequent diversification into a freshwater and a marine lineage.

  5. The science of trail surveys: Recreation ecology provides new tools for managing wilderness trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeffrey L.; Wimpey, Jeremy F.; Park, Logan O.

    2011-01-01

    Recreation ecology examines the effects of recreation on protected area ecosystems. One core focus of recreation ecology research is trail science, including the development of efficient protocols to assess and monitor the type and severity of resource impacts, analyses to improve knowledge of factors that influence trail conditions, and studies to assist land managers in improving trail design, maintenance, and visitor management. This article reviews alternative trail survey methodologies most useful for the management of wilderness and backcountry trail networks. Illustrations and implications from survey data for trail planning, design, and management are included.

  6. 10BASE5 Ethernet Cable & Vampire Tap

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    10BASE5 Thick Ethernet Cable, 10Mbit/sec. In the 1980s and early 1990's, Ethernet became more popular and provided a much faster data transmission rate. This cable is one of the first ethernet cables from 1983, a thick, bulky affair. Computers were attached via "Vampire Taps" which were connectors screwed straight through the shielding of the cable.

  7. 14 CFR 27.1365 - Electric cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electric cables. 27.1365 Section 27.1365... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1365 Electric cables. (a) Each electric connecting cable must be of adequate capacity. (b) Each cable that would...

  8. Cable Television, Market Power and Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Kenneth E.

    The goals of this dissertation are to provide an empirical examination of the impact of competing technologies on cable television firms and to document existing pricing behavior in the cable and pay programming industry. The introduction provides a brief overview of the cable television industry, including the impact of cable on federal policy…

  9. Cable Television: Citizen Participation in Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Robert K.

    The historical background of citizen participation in local affairs and its relevance at the onset of community concern about cable television are briefly discussed in this report. The participation of citizens, municipal officials, and cable operators in laying the groundwork for a cable system as well as the pros and cons of cable television as…

  10. 14 CFR 25.689 - Cable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cable systems. 25.689 Section 25.689... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 25.689 Cable systems. (a) Each cable, cable fitting, turnbuckle, splice, and pulley must be approved. In addition— (1) No...

  11. Superconducting cable connections and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Laan, Daniel Cornelis

    2017-09-05

    Superconducting cable connector structures include a terminal body (or other structure) onto which the tapes from the superconducting cable extend. The terminal body (or other structure) has a diameter that is sufficiently larger than the diameter of the former of the superconducting cable, so that the tapes spread out over the outer surface of the terminal body. As a result, gaps are formed between tapes on the terminal body (or other structure). Those gaps are filled with solder (or other suitable flowable conductive material), to provide a current path of relatively high conductivity in the radial direction. Other connector structures omit the terminal body.

  12. Thermal analysis of underground power cable system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rerak, Monika; Ocłoń, Paweł

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the application of Finite Element Method in thermal analysis of underground power cable system. The computations were performed for power cables buried in-line in the ground at a depth of 2 meters. The developed mathematical model allows determining the two-dimensional temperature distribution in the soil, thermal backfill and power cables. The simulations studied the effect of soil and cable backfill thermal conductivity on the maximum temperature of the cable conductor. Also, the effect of cable diameter on the temperature of cable core was studied. Numerical analyses were performed based on a program written in MATLAB.

  13. Static and Dynamic Characteristics of a Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridge with CFRP Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the scope of CFRP cables in cable-stayed bridges is studied by establishing a numerical model of a 1400-m span of the same. The mechanical properties and characteristics of CFRP stay cables and of a cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables are here subjected to comprehensive analysis. The anomalies in the damping properties of free vibration, nonlinear parametric vibration and wind fluctuating vibration between steel cables and CFRP cables are determined. The structural stiffness, wind resistance and traffic vibration of the cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables are also analyzed. It was found that the static performances of a cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables and steel cables are basically the same. The natural frequencies of CFRP cables do not coincide with the major natural frequencies of the cable-stayed bridge, so the likelihood of CFRP cable-bridge coupling vibration is minuscule. For CFRP cables, the response amplitudes of both parametric vibration and wind fluctuating vibration are smaller than those of steel cables. It can be concluded from the research that the use of CFRP cables does not change the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle-bridge coupling vibration. Therefore, they can be used in long-span cable-stayed bridges with an excellent mechanical performance.

  14. Electromagnetic Transients in Power Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Faria Da; Bak, Claus Leth

    of the method. The chapter continues by analysing the frequency-spectrums of cable-based networks which have lower resonance frequencies than usual because of the larger capacitance of the cables. At the same time, a technique that may help save time when plotting the frequency spectrum of a network is proposed...... typically used for the screens of cables (both-ends bonding and cross-boding) and also presents methods that can be used to estimate the maximum current of a cable for different types of soils, i.e. thermal calculations. The end of the chapter introduces the shunt reactor, which is an important element....... It is true that in many cases, software is used to run simulations, and the reader may be tempted to think that only those designing the software need to know how to use modal theory. However, several phenomena require at least a minimum knowledge of the topic and for that reason, the book provides...

  15. Motility of electric cable bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Holm, Simon Agner

    2016-01-01

    Cable bacteria are filamentous bacteria that electrically couple sulfide oxidation and oxygen reduction at centimeter distances, and observations in sediment environments have suggested that they are motile. By time-lapse microscopy, we found that cable bacteria used gliding motility on surfaces...... with a highly variable speed of 0.50.3 ms1 (meanstandard deviation) and time between reversals of 155108 s. They frequently moved forward in loops, and formation of twisted loops revealed helical rotation of the filaments. Cable bacteria responded to chemical gradients in their environment, and around the oxic......-anoxic interface, they curled and piled up, with straight parts connecting back to the source of sulfide. Thus, it appears that motility serves the cable bacteria in establishing and keeping optimal connections between their distant electron donor and acceptors in a dynamic sediment environment....

  16. The Rim Trail at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_trail)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 4 arcs representing The Rim Trail at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The Rim Trail was collected by a Trimble...

  17. Trails, Bike, bike trail data set, Published in 2006, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2006. It is described as 'bike trail data set'. Data by this publisher...

  18. Trails, Other, Trails, Published in 2004, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Washington County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Other dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2004. It is described as 'Trails'. Data...

  19. Trails at LANL - Public Meeting and Forum - July 26, 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pava, Daniel Seth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-26

    These are the slides of a meeting about trails at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The meeting goals are the folllowing: to inform and educate citizens about LANL trails management issues that include resource protection, safety, security and trails etiquette; to explain how and why LANL trails can be closed and reopened; and to understand your concerns and ideas about LANL trails use.

  20. Nuclear instrumentation cable end seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Collins P.; Brown, Donald P.

    1979-01-01

    An improved coaxial end seal for hermetically sealed nuclear instrumentation cable exhibiting an improved breakdown pulse noise characteristic under high voltage, high temperature conditions. A tubular insulator body has metallized interior and exterior surface portions which are braze sealed to a center conductor and an outer conductive sheath. The end surface of the insulator body which is directed toward the coaxial cable to which it is sealed has a recessed surface portion within which the braze seal material terminates.

  1. ELECTROSTATIC PROCESSES IN POWER CABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Bezprozvannych

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Observation of contact electrification of power cable samples is made. It is revealed that the contact potential difference and the capacity formed under separation of free charges on the surfaces of the contacting materials depend on cable design, applied materials, and inspection schemes. Time series of capacity drift and dielectric loss tangent caused by instability of triboelectric charging of the contacting surfaces are presented.

  2. How to Promote the Rural Area of Shandong Province to Absorb Surplus Labor by Itself?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qujing; DAI

    2014-01-01

    This paper firstly highlights the importance of solving the problem of rural surplus labor force,and then shows the necessity and significance of the rural areas to absorb rural surplus labor on their own. Meanwhile,the paper introduces the situation of rural surplus labor in Shandong Province. At last,it proposes the solutions to promote the rural area to absorb the surplus labor by itself.

  3. 50 CFR 31.1 - Determination of surplus wildlife populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... populations. 31.1 Section 31.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Wildlife § 31.1 Determination of surplus wildlife populations. The populations and requirements of wildlife species on wildlife refuge areas shall be determined by population census, habitat evaluation, and...

  4. The Democratic Surplus that Constitutionalised the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2015-01-01

    This article questions the very foundation of the doctrine of a so-called “democratic deficit” in the EU. Yet in order to argue beyond nationalist myths, clear-cut concepts are necessary. Speaking about democracy in the EU, the article exposes four dimensions that constitute a “democratic surplus...

  5. 46 CFR 387.5 - Surplus property assignment recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Surplus property assignment recommendation. 387.5 Section 387.5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MISCELLANEOUS UTILIZATION AND... property assignment recommendation. Before any assignment recommendation is submitted to the...

  6. 26 CFR 1.815-4 - Policyholders surplus account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Distributions to Shareholders § 1.815-4 Policyholders surplus account. (a) In...) by reason of distributions to shareholders during the taxable year which are treated as being made...), exceeds $25,000 for the taxable year 1959. Assume that of the amount distributed by S to its...

  7. Why Double Surplus in China's International Balance of Payments?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Zhengxiang

    2010-01-01

    @@ In accordance with the theory of development economics,developing countries should maintain a current account deficit and capital account surplus, and achieve a higher level of investment through foreign savings rather than just domestic savings. The international financial crisis not only hit the European and US economy, but also gave China's macro-micro economy a heavy blow.

  8. Brookhaven superconducting cable test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, E.B.; Gibbs, R.J.

    1976-08-17

    Construction has started on an outdoor testing station for flexible ac superconducting power transmission cables. It is intended to serve as an intermediate step between laboratory-scale experiments and qualification testing of prototype-scale cables. The permanent equipment includes a 500 W supercritical helium refrigerator using a screw compressor and multistage turbine expanders. Helium storage for 250,000 cu ft of helium at 250 psi is provided. Initially, the cables will be tested in a horizontal cryostat some 250 ft long. High-voltage 60 Hz tests will be performed with the cable in a series resonant mode with a maximum line to ground capability of 240 kV, this is adequate for a 138 kV system design. Impulse testing up to about 650 kV is planned. The cable conductor will be energized by current transformers, initially at about 4 kA and later up to fault levels of 40 kA. The refrigerator is now at the site and testing on a dummy load will commence in the Fall of 1976. The cryostat will be installed in 1977 followed about a year later by the first cable tests.

  9. 50 CFR 31.2 - Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Surplus Wildlife § 31.2 Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. Upon a determination... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. 31.2 Section 31.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE...

  10. 41 CFR 102-37.40 - What type of surplus property is available for donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... property is available for donation? 102-37.40 Section 102-37.40 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.40 What type of surplus property is available for donation? All surplus property (including property held...

  11. Surplus from and storage of electricity generated by intermittent sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Friedrich

    2016-12-01

    Data from the German electricity system for the years 2010, 2012, 2013, and 2015 are used and scaled up to a 100% supply by intermittent renewable energy sources (iRES). In the average, 330GW wind and PV power are required to meet this 100% target. A back-up system is necessary with the power of 89% of peak load. Surplus electricity accrues at high power levels. Curtailing surplus power to a large extent is found to be uneconomic. Demand-side management will suffer from the strong day-to-day variation of available surplus energy. A day storage is ineffective because of the day-night correlation of surplus power during winter. A seasonal storage loses its character when transformation losses are considered because it can contribute only after periods with excessive surplus production. The option of an oversized iRES system to feed the storage is also not effective because, in this case, energy can be taken directly from the large iRES supply, making storage superfluous. The capacities to be installed stress the difficulty to base heat supply and mobility also on iRES generated electricity in the future. As the German energy transition replaces one CO2-free electricity supply system by another one, no major reduction in CO2 emission can be expected till 2022, when the last nuclear reactor will be switched off. By 2022, an extremely oversized power supply system has to be created, which can be expected to continue running down spot-market electricity prices. The continuation of the economic response -to replace expensive gas fuel by cheap lignite- causes an overall increase in CO2 emission. The German GHG emission targets for 2020 and beyond are therefore in jeopardy.

  12. Parametric Vibration and Vibration Reduction of Cables in Cable-stayed Space Latticed Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Yan; ZHOU Dai; LIU Jie

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical model and vibration equation of a cable in cable-stayed sparse latticed structure (CSLS) under external axial excitation were founded. Determination of the mass lumps and natural frequencies supplied by the space latticed structure (SLS) was analyzed. Multiple scales method (MSM) was introduced to analyze the characteristics of cable's parametric vibration, and the precise time-integration method (PTIM) was used to solve vibration equation. The vibration behavior of a cable is closely relative to the frequency ratio of the cable and SLS. The cable's parametric vibration caused by the external axial excitation easily occurs if the frequency ratio of the cable and SLS is in a certain range, and the cable's vibration amplitude varies greatly even if the initial disturbance supplied by SLS changes a little. Furthermore, the mechanical model and vibration equation of the composite cable system consisting of main cables and assistant cables were studied. The parametric analysis such as the pre-tension level and arrangement of the assistant cables was carried out. Due to the assistant cables, the single-cable vibration mode can be transferred to the global vibration mode, and the stiffness and damping of the cable system are enhanced. The natural frequencies of the composite cable system with the curve line arrangement of assistant cables are higher than those with the straight-line arrangement and the former is more effective than the latter on the cable's vibration suppression.

  13. Beam Trail Tracking at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicklaus, Dennis J. [Fermilab; Carmichael, Linden Ralph [Fermilab; Neswold, Richard [Fermilab; Yuan, Zongwei [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    We present a system for acquiring and sorting data from select devices depending on the destination of each particular beam pulse in the Fermilab accelerator chain. The 15 Hz beam that begins in the Fermilab ion source can be directed to a variety of additional accelerators, beam lines, beam dumps, and experiments. We have implemented a data acquisition system that senses the destination of each pulse and reads the appropriate beam intensity devices so that profiles of the beam can be stored and analysed for each type of beam trail. We envision utilizing this data long term to identify trends in the performance of the accelerators

  14. Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Data was hand drawn on USGS Topographic quads by foresters of the Vermont Department of Forests, Parks, & Recreation using orthophotos, survey data, and personal...

  15. Optical Measurement of Cable and String Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Achkire

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a non contacting measurement technique for the transverse vibration of small cables and strings using an analog position sensing detector. On the one hand, the sensor is used to monitor the cable vibrations of a small scale mock-up of a cable structure in order to validate the nonlinear cable dynamics model. On the other hand, the optical sensor is used to evaluate the performance of an active tendon control algorithm with guaranteed stability properties. It is demonstrated experimentally, that a force feedback control law based on a collocated force sensor measuring the tension in the cable is feasible and provides active damping in the cable.

  16. Analysis of Influential Factors on Agricultural Surplus Labor Pro-fessionalization During China's Economic Downturn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xiu-li; Li Lu-tang

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributed to the pool of studies about agricultural surplus labor in China, also acted as the root to the imminent settlement of the issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers. Using data from survey of agricultural surplus labor in 2012, which covered three provinces in northern, midwestern and southern parts of China, this paper analyzed the influential factors on agricultural surplus labor professionalization by adoption of a logistic regression model. It showed that agricultural surplus labor shortage could be explained by low-quality professionalization. It was a feasible and effective way to solve the issue of workforce shortage during economic downturn by improving agricultural surplus labor's professionalization.

  17. LES tests on airfoil trailing edge serration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a large number of acoustic simulations are carried out for a low noise airfoil with different Trailing Edge Serrations (TES). The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FWH) acoustic analogy is used for noise prediction at trailing edge. The acoustic solver is running on the platform...

  18. On the Oregon Trail. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    In this lesson, students work with primary documents and latter-day photographs to recapture the experience of traveling on the Oregon Trail. The learning objectives of the lesson are: (1) to learn about the pioneer experience on the Oregon Trail; (2) to evaluate a historical re-enactment in light of documentary evidence; and (3) to synthesize…

  19. Transformation, translation and TRAIL: an unexpected intersection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Gilbertson, Shai; Rubinchik, Semyon; Voelkel-Johnson, Christina

    2008-04-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a cytokine with roles in tumor surveillance and tolerance. TRAIL selectively induces apoptosis in many malignant but not normal cells but the underlying cause for spontaneous TRAIL sensitivity remains elusive. We propose a novel hypothesis that links TRAIL sensitivity to translational arrest following stresses that inactivate eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (EF2). Affected cells experience a reduction in apoptotic threshold because, due to their short half-lives, levels of anti-apoptotic proteins quickly drop off once translation elongation is inhibited leaving pro-apoptotic proteins unchallenged. This change in protein profile renders affected cells sensitive to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and places EF2 into the role of a sensor for cellular damage.

  20. Addiction surplus: the add-on margin that makes addictive consumptions difficult to contain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Peter J; Livingstone, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Addictive consumptions generate financial surpluses over-and-above non-addictive consumptions because of the excessive consumption of addicted consumers. This add-on margin or 'addiction surplus' provides a powerful incentive for beneficiaries to protect their income by ensuring addicted consumers keep consuming. Not only that, addiction surplus provides the financial base that enables producers to sponsor activities which aim to prevent public health initiatives from reducing consumption. This paper examines the potency of addiction surplus to engage industry, governments and communities in an on-going reliance on addiction surplus. It then explores how neo-liberal constructions of a rational consumer disguise the ethical and exploitative dynamics of addiction surplus by examining ways in which addictive consumptions fail to conform to notions of autonomy and rationality. Four measures are identified to contain the distorting effects of addiction surplus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Trail impacts and trail impact management related to ecotourism visitation at Torres del Paine National Park, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Ecotourism and protected area visitation in Central and South America are largely dependent upon a relatively undisturbed quality of natural resources. However, visitation may impact vegetation, soil, water and wildlife resources, and degrade visitor facilities such as recreation sites and trails. Findings are reported from trail impact research conducted at Torres del Paine National Park in Patagonia, Chile. The frequency and magnitude of selected trail impacts and the relative effect of the amount of use, vegetation type, trail position and trail grade are investigated. Findings differed from previous studies in that amount of use was significantly related to both trail width increases and trail erosion. Management actions to minimize trail impacts are offered.

  2. Umbilical Cable Recovery Load Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shu-wang; JIA Zhao-lin; FENG Xiao-wei; LI Shi-tao

    2013-01-01

    Umbilical cable is a kind of integrated subsea cable widely used in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas field.The severe ocean environment makes great challenges to umbilical maintenance and repair work.Damaged umbilical is usually recovered for the regular operation of the offshore production system.Analysis on cables in essence is a two-point boundary problem.The tension load at the mudline must be known first,and then the recovery load and recovery angle on the vessel can be solved by use of catenary equation.The recovery analysis also involves umbilicalsoil interaction and becomes more complicated.Calculation methods for recovery load of the exposed and buried umbilical are established and the relationship between the position of touch down point and the recovery load as well as the recovery angle and recovery load are analyzed.The analysis results provide a theoretical reference for offshore on-deck operation.

  3. Umbilical cable recovery load analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shu-wang; Jia, Zhao-lin; Feng, Xiao-wei; Li, Shi-tao

    2013-06-01

    Umbilical cable is a kind of integrated subsea cable widely used in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas field. The severe ocean environment makes great challenges to umbilical maintenance and repair work. Damaged umbilical is usually recovered for the regular operation of the offshore production system. Analysis on cables in essence is a two-point boundary problem. The tension load at the mudline must be known first, and then the recovery load and recovery angle on the vessel can be solved by use of catenary equation. The recovery analysis also involves umbilical-soil interaction and becomes more complicated. Calculation methods for recovery load of the exposed and buried umbilical are established and the relationship between the position of touch down point and the recovery load as well as the recovery angle and recovery load are analyzed. The analysis results provide a theoretical reference for offshore on-deck operation.

  4. Share-of-Surplus Product Line Optimisation with Price Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. G. Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kraus and Yano (2003 established the share-of-surplus product line optimisation model and developed a heuristic procedure for this nonlinear mixed-integer optimisation model. In their model, price of a product is defined as a continuous decision variable. However, because product line optimisation is a planning process in the early stage of product development, pricing decisions usually are not very precise. In this research, a nonlinear integer programming share-of-surplus product line optimization model that allows the selection of candidate price levels for products is established. The model is further transformed into an equivalent linear mixed-integer optimisation model by applying linearisation techniques. Experimental results in different market scenarios show that the computation time of the transformed model is much less than that of the original model.

  5. How Much Surplus Labor Is in the Countryside?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The long-held belief of an inexhaustible surplus of labor in rural areas of China is fading fast.Amid worries over its aging popula- tion,China is confronted with serious challenges to sustain its labor supply so as to shore up its growing economy.How to fur- ther transfer the remaining surplus labor into cities and how to improve the quality of Chinese laborers are questions the country faces.The Guangming Daily,a newspaper based in Beijing,con- ducted an interview with Cai Fang,an economist and Director of the Institute of Population and Labor Economics under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences,to delve into China’s labor dilemma.Cai gave his opinions in the following excerpts:

  6. Cable Television: From Here to Where?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Cable Television Association, Ottawa (Ontario).

    A brief description is presented of the present uses, regulatory structure, and future potentials of cable television for Canada. Some 30% of Canada is already wired for cable, as opposed to 9% in the United States. (RH)

  7. Repairing Damaged Power-Cable Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, G. E.

    1984-01-01

    Simple method saves time, money, and material. In new method cable remains in place while new insulation is applied to damaged portion. Method results in new terminations with safety factor equal to that of any portion of cable.

  8. A cable position sorting method for the balance of current distribution of parallel connected cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.Y. [Northern Taiwan Inst. of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yu, C.S. [National Defence Univ., Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Wang, S.C. [Lung Hwa Univ. of Science and Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y.L. [MingChi Univ. of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2006-07-01

    In order to meet the high ampacity requirement of a low voltage main feeder, single-core power cables are usually connected in parallel in Taiwan's industrial and commercial power distribution systems. However, parallel connected cables can be problematic due to unequal current distributions among cables of the same phase, causing excessive temperature rise in the heavier loading cables, thus reducing the life expectancy of cable insulation. One of the most effective and economical methods of balancing current distributions is a properly designed cable position arrangement. This paper proposed a cable position sorting method for the balance of current distribution of parallel connected cables. A current distribution calculation method was developed based on mutual inductance theorem and the numerical iteration technique. In order to implement the sorting algorithm, two current distribution indices were proposed for the power loss of all cables and for the largest cable current value. The index values of different cable arrangement patterns generated by a novel permutation reduction method were determined and sorted and 3 cable configurations were studied. Recommendations for the arrangement of cable positions, aiming for more balanced current distributions, were also presented. It was concluded that dividing the cables into subgroups, including only one cable per phase in a subgroup, and arranging the cables in symmetric form can achieve a very balanced current distribution. 5 refs., 14 tabs., 7 figs.

  9. 47 CFR 76.640 - Support for unidirectional digital cable products on digital cable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... products on digital cable systems. 76.640 Section 76.640 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Standards § 76.640 Support for unidirectional digital cable products on digital cable systems. (a) The requirements of this section shall apply to digital cable systems. For purposes of this section, digital...

  10. 41 CFR 102-37.200 - What certifications must a SASP make when requesting surplus property for donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a SASP make when requesting surplus property for donation? 102-37.200 Section 102-37.200 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY State Agency for Surplus... requesting surplus property for donation? When requesting or applying for property, you must certify that:...

  11. Some optimal dividend problems for a surplus process with interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hu; GENG Wen-ting

    2008-01-01

    We derive some results on the dividend payments prior to ruin in the classical surplus process with interest. An integro-differential equation with a boundary conditions satisfied by the expected present value of dividend payments is derived and solved. Furthermore, we derive an integro-differential equation for the moment generating function, through which we analyze the higher moment of the present value of dividend payments. Finally, closed-form expressions for exponential claims are given.

  12. Im/Ex in April:Small Trade Surplus Resurged

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ On May 10,2010,General Administration of Customs of the Peole's Republic of China (GAC) released the Profile of China of foreign trade import and export in April and the first four months of this year China returned to a trade surplus in April on strong exports growth after posting its first monthly deficit in almost six years in March ,the General Administration of Customs (GAC) announced.

  13. Snails and their trails: the multiple functions of trail-following in gastropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Terence P T; Saltin, Sara H; Davies, Mark S; Johannesson, Kerstin; Stafford, Richard; Williams, Gray A

    2013-08-01

    Snails are highly unusual among multicellular animals in that they move on a layer of costly mucus, leaving behind a trail that can be followed and utilized for various purposes by themselves or by other animals. Here we review more than 40 years of experimental and theoretical research to try to understand the ecological and evolutionary rationales for trail-following in gastropods. Data from over 30 genera are currently available, representing a broad taxonomic range living in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. The emerging picture is that the production of mucus trails, which initially was an adaptation to facilitate locomotion and/or habitat extension, has evolved to facilitate a multitude of additional functions. Trail-following supports homing behaviours, and provides simple mechanisms for self-organisation in groups of snails, promoting aggregation and thus relieving desiccation and predation pressures. In gastropods that copulate, trail-following is an important component in mate-searching, either as an alternative, or in addition to the release of water- or air-borne pheromones. In some species, this includes a capacity of males not only to identify trails of conspecifics but also to discriminate between trails laid by females and males. Notably, trail discrimination seems important as a pre-zygotic barrier to mating in some snail species. As production of a mucus trail is the most costly component of snail locomotion, it is also tempting to speculate that evolution has given rise to various ways to compensate for energy losses. Some snails, for example, increase energy intake by eating particles attached to the mucus of trails that they follow, whereas others save energy through reducing the production of their own mucus by moving over previously laid mucus trails. Trail-following to locate a prey item or a mate is also a way to save energy. While the rationale for trail-following in many cases appears clear, the basic mechanisms of trail

  14. Online Cable Tester and Rerouter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Mark; Medelius, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Hardware and algorithms have been developed to transfer electrical power and data connectivity safely, efficiently, and automatically from an identified damaged/defective wire in a cable to an alternate wire path. The combination of online cable testing capabilities, along with intelligent signal rerouting algorithms, allows the user to overcome the inherent difficulty of maintaining system integrity and configuration control, while autonomously rerouting signals and functions without introducing new failure modes. The incorporation of this capability will increase the reliability of systems by ensuring system availability during operations.

  15. IntelliCable Interface Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-14

    manager on how to use this. Some will factor the priority into account and always consume the highest priority while others...Battlefield Air Operations power manager uses a 10 pin Glenair Mighty Mouse connector with default keying . Pin 9 is specified as the IntelliCable pin. A BAO...standard Soldier Power Manager uses a 7 pin Glenair Mighty Mouse Connector, using alternative keying distinct from the Land Warrior battery specification, and the Li-145 battery. Pin 3 is defined as the IntelliCable pin.

  16. Motility of Electric Cable Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Holm, Simon Agner; Schramm, Andreas; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cable bacteria are filamentous bacteria that electrically couple sulfide oxidation and oxygen reduction at centimeter distances, and observations in sediment environments have suggested that they are motile. By time-lapse microscopy, we found that cable bacteria used gliding motility on surfaces with a highly variable speed of 0.5 ± 0.3 μm s−1 (mean ± standard deviation) and time between reversals of 155 ± 108 s. They frequently moved forward in loops, and formation of twisted loops revealed ...

  17. North American Submarine Cable Association (NASCA) Submarine Cables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data show the locations of in-service and out-of-service submarine cables that are owned by members of NASCA and located in U.S. territorial waters. More...

  18. Remote Acquisition Amplifier For 50-Ohm Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Jose J.

    1995-01-01

    Buffer-amplifier unit designed to drive 50-Ohm cables up to 100 ft. (30 m) long, compensating for attenuation in cables and enabling remote operation of oscilloscopes. Variable resistor provides for adjustment of gain of amplifier, such that overall gain from input terminals of amplifier to output end of cable set to unity.

  19. Aspen Notebook: Cable and Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Richard; Baer, Walter S.

    This is the first of a planned series of Aspen Notebooks on cable television (CATV). Part I reports on research conducted by the Aspen Workshop on Uses of the Cable. It describes the status of continuing education and the history of educational television and explores the prospects created by cable's development for extending access to continuing…

  20. 47 CFR 32.2422 - Underground cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Underground cable. 32.2422 Section 32.2422... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2422 Underground cable. (a) This account shall include the original cost of underground cable installed in conduit and of...

  1. Cable Television Report and Suggested Ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    League of California Cities, Sacramento.

    Guidelines and suggested ordinances for cable television regulation by local governments are comprehensively discussed in this report. The emphasis is placed on franchising the cable operator. Seventeen legal aspects of franchising are reviewed, and an exemplary ordinance is presented. In addition, current statistics about cable franchising in…

  2. Strain relief for power-cable connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, W. T., III

    1980-01-01

    Easily fabricated grommet composed of polytetrafluoroethylene cylinder, containing U-shaped channels equally spaced around periphery, is used in power cable connectors to relieve strain on cables. Utilization of grommets provides more ease in cable insertion and removal. Potential applications include wiring in large residential and commercial buildings.

  3. Reducing Magnetic Fields Around Power Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Noel B.; Gitelman, Florida; Pongracz-Bartha, Edward; Spalding, John

    1993-01-01

    Four power conductors arranged symmetrically about fifth grounded conductor. Four current-carrying wires arranged symmetrically around central grounded wire that nominally carries no current. In comparison with other cable configurations, this one results in smaller magnetic fields around cable. Technique for use when size of wires in cable makes twisting impractical.

  4. 30 CFR 18.45 - Cable reels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cable reels. 18.45 Section 18.45 Mineral... § 18.45 Cable reels. (a) A self-propelled machine, that receives electrical energy through a portable cable and is designed to travel at speeds exceeding 2.5 miles per hour, shall have a...

  5. 47 CFR 32.2421 - Aerial cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aerial cable. 32.2421 Section 32.2421... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2421 Aerial cable. (a) This account shall include the original cost of aerial cable and of drop and block wires served by...

  6. 47 CFR 32.2423 - Buried cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buried cable. 32.2423 Section 32.2423... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2423 Buried cable. (a) This account shall include the original cost of buried cable as well as the cost of other material...

  7. 21 CFR 890.1175 - Electrode cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrode cable. 890.1175 Section 890.1175 Food... DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1175 Electrode cable. (a) Identification. An electrode cable is a device composed of strands of insulated electrical conductors...

  8. Automatic dirt trail analysis in dermoscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Beibei; Joe Stanley, R; Stoecker, William V; Osterwise, Christopher T P; Stricklin, Sherea M; Hinton, Kristen A; Moss, Randy H; Oliviero, Margaret; Rabinovitz, Harold S

    2013-02-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer in the US. Dermatoscopes are devices used by physicians to facilitate the early detection of these cancers based on the identification of skin lesion structures often specific to BCCs. One new lesion structure, referred to as dirt trails, has the appearance of dark gray, brown or black dots and clods of varying sizes distributed in elongated clusters with indistinct borders, often appearing as curvilinear trails. In this research, we explore a dirt trail detection and analysis algorithm for extracting, measuring, and characterizing dirt trails based on size, distribution, and color in dermoscopic skin lesion images. These dirt trails are then used to automatically discriminate BCC from benign skin lesions. For an experimental data set of 35 BCC images with dirt trails and 79 benign lesion images, a neural network-based classifier achieved a 0.902 are under a receiver operating characteristic curve using a leave-one-out approach. Results obtained from this study show that automatic detection of dirt trails in dermoscopic images of BCC is feasible. This is important because of the large number of these skin cancers seen every year and the challenge of discovering these earlier with instrumentation. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Miles In Trail (MIT) Restrictions: A Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal; Green, Steven; Roherty, Tom; Aston, John

    2003-01-01

    Miles-in-trail restrictions are issued to meet the airport and/or airspace capacity. The purpose of this paper is to review the currently practiced miles-in-trail operations for traffic flow management at a typical en route Air Traffic Control Center. The paper describes roles and considerations of both traffic management coordinators and the controllers in planning, coordination, execution, and monitoring of miles-in-trail restrictions. The paper addresses the type of decisions that traffic management coordinators must make and the different information required to plan and monitor miles-in-trail restrictions. The implications of miles-in-trail restrictions on controller workload are also addressed. Using the Cleveland center as an example, the paper also identified some challenging traffic situations that required miles-in-trail restrictions on a regular basis. The paper is expected to benefit the research and development community as it provides the current challenges in traffic flow management and strengths and weakness of miles-in-trail operations.

  10. Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Manning, L.M.; Stringer, L.D.; Cappadonna, J.; El-Sayed, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m2) to 1- and 4-m2 plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  11. TRIPPy: Python-based Trailed Source Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Wesley C.; Alexandersen, Mike; Schwamb, Megan E.; Marsset, Michael E.; Pike, Rosemary E.; Kavelaars, JJ; Bannister, Michele T.; Benecchi, Susan; Delsanti, Audrey

    2016-05-01

    TRIPPy (TRailed Image Photometry in Python) uses a pill-shaped aperture, a rectangle described by three parameters (trail length, angle, and radius) to improve photometry of moving sources over that done with circular apertures. It can generate accurate model and trailed point-spread functions from stationary background sources in sidereally tracked images. Appropriate aperture correction provides accurate, unbiased flux measurement. TRIPPy requires numpy, scipy, matplotlib, Astropy (ascl:1304.002), and stsci.numdisplay; emcee (ascl:1303.002) and SExtractor (ascl:1010.064) are optional.

  12. TRAIL receptor gene editing unveils TRAIL-R1 as a master player of apoptosis induced by TRAIL and ER stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Florent; Rattier, Thibault; Constantinescu, Andrei Alexandru; Zischler, Luciana; Morlé, Aymeric; Ben Mabrouk, Hazem; Humblin, Etienne; Jacquemin, Guillaume; Szegezdi, Eva; Delacote, Fabien; Marrakchi, Naziha; Guichard, Gilles; Pellat-Deceunynck, Catherine; Vacher, Pierre; Legembre, Patrick; Garrido, Carmen; Micheau, Olivier

    2017-02-07

    TRAIL induces selective tumor cell death through TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2. Despite the fact that these receptors share high structural homologies, induction of apoptosis upon ER stress, cell autonomous motility and invasion have solely been described to occur through TRAIL-R2. Using the TALEN gene-editing approach, we show that TRAIL-R1 can also induce apoptosis during unresolved unfolded protein response (UPR). Likewise, TRAIL-R1 was found to co-immunoprecipitate with FADD and caspase-8 during ER stress. Its deficiency conferred resistance to apoptosis induced by thaspigargin, tunicamycin or brefeldin A. Our data also demonstrate that tumor cell motility and invasion-induced by TRAIL-R2 is not cell autonomous but induced in a TRAIL-dependant manner. TRAIL-R1, on the other hand, is unable to trigger cell migration owing to its inability to induce an increase in calcium flux. Importantly, all the isogenic cell lines generated in this study revealed that apoptosis induced TRAIL is preferentially induced by TRAIL-R1. Taken together, our results provide novel insights into the physiological functions of TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 and suggest that targeting TRAIL-R1 for anticancer therapy is likely to be more appropriate owing to its lack of pro-motile signaling capability.

  13. Power applications for superconducting cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Hansen, Steen; Jørgensen, Preben

    2000-01-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) cables for use in electric ac power systems are under development around the world today. There are two main constructions under development: the room temperature dielectric design and the cryogenic dielectric design. However, theoretical studies have shown...

  14. Educational Uses of Cable Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

    The different educational uses of cable television as well as the methods and problems of that use are described in a state of the art review. The Federal Communications Commission regulations and related franchise activity are described, and the methods of using the educational channel as open or closed circuit TV or pay TV are indicated for…

  15. Cable Television: Developing Community Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter-Huffman, Polly; And Others

    The final volume of a four-volume study focuses on community use of cable television systems. Four separate aspects are discussed extensively: the possibilities of public access, use in municipal service applications, uses in education, and a guide for education planners. Each section contains several appendixes and the education sections include…

  16. Improving Energy Efficiency Cable Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iashutina Olga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the energy calculation is made at different temperatures of the heating surface. The influence of the speed of pulling on the cost of the finished products of cable products. The interrelation of speed broaching and temperature of the heating surface.

  17. 36 CFR 13.1308 - Harding Icefield Trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Provisions § 13.1308 Harding Icefield Trail. The Harding Icefield Trail from the junction with the main paved trail near Exit Glacier to the emergency hut near the terminus is closed to— (a) Camping within 1/8 mile... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Harding Icefield Trail. 13...

  18. temperature distribution in underground cable system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rerak Monika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a mathematical model of heat transfer in the underground cable system. The computations were performed for flat formation of power cables buried in the ground at a depth of 2 meters. The model allows determining the two-dimensional temperature distribution in the soil, thermal backfill and power cables. The simulations studied the effect of soil thermal conductivity on the maximum temperature of the cable conductor. Furthermore, the effect of thermal backfill soil conductivity on the cable conductor temperature was studied. Numerical analyses were performed based on a program written in MATLAB.

  19. Offshore Cable Installation - Lillgrund. Lillgrund Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unosson, Oscar (Vattenfall Vindkraft AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-01-15

    This report describes the installation method and the experiences gained during the installation of the submarine cables for the offshore wind farm at Lillgrund. The wind farm consists of 48 wind turbines and is expected to produce 0.33 TWh annually. Different aspects of the installation, such as techniques, co-operation between the installation teams, weather conditions and regulatory and environmental issues are described in this report. In addition, recommendations and guidelines are provided, which hopefully can be utilised in future offshore wind projects. The trenches, in which the submarine cables were laid, were excavated weeks before the cable laying. This installation technique proved to be successful for the laying of the inter array cables. The export cable, however, was laid into position with difficulty. The main reason why the laying of the export cable proved more challenging was due to practical difficulties connected with the barge entrusted with the cable laying, Nautilus Maxi. The barge ran aground a number of times and it had difficulties with the thrusters, which made it impossible to manoeuvre. When laying the inter array cables, the method specification was closely followed, and the laying of the cables was executed successfully. The knowledge and experience gained from the offshore cable installation in Lillgrund is essential when writing technical specifications for new wind plant projects. It is recommended to avoid offshore cable installation work in winter seasons. That will lower the chances of dealing with bad weather and, in turn, will reduce the risks

  20. Cable Harness Assembly Planning in Virtual Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jianhua; NING Ruxin; BAI Shuqing; WANG Bile

    2006-01-01

    Based on the analysis of characteristic of cable harness planning in virtual environment, a discrete control node modeling (DCNM) method of cable harness in virtual environment and the cable harness assembly routing technique based on it are proposed. DCNM converts a cable harness into continuous flexed line segments connected by a series of section center points, and the design can realize cable harness planning through controlling those control nodes. This method of cable harness routing in the virtual environment breaks the status that virtual assembly process planning is just suitable for the rigid components at present, and impulse the virtual assembly process planning to be more practical. Relation algorithms have been verified in a self-developed system named virtual cable harness assembly planning (VCHAP) system, and this VCHAP system has been applied in assembly process planning of aerospace-related products.

  1. Power applications for superconducting cables in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Østergaard, Jacob; Olsen, S. Krüger

    1999-01-01

    In Denmark a growing concern for environmental protection has lead to wishes that the open country is kept free of overhead lines as far as possible. New lines under 100 kV and existing 60/50 kV lines should be established as underground cables. Superconducting cables represent an interesting...... alternative to conventional cables, as they are able to transmit two or more times the energy than a conventional cable. HTS cables with a room temperature dielectric design are especially interesting as a target for replacing overhead lines. Superconducting cables in the overall network are of interest...... in cases such as transmission of energy into cities and through areas of special interest. The planned large groups of windmills in Denmark generating up to 2000 MVA or more both on dry land and off-shore will be an obvious case for the application of superconducting AC or DC cables. These opportunities...

  2. Self-healing cable apparatus and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Dryver (Inventor); Esser, Brian (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Self-healing cable apparatus and methods are disclosed. The cable has a central core surrounded by an adaptive cover that can extend over the entire length of the cable or just one or more portions of the cable. The adaptive cover includes a protective layer having an initial damage resistance, and a reactive layer. When the cable is subjected to a localized damaging force, the reactive layer responds by creating a corresponding localized self-healed region. The self-healed region provides the cable with enhanced damage resistance as compared to the cable's initial damage resistance. Embodiments of the invention utilize conventional epoxies or foaming materials in the reactive layer that are released to form the self-healed region when the damaging force reaches the reactive layer.

  3. Gjoea power cable; a green solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dretvik, Svein-Egil

    2010-07-01

    An alternative to today's power generation offshore using either gas or diesel, is alternating current (AC) electric power cable from shore. The power from shore through the AC cable gives high savings for the environment. The cable replaces 4 gas turbines with a total CO2 disposal of 240 00 tonnes each year which represents the disposal of 100 000 cars. ABB was awarded the contract which includes engineering, fabrication and installation of the power cable from Mongstad to the Gjoea platform which will be the longest AC cable in the world with a total length of 100 km. The presentation will include system design, qualification of dynamic power cable, cable fabrication experiences, testing at fabrication yard and installation aspects. (Author)

  4. US Forest Service National Forest System Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the world wide web that depicts National Forest Service trails that have been approved for publication. This service is used internally and...

  5. Minnesota State Park Trails and Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This shapefile covers the trails in the State of Minnesota Parks, Recreation Areas, and Waysides as designated through legislation and recognized by the Department...

  6. VT Green Mountain National Forest - Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) GMNFTRAILS contains minor Forest Service roads and all trails within the proclamation boundary of the Green Mountain National Forest and many of...

  7. Trails, Other, This would include horse trails, ATV Trails & cross country ski trails., Published in 2012, Not Applicable scale, Chippewa County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Other dataset, published at Not Applicable scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2012. It is described as 'This...

  8. Due To Surplus in Aluminum Capacity, a Number of Enterprises Experienced Loss to Varying Degrees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Beginning from 2002,in China’s aluminum industry,aluminum output began to show surplus due to dwindling demand from downstream industry;in 2008 China’s aluminum surplus was expected to reach 500,000 tonnes.In recent years,capacity surplus in the aluminum industry has become widely known,in the final analysis,the reason is related to the accelerating speed of capacity

  9. NFATc1 regulation of TRAIL expression in human intestinal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingding Wang

    Full Text Available TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL; Apo2 has been shown to promote intestinal cell differentiation. Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT participates in the regulation of a variety of cellular processes, including differentiation. Here, we examined the role of NFAT in the regulation of TRAIL in human intestinal cells. Treatment with a combination of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA plus the calcium ionophore A23187 (Io increased NFAT activation and TRAIL expression; pretreatment with the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA, an antagonist of NFAT signaling, diminished NFAT activation and TRAIL induction. In addition, knockdown of NFATc1, NFATc2, NFATc3, and NFATc4 blocked PMA/Io increased TRAIL protein expression. Expression of NFATc1 activated TRAIL promoter activity and increased TRAIL mRNA and protein expression. Deletion of NFAT binding sites from the TRAIL promoter did not significantly abrogate NFATc1-increased TRAIL promoter activity, suggesting an indirect regulation of TRAIL expression by NFAT activation. Knockdown of NFATc1 increased Sp1 transcription factor binding to the TRAIL promoter and, importantly, inhibition of Sp1, by chemical inhibition or RNA interference, increased TRAIL expression. These studies identify a novel mechanism for TRAIL regulation by which activation of NFATc1 increases TRAIL expression through negative regulation of Sp1 binding to the TRAIL promoter.

  10. High Voltage Cable Splicing and Cable Termination Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-01

    solid dielectric insulations currently used are high-molecular-weight polyethylene (EP) and cross-linked poly- ethylene ( XLPE ). The EP insulation is...rated for 750 C a maximum temperature, and the XLPE insulation is rated for 900C maximum temperature. These insulation materials provide the conductor...The cost of installing PILC with copper conductors is compared to the cost of installing XLPE cable with aluminum conductors in Table 1. The

  11. 30 CFR 75.833 - Handling high-voltage trailing cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..._regulations/ibr_locations.html. (2) The rubber glove portion must be air-tested at the beginning of each shift... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 522(a) and 1 CFR part 51. ASTM F496-02a may be...

  12. A Mystery of the Global Surplus and its Ramification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malović Marko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with phenomenon of the increasingly indicative global imbalances and lagging genesis of balance of payments (BoP accounting in an attempt to accommodate the ongoing mutation of international trade and finance. Namely, although BoP of the world as a whole should be zero since international trade in goods, services and financial assets ought to be a zero-sum game, our planet apparently runs a non-negligible and rising BoP surplus, projected to reach 1% of global GDP by 2015! To make the puzzle more bizarre, IMF statistics up until 2004 had recorded a persistent BoP deficit for the entire globe, which P. Krugman dubbed “The Mystery of the missing Surplus”. Well, surplus is back with the vengeance – while this paper tries to make sense of the phenomenon and pinpoint both its determinants and likely economic consequences. In conclusion, it appears that 1 during international financial crises quality and accuracy of the BoP statistics worsens worldwide, 2 net global imbalances may still be much smaller than we commonly believe, 3 true culprits may not be our usual suspects, 4 gross trade exhibits stark differences once confronted with decomposed value-added net exports and imports free of double counted processed exports and indirect exporting, 5 also, deliberate misreporting of cross-border investment proceeds as well as MNE’s transfer pricing practices may account for a relevant portion of registered global imbalances, and finally, 6 even the latest 6th edition of the IMF’s BoP and IIP Manual explicitly tackles but a few of the factors behind the returning surplus mystery.

  13. A Mystery of the Global Surplus and its Ramification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko G Malovic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with phenomenon of the increasingly indicative global imbalances and lagging genesis of balance of payments (BoP accounting in an attempt to accommodate the ongoing mutation of international trade and finance. Namely, although BoP of the world as a whole should be zero since international trade in goods, services and financial assets ought to be a zero-sum game, our planet apparently runs a non-negligible and rising BoP surplus, projected to reach 1% of global GDP by 2015! To make the puzzle more bizarre, IMF statistics up until 2004 had recorded a persistent BoP deficit for the entire globe, which P. Krugman dubbed “The Mystery of the missing Surplus”. Well, surplus is back with the vengeance – while this paper tries to make sense of the phenomenon and pinpoint both its determinants and likely economic consequences. In conclusion, it appears that 1 during international financial crises quality and accuracy of the BoP statistics worsens worldwide, 2 net global imbalances may still be much smaller than we commonly believe, 3 true culprits may not be our usual suspects, 4 gross trade exhibits stark differences once confronted with decomposed value-added net exports and imports free of double counted processed exports and indirect exporting, 5 also, deliberate misreporting of cross-border investment proceeds as well as MNE’s transfer pricing practices may account for a relevant portion of registered global imbalances, and finally, 6 even the latest 6th edition of the IMF’s BoP and IIP Manual explicitly tackles but a few of the factors behind the returning surplus mystery. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  14. Expression of TRAIL and TRAIL receptors in normal and malignant tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raymond A DANIELS; Gavin R SCREATON; Helen TURLEY; Fiona C KIMBERLEY; Xue Song LIU; Juthathip MONGKOLSAPAYA; Paul CH'EN; Xiao Ning XU; Boquan JIN; Francesco PEZZELLA

    2005-01-01

    TRAIL, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, is a member of the TNF family of proteins.Tumour cells were initially found to have increased sensitivity to TRAIL compared with normal cells, raising hopes that TRAIL would prove useful as an anti-tumor agent. The production of reliable monoclonal antibodies against TRAIL and its receptors that can stain fixed specimens will allow a thorough analysis of their expression on normal and malignant tissues. Here we report the generation of monoclonal antibodies against TRAIL and its four membrane-bound receptors (TR1-4), which have been used to stain a range of normal and malignant cells, as routinely fixed specimens. Low levels of TRAIL expression were found to be limited mostly to smooth muscle in lung and spleen as well as glial cells in the cerebellum and follicular cells in the thyroid. Expression of the TRAIL decoy receptors (TR3 and 4) was not as widespread as indicated by Northern blotting, suggesting that they may be less important for the control of TRAIL cytotoxicity than previously thought. TR1 and TR2 expression increases significantly in a number of malignant tissues,but in some common malignancies their expression was low, or patchy, which may limit the therapeutic role of TRAIL.Taken together, we have a panel of monoclonal antibodies that will allow a better assessment of the normal role of TRAIL and allow assessment of biopsy material, possibly allowing the identification of tumors that may be amenable to TRAIL therapy.

  15. The Maximum Surplus Distribution before Ruin in an Erlang(n)Risk Process Perturbed by Diffusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Zhong ZHANG; Jie Zhong ZOU; Yuan Yuan LIU

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,we consider the distribution of the maximum surplus before ruin in a generalized Erlang(n) risk process (i.e.,convolution of n exponential distributions with possibly different parameters) perturbed by diffusion.It is shown that the maximum surplus distribution before ruin satisfies the integro-differential equation with certain boundary conditions.Explicit expressions are obtained when claims amounts are rationally distributed.Finally,the surplus distribution at the time of ruin and the surplus distribution immediately before ruin are presented.

  16. Surplus Cost Potential as a Life Cycle Impact Indicator for Metal Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa D.M. Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the evaluation of product life cycles, methods to assess the increase in scarcity of resources are still under development. Indicators that can express the importance of an increase in scarcity of metals extracted include surplus ore produced, surplus energy required, and surplus costs in the mining and the milling stage. Particularly the quantification of surplus costs per unit of metal extracted as an indicator is still in an early stage of development. Here, we developed a method that quantifies the surplus cost potential of mining and milling activities per unit of metal extracted, fully accounting for mine-specific differences in costs. The surplus cost potential indicator is calculated as the average cost increase resulting from all future metal extractions, as quantified via cumulative cost-tonnage relationships. We tested the calculation procedure with 12 metals and platinum-group metals as a separate group. We found that the surplus costs range six orders of magnitude between the metals included, i.e., between $0.01–$0.02 (iron and $13,533–$17,098 (rhodium USD (year 2013 per kilogram of metal extracted. The choice of the reserve estimate (reserves vs. ultimate recoverable resource influenced the surplus costs only to a limited extent, i.e., between a factor of 0.7 and 3.2 for the metals included. Our results provide a good basis to regularly include surplus cost estimates as resource scarcity indicator in life cycle assessment.

  17. Nonlinear Analysis of Cable Vibration of a Multispan Cable-Stayed Bridge under Transverse Excitation

    OpenAIRE

    Kun Lin; Dujian Zou; Minghai Wei

    2014-01-01

    The nonlinear vibrations of cable in a multispan cable-stayed bridge subjected to transverse excitation are investigated. The MECS (multielements cable system) model, where multielements per cable stay are used, is built up and used to analyze the model properties of the multispan cable-stayed bridges. Then, a simplified two-degrees-of-freedom (2-DOFs) model, where the tower or the deck is reduced to a beam, is proposed to analyze the nonlinear dynamic behaviors of the beam and cable. The res...

  18. The Democratic Surplus that Constitutionalised the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2015-01-01

    This article questions the very foundation of the doctrine of a so-called “democratic deficit” in the EU. Yet in order to argue beyond nationalist myths, clear-cut concepts are necessary. Speaking about democracy in the EU, the article exposes four dimensions that constitute a “democratic surplus.......” It offers, first, a narrative of European integration that does not insist on an identity logic of democratic sovereignty and self-determination; on the contrary, a differentiated and deconstructed constitution of a network society of intermediate institutions seems more realist. Contrary to the classical...

  19. Ruin Probabilities of a Surplus Process Described by PDMPs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-min He; Rong Wu; Hua-yue Zhang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we mainly study the ruin probability of a surplus process described by a piecewise deterministic Markov process (PDMP). An integro-differentiai equation for the ruin probability is derived. Under a certain assumption, it can be transformed into the ruin probability of a risk process whose premiums depend on the current reserves. Using the same argument as that in Asmussen and Nielsen[2], the ruin probability and its upper bounds are obtained. Finally, we give an analytic expression for ruin probability and its upper bounds when the claim-size is exponentially distributed.

  20. Electromagnetic Transients in Power Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Faria Da; Bak, Claus Leth

    of electromagnetic phenomena associated to their operation, among them electromagnetic transients, increased as well. Transient phenomena have been studied since the beginning of power systems, at first using only analytical approaches, which limited studies to more basic phenomena; but as computational tools became...... concerning HVAC cables. An important topic that is not covered in this book is measurements protocols/ methods. The protocols used when performing measurements on a cable depend on what is to be measured, the available equipment and accessibility. Readers interested in the topic are referred to search....... The chapter ends by proposing a systematic method that can be used when doing the insulation co-ordination study for a line, as well as the modelling requirements, both modelling depth and modelling detail of the equipment, for the study of the different types of transients followed by a step-by-step generic...

  1. Nature Trails, Braille Trails, Foot Paths, Fragrance Gardens, Touch Museums for the Blind; Policy Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Foundation for the Blind, New York, NY.

    The policy statement by the American Foundation for the Blind deals with nature trails, braille trails, foot paths, fragrance gardens, and touch museums for the blind. It is stated that the foundation approves of services such as provision of tape recorded guides and planting of fragrant shrubs which would benefit all users while recognizing…

  2. Condition Monitoring of Power Cables

    OpenAIRE

    Lewin, P L; L. Hao; Swaffield, D J; Swingler, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    A National Grid funded research project at Southampton has investigated possible methodologies for data acquisition, transmission and processing that will facilitate on-line continuous monitoring of partial discharges in high voltage polymeric cable systems. A method that only uses passive components at the measuring points has been developed and is outlined in this paper. More recent work, funded through the EPSRC Supergen V, UK Energy Infrastructure (AMPerES) grant in collaboration with UK ...

  3. Comparing impacts between formal and informal recreational trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Catherine Marina; Norman, Patrick

    2017-05-15

    Globally there are hundreds of thousands of kilometres of recreational trails traversing natural areas of high conservation value: but what are their impacts and do impacts differ among trails? We compared the effects of four common types of recreational trails [(1) narrow and (2) medium width informal bare earth trails and (3) gravel and (4) tarmac/concrete formal trails] on vegetation adjacent to trails in a high conservation value plant community that is popular for mountain biking and hiking in Australia. Plant species composition was recorded in quadrats along the edge of the four types of trails and in control sites away from trails. Vegetation cover, the cover of individual growth forms, and species richness along the edges of all four types of trails were similar to the controls, although the wider trails affected plant composition, with the tarmac and gravel trails favouring different species. With very few comparative studies, more research is required to allow managers and researchers to directly compare differences in the severity and types of impacts on vegetation among trails. In the meantime, limiting damage to vegetation on the edge of hardened trails during construction, use and maintenance is important, and hardening trails may not always be appropriate. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Low Friction Cryostat for HTS Power Cable of Dutch Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevtchenko, O.; Zuijderduin, R.; Smit, J.; Willen, D.; Lentge, H.; Thidemann, C.; Traeholt, C.

    2012-01-01

    Particulars of 6 km long HTS AC power cable for Amsterdam project are: a cable has to fit in an annulus of 160 mm, with only two cooling stations at the cable ends [1]. Application of existing solutions for HTS cables would result in excessively high coolant pressure drop in the cable, possibly affe

  5. Broadband description of the copper cable transfer function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, D.C.H.

    2007-01-01

    This report is describes the characteristics of two different copper cables, namely the coax cable and the twisted pair cable. By using the Maxwell equations we can describe the coax cable and the twisted pair cable with the Bessel functions. By these Bessel functions we can simulate the two seconda

  6. Patients' Attitudes towards the Surplus Frozen Embryos in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Jin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Assisted reproductive techniques have been used in China for more than 20 years. This study investigates the attitudes of surplus embryo holders towards embryos storage and donation for medical research. Methods. A total of 363 couples who had completed in vitro fertilization (IVF treatment and had already had biological children but who still had frozen embryos in storage were invited to participate. Interviews were conducted by clinics in a narrative style. Results. Family size was the major reason for participants’ (discontinuation of embryo storage; moreover, the moral status of embryos was an important factor for couples choosing embryo storage, while the storage fee was an important factor for couples choosing embryo disposal. Most couples discontinued the storage of their embryos once their children were older than 3 years. In our study, 58.8% of the couples preferred to dispose of surplus embryos rather than donate them to research, citing a lack of information and distrust in science as significant reasons for their decision. Conclusions. Interviews regarding frozen embryos, including patients’ expectations for embryo storage and information to assist them with decisions regarding embryo disposal, are beneficial for policies addressing embryo disposition and embryo donation in China.

  7. Field application of a cable NDT system for cable-stayed bridge using MFL sensors integrated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Won; Choi, Jun Sung; Park, Seung Hee [Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Chan [Korea Maintance Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    In this study, an automated cable non-destructive testing(NDT) system was developed to monitor the steel cables that are a core component of cable-stayed bridges. The magnetic flux leakage(MFL) method, which is suitable for ferromagnetic continuum structures and has been verified in previous studies, was applied to the cable inspection. A multi-channel MFL sensor head was fabricated using hall sensors and permanent magnets. A wheel-based cable climbing robot was fabricated to improve the accessibility to the cables, and operating software was developed to monitor the MFL-based NDT research and control the climbing robot. Remote data transmission and robot control were realized by applying wireless LAN communication. Finally, the developed element techniques were integrated into an MFL-based cable NDT system, and the field applicability of this system was verified through a field test at Seohae Bridge, which is a typical cable-stayed bridge currently in operation.

  8. Research on Construction Monitoring Techniques for Cable Replacement of the Cable-Stayed Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Pu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to various reasons, some cable-stayed bridges require the replacement of part or all stay cables after operating for a period of time. In this study, based on some engineering practices of stay cable replacement, the condition of bridge structure before replacement is analyzed with Finite Element Analysis method for plane member system. The theoretical calculations, cable force measurement, replacement methods and process monitoring for cable replacement are introduced to find out the key technical problems. From the specified bridge monitoring practices, we suggest monitoring cable tension and the main beam alignment during the process of cable replacement, to make sure the cable-stayed bridge reaches its design conditions.

  9. Aircraft wing trailing-edge noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, R. L.; Hodgson, T. H.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanism and sound pressure level of the trailing-edge noise for two-dimensional turbulent boundary layer flow was examined. Experiment is compared with current theory. A NACA 0012 airfoil of 0.61 m chord and 0.46 m span was immersed in the laminar flow of a low turbulence open jet. A 2.54 cm width roughness strip was placed at 15 percent chord from the leading edge on both sides of the airfoil as a boundary layer trip so that two separate but statistically equivalent turbulent boundary layers were formed. Tests were performed with several trailing-edge geometries with the upstream velocity U sub infinity ranging from a value of 30.9 m/s up to 73.4 m/s. Properties of the boundary layer for the airfoil and pressure fluctuations in the vicinity of the trailing-edge were examined. A scattered pressure field due to the presence of the trailing-edge was observed and is suggested as a possible sound producing mechanism for the trailing-edge noise.

  10. TRIPPy: Trailed Image Photometry in Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Wesley; Alexandersen, Mike; Schwamb, Megan E.; Marsset, Michaël; Pike, Rosemary E.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Bannister, Michele T.; Benecchi, Susan; Delsanti, Audrey

    2016-06-01

    Photometry of moving sources typically suffers from a reduced signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) or flux measurements biased to incorrect low values through the use of circular apertures. To address this issue, we present the software package, TRIPPy: TRailed Image Photometry in Python. TRIPPy introduces the pill aperture, which is the natural extension of the circular aperture appropriate for linearly trailed sources. The pill shape is a rectangle with two semicircular end-caps and is described by three parameters, the trail length and angle, and the radius. The TRIPPy software package also includes a new technique to generate accurate model point-spread functions (PSFs) and trailed PSFs (TSFs) from stationary background sources in sidereally tracked images. The TSF is merely the convolution of the model PSF, which consists of a moffat profile, and super-sampled lookup table. From the TSF, accurate pill aperture corrections can be estimated as a function of pill radius with an accuracy of 10 mmag for highly trailed sources. Analogous to the use of small circular apertures and associated aperture corrections, small radius pill apertures can be used to preserve S/Ns of low flux sources, with appropriate aperture correction applied to provide an accurate, unbiased flux measurement at all S/Ns.

  11. Trailing edge modifications for flatback airfoils.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, Daniel L. (University of California, Davis, CA); van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.

    2008-03-01

    The adoption of blunt trailing edge airfoils (also called flatback airfoils) for the inboard region of large wind turbine blades has been proposed. Blunt trailing edge airfoils would not only provide a number of structural benefits, such as increased structural volume and ease of fabrication and handling, but they have also been found to improve the lift characteristics of thick airfoils. Therefore, the incorporation of blunt trailing edge airfoils would allow blade designers to more freely address the structural demands without having to sacrifice aerodynamic performance. These airfoils do have the disadvantage of generating high levels of drag as a result of the low-pressure steady or periodic flow in the near-wake of the blunt trailing edge. Although for rotors, the drag penalty appears secondary to the lift enhancement produced by the blunt trailing edge, high drag levels are of concern in terms of the negative effect on the torque and power generated by the rotor. Hence, devices are sought that mitigate the drag of these airfoils. This report summarizes the literature on bluff body vortex shedding and bluff body drag reduction devices and proposes four devices for further study in the wind tunnel.

  12. Analytical and numerical construction of equivalent cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, K A; Rosenberg, J R; Tucker, G

    2003-08-01

    The mathematical complexity experienced when applying cable theory to arbitrarily branched dendrites has lead to the development of a simple representation of any branched dendrite called the equivalent cable. The equivalent cable is an unbranched model of a dendrite and a one-to-one mapping of potentials and currents on the branched model to those on the unbranched model, and vice versa. The piecewise uniform cable, with a symmetrised tri-diagonal system matrix, is shown to represent the canonical form for an equivalent cable. Through a novel application of the Laplace transform it is demonstrated that an arbitrary branched model of a dendrite can be transformed to the canonical form of an equivalent cable. The characteristic properties of the equivalent cable are extracted from the matrix for the transformed branched model. The one-to-one mapping follows automatically from the construction of the equivalent cable. The equivalent cable is used to provide a new procedure for characterising the location of synaptic contacts on spinal interneurons.

  13. How do you like them cables?

    CERN Multimedia

    Sergei Malyukov

    Cabling work is not for clautrophobic people! Cables are like the blood vessels and nervous system of ATLAS. With the help of all these cables, we can power ATLAS, control the detector and read out the data. Like the human blood vessels, they penetrate inside the ATLAS volume, reaching each of its elements. The ATLAS developers started to think about design of services, cables and pipes at the very first stages of the project. The cabling project has been developing most intensively during the last five years, passing through the projection and CAD design phases, then the installation of cable trays and finally the cables. The cable installation itself took two and a half years and was done by teams of technicians from several institutes from Russia, the Czech Republic and Poland. Here are some numbers to illustrate the scale of the ATLAS cabling system. More than 25000 optical fiber channels are used for reading the information from the sub-detectors and delivering the timing signals. The total numbe...

  14. Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Ocean Cables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nam-Il KIM; Sang-Soo JEON; Moon-Young KIM

    2004-01-01

    This study has focused on developing numerical procedures for the dynamic nonlinear analysis of cable structures subjected to wave forces and ground motions in the ocean. A geometrically nonlinear finite element procedure using the isoparametric curved cable element based on the Lagrangian formulation is briefly summarized. A simple and accurate method to determine the initial equilibrium state of cable systems associated with self-weights, buoyancy and the motion of end points is presented using the load incremental method combined with penalty method. Also the Newmark method is used for dynamic nonlinear analysis of ocean cables. Numerical examples are presented to validate the present numerical method.

  15. 41 CFR 105-50.202-4 - Technical assistance incident to Federal surplus personal property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Technical assistance... Available From General Services Administration § 105-50.202-4 Technical assistance incident to Federal surplus personal property. Technical assistance will be provided in the screening and selection of surplus...

  16. The Impact of Financing Surpluses and Large Financing Deficits on Tests of the Pecking Order Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Abe; Verbeek, Marno; Verwijmeren, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the basic pecking order model of Shyam-Sunder and Myers by separating the effects of financing surpluses, normal deficits, and large deficits. Using a panel of US firms over the period 1971-2005, we find that the estimated pecking order coefficient is highest for surpluses (0.90),

  17. 41 CFR 102-37.270 - May a SASP retain surplus property for its own use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May a SASP retain surplus property for its own use? 102-37.270 Section 102-37.270 Public Contracts and Property Management... Property § 102-37.270 May a SASP retain surplus property for its own use? Yes, you can retain...

  18. The contrasting features of Asian summer monsoon during surplus and deficient rainfall over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P. V. S.; Mohanty, U. C.; Rao, P. L. S.; Bhatla, R.

    2002-12-01

    An endeavour is made to distinguish the mean summer monsoon features during surplus and deficient monsoon seasons. Based on all-India summer monsoon rainfall, over 42 years (1958-99), seven surplus and ten deficient monsoon seasons are identified. Making use of daily averaged (00 Z and 12 Z) reanalysis data sets from the National Center for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research for the corresponding surplus and deficient monsoon seasons, the mean circulation characteristics and large-scale energetics are examined.The circulation features denote that the cross equatorial flow, low-level jet and tropical easterly jet are stronger during a surplus monsoon. Further, strong Tibetan anticyclonic flow characterizes a surplus monsoon. The large-scale balances of kinetic energy, heat and moisture show a significantly large quantity of diabatic heating, adiabatic generation of kinetic energy, and horizontal convergence of heat and moisture during the surplus monsoon season compared with the deficient state. The regions with statistically significant difference between surplus and deficient monsoon seasons are delineated by a Student's t-test at the 95% confidence level. The remarkable aspect noticed in this study is that the Arabian Sea branch of the monsoon circulation is more vigorous during a surplus monsoon season, whereas the eastern Bay of Bengal branch is stronger during a deficient monsoon. The various large-scale budget terms of kinetic energy, heat and moisture are found to be consistent and in agreement with the seasonal monsoon activity over India.

  19. 41 CFR 102-37.35 - Who handles the donation of surplus property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.35 Who handles the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who handles the donation of surplus property? 102-37.35 Section 102-37.35 Public Contracts and Property Management...

  20. Ten Ways to Restrict Children's Freedom to Play: The Problem of Surplus Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyver, Shirley; Tranter, Paul; Naughton, Geraldine; Little, Helen; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Bundy, Anita

    2010-01-01

    Play and playgrounds provide essential experiences for young children's growth, development and enjoyment of life. However, such play experiences are now limited for many children due to excessive fear of risk, or "surplus safety". In this article, the authors examine the pervasiveness of surplus safety in the lives of young children. They argue…

  1. Study of airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with airfoil trailing edge noise with special focus on airfoils with blunt trailing edges. Two methods are employed to calculate airfoil noise: The flow/acoustic splitting method and the semi-empirical method. The flow/acoustic splitting method is derived from compressible Navier...... design or optimization. Calculations from both methods are compared with exist experiments. The airfoil blunt noise is found as a function of trailing edge bluntness, Reynolds number, angle of attack, etc.......-Stokes equations. It provides us possibilities to study details about noise generation mechanism. The formulation of the semi-empirical model is based on acoustic analogy and then curve-fitted with experimental data. Due to its high efficiency, such empirical relation is used for purpose of low noise airfoil...

  2. Modelling the evolution of human trail systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbing, Dirk; Keltsch, Joachim; Molnár, Péter

    1997-07-01

    Many human social phenomena, such as cooperation, the growth of settlements, traffic dynamics and pedestrian movement, appear to be accessible to mathematical descriptions that invoke self-organization. Here we develop a model of pedestrian motion to explore the evolution of trails in urban green spaces such as parks. Our aim is to address such questions as what the topological structures of these trail systems are, and whether optimal path systems can be predicted for urban planning. We use an `active walker' model that takes into account pedestrian motion and orientation and the concomitant feedbacks with the surrounding environment. Such models have previously been applied to the study of complex structure formation in physical, chemical and biological systems. We find that our model is able to reproduce many of the observed large-scale spatial features of trail systems.

  3. The Estimation Methods for Agricultural Surplus Labor Based on Stochastic Frontier Production Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaozhou; LU; Yanfen; LUO

    2014-01-01

    The existing calculation methods for the number of agricultural surplus labor have a common flaw,that is,they can not reflect the impact of technical efficiency changes in agricultural production on the surplus labor. Based on the basic principle of stochastic frontier production function,this paper calculates the agricultural production technical efficiency of various provinces,and selects the province with the highest technical efficiency to assume that its agricultural labor is fully utilized,and there is no agricultural surplus labor. With the ratio of agricultural labor number to agricultural output value in this province as a reference,this paper calculates the number of agricultural surplus labor in other provinces. This calculation method makes up for the shortcomings of the existing calculation methods; it reflects the relationship between the number of agricultural surplus labor and production technical efficiency.

  4. Ant foraging on complex trails: route learning and the role of trail pheromones in Lasius niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Grüter, Christoph; Ellis, Laura; Wood, Elizabeth; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2013-01-15

    Ants are central place foragers and use multiple information sources to navigate between the nest and feeding sites. Individual ants rapidly learn a route, and often prioritize memory over pheromone trails when tested on a simple trail with a single bifurcation. However, in nature, ants often forage at locations that are reached via more complex routes with multiple trail bifurcations. Such routes may be more difficult to learn, and thus ants would benefit from additional information. We hypothesized that trail pheromones play a more significant role in ant foraging on complex routes, either by assisting in navigation or route learning or both. We studied Lasius niger workers foraging on a doubly bifurcating trail with four end points. Route learning was slower and errors greater on alternating (e.g. left-right) versus repeating routes (e.g. left-left), with error rates of 32 and 3%, respectively. However, errors on alternating routes decreased by 30% when trail pheromone was present. Trail pheromones also aid route learning, leading to reduced errors in subsequent journeys without pheromone. If an experienced forager makes an error when returning to a food source, it reacts by increasing pheromone deposition on the return journey. In addition, high levels of trail pheromone suppress further pheromone deposition. This negative feedback mechanism may act to conserve pheromone or to regulate recruitment. Taken together, these results demonstrate further complexity and sophistication in the foraging system of ant colonies, especially in the role of trail pheromones and their relationship with learning and the use of private information (memory) in a complex environment.

  5. Geodetic surveying of crane trail space relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudovít Kovanič

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Geodet´s obvious task consists of surveying crane trails of different types. These transport machines must meet precise geometricparameters, considering mainly the safety of their operation. The paper describes several geodetic methods of determining deviationsin direction and height of crane trails. Measurements were realized using special set of appliances composed for this purpose, as well asusing electronic theodolite for measurements from hall floor. Results ofmeasurements were processed using calculation programe Geus, andgraphicproramme Microstation. Used methods were compared in graphic form.

  6. The Trail Inventory of Lake Ilo NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  7. US Forest Service National Forest System Trails With Data Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the world wide web that depicts National Forest Service trails that have been approved for publication. It also depicts the availability of trails...

  8. The Trail Inventory of Kellys Slough NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Kellys Slough National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  9. The Trail Inventory of Kellys Slough NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Kellys Slough National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  10. The Trail Inventory of Deep Fork NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Deep Fork National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  11. The Trail Inventory of Tishomingo NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Tishomingo National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  12. The Trail Inventory of Reelfoot National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Reelfoot National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  13. The Trail Inventory of Mountain Longleaf NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Mountain Longleaf National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  14. The Trail Inventory of Humboldt Bay NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  15. The Trail Inventory of Willapa National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Willapa National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  16. The Trail Inventory of Alamosa NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Alamosa National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  17. The Trail Inventory of Lake Woodruff NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  18. The Trail Inventory of Pendills Creek NFH [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Pendills Creek National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are...

  19. The Trail Inventory of Missisquoi NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  20. The Trail Inventory of Ruby Lake NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  1. The Trail Inventory of Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  2. The Trail Inventory of Caddo Lake [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Caddo Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  3. The Trail Inventory of Cabo Rojo NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  4. The Trail Inventory of Bogue Chitto NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Bogue Chitto National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  5. The Trail Inventory of Clarence Cannon NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  6. The Trail Inventory of Sequoyah National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Sequoyah National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  7. The Trail Inventory of Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  8. The Trail Inventory of Little Pend Oreille NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Little Pend Oreille National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory...

  9. The Trail Inventory of Merced National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Merced National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  10. The Trail Inventory of Mandalay NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Mandalay National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  11. The Trail Inventory of Boyer Chute NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Boyer Chute National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  12. The Trail Inventory of Lee Metcalf NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  13. The Trail Inventory of Little White Salmon NFH [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are...

  14. The Trail Inventory of Mason Neck NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  15. The Trail Inventory of Ankeny National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Ankeny National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  16. The Trail Inventory of Mackay Island NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Mackay Island National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  17. The Trail Inventory of Las Vegas NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Las Vegas National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  18. The Trail Inventory of Lower Hatchie NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Lower Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  19. The Trail Inventory of Aroostook NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Aroostook National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  20. The Trail Inventory of Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  1. The Trail Inventory of Ankeny NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Ankeny National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  2. The Trail Inventory of Mattamuskeet NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Mattamuskeet National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  3. The Trail Inventory of Lake Ophelia NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Lake Ophelia National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  4. The Trail Inventory of Seal Beach NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  5. The Trail Inventory of Alaska Peninsula NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  6. The Trail Inventory of Bosque Del Apache NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Bosque Del Apache National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  7. The Trail Inventory of Little River NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Little River National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  8. The Trail Inventory of Anahuac National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Anahuac National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  9. The Trail Inventory of Mandalay National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Mandalay National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  10. The Trail Inventory of Lostwood NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  11. The Trail Inventory of Leadville National Fish Hatchery [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Leadville National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  12. The Trail Inventory of Alamosa National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Alamosa National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  13. The Trail Inventory of Toppenish National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Toppenish National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  14. The Trail Inventory of Leslie Canyon NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Leslie Canyon National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  15. The Trail Inventory of Steigerwald Lake NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Steigerwald Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  16. The Trail Inventory of Madison WMD [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Madison Wetland Management District. Trails in this inventory are...

  17. The Trail Inventory of Meredosia National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Meredosia National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  18. The Trail Inventory of Swan Lake NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  19. The Trail Inventory of Maxwell NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Maxwell National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  20. The Trail Inventory of Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  1. The Trail Inventory of Malheur NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  2. The Trail Inventory of Antioch NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Antioch Dunes National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  3. The Trail Inventory of Brazoria National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Brazoria National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  4. The Trail Inventory of Anahuac NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Anahuac National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  5. The Trail Inventory of Lower Klamath NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  6. The Trail Inventory of Leadville NFH [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Leadville National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  7. The Trail Inventory of Merced NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Merced National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  8. The Trail Inventory of Lower Suwannee NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Lower Suwannee National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  9. The Trail Inventory of Vieques National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Vieques National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  10. The Trail Inventory of Arrowwood NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  11. The Trail Inventory of Meredosia NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Meredosia National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  12. The Trail Inventory of Salinas River NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Salinas River National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  13. The Trail Inventory of McNary NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on McNary National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  14. Honeymoon Trail at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (honeytrl)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 1 arc that represents the Honeymoon Trail inside of Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The Honeymoon Trail was...

  15. The Trail Inventory of Port Louisa NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Port Louisa National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  16. The Trail Inventory of Attwater Prairie Chicken NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this...

  17. The Trail Inventory of Iron River NFH [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Iron River National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  18. The Trail Inventory of Glacial Ridge NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Glacial Ridge National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  19. The Trail Inventory of Back Bay NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  20. The Trail Inventory of Back Bay NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  1. The Trail Inventory of Carolina Sandhills NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  2. The Trail Inventory of Cameron Prairie NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Cameron Prairie National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  3. The Trail Inventory of Mississippi Sandhill Crane NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this...

  4. The Trail Inventory of Harrison Lake NFH [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Harrison Lake National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are...

  5. The Trail Inventory of Boyer Chute NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Boyer Chute National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  6. Improved Asteroid Astrometry and Photometry with Trail Fitting

    CERN Document Server

    Vereš, Peter; Denneau, Larry; Wainscoat, Richard; Holman, Matthew J; Lin, Hsing-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Asteroid detections in astronomical images may appear as trails due to a combination of their apparent rate of motion and exposure duration. Nearby asteroids in particular typically have high apparent rates of motion and acceleration. Their recovery, especially on their discovery apparition, depends upon obtaining good astrometry from the trailed detections. We present an analytic function describing a trailed detection under the assumption of a Gaussian point spread function (PSF) and constant rate of motion. We have fit the function to both synthetic and real trailed asteroid detections from the Pan-STARRS1 survey telescope to obtain accurate astrometry and photometry. For short trails our trailing function yields the same astrometric and photometry accuracy as a functionally simpler 2-d Gaussian but the latter underestimates the length of the trail - a parameter that can be important for measuring the object's rate of motion and assessing its cometary activity. For trails longer than about 10 pixels (> 3xP...

  7. The Trail Inventory of Tamarac NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  8. The Trail Inventory of Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  9. The Trail Inventory of Umatilla NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Umatilla National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  10. The Trail Inventory of Desert NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Desert National Wildlife Range. Trails in this inventory are eligible for...

  11. The Trail Inventory of Desert National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Desert National Wildlife Range. Trails in this inventory are eligible for...

  12. The Trail Inventory of Tewaukon NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  13. The Trail Inventory of William L. Finley NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on William L. Finley National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  14. The Trail Inventory of Santee National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Santee National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  15. The Trail Inventory of Santee NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Santee National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  16. The Trail Inventory of Santee NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Santee National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  17. The Trail Inventory of Cape Romain NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  18. The Trail Inventory of Neosho NFH [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Neosho National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are eligible for...

  19. The Trail Inventory of Cabeza Prieta NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  20. The Trail Inventory of Cabeza Prieta NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  1. The Trail Inventory of Harris Neck NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Harris Neck National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  2. The Trail Inventory of Valentine National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Valentine National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  3. The Trail Inventory of Laguna Atascosa NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  4. The Trail Inventory of Conboy Lake NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Conboy Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  5. The Trail Inventory of Tishomingo National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Tishomingo National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  6. The Trail Inventory of Tishomingo NFH [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Tishomingo National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  7. The Trail Inventory of Tishomingo National Fish Hatchery [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Tishomingo National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  8. The Trail Inventory of Leavenworth National Fish Hatchery [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Leavenworth National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  9. The Trail Inventory of Leavenworth NFH [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Leavenworth National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  10. The Trail Inventory of John Hay NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on John Hay National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  11. The Trail Inventory of Private John Allen NFH [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Private John Allen National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are...

  12. The Trail Inventory of John H. Chafee NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on John H. Chafee National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  13. The Trail Inventory of John Heinz NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge At Tinicum. Trails in this inventory...

  14. The Trail Inventory of John H. Chafee NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on John H. Chafee National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  15. The Trail Inventory of Choctaw NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Choctaw National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  16. The Trail Inventory of Choctaw National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Choctaw National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  17. The Trail Inventory of Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  18. The Trail Inventory of Banks Lake NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Banks Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  19. The Trail Inventory of Ash Meadows NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  20. The Trail Inventory of J. Clark Salyer NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  1. The Trail Inventory of Ruby Lake NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  2. The Trail Inventory of Piedmont NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  3. The Trail Inventory of Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  4. The Trail Inventory of Mackay Island NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Mackay Island National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  5. The Trail Inventory of Bayou Teche NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Bayou Teche National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  6. The Trail Inventory of Seedskadee NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  7. The Trail Inventory of Alaska Maritime NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  8. The Trail Inventory of Alaska Maritime NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  9. The Trail Inventory of Sabine NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Sabine National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  10. The Trail Inventory of Sabine National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Sabine National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  11. The Trail Inventory of Sabine NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Sabine National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  12. The Trail Inventory of Spring Creek NFH [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are...

  13. The Trail Inventory of Wassaw NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Wassaw National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  14. The Trail Inventory of Cape May NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Cape May National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  15. The Trail Inventory of Huron WMD [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Huron Wetland Management District. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  16. The Trail Inventory of Saddle Mountain NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Saddle Mountain National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  17. The Trail Inventory of Monte Vista NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  18. The Trail Inventory of Elizabeth A. Morton NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Elizabeth Alexandra Morton National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this...

  19. The Trail Inventory of Tualatin River NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Tualatin River National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  20. The Trail Inventory of Rappahannock River Valley NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this...

  1. The Trail Inventory of Bon Secour NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Bon Secour National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  2. The Trail Inventory of Detroit Lakes WMD [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Detroit Lakes Wetland Management District. Trails in this inventory are...

  3. The Trail Inventory of Detroit Lakes WMD [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Detroit Lakes Wetland Management District. Trails in this inventory are...

  4. The Trail Inventory of Detroit River IWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory...

  5. The Trail Inventory of Crab Orchard NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  6. The Trail Inventory of Tennessee National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Tennessee National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  7. The Trail Inventory of Aroostook National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Aroostook National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  8. The Trail Inventory of Catahoula National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Catahoula National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  9. The Trail Inventory of Mandalay NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Mandalay National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  10. The Trail Inventory of Valentine NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Valentine National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  11. The Trail Inventory of Medicine Lake NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  12. The Trail Inventory of Red Rock Lakes NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  13. The Trail Inventory of Target Rock NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Target Rock National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  14. The Trail Inventory of Lake Ilo NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  15. The Trail Inventory of Pocosin Lakes NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  16. The Trail Inventory of Medicine Lake NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  17. The Trail Inventory of Desoto NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Desoto National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  18. The Trail Inventory of Kealia Pond NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Kealia Pond National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  19. The Trail Inventory of Santa Ana NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  20. The Trail Inventory of Harrison Lake NFH [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Harrison Lake National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are...

  1. The Trail Inventory of Las Vegas NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Las Vegas National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  2. The Trail Inventory of Lower Hatchie NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Lower Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  3. The Trail Inventory of Private John Allen NFH [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Private John Allen National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are...

  4. The Trail Inventory of St. Marks NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  5. The Trail Inventory of Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  6. The Trail Inventory of Wheeler NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  7. The Trail Inventory of Wheeler NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  8. The Trail Inventory of Umatilla National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Umatilla National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  9. The Trail Inventory of Havasu National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Havasu National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  10. The Trail Inventory of Necedah NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Necedah National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  11. The Trail Inventory of Cahaba River NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Cahaba River National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  12. Where Should the Rural Surplus Labour Force Go?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩康

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese government attaches a great deal of importance to the income growth of farmers.In considering strategies for solving rural problems in China,it is important not to depart from the external development strategy of transferring employment of the rural surplus labour force.For farmers to become rich,they must be fewer in number.This strategic task cannot be replaced by any of the new measures of an internal development strategy.However,certain scholars at home and abroad hold that difficulties have emerged during the transfer process.In this article,the author offers an in- depth analysis of this issue and puts forward some further considerations.

  13. The local field potential reflects surplus spike synchrony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denker, Michael; Roux, Sébastien; Lindén, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    While oscillations of the local field potential (LFP) are commonly attributed to the synchronization of neuronal firing rate on the same time scale, their relationship to coincident spiking in the millisecond range is unknown. Here, we present experimental evidence to reconcile the notions...... of synchrony at the level of spiking and at the mesoscopic scale. We demonstrate that only in time intervals of significant spike synchrony that cannot be explained on the basis of firing rates, coincident spikes are better phase locked to the LFP than predicted by the locking of the individual spikes....... This effect is enhanced in periods of large LFP amplitudes. A quantitative model explains the LFP dynamics by the orchestrated spiking activity in neuronal groups that contribute the observed surplus synchrony. From the correlation analysis, we infer that neurons participate in different constellations...

  14. Building a 3D Computed Tomography Scanner From Surplus Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidekker, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanners are expensive imaging devices, often out of reach for small research groups. Designing and building a CT scanner from modular components is possible, and this article demonstrates that realization of a CT scanner from components is surprisingly easy. However, the high costs of a modular X-ray source and detector limit the overall cost savings. In this article, the possibility of building a CT scanner with available surplus X-ray parts is discussed, and a practical device is described that incurred costs of less than $16,000. The image quality of this device is comparable with commercial devices. The disadvantage is that design constraints imposed by the available components lead to slow scan speeds and a resolution of 0.5 mm. Despite these limitations, a device such as this is attractive for imaging studies in the biological and biomedical sciences, as well as for advancing CT technology itself.

  15. Using information technology for patient education: realizing surplus value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, Arjen P; van't Riet, Annemarie; Berg, Marc

    2004-08-01

    Computer-based patient information systems are introduced to replace traditional forms of patient education like brochures, leaflets, videotapes and, to a certain extent, face-to-face communication. In this paper, we claim that though computer-based patient information systems potentially have many advantages compared to traditional means, the surplus value of these systems is much harder to realize than often expected. By reporting on two computer-based patient information systems, both found to be unsuccessful, we will show that building computer-based patient information systems for patient education requires a thorough analysis of the advantages and limitations of IT compared to traditional forms of patient education. When this condition is fulfilled, however, these systems have the potential to improve health status and to be a valuable supplement to (rather than a substitute for) traditional means of patient education.

  16. Estimating the 'consumer surplus' for branded versus standardised tobacco packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendall, Philip; Eckert, Christine; Hoek, Janet; Farley, Tessa; Louviere, Jordan; Wilson, Nick; Edwards, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Tobacco companies question whether standardised (or 'plain') packaging will change smokers' behaviour. We addressed this question by estimating how standardised packaging compared to a proven tobacco control intervention, price increases through excise taxes, thus providing a quantitative measure of standardised packaging's likely effect. We conducted an online study of 311 New Zealand smokers aged 18 years and above that comprised a willingness-to-pay task comparing a branded and a standardised pack at four different price levels, and a choice experiment. The latter used an alternative-specific design, where the alternatives were a branded pack or a standardised pack, with warning theme and price varied for each pack. Respondents had higher purchase likelihoods for the branded pack (with a 30% warning) than the standardised pack (with a 75% warning) at each price level tested, and, on average, were willing to pay approximately 5% more for a branded pack. The choice experiment produced a very similar estimate of 'consumer surplus' for a branded pack. However, the size of the 'consumer surplus' varied between warning themes and by respondents' demographic characteristics. These two experiments suggest standardised packaging and larger warning labels could have a similar overall effect on adult New Zealand smokers as a 5% tobacco price increase. The findings provide further evidence for the efficacy of standardised packaging, which focuses primarily on reducing youth initiation, and suggest this measure will also bring notable benefits to adult smokers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Molecular mechanisms of TRAIL-induced apoptosis of cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Tumor Necrosis Factor-related Apoptosis-inducing Ligand (TRAIL) is a recently identified member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family[1]. Numerous studies indicate that TRAIL can induce apoptosis of cancer cells but not of normal cells, pointing to the possibility of de-veloping TRAIL into a cancer drug[2-4]. This review will summary the molecular mechanisms of TRAIL-induced apoptosis and discuss the questions to be resolved in this field.

  18. Braided tubular superelastic cables provide improved spinal stability compared to multifilament sublaminar cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Jaëlle; Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc; Brailovski, Vladimir; Petit, Yvan

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the use of braided tubular superelastic cables, previously used for sternum closure following sternotomy, as sublaminar fixation method. It compares the biomechanical performance of spinal instrumentation fixation systems with regular sublaminar cables and proprietary superelastic cables. A hybrid experimental protocol was applied to six porcine L1-L4 spinal segments to compare multifilament sublaminar cables (Atlas, Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN) with proprietary superelastic cables. First, intact total range of motion was determined for all specimens using pure moment loading. Second, pure moments were imposed to the instrumented specimens until these intact total ranges of motion were reproduced. Compared to the intact specimens, the use of superelastic cables resulted in stiffer instrumented specimens than the use of multifilament cables for all the loading modes except axial torsion. Consequently, the superelastic cables limited the instrumented segments mobility more than the multifilament cables. Spinal instrumentation fixation systems using superelastic cables could be a good alternative to conventional sublaminar cables as it maintains a constant stabilization of the spine during loading.

  19. Nonlinear Analysis of Cable Vibration of a Multispan Cable-Stayed Bridge under Transverse Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear vibrations of cable in a multispan cable-stayed bridge subjected to transverse excitation are investigated. The MECS (multielements cable system model, where multielements per cable stay are used, is built up and used to analyze the model properties of the multispan cable-stayed bridges. Then, a simplified two-degrees-of-freedom (2-DOFs model, where the tower or the deck is reduced to a beam, is proposed to analyze the nonlinear dynamic behaviors of the beam and cable. The results of MECS model analysis show that the main tower in the multispan cable-stayed bridge is prone to the transverse vibration, and the local vibration of cables only has a little impact on the frequency values of the global modes. The results of simplified model analysis show that the energy can be transformed between the modes of the beam and cable when the nature frequencies of them are very close. On the other hand, with the transverse excitation changing, the cable can exhibit richer quasi-periodic or chaotic motions due to the nonlinear terms caused by the coupled mode between the beam and cable.

  20. A New Multiconstraint Method for Determining the Optimal Cable Stresses in Cable-Stayed Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Asgari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cable-stayed bridges are one of the most popular types of long-span bridges. The structural behaviour of cable-stayed bridges is sensitive to the load distribution between the girder, pylons, and cables. The determination of pretensioning cable stresses is critical in the cable-stayed bridge design procedure. By finding the optimum stresses in cables, the load and moment distribution of the bridge can be improved. In recent years, different research works have studied iterative and modern methods to find optimum stresses of cables. However, most of the proposed methods have limitations in optimising the structural performance of cable-stayed bridges. This paper presents a multiconstraint optimisation method to specify the optimum cable forces in cable-stayed bridges. The proposed optimisation method produces less bending moments and stresses in the bridge members and requires shorter simulation time than other proposed methods. The results of comparative study show that the proposed method is more successful in restricting the deck and pylon displacements and providing uniform deck moment distribution than unit load method (ULM. The final design of cable-stayed bridges can be optimised considerably through proposed multiconstraint optimisation method.

  1. A new multiconstraint method for determining the optimal cable stresses in cable-stayed bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, B; Osman, S A; Adnan, A

    2014-01-01

    Cable-stayed bridges are one of the most popular types of long-span bridges. The structural behaviour of cable-stayed bridges is sensitive to the load distribution between the girder, pylons, and cables. The determination of pretensioning cable stresses is critical in the cable-stayed bridge design procedure. By finding the optimum stresses in cables, the load and moment distribution of the bridge can be improved. In recent years, different research works have studied iterative and modern methods to find optimum stresses of cables. However, most of the proposed methods have limitations in optimising the structural performance of cable-stayed bridges. This paper presents a multiconstraint optimisation method to specify the optimum cable forces in cable-stayed bridges. The proposed optimisation method produces less bending moments and stresses in the bridge members and requires shorter simulation time than other proposed methods. The results of comparative study show that the proposed method is more successful in restricting the deck and pylon displacements and providing uniform deck moment distribution than unit load method (ULM). The final design of cable-stayed bridges can be optimised considerably through proposed multiconstraint optimisation method.

  2. 41 CFR 102-37.80 - What happens to surplus property that isn't transferred for donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... property that isn't transferred for donation? 102-37.80 Section 102-37.80 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.80 What happens to surplus property that isn't transferred for donation? Surplus property not transferred...

  3. 41 CFR 102-37.50 - What is the general process for requesting surplus property for donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... process for requesting surplus property for donation? 102-37.50 Section 102-37.50 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.50 What is the general process for requesting surplus property for donation? The process...

  4. 41 CFR 102-37.110 - What are a holding agency's responsibilities in the donation of surplus property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agency's responsibilities in the donation of surplus property? 102-37.110 Section 102-37.110 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Holding Agency § 102-37.110 What are a holding agency's responsibilities in the donation of surplus property? Your...

  5. Pay Cable: A Viable Advertising Medium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Dean M.; Barban, Arnold M.

    Cable television, which cannot only clarify local signals to weak signal areas but can also bring in distant signals to areas which have been receiving few signals, has the capacity to present special television programs to customers for extra fees. The number of pay cable subscribers is growing and industry projections are that it will reach 20…

  6. Cable Television in the Classroom. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Glen A.; Branch, Robert C.

    Using cable television in the classroom allows teachers to include the latest news and current events in class discussions. However, many educational practitioners are uninformed about the concept and lack the knowledge to implement the technology in the classroom. This digest describes how cable television can be integrated into elementary and…

  7. Crossed Wires; Cable Television in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Analysis of Public Issues, Princeton, NJ.

    Cable television (CATV) in New Jersey has been almost nonexistent: Because of the state's proximity to the major cities of New York and Philadelphia, there has been a scarcity of New Jersey-oriented news and public affairs programing. Cable television access, it is suggested, could fill this information gap in New Jersey if the state government…

  8. Cable Television: Its Urban Context and Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warthman, Forrest

    Cable television's future in urban settings is discussed in the context of alternative media capable of serving similar markets with similar programing. In addition to cable television, other transmission networks such as the telephone network, radio and television broadcasting, microwave networks, domestic satellites, and recording media are…

  9. Calorimetric measurements of losses in HTS cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Veje, Niels Erling Winsløv; Rasmussen, Carsten

    2001-01-01

    A calorimetric test rig is used to investigate various loss components in a 10 m long superconducting cable model. A calorimetric technique, based on thermocouple measurements, is used to measure the losses of the 10 m long superconducting cable model. The current dependent losses are also measured...

  10. Cable Television: The Process of Franchising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Leland L.; Botein, Michael

    In an effort to insure that cable television franchising procedures at the local level are based on a competitive and well-conceived selection process, this report discusses some of the most important steps of the franchising process. Not only does it show how the community should assess its needs and appraise the merits of the cable operator, but…

  11. Assessment of sodium conductor distribution cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The study assesses the barriers and incentives for using sodium conductor distribution cable. The assessment considers environmental, safety, energy conservation, electrical performance and economic factors. Along with all of these factors considered in the assessment, the sodium distribution cable system is compared to the present day alternative - an aluminum conductor system. (TFD)

  12. Community Cable Television--Hungarian Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekfu, Andras

    This paper argues that, although community cable television is one of the most dynamic (although experimental) elements of the Hungarian media structure, it is well on its way toward institutionalization. It is suggested that whether community cable television is able to retain the spontaneity, innovativeness, and elasticity of its early days may…

  13. 76 FR 32866 - Cable Landing Licenses; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... Systems Agency in the regulations that we published in the Federal Register of January 14, 2002, 67 FR... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 1 Cable Landing Licenses; Correction AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... streamlined processing of cable landing license applications. Need for Correction As published, the...

  14. First Russian long length HTS power cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Eduard P.; Vysotsky, Vitaly S.; Firsov, Valery P.

    2012-11-01

    The Russian R&D Program for superconducting power devices is underway, supported both by government and electric power companies. In this program R&D on HTS power cables is considered as most advanced and close to commercialization. In the framework of the program, several, heavily instrumented, 5 m cables have been tested following by the 30 m - 3 phase experimental power cable development and testing in 2008-2009. The latest achievement is development and testing of the first long length 3 × 200 m power cable with rating 1.5/2 kA-20 kV. In parallel with just the cable development the innovative cryogenic system has been developed as well for the cable cooling. The system is using neon as working substance and radial turbo-machines in refrigerator. Cooling power is up to ∼8 kW at 65 K, inter-maintenance time ∼30,000 h. The cryogenic pump with superconducting motor can be used to provide subcooled liquid nitrogen flow ∼0.1-1.5 kg/s at 0.1-2.5 MPa pressure. After extensive tests at special test facility, HTS power cable and cryogenic system are planning to be installed at some substation in Moscow utility grid. In this review some details about Russian HTS power application program, 200 m cable and cryogenic system designs and tests results are presented.

  15. The Selling of Cable Television 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Cable Television Association, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The 1972 Cable Television Marketing Workshop reviewed in depth a wide variety of marketing and public relations techniques as they pertain to cable television. The workshop was attended by representatives of commercial television systems throughout the United States; it was intended to disseminate the sales and marketing experience of those…

  16. Joystick With Cable Springs Offers Better Feel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerley, James; Ecklund, Wayne

    1992-01-01

    Improved joystick allows motion in 6 degrees of freedom, biased toward central position and orientation by 16 segments of cable serving as springs. Improvement in feel and control results from nonlinear compliance of cable-spring assembly. Nonlinear variations accommodate natural reactions of hand and brain. Operator functions as part of feedback control loop. More comfortable, increases ability to exert control and reduces fatigue.

  17. 21 CFR 1311.215 - Internal audit trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Internal audit trail. 1311.215 Section 1311.215... ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS (Eff. 6-1-10) Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.215 Internal audit trail. (a) The... with audit trail functions. (6) For application service providers, attempted or successful...

  18. Recombinant soluble TRAIL induces apoptosis of cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    TRAIL is a tumor necrosis factor family member that selectively induces apoptosis of cancer cells but not of normal cells. To develop TRAIL into a potential cancer drug, three different sizes of soluble TRAIL fragments, including sTRAIL(74-281), sTRAIL(95-281) and sTRAIL(101-281), were expressed in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. Apoptosis assays indicated that sTRAIL(95-281) and sTRAIL(101-281), but not sTRAIL(74-281), can potently induce apoptosis of various cancer cell lines in 6 h, suggesting that the N-terminal fragment of aa101 has inhibitory effect on TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Moreover, we found that some cancer cells were resistant to TRAIL and the resistant cells could be converted into sensitive cells by treatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, suggesting that one or more short-lived proteins are responsible for cells' resistance to TRAIL.

  19. Best management practices for erosion control from bladed skid trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Wade; W. Michael Aust; M. Chad Bolding; William A. Lakel III

    2012-01-01

    Sediment from forest operations is primarily associated with roads and skid trails. We evaluated five skid trail closure treatments applied to bladed skid trails in the Virginia Piedmont. Closure treatments were Waterbars, Seed, Mulch, Pine slash, and Hardwood slash. Sediment traps were used to collect monthly sediment samples for one year. The Mulch, Pine slash, and...

  20. Trails, Other, trails, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Other dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'trails'. The...

  1. Parallel monostrand stay cable bending fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan Pawel

    of damage and replacement of bridge stay cables due to wind and traffic-induced fatigue. The understanding of fatigue mechanisms in most steel structures is well established. However, in the case of cables composed of steel strands, many important aspects related with bending fatigue remain to be clarified......This dissertation investigates the bending fatigue response of high-strength steel monostrands and multistrand stay cables to cyclic transverse deformations. Increasing bridge stock numbers and a push for longer cable-supported span lengths have led to an increased number of reported incidents...... associated with variable loading, and different testing procedures. As most of the contemporary stay cables are comprised of a number of individual highstrength steel monostrands, the research study started with an extensive experimental work on the fatigue response of a single monostrand to cyclic flexural...

  2. Interpreter's Guide to Blackbird Marsh Nature Trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Studies Center, Pensacola, FL.

    This booklet was prepared to help the user interpret the natural history of Blackbird Marsh Nature Trail in Escambia County, Florida, and serves as a guide to the animal and plant life. The publication is part of a series of illustrated guides designed for use by teachers and students of all levels in conjunction with field trips to the 1200-acre…

  3. TRIPPy: Trailed Image Photometry in Python

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Wesley C; Schwamb, Megan E; Marsset, Michael E; Pike, Rosemary E; Kavelaars, JJ; Bannister, Michele T; Benecchi, Susan; Delsanti, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Photometry of moving sources typically suffers from reduced signal-to-noise (SNR) or flux measurements biased to incorrect low values through the use of circular apertures. To address this issue we present the software package, TRIPPy: TRailed Image Photometry in Python. TRIPPy introduces the pill aperture, which is the natural extension of the circular aperture appropriate for linearly trailed sources. The pill shape is a rectangle with two semicircular end-caps, and is described by three parameters, the trail length and angle, and the radius. The TRIPPy software package also includes a new technique to generate accurate model point-spread functions (PSF) and trailed point-spread functions (TSF) from stationary background sources in sidereally tracked images. The TSF is merely the convolution of the model PSF, which consists of a moffat profile, and super sampled lookup table. From the TSF, accurate pill aperture corrections can be estimated as a function of pill radius with a accuracy of 10 millimags for hi...

  4. 77 FR 45721 - Consolidated Audit Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... the identity of the customers who originate orders, or even the fact that two sets of orders may have... letters from 56 commenters in response to the proposed consolidated audit trail representing a wide range... comment letters received, 13 expressed support for the proposal; \\10\\ 36 expressed support, but...

  5. //Rondje Zilverling: COMMIT/TimeTrails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van Maurice; Graaff, de Victor; Zhu, Zhemin; By, de Rolf; Wombacher, Andreas; Flokstra, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Het TimeTrails-project3 gaat over data mining in grote hoeveelheden gegevens over gebeurtenissen in ruimte en tijd, d.w.z. met coördinaten en time-stamps. Dergelijke gegevens worden doorgaans vergaard door mensen, sensoren en wetenschappelijke observaties. Gegevensanalyse richt zich vaak op de vier

  6. Research on artificial meteor trail emergency communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntao, Liu; Xijun, Yan; Li, Jia

    As the particles known as meteors enter the earth's atmosphere, a small fraction of which can form ionized cloud, this ionized cloud has property useful for reflecting electromagnetic wave. Meteor burst communication is a point to point communication technology base on the above principle. Similarly, artificial meteor trail communication establishes “ionized cloud” signal channel by alkali metal ionizing at high-altitude ionosphere to reflect electromagnetic waves. Currently, Meteor burst communication is a mature communication technology with many advantages. However, as a completely uncontrollable natural phenomena, the communication time, duration time, the amount of information transmitted and antenna alignment direction are all uncontrollable. We can only figure out key parameters such as throughput and waiting time within a certain time relying on statistical regularities. Information transmission between specified sites in certain time is impossible to predict accurately. These disadvantages greatly reduce the dependability of meteor trail communication and cannot meet emergency communication’s requirements for real-time, controllable and uninterrupted. Artificial meteor trail emergency communication technology solves the above problems, it’s a reliable emergency telecommunication method. This paper focuses on the necessity and feasibility of artificial meteor trail emergency communication technology, as well as its future application.

  7. Nuclear power plant cable materials :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celina, Mathias C.; Gillen, Kenneth T; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2013-05-01

    A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostly inert aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on

  8. SAHM:VisTrails (Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling for VisTrails): training course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    VisTrails is an open-source management and scientific workflow system designed to integrate the best of both scientific workflow and scientific visualization systems. Developers can extend the functionality of the VisTrails system by creating custom modules for bundled VisTrails packages. The Invasive Species Science Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) and the U.S. Department of the Interior’s North Central Climate Science Center have teamed up to develop and implement such a module—the Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling (SAHM). SAHM expedites habitat modeling and helps maintain a record of the various input data, the steps before and after processing, and the modeling options incorporated in the construction of an ecological response model. There are four main advantages to using the SAHM:VisTrails combined package for species distribution modeling: (1) formalization and tractable recording of the entire modeling process; (2) easier collaboration through a common modeling framework; (3) a user-friendly graphical interface to manage file input, model runs, and output; and (4) extensibility to incorporate future and additional modeling routines and tools. In order to meet increased interest in the SAHM:VisTrails package, the FORT offers a training course twice a year. The course includes a combination of lecture, hands-on work, and discussion. Please join us and other ecological modelers to learn the capabilities of the SAHM:VisTrails package.

  9. Targeting Death Receptor TRAIL-R2 by Chalcones for TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis in Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ksek

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL induces apoptosis in cancer cells without toxicity to normal cells. TRAIL binds to death receptors, TRAIL-R1 (DR4 and TRAIL-R2 (DR5 expressed on cancer cell surface and activates apoptotic pathways. Endogenous TRAIL plays an important role in immune surveillance and defense against cancer cells. However, as more tumor cells are reported to be resistant to TRAIL mediated death, it is important to search for and develop new strategies to overcome this resistance. Chalcones can sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We examined the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of TRAIL in combination with four chalcones: chalcone, isobavachalcone, licochalcone A and xanthohumol on HeLa cancer cells. The cytotoxicity was measured by MTT and LDH assays. The apoptosis was detected using annexin V-FITC staining by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Death receptor expression was analyzed using flow cytometry. The decreased expression of death receptors in cancer cells may be the cause of TRAIL-resistance. Chalcones enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells through increased expression of TRAIL-R2. Our study has indicated that chalcones augment the antitumor activity of TRAIL and confirm their cancer chemopreventive properties.

  10. Novel TRAIL sensitizer Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis in Huh7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ji-Yong; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Ju; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Jun, Soo Young; Lee, Jae-Hye; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Choi, SangHo; Saloura, Vassiliki; Park, Choon Gil; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Nam-Soon

    2016-04-01

    TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand) is a promising anti-cancer drug target that selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells. However, many cancer cells are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Therefore, reversing TRAIL resistance is an important step for the development of effective TRAIL-based anti-cancer therapies. We previously reported that knockdown of the TOR signaling pathway regulator-like (TIPRL) protein caused TRAIL-induced apoptosis by activation of the MKK7-c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) pathway through disruption of the MKK7-TIPRL interaction. Here, we identified Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg (TO) as a novel TRAIL sensitizer from a set of 500 natural products using an ELISA system and validated its activity by GST pull-down analysis. Furthermore, combination treatment of Huh7 cells with TRAIL and TO resulted in TRAIL-induced apoptosis mediated through inhibition of the MKK7-TIPRL interaction and subsequent activation of MKK7-JNK phosphorylation. Interestingly, HPLC analysis identified chicoric acid as a major component of the TO extract, and combination treatment with chicoric acid and TRAIL induced TRAIL-induced cell apoptosis via JNK activation due to inhibition of the MKK7-TIPRL interaction. Our results suggest that TO plays an important role in TRAIL-induced apoptosis, and further functional studies are warranted to confirm the importance of TO as a novel TRAIL sensitizer for cancer therapy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Targeting death receptor TRAIL-R2 by chalcones for TRAIL-induced apoptosis in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szliszka, Ewelina; Jaworska, Dagmara; Ksek, Małgorzata; Czuba, Zenon P; Król, Wojciech

    2012-11-20

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in cancer cells without toxicity to normal cells. TRAIL binds to death receptors, TRAIL-R1 (DR4) and TRAIL-R2 (DR5) expressed on cancer cell surface and activates apoptotic pathways. Endogenous TRAIL plays an important role in immune surveillance and defense against cancer cells. However, as more tumor cells are reported to be resistant to TRAIL mediated death, it is important to search for and develop new strategies to overcome this resistance. Chalcones can sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We examined the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of TRAIL in combination with four chalcones: chalcone, isobavachalcone, licochalcone A and xanthohumol on HeLa cancer cells. The cytotoxicity was measured by MTT and LDH assays. The apoptosis was detected using annexin V-FITC staining by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Death receptor expression was analyzed using flow cytometry. The decreased expression of death receptors in cancer cells may be the cause of TRAIL-resistance. Chalcones enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells through increased expression of TRAIL-R2. Our study has indicated that chalcones augment the antitumor activity of TRAIL and confirm their cancer chemopreventive properties.

  12. Simulation of the cabling process for Rutherford cables: An advanced finite element model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanes, J.; Garlasche, M.; Bordini, B.; Dallocchio, A.

    2016-12-01

    In all existing large particle accelerators (Tevatron, HERA, RHIC, LHC) the main superconducting magnets are based on Rutherford cables, which are characterized by having: strands fully transposed with respect to the magnetic field, a significant compaction that assures a large engineering critical current density and a geometry that allows efficient winding of the coils. The Nb3Sn magnets developed in the framework of the HL-LHC project for improving the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are also based on Rutherford cables. Due to the characteristics of Nb3Sn wires, the cabling process has become a crucial step in the magnet manufacturing. During cabling the wires experience large plastic deformations that strongly modify the geometrical dimensions of the sub-elements constituting the superconducting strand. These deformations are particularly severe on the cable edges and can result in a significant reduction of the cable critical current as well as of the Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) of the stabilizing copper. In order to understand the main parameters that rule the cabling process and their impact on the cable performance, CERN has developed a 3D Finite Element (FE) model based on the LS-Dyna® software that simulates the whole cabling process. In the paper the model is presented together with a comparison between experimental and numerical results for a copper cable produced at CERN.

  13. Possible novel therapy for malignant gliomas with secretable trimeric TRAIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonsup Jeong

    Full Text Available Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors. Despite intensive clinical investigation and many novel therapeutic approaches, average survival for the patients with malignant gliomas is only about 1 year. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL has shown potent and cancer-selective killing activity and drawn considerable attention as a promising therapy for cancers, but concerns over delivery and toxicity have limited progress. We have developed a secretable trimeric TRAIL (stTRAIL and here evaluated the therapeutic potential of this stTRAIL-based gene therapy in brain tumors. An adenovirus (Ad-stTRAIL delivering stTRAIL was injected into intra-cranial human glioma tumors established in nude mice and tumor growth monitored using the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Ad-stTRAIL gene therapy showed potent tumor suppressor activity with no toxic side effects at therapeutically effective doses. When compared with 1, 3-bis(2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (BCNU, a conventional therapy for malignant gliomas, Ad-stTRAIL suppressed tumor growth more potently. The combination of Ad-stTRAIL and BCNU significantly increased survival compared to the control mice or mice receiving Ad-stTRAIL alone. Our data indicate that Ad-stTRAIL, either alone or combined with BCNU, has promise as a novel therapy for malignant gliomas.

  14. Trail resource impacts and an examination of alternative assessment techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, J.L.; Leung, Y.-F.

    2001-01-01

    Trails are a primary recreation resource facility on which recreation activities are performed. They provide safe access to non-roaded areas, support recreational opportunities such as hiking, biking, and wildlife observation, and protect natural resources by concentrating visitor traffic on resistant treads. However, increasing recreational use, coupled with poorly designed and/or maintained trails, has led to a variety of resource impacts. Trail managers require objective information on trails and their conditions to monitor trends, direct trail maintenance efforts, and evaluate the need for visitor management and resource protection actions. This paper reviews trail impacts and different types of trail assessments, including inventory, maintenance, and condition assessment approaches. Two assessment methods, point sampling and problem assessment, are compared empirically from separate assessments of a 15-mile segment of the Appalachian Trail in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Results indicate that point sampling and problem assessment methods yield distinctly different types of quantitative information. The point sampling method provides more accurate and precise measures of trail characteristics that are continuous or frequent (e.g., tread width or exposed soil). The problem assessment method is a preferred approach for monitoring trail characteristics that can be easily predefined or are infrequent (e.g., excessive width or secondary treads), particularly when information on the location of specific trail impact problems is needed. The advantages and limitations of these two assessment methods are examined in relation to various management and research information needs. The choice and utility of these assessment methods are also discussed.

  15. Self-healing cable for extreme environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Dryver R. (Inventor); Tolmie, Bernard R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Self-healing cable apparatus and methods disclosed. The self-healing cable has a central core surrounded by an adaptive cover that can extend over the entire length of the self-healing cable or just one or more portions of the self-healing cable. The adaptive cover includes an axially and/or radially compressible-expandable (C/E) foam layer that maintains its properties over a wide range of environmental conditions. A tape layer surrounds the C/E layer and is applied so that it surrounds and axially and/or radially compresses the C/E layer. When the self-healing cable is subjected to a damaging force that causes a breach in the outer jacket and the tape layer, the corresponding localized axially and/or radially compressed portion of the C/E foam layer expands into the breach to form a corresponding localized self-healed region. The self-healing cable is manufacturable with present-day commercial self-healing cable manufacturing tools.

  16. Self-contained cable systems offer advantages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morello, A.S.; Occhini, E.

    1977-05-01

    Low-pressure oil-filled (LPOF) cable systems, while seldom used in this country, have several advantages of interest to engineers. Less oil and insulating paper is required for low-pressure than for the more commonly used high-pressure systems because of the single core. The lower pessure offers safety features in the event of accidental oil loss. LPOF cables are used internationally because of their good thermal characteristics. Applications besides ac transmission lines include underground and submarine cables, such as those connecting islands with mainland facilities. Cooling can be accomplished either by circulating oil inside the central duct or circulating water through parallel nonmetallic pipes. Forced-cooling of the LPOF cables is less complicated, which allows them to have higher current ratings and makes them more adaptable to thermal transients. Conductor cooling, which increases capacity but prohibits overloads in LPOF cables, is the only system available to high voltage (HVDC) cables. Several experimental and demonstration cable systems are described. (DCK)

  17. Changes in Vegetation Structure along Four Tourist Trails from Kasprowy Wierch, Tatra Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena OPRZĄDEK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper there is a new method to asses tourist impact on vegetation cover presented and tested in four locations, which have a different tourist traffic magnitude. Research area is Kasprowy Wierch surroundings in Tatra Mountains. It is a specific place in Tatra Mts., because it can be reached either by cable car or five tourist trails, being the most visited summit in the Polish Carpathians. Each year, there are about 500 thousand people reaching Kasprowy Wierch with a cable car and thousands of walking people. High tourist impact causes many vegetation injuries. Methods used in this research is based on average daily and monthly magnitude of tourist traffic and geobotanical method, which based on a plant species registration and its’ surface coverage estimation using Daubenmeir scale. The results attest that some species are resistant to the pressure and other not. In this regard, the species composition and species percentage can be suitable indicator to measure vegetation changes due to the tourist impact.

  18. 46 CFR 111.60-4 - Minimum cable conductor size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum cable conductor size. 111.60-4 Section 111.60-4...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-4 Minimum cable conductor size. Each cable conductor must be #18 AWG (0.82 mm2) or larger except— (a) Each power and lighting cable conductor must...

  19. Non-linear stochastic response of a shallow cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Winther; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2004-01-01

    The paper considers the stochastic response of geometrical non-linear shallow cables. Large rain-wind induced cable oscillations with non-linear interactions have been observed in many large cable stayed bridges during the last decades. The response of the cable is investigated for a reduced two-degrees-of-freedom...

  20. 47 CFR 76.614 - Cable television system regular monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable television system regular monitoring. 76.614 Section 76.614 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Technical Standards § 76.614 Cable television system regular monitoring. Cable television...

  1. 47 CFR 76.612 - Cable television frequency separation standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable television frequency separation standards. 76.612 Section 76.612 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Technical Standards § 76.612 Cable television frequency separation standards. All cable...

  2. 47 CFR 76.403 - Cable television system reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable television system reports. 76.403 Section 76.403 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Forms and Reports § 76.403 Cable television system reports. The operator of every operational cable...

  3. 47 CFR 32.2426 - Intrabuilding network cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Intrabuilding network cable. 32.2426 Section 32... Intrabuilding network cable. (a) This account shall include the original cost of cables and wires located on the... between buildings on one customer's same premises. Intrabuilding network cables are used to...

  4. 47 CFR 32.2424 - Submarine & deep sea cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Submarine & deep sea cable. 32.2424 Section 32... Submarine & deep sea cable. (a) This account shall include the original cost of submarine cable and deep sea... defined below, are to be maintained for nonmetallic submarine and deep sea cable and metallic...

  5. Bending behavior of lapped plastic ehv cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, G H; Muller, A C

    1980-01-01

    One of the factors delaying the development of lapped polymeric cables has been their reputed poor bending characteristics. Complementary programs were begun at BNL several years ago to mathematically model the bending of synthetic tape cables and to develop novel plastic tapes designed to have moduli more favorable to bending. A series of bend tests was recently completed to evaluate the bending performance of several tapes developed for use in experimental superconducting cables. The program is discussed and the results of the bend tests are summarized.

  6. Frequency Dependent Losses in Transmission Cable Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Holbøll, Joachim; Guðmundsdóttir, Unnur Stella

    2011-01-01

    , such as thermal conditions in and around the cable, as well as the heat generated in conductors, screens, armours etc., taking into account proximity and skin effects. The work performed and presented in this paper is concerned with an improved determination of the losses generated in the conductor, by means...... of better calculation of the AC resistance of transmission cable conductors, in particular regarding higher frequencies. In this way, also losses under harmonics can be covered. Furthermore, the model is suitable for modelling of transient attenuation in high voltage cables. The AC resistance is calculated...

  7. DC Characterization of the Coaxial Superconducting Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šouc, J.; Gömöry, F.; Vojenčiak, M.; Frolek, L.; Isfort, D.; Ehrenberg, J.; Bock, J.

    2008-01-01

    Coaxial cable model with superconducting core and superconducting shield conductor was constructed and tested in DC regime. While the core was already examined in our previous works, in this contribution the detailed study of the superconducting shield conductor in DC conditions is presented. It consists of 16 ReBCO coated tapes with critical current 35 A each connected in parallel. Using shunts with known values placed in series the currents in individual tapes were possible to measure. Distribution of the total cable current into the individual tapes was monitored and its influence on critical current of the cable is discussed.

  8. Optimizing of the cable bedding and the ampacity of underground power cables in trefoil formation by using the gravitational search algorithm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perovic, Bojan; Klimenta, Dardan; Radosavljevic, Jordan; Jevtic, Miroljub

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of the determination of the optimum values for dimensions of cable trench and cable bedding, interaxial spacings between power cables in trefoil formation and cable ampacities...

  9. Understanding losses in three core armoured submarine cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Ebdrup, Thomas; Bak, Claus Leth

    2016-01-01

    . For practical an economical reasons the preferred choice of cable for both the array and the transmission cables are three-core armoured submarine cables. Therefore, it has becoming increasingly important to be able to calculate the ampacity of such cables accurately. At present time, the ampacity of three......-core armoured submarine cables is calculated according to IEC 60287-1-1 [1]. Various measurements conducted both by cable manufacturers and transmission system operators (TSO) have shown that using the cable rating method stated in IEC 60287-1-1 underestimates the cable ampacity [2]-[6]. Furthermore....... However, research performed in this paper shows that while the armour is responsible for the extra losses, the main calculation error for typical HVAC submarine cables may be in the screen’s loss factor (λ1). Overestimation of the cable losses may result in core cross-sections too large with more material...

  10. 77 FR 50447 - Federal Management Regulation; Donation of Surplus Personal Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... Property AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Proposed... Regulation (FMR) by changing its personal property policy. The proposed changes will (1) include the addition... surplus property those organizations whose membership comprises substantially of veterans, as authorized...

  11. Modeling Cable and Guide Channel Interaction in a High-Strength Cable-Driven Continuum Manipulator

    OpenAIRE

    Moses, Matthew S.; Murphy, Ryan J.; Kutzer, Michael D. M.; Armand, Mehran

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents several mechanical models of a high-strength cable-driven dexterous manipulator designed for surgical procedures. A stiffness model is presented that distinguishes between contributions from the cables and the backbone. A physics-based model incorporating cable friction is developed and its predictions are compared with experimental data. The data show that under high tension and high curvature, the shape of the manipulator deviates significantly from a circular arc. Howev...

  12. Application Designs of Cable Modem System%Cable Modem系统应用设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    占亿民; 潘永跃; 王晖; 夏卉

    2002-01-01

    本文总结了Cable Modem系统的原理和CMTS的关键功能,系统介绍了南京电视台Cable Modem系统的设计思路和设计方法.采用源IP地址路由技术实现了用户子网划分和区分服务,并且支持基于Cable Modem系统的专网接入业务.

  13. The drying of wood chips with surplus heat in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordhagen, E. [Norwegian Forest and Landscape Inst., As (Norway). Dept. of Forest Resources, Forest Operations and Economics

    2010-07-01

    The study evaluated a wood chip drying procedure that used surplus heat from 2 hydroelectric power plants in western Norway. The wood was chipped and then loaded into the dryer using a tractor-trailer and a container. Warm air from the plants was funnelled into the dryer from perforated floors in the plants and an electric fan. Trials of the procedure were conducted to determine the drying capacity of the trailer and container. The study showed that the temperature and the moisture content of the wood chips varied over the course of the drying period. The chips located at the bottom dried first. The moisture content in the chip ranged between 66.1 to 52.1 before drying and between 9.6 and 6.9 per cent after drying. No substantial difference in moisture content between wood chips located at the top and bottom of the piles was noted. The net calorific values of the wood chips ranged from 1340 to 2170 kWh per tonne before drying, and between 4710 to 4860 after drying. The study showed that the cheapest option for the production of wood chips is natural drying and chipping at the roadside.

  14. Influenza leaves a TRAIL to pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Rena; Chen, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Influenza infection can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), leading to poor disease outcome with high mortality. One of the driving features in the pathogenesis of ARDS is the accumulation of fluid in the alveoli, which causes severe pulmonary edema and impaired oxygen uptake. In this issue of the JCI, Peteranderl and colleagues define a paracrine communication between macrophages and type II alveolar epithelial cells during influenza infection where IFNα induces macrophage secretion of TRAIL that causes endocytosis of Na,K-ATPase by the alveolar epithelium. This reduction of Na,K-ATPase expression decreases alveolar fluid clearance, which in turn leads to pulmonary edema. Inhibition of the TRAIL signaling pathway has been shown to improve lung injury after influenza infection, and future studies will be needed to determine if blocking this pathway is a viable option in the treatment of ARDS.

  15. TRAIL-coated lipid-nanoparticles overcome resistance to soluble recombinant TRAIL in non-small cell lung cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Miguel, Diego; Gallego-Lleyda, Ana; María Ayuso, José; Erviti-Ardanaz, Sandra; Pazo-Cid, Roberto; del Agua, Celia; José Fernández, Luis; Ochoa, Ignacio; Anel, Alberto; Martinez-Lostao, Luis

    2016-05-01

    Purpose. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one the types of cancer with higher prevalence and mortality. Apo2-Ligand/TRAIL is a TNF family member able to induce apoptosis in tumor cells but not in normal cells. It has been tested in clinical trials against different types of human cancer including NSCLC. However, results of clinical trials have shown a limited efficacy of TRAIL-based therapies. Recently we have demonstrated that artificial lipid nanoparticles coated with bioactive Apo2L/TRAIL (LUV-TRAIL) greatly improved TRAIL cytotoxic ability being capable of killing chemoresistant hematological cancer cells. In the present work we have extended the study to NSCLC. Methods/patients. LUV-TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity was assessed on different NSCLC cell lines with different sensitivity to soluble TRAIL and on primary human tumor cells from three patients suffering from NSCLC cancer. We also tested LUV-TRAIL-cytotoxic ability in combination with several anti-tumor agents. Results. LUV-TRAIL exhibited a greater cytotoxic effect compared to soluble TRAIL both in A549 cells and primary human NSCLC cells. LUV-TRAIL-induced cell death was dependent on caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation. Moreover, combination of LUV-TRAIL with other anti-tumor agents such as flavopiridol, and SNS-032 clearly enhanced LUV-TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity against NSCLC cancer cells. Conclusion. The novel formulation of TRAIL based on displaying it on the surface of lipid nanoparticles greatly increases its anti-tumor activity and has clinical potential in cancer treatment.

  16. Simplified modeling of EM field coupling to complex cable bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Schetelig, B.; J. Keghie; Kanyou Nana, R.; Fichte, L.-O.; S. Potthast; Dickmann, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution, the procedure "Equivalent Cable Bundle Method" is used for the simplification of large cable bundles, and it is extended to the application on differential signal lines. The main focus is on the reduction of twisted-pair cables. Furthermore, the process presented here allows to take into account cables with wires that are situated quite close to each other. The procedure is based on a new approach to calculate the geometry of the simplified cable and us...

  17. The Political Economy of the Budget Surplus in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Alesina

    2000-01-01

    Current surpluses in the U.S. have been achieved by a combination of a strong economy, low interest rates, and sharp cuts in defense spending. These surpluses follow a period (the 1980s) of rather exceptional budget deficit. This paper investigates the origin, size, and expected future patterns of the U.S. budget balance. It discusses how different political forces may generate alternative fiscal scenarios for the U.S. in the next decade.

  18. Parametrically excited oscillation of stay cable and its control in cable-stayed bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙炳楠; 汪至刚; 高赞明; 倪一清

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear dynamic model for simulation and analysis of a kind of parametrically excited vibration of stay cable caused by support motion in cable-stayed bridges. The sag, inclination angle of the stay cable are considered in the model, based on which, the oscillation mechanism and dynamic response characteristics of this kind of vibration are analyzed through numerical calculation. It is noted that parametrically excited oscillation of a stay cable with certain sag, inclination angle and initial static tension force may occur in cable-stayed bridges due to deck vibration under the condition that the natural frequency of a cable approaches to about half of the first model frequency of the bridge deck system. A new vibration control system installed on the cable anchorage is proposed as a possible damping system to suppress the cable parametric oscillation. The numerical calculation results showed that with the use of this damping system, the cable oscillation due to the vibration of the deck and/or towers will be considerably reduced.

  19. Parametrically excited oscillation of stay cable and its control in cable-stayed bridges"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙炳楠; 汪至刚; 高赞明; 倪一清

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear dynamic model for simulation and analysis of a kind of parametrically excited vibration of stay cable caused by support motion in cable-stayed bridges. The sag, inclination angle of the stay cable are considered in the model, based on which, the oscillation mechanism and dynamic response characteristics of this kind of vibration are analyzed through numerical calculation. It is noted that parametrically excited oscillation of a stay cable with certain sag, inclination angle and initial static tension force may occur in cable-stayed bridges due to deck vibration under the condition that the natural frequency of a cable approaches to about half of the first model frequency of the bridge deck system. A new vibration control system installed on the cable anchorage is proposed as a possible damping system to suppress the cable parametric oscillation. The numerical calculation results showed that with the use of this damping system, the cable oscillation due to the vibration of the deck and/or towers will be considerably reduced.

  20. Switching Restrikes in HVAC Cable Lines and Hybrid HVAC Cable/OHL Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria; Bak, Claus Leth; Balle Holst, Per

    2011-01-01

    The disconnection of HV underground cables may, if unsuccessful, originate a restrike in the circuit breaker, leading to high overvoltages, and potentially damaging the cable and near equipment. Due to the cable high capacitance and low resistance the voltage damping is slow, resulting, half...... a cycle after the disconnection, in a voltage of approximately 2 pu at the circuit breaker terminals. In case of restrike in that instant, it is theoretical possible to attain an overvoltage of 3 pu. The overvoltage can be even larger in hybrid cable-Overhead Lines (OHL), due to voltage magnifications...