WorldWideScience

Sample records for surplus labor force

  1. How Large Is China’s Rural Surplus Labor Force?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓河; 马建蕾

    2008-01-01

    The existence of surplus labor in the countryside and transfer of agricultural labor to non-agricultural sectors is a common phenomenon in economic development.Supply of rural surplus labor will change with the transfer of labor.By calculating the di erence between the agricultural labor force and current demand of laborin agriculture,this paper seeks to estimate the total amount of China’s rural surplus labor as identified by age,gender and education.Results indicate that there areroughly 110 million rural surplus laborers,of which 50%are aged above 40 years old,55.37%are women,and 42.96%have received an education below primaryschool.Currently,China’s rural surplus labor supply falls short of non-agricultural industry demand.

  2. Study on the Quantity and Age Structure of Rural Surplus Labor Force in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Sui; CHEN Zhuochun

    2009-01-01

    Based on the data from the Second National Agriculture Census in 2006, this paper analyzed the absolute quantity and age structure of China rural surplus labor force by the classical approach. It showed that the migration of rural labor force was still far away from "Lewis turning point", and "mingong huang" (shortage of peasant workforce) appearing in coastal areas could be explained with the location separation between the labor-intensive industries and rural labor force. It was a feasible and an effective way to push forward the transfer of labor-intensive industries from the east coast to central and Western China to absorb the abundant supply of rural labor force.

  3. Problems in the Transfer of Rural Surplus Labor Force in Chengdu Plain——A Empirical Analysis of Xiyu Village,Gexianshan Town,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Under the new situation of the coordination of rural and urban development,the employment and transfer of surplus labor force have become the major social problems in China.Based on the field investigation on Xiyu Village of Gexianshan Town in Pengzhou City,the surplus labor force and the absorptive capacity of non-agricultural industries are estimated by using per capita cultivated method and output value absorption method.Based on this,the transfer pattern of surplus labor force is generalized and the corresponding suggestions for transfer are put forward.

  4. Coupling Research on the Process of Transfer of Surplus Labor Forces and Scaling-up of Farmland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of giving an overview of efficiency research on transformation of land from fragmentation to scale economy, by using the concept of coupling in physics, this paper expounds the behavior basis of transfer of surplus rural labor forces in China and transformation of land from fragmentation to scaling up, and analyzes behaviors of all parties and equilibrium outcomes in the three stages concerning the transformation of agricultural land from fragmentation to scaling up as follows. At the first stage of coupling, after multitudinous rural surplus labor forces emerge, the farmers begin to go to city seeking jobs. In this period, the amalgamation of land management has not occurred and the single farmer’s land has not yet concentrated. The total land area of single farmer has not yet increased and the total amount of farmers has not yet decreased. At the second stage of coupling, driven by living standards and income, multitudinous rural surplus labor forces begin to live in the city permanently in fact, and the scale management of rural land begins to arise. Foreign funded enterprises begin to enter agriculture, and the industrialization management of agriculture is equipped with the most fundamental conditions due to the occurrence of scaling up of land. At the third stage of coupling, the transfer of rural surplus labor forces basically ends. The property rights of agricultural land or the management forms also, in a large measure, concentrate. The obstacles to agricultural scaling-up management are solved fundamentally, and the income gap between urban areas and rural areas is narrowed. Urban-rural population migration is no longer the main form of China’s population migration. This stage has not yet been realized in China and it is the future state of villages. Finally, through the two cases researched by the predecessors, we verify the research results of the preceding two stages, which provides reliable reference for transformation of China

  5. How to Promote the Rural Area of Shandong Province to Absorb Surplus Labor by Itself?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qujing; DAI

    2014-01-01

    This paper firstly highlights the importance of solving the problem of rural surplus labor force,and then shows the necessity and significance of the rural areas to absorb rural surplus labor on their own. Meanwhile,the paper introduces the situation of rural surplus labor in Shandong Province. At last,it proposes the solutions to promote the rural area to absorb the surplus labor by itself.

  6. Transfer of Rural Surplus Labor and Vocational Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces about the rural surplus labor transfer.According to the paper,the transfer of rural surplus labor in China presents such fundamental characteristics as randomness and non-thoroughness,scope and field constraint,and hysteretic nature of employment and industrial structure conversion.Besides,the causes of the difficulties in the transfer of rural surplus labor lie in the barriers from the system and policy,structural imbalance of industry and low quality of rural labor.The paper studies the correlation between the quality and the transfer of rural surplus labor FORCE in a systematical way from three aspects,which are the correlations between rural labor quality and the transfer difficulty & speed,the transfer scope & field and the employment stability & income after transfer respectively.Moreover,the paper carries out analysis of the special effects of vocational education on the transfer of rural surplus labor in China,which shows that vocational education is a help in the improvement of cultural qualities,labor skills and physical & mental health of rural labor.

  7. Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  8. Quantity and Transfer Trend of Surplus Rural Labor Force in Guizhou%贵州省农村剩余劳动力数量及转移趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛菁华

    2013-01-01

    The rational quantity of surplus rural labor force was calculated by the mean value of four methods of urbanization estimation,industrial structure deviation,cultivated land labor ratio and employment structure deviation to overcome the disadvantages of the estimated value deviated from the actual value in Guizhou during 2000-2011.The results from the empirical analysis on surplus rural labor force quantity,transfered labor force quantity and the labor force existence quantity variation trend showed that total surplus rural labor force quantity was increasing but the existence quantity presented the declining trend gradually.The surplus rural labor force transfer in the Eleventh Five-year Plan period presented the accelerating trend compared with in the Tenth Five-year Plan period.The existence quantity of surplus rural labor force began to be less than the transfer quantity of surplus rural labor force from the Eleventh Five Plan in Guizhou.%运用4种方法(城市化估计法、产业结构偏离度法、耕地劳动力比例法和就业结构偏离度法)的均值对贵州省农村剩余劳动力数量进行测算,试图克服估算值偏离实际值较大的弊端,得出趋于合理的贵州省农村剩余劳动力数量.通过对2000-2011年贵州省农村剩余劳动力数量、已转移数量和存量变化趋势的实证分析,得出结论:贵州省农村剩余劳动力总量在增加,但是其存量呈逐渐减少趋势;“十一五”期间相对于“十五”期间,农村剩余劳动力的转移呈加速趋势;自“十一五”起,贵州省农村剩余劳动力存量与转移数量开始出现绝对量的转换,即农村剩余劳动力存量开始小于转移数量.

  9. Historical Reflection on Deviation in Transfer Policy of Agricultural Surplus Labor at Early Stage of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengjun; ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    This paper firstly made an analysis on transfer of agricultural surplus labor in the end of the 20 th century. On this basis,it made reflection on policy of agricultural surplus labor. Then,it stated that there is a great deviation of transfer of agricultural surplus labor from practical requirement and pointed out basic internationally recognized ideas of agricultural surplus labor transfer. Finally,it came up with recommendations for formulating agricultural surplus labor transfer.

  10. How Much Surplus Labor Is in the Countryside?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The long-held belief of an inexhaustible surplus of labor in rural areas of China is fading fast.Amid worries over its aging popula- tion,China is confronted with serious challenges to sustain its labor supply so as to shore up its growing economy.How to fur- ther transfer the remaining surplus labor into cities and how to improve the quality of Chinese laborers are questions the country faces.The Guangming Daily,a newspaper based in Beijing,con- ducted an interview with Cai Fang,an economist and Director of the Institute of Population and Labor Economics under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences,to delve into China’s labor dilemma.Cai gave his opinions in the following excerpts:

  11. Labor Force Participation Rate

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This thematic map presents the labor force participation rate of working-age people in the United States in 2010. The 2010 Labor Force Participation Rate shows the...

  12. Analysis of Influential Factors on Agricultural Surplus Labor Pro-fessionalization During China's Economic Downturn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xiu-li; Li Lu-tang

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributed to the pool of studies about agricultural surplus labor in China, also acted as the root to the imminent settlement of the issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers. Using data from survey of agricultural surplus labor in 2012, which covered three provinces in northern, midwestern and southern parts of China, this paper analyzed the influential factors on agricultural surplus labor professionalization by adoption of a logistic regression model. It showed that agricultural surplus labor shortage could be explained by low-quality professionalization. It was a feasible and effective way to solve the issue of workforce shortage during economic downturn by improving agricultural surplus labor's professionalization.

  13. Empirical Analysis of Factors Influencing Surplus Labor Transfer in Poverty-stricken Areas: A Case Study of Yimatu Town in Fuxin City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    From the microscopic point of view,taking the surplus labor transfer in the Yimatu Town area as study object,we conduct survey of characteristics and transfer of rural surplus labor in Yimatu Town,through questionnaires and field interviews.Then we analyze the main factors influencing surplus labor transfer in rural areas from the personal characteristics of labor forces and family factor of labor forces.The results show that gender,age,educational level,farmland management days and other factors pertaining to the labor forces all affect the transfer of surplus labor, but the size and extent of the impact vary.In accordance with various influencing factors,we put forward recommendations for promoting the effective transfer of surplus labor in rural areas as follows:first,paying equal attention to macroscopic factors and microscopic factors influencing the transfer of surplus labor;second,focusing on the factors concerning the rural households and individual farmers,to find out the factors influencing the rational transfer;third,shifting the employment concept of surplus labor in rural areas;fourth,speeding up the construction of small towns and developing the secondary and tertiary industries.

  14. 我国农村剩余劳动力转移对农村经济的影响%A Study of the Impact of Transfer of Rural Surplus Labor Force on Rural Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李跃歌; 沈佳丽

    2014-01-01

    我国剩余劳动力转移的特点与问题主要是,劳动力转移的变化基本上与经济周期波动相吻合;有较强的地域性;技能水平偏低;农村剩余劳动力的成因主要有政策制度、科技进步、城乡收入差距以及产业结构调整等因素。农村剩余劳动力转移能促进农村居民人均纯收入的提高,改变居民生活方式,促进农村消费观念的改变,回乡投资促进农村地区经济,开放农村消费市场等积极影响。也有政策难以落实,土地抛荒,农村地区消费和经营收入较少等负面影响。应鼓励和帮助劳动力回乡发展,加大资金和技术的投入,扶持乡镇企业的发展。利用转移劳动力智力优势提高农村知识水平和专业技能。%The characteristics and problems of the transfer of surplus labor force in China are mainly that the change of labor transfer is basically consistent with the economic cycle fluctuation,which tends to be strong regional and low skilled. The causes of rural surplus labor force may attribute to policy system,technological progress,income gap between urban and rural areas and the adjustment of industrial structure and other factors. The transfer of rural surplus labor force can promote the per capita net income of rural residents increased,change the way of life of the residents in rural areas,promote the change of consumption concept,promote rural economic investment,open the rural consumer market and other positive effects. There are some negative effects as well,like the difficulty in implementing policies,the idle land,inadequate rural area consumption and less operating income. We should encourage and help labour return by increasing the investment of funds and technology,supporting the development of village and township enterprises,so as to take advantage of the labor transfer intelligence to improve rural knowledge and professional skills.

  15. The Estimation Methods for Agricultural Surplus Labor Based on Stochastic Frontier Production Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaozhou; LU; Yanfen; LUO

    2014-01-01

    The existing calculation methods for the number of agricultural surplus labor have a common flaw,that is,they can not reflect the impact of technical efficiency changes in agricultural production on the surplus labor. Based on the basic principle of stochastic frontier production function,this paper calculates the agricultural production technical efficiency of various provinces,and selects the province with the highest technical efficiency to assume that its agricultural labor is fully utilized,and there is no agricultural surplus labor. With the ratio of agricultural labor number to agricultural output value in this province as a reference,this paper calculates the number of agricultural surplus labor in other provinces. This calculation method makes up for the shortcomings of the existing calculation methods; it reflects the relationship between the number of agricultural surplus labor and production technical efficiency.

  16. 20 CFR 654.8 - Services to firms and individuals in labor surplus areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... initiation of industrial expansion programs in labor surplus areas; (b) Identify upon request the skills and... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Services to firms and individuals in labor... OF LABOR SPECIAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Responsibilities Under Executive...

  17. The labor force of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, J L

    1987-07-01

    In the decades ahead, the US labor force will reflect changes in the industrial structure, with declines in some manufacturing industries and expansion in service industries. The services sector is so diverse that the jobs within it cannot be categorized as either high wage or low wage. The service-producing sector employs 85% of professional specialty workers in the US. In general, information on compensation trends indicates that greater increases in compensation have occurred for workers in service-producing as opposed to goods-producing industries. The increase in service sector jobs has created opportunities for women to enter the labor force and, at present, 5 out of 6 women work in this sector compared to fewer than 2 out of 3 men. Productivity growth rates in the service-producing industries vary substantially and are strongly affected by the business cycle. Central to employment opportunities in the years ahead will be the effect of new technology. To date, the aggregate effect of new technology has been increased employment and higher living standards. Although retraining programs should be in place, the scenario of a huge technology-created labor surplus seems unlikely. In fact, a more likely problem is a shortage of labor resulting from earlier labor force withdrawal and demographic aging of the population. Those in the 25-54-year age group will represent a larger share of the labor force in the years ahead. In addition, blacks are expected to account for 20% of the labor force growth in the next decade. Finally, given increasing labor force participation rates among mothers, employers may have to provide more flexible work schedules, assistance with day care, and more attractive benefits packages.

  18. MIGRATION OF SURPLUS AGRICULTURAL LABOR IN THE PROCESS OF ECONOMIC TRANSITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄祖辉; 鲁柏祥; 陈欣欣

    2001-01-01

    This paper on the migration of the surplus farm labor during the economic transition of China, focuses on a case study of Zhejiang, China's eastern coastal province, with 45 million population and located in relatively developed area since the reform in 1978. The background and mechanism of Chinese surplus farm labor migration are discussed briefly in the first section. Detailed analysis and development of this topic are based on the Zhejiang case, and consists of two parts: a review of the migration history of surplus agricultural labor in Zhejiang since the 1978 reform; and further analysis and key points are given in the second part. The third sector focuses on challenges and recommendation of policies.

  19. (1) Insufficient Labor Supply and Wage Increases under Labor Surplus Conditions: From thePerspective of Intra-household Labor Division

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On th labor supp household labor supp response o e basis of family economics and the theory of time allocation, it can be proved that ly under labor surplus conditions is not limitless. Subject to the constraint of intralabor division, the supply curve takes on a special staircase form: with the increase in ly, the reservation wage of rural labor rises constantly by an increasing margin. The f labor supply to wage is not continuous: labor supply will increase only when the wage rises to the new level of reservation wage;

  20. Health and Labor Force Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Monroe; Johnson, William G.

    1974-01-01

    Analytic labor force participation models which exclude information on worker health care lack explanatory power. If costs of disability can be separated through better information into costs reducible through delivery of health care, and costs more appropriately dealt with through labor market policies, the models will be improved. (KP)

  1. 77 FR 59989 - Labor Surplus Area Classification Under Executive Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... published, at ETA's LSA Web site http://www.doleta.gov/programs/lsa.cfm . Petition for Exceptional... Department of Labor's ETA. The current criteria for an exceptional circumstance classification are: An area's..., Employment and Training Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Room S-4231, Washington, DC...

  2. Seven Important Labor Force Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, John A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents statistics on the changing human resources mix in the labor force, which vocational counselors should be aware of. Trends include higher percentages of women working, and older men and married men leaving the work force. One result is an increasing number of persons are able to retire earlier. (JAC)

  3. An End to Forced Labor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China is working on an improved drug rehabilitation regulation that drops work as a form of treatment China is going to release a new regulation soon to give detail to the rules for forced-and-isolated rehab treatment,a new measure replac- ing forced drug treatment through labor, according to an official with the China Narcotics Control Foundation(CNCF). Chen Xingyou,Secretary General of the

  4. 75 FR 8402 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... as the sale and trafficking of children, debt bondage and serfdom and forced or compulsory labor... Labor, Forced Labor and Human Trafficking, Bureau of International Labor Affairs, USDOL, 200... labor or forced labor in violation of international standards under Trafficking Victims...

  5. Where Should the Rural Surplus Labour Force Go?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩康

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese government attaches a great deal of importance to the income growth of farmers.In considering strategies for solving rural problems in China,it is important not to depart from the external development strategy of transferring employment of the rural surplus labour force.For farmers to become rich,they must be fewer in number.This strategic task cannot be replaced by any of the new measures of an internal development strategy.However,certain scholars at home and abroad hold that difficulties have emerged during the transfer process.In this article,the author offers an in- depth analysis of this issue and puts forward some further considerations.

  6. Women in the labor force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatter, R H

    1994-01-01

    Unlike the rate for men, the labor force participation rate for women has increased significantly over the past three decades or so. This trend is expected to continue at least through 2005. Among the reasons for the growing role of women in the labor market are higher levels of educational attainment, improved employment opportunities, changing values in society, and economic pressures and aspirations that require women to assume dual careers as homemakers and family income producers. By the year 2005, it is estimated that women workers will number about 72 million, with more than 63 percent of all women age 16 and over either working or actively looking for work. While traditional occupations such as secretarial and clerical administrative support and professions such as nursing and teaching still predominate, about 4 million women are now in executive, administrative and managerial positions in the private sectors of the economy. As for the types of industry in which women are employed, service industries clearly predominate. Projections suggest that women workers of the future will be older on average, with the fastest growth occurring in the 45-64 age cohort. They will also be a more diverse group as the number of black, Asian and Hispanic women workers grows more rapidly than the number of white non-Hispanic labor force participants.

  7. Research on Positive or Negative Propelling Force and Driving Force for Rural Surplus Labor Transfer-Analysis and Reflection on “Indoor Survey” Material from Kuandian Manchu Autonomous County%农村剩余劳动力转移的正反“拉力”与“推力”研究--对宽甸满族自治县“入户调查”资料的分析与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林珏

    2014-01-01

    通过对宽甸满族自治县的入户调查发现,农村剩余劳动力在城镇从业一定程度上提高了农村家庭的收入水平,但是当前农村剩余劳动力转移存在正反两个方向的四种动力:城市不仅存在吸引农民入城务工的“拉力”,也存在将外来务工者推回农村的“推力”;而农村不仅存在将剩余劳动力推往城市的“推力”,也存在将外出务工者拽回来的“拉力”。正是在正反“拉力”与“推力”的综合作用下,部分农民选择了“离土不离乡”或“离-返交替”的半农半工模式。因此,小城镇建设具有重要的意义:可以通过发展农村经济“拉住”劳动力,以缓解城市就业压力;同时也有利于农民选择适合自己的生产和生活方式,实现农村剩余劳动力的多元化和逐步有序转移。%“Indoor Survey” on Kuandian Manchu Autonomous County finds that the employment of rural surplus labor in the cities raises the income level of rural households to some extent, however, current rural surplus labor transfer has four kinds of driving forces in positive and negative two directions, i.e., the rural areas not only have the “propelling force” to push the rural surplus labor to the cities but also have the “driving force” to pull the migrant workers back to the rural areas, furthermore, the cities not only have the “driving force” to attract the peasants to work in the cities but also have the “propelling force” to push the migrant workers back to the rural areas. It is under the comprehensive action by “the propelling force” and “the driving force” that a part of the peasants choose half-worker-half-peasant model by“working in the cities but keeping their ID in the rural areas” or by “alternatively working in the cities or working in the rural areas”. Thus, small city construction is of important significance to “keeping” the rural labor in the rural

  8. 76 FR 22921 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in Foreign Countries and Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau of...

  9. 77 FR 9267 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in Foreign Countries and Efforts by Certain Countries To Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau of...

  10. 78 FR 72714 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in Foreign Countries and Efforts by Certain Countries To Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau of...

  11. 77 FR 70473 - Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the Production of Goods in Foreign Countries and Efforts by Certain Countries To Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau of...

  12. Employment: Labor Force Status (1983-2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Civilian labor force data consists of the number of employed persons, the number of unemployed persons, an unemployment rate and the total count of both employed and...

  13. Determinants of Female Labor Force Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Adiqa Kausar Kiani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many factors related to female entering the labor market. For example, household income, household expenditure, education and status of the head of the household (male/ female. The degree of correlation between each variable and female labor force participation rate varies throughout the country. This study focused on the factors due to which women enter in labor market. Tobit model is used for this analysis. It is concluded that education and household expenditures have positive but insignificant impact on the female LF, whereas household income and head of the household has negative impact on FLF. It is suggested that in order to improve the working condition of female labor force government should take necessary action, for example women education etc.

  14. 基于城市视角的山东省农村劳动力转移状况研究%STUDY ON THE MIGRATION OF SURPLUS RURAL LABOR IN SHANDONG PROVINCE BASED ON THE CITY PERSPECTIVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚梦茹; 包玉香

    2013-01-01

    农村剩余劳动力的成功转移是目前山东省乃至全国都面临的一个突出难题.通过运用历史数据分析了山东省农村劳动力转移的状况,并运用推拉理论,以城市为视角,实证分析了城市对农村剩余劳动力的巨大吸引力,同时指出城市在劳动力转移的过程中产生的推力.最后提出促进农村剩余劳动力向城市转移的政策建议.%The success transfer of the rural surplus labor is a prominent problem in Shandong province and even in China.This paper uses historical data to analyze the conditions of rural labor transfer in Shandong province,and applies the push-pull theory to analyze the urban attractions to the rural surplus labor force empirically from the perspective of the city.It also points out the urban thrust in the process of rural labor transfer.Finally,it puts forward policy suggestions to promote rural surplus labor transfer to the city.

  15. From "Migrant Workers Boom" to "Migrant Workers Scarcity"——Analysis of Institutional Bottleneck of Rural Surplus Labors Transfer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Through description of three-steps characteristic of dual economic theory and its practical significance to the process of industrialization and urbanization in China,and making comparative analysis between important criterion of "Lewis turning point" and current situation of rural surplus labors market in China,we can find that there exists a great deal of surplus labors in rural areas in our country,improvement of peasant income is the result of external interference of government,and demographic dividend in our country hasn’t finished.These phenomena go against the theory of "Lewis turning point".So it can prove that "Lewis turning point" in China hasn’t come yet.The paper points out the major factors of coexistence of "migrant workers scarcity" and labors redundancy in our country.The first one is structure contradiction of labors market;the second one is law of supply-demand of labors market;the third one is institutional barrier which hinders labors in free flow of census register and social guarantee.Therefore,if we want to realize successful transfer of rural surplus labors and the goal of industrialization and urbanization,we must promote upgrading of industrial structure,change the style of economic growth and realize harmonious development of regional economy in macrocosmic level;And in microcosmic level,we should eliminate institutional barrier which hinders transfer of rural surplus labors.

  16. Forced Labor during the Romanian Holocaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Chioveanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available My paper aims to retrieve and present in general lines one aspect of the Romanian Holocaust that was since recently ignored by most scholars in the field, namely the forced labor of the Jewish population. Part of the deliberate anti-Jewish policy of the Antonescu government, the issue of forced labor is relevant as it completes the picture of the Holocaust in Romania, at the same time indicating the border between the Romanian apartheid society and the Romanian genocidal state. The paper thus points at the necessity for the scholars to continue their research in the field of holocaust studies at large, a topic that is far from exhausting its resources and significance.

  17. LABOR FORCE PROJECTIONS BY COLOR, 1970-80. SPECIAL LABOR FORCE REPORT NUMBER 73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    COOPER, SOPHIA; JOHNSTON, DENIS F.

    THE PROJECTIONS ARE BASED ON BUREAU OF THE CENSUS UNPUBLISHED POPULATION PROJECTIONS BY COLOR AND ON THE ASSUMPTIONS THAT PAST TRENDS IN LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION RATES WILL CONTINUE, THAT THE SIZE OF THE ARMED FORCES WILL NOT CHANGE SIGNIFICANTLY, AND THAT THE ECONOMY WILL OPERATE AT RELATIVELY HIGH LEVELS CONSISTENT WITH AN UNEMPLOYMENT RATE OF…

  18. 75 FR 11512 - Consultative Group to Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported Agricultural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Consultative Group to Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in... public meeting of the Consultative Group to Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported... forced labor or child labor. The notice sets forth the process for requesting to appear at the meeting...

  19. 78 FR 60317 - Notice of Updates to the Department of Labor's List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... Child Labor or Forced Labor Required by the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005... removes 3 items from the ``List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor'' (List), produced in... raise public awareness about the incidence of child labor and forced labor in the production of goods in...

  20. The Origins of Forced Labor in the Witwatersrand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeti, Moitsadi

    1986-01-01

    Gold mining brought a forced labor system to Witwatersrand, South Africa, in the 1880s as African laborers were rounded up from the hinterland and delivered to the mines. The system produced low wages, high mortality, and the loss of chances for upward mobility. Forced labor persists today in South African mines. (VM)

  1. The Origins of Forced Labor in the Witwatersrand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeti, Moitsadi

    1986-01-01

    Gold mining brought a forced labor system to Witwatersrand, South Africa, in the 1880s as African laborers were rounded up from the hinterland and delivered to the mines. The system produced low wages, high mortality, and the loss of chances for upward mobility. Forced labor persists today in South African mines. (VM)

  2. 76 FR 53699 - Labor Surplus Area Classification Under Executive Orders 12073 and 10582

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... Puerto Rico can be accessed at the ETA's LSA website at http://www.doleta.gov/programs/lsa.cfm... submit a petition requesting such classification to the Department of Labor's ETA. The current criteria... Investment, Employment and Training Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Room S-4231, Washington,...

  3. 78 FR 63248 - Labor Surplus Area Classification under Executive Orders 12073 and 10582

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... Rico can be accessed at ETA's LSA Web site http://www.doleta.gov/programs/lsa.cfm . In addition, the..., Employment and Training Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Room S-4231, Washington, DC 20210... Labor's regulations at 20 CFR Part 654, Subpart A, require the Employment and Training...

  4. Canadian Women's Labor Force Behavior: A Forty Year Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Janet E.; Skrypnek, Berna J.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three dimensions of labor force behavior: participation, attachment, and commitment. Presents a picture of trends in Canadian women's labor force behavior over the last 40 years using existing data. Discusses the implications of these trends for family life and corporate and public policy. (JOW)

  5. ANALYSE OF LABOR FORCE MOBILITY PHENOMENOM ON ROMANIAN INTERNAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIAN-ION MEDAR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Labor force mobility is an increasingly important component of contemporary society and equally adjustment tool imbalances in labor markets. The phenomenon of labor mobility is nowadays the most dynamic form of movement of potentially active population. Using cluster analysis this paper aims to highlight the relationship between economic and regional development of counties and the phenomenon of internal labor mobility. Labor mobility is both an explanatory factor of economic development and its effect or result, based on the natural desire of individuals to increase income and improve quality of life by changing jobs, which could contribute to GDP growth and economic growth.

  6. 陕西农村剩余劳动力人力资本状况解析%Analysis of Human Capital Status of Rural Surplus Labor in Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金崇芳

    2012-01-01

    forward the economic development of Shaanxi, it is necessary to strengthen education in rural area, improve the health level, education degree and labor technique through public policies so that to ensure the basic social rights of rural surplus labor force.%从资源经济学角度来看,人力资源的质量,即人力资本,是影响劳动力效率的重要因素。农村剩余劳动力作为我国改革开放以来最重要的人力资源之一,为我国工业化和城市化发展做出了历史性贡献。本文采取耕地劳动比例法对陕西省农村剩余劳动力规模进行了估算,并对陕西农村剩余劳动力人力资本质量现状进行了简单地实证研究。分析显示,陕西农村剩余劳动力在人力资本方面目前主要存在如下问题:①陕西地区存在着大量的农村剩余劳动力,且总体数量呈增长趋势;②农村剩余劳动力人力资本质量较低;③农村剩余劳动力人力资本结构明显不尽合理。因此,改变陕西乃至全国经济过去多年形成的城乡发展不均衡局面,全面提高对农村剩余劳动力人力资本的教育投资,既是体现社会公平、和谐发展的一项主要内容,同时更是实现陕西及全国未来经济可持续健康发展的根本大策。促进陕西经济的发展必须从加强农村教育入手,积极通过公共政策有效提高农村剩余劳动力的健康水平、受教育程度及劳动技能,充分保证农村剩余劳动力的社会基本权利。

  7. Children of Working Mothers. Special Labor Force Report. Bulletin 2158.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Part of a Special Labor Force Report series, this bulletin on children of working mothers discusses the increase in the number of children with working mothers as of March 1981, and describes major reasons for this growth. The bulletin consists of an article first published February 1982 in the "Monthly Labor Review," additional tables providing…

  8. [The Northeast: fertility and recent dynamics of the labor force].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, L A

    1985-01-01

    Data from the 1970 and 1980 censuses of Brazil are analyzed to examine the economic growth of the Notheast, changes in the region's population dynamics, and changes in fertility. Consideration is given to the segmentation of the urban labor market, the income of the economically active population, children in the labor force, female education versus fertility, and family income versus female participation in the work force.

  9. 基于“推拉理论”的农业剩余劳动力转移研究--以山东省为例%Transfer of Agricultural Surplus Labor Based on the Push-pull Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云; 武舜臣

    2016-01-01

    在农村“推力”和城市“拉力”作用下,科学引导农业剩余劳动力的转移对加快我国工业化和城镇化进程具有重要意义。以山东省为例,选取1990—2013间相关的时间序列数据建立多元线性回归模型,运用主成分分析法和协整方程,实证分析农业剩余劳动力转移中各相关因素的作用规律。结果表明:城市就业空间的大小对农业剩余劳动力转移的作用最强,而从事非农劳动预期收入对劳动力转移的作用最弱;城镇失业率越低,阻碍劳动力转移的制度因素越弱,劳动力的文化素养和物质能力越强,对农业剩余劳动力的转移越有利。根据结果提出政策建议:不断提高农业劳动生产率,从而在农业中推出新的剩余劳动力,以便实现劳动力的后续转移;加快城市非农产业的发展,吸纳更多的农业剩余劳动力;加快以户籍制度为中心的改革。%As the countryside pushes and the city pulls labor force, the transfer of surplus agricultural labor force significantly is of great significance to China’s industrialization and urbanization. Taking Shandong Province as an example,this paper uses relevant data (1990—2013 )to establish the multi variable regression model and investigates the effect of the transfer of agricultural surplus labor. The results show that the size of urban employment has the strongest effect on the transfer of labor and that the income from engaging in non-agricultural labor has the weakest effect.At the same time,the lower the urban unemployment rate,the weaker the institutional factors to block the transfer.And the better the labor force’s cultural qualities and labor skills,the easier the transfer of surplus agricultural labor force.

  10. Labor Force forming of the Russian Younger’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnevasheva Vera Anatolevna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective labour market requires the integrated problem-solving orientation and socialization of youth, assessing all the stages of the reproduction of the labour force. Defining the labour supply, as well as potential employers, it can be created an integrated model of education and employment for the modern labor force forming demanded due to the qualification and professional skills, minimizing the structural unemployment among youngers.

  11. Governor's Task Force on Migrant Labor. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governor's Task Force on Migrant Labor, Detroit, MI.

    Michigan's 9-member Task Force on Migrant Labor, established in 1969, was charged by the governor (1) to develop and provide for carrying out more effective ways to coordinate the functions of state government, to better utilize available resources, and to enforce existing laws; (2) to determine whether existing law in this field is adequate or…

  12. Inter-Agency Task Force on Migrant Labor. Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good Neighbor Commission of Texas, Austin.

    The Inter-Agency Task Force on Migrant Labor, created in 1970 by the governor of Texas, was charged with the responsibility of cataloging migrant needs, making an inventory of all ongoing Federal and state migrant programs, and developing a state plan to bring into focus all resources at hand to produce some immediate as well as long-range…

  13. Urban Poverty and Labor Force Participation (and Comment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Joseph D.; Cain, Glen G.

    1969-01-01

    This report investigates the relationship between the national unemployment rate and labor force participation among the urban poor. In addition to comparing participation by the urban poor to that of the general population, the report pays special attention to married women and blacks. Based on a cross-sectional analysis of the 52 largest…

  14. Democracy and Female Labor Force Participation: An Empirical Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayanpourtehrani, Ghazal; Sylwester, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    This paper empirically examines associations between female labor force participation (FLFP) and democracy. Using a cross-country, time series (1980-2005) data set, we find evidence that FLFP is lower in democracies. One possible explanation is that dictators promote FLFP above what traditional norms would dictate and so a greater freedom to…

  15. Hispanics in the Labor Force: A Conference Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjas, George, Ed.; Tienda, Marta, Ed.

    Hispanics in the U.S. labor force are the subject of the studies in this volume. After an introduction by George J. Borjas and Marta Tienda, the first three papers focus on the same issue: the determination of wage rates for Hispanics and comparison of Hispanic and non-Hispanic wage rates. Cordelia Reimers compares the situation for Black, White,…

  16. DataTrack 7: Women in the Labor Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Council of Life Insurance, Washington, DC.

    One of a series that compiles and interprets data from a variety of sources on one particular subject of interest to life insurance executives, this report deals with women in the labor force. It can be used in the design of new products and services, to meet changing consumer needs, the selection of new markets and marketing strategies, for the…

  17. Democracy and Female Labor Force Participation: An Empirical Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayanpourtehrani, Ghazal; Sylwester, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    This paper empirically examines associations between female labor force participation (FLFP) and democracy. Using a cross-country, time series (1980-2005) data set, we find evidence that FLFP is lower in democracies. One possible explanation is that dictators promote FLFP above what traditional norms would dictate and so a greater freedom to…

  18. EEO External Relevant Labor Force Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    less than 500 new hires, a percentage (35, 50 or 100% depending on required sample sizes) of the total Navy work force in an area was included in the...Francisco-Alameda CA 808 Pearl Harbor HI 809 Vallejo CA 810 Long Beach CA 811 Port Hueneme CA 817 China Lake CA 824 Corona CA 826 San Mateo CA 828 San...4 wl~w OrO 000 @0 00 @00O0 09-r mom n Of arn cc @e @000 LI c r-rw crm C4 Z ft W94 1 cw*0 O&c C - ~0 I-C 64 006 Icnf SO c m Iam )- 0 4 5 I

  19. Labor Shortage Looming Ahead?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The large quantity of cheap labor resources has long been regarded as one of the important factors that make it possible for China’s economy to maintain rapid growth. However, Cai Fang, Director of the Institute of Population and Labor Economics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, warned at a lecture in early May that China’s surplus rural labor force is not as large as thought and that China will soon experience the transition from labor surplus to labor shortage. He predicted that the turning point would occur probably in 2009. In response, Hou Dongmin, Director of the Institute of Population, Resources and Environment of Renmin University of China, and Deng Yuwen, researcher at the China Society of Economic Reform, analyze the expected impacts of transition on China’s future growth mode (in sequence).

  20. Study of Surplus Value and Labor Rent-Based on “Surplus Value”from Perspective of West-ern Economics%论剩余价值与劳动租金--基于西方经济学视角下的“剩余价值”∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海鸿; 胥敏

    2016-01-01

    The surplus value theory has always been questioned and criticism.From the concepts such as e-conomic rent (including the vague labor rent concept),monopoly rent,producer surplus and economic sur-plus,in fact,they are surplus value in essence or cannot be put aside from the surplus value completely. The core idea of the theory of surplus value about “the capitalists exploit the surplus value of wage labour”by Marx is the irrefutable truth.%剩余价值理论不断遭受西方经济学主流学者的非难,通过他们所使用的经济租金(包括隐晦的劳动租金)、垄断租金、生产者剩余和经济剩余等概念,其本质或为剩余价值,或不能完全撇开剩余价值。因此,马克思阐述的“资本家剥削雇佣劳动的剩余价值”的核心思想是驳不倒的真理。

  1. 75 FR 19659 - Request for Information on Business Practices To Reduce the Likelihood of Forced Labor or Child...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... Business Practices To Reduce the Likelihood of Forced Labor or Child Labor in the Production of Goods... other private sector groups to reduce the likelihood of child labor and forced labor in the production... with forced labor or child labor to create a standard set of practices that will reduce the likelihood...

  2. SURPLUS DILEMMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    On top of yuan revaluation and a huge trade surplus, the Chinese Government must also address ballooning forex reserves At the end of 2005, China's foreign exchange surplus totaled $818.87 billion, a leap of $208.9 billion over the previous year and an amount that is expected to have topped Japan's to become the world's largest.

  3. Changing Structures and Women’s Role as Labor Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Gonäs

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze changes in the development of women’s role as labor force over a 40-year period. This is done by presenting research results that concern the restructuring of the labor market over different time periods. The empirical material is from the 1960s, the heyday of the Swedish model; from the 1980s, the period that economic historians label the third industrial revolution; and from the 1990s, a period labeled the new working life that is covering the reorganization of the public sector. For the first period results from restructuring in the shipyard industry are presented as well as employment outcomes for single individuals. This industry was male dominated with very few women employed, but regional policy measures were implemented to reach a latent female labor force. The second period is covered by a study of closures and cutbacks in different industries in Sweden during 1982–1983. The proportion of women employed in the industries studied was around one third and employment outcomes had a specific gendered pattern. Women did to a lower extent than men get new permanent jobs. Permanent temporariness was introduced as a concept to describe their labor market situation. The recession that one decade later hit both female- and male-dominated sectors is illustrated by a study of the relations between labor market attachment, working life, and family conditions. The material comes from a regional research program based on a questionnaire and on register data on incomes from 1990 to 1999. The paper analyzes several areas related to work and outside of work that indicate a gendered pattern of multidimensional subordination and an increased polarization in terms of both gender and class. In conclusion, the 40 years has been a period of dramatic change in women’s situation as labor force. In times of restructuring they often entered into precarious job situations or unemployment. Women’s double burden

  4. CHALLENGES OF AGING LABOR FORCE IN AN ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Petrišič

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impacts of the changes of the composition of the ageing labor force on the skills and knowledge transfer in an organization. The changing individual needs of older individuals are creating powerful, labor dynamic incentives. For the management organizations from private and public sector, this is an organizational challenge linked to cultural transformation on the level of organization. The results of the study show that the manager and non-manager respondents have the unique aspect of the role of senior employees in some small Slovenian organizations. Managers in the sample based on their managerial experience, see the older workers in an organization primarily as transformers of jobs to younger employees, which should be courteous and efficient and should help the organization competitiveness. Non – managers’ respondents give priority to employment and retirement strategy for senior employees and maintain a positive view of older employees’ motives and productivity. Further, non – managers point to the need to keep older workers with unique skills and competences in an organization. We conclude that organizations will meet the challenge of ageing labor force in the near future. They will have to start the organizational culture, which will promote business change and continuous flow of skills and competences through inter-generation model.

  5. Labor force growth and the environment in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, D G; Rodriguez, A G; Shortle, J S

    1998-10-01

    The introduction to this report of a study that examines the potential environmental impacts of labor force growth (LFG) in Costa Rica under LFG scenarios notes that LFG is an economically critical aspect of population growth that can affect the environment by expanding the economy's production possibilities frontier and/or by increasing consumption. The introduction also explains why Costa Rica is ideal for this study and identifies the study as unique because it constructs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model using 10 environmental indicators and because it models uncertainty regarding the values of the economic parameters. The report continues by reviewing the literature linking population and environmental issues; detailing the CGE model; discussing the 10 environmental indicators (deforestation, erosion, pesticide use, overfishing, hazardous wastes, inorganic wastes, organic wastes, greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, and water/sewer usage) used in the model; and explaining the method used to simulate the impacts of LFG. The major conclusions that emerged from the results of this study are that 1) the economy-wide impacts of LFG (and, thus, population growth) on the environment are important and vary significantly according to the amounts of physical and human capital present in the labor force and 2) the impacts of LFG vary substantially among environmental indicators.

  6. 76 FR 20305 - Consultative Group To Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported Agricultural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... or service is performed as a result of coercion, debt bondage, or involuntary servitude (as those... include child slavery; sale/trafficking of children; debt bondage; serfdom; forced/compulsory labor;...

  7. Labor Relations: Unions and the United States Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    reflect today’s labor relations environment as commanders still do not understand labor law and the roles of unions. 3 Labor Relations in Federal...current leanings of the administration, it is not likely the uniform services would be considered for exclusion from labor law , at least in the near term...better understanding of labor law and employee relations. Popular with companies in the private sector, business management companies provide a variety

  8. A Two-Sector Economic Growth Model with Labor Force Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CaiDong-han; ZhouMing-chun

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a two-sector growth model is given. The labor force transfer process from agricultural sector to industrial sector is exogenous determined. By introducing the labor force transferring function, a two-dimension nonau-tonomous differential equation is obtained. The results of the model manifest that the labor force transfer delays industrial sector growth and accelerates the agricultural sector growth.It is proved that the solution of the model is asymptotic stable. By the numerical analysis, the economic growth and labor force transfer is presented under the specific parameters.

  9. A Two-Sector Economic Growth Model with Labor Force Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Dong-han; Zhou Ming-chun

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a two-sector growth model is given. The labor force transfer process from agricultural sector to industrial sector is exogenous determined. By introducing the labor force transferring function, a two-dimension nonautonomous differential equation is obtained. The results of the model manifest that the labor force transfer delays industrial sector growth and accelerates the agricultural sector growth.It is proved that the solution of the model is asymptotic stable. By the numerical analysis, the economic growth and labor force transfer is presented under the specific parameters.

  10. Structural characteristics of labor market and ıssue of women’s labor force participation in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas KARABIYIK

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite having an important role in the economy, female employment and labor force participation rates of women are distinctly lower in Turkey. This article analyses the reasons behind the lower labor force participation of women in Turkey and compares it with different countries. In this study, apart from consulting the relevant literature, a large number of statistical data also has been collected from ILO, OECD, EU and TUIK(Turkish Statistical Institute. The research results reveals that, in addition to economic factors, socio-cultural factors particularly related to women’s role splits over as worker in social life and as the main responsible person in housework build up an important problem scope for women in terms of female labor force participation rates in Turkey. For this reason, it is concluded that, applying employment policies which consider the nature of socio-cultural peculiarities of female labor force will help the employability of women and increase female labor force participation rate.

  11. Fertility and patterns of labor force participation among married women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Lovin, L; Tickamyer, A R

    1981-01-01

    Variations in women's response to childbearing and participation in the labor force are examined with the expectation that 2 distinct patterns will emerge clarifying the fertility-work effect. The hypothesis is offered that 1 group of women will drop out entirely at the onset of childbearing, returning to work after the children have grown, if at all. Another group will work almost continuously with almost no gap in labor force participation. Past research, concentrating on averaged direction of causal flow, have obscured this bimodal distribution. 3 problems hamper the study of fertility effects on career discontinuity: detailed work and birth histories covering extended periods of time are scarce, variables often obscure variability, and censored histories are frequent in which the timing of an event may or may not occur until after the survey and therefore cannot be observed. Data for the analysis are from the 1970 EEO survey (Explorations in Equaltiy of Opportunity), a national sample survey of women who were high school sophomores in 1955. Using only complete data from women who were still married to their 1st husbands yielded a sample size of 703. Of these, 39% were working in 1970 and 85% had 2 or more children. Employment status, recorded for each year, was a dichotomous variable distinguishing between no employment during the year and any employment. The fertility variable indicated if a child was or was not adopted or born during the year. The women were much more likely to work before their 1st birth than afterwards, at least during the early adult years covered by this survey. Women who began childbearing while still in high school were more likely to continue working after birth. College graduates were also somewhat more likely to continue working after their 1st birth. 70% of the women worked before their 1st birth, 30% after the onset of childbearing. Work discontinuity, measured by the number of gaps in employment indicate that over 50% of the

  12. Sex Differentials in Educational and Labor Force Role Distributions in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinner, William F.; And Others

    The transformation of the educational and labor force role distribution of Filipino women, both absolutely and relative to Filipino men, under the impact of modernization was examined. The study aimed to: analyze differences in female educational and labor force role distributions by modernization level; compare the female educational and labor…

  13. Education, Health, and Labor Force Supply: Broadening Human Capital for National Development in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William C.; Ikoma, Sakiko; Baker, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Education and health are both capital investments in national development, often viewed as independent factors on a country's labor force supply and productivity. This study uses the 2010-2011 Third Integrated Household Survey in Malawi to propose an Education-enhanced Health Human Capital (EHHC) model where education influences labor force supply…

  14. What Explains the Stagnation of Female Labor Force Participation in Urban India?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klasen, S.; Pieters, J.

    2015-01-01

    Female labor force participation rates in urban India between 1987 and 2011 are surprisingly low and have stagnated since the late 1980s. Despite rising growth, fertility decline, and rising wage and education levels, married women's labor force participation hovered around 18 percent. Analysis of f

  15. Labor market work and home care's unpaid caregivers: a systematic review of labor force participation rates, predictors of labor market withdrawal, and hours of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, Meredith B; Laporte, Audrey; Coyte, Peter C

    2007-12-01

    As people continue to age and receive complex health care services at home, concern has arisen about the availability of family caregivers and their ability to combine employment with caregiving. This article evaluates the international research on unpaid caregivers and their labor market choices, highlighting three conclusions: first, caregivers in general are equally as likely to be in the labor force as noncaregivers; second, caregivers are more likely to work fewer hours in the labor market than noncaregivers, particularly if their caring commitments are heavy; and finally, only those heavily involved in caregiving are significantly more likely to withdraw from the labor market than noncaregivers. Policy recommendations are targeting greater access to formal care for "intensive" caregivers and developing workplace policies for employed caregivers.

  16. Women in the Labor Force. A Selected Bibliography,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    time and continuous work, especially among young women, make this revolution likely.) 47. Nickles, Elizabeth, and Ashcraft, Laura. The Coming Matriarchy ...34companionate marriage." The rise of the 2- earner family represents an early stage of the breakdown of the sexual division of labor.) 40. Michman, R. D...couples use the second income to offset rises in the cost of living, others are beginning to buy luxury items.) *63. Weber, A. R. "Labor’s Love of Unions

  17. forced labor in the system of the Russian criminal legislation and problems of its application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Vladimirovich Tasakov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to review and analyse the Russian criminal law in the aspect of forced labor taking into account theexisting historical practice to assess the implementation of this type of punishment to identify the existing problems and to propose certain measures to overcome them. Methods dialectical historicallegal comparative legal systemic. Results the research discloses the issues of increasing the efficiency of forced labor in the Russian criminal law defines and discusses thedisputable issues that may arise during the use of this type of punishment proposes specific ways and recommendations for their solution. Scientific novelty the article analyzes criminal punishment in the form of forced labor and discusses issues of increasing the efficiency of this punishment and its enforcement. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific educational and practical activities when considering sentencing in the form of forced labor. nbsp

  18. Labor force projections up to 2053 for 26 EU countries, by age, sex, and highest level of educational attainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Loichinger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: One expected consequence of population aging in Europe is the shrinkage of the labor force. Most existing labor force projections allow only inferences about the size and age structure of the future labor force. Objective: In comparison to existing labor force projections, which disaggregate only by age and sex, these projections include information about the highest level of educational attainment (tertiary vs. non-tertiary education, so that an additional level of heterogeneity in labor force participation is considered. This heterogeneity enters the projection methodology through population projection data as well as labor force participation data, since both components are decomposed in the three dimensions of age, sex, and education. Based on data from the European Labor Force Survey (EU LFS, three scenarios were designed to project the economically active population for 26 EU countries up to 2053. Results: Adding the educational dimension to labor force projections discloses a significant shift towards tertiary education degrees between 2008 and 2053. This educational upgrading of the European labor force is not driven by developments in a few large countries but can be expected to take place in each of the 26 analyzed countries. Conclusions: A better educated but shrinking labor force is likely to be able to alleviate some of the anticipated economic consequences of population aging. The presented projections of education-specific labor supply can serve as inputs into forecasts of economic growth that include educational differentials in labor productivity.

  19. Measures and Suggestions to Improve the Labor Force in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Daniela MANEA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the recession that included almost the entire world, the global labor market is facing stressful situation. A reorientation of global labor market strategies occurs. Employment policies should be oriented so that the active work potential to be available, capable and trained to fill jobs offered by an economy in crisis. An important role in the economic strategies reorientation from the labor market in the current context, is played by the reform of education and professional training of the workforce, which is regarded as a national priority that will replace the social slogan that has been used over the last few years:"A job for everyone" with the slogan "Covering the economy with the workers needed". Challenges brought about by the labor market in Romania are related to the employment targets set in the Lisbon European Council, the achievement of employment structure based on productivity increase, reducing unemployment rate among young people, adopting an economic growth model based on employment increase.

  20. Program participation, labor force dynamics, and accepted wage rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skipper, Lars

    2008-01-01

    We apply a recently suggested econometric approach to measure the effects of active labor market programs on employment, unemployment, and wage histories among participants. We find that participation in most of these training programs produces an initial locking-in effect and for some even a lower...... subpopulations. These longer spells of employment come at a cost of lower accepted hourly wage rates...

  1. Intercountry comparisons of labor force trends and of related developments: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincer, J

    1985-01-01

    This paper is a survey of analyses of women's labor force growth in 12 industrialized countries, presented at a conference in Sussex, England in 1983. The main focus is on growth of the labor force of married women from 1960-1980; trends in fertility, wages, and family instability are discussed. In all countries, wages of women were lower than wages of men, although between 1960 and 1980 labor force rates of married women rose in most of the industrialized countries. 2 factors that are associated with this growth are declines in fertility and increases in divorce rates. The 12 countries studied are: 1) Australia, 2) Britain, 3) France, 4) Germany, 5) Israel, 6) Italy, 7) Japan, 8) Netherlands, 9) Spain, 10) Sweden, 11) US, and 12) USSR. The substitution variables (wages of women or their education) have strong positive effects on labor force participation in most cases, and in most cases the positive wage elasticities exceed the negative income elasticities by a sizable margin. A summary table estimating parameters of the P-function for each country, and their predictive performance in time series, are included. From 1960-1980 the average per country growth in participation of married women was 2.84% per year. Wages of working women, in this same period grew, on average, faster than wages of men in most countries, in part due to selectivity by education in labor force growth. While growth rates of real wages across countries have a weak relation with the differential growth rates of married women's labor force, the relation is strong when country parameters are taken into account. The dominance of the "discouraged" over the "added" workers in female labor force growth appears to be upheld internationally. On the average, total fertility rate dropped from 2.42 in 1970 to 1.85 in 1980. Both fertility declines and the growth of family instability appear to represent lagged effects of longer term developments in the labor force of women. Women's wages are lower than

  2. Economic crisis and women's labor force return after childbirth: Evidence from South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most research on women's labor force return after childbirth concentrates on industrialized countries in the West; the link between economic swings and mothers' work-return behavior is rarely addressed. This study closes these gaps by focusing on South Korea, a developed society in East Asia that has in recent decades witnessed increases in female labor force participation and dramatic economic ups and downs. This is the first relevant study on South Korea. Objective: This study examines how women's labor force return after childbirth (with and without career interruption and their career prospects upon work return varied before, during, and after the Asian financial crisis in South Korea. Methods: Logistic and hazard regression models were applied to the Korea Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS waves 1-10. Results: The study reveals an increase in women's immediate work return after childbirth without career interruption since the 1980s. The Asian financial crisis boosted this immediate return pattern. The implementation of job-protected maternity leave further contributed to this pattern. Women who underwent career interruption at first birth were also more likely to re-enter the labor market during and after the crisis than before. Downward occupational moves were especially common during the period of financial crisis. Conclusions: The results suggest that the Asian financial crisis triggered a noticeable change in women's post-birth work-return behavior. The economic volatility pushed mothers to hold onto their role in the labor force more strongly than before.

  3. WORLD AND NATIONAL EXPERIENCE IN GOVERNMENT REGULATION OF FOREIGN LABOR FORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gorbenkova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article includes a generalized description of the approaches and methods instate regulation of the processes of attracting foreign labor force, that implementedby developed countries. The author identifies a number of objective factors causingthe necessity for active government intervention in migration process, examines tasksand system of functional elements in the process of migration management in developed countries. The article also reflects special features of Russian nationalexperience of state regulation of external labor migration in the 1990s and 2000s.

  4. The Racial Wage Gap: The Importance of Labor Force Attachment Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Antecol, Heather; Bedard, Kelly

    2002-01-01

    Labor market attachment differs significantly across black, Mexican and white men; black and Mexican men are more likely to experience unemployment and out of the labor force spells than are white men. While it has long been agreed that potential experience is a poor proxy of actual experience for women, many view it as an acceptable approximation for men. Using the NLSY, this paper documents the substantial difference between potential and actual experience for both black and Mexican men. We...

  5. The Social Cost of Maintaining a Military Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    American Economic Review Proceedings...57 (May 1967), pp. 19-31. 3. Borcherding, Thomas E., "A Neglected Social Cost of a Volunteer Force," American Economic Review , 61...Draft," American Economic Review , 59 (June 1969), pp. 239-254. 7. -----, "The Cost of Ending the Draft: Reply," American Economic Review ,

  6. In the Shadow of the State - the Informal Economy and Informal Economy Labor Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Friedrich

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the main focus lies on the informal economy and on work in the shadow. The most influential factors on the informal economy are tax policies and state regulation. The size of the informal economy was decreasing over the period 1999 to 2007, from 34.0% to 31.2% for 161 countries (unweighted average. Furthermore, economic opportunities, taxes and regulations, the general situation on the labor market, and unemployment are crucial for an understanding of the dynamics of the shadow labor force. In contrast with the decrease of the informal economy (value added figures, the informal economy labor force increased for most countries over the period 1999 to 2007.

  7. 75 FR 33587 - Local Redevelopment Authority and Available Surplus Buildings and Land at Air Force Research Labs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... Street, McClellan, CA 95652-1003, telephone (916) 643-6420, ext 100, or Ms. Debra Bahr, Realty Specialist, Air Force Real Property Agency, 2261 Hughes Ave, Ste. 121, Lackland AFB, TX 78236, telephone (210)...

  8. Working women worldwide. Age effects in female labor force participation in 117 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besamusca, J.; Tijdens, K.; Keune, M.; Steinmetz, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the effects of economic conditions, families, education, and gender ideologies on the labor force participation rates of women in eleven age groups in 117 countries. We find that participation rates of young and older women are partly explained by sector sizes and the

  9. Wives' Relative Wages, Husbands' Paid Work Hours, and Wives' Labor-Force Exit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons

    2011-01-01

    Economic theories predict that women are more likely to exit the labor force if their partners' earnings are higher and if their own wage rate is lower. In this article, I use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 2,254) and discrete-time event-history analysis to show that wives' relative wages are more predictive of their exit than are…

  10. Socioeconomic Determinants of Urban Poverty Area Workers' Labor Force Participation and Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, James R.

    This study examined how the socioeconomic characteristics of male workers from poverty areas in Saint Louis, Missouri, San Antonio, Texas, and Chicago, Illinois, affect their incomes, hours of employment, unemployment, and labor force participation. The research was based on statistical analysis, using an interaction model, of data from the 1970…

  11. Wives' Relative Wages, Husbands' Paid Work Hours, and Wives' Labor-Force Exit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons

    2011-01-01

    Economic theories predict that women are more likely to exit the labor force if their partners' earnings are higher and if their own wage rate is lower. In this article, I use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 2,254) and discrete-time event-history analysis to show that wives' relative wages are more predictive of their exit than are…

  12. Effect of Female Education and Labor Force Ratio on Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turanli, Munevver; Taspinar Cengiz, Dicle; Turanli, Rona; Akdal, Serem

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of women's education and labor force ratio on the level of development in countries. We use a complete dataset covering 44 countries over the period 1990-2010. It comprises the following: education index, the ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education, income per capita, human development index,…

  13. Older Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: Selected Labor Force Characteristics. Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Robert P.

    This report presents the labor force characteristics of older doctoral scientists and engineers using data from the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Survey of Doctorate Recipients (SDR) from 1997. The information presented in the report includes employment, education, and demographic data on all graduate degrees considering the age factor. (YDS)

  14. Children of Working Mothers, March 1973. Special Labor Force Report No. 165.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Elizabeth; Whitmore, Robert

    A special labor force report, the pamphlet provides statistics related to the children of working mothers: type of family, number of children under 18, race, number of children in broken families, work experience of family head, and family income. Although the number of children in the population has declined, the number of children with working…

  15. Children of Working Mothers, March 1977. Special Labor Force Report 217.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Allyson Sherman

    1979-01-01

    This special labor force report, focusing on children of working mothers, summarizes findings from the 1977 annual survey of marital and family characteristics of workers in the population who are 16 years old and over. Data are given on: the numbers of children of various ages with working mothers, the percentages of black and white children…

  16. Labor Force Experiences of a National Sample of Young Adult Men: The Role of Drug Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Denise B.; Davies, Mark

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the effects of the use of cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine on the following aspects of labor force experience: (1) earnings; (2) stability of employment; (3) gaps between employment spells; and (4) duration of unemployment. Illicit drug use was found to have an impact on all factors except earnings. (JS)

  17. Regional diversity of agricultural labor productivity and its driving force in east China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ziqiang; Li Jing; Lu Qi

    2009-01-01

    China's eastern area is at middle and later stage of industrialization during which the relation between ur ban and rural areas,industry and agriculture appears maladjusted The main problems are shrinkage in agricultural somparative earning and lack of driving force of agricultural development.Based on calculating agricultural labor productivity in east China from 1996 to 2005,this paper analyzes contributing degree of motive forces of agriculture develop in ten provinces and cities of east China applying GCA (Grey correlative analysis).The results show that there is no absolute correspondence between the level of industrialization and agricultural labor productivity in Chi,na's cotstern area.There is no synchronous development between industry and agricultural labor productivity in some areas.Fertilizer and agricultural machinery input had high contributing degree for ten years; however,contributing degree in land and irrigation work input was low.Non-materialization inputs became the leading role in most provinc,es and cities' increase of agricultural labor productivity.Modern agricultural development need non-materializationinputs as primary motive.force,at the same time,direct material input and facility input as guaranteed function.Forsome reasons,agricultural development is characterized by "more direct material input,less facility input" in east China now.Optimal driving force model of future agricultural development in east China is that non-materializatior inputs are dominant that perfected facilitv input are guarantee,and that certain substance inputs are necessary.

  18. Prevalence and patterns of major depressive disorder in the United States labor force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Dave E.; Wilcox-Gök, Virginia; Redmon, Patrick D.

    1999-09-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS OF THE STUDY: In this paper, we identify the 12-month and lifetime prevalence of major depressive disorder in and out of the labor force, and among the employed and unemployed. We examine whether prevalence by labor force and employment status varies by gender and over the life cycle. Finally, we examine whether people can "recover" from depression with time by identifying patterns of labor force participation and employment as time since most recent episode passes. METHODS: We examine data collected as part of the National Comorbidity Survey, a survey representative of the population of the United States designed to identify the prevalence of major mental illnesses. The National Comorbidity Study identified cases of major depression via the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Using these data, we estimate univariate and bivariate frequency distributions of major depressive disorder. We also estimate a set of multivariate models to identify the effect of a variety of dimensions of major depression on the propensity to participate in the labor force, and be employed if participating. RESULTS: Lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates of depression are similar in and out of the labor force. Within the labor force, however, depression is strongly associated with unemployment. The negative relationship between depressive disorder and employment is particularly strong for middle age workers. Depression and the number of depressive episodes have a differing pattern of effects on labor market outcomes for men and women. We find evidence that labor force participation and employment rates for people with a history of depression increase significantly over time in the absence of additional depressive episodes. DISCUSSION: Labor market status represents an important dimension along which prevalence of major depression varies. The relationship between depression and employment status is particularly strong for middle aged persons, but becomes weaker

  19. Analysis of "Flood of Migrant Laborers" and "Rural Surplus Labor Force"%"民工潮"与"农村剩余劳动力"之解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春霞

    2009-01-01

    农民工是改革开放的产物,民工潮的涌现给我国经济社会发展带来巨大影响,也给社会学研究带来全新的内容.学界对民工潮现象的解释及研究已有很多成果,但对"农村剩余劳动力"的定义和理解尚存在分歧.笔者通过一项经验研究对此概念进行验证,以此深化对"农村剩余劳动力"作为一个科学解释概念的认识.

  20. Welfare Reform and Labor Force Exit by Young, Low-Skilled Single Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Lincoln H

    2016-04-01

    While the labor market woes of low-skilled male workers in the United States over the past several decades have been well documented, the academic literature identifying causal factors leading to declines in labor force participation (LFP) by young, low-skilled males remains scant. To address this gap, I use the timing and characteristics of welfare-reform policies implemented during the 1990s and fixed-effects, instrumental variable regression modeling to show that policies seeking to increase LFP rates for low-skilled single mothers inadvertently led to labor force exit by young, low-skilled single males. Using data from the Current Population Survey and a bundle of work inducements enacted by states throughout the 1990s as exogenous variation in a quasi-experimental design, I find that the roughly 10 percentage point increase in LFP for low-skilled single mothers facilitated by welfare reform resulted in a statistically significant 2.8 percentage point decline in LFP for young, low-skilled single males. After conducting a series of robustness checks, I conclude that this result is driven entirely by white males, who responded to welfare-reform policies with a 3.7 percentage point decline in labor supply. Young black males, as well as other groups of potentially affected workers, appear to be uninfluenced by the labor supply response of less-educated single mothers to welfare reform. Impacts on young, single white males are large and economically significant, suggesting that nearly 150,000 males departed the formal labor market in response to directed welfare-reform policies.

  1. A Study of the Influential Factors and Transfer Trend of Rural Surplus Labor in Fujian Province-Based on Trans-log Production Function Model%福建农村剩余劳动力的影响因素及转移趋势——基于超越对数生产函数模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐美丽; 李圣林; 陈秋华; 吴卢荣

    2012-01-01

    在新形势下,农村剩余劳动力转移对经济发展和社会稳定具有重要的影响.对福建省的13个农村剩余劳动力转移的影响因素进行数据分析,首先用相关分析确定5个重要因素,再基于逐步回归分析建立超越对数生产函数模型,确定影响农村剩余劳动力转移的2个关键因素:第二产业就业比重和第三产业就业比重,并结合灰色预测的结果,预测2011-2013年农村剩余劳动力转移趋势.最后,结合实际情况,提出针对性的建议.%In the new situation, the transfer of rural surplus labor has vital influences on economic development and social stability. In this paper, a mathematical model has been set up to analyse the data about 13 factors affecting the transfer of rural surplus labor in Fujian province. At the beginning, five important elements are ascertained through relevant analysis. Then establish the function model beyond logarithm production based on stepwise regression analysis to confirm the two key factors affecting the transfer trend of rural surplus labor: employment proportions of the secondary industry and the tertiary industry, together with grey forecasting results to predict the transfer trend of rural surplus labor from 2011-2013. In the end, some practical suggestions are proposed according to the objective conditions.

  2. Gender Disparities, Labor Force Participation and Transfer Payment: What Do Macro Data Say?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbulut Hale

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between government transfer payments and labor force participation rates for a sample of 34 countries over the period of 1995- 2012. We benefit from two step system Generalized Method of Moments as a methodology and thereby eliminate the biases that may arise from endogenous variables. Our econometric results also confirm the employment of the dynamic methodology. First, we estimate the coefficients for overall population and then we re-estimate the coefficients for different genders. As a result of our estimations we observe that the significances and the values of coefficients increase when we employ labor force participation rates of females as dependent variable. Therefore, our findings suggest that transfer payments are more effective in working decisions of females.

  3. A Study of Development of Agritainment and Surplus Rural Women Labor Transfer in Urumuqi---Take Farm-house Tourism as an Example%“农家乐”开发与农村女性剩余劳动力转移研究--以乌鲁木齐县水西沟镇方家庄子村为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白祥; 杨红

    2015-01-01

    This paper,taking Fangjiazhuangzi Villiage in Urumqi County as an example ,conducts a questionnaire survey to truly reflect the development of Farm -house Tourism and the transferring of surplus rural women labor in Urumqi .It is aimed to find the features during the surplus rural women labor are absorbed by Farm -house Tourism.At the same time,we can summarize the problems during it.The results show that,1) by means of transferring to Farm -house Tourism,the income of the rural surplus la-bor women is increasing with longer working time ,not so high requirements of employment ,or gender discrimination .However,the employment information channel is not smooth;2) The problems during the surplus rural women labor which are absorbed by Farm-house Tourism in study area mainly reflect from two aspects:the shortage of occupation skills and lack of legal awareness;3 ) the main influencing factors during the surplus rural women labor which are absorbed by Farm -house Tourism can be divided in-to two kinds:the first is that the absorptive capacity is limited ,and the second is that the quality of the labors is not good enough . A much better employment environment should be constructed by the government for promoting the development of Farm -house Tourism.%本文以乌鲁木齐县水西沟镇方家庄子村为研究对象,采用问卷调查的方法,探讨了乌鲁木齐周边“农家乐”开发与吸纳农村女性剩余劳动力问题。结果表明:研究区“农家乐”在吸纳农村剩余劳动力时,更倾向于吸纳女性劳动者,且就业门槛较低,用工时间较长;但其女性就业者认为,在“农家乐”工作所获得的收入只能维持基本生活,因而近1/4的被调查者选择了兼职。调查表明,女性劳动者自身素质不高,“农家乐”经营规模偏小,缺乏就业信息是制约“农家乐”吸纳女性剩余劳动力的主要因素。

  4. The Effect of Minimum Wages on the Labor Force Participation Rates of Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Walter J.

    In light of pressure on Congress to raise the minimum wage from $5.15 to $6.15 per hour, a study looked at the effects such a raise would have on more than 10 million workers, many of them teenagers. The study used quarterly data on the labor force participation rates of teenagers from 1978 through 1999 and other studies to assess the effects of…

  5. Children of Working Mothers, March 1975: Summary, Special Labor Force Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The following are some of the findings based on the results of the annual survey of marital and family characteristics of workers: (1) about 27.6 million of 62.7 million children had mothers in the labor force (over 2 million more than in March 1970); (2) 1.1 million of 6.5 million children under six were in families headed by women (71 percent…

  6. Opportunities of the Green Economy : an Analysis of the American Labor Force

    OpenAIRE

    King, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Unemployment and fiscal recovery in the United States since the recession of the late 2000’s has been a quavering and tedious process. Underlining structural deficiencies in the American labor force were exposed through the periodic events of the recession. Politicians have highlighted green investments as one solution to foster economic growth and recovery to full employment. This study measures the occupations that will gain from green investments and the solutions the green ...

  7. Labor force participation at older ages in the Western Pacific: A microeconomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agree, E M; Clark, R L

    1991-10-01

    Retirement has become a very important stage of life for persons in developed countries. Life expectancy for those over age 60 has increased markedly. Rising real income and the institution of broad based social security systems have encouraged older workers to leave the labor force at younger ages. p]Reductions in older age mortality have also affected the less developed regions. Increases in the number of older persons, coupled with continuing high fertility, have increased the size of the working age population through both large entry cohorts and longevity of current workers. The capacity of the economy to absorb this growth is severely limited. As a result, labor force decisions by older individuals will be of increasing importance.This study provides new evidence on labor force decisions in four developing countries in the Western Pacific: Fiji, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines. A uniform survey sponsored by the World Health Organization in the four countries of persons aged 60 and over is employed to estimate the determinants of work decisions.

  8. The statistical analysis of the mobility and the labor force use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela-Emanuela Dãnãcicã

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches some of the classical methods used in statistics for theanalysis of labor force and proposes new ways of current analysis required foradopting optimal economic patterns and strategies. The proposed methods, thelinear mean deviation used in the analysis of the external mobility of the laborforce, the coefficient of variation used in the analysis of the external mobility of thelabor force and two-dimensional table used the coefficient of internal mobilitycalculation, are illustrated by the premises, the calculus methodology, practicalapplications and guidance for their use in adopting and applying optimal economicpolicy.

  9. The Effects of Year-Round Schools on the Hospitality Industry's Seasonal Labor Force in the State of Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickeral, Lyn M.; Hubbard, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Data collected from 66 managers in Tennessee tourist attractions indicate that 53 percent of seasonal workers in Tennessee come from the school system. The proposal to implement year-round schools would drastically increase the tourism industry's labor shortage. An alternative labor force needs to be identified and the issue of year-round schools…

  10. The Effectiveness of Policies that Promote Labor Force Participation of Women with Children: A Collection of National Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cascio, Elizabeth; Haider, Steven; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2015-01-01

    Numerous countries have enacted policies to promote the labor force participation of women around the years of childbearing, and unsurprisingly, many research articles have been devoted to evaluating their effectiveness. Perhaps more surprisingly, however, six such articles were submitted...

  11. Labor force status transitions at older ages in the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand, 1970-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymo, J M; Cornman, J C

    1999-09-01

    While there is considerable evidence of a trend toward earlier retirement in the United States and Europe, trends in rapidly growing economies in other parts of the world have not been closely examined. This paper traces the labor force participation rates of older men and women in four Asian countries, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand, over the period of 1970 to 1990. Aggregate census data are used to calculate net transitions into and out of the labor force so as to permit the analysis of differences by country and cohort as well as change over time. Results show that, although men exhibit a general trend toward earlier net labor force exit, labor force participation rates at older ages remain high. Older women are found to be increasingly engaged in economic activity, especially in Singapore and Taiwan.

  12. Maternal labor force participation and differences by education in an urban birth cohort study – 1998–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkauskas, Natasha; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Maternal labor force participation has increased dramatically over the last 40 years, yet surprisingly little is known about longitudinal patterns of maternal labor force participation in the years after a birth, or how these patterns vary by education. OBJECTIVE We document variation by maternal education in mothers’ labor force participation (timing, intensity, non-standard work, multiple job-holding) over the first nine years after the birth of a child. METHODS We use the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N~3000) to predict longitudinal labor force participation in a recent longitudinal sample of mothers who gave birth in large US cities between 1998 and 2000. Families were followed until children were age 9, through 2010. RESULTS Labor force participation gradually increases in the years after birth for mothers with high school or less education, whereas for mothers with some college or more, participation increases between ages 1 and 3 and then remains mostly stable thereafter. Mothers with less than high school education have the highest rates of unemployment (actively seeking work), which remain high compared with all other education groups, whose unemployment declines over time. Compared with all other education groups, mothers with some college have the highest rates of labor force participation, but also high rates of part-time employment, non-standard work, and multiple job-holding. CONTRIBUTION Simple conceptualizations of labor force participation do not fully capture the dynamics of labor force attachment for mothers in terms of intensity, timing of entry, and type of work hours, as well as differences by maternal education.

  13. NON-UNIONIZED WORKERS IN BRITISH GREEN SECTORS: EVIDENCE FROM THE LABOR FORCE SURVEY*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Gormus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available International Labour Organization (ILO and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP suggest that green sectors should offer decent jobs respecting to unions and international labor rights and fulfill requirements of labor laws and collective bargaining system. Also, non-unionized working in green sectors poses a significant challenge in terms of creation decent jobs. In this line, this article presents several evidences from British Labour Force Survey to find some socio-economic obstacles behind unionization in green sectors by using logistic regression modeling method. The results suggest that union membership decision in green sectors is affected by a range of demographic and work-related factors used in the study. For example, those who are 16-24 age band, women workers, those who are employed by small sized enterprises and takes charge in high-ranked occupations are higher likelihood of non-unionized working in green sectors, compared to rest of the sectors.

  14. Surplus Value & Income Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshizawa,Masayasu

    1993-01-01

    Introduction 1. Marx's Theory of Surplus-Value 1.1. Use-Value and Exchange-Value 1.2. Surplus-Value 1.3. Variable Capital and Constant Capital 2. Implications of Marx's Theory of Surplus-Value 2.1. First Implication-Exploitation 2.2. Second Implication-Deviation of Price from Value 2.3. Third Implication-Capitalist Corporation 3. Capital Accumulation and Income Distribution 3.1. The Effect of Capital Accumulation 3.2. Fall in the Rate of Profit 4. Conclusion 

  15. Benefits of a Surplus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China has growing surplus in its trade and capital accounts, which have prompted warnings and criticism from both domestic and foreign economists. Some think this represents an imbalance in international payments and suggest China speed up the appreciation of the yuan to adjust that imbalance. But Qu Hongbin, Chief China Economist for HSBC, and Ma Xiaoping, an economic analyst, argue that the double-surplus issue should be viewed from a broader perspective. In their article in The Economic Observer, they...

  16. New features of flow of rural surplus labor in Anhui province under the background of undertaking industry transfer%承接产业转移背景下安徽省农村剩余劳动力转移新特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世宏; 李亚光

    2015-01-01

    2010年皖江承接产业转移示范区上升到国家战略,至今已5年过去了,随着皖江承接产业转移事业的稳步推进,安徽省经济社会发展升级到新阶段。产业结构不断优化升级,城市化水平不断提高。承接产业转移驱动安徽省农村剩余劳动力的转移呈现出新的特征。以此为背景,对新阶段安徽省农村剩余劳动力流动特征进行分析,针对适应新特征提出相应政策建议。%In has been five years since the construction of demonstration region for undertaking industry transfer of the city-cluster along the Yangtze River in Anhui rose to national strategy in 2010. With the steady development of undertaking industry transfer, development of economic and social of Anhui province is upgrading to a new stage. The industrial structure optimizes and upgrades continuously and the level of urbanization improves constantly. Undertaking industry transfer promotes the flow of force of rural surplus labor of Anhui province with new features. Based on this background,this paper analyzed the flow features in the new stage and proposed some suggestions.

  17. Study on the Flow of Rural Labor Force and the Contribution of Terrain Factor in Shaanxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yanxu; Li Chunyue; Ren Zhiyuan

    2012-01-01

    The flow of rural labor to urban is a significant phe- nomenon in China during the last 20 years. In spite of many researches focus on the driving force of economy, terrain is an important index in the rural development. There is a question that whether the flow of rural labor has some relationships with terrain. The study used the relief degree of land surface (RDLS) as terrain index, and the cost distance model and the center of gravity model to analyze the relationship between terrain and labor flows. The results indicated: (1) In the last 20 years, the rural labor force was not simply flowing to the low terrain region in Shaanxi province. And the RDLS was constantly strengthening the influence on the movement. (2) The RDLS was low in Guanzhong region, and the translation of rural labors relatively was not significant. Since North Shaanxi act as the energy industry base, the number of rural labors there increased faster than in South Shaanxi. (3) The move- ments of economical centers took an important role in the change of rural labor centers, and terrain factors also showed a high cor- relation with them. It is found that the lower of the terrain index, the higher of the land intensive degree, the more intensive of non- agriculturalization process.

  18. Modelling nonlinear behavior of labor force participation rate by STAR: An application for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Cengiz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the behavior of participation rates in terms of gender differences. We employed smooth autoregressive transition models for the quarterly Turkish labor force participation rates (LFPR data between 2000: Q1 - 2011: Q4 to present an asymmetric participation behavior. The smoothness parameter indicates a gradual transition from low to high regimes. It is higher for female workers compared to the male workers. Participation rates diminish during a recession but they increase smoothly during the periods of expansion. The estimation results of Enders et al. (1998 also verified the asymmetry and nonlinearity in participation rates. During periods of economic expansion, they are higher than the threshold but the low regime indicator function takes the value zero. The results of the paper have economic implications for policy makers. Due to the discouraged worker and added worker effects, LFPR should be observed with the unemployment rates while evaluating the tightness of the labor market.

  19. Marx's Labor-Practice Existentialism and Its Theoretical Scopes:An Analysis Based on Marx's Development of Surplus Value Theory%马克思"劳动实践生存论"及其导向的理论趋势 ──以马克思对"剩余价值学说"的发展为证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡建; 何云峰

    2015-01-01

    马克思的"劳动实践生存论"是对西方传统"生存论"──"形而上学本体论"──的当代理论超越,它具有"终极关怀"与"现实境遇"的双重视角. 随着马克思对当代人类的主流生存模式──资本主义生存模式──的思考视角从"终极关怀"意义转向"现实境遇"意义,引发了马克思理论的全面创新. 在马克思对其"剩余价值学说"的发展中表现出了一定的理论创新,具体表现为:其一,对劳动价值论的修正;其二,对剩余价值来源的修正;其三,对资本家具有企业与社会双重角色的界定;其四,承认社会主义初级阶段仍然存在"剩余价值生产",因此其分配原则也包括某些"按资分配". 总之,马克思对于"剩余价值问题"的最后态度是:鉴于"剩余价值生产"是人类历史的必经阶段,每一个人在其中扮演的社会角色是不可避免的.%Marx' s labor-practical existentialism theoretically enhanced western traditional existentialism of metaphysical ontology, which simultaneously concerns about the ultimate end and reality of life. After an overlook of the existence modes of capitalism that has became the main one in modern times, Marx created his new theory based on the transformation from an ultimate concern to reality care. To address such kind of Marx' s theoretical creativity, his contributions to surplus value theory should be a good example, including his modifications of labor value theory, his finding the origins of surplus values, his definitions of the double social roles of capitalists, and his acknowledge of surplus value productions and therefore necessary distributions according to capital at the preliminary stage of socialism. It can be concluded that Marx believes that surplus value productions are unavoidable in human history. Thus, it is inevitable that every person would be somehow involved in surplus value productions.

  20. Urbanization: Main Driving Force in Economic Development in Coming Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuAn'gang; ZhaoBaohua; DavidKelly

    2004-01-01

    The past 25 years has seen an unprecedented exodus of rural immigrants flowing into cities or townships. Coastal China has become the main destination to take in the country's surplus farming labor forces in the rustic population; while the populous central or western provinces,

  1. Slowdown Trade Surplus Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leo Zhao

    2008-01-01

    @@ According to Ma Kai's economic planning report submitted to the NPC session on March 5th.(Ma Kai is the Minister in charge of the National Development and Reform Commission),the government has listed the slowdown in trade surplus growth and the steady expansion of,external investment as major tasks for 2008.

  2. 'Nonprofits' need surplus too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D W

    1982-01-01

    By definition profit refers to the difference between revenue and expenses. In for-profit organizations profit or surplus gives a return to the owners of the company and serves as a source of financing for capital acquisitions and working capital. Nonprofit organizations, which are not allowed a surplus, don't suffer on the first count because they have no owners. But they do suffer on the second count because, if expected to grow, they need to finance asset replacement and growth. In these days when funds for long-term debt are becoming scarcer, this author asserts, the need for regulators to allow 'nonprofits' to keep a surplus is increasing. In this article, he argues for a surplus and then discusses how managers and regulators can determine how much a nonprofit organization should be allowed. He presents a combination of a modified version of the return-on-asset pricing model used in for-profit organizations and a model for assessing working capital needs associated with growth.

  3. Racism and Surplus Repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Howard

    1983-01-01

    Explores the relationship between Herbert Marcuse's theory of "surplus repression" and Freud's theory of the "unconscious" with respect to latent, hidden, covert, or subliminal aspects of racism in the United States. Argues that unconscious racism, manifested in evasion/avoidance, acting out/projection, and attempted justification, perpetuates…

  4. 电液伺服加载系统多余力分析%Research on Surplus Force of Electro-hydraulic Servo Loading System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩洋; 吴晖; 曾毅; 潘阳

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic cylinder position control is widely used. Electro-hydraulic servo loading system is often used to simulate the real load. This article firstly build the mathematical model of electro-hydraulic proportional position and electro-hydraulic servo loading systems. Then analyze the surplus torque generated in loading process to find out the related factors influencing the surplus torque. Finally adopt“PID+speed feed-forward compensation”to improve comprehensive performance of loading system.%液压缸位置控制广泛应用于各类液压控制系统中,常采用电液伺服加载系统模拟其运动过程中的真实负载。该文首先建立电液比例位置控制和电液伺服加载系统的数学模型;然后对加载过程中产生的多余力进行分析,找出影响多余力的相关因素;最后采用“PID+速度前馈补偿”来改善加载系统的综合性能。

  5. Labor force participation and human capital increases in an aging population and implications for U.S. research investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manton, Kenneth G; Lowrimore, Gene R; Ullian, Arthur D; Gu, Xiliang; Tolley, H Dennis

    2007-06-26

    The proportion of the United States labor force >/=65 years of age is projected to increase between 2004 and 2014 by the passing of age 65 of the large post-World War II baby boom cohorts starting in 2010 and their greater longevity, income, education, and health [Toossi M (2005) Mon Labor Rev 128(11):25-44]. The aging of the U.S. labor force will continue to at least 2034, when the largest of the baby boom cohorts reaches age 70. Thus, the average health and functional capacity of persons age 65+ must improve for sufficient numbers of elderly persons to be physically and cognitively capable of work. This will require greater investments in research, public health, and health care. We examine how disability declines and improved health may increase human capital at later ages and stimulate the growth of gross domestic product and national wealth.

  6. Women of Hispanic Origin in the Labor Force. Facts on Working Women No. 89-1 = La mujer de origen hispano en la fuerza laboral. Facts on Working Women Num. 89-1S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Data on Hispanic women in the labor force between 1978 and 1988 show the following: (1) 6.5 percent of the women in the work force in 1988 were of Hispanic origin (3.6 million); (2) the median age of Hispanic women was 26.1 years, 2-5 years younger than Black or White women; (3) 66 percent of Hispanic women participate in the labor force, a higher…

  7. Empirical Study on the Impact of Rural Labor Force Flow on the Price of Agricultural Products——A Method Based on VEC Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the research introduction of domestic and foreign scholars,dynamic equilibrium between the rural labor force flow and the price of agricultural product is analyzed by VEC model,according to the data of the rural labor force flow and the price of agricultural products in the years 1990-2007.Chows breakpoint test is used to measure the stage characteristics of the impact of rural labor force flow on the price of agricultural product.Result shows that there is a long-term and stationary relationship between the flow quantity of rural labor force and the price of agricultural product.Rural labor force flow,as an exogenous force,affects the agricultural production,and further influences the price fluctuation of agricultural products.Impact of rural labor force flow on the price of agricultural product is from weak to strong,then grows gradually weaker,and reaches its peak value at the year 1998.With the development of rural society and economy and the market process,rural labor force flow endogenously affects the price of agricultural product,which has periodic characteristics.In order to achieve a dual stabilization of the rural labor force flow and the price of agricultural products,the following countermeasures are put forward:vigorously developing vocational education,increasing the support for agricultural production,and making active employment measures.

  8. Analysis of Externality of Rural Labor Force Flow in Central and Western Regions of China and Benefit Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin; LI; Haijing; HU

    2013-01-01

    According to the theories of institutional economics and development economics,the positive and negative externality of rural labor force flowing from central and western regions and into eastern regions of China were analyzed,and then it was proposed that it is necessary to positive externality,rather than take"household register"measures to solve the problem simply.

  9. Fertility behavior and labor force participation: a model of lexicographic choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnacion, J J

    1982-01-01

    Evidence exists that a smaller family size is usually associated with female employment and that fertility rises with family income and the wife's education at relatively low levels of income and education. Only at higher levels is there the generally expected relationship that fertility declines with more education or income. Due to the fact that a woman's labor force participation and her fertility are aspects of behavior of the same person (or couple), they should be explained by a model of choice. Such a model is presented, and empirical evidence is cited. In particular, the model allows for a fertility decline even before a decline in mortality during the demographic transition. The model of choice involves threshold values of education and income, such that the marginal effects of these variables on fertility and labor supply are qualitatively different below and above the threshold. The model is in conformity with cross-section regressions using Philippine data and appears to explain why various studies give positive, zero, or negative regression coefficients relating fertility to education and income when standard linear regression specifications are used. Such results would depend on the proportions of families falling below and above the thresholds in the sample of observations. The model also implies that the fertility effects of a child mortality decline on those proportions, meaning that one could have lower mortality without affecting fertility levels. From a policy perspective, the broad implications of the model are distrubing. Development that raises very low income and education levels would increase fertility and so would a more egalitarian distribution of the same low aggregate income. It is necessary to shift the underlying functions so that the thresholds become as low as possible, but general economic development may be too slow for this purpose.

  10. Inequality of pension arrangements among different segments of the labor force in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Social security for older people in China today has been established institutionally. However, there are substantial problems such as coverage, affordability, fund management, and corruption. This paper aims to provide a general picture of China's social security system for older people and to argue that the inequality of pension arrangements among different segments of the labor force is one of the most conspicuous problems challenging the Chinese government. Four unequal aspects of the pension system concerning the financing resources and pension levels are examined in this paper: (1) unequal institutional arrangements among different sectors, (2) unbalanced governmental expenditure in pension provision, (3) an increasing gap in pension levels between urban and rural areas, and (4) uncovered groups such as the unemployed and self-employed. Historical, economic, and political reasons all contribute to this unequal institution under transition from socialism to a market-oriented economy. At present, it is urgent for the central government to take measures to integrate the various pension arrangements into the unified Old Age Insurance and to reduce the gaps among different regions.

  11. Research on the stability of the rural labor force fluid%农村劳动力流动的稳定性研究--以深圳市为案例的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡友

    2003-01-01

    This paper put forward a criterion to evaluate the stability of the rural labor force fluid.Based on the survey of the stability of the rural labor force fluid in Shenzhen,an empirical study was made.

  12. Individual and Work Factors Related to Perceived Work Ability and Labor Force Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonagle, Alyssa K.; Fisher, Gwenith G.; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L.; Grosch, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived work ability refers to a worker's assessment of his or her ability to continue working in his or her job, given characteristics of the job along with his or her personal resources. Perceived work ability is a critical variable to study in the U.S., given an aging workforce, trends to delay retirement, and U.S. policy considerations to delay the age at which full Social Security retirement benefits may be obtained. Based on the Job Demands-Resources Model, cognitive appraisal theory of stress and push/pull factors related to retirement, we proposed and tested a conceptual model of antecedents and outcomes of perceived work ability using three independent samples of U.S. working adults. Data regarding workers’ job characteristics were from self-report and O*NET measures. Results from relative importance analysis indicated that health and sense of control were consistently and most strongly related to work ability perceptions relative to other job demands and job resources when perceived work ability was measured concurrently or two weeks later in samples with varying occupations. Job demands (along with health and sense of control) were most strongly related to work ability perceptions when perceived work ability was measured in a manufacturing worker sample 1.6 years later. Perceived work ability also predicted lagged labor force outcomes (absence, retirement, and disability leave) while controlling for other known predictors of each. Consistent indirect effects were observed from health status and sense of control to all three of these outcomes via perceived work ability. PMID:25314364

  13. Individual and work factors related to perceived work ability and labor force outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonagle, Alyssa K; Fisher, Gwenith G; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L; Grosch, James W

    2015-03-01

    Perceived work ability refers to a worker's assessment of his or her ability to continue working in his or her job, given characteristics of the job along with his or her resources. Perceived work ability is a critical variable to study in the United States, given an aging workforce, trends to delay retirement, and U.S. policy considerations to delay the age at which full Social Security retirement benefits may be obtained. Based on the job demands-resources model, cognitive appraisal theory of stress, and push/pull factors related to retirement, we proposed and tested a conceptual model of antecedents and outcomes of perceived work ability using 3 independent samples of U.S. working adults. Data regarding workers' job characteristics were from self-report and Occupational Information Network measures. Results from relative importance analysis indicated that health and sense of control were consistently and most strongly related to work ability perceptions relative to other job demands and job and personal resources when perceived work ability was measured concurrently or 2 weeks later in samples with varying occupations. Job demands (along with health and sense of control) were most strongly related to work ability perceptions when perceived work ability was measured in a manufacturing worker sample 1.6 years later. Perceived work ability also predicted lagged labor force outcomes (absence, retirement, and disability leave) while controlling for other known predictors of each. Consistent indirect effects were observed from health status and sense of control to all 3 of these outcomes via perceived work ability. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. High Surplus Means High Profits?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2007-01-01

    @@ In recent years,China has been in the limelight worldwide due to its constant high trade surplus.Its trade surplus hit US$ 24.974 billion in August, a record high and an increase of US$ 624 million versus the previous month, according to the latest data from China Customs.

  15. A re-estimation of China's agricultural surplus labor——the demonstration and modification of three prevalent methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiangui; DING Shouhai

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to re-estimate China's agricultural surplus labor.Our estimation is based on three prevalent methods including classical,neoclassical and standard structure comparing methods.Different from other researchers,we pay attention to not only the total amount of surplus labor but also its distribution among different provinces and districts.By comparing the results from the different methods,we conclude that the classical method is the most creditable.In order to make them more reasonable,we modified the three methods.The results show that there are about 40 million agricultural surplus labor in China currently.

  16. 农村剩余劳动力测算方法研究%The Methodological Research of Measuring Rural Residual Labor Forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈先运

    2004-01-01

    The paper discussed several current methods to measure rural residual labor forces, forwards a feasible shortcut way to measure, and conducts research and forecast by using the data of Shangdong Province.

  17. Hypoxia-induced force increase (HIFI) is a novel mechanism underlying the strengthening of labor contractions, produced by hypoxic stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Mohammed; Arrowsmith, Sarah; Wray, Susan

    2015-01-01

    For successful birth, contractions need to become progressively stronger. The underlying mechanisms are unknown, however. We have found that a novel mechanism, hypoxia-induced force increase (HIFI), is switched on selectively, at term, and is essential to strengthening contractions. HIFI is initiated as contractions cyclically reduce blood flow and produce repeated hypoxic stresses, with associated metabolic and transcriptomic changes. The increases in contractility are a long-lasting, oxytocin-independent, intrinsic mechanism present only in the full-term pregnant uterus. HIFI is inhibited by adenosine receptor antagonism and blockade of cyclooxygenase-2 signaling, and partially reproduced by brief episodes of acidic (but not alkalotic) pH. HIFI explains how labor can progress despite paradoxical metabolic challenge, and provides a new mechanistic target for the 1 in 10 women suffering dysfunctional labor because of poor contractions. PMID:26195731

  18. The Research of Labor Force Capitalization Based on Modern Theory Concerning the Value of Scientific-Technological Labor -- A Research on the View of Marxism Philosophy of Economics%现代科技劳动价值论基础上的劳动力资本化研究——一种马克思主义经济哲学的考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冠军

    2012-01-01

    From the view of philosophy of economics, classical Marxist writers have conceived the thought of "labor force capitalization" on the basis of labor value theory with their theory of labor force and labor force com- modity. There are some different developing trends of labor force capitalization thought in economics theory around the world, one of which is Marxist labor force capitalization theory in the theoretical framework of Marxist labor val- ue theory. The labor has his own mental means of production, such as knowledge, information, science and tech- nology, and this is a prerequisite to labor force capitalization. The essence of labor force capitalization is the exploi- tation of mental production materials to manufacture surplus value. In this sense, as the unity of material production and intellectual production, modem value theory of science-tec.hnology labor, which makes the system of social pro- duction with economic integration of science and technology as its scope of object, offers the theoretical basis of the research of labor force capitalization. Its three basic principles provides foundation, its value chain of the network framework mode provides theoretical basis of value production and value movement, its "scientific value library" theory, value incubation theory and the law of science realizing the value of proliferation provides direct theoretical basis for the research of labor force capitalization, its four conclusions offer the foundation of labor force capital brings surplus value.%从经济哲学角度看,马克思主义经典作家在劳动价值论的基础上创建劳动力理论和劳动力商品理论之同时,前瞻性地萌发了“劳动力资本化”思想。随着时代的发展,这一思想在世界范围内的经济理论中形成了不同的发展走向,其中之一是马克思主义经济理论框架中的劳动力资本化研究。而劳动力资本化的前提是劳动力所有者占有或拥有知识、

  19. Land Market Restrictions, Women's Labor Force Participation, and Wages in a Rural Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Emran, M. Shahe; Shilpi, Forhad

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of land market restrictions on the rural labor market outcomes for women. The existing literature emphasizes two mechanisms through which land restrictions can affect the economic outcomes: the collateral value of land, and (in) security of property rights. Analysis of this paper focuses on an alternative mechanism where land restrictions increase costs of m...

  20. Trends in the Higher Education Labor Force: Identifying Changes in Worker Composition and Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education is a labor-intensive industry whose primary service, instruction, is delivered by a lecturer, accompanied by administrative support and various other services. Growing student enrollment necessitates some additional staffing; however, one would think that the recent and ongoing technological boom would have lessened the labor…

  1. Labor Force Participation and Gender Inequalities: Comparative Analysis of Pakistan and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Najeebullah Khan; Adnan Hussein; Qamar Afaq; Zahid Awan

    2012-01-01

    In this study we analyzed gender inequalities in labour force participation of the two Asian Countries namely Pakistan and Malaysia. Gender inequalities in labour market are analyzed and updated using recent time series data of 2005 to 2009. The data are drawn from different sources including various Integrated Household Surveys, Labour Force Surveys, Economic Surveys and Labour Force Survey Reports of the two countries. The results indicate significant gender differences in the labour force ...

  2. The social and cultural life of the prisoners in the Jewish forced labor camp at Skarzysko-Kamienna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karay, F

    1994-01-01

    The article discusses the social and cultural life among the Jewish prisoners at the Skarzysko-Kamienna forced labor camp in central Poland. The activities included organized observances of religious and national customs and creative arts and performances of many kinds. The activities served several functions for the artists and audiences. Whether as a source of income in the struggle for physical survival, or as a psychological escape from the terrible reality of daily life in the camp, or as a unifying element for the fragmented prisoner population, or as a from of political resistance, these social and cultural activities in the camp constitute a singular phenomenon in the history of the Holocaust.

  3. Probing into countryside surplus labor resources classify development mode——take Shanxi as example%农村剩余劳动力资源分类开发模式探析——以陕西省为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军伟; 刘华

    2012-01-01

    农村剩余劳动力向城市转移就业是我国工业化与城市化发展的必然趋势。当前我国农村剩余劳动力的突出问题是:规模庞大、教育文化水平低、劳动技能素质差等。阻碍农村剩余劳动力顺利转移就业的原因既包括宏观的制度性及社会性因素,也包括微观的农村剩余劳动力个体心理性因素等。充分发挥政府的主导作用,构建制度性保障机制,运用分类分层模式开发农村剩余劳动力资源是促进农村剩余劳动力资源顺利转移就业的重要措施。%With the development of urbanization and industrialization it is a natural tendency for rural surplus labors to work in the cities.However,there exist several obstacles which hinder their job opportunities,for example their low education level,poor labor skills,and its large size.This thesis,taking Shaanxi province as an example,puts forward that Classified Development Mode of Rural Redundant Labors should be carried out immediately and that the government should play a crucial role in the development process,based on a careful analysis on the institutional,social and physiologic factors present constraining the human resource development in Shaanxi province.

  4. Model Equilibrium and Empirical Study of Rural Labor Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinghua; HUANG; Xiuchuan; XU; Ming; ZHANG; Yue; ZHAO

    2013-01-01

    We establish the two-sector economy model including the urban sector and the rural sector, derive the labor demand curve of the urban sector and rural sector under the condition of balanced production decisions with benefit maximization, and analyze the labor flow when in the short-term or long-term two-sector economic equilibrium. The results show that rising wages caused by short-term internal and external impact increases the pressure on the employment in two sectors, and the urban sector is difficult to absorb the surplus labor of the rural sector. However, under the conditions of free flow of factors and fully competitive market, the wage variation arising from the long-term endogenous evolution, leads to inversely proportional relationship between the demand for labor in the urban and rural sectors, which is conducive to the transfer of rural labor force. Based on microeconomic survey data of labor flow in urban-rural coordination experimental zones in Chongqing City, this paper makes an empirical study of the main factors having a short-term impact on the labor transfer, and the results show that education level and the opportunity to participate in the training are important factors.

  5. Labor Force Participation and Gender Inequalities: Comparative Analysis of Pakistan and Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeebullah Khan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed gender inequalities in labour force participation of the two Asian Countries namely Pakistan and Malaysia. Gender inequalities in labour market are analyzed and updated using recent time series data of 2005 to 2009. The data are drawn from different sources including various Integrated Household Surveys, Labour Force Surveys, Economic Surveys and Labour Force Survey Reports of the two countries. The results indicate significant gender differences in the labour force participation rate and status of employment of the two countries. Labour force participation rate of female is 20% and the male is 71% in Pakistan whereas in Malaysia the participation rate of female is 46% and the male is 80%. Furthermore women of age group 25 to 29 and women of age group 35 to 39 years are the most productive age intervals in Malaysia and Pakistan, respectively. The general increase in the participation of youth in Malaysia are due to rapid expansion of educational facilities, equal access of female to every level of education, delayed marriages and reduced fertility rate while increased participation of the interval group of 35 to 39 is due to the induction of married women in the labour market in Pakistan.

  6. 从"民工荒"看湖南农村剩余劳动力的转移%On Migrant Labor Shortage and Transfer of Surplus Labor Force in Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷志云; 蒋华

    2005-01-01

    自2004年以来,广东、福建、浙江等地都出现了"民工荒"."民工荒"的出现给湖南省农村剩余劳动力的转移提供了契机,同时也带来挑战.我们应抓住机遇,迎接挑战,实现农村剩余劳动力的转移,促进农民的增收和经济的和谐健康发展.

  7. Work-Family Conflict: The Effects of Religious Context on Married Women’s Participation in the Labor Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Griebel Rogers

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Past work shows religion’s effect on women’s career decisions, particularly when these decisions involve work-family conflict. This study argues that the religious context of a geographic area also influences women’s solutions to work-family conflict through more or less pervasive normative expectations within the community regarding women’s roles and responsibilities to the family. We use the American Community Survey linked with community-level religious proportions to test the relationship between religious contexts and women’s participation in the labor force in the contiguous United States–2054 census geographic areas. Using spatial analysis, we find that community religious concentration is related to the proportion of women who choose not to work. Communities with a higher proportion of the population belonging to conservative religious traditions also have a greater proportion of married women choosing not to work outside the home.

  8. Children of Working Mothers, March 1976. Special Labor Force Report 205.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Allyson Sherman

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of the number of mothers with children under age 17 who were in the work force in 1976. The paper surveys various factors which influence these statistics: age of children, socioeconomic factors, ethnic and racial characteristics, family size, family income and the availability of child care services. The statistics…

  9. Trends in Overtime Hours and Pay, 1969-74. Special Labor Force Report 179.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Diane N.

    Based mainly on Current Population Survey 1969-1974 data, the report examines recent trends of overtime work, the impact of overtime work on earnings, and the current and past composition of the overtime force. In May, 1974 about 16.1 million workers, one out of every five employed persons, reported working more than 40 hours in his/her principal…

  10. Economic Growth, Electricity Consumption, Labor Force and Capital Input: A More Comprehensive Analysis on North China Using Panel Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiru Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, China’s economy has witnessed remarkable growth, with an average annual growth rate over 9%. However, China also faces great challenges to balance this spectacular economic growth and continuously increasing energy use like many other economies in the world. With the aim of designing effective energy and environmental policies, policymakers are required to master the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth. Therefore, in the case of North China, a multivariate model employing panel data analysis method based on the Cobb-Douglas production function which introduces electricity consumption as a main factor was established in this paper. The equilibrium relationship and causal relationship between real GDP, electricity consumption, total investment in fixed assets, and the employment were explored using data during the period of 1995–2014 for six provinces in North China, including Beijing City, Tianjin City, Hebei Province, Shanxi Province, Shandong Province and Inner Mongolia. The results of panel co-integration tests clearly state that all variables are co-integrated in the long term. Finally, Granger causality tests were used to examine the causal relationship between economic growth, electricity consumption, labor force and capital. From the Granger causality test results, we can draw the conclusions that: (1 There exist bi-directional causal relationships between electricity consumption and real GDP in six provinces except Hebei; and (2 there is a bi-directional relationship between capital input and economic growth and between labor force input and economic growth except Beijing and Hebei. Therefore, the ways to solve the contradiction of economic growth and energy consumption in North China are to reduce fossil energy consumption, develop renewable and sustainable energy sources, improve energy efficiency, and increase the proportion of the third industry, especially the sectors which

  11. Economic and labor market forces matter for worker well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Louis; Harter, James K

    2013-07-01

    In light of recent interest in societal subjective well-being, policies that seek to improve the economy and labor markets need to address the question of whether economic factors matter for worker well-being, specifically job satisfaction. In a worldwide representative poll of 136 nations, economic factors are associated with job satisfaction beyond demographic and job factors. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that higher national GDP and job optimism was associated with job satisfaction, whereas higher unemployment was associated with job dissatisfaction. Mediational analyses revealed that economic variables (GDP and job optimism) were partially mediated by job satisfaction in predicting life satisfaction; full mediation was found for unemployment. In a second study, time series regression of monthly data from a nationally representative poll in the United States from 2008 to 2011 revealed that unemployment rate was significantly associated with job dissatisfaction over time. There was some evidence that prior unemployment rates predicted job satisfaction at a higher level than job satisfaction predicted unemployment rates, suggesting that economic factors lead to job (dis)satisfaction rather than the converse. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. © 2013 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being © 2013 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  12. Dialética do desenvolvimento periférico: dependência, superexploração da força de trabalho e política econômica Dialectics of peripheral development: dependence, superexploitation of labor force and economic policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Dias Carcanholo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho procura discutir as possibilidades de desenvolvimento na periferia da economia mundial, enfatizando dois aspectos. Em primeiro lugar, observa-se que as políticas econômicas neoliberais e a reestruturação produtiva foram formas encontradas pelo capital para responder à sua própria crise dos anos 1970, e que essas formas aprofundaram a condição de dependência das economias periféricas dentro da lógica mundial de acumulação capitalista. Em segundo lugar, constata-se que a única maneira de desenvolvimento capitalista na periferia, tendo em vista o aprofundamento da dependência, é a superexploração da força de trabalho. Por fim, argumenta-se que as alternativas para a periferia passam pela redução dessa superexploração da força de trabalho e/ou da luta contra a própria exploração capitalista da força de trabalho como forma de extração de excedente.This paper aims to discuss the possibilities of development in the periphery of the world economy emphasizing two points. Firstly, there is that the neoliberal economic policies and productive restructuring were forms found by capital to respond to its own crisis of 70's, and that these forms deepened the condition of dependency of peripheral economies within the logic of global capitalist accumulation. Secondly, it appears that the only way of capitalist development in the periphery, with a view to deepening dependence, is the superexploitation of labor force. Finally, it is argued that the alternatives to the periphery are the reduction of superexploitation of labor force and/or the fight against the capitalist exploitation of the labor force as a form of extraction of surplus.

  13. Looking Through the Trade Surplus Prism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Huge trade surplus attracks more and more attention to the China's economy operation,a controversial topic on people's lips as well. The years from 2005 to 2007,China's most rapid trade surplus growing period,have witnessed China's continuous trade surplus growing,breaking out the threshold of US$100 billion,and 200 billion US Dollar successivcly.

  14. Behind the Ever-Widening Trade Surplus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2007-01-01

    @@ China's trade surplus has been on the rise since 2005.The surplus hit US$ 32.1 billion in 2004,and has soared to us$177.5 billion in 2006.The Chinese government has made the reduction of the trade surplus one of its major macro-economic goals since last September.

  15. 强迫劳动罪研究——以规范为视角%A Study of Forced Labor Crime: from the Perspective of Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晋涛

    2012-01-01

    强迫劳动罪的法益是劳动自由,劳动是需要人投入一定能量的活动,但不包括维持人自身生存的举动(例如吃饭、睡觉、呼吸、大小便等,这些活动也需要投入能量,但这是维持人自身生存的活动,应当排除在劳动的范畴之外)。暴力并不需要接触人的身体,威胁不限于以暴力相胁迫,限制人身自由与剥夺人身自由具有同一意义,女性强奸男性成立强迫劳动罪,强迫劳动罪和许多强制类犯罪成立竞合关系。%The legal interest of the forced labor crime is the labor freedom. Labor is an activity that requires a person nergy, but does not include the activities as eating, sleeping, respiration and defection, etc. , which main tain one's survival. These activities also require a person to input energy, but they should be exempt from the cate gory of labor. Violence does not need the touch of a person's and threat is not limited to the ways by violence, so the restriction of personal freedom and the deprivation of persona freedom have the same meaning. The rape of women to men constitutes the forced labor crime, whereas the forced labor crime and many other forced crimes es tablish the coopetition relationship.

  16. Effects of occupational status differences between spouses on the wife's labor force participation and occupational achievement: Findings from 12 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.J.M.; Ultee, W.; Lammers, J.

    1996-01-01

    Effects of occupational status differences between spouses on the wife's employment and on her occupational achievement are studied for the coun- tries of the European Union. The results show a tendency towards similarity in occupational sta- tus within marriages. Labor force participation of a wife

  17. Surplus yeast tank failing catastrophically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2016-01-01

    GOOD REASON FOR CAUTION I A large surplus yeast tank shot into the air leaving the floor plate and the contents behind. Although not designed for overpressure, the tank was kept at “very slight overpressure” to suppress nuisance foaming. The brewery was unaware of the hazards of compressed air. T....... The accident described in this article serves to illustrate that care should be taken if a tank originally designed for atmospheric pressure is modified to operate at slight overpressure.......GOOD REASON FOR CAUTION I A large surplus yeast tank shot into the air leaving the floor plate and the contents behind. Although not designed for overpressure, the tank was kept at “very slight overpressure” to suppress nuisance foaming. The brewery was unaware of the hazards of compressed air...

  18. ¿Inserción laboral de las mujeres en América Latina: una fuerza de trabajo secundaria? Women's participation in the labor market in Latin America: a secondary work force?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Abramo

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este texto es discutir la aplicación de la noción de "fuerza de trabajo secundaria" para caracterizar la fuerza da trabajo femenina en América Latina. Esa caracterización, hecha con frecuencia en forma mecánica por un lado corresponde, cada vez menos a la realidad de los hechos, ya que es creciente la participación femenina en el mercado de trabajo, así como la continuidad de sus trayectorias laborales, el número de horas dedicadas al trabajo remunerado, así como su aporte al ingreso familiar y a la superación de la situación de pobreza de un porcentaje importante de hogares. Por otro lado, el texto argumenta que esa caracterización es uno de los elementos centrales en la estructuración de los patrones de discriminación de género que persisten y se reproducen en el mercado de trabajo latinoamericano.This article aims to discuss the concept of "secondary labor force" to characterize female workforce in Latin America. Such characterization corresponds increasingly less to reality, as women's participation in the labor force and the hours dedicated to their paid work continues to grow, as well as their contribution to household income. The article argues that such characterization is one of the core elements of the gender discriminating patterns that persist in Latin American labor market.

  19. Inducing labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labor induction; Pregnancy - inducing labor; Prostaglandin - inducing labor; Oxytocin - inducing labor ... threaten the health of you or your baby. Oxytocin may also be started after a woman's labor has started, but her contractions have not been ...

  20. Manpower Planning, Occupational Education, and the Decision to Participate in the Labor Force. DASP Technical Paper No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Jacob J.; Sumansky, John M.

    The report examines the multiplicity of factors which influence the labor market activity of the population and explores the implications of changes in those influential factors with regard to manpower and educational planning policy. The first section contains the introduction to the problem, summary of factors affecting labor force…

  1. The Political Economy of the Budget Surplus in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Alesina

    2000-01-01

    Current surpluses in the U.S. have been achieved by a combination of a strong economy, low interest rates, and sharp cuts in defense spending. These surpluses follow a period (the 1980s) of rather exceptional budget deficit. This paper investigates the origin, size, and expected future patterns of the U.S. budget balance. It discusses how different political forces may generate alternative fiscal scenarios for the U.S. in the next decade.

  2. An empirical investigation of female labor-force participation, fertility, age at marriage, and wages in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B S; Mcelwain, A M

    1985-07-01

    The Korean experience raises questions about the assumption that successful economic development and equitable income distribution are preconditions for rapid fertility declines. During the 1960-70 decade, the total fertility rate in Korea declined by 36% and the crude birth rate fell by 33%, in the absence of significant economic development. This paper uses data from the 1974 Korean Fertility Survey to explore the relationships between the factors responsible for this rapid fertility decline. A simultaneous equation model of fertility, age at marriage, extent of labor force participation during marriage, quality of children, and wages is developed and tested. Rather than to provide definitive measures of these interrelationships, the aim was to investigate the utility of treating several variables as being jointly determined. The results suggest that parental education affects fertility by influencing age at marriage, implying that adult education programs will have little effect on marital fertility. There was some evidence that working women whose jobs are compatible with child care have more children than nonworking women, a finding that should be considered in planning increased job opportunities for women. Urbanized women and those who work before marriage tend to marry later than their less urbanized counterparts or women who do not work prior to marriage. Finally, women who used modern methods of birth control had significantly lower fertility than nonusers of modern methods. There is concern that the Government has reduced budgetary appropriations to family planning since the goal of reducing the annual population growth rate from 3% in 1960 to 2% in 1970 was achieved. It is suggested that family planning expenditures should be deployed to areas such as urban slums that have not yet been reached by family planning programs.

  3. Problems in the Labor Export of Western Rural Areas——A Case Study of Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The thesis gives a brief account of the status of the labor economy in Three Gorges Reservoir area,which indicates that the labor economy in this area has made certain development and is characterized by fragile ecology,backward economic development and weak capacity to absorb employment,the Three Gorges Reservoir area is densely populated and has lots of rural surplus labors which need to be transferred.Then the thesis analyzes the problems in the labor export of this region,which can be manifested in the following aspects:the exported labors are with low quality and single skill;they are narrow-minded and have strong intention for their employment regions;they have low income but high risk to get employed;the government does not provide strong supporting services for exported labors.In order to solve these problems,the thesis proposes the suggestions and measures to develop the labor economy in Three Gorges Reservoir area,say,to perfect and ameliorate the training mechanism and improve the quality and skills of labors;to build the platform of employment network and solve the problems of the asymmetric employment information;to actively develop the intermediary organizations and promote the a proper movement of labor forces;to fully exert the function of government in logistic services and resolve the difficulties of the exported workers.

  4. Habit formation, surplus consumption and return predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Hyde, Stuart; Vinther Møller, Stig

    2010-01-01

    -varying risk-free rate. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future stock and bond returns. We find that, although there are important cross-country differences and economically significant pricing errors, for the majority of countries in our sample the model gets...... empirical support in a variety of different dimensions, including reasonable estimates of risk-free rates. Further, for the majority of countries the surplus consumption ratio captures time-variation in expected returns. Together with the price-dividend ratio, the surplus consumption ratio contains...... significant information about future stock returns, also during the 1990s. In addition, in most countries the surplus consumption ratio is also a powerful predictor of future bond returns. Thus, the surplus consumption ratio captures time-varying expected returns in both stock and bond markets....

  5. The pull of inter-provincial migration of rural labor force and its influence on policy-making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huo Weidong; Deng Guoying; Wang Peng; Yang Xiaojun

    2006-01-01

    As a social phenomenon closely related to development of economy, the population is always the focus of economists' attention. Based on the fifth census in 2001, this paper analyzes labor migration in Hubei Province and establishes an econometric model to analyze the pull according to the push and pull theory, which is the famous theory on the population flow and migration. It points out that the per capita consumption and the employment rate attract strongly the rural labors and makes a deep exploration into the ensuing problems. Such conclusion is a special reference to the decision-making of government. The government can provide some guidance to the rural labors according to the per capita consumption and the employment rate in order to avoid the futility of blind migration.

  6. The Racial Wage Gap: The Importance of Labor Force Attachment Differences across Black, Mexican, and White Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antecol, Heather; Bedard, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    Labor market attachment differs significantly across young black, Mexican, and white men. Although it has long been agreed that potential experience is a poor proxy for actual experience for women, many view it as an acceptable approximation for men. Using the NLSY, this paper documents the substantial difference between potential and actual…

  7. The Racial Wage Gap: The Importance of Labor Force Attachment Differences across Black, Mexican, and White Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antecol, Heather; Bedard, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    Labor market attachment differs significantly across young black, Mexican, and white men. Although it has long been agreed that potential experience is a poor proxy for actual experience for women, many view it as an acceptable approximation for men. Using the NLSY, this paper documents the substantial difference between potential and actual…

  8. Do College Students Make Better Predictions of Their Future Income than Young Adults in the Labor Force?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrim, John

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have considered whether American college students' hold "realistic" wage expectations. The consensus is that they do not--overestimation of future earnings is in the region of 40-50%. But is it just college students who overestimate the success they will have in the labor market, or is this something common to all…

  9. An Enterprise Model of Rising Ship Costs: Loss of Learning Due to Time between Ships and Labor Force Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-30

    worked as a Programmer/Analyst at SAIC in support of NASA programs. She was Manager of the Risk and Cost Analysis Department and worked mainly in...the experience-level problem, and built a Markov Chain model for labor experience. We know, for example, that layoffs were LIFO (last-in-first-out

  10. 强迫劳动罪的立法解读及其完善%Legislative Explanation on the Crime of Forced Labor and Its Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申巍

    2014-01-01

    强迫劳动罪是根据《刑法修正案(八)》对刑法原第244条规定的强迫职工劳动罪进行修订后确定的新罪名。修订后的强迫劳动罪拓宽了犯罪主体和对象,增添了犯罪手段和形式,加大了刑罚惩治力度。但在犯罪手段的有限例举问题上仍需要进一步加以完善。%The crime of forced labor is a new accusation in the 8th Amendments to the Criminal Law, revised from the crime of forcing workers to work in Article 244 of Criminal Law. Compared with the original crime, the revised crime of forced labor has changed a lot in guilt and prescribed penalty. So it is necessary to explain it deeply.

  11. 农村劳动力培训的模糊性分析%Analysis of the Ambiguity in Rural Labor Force Training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝继伟

    2011-01-01

    At present, there are some vague ideas about the training of rural labor force. Training purpose is ambiguous, the migrant rural labor force is focused on and the rural labor force in agriculture is neglected. Investors are ambiguous. There exists the phenomenon of multiple management in government investment, resulting in low efficiency of the use of funds. The training content is ambiguous. Job training is as many times as entrepreneurship training, and job training is in low levels. Trainees are ambiguous, including age dislocation, professional dislocation and regional dislocation. Only after clarifying these views, it could be possible to improve the quality of training and provide high quality workforce for the coordinated development of urban and rural areas.%当前,对农村劳动力培训存在着一些模糊的认识,主要表现在培训目的的模糊性,重视农村务工劳动力的培训而轻视务农劳动力的培训;培训投入主体的模糊性,政府投入存在多头管理的现象,导致资金使用的效率低;培训内容的模糊性,就业培训多而创业培训少,就业培训层次低;培训对象的模糊性,包括年龄错位、职业错位和区域错位.只有澄清这些认识,才能提高培训质量,为城乡协调发展提供高素质的劳动力.

  12. Measuring unemployment persistence of different labor force groups in the Greater São Paulo Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleomar Gomes da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article makes use of ARFIMA models and unit root tests with structural breaks to examine the unemployment persistence of different labor forces in the Greater Metropolitan Area of São Paulo. To this purpose, not only is the region's open unemployment rate analyzed but it is also disaggregated by gender, age, color and position within the household. The period ranges from January 1985 to November 2008 and, despite using a range of estimation methods, the presence of a unit root cannot be rejected in general. The exceptions are the series related to Age 15-17 and over 40. But even in these cases the parameter "d" lies above 0.5. This is an indication that the unemployment rates in São Paulo can be defined as non stationary and the majority of the series are not mean-reverting. Therefore, the disinflation policies implemented by the Brazilian policymakers in the last two decades, as well as changes in real variables, have had long-lasting effects on the unemployment rates in São Paulo.Este artigo usa modelos ARFIMA e testes de raiz unitária com quebra estrutural para examinar o grau de persistência do desemprego de diferentes estratos da força de trabalho na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo. Para tanto, a taxa agregada desta região é examinada, como também sua desagregação por gênero, idade, raça e posição dentro da família. O período de análise vai de janeiro de 1985 a novembro 2008 e, apesar do uso de diferentes métodos de estimação, a hipótese de raiz unitária não é rejeitada em geral. As duas exceções são as séries relacionadas aos trabalhadores entre 15 e 17 anos e acima dos 40 anos. Mas, mesmo nestes dois casos, o parâmetro "d" fica acima de 0,5. Isso indica que não há estacionariedade e também não há reversão a uma média de longo prazo para a maioria das séries analisadas. Portanto, as políticas econômicas de combate à inflação das últimas duas décadas, assim como mudanças em vari

  13. What limits the utilization of health services among china labor force? analysis of inequalities in demographic, socio-economic and health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liming; Zeng, Jingchun; Zeng, Zhi

    2017-02-02

    Inequalities in demographic, socio-economic and health status for China labor force place them at greater health risks, and marginalized them in the utilization of healthcare services. This paper identifies the inequalities which limit the utilization of health services among China labor force, and provides a reference point for health policy. Data were collected from 23,505 participants aged 15 to 65, from the 2014 China Labor Force Dynamic Survey (a nationwide cross-sectional survey covering 29 provinces with a multi-stage cluster, and stratified, probability sampling strategy) conducted by Sun Yat-sen University. Logistic regression models were used to study the effects of demographic (age, gender, marital status, type of hukou and migration status), socio-economic (education, social class and insurance) and health status (self-perceived general health and several chronic illnesses) variables on the utilization of health services (two-week visiting and hospitalization during the past 12 months). Goodness of fit was assessed using Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Discrimination ability was assessed based on the area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Migrants with more than 1 (OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.01 ~ 7.82) or none chronic illnesses (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.01 ~ 7.82) are more likely to be two week visiting to the clinic than non-migrants; migrants with none chronic illnesses (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.45 ~ 0.82) are less likely to be in hospitalization during the past 12 months than non-migrants. Female, elder, hukou of non-agriculture, higher education level, higher social class, purchasing more insurance and poorer self-perceived health were predictors for more utilization of health service. More insurance benefited more two-week visiting (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06 ~ 1.17) and hospitalization during the past 12 months (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.07 ~ 1.18) for individuals with none chronic illness but not ≥1 chronic illnesses. All models achieved good calibration

  14. 45 CFR 12.7 - Applications for surplus real property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applications for surplus real property. 12.7 Section 12.7 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION DISPOSAL AND UTILIZATION OF SURPLUS REAL PROPERTY FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PURPOSES § 12.7 Applications for surplus real property. Applications for surplus real...

  15. Trabalho forçado, tráfico de pessoas e gênero: algumas reflexões Forced labor, trafficking in persons and gender: some reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Vasconcelos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O cerne do conceito de tráfico de pessoas, estabelecido no Protocolo de Palermo, apóia-se na noção de exploração. Visando contribuir ao esclarecimento dessa noção, o texto propõe uma abordagem do tráfico de pessoas como uma questão do mundo do trabalho e utiliza o conceito de trabalho forçado, cunhado em convenções da Organização Internacional do Trabalho (OIT, sempre considerando sua interface com as dimensões de gênero e com aspectos de oferta e demanda de mão-de-obra que orientam os fluxos migratóriosThe core of the concept of trafficking in persons, defined in the Palermo Protocol, is based on the notion of exploitation. This text approaches trafficking in persons as a labor issue with a view to helping clarify this notion. The forced labor concept, formulated by the International Labor Organization, supports this discussion. This concept is considered in its dialog with gender dimensions and with the supply-demand aspects that steer migratory movements.

  16. 75 FR 78754 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Notice of Publication of 2010 Update to the Department of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... Department of Labor's List of Goods From Countries Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor AGENCY: Bureau of... produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards (``List''). ILAB is... Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking, Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department...

  17. 77 FR 59417 - Notice of Publication of 2012 Update to the Department of Labor's List of Goods From Countries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... Update to the Department of Labor's List of Goods From Countries Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor... (ILAB) has reason to believe are produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international..., Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking, Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S...

  18. Analysis of Joined Crimes Related to Crime of Forcing Staff to Labor%强迫职工劳动罪的竞合问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李森; 陈烨

    2011-01-01

    There is still room for the perfection of the stipulations relevant to crimes of forcing staff to labor prescribed in Criminal Law of PRC amended in 1997. Many problems of joined crimes arise in the process of crimes of such kind. Graft should be applied to intentional homicide or intentional injury behavior. The principle of imaginative joinder is applicable to victims' committing suicide, self-mutilation or significant personal injury. And the principle of the implicated is employed to the joined crime related to the crime of forcing staff to labor and significant liability accident.%由于我国刑法对于强迫职工劳动罪的规定并不完善,所以在这一犯罪过程中产生了许多关于法律竞合的问题。强迫职工劳动过程中实施故意杀人、故意伤害行为的应当数罪并罚;强迫职工劳动引发被害人自杀、自残或者重大人身伤亡事故的,应当按照想象竞合犯的原则进行处理;强迫职工劳动罪和重大责任事故罪发生竞合时应当按照牵连犯的原则处理。

  19. Ethnicity, well-being, and the organization of labor among shade tobacco workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Michael

    2011-07-01

    The cultivation and processing of shade tobacco in the Connecticut River Valley (United States) is highly specialized and labor intensive and is dependent on a multi-ethnic workforce of migrant farm workers from Latin America and the West Indies. Production is structured through an ethnically reified division of labor, constituted by historical migration patterns, English language ability, and racially informed perceptions of what constitutes a "good worker." Regardless of position, these workers find themselves geographically and socially isolated and subjected to hazardous and exploitative working conditions. This article will explore the effects of these conditions on workers' physical and emotional well-being. Using Foucault's notion of governmentality, the article demonstrates the ways in which these deleterious effects are embedded in workers' internalizing of race and ethnicity as naturalizing principles for self-regulation and the organization of work and in neoliberal forces that produce a surplus of temporary, highly mobile workers from the global south.

  20. Ethnicity, Well-Being, and the Organization of Labor among Shade Tobacco Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The cultivation and processing of shade tobacco in the Connecticut River Valley (United States) is highly specialized and labor intensive, and dependent on a multi-ethnic workforce of migrant farmworkers from Latin America and the West Indies. Production is structured through an ethnically reified division of labor, constituted by historical migration patterns, English language ability, and racially-informed perceptions of what constitutes a ‘good worker’. Regardless of position, these workers find themselves geographically and socially isolated, and subjected to hazardous and exploitative working conditions. This paper will explore the effects of these conditions on workers’ physical and emotional well-being. Using Foucault’s notion of governmentality, the paper demonstrates the ways in which these deleterious effects are embedded in workers’ internalizing of race and ethnicity as naturalizing principles for self-regulation and the organization of work, and in neoliberal forces that produce a surplus of temporary, highly mobile workers from the global south. PMID:21777125

  1. Preterm Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preterm labor is labor that starts before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. It can lead to premature ... babies may face serious health risks. Symptoms of preterm labor include Contractions every 10 minutes or more ...

  2. Work More? The 8.2 kaBP Abrupt Climate Change Event and the Origins of Irrigation Agriculture and Surplus Agro-Production in Mesopotamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, H.

    2003-12-01

    The West Asian archaeological record is of sufficient transparency and resolution to permit observation of the social responses to the major Holocene abrupt climate change events at 8.2, 5.2 and 4.2 kaBP. The 8.2kaBP abrupt climate change event in West Asia was a three hundred year aridification and cooling episode. During this period rain-fed agriculture, established for over a millennium in northern Mesopotamia, suddenly collapsed. Irrigation agriculture, pastoral nomadism, or migration were the only subsistence alternatives for populations previously supported by cereal dry-farming. Irrigation agriculture was not, however, possible along the northern alluvial plains of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, where incised riverbeds were several meters below plain level. Exploitable plain-level levees were only accessible in southern-most alluvial plain, at the head of the present-day Persian Gulf. The archaeological data from this region documents the first irrigation agriculture settlement of the plain during the 8.2 kaBP event. Irrigation agriculture provides about twice the yield of dry-farming in Mesopotamia, but at considerable labor costs relative to dry-farming. With irrigation agriculture surplus production was now available for deployment. But why work more? The 8.2 kaBP event provided the natural force for Mesopotamian irrigation agriculture and surplus production that were essential for the earliest class-formation and urban life.

  3. Child Labor in the Global Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Edmonds, Eric V.; Nina Pavcnik

    2005-01-01

    Few issues in developing countries draw as much popular attention as child labor. This paper begins by quantifying the extent and main characteristics of child labor. It then considers the evidence on a range of issues about child labor. Fundamentally, child labor is a symptom of poverty. Low income and poor institutions are driving forces behind the prevalence of child labor worldwide. This study concludes by assessing the policy options to reduce worldwide child labor.

  4. Child Labor in the Global Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Eric V. Edmonds; Nina Pavcnik

    2005-01-01

    Few issues in developing countries draw as much popular attention as child labor. This paper begins by quantifying the extent and main characteristics of child labor. It then considers the evidence on a range of issues about child labor. Fundamentally, child labor is a symptom of poverty. Low income and poor institutions are driving forces behind the prevalence of child labor worldwide. This study concludes by assessing the policy options to reduce worldwide child labor.

  5. Segmentación de la fuerza de trabajo e identidad obrera en Argentina Segmentation of the Labor Force and Worker Identity in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Viviana Maceira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El artículo explora la intensidad de la diferenciación entre trabajadores manuales regulares y aquellos largamente desocupados o con inserciones extremadamente precarias en la Argentina. A partir de un estudio comparativo, se analiza la modalidad e intensidad en que este tipo de heterogeneidad en la condición obrera se relaciona con la construcción de representaciones y posicionamientos diferentes sobre la propia identidad y el conflicto social, y afecta la solidaridad entre los distintos grupos.The article explores the intensity of the differentiation between regular manual workers and those that have been unemployed for long periods or inserted in the labor force in extremely precarious conditions in Argentina. A comparative study is used to analyze the way and intensity in which this type of heterogeneity in workers' conditions is related to the construction of representations and positions on identity and social conflict, and affects solidarity between the various groups.

  6. Recommendations for Development of Rural Labor Service Economy from the Perspective of Urban and Rural Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Rural labor service economy is a method turning rural surplus human resources to economic resources,to realize increase of social wealth. Developing the rural labor service economy has profound influence on promoting transfer and employment of rural surplus labor,and speeding up industrialization and urbanization. Rural labor service economy is a huge and complex systematic project for promoting urban and rural integrated development and increasing farmers’ income. This paper firstly analyzed importance and urgency of accelerating the development of rural labor service economy. From the perspective of urban and rural integration,it came up with pertinent recommendations,including establishing security mechanism and improving rural labor security mechanism,creating preferential conditions and encouraging farmers to return to hometown,exploring potential and promoting nearby labor transfer to promote rapid economic development,improving public employment service system,and cultivating and developing labor market. It is expected to provide certain references.

  7. Trade Surplus Drops,more Rebate Cutting?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Almost everyone was surprised when the China Customs released the latest export and import statistics on April, 10th:6.87 billion US dollars,China’s favorable balance of trade in March.But only one month earlier,the trade surplus

  8. The (Surplus) Value of Scientific Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Gerhard

    1996-01-01

    Discusses research on scientific communication. Topics include theory-less and formal technical/natural scientific models of scientific communication; social-scientific, power-sensitive models; the sociology of scientific communication; sciences as fields of competition; fraud and deception; potential surplus value across subject information…

  9. Double-Blade Sword: Trade Surplus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eva

    2007-01-01

    @@ In the famous animation Saint Saiya,the golden saint of Gemini, Saga,Left audience the deepest impression of being an angel at one side and a demon at the other.So does China's trade surplus.It is a double-blade sword.

  10. Overview of surplus weapons plutonium disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy, G.

    1996-05-01

    The safe disposition of surplus weapons useable plutonium is a very important and urgent task. While the functions of long term storage and disposition directly relate to the Department`s weapons program and the environmental management program, the focus of this effort is particularly national security and nonproliferation.

  11. Labor Law Renewal

    OpenAIRE

    Sachs, Benjamin Ian

    2007-01-01

    This essay challenges the conventional wisdom that American labor law has reached a dead end. I argue that the dysfunctionality of the National Labor Relations Act has led not to "ossification" - as many believe - but to a hydraulic effect: unable to find an outlet through the NLRA, the continuing demand for collective action has forced open alternative legal channels. The essay outlines three examples to illustrate these emerging trends. The first involves the ability of several thousand ...

  12. 45 CFR 12.8 - Assignment of surplus real property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assignment of surplus real property. 12.8 Section 12.8 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION DISPOSAL AND UTILIZATION OF SURPLUS REAL PROPERTY FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PURPOSES § 12.8 Assignment of surplus real property. (a) Notice of interest in a specific...

  13. 26 CFR 1.815-3 - Shareholders surplus account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shareholders surplus account. 1.815-3 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Distributions to Shareholders § 1.815-3 Shareholders surplus account. (a) In general... maintain a shareholders surplus account. This account shall be established as of January 1, 1958, and...

  14. The "Bad Labor" Footprint: Quantifying the Social Impacts of Globalization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moana S Simas; Laura Golsteijn; Mark A J Huijbregts; Richard Wood; Edgar G Hertwich

    2014-01-01

    .... In particular, we analyze how much occupational health damage, vulnerable employment, gender inequality, share of unskilled workers, child labor, and forced labor is associated with the production...

  15. Fluctuación de la fuerza laboral en la Unidad Siboney de Camagüey en el período de 2004-2014/Fluctuation of the labor force in Camaguey Siboney Unit for the period 2004-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maylín Hernández Casado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se valoró el comportamiento de la fluctuación de la fuerza laboral en la Unidad Básica de Producción Cooperativa (UBPC cañera “Siboney”.Se determinó las causas que motivaron la fluctuación laboral y los cargos ocupacionales de los fluctuantes. Se realizó una encuesta a una muestra de 60 trabajadores para determinar fundamentalmente el nivel de satisfacción de estos hacia la entidad.Se emplearon los métodos de Análisis y Síntesis, Monográfico, Observación y el Horizontal y Vertical. Sus principales resultados muestran que la causa con mayor incidencia en la fluctuación laboral fue la mejora salarial en un 58 % y la categoría ocupacional más afectada fue la de obreros, representando un 96 % del total. Resultó ser el poco incentivo motivacional y financiero lo que originó que la fuerza laboral que trabaja fundamentalmente vinculada a las actividades agrícolas fluctuara en el período analizado. ABSTRACT The behavior of the fluctuation of the labor force in sugarcane "Siboney" Basic Unit of Cooperative Production (UBPC was assessed. The reasons for labor and occupational fluctuation fluctuating positions are determined. A survey of a sample of 60 employees was used to fundamentally determine the level of satisfaction of these to the entity. Methods of Analysis and Synthesis, Monograph, Observation and Horizontal and Vertical are used. The main results show that the cause with the greatest impact on wage labor fluctuation was improved by 58% and the most affected was the occupational category of workers, representing 96% of the total. It turned out to be little financial incentive motivational and which meant that the labor force working fluctuate mainly linked to agricultural activities in the period.

  16. [Thought Experiments of Economic Surplus: Science and Economy in Ernst Mach's Epistemology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulz, Monika

    2015-03-01

    Thought Experiments of Economic Surplus: Science and Economy in Ernst Mach's Epistemology. Thought experiments are an important element in Ernst Mach's epistemology: They facilitate amplifying our knowledge by experimenting with thoughts; they thus exceed the empirical experience and suspend the quest for immediate utility. In an economical perspective, Mach suggested that thought experiments depended on the production of an economic surplus based on the division of labor relieving the struggle for survival of the individual. Thus, as frequently emphasized, in Mach's epistemology, not only the 'economy of thought' is an important feature; instead, also the socioeconomic conditions of science play a decisive role. The paper discusses the mental and social economic aspects of experimental thinking in Mach's epistemology and examines those within the contemporary evolutionary, physiological, and economic contexts. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. South China Feels Acute Labor Shortage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The Pearl River Delta, with Guangzhou — the capital of Guangdong Province — as its nucleus, has for years been an economic powerhouse in China.Millions of surplus rural workers once flocked to the south China region to find jobs, but now the area is facing a crisis: many farmers-turned-laborers are shunning the Pearl River area and are moving instead to the Yangtze River Delta,

  18. 农村转移劳动力价格扭曲的宏观因素研究%A Study for the Transfer of Rural Labor Force Price Distortions of the Macro Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉琳; 杜建军

    2016-01-01

    改革开放以来,农村剩余劳动力开始流向大城市,但是,城市管理制度仍然沿袭传统的二元户籍和二元劳动力市场制度,扭曲了农村转移劳动力价格,大量农业剩余劳动力通过被扭曲价格流入相关城市部门。本文通过收集1980年至2011年的数据并进行处理,构建了价格扭曲的宏观因素计量模型,运用VECM模型实证研究得出:农民实际人均收入是农村转移劳动力价格扭曲的首要因素;城镇居民实际工资是农村转移劳动力价格扭曲的次要因素;劳动力总量供给过剩对农村转移劳动力价格扭曲有重要影响。运用变系数半参数方法分析数据显示,工资扭曲对城镇部门收入的影响具有流变性。%The rural surplus labor flew into big cities since the Reform and Opening up. But the municipal system still exclude the integration of rural migration labor with the city owing to the traditional dual household registration system and dual labor market, thus the price distortion of rural migration labor formed and large amount of agricultural accumulation transferred to cities through wage distortion. Based on statistic data gathering and processing from 1980 to 2010 in this paper. By macro fac-tors measurement model of building price distortion and adopting VECM Model analysis:the real farmers average income is the key to the transforming rural labor price distortion ,the real citizens rate of wage is the secondary factors of causing rural price distortion. By adopting variable coefficient Model,wage distorting effect on change of national income of city department is changing in different periods.

  19. Health problems of Maryland's migrant farm laborers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, V; Baker, T

    1995-08-01

    The health problems of Maryland's agricultural migrant labor force are presented for the information of Maryland's health care providers. Maryland's problems are placed in the context of U.S. and worldwide migrant labor practices.

  20. LABOR MARKET POLICIES AND EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRITAN SHORAJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper will be examined some important issues of the labor market policies in Albania. As well, the analysis of labor market institutions such as the Social Insurances or the Syndicates on the efficiency of employing active labor forces. Which are the policies on the protection of the labor forces and the criteria of definition of the minimum salary? Furthermore, it continues with the importance of reforms in the labor market policies, to be examined in the labor market aspect as a production factor and as a regulator of the internal market. Fast globalization is causing continuous risk and movement for the active labor forces. The increase and development of technology puts out of the market many employees, decreasing the number of unqualified employees and increases the demand for the qualified ones. Does the globalization really affect the labor market, efficiency and as a consequence increase production, or the latter are benefits only for the developed economic countries? At the same time, we shall examine the movement of the labor forces from one country to another and the fluctuation of the relevant salaries. In general, the analysis of this paper faces two key issues: the first being raised on discussion of the kinds of programs on the active labor forces, such as programs of direct employment or consideration of employment in public sector, and the second regarding the methodology of evaluating these programs. How effective are them on the domestic market? The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations on the efficiency of policies for the labor market forces.

  1. Keeping Food Alive: Surplus Food Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sedef Sert; Paola Garrone; Marco Melacini

    2014-01-01

    This paper is motivated by the paradoxical reality of food waste in a world of food insecurity, which is an important issue even for developed countries. Today, in Europe,nearly 43.6 million people are estimated to be food insecure, while European countries are reported to generate 179 kg per capita of food waste every year. Previous empirical studies highlight the potential of surplus food management, i.e. managerial processes and practices that strike a balance between social, environmental...

  2. Force

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Forces are at work all around us. Discover what a force is, and different kinds of forces that work on contact and at a distance. We use simple language and vocabulary to make this invisible world easy for students to ""see"" and understand. Examine how forces ""add up"" to create the total force on an object, and reinforce concepts and extend learning with sample problems.

  3. An Analysis on the Employment Effect of Raising Remuneration of Labor--A Study based on Labor Market Imbalance%提高劳动报酬的就业效应分析--基于非均衡劳动力市场的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储丽琴; 曹海敏

    2013-01-01

    The continuing rising of remuneration of labor in recent years has aroused particular attention because of its negative effects of on employment .The rising of remuneration of labor will lower employment in a balanced la-bor market .However , labor market of our country is an imbalanced labor market , characterized by the existence of large quantity of surplus labor force .The remuneration of laborer is below their marginal contribution .And there exists negative distortion in labor market .As a result, rising remuneration of labor have no negative effect on em-ployment .Moreover , rising remuneration of labor can stimulate domestic demand , which is beneficial to employ-ment and the realizing of labor market equilibrium .%劳动报酬的提高引发了学者对其可能带来的负面就业效应的担忧。在一个均衡劳动力市场上,提高劳动报酬会阻碍就业。然而我国的劳动力市场是一个以存在大量剩余劳动力为典型特征的非均衡市场,劳动者的实际报酬低于劳动投入的边际贡献,劳动力市场存在明显的负向扭曲,劳动报酬的提高不会对就业产生显著的负面影响。而且提高劳动报酬能起到扩大内需的效果,有利于提升就业水平,改善劳动力市场失衡状况。

  4. 农业技术进步、新型城镇化与农村剩余劳动力转移--基于“推拉理论”和省际动态面板数据的实证研究%Agricultural Technology Process, New-urbanization and Transference of Redundant Rural Labor Force---Empirical Research Based on the “Push-pull Theory” and Inter-provincial Dynamic Panel Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌; 吴书胜; 朱业

    2015-01-01

    本文以“推拉理论”为基础,构建包含农业技术进步、新型城镇化和农村剩余劳动力转移在内的计量模型,利用1998-2012年省际动态面板数据进行实证检验。研究结果表明,农业技术进步形成的“推力”和新型城镇化形成的“拉力”对促进农村剩余劳动力向城镇非农产业转移有显著作用,农业技术进步的“推力”由大到小依次为西部、东部和中部,而城镇化的“拉力”由大到小依次为中部、西部和东部。%This paper builds an econometric model which contains agricultural technology progress, new-urbanization and transference of redundant rural labor force, and makes an empirical test based on“push-pull theory” by using 1998-2012 an-nual inter-provincial dynamic panel data. National study shows the “push” from agricultural technology progress and the“pull” from new-urbanization have a significant promotion role for the shift of rural surplus labor to urban non-agricultural in-dustries. Sub-regional study shows that the“push” from agricultural technology progress in descending order is western, east-ern and central and the “pull” from new-urbanization in descending order is central, western and eastern.

  5. 76 FR 61115 - Notice of Publication of 2011 Update to The Department of Labor's List of Goods From Countries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... Department of Labor's List of Goods From Countries Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor AGENCY: Bureau of... by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards. ILAB is required to develop... Reauthorization Act (TVPRA) of 2005. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Director, Office of Child Labor, Forced...

  6. Child Laborers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    "When I was 12, I started working in a cotton mill as a child laborer." Fan Xiaofeng, the former vice-director of the Labor Protection Department of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions, wrote this sentence in one of her books. In 1932, she came to

  7. California’s 2015-16 Budget: Fiscal Surpluses and Water Deficits

    OpenAIRE

    DiSarro, Brian; Hussey, Wesley

    2016-01-01

    California’s budget politics were temporarily sidetracked by an increasingly severe statewide drought, forcing the state to take action. Democratic lawmakers elected new leadership, who, like their predecessors, argued the state should increase social spending. The major budget clash centered on California’s booming economy and what to do with a large projected tax surplus. The legislature wanted to spend the revenue, while Governor Jerry Brown downplayed the fiscal estimates and wanted to sq...

  8. Savannah River Site Surplus Facilities Available for Reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, R.M.; Owens, M.B.; Lentz, D.W.

    1995-09-14

    The purpose of this document is to provide a current, centralized list of Savannah River Site facilities, which are surplus and available for reuse. These surplus facilities may be made available for other DOE site missions, commercial economic development reuse, or other governmental reuse. SRS procedures also require that before new construction can be approved, available surplus facilities are screened for possible reuse in lieu of the proposed new construction.

  9. No More Cheap Labor Force?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhihao; Yan Jin

    2010-01-01

    @@ With the aging of China's population,the growth of its working population is not so fast as before.According to the statistics collected by institutes of higher education,China's population structure has begun to change,which is closely related to the recent work stoppages and wage rises.

  10. Labor force activity after 60

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Larsen, Mona

    2015-01-01

    of reference. Main emphasis is given to the development in two distint age groups, i.e. people in the first half of the 60s of which many are eligible for early retirement programs and people older than 65 mostly eligible for social security retirement programs. For these two age groups the actual development...

  11. Age-specific labor market dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A. C.

    2008-01-01

    One important finding concerns the fact that job separations for older workers constitute mostly a one-way exit out of the labor force, despite the fact that an ageing society calls for an active labor market participation from us all. Also, the allocation of labor for younger workers has shown to b

  12. 23 CFR 140.906 - Labor costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Railroad Work § 140.906 Labor costs. (a) General. (1) Salaries and wages, at actual or average rates, and... engineering, construction engineering, right-of-way, and force account construction. (2) Salaries and expenses... may be reimbursed. (b) Labor surcharges. (1) Labor surcharges include worker compensation...

  13. 重庆市农村剩余劳动力转移的经济行为分析——以万州龙宝区为例%Analysis on the Economic Behavior of Rural Surplus Labors' Transfer in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭国川; 田洪

    2001-01-01

    The farmer whose target is to maximize the revenue is the economic man in the market economy. By analyzing their revenue targets and d ecision-making behavior of the rural households in Chongqing, the paper establ ishes a theoretical model on the decision-making behavior of the rural labors' going out for work, then finds out the principal factors which affect the rural labors' going out for work in Chongqing through the principal factor analysis.%市场经济下的农户是经济人,其行为目标是为了追求家庭收入的最大化。文章通过对 重庆农村家庭收入目标和行为决策的分析,建立了农村劳动力外出就业决策的理论模型,运 用主成分分析法得出了影响重庆市农村劳动力外出就业的主要因素。

  14. CHILD LABOR DISGRACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Shanxi Province child labor scandal has shocked China to its core. Over 1,000 children were forced into illegal labor by morally bankrupt brick kiln businesses, throwing a depressing shroud over China’s rapid development. Uncovering these tales of abduction, death and the physical and mental abuse endured by these children has been a proud moment for China’s press. Several hundred of the kiln slave children have now been reunited with their families. Kiln owners, contractors and accomplices are being brought to justice or hunted down, some even charged with murder.However, in all this gloom some good has surfaced.Public and government attention is now focused on erasing child labor once and for all and for better protecting workers’ rights, hopefully ridding China of such disgraces in the future.

  15. The Vulnerability Framework Integrates Various Models of Generating Surplus Revenue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniaci, Vincent

    2004-01-01

    Budgets operationalize the strategic planning process, and institutions must have surplus revenue to be able to cope with future operations. There are three approaches to generate surplus revenue: increased revenue, decreased cost, and reallocation of resources. Extending their earlier work, where they established strategic benchmarks for annual…

  16. The assessment of labour surplus in agricultural farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Marcysiak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polish agriculture is characterised by high labour surplus in agricultural farms. The aim of the study is showing the methods used for assessment of labour surplus in agricultural farms. The assessment was made considering two criteria: objective and subjective.

  17. 50 CFR 30.1 - Surplus range animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Surplus range animals. 30.1 Section 30.1... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range Animals § 30.1 Surplus range animals. Range animals on fenced wildlife refuge areas, including buffalo and longhorn cattle,...

  18. 50 CFR 30.2 - Disposition of surplus range animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of surplus range animals. 30.2... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range Animals § 30.2 Disposition of surplus range animals. Disposition shall be made only during regularly scheduled...

  19. A stochastic surplus production model in continuous time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Wæver; Berg, Casper Willestofte

    2017-01-01

    Surplus production modelling has a long history as a method for managing data-limited fish stocks. Recent advancements have cast surplus production models as state-space models that separate random variability of stock dynamics from error in observed indices of biomass. We present a stochastic su...

  20. Talent, Labor Quality and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    German Cubas; Ravikumar, B.; Gustavo Ventura

    2012-01-01

    We develop a quantitative theory of labor quality based on the division of the labor force between unskilled and skilled workers, and investments in the quality of skilled labor. We use the theory to quantify the importance labor quality and Total Factor Productivity for cross-country income differences. A central ingredient in our analysis is the observed achievement levels (talent) constructed from PISA scores in a sample of 59 countries. Our findings imply that the cross-country difference...

  1. Geothermal Prospects in a Shrinking Power Surplus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geyer, John D.

    1989-03-21

    The western power surplus is finite and electric load growth is persistent. Concerns about availability and environmental effects will overshadow life-cycle cost in selection of tomorrow's sources. Geothermal's growth and achievements qualify it as a preferred resource for the 1990s and beyond but its merits remain largely unknown in political and financial circles. Near-term needs include power sales contracts after 1990, improved comfort for banks and utilities with reservoir assessment techniques and mitigation of financial risks at pilot plants on new fields. Institutional, not technical, issues will dominate geothermal energy's growth, performance, image and utility relationships in the 1990s.

  2. STATUTORY INTERPRETATION - TRAFFICKING VICTIMS PROTECTION ACT OF 2000 - SIXTH CIRCUIT DECLINES TO EXTEND FEDERAL FORCED LABOR STATUTE TO CONDUCT CRIMINALIZED UNDER STATE LAW, BASED IN PART ON FEDERALISM CONCERNS. - United States v. Toviave, 761 F.3d 623 (6th Cir. 2014)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2015-01-01

    .... Toviave, the Sixth Circuit relied on this notion of traditional state power in holding that a forced labor provision of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 did not apply to a defendant who...

  3. 关于提升甘肃省劳动力质量的路径选择研究%Research on Choosing Approaches to Improve the Labor Force Quality of Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志增

    2015-01-01

    文章将资本、劳动和能源作为投入要素,通过构建反映劳动力质量的柯布-道格拉斯生产函数,对甘肃省劳动力质量与经济增长的关系进行分析,并采用岭回归方法剔除多重共线性的影响,根据回归结果确定不同受教育层次的劳动力对甘肃经济增长的影响。以此为依据,提出落实“九年义务教育”,缩小地区间差距,按岗位设置专业,以及创造人才引进环境等建议,为通过提升劳动力质量,促进甘肃经济增长的路径选择提供参考。%By assigning capital,labor and energy as the input factors and creating the Cobb-Douglas pro-duction function reflecting the labor force quality, the thesis analyzes the relationship between labor force quality and the economic growth of Gansu province.Meanwhile,adopting the ridge regression to eliminate the impact of multicollinearity,the thesis draws the conclusion that the economic growth of Gansu province is influenced by labor force of different education levels according to the result of regression.Accordingly,the thesis puts forward proposals like implementing the nine-year compulsory education, bridging the economic gap between different regions,and setting up majors according to job requirement and creating good environ-ment for introducing talents.In conclusion,the thesis aimed at providing references for choosing approaches to promote the economic growth of Gansu province by improving the labor force quality.

  4. Migraine Headache and Labor Market Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    REES, DANIEL I.; Sabia, Joseph J.

    2012-01-01

    While migraine headache can be physically debilitating, no study has attempted to estimate its effects on labor market outcomes. Using data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate the effect of migraine headache on labor force participation, hours worked, and wages. We find that migraine headache is associated with a decrease in wages. However, there is little evidence that migraine headache leads to reductions in labor force participation or hours worked....

  5. Labor-outflow Province,the Flow of Rural Labor Force Changes Literature Review and Evaluation of Related Researches%劳务输出大省农村劳动力流向变动国内外研究文献综述及评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁志民; 朱再昱; 谢春明

    2011-01-01

    Since reform and opening policy,labor-exporting province has gone through a budding and maturing development concerning the outflow of rural labor force.Chinese scholars have explored the domestic labor migration phase and outflow area in past three decades,industry personal characteristics of a certain follow-up analysis of government labor mobility in rural areas with a reflection of macroeconomic policy.Migrant workers starting a business to guide the service system were discussed.Foreign scholars had earlier dynamic model of the rural labor mobility research,the Government Management System of the floating population,the rural labor force back starting a business research.China's economy is the current transition period,changes in the flow of rural labor force will present some of the new requirements,new features,the new trend of China's further economic development will have some impact on the complex,and therefore need to further increase research efforts to analyze changes in the flow of rural labor industry,age,region on the understanding of the laws,labor export areas to further explore the dynamic model of the flow,and further efforts to increase the study's statistical analysis for the flow of migrant workers and government to create favorable conditions to guide policy.%改革开放以来,劳务输出大省农村劳动力的流动经历了从萌芽、发展到不断成熟的阶段,国内学者对我国30多年来劳动力流动的阶段进行了梳理,对流向变动的地区、行业、个人特征进行跟踪分析,对政府关于农村劳动力流动的宏观政策进行了反思,并对引导农民工合作创业的服务体系进行了探讨。国外学者较早进行了农村劳动力流动的动力模型研究、政府对流动人口的管理体系研究和农村劳动力回流合作创业研究。当前中国经济正处于转型时期,农村劳动力流向变动呈现出新特点,因而需要加大研究力度,分析农村劳动力流向

  6. The Definition of Subject of the Unit Crime in the Crimes of Forced Labor%强迫劳动罪单位犯罪主体的界定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周锁成

    2012-01-01

    非法成立的单位犯强迫他人劳动,不属于单位犯罪,只能按照自然人犯罪处理。具有法人资格的依法成立的独资、私营企业强迫他人劳动,按照单位犯罪处理。依法成立的单位分支机构或内设机构、部门强迫他人劳动,是否按照单位犯罪处理,关键在于该组织是否具有自己独立的财产。依法成立的子公司强迫他人劳动,只追究子公司的单位刑事责任而不追究母公司的刑事责任;但是母公司命令或者指示子公司强迫他人劳动时,按照单位共同犯罪处理。依法成立的外国公司的分支机构强迫他人劳动,鉴于此类公司的特殊性,不必跨国追究其所属外国公司的单位刑事责任,而是直接追究该外国公司分支机构的单位刑事责任。%If an illegally established unit commits a forced labor crime, it doesn't belong to unit crime ; instead, it should be dealt with as a natural person. If a wholly-owned private enterprise which is established legally with legal quality commit forced labor crime, it should be dealt with as unit crime. If the legally established branches, internal institutions and departments of a unit commit forced labor crimes, whether we should deal with them as unit crimes or not depends on the fact:they have their own assets or not. If the legal subsidiary commits a forced labor crime,the criminal liability will be in- vestigated as a unit, not the parent company's responsibility. But if the parent company gives the subsidiary the order or forces it to commit a forced labor crime,it should be dealt with as a joint crime by units. If the legally established branch of a foreign company commits a forced labor crime,it is unnecessary to investigate its criminal liability as a unit of its parent company, because of the speciality of this kind of companies, but necessary to investigate directly the criminal liability as a unit of the branch of this foreign company.

  7. 河南省建筑业劳动力现状调查及变动趋势分析%Investigation and Analysis on the Trend of Labor Force in Construction Industry in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟研; 张建设; 李瑚均

    2016-01-01

    基于河南省建筑工地现场劳动力调查数据,对河南省建筑业劳动力的现状进行了多方位的分析,发现河南省建筑业劳动力已经开始呈现供应不足和一定程度的老龄化问题,现有劳动力还存在素质不高,技术能力不强问题,且劳动力对建筑业的就业意愿较低。据此,建议河南省应该改善建筑业生产生活环境,提高建筑业工薪水平,吸纳年轻劳动力,加强建筑工人培训,关注建筑工地高龄工作人员,促进建筑业转型升级。%Based on Henan Province construction site labor field survey data, current situation of construction industry in Henan Province labor were multi-faceted analysis, found the labor of the construction industry in Henan Province has begun to appear in short supply and the degree of aging, existing labor quality is poor, the technical skills are not strong and working population of the construction industry employment intention is low. Accordingly, it is suggested that Henan province should improve production and living environment, improve the construction industry wage level to absorb the young labor force, strengthen the training of construction workers, construction sites focus on the work of the elderly population, and promote the transformation and upgrading construction.

  8. The social surplus of broadband initiatives in compulsory education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Peter Parsons

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the New Zealand government embarked upon an ambitious programme of broadband infrastructure investment, a process that will continue until at least 2019. Part of this investment is specifically targeted at compulsory education, with initiatives that include bringing fibre connections to the school gate, supporting on-site network upgrades (including wireless and providing teaching, learning and support services delivered through these networks. Such investments are not made without some projections of the likely rate of return, but calculating return on investment (ROI in educational broadband is complex, as it encompasses a range of factors. This article reports on an interview-based study engaging a range of stakeholders in educational broadband provision. The study utilises a research model that considers the various elements of social surplus, namely; producer surplus (savings, producer surplus (profit and consumer surplus (perceived value over and above cost, to explore the elements of social surplus that have been used to define educational broadband ROI calculations and justify the scale of investment. The results indicate that all three components of social surplus are relevant, though the concept of profit can only be seen in the broader context of long term contributions to the economy. A note of caution is that projections of ROI based only on positive returns fail to acknowledge the potential for some innovations to actually increase costs. Further, purely quantitative models do not properly take into account qualitative components of consumer surplus.

  9. Preterm labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Stener; Weile, Louise Katrine Kjær; Lamont, Ronald Francis

    2014-01-01

    and arrange in utero transfer to a center with neonatal intensive care facilities, both of which reduce neonatal mortality and morbidity. Few tocolytics (β₂-agonists and atosiban) are licensed for use as tocolytics and only one was developed specifically to treat preterm labor (atosiban). Accordingly, most...

  10. Preterm labor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sayres Jr, WG

    2010-01-01

    .... For the patient in preterm labor, only antenatal corticosteroids and delivery in a facility with a level III neonatal intensive care unit have been shown to improve outcomes consistently. Tocolytic agents may delay delivery for up to 48 hours, enabling the administration of antenatal corticosteroids or maternal transfer. Routine use of antibiotics ...

  11. Differential employment rates in the journalism and mass communication labor force based on gender, race and ethnicity: Exploring the impact of affirmative action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, L.B.; Lauf, E.; Lowrey, W.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines whether gender, race, and ethnicity are associated with employment in the journalism and mass communication labor market and—if discrepancies in employment exist—what explanations might he offered for them. The data show strong evidence that race and ethnicity are associated with

  12. Differential employment rates in the journalism and mass communication labor force based on gender, race and ethnicity: Exploring the impact of affirmative action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, L.B.; Lauf, E.; Lowrey, W.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines whether gender, race, and ethnicity are associated with employment in the journalism and mass communication labor market and—if discrepancies in employment exist—what explanations might he offered for them. The data show strong evidence that race and ethnicity are associated with

  13. 农地制度创新与农业劳动力转移探讨%Study on the Innovation of Rural Land System and the Transfer of Rural Labor Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王素叶; 潘元庆; 王争艳

    2013-01-01

      建国以后我国农地制度经历了一段曲折的历程,一定程度上影响了我国农业劳动力转移、土地资源可持续利用和农村可持续发展。现行农地制度的某些缺陷又对我国农业劳动力转移形成了效率性、功能性、市场性制约。为此,应当立足于农地资源可持续利用的基本原则,完善农地产权制度,建立土地流转制度,健全农村社会保障体系,有效地促进我国农业劳动力转移和农村经济可持续发展。%  Rural land system has gone through a winding developmental stage since the liberation in China,it has influenced to a certain extent the transfer of rural labor force,land sustainable utilization and rural sustain⁃able development. Some errors in the present rural land system are restricting the transfer of rural labor force in efficiency, function and market. It is necessary to perfect the rural land property rights system, to establish land circulation system,to perfect the rural social insurance system,based on land resources sustainable utiliza⁃tion,so as to promote the transfer of rural labor force and the whole sustainable development of rural economy.

  14. 浙江省各县市服务业吸收劳动力情况的实证研究%Empirical Analysis of the Labor Force Involved in Service Industry in Cities and Counties of Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈翟飞; 丁家云

    2011-01-01

    Service industry will be the main way to absorb the labor force in the future. This article mainly adopts Clustering Analysis to classify the distribution of local labor force in service industry in cities and counties of Zhejiang Province, then finds separatecomparative advantages in service industry through principal component analysis, finally draws the conclusion. The cities and counties of Zhejiang Province enjoy their own potentials and main directions of service industry. The proportion of "Three Main Industry" will beadjusted to "third, second, first" industry in the future, and service industry will have more influence in absorbing labor force.%服务业是未来吸收劳动力的主要途径。文章主要通过聚类分析将浙江省各县市按照本地劳动力在服务业的分配分成几类,然后再分别对这几类的数据进行主成分分析,找出它们在服务业领域的比较优势,进而根据分析结果得出结论。浙江省的各个县市在服务业发展方面都具有各自的潜力与主要发展方向,未来浙江省的三大产业比重会调整到“三、二、一”的局面,服务业在吸收劳动力方面将发挥更加巨大的作用。

  15. Managing Labor Market Changes: Essential Skills for Entrepreneurs and Intrapreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The United States labor market has undergone a dramatic sea change with increasing numbers of permanent freelancers and temporary workers. One in three workers has a temporary freelance job. It is estimated that, by 2020, more than 40% of the American labor force-60 million people-will be self-employed. This article discusses labor force trends,…

  16. Managing Labor Market Changes: Essential Skills for Entrepreneurs and Intrapreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The United States labor market has undergone a dramatic sea change with increasing numbers of permanent freelancers and temporary workers. One in three workers has a temporary freelance job. It is estimated that, by 2020, more than 40% of the American labor force-60 million people-will be self-employed. This article discusses labor force trends,…

  17. Transfert de risques et création de surplus

    OpenAIRE

    Courtault, Jean-Michel; Jean-Pascal GAYANT

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we use the certain benefit function of Luenberger, which is a generalization of the notion of distributable surplus by Allais, to characterize the classical notions of willingness to pay and willingness to accept. These concepts allow us to study the transfer of one or several risks between two agents or more. Specifically, we determine the conditions under which the maximization of the total distributable surplus leads to a Pareto efficient allocation of risks.; Dans cet artic...

  18. Surplus analysis for variable annuities with a GMDB option

    OpenAIRE

    Haberman, S; Piscopo, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the insurance surplus for a Variable Annuity contract with a Guaranteed Minimum Death Benefit (GMDB) option. Initially, we derive the first two moments of the distribution of the surplus; and subsequently, we develop the whole distribution using a stochastic model which involves an integrated analysis of financial and mortality risk for a portfolio of annuities with GMDB embedded options. We offer a model according which the premium can be modified as per the forecas...

  19. The Effect of Maternal Labor Force Participation on Child Health in Rural China%母亲劳动供给行为与中国农村儿童健康

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾和军; 刘云平

    2012-01-01

    本文使用"中国家庭营养与健康调查"(CHNS)数据,测度了母亲劳动供给行为对于中国农村儿童健康的影响,重点研究了全职和兼职母亲在儿童不同的年龄阶段进入劳动力市场对于儿童健康的影响。研究结果显示:母亲进入劳动力市场并不必然导致母亲照料儿童时间的减少,从事兼职工作的母亲由于工作的灵活性对于儿童的照料甚至比不参加工作的母亲更为充分;此外,在母亲劳动收入增加的正效应的作用下,母亲从事全职、兼职工作对于儿童健康有正的影响,但兼职工作的影响并不显著。在控制住儿童健康对于母亲劳动供给的反作用之后发现,母亲在儿童0~2岁阶段进入劳动力市场会对儿童健康产生负面影响,但影响在统计上并不显著。%This article uses the "Chinese Family,Nutrition and Health Survey"(CHNS) data,measure the effect of maternal labor force participation on child health in rural China,focusing on calculate the effect of full-time labor participation,part-time labor participation,and at different age stages of participation.The results show that: maternal labor force participation does not necessarily result in reduced time of mother care,mothers who at part-time working have more flexibility time even take care of their children more fully.On the other hand,maternal labor force participation can increase the income of family,so have positive effect on child health,but the effect of part-time work is not significant.Control the reaction of child health on mother labor supply,mothers enter the labor market at children’s 0~2 years old have negative effect on child health,and the degree of impact between 0.490-0.638.

  20. Department of Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... International Labor Organization International Visitors Program Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Organization of American States (OAS) Promoting Labor Diplomacy U.S. - Argentina Labor Cooperation U.S. - Brazil Labor Cooperation ...

  1. Analysis on Rural Labor Resources and Flow Status in Xi'an%西安农村劳动力资源及流动状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田富强

    2011-01-01

    分析西安农村劳动力受教育程度、收入、就业分布、技能培训和社会保障现状,计算西安农村剩余劳动力数量;分析西安农村劳动力流动动因、效应、数量、构成、方式、流向分布、规模及收益;提出要以基础设施建设和社会保障推动劳动力流动.%The educational level, income, employment distribution, skills training and current status of social security of Xi'an rural labor resources were analyzed, moreover, the quantity of Xi'an rural surplus labor force was calculated; in addition, mobility causes, effects, quantity,composition, method, flow direction distribution, scale and income of Xi'an rural labor were also analyzed, finally, we put forward that infrastructure construction and social security were used to promote labor mobility.

  2. Regulation of youth labor market in the Samarkand region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirojitdin Kurbanov

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers role of youth in labor force formation in Samarqand region of Uzbekistan. Theessential youth factor within the labor resources makes necessary discretionary employment policy.

  3. Revisiting the Fortunate Few: University Graduates in the Kenyan Labor Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Rees

    1987-01-01

    A survey of 294 University of Nairobi (Kenya) graduates in 4 graduating classes, 1970-83, examined trends in first employment of college graduates, the growing surplus of college graduates in the labor market, inflation of job qualifications, and the influence of family socioeconomic background on postgraduation employment when jobs are scarce.…

  4. Mechanism Analysis of Intelligent Manufacturing to Labor Structure Upgrade Force in China%中国发展智能制造对制造业劳动力结构升级影响机制分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮小雪

    2016-01-01

    智能制造作为“中国制造2025”的主攻方向,是我国实现产业结构升级的突破口。目前我国制造业面临产能过剩、生产成本上升和环境污染等问题,产业升级是制造业持续发展的根本出路。长期以来,制造业吸纳着大量劳动力,制造业升级也势必对劳动结构产生影响。文章通过理清智能制造的演化路径,总结出智能制造的基本含义;随后逐步展开智能制造四个层次,即制造技术、制造过程、智能产品和制造模式,逐一分析其对制造业劳动力结构的影响;研究结果表明,智能制造促使劳动力向技能化升级,促使生产型劳动力向服务型劳动力转移,促使劳动力朝信息化发展。%Intelligent manufacturing , as the main direction of "Made in China 2025", is the breakthrough of upgrading the industrial structure. At present, China's manufacturing industry is facing overcapacity, rising production costs and environmental pollution and other issues, thus, upgrading the manufacturing industry is the fundamental way out for sustainable development. Over the past years, the manufacturing industry has absorbed lots of workforce, upgrading manufacturing industry will have an impact on the labor structure. Through the evolutionary path of intelligent manufacturing, the author summed up the basic meaning of intelligent manufacturing, and then gradually expanded four levels of intelligent manufacturing, including manufacturing technology, manufacturing processes, intelligent products and manufacturing mode, one by one analyzing their impact on the manufacturing labor structure. The results show that the intelligent manufacturing upgrades labor force skill, promotes production-labor transfer, and promotes labor force’s information technology.

  5. Habit Formation, Surplus Consumption and Return Predictability: International Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Hyde, Stuart; Møller, Stig V.

    On an international post World War II dataset, we use an iterated GMM pro- cedure to estimate and test the Campbell-Cochrane (1999) habit formation model. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future asset returns. We find that, although there are impor......On an international post World War II dataset, we use an iterated GMM pro- cedure to estimate and test the Campbell-Cochrane (1999) habit formation model. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future asset returns. We find that, although...... there are important cross-country differences, for the majority of countries in our sample the model gets empirical support in a variety of diffrent dimensions, including reasonable estimates of risk- free rates, and the model dominates the time-separable power utility model in terms of pricing errors. Further......, for the majority of countries the surplus consumption ratio captures time-variation in expected returns. Together with the price-dividend ratio, the surplus consumption ratio contains significant information about future stock returns, also during the 1990s. Finally, in most countries the surplus con- sumption...

  6. Habit Formation, Surplus Consumption and Return Predictability: International Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Hyde, Stuart; Møller, Stig V.

    On an international post World War II dataset, we use an iterated GMM pro- cedure to estimate and test the Campbell-Cochrane (1999) habit formation model. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future asset returns. We find that, although there are impor......On an international post World War II dataset, we use an iterated GMM pro- cedure to estimate and test the Campbell-Cochrane (1999) habit formation model. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future asset returns. We find that, although...... there are important cross-country differences, for the majority of countries in our sample the model gets empirical support in a variety of diffrent dimensions, including reasonable estimates of risk- free rates, and the model dominates the time-separable power utility model in terms of pricing errors. Further......, for the majority of countries the surplus consumption ratio captures time-variation in expected returns. Together with the price-dividend ratio, the surplus consumption ratio contains significant information about future stock returns, also during the 1990s. Finally, in most countries the surplus con- sumption...

  7. Labor Market Inequalities in FYR Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    The study includes an analysis of inequality patterns in terms of labor force participation as well as a review of policy responses, and areas for possible further policy action. In particular, the report looks at the two main dimensions of inequality that characterize Macedonia’s labor market: gender and ethnicity. Almost half the female working age population is inactive, whereas male in...

  8. BUREAU OF MIGRANT LABOR REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    YERSAK, CHARLES G.

    A GRADUAL REDUCTION IN MIGRANT LABOR HAS OCCURRED IN NEW JERSEY BECAUSE OF MECHANIZATION AND URBANIZATION. THIS REDUCTION IS REFLECTED IN FEWER ACTIVE CAMPS THAT HOUSE WORKERS. THE TREND IS AWAY FROM THE USE OF FRAME BUILDINGS AND NEW CAMPS BEING BUILT ARE CONSTRUCTED OF CINDER BLOCK. THE MIGRANT FORCE IS LARGELY COMPOSED OF NEGROES FROM THE SOUTH…

  9. Fatiga laboral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Useche Mora Luz Graciela

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available

    La fatiga laboral es un fenómeno complejo y muy común en los ambientes de trabajo especialmente en aquellos que requieren de una alta carga física y en los que son utilizadas complicadas tecnologías que presentan al hombre máximas exigencias, obligándolo a trabajar más allá de sus posibilidades psicofisiológicas y en condiciones muchas veces nocivas. En este sentido, el presente artículo se propone presentar el análisis de aspectos fundamentales de la fatiga que requieren ser conocidos por todo trabajador, con el fin de evitar situaciones de morbilidad y, por qué no decirlo, hasta de muerte.

     

  10. A Note on Realistic Dividends in Actuarial Surplus Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Avanzi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Because of the profitable nature of risk businesses in the long term, de Finetti suggested that surplus models should allow for cash leakages, as otherwise the surplus would unrealistically grow (on average to infinity. These leakages were interpreted as ‘dividends’. Subsequent literature on actuarial surplus models with dividend distribution has mainly focussed on dividend strategies that either maximise the expected present value of dividends until ruin or lead to a probability of ruin that is less than one (see Albrecher and Thonhauser, Avanzi for reviews. An increasing number of papers are directly interested in modelling dividend policies that are consistent with actual practice in financial markets. In this short note, we review the corporate finance literature with the specific aim of fleshing out properties that dividend strategies should ideally satisfy, if one wants to model behaviour that is consistent with practice.

  11. THE CLOWER CONSTRAINTS MODEL DARI SURPLUS ATAU DEFISIT FISKAL PEMERINTAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonni Manurung

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has something as a purpose to building the empirical models and the new hypothesis between the broad money, surpluses or fiscal deficit, the general price index or inflation rate, demand for monetary base and demand for bank deposit. This study also head for optimal interest rate for bank deposit at the given value of broad money, surplus or fiscal deficit, general price index, demand for monetary base, and demand for bank deposit. The model build consist to balance central bank, intertemporal budget constraint at the maximum expected utility for hold monetary base and bank deposit. The evaluation of the surplus or fiscal deficit stabilization is with the alteration of the requirement reserve ratio, Gross Domestic Product, general price index and interest rate. The results of the study show that the requirement reserve ratio, Gross Domestic Product, general price index and interest rate is very respect to surplus or deficit fiscal. The contribution requirement reserve ratio and interest rate for surplus or deficit fiscal are relatively high. This results show that the clower constraint model can explain the necessary of fiscal and monetary coordinate. Fiscal policy still weak and cause the real business cycle slow down, high inflation and interest rate. The other hands, monetary policy is very strong and cause fiscal surplus is relatively high. The prudent of government and monetary authority are needed to build the fiscal and monetary policy for create the dynamic economy, lower inflation, requirement reserve ratio and interest rate, and the monetary and fiscal dynamic equilibrium. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Studi ini bertujuan membuat model empiris dan hipotesis baru tentang faktor-faktor broad money, surplus dan defisit fiskal, tingkat bunga secara umum, atau tingkat inflasi, permintaan uang primer dan deposito. Selain itu studi ini juga mencari tingkat suku bunga deposito optimal pada nilai tertentu dari faktor-faktor tersebut

  12. Does China's Huge External Surplus Imply an Undervalued Renminbi?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anthony J. Makin

    2007-01-01

    A pegged exchange rate regime has been pivotal to China's export-led development strategy. However, its huge trade surpluses and massive build up of international reserves have been matched by large deficits for major trading partners, creating acute policy concerns abroad, especially in the USA. This paper provides a straightforward conceptual framework for interpreting the effect of China's exchange rate policy on its own trade balance and that of trading partners in the context of discrepant economic growth rates. It shows how pegging the exchange rate when output is outstripping expenditure induces China's trade surpluses and counterpart deficits for its trading partners. An important corollary is that given its strictly regulated capital account, China's persistently large surpluses imply a significantly undervalued renminbi, which should gradually become more flexible.

  13. 75 FR 13576 - Labor Surplus Area Classification Under Executive Orders 12073 and 10582

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Yolo County, CA. Baldwin Park city, CA Los Angeles County, CA. Banning city, CA Riverside County, CA............ Peach County, GA. Baldwin County, GA Baldwin County, GA. Ben Hill County, GA Ben Hill County, GA. Burke.... St. James Parish, LA Red River Parish, LA. Tensas Parish, LA St. Helena Parish, LA. West...

  14. 75 FR 62571 - Labor Surplus Area Classification Under Executive Orders 12073 and 10582

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... County, AL Chambers County, AL Choctaw County, AL Choctaw County, AL Clarke County, AL Clarke County, AL..., MS Clarke County, MS Clarke County, MS Clay County, MS Clay County, MS Coahoma County, MS Coahoma..., TX Maverick County, TX Port Arthur City, TX Jefferson County, TX San Juan City, TX Hidalgo County, TX...

  15. A Review of Marx's Theory of Surplus Value%对马克思剩余价值理论的重新审视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛陆地

    2014-01-01

    依据当代资本主义生产方式所发生的重大变化,对马克思剩余价值理论所面临的一些新问题进行了阐述,对剩余价值源泉、剩余价值的载体与实现形式以及剩余价值分配等问题给出了新的思考,提出在市场经济条件下需要深化认识和创新马克思剩余价值理论。%According to the significant change of Present capitalism mode of production ,the paper e‐laborated on the new problems with Marx's theory of surplus value ,try to discuss the source of surplus value ,and the realization and the division of surplus value etc .On this basis ,puts forward that must further deepen the understanding and Innovation of Marx's theory of surplus value .

  16. 陕西省农村劳动力非农就业趋势分析%Study on the Non-agriculture Employment Trends of Rural Labor Force in Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱海燕; 汪雯

    2013-01-01

    Descriptive statistics were provided by analyzing the micro data obtained from surveys of 6 counties in Shaanxi Province by the 2009-2010 Rural Labor Force Project of Beijing Forestry University. The results showed that non-agriculture employment of rural labor force is increasing, especially in the tertiary industry. More migrant workers move to the economically developed areas: job-seeking methods become more diverse based upon the empirical conclusions, five policy suggestions from aspects of technical training, public service, employment channel, household registration system were put forward, such as empowering migrant workers, creating more job opportunities and improving the security system.%基于2009~2010年北京林业大学农村劳动力项目入户调查得到的陕西省6个县的微观数据,统计了非农就业者10年的工作经历,分析其在职业选择、就业地点、就业途径方面呈现的趋势和相关性.结果表明:农村劳动力非农就业所占比例不断提高;省内转移与跨省转移并存,逐渐趋向于跨省就业;在就业途径中自主就业与社会关系网络都发挥着巨大作用.最后从技能培训、公共服务、就业渠道、户籍制度等多个层面提出了增强农民工就业能力、创造就业机会和完善保障制度等政策建议.

  17. 人口老龄化发展趋势对劳动力市场的影响--以江苏省为例%Influence of Aging Population Trends on the Labor Force---Based on Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文健; 王涵

    2016-01-01

    江苏省是我国经济社会发达的省份之一,也是人口老龄化严重的省份,这势必会对全省经济社会的发展产生深远的影响。基于第六次人口普查和江苏人口现状,运用 Leslie矩阵方程对分年龄人口进行预测,得到与江苏省人口老龄化发展趋势有关的指标值,并据此从江苏省未来老龄化发展趋势对劳动力的影响入手,提出应对江苏省人口老龄化和改善未来劳动力市场的建议,以保证省域经济的积极健康发展。%The development of Jiangsu province’s economic is rapid in china, so its speed of aging population is also serious, which will inevitably have an impact on the development of society and economy. Therefore, based on the sixth census and cur-rent population situation of Jiangsu province, this paper made a prediction about the development of different sub-age populations in Jiangsu by using Leslie matrix equation, so we get some related data about Jiangsu’s aging population, then from the point of influence of aging tendency on labor force, this article puts forward corresponding suggestions to dealing with the aging problem and improving the future labor force so as to ensure the healthy development of the economy.

  18. Effects of Family Structure to the Youth Labor Force Participation Rate%家庭结构对青年群体劳动参与率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁兴意; 齐海源

    2014-01-01

    Differences are found among the effects of family structure to different labor groups' employment participation through literature research. Based on CGSS2008 data, the article explores the influence of family structure to labor participation rate of the youth and the mechanism of the effect. Through the Probit and the IV Probit model, empirical analysis found that: Overall, the family structure of multi-generation has inhibitory effect to the youth's labor participation, while degree of influence of family structure to the male youth employment is higher than that of young women; seen from the household registration, influence of family structure to rural youth employment participation is higher than that of city youth labor force participation. Value the importance of the family characteristic differences of youth groups and carry out the employment promotion measures should be the focuses for government to help youth employment.%家庭结构对青年群体劳动参与率有影响。基于CGSS2008数据,通过Probit和IV Probit模型实证分析发现:从总体看,多代同堂的家庭结构对青年群体的劳动参与产生抑制作用,而男性青年的就业参与受家庭结构的影响程度却高于女性青年劳动参与的影响程度;从户籍看,农村青年的就业参与受家庭结构的影响程度高于城市青年劳动参与的影响程度。重视青年群体的家庭特征差异,配套实行就业促进措施,是我国政府解决青年群体就业难的着力点。

  19. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China's Labor-Force Dynamic Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-04-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women's reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women's risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%-46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%-36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of "Widowed" had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of "Cohabitation" had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants' different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS.

  20. Labor Contract Law Vs. Employment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Liang; Wang Ting

    2009-01-01

    @@ In Oct 2005, an IT company in Beijing signed one-year labor contracts with several employees, and they renewed the contracts in Oct 2006. When the contracts came to the end in Oct 2007, the company rejected to renew the contracts, but asked the employees to contract with an as-sociated company. The employees rejected this, but the practical labor relationship continued. Meanwhile, the company was in arrears of em-ployees' salaries, and didn't make full pay of the mandatory social insurance forced by national laws, even peculated the housing fund withheld from employees' salaries.

  1. Effects of whaling on the structure of the Southern Ocean food web: insights on the "krill surplus" from ecosystem modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Surma

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the ecological plausibility of the "krill surplus" hypothesis and the effects of whaling on the Southern Ocean food web using mass-balance ecosystem modelling. The depletion trajectory and unexploited biomass of each rorqual population in the Antarctic was reconstructed using yearly catch records and a set of species-specific surplus production models. The resulting estimates of the unexploited biomass of Antarctic rorquals were used to construct an Ecopath model of the Southern Ocean food web existing in 1900. The rorqual depletion trajectory was then used in an Ecosim scenario to drive rorqual biomasses and examine the "krill surplus" phenomenon and whaling effects on the food web in the years 1900-2008. An additional suite of Ecosim scenarios reflecting several hypothetical trends in Southern Ocean primary productivity were employed to examine the effect of bottom-up forcing on the documented krill biomass trend. The output of the Ecosim scenarios indicated that while the "krill surplus" hypothesis is a plausible explanation of the biomass trends observed in some penguin and pinniped species in the mid-20th century, the excess krill biomass was most likely eliminated by a rapid decline in primary productivity in the years 1975-1995. Our findings suggest that changes in physical conditions in the Southern Ocean during this time period could have eliminated the ecological effects of rorqual depletion, although the mechanism responsible is currently unknown. Furthermore, a decline in iron bioavailability due to rorqual depletion may have contributed to the rapid decline in overall Southern Ocean productivity during the last quarter of the 20th century. The results of this study underscore the need for further research on historical changes in the roles of top-down and bottom-up forcing in structuring the Southern Ocean food web.

  2. REPORT OF THE JOINT LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE ON MIGRANT LABOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Legislature, Albany.

    RESULTS OF THE COMMITTEE'S STUDY AND OBSERVATION OF THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACT OF LABOR FORCE IMPORTATION FOR PLANTING, HARVESTING, AND PROCESSING OF FIELD AND ORCHARD CROPS IN NEW YORK STATE ARE REPORTED. MAJOR SECTIONS INCLUDE--(1) TRENDS IN FARM LABOR FOR 1963, (2) PUBLIC HEALTH, (3) SOCIAL WELFARE, (4) LABOR CAMP HOUSING AND SANITATION,…

  3. 50 CFR 31.1 - Determination of surplus wildlife populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... populations. 31.1 Section 31.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Wildlife § 31.1 Determination of surplus wildlife populations. The populations and requirements of wildlife species on wildlife refuge areas shall be determined by population census, habitat evaluation, and...

  4. The Democratic Surplus that Constitutionalised the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2015-01-01

    This article questions the very foundation of the doctrine of a so-called “democratic deficit” in the EU. Yet in order to argue beyond nationalist myths, clear-cut concepts are necessary. Speaking about democracy in the EU, the article exposes four dimensions that constitute a “democratic surplus...

  5. 46 CFR 387.5 - Surplus property assignment recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Surplus property assignment recommendation. 387.5 Section 387.5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MISCELLANEOUS UTILIZATION AND... property assignment recommendation. Before any assignment recommendation is submitted to the...

  6. 26 CFR 1.815-4 - Policyholders surplus account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Distributions to Shareholders § 1.815-4 Policyholders surplus account. (a) In...) by reason of distributions to shareholders during the taxable year which are treated as being made...), exceeds $25,000 for the taxable year 1959. Assume that of the amount distributed by S to its...

  7. Why Double Surplus in China's International Balance of Payments?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Zhengxiang

    2010-01-01

    @@ In accordance with the theory of development economics,developing countries should maintain a current account deficit and capital account surplus, and achieve a higher level of investment through foreign savings rather than just domestic savings. The international financial crisis not only hit the European and US economy, but also gave China's macro-micro economy a heavy blow.

  8. 50 CFR 31.2 - Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Surplus Wildlife § 31.2 Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. Upon a determination... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. 31.2 Section 31.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE...

  9. 41 CFR 102-37.40 - What type of surplus property is available for donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... property is available for donation? 102-37.40 Section 102-37.40 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.40 What type of surplus property is available for donation? All surplus property (including property held...

  10. Surplus from and storage of electricity generated by intermittent sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Friedrich

    2016-12-01

    Data from the German electricity system for the years 2010, 2012, 2013, and 2015 are used and scaled up to a 100% supply by intermittent renewable energy sources (iRES). In the average, 330GW wind and PV power are required to meet this 100% target. A back-up system is necessary with the power of 89% of peak load. Surplus electricity accrues at high power levels. Curtailing surplus power to a large extent is found to be uneconomic. Demand-side management will suffer from the strong day-to-day variation of available surplus energy. A day storage is ineffective because of the day-night correlation of surplus power during winter. A seasonal storage loses its character when transformation losses are considered because it can contribute only after periods with excessive surplus production. The option of an oversized iRES system to feed the storage is also not effective because, in this case, energy can be taken directly from the large iRES supply, making storage superfluous. The capacities to be installed stress the difficulty to base heat supply and mobility also on iRES generated electricity in the future. As the German energy transition replaces one CO2-free electricity supply system by another one, no major reduction in CO2 emission can be expected till 2022, when the last nuclear reactor will be switched off. By 2022, an extremely oversized power supply system has to be created, which can be expected to continue running down spot-market electricity prices. The continuation of the economic response -to replace expensive gas fuel by cheap lignite- causes an overall increase in CO2 emission. The German GHG emission targets for 2020 and beyond are therefore in jeopardy.

  11. Labor Market Characteristics and the Labor Force Participation of Individuals,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    Bass, 1970, pp. 38-47. Durkheim , Emile , Les Regles del la Methode Sociologieque, Paris, F. Alcan, 1895. Fuguitt, Glenn and Stanley Lieberson...and conditioned by the cultural (e.g., Durkheim , 1895) or material (e.g., Marx and Engels, 1922) conditions of the collectivities in which people live

  12. Csapody, Tamás. 2014. Bortól Szombathelyig - Tanulmányok a bori munkaszolgálatról és a bori munkaszolgálatosok részleges névlistája ('From Bor to Szombathely- Studies on the Forced Labor Service at Bor Camp and the Partial List of the Forced Laborers in Bor'. Budapest: Zrinyi Kadó. 254 pp. ; Csapody, Tamás. 2015. A Cservenkai tömeggyilkosság ('The Mass Murder at Cservenka'. Budapest: Zsidó Tudományok Szabadegyeteme Alapítvány. 150 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Bock

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Csapody, Tamás. 2014. Bortól Szombathelyig - Tanulmányok a bori munkaszolgálatról és a bori munkaszolgálatosok részleges névlistája ('From Bor to Szombathely- Studies on the Forced Labor Service at Bor Camp and the Partial List of the Forced Laborers in Bor'. Budapest: Zrinyi Kadó. 254 pp. ; Csapody, Tamás. 2015. A Cservenkai tömeggyilkosság ('The Mass Murder at Cservenka'. Budapest: Zsidó Tudományok Szabadegyeteme Alapítvány. 150 pp. (e-book; a shorter version is accessible at: http://zsido.com/konyvek/a-cservenkai-tomeggyilkossag/.

  13. 人口结构转变、产业及就业结构调整背景下劳动力供求关系分析%An Empirical Study on Labor Force Supply and Demand under the Situation of Population, Industrial and Employment Structure Adjustment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欢; 黄健元; 王薇

    2014-01-01

    Based on the prediction of population from the United Nations and data dating from the reform and opening up , this paper analyzes the variation of relationship between our national labor force demand and supply under the assumption of variation of labor participation rate , growth rate of Based on the prediction of population from the United Nations and data dating from the reform and opening up , this paper analyzes the variation of relationship between our national labor force demand and supply under the assumption of variation of labor participation rate , growth rate of three tertiary industry production value and employment structure adjustment before 2030.The results show that the turning point of the labor force is approaching and the limitless for labor force supply has come to the end as the negative effect of the population structure on labor force participation rate is increasing and the labor participate rate of the youth is decreasing .In the long term, the secondary and the tertiary industry will absorb labor force efficiently with the adjustment of the industry structure , while the primary industry will crowd out the labor force; the prediction results show that the relationship between labor force demand and supply will be inversed at the end of 13th five-year-plan, and the relationship will face much more challenge by structural unemployment which has occurred currently .%本文基于联合国对中国人口预测的调整结果和我国改革开放以来的经济数据,对劳动参与率、三次产业增加值增长率和就业弹性等关键因素在2030年前的变动趋势做出了相关假设,并结合人口结构转变、产业结构和就业结构调整情况对我国劳动力供给和需求的变动关系进行了较为全面的分析。研究表明:劳动年龄人口增长历史拐点的到来决定了我国劳动力供给持续减少趋势的必然性,而低年龄别劳动参与率的大幅下降和人口结构转变对总

  14. Addiction surplus: the add-on margin that makes addictive consumptions difficult to contain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Peter J; Livingstone, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Addictive consumptions generate financial surpluses over-and-above non-addictive consumptions because of the excessive consumption of addicted consumers. This add-on margin or 'addiction surplus' provides a powerful incentive for beneficiaries to protect their income by ensuring addicted consumers keep consuming. Not only that, addiction surplus provides the financial base that enables producers to sponsor activities which aim to prevent public health initiatives from reducing consumption. This paper examines the potency of addiction surplus to engage industry, governments and communities in an on-going reliance on addiction surplus. It then explores how neo-liberal constructions of a rational consumer disguise the ethical and exploitative dynamics of addiction surplus by examining ways in which addictive consumptions fail to conform to notions of autonomy and rationality. Four measures are identified to contain the distorting effects of addiction surplus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. What the '90s Labor Shortage Will Mean to You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Samuel L.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses a number of forces that will determine the labor supply and demand in the United States in the 1990s: growth in the economy, automation, national policy, immigration policies, changing family, and technical advances. Examines steps a company can take in relation to these forces and makes suggestions concerning future labor needs. (CT)

  16. Effect of labor analgesia on labor outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Stephen H; Abdallah, Faraj W

    2010-06-01

    Labor is among the most painful experiences that humans encounter. Neuraxial analgesia is the most effective means of treating this pain. In this review, we discussed the effect of neuraxial analgesia on the progress of labor when compared with parenteral opioids. We then compared initiation of analgesia with a combined spinal-epidural technique (CSE) to conventional epidural analgesia. Finally we discussed the impact of neuraxial analgesia, given early in labor, compared with later administration. Compared with parenteral opioids, neuraxial analgesia does not increase the incidence of cesarean section, although it is associated with a longer (approximately 16 min) second stage of labor. The incidence of operative vaginal delivery is higher in the epidural group but this may be due to indirect reasons such as changes in physician behavior. There was no difference in labor outcome when CSE was compared with low-concentration epidural analgesia, but higher concentrations may prolong labor. Early administration of neuraxial analgesia does not increase the incidence of operative delivery or prolong labor. Neuraxial analgesia does not interfere with the progress or outcome of labor. There is no need to withhold neuraxial analgesia until the active stage of labor.

  17. Share-of-Surplus Product Line Optimisation with Price Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. G. Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kraus and Yano (2003 established the share-of-surplus product line optimisation model and developed a heuristic procedure for this nonlinear mixed-integer optimisation model. In their model, price of a product is defined as a continuous decision variable. However, because product line optimisation is a planning process in the early stage of product development, pricing decisions usually are not very precise. In this research, a nonlinear integer programming share-of-surplus product line optimization model that allows the selection of candidate price levels for products is established. The model is further transformed into an equivalent linear mixed-integer optimisation model by applying linearisation techniques. Experimental results in different market scenarios show that the computation time of the transformed model is much less than that of the original model.

  18. 41 CFR 102-37.200 - What certifications must a SASP make when requesting surplus property for donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a SASP make when requesting surplus property for donation? 102-37.200 Section 102-37.200 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY State Agency for Surplus... requesting surplus property for donation? When requesting or applying for property, you must certify that:...

  19. Some optimal dividend problems for a surplus process with interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hu; GENG Wen-ting

    2008-01-01

    We derive some results on the dividend payments prior to ruin in the classical surplus process with interest. An integro-differential equation with a boundary conditions satisfied by the expected present value of dividend payments is derived and solved. Furthermore, we derive an integro-differential equation for the moment generating function, through which we analyze the higher moment of the present value of dividend payments. Finally, closed-form expressions for exponential claims are given.

  20. Im/Ex in April:Small Trade Surplus Resurged

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ On May 10,2010,General Administration of Customs of the Peole's Republic of China (GAC) released the Profile of China of foreign trade import and export in April and the first four months of this year China returned to a trade surplus in April on strong exports growth after posting its first monthly deficit in almost six years in March ,the General Administration of Customs (GAC) announced.

  1. Central bank conservatism and labor market reform

    OpenAIRE

    Jordahl, Henrik; Laséen, Stefan

    1999-01-01

    How does central bank conservatism affect labor market reform? In this paper we examine the economic forces at work. An increase in conservatism triggers two opposite effects. It reduces the inflation bias of discretionary monetary policy and hence the benefits of a reform. It also increases unemployment variability, which increases the precautionary benefits of a reform. In combination, the two effects produce a u-shaped relation between conservatism and labor market reform. An empirical inv...

  2. Dwindling Labor Supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUYONG

    2004-01-01

    this summer, China encountered an unexpected problem-a dwindling supply of migrant labor. In the southeast coastal area in particular, where manufacturing is heavily concentrated, the shortage of labor has become a quite severe problem.

  3. Signs of Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Last reviewed: March, 2014 Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  4. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  5. Stages of Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Last reviewed: May, 2014 Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  6. New way to develop the rural labor force transfer for employment in the western ethnic areas--Taking Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture Sichuan province as an example%拓展西部民族地区农村劳动力转移就业新途径--以四川省甘孜藏族自治州为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简安

    2013-01-01

    The transfer of rural labor employment,coordination of urban and rural economic development,an important way to increase farmers' income,poverty,is an inevitable trend to realize rural modernization,is the important content of the construction of the well-off society.Western ethnic regions with a positive change for the implementation of the western development of rural employment structure,the employment percentage of the primary industry declined,the proportion of employment second,three industry significantly improve.But overall,the employment structure is still not reasonable,difficult employment of surplus labor transfer of agricultural and pastoral areas. Starting from the Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture,Sichuan Province,analysis of the current labor in the western minority areas transfer status and restriction factors of employment,give full play to the advantages of western ethnic areas,establish the way for rural labor employment transfer mode in western ethnic areas,and with all the advanced experience of the proposed effective solution.%  农村劳动力转移就业,是统筹城乡经济发展,增加农民收入、脱贫致富的重要途径,是实现农村现代化的必然趋势,是全面建设小康社会的重要内容。西部民族地区随着西部大开发的实施农村就业结构发生了积极的变化,第一产业就业比重有所下降,第二、三产业就业比重明显提高。但总体来说,就业结构仍然不够合理,农牧区剩余劳动力转移就业困难。从四川省甘孜藏族自治州入手,分析目前西部民族地区劳动力转移就业的现状和制约因素,探索充分发挥西部民族地区优势,建立适合西部民族地区农村劳动力转移就业模式的途径,并结合各地先进经验提出有效的解决途径。

  7. What Is Labor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are common complications? What is a high-risk pregnancy? What is labor? What is a cesarean delivery? Other FAQs NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What is labor? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Labor is the ...

  8. Due To Surplus in Aluminum Capacity, a Number of Enterprises Experienced Loss to Varying Degrees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Beginning from 2002,in China’s aluminum industry,aluminum output began to show surplus due to dwindling demand from downstream industry;in 2008 China’s aluminum surplus was expected to reach 500,000 tonnes.In recent years,capacity surplus in the aluminum industry has become widely known,in the final analysis,the reason is related to the accelerating speed of capacity

  9. A Mystery of the Global Surplus and its Ramification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malović Marko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with phenomenon of the increasingly indicative global imbalances and lagging genesis of balance of payments (BoP accounting in an attempt to accommodate the ongoing mutation of international trade and finance. Namely, although BoP of the world as a whole should be zero since international trade in goods, services and financial assets ought to be a zero-sum game, our planet apparently runs a non-negligible and rising BoP surplus, projected to reach 1% of global GDP by 2015! To make the puzzle more bizarre, IMF statistics up until 2004 had recorded a persistent BoP deficit for the entire globe, which P. Krugman dubbed “The Mystery of the missing Surplus”. Well, surplus is back with the vengeance – while this paper tries to make sense of the phenomenon and pinpoint both its determinants and likely economic consequences. In conclusion, it appears that 1 during international financial crises quality and accuracy of the BoP statistics worsens worldwide, 2 net global imbalances may still be much smaller than we commonly believe, 3 true culprits may not be our usual suspects, 4 gross trade exhibits stark differences once confronted with decomposed value-added net exports and imports free of double counted processed exports and indirect exporting, 5 also, deliberate misreporting of cross-border investment proceeds as well as MNE’s transfer pricing practices may account for a relevant portion of registered global imbalances, and finally, 6 even the latest 6th edition of the IMF’s BoP and IIP Manual explicitly tackles but a few of the factors behind the returning surplus mystery.

  10. A Mystery of the Global Surplus and its Ramification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko G Malovic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with phenomenon of the increasingly indicative global imbalances and lagging genesis of balance of payments (BoP accounting in an attempt to accommodate the ongoing mutation of international trade and finance. Namely, although BoP of the world as a whole should be zero since international trade in goods, services and financial assets ought to be a zero-sum game, our planet apparently runs a non-negligible and rising BoP surplus, projected to reach 1% of global GDP by 2015! To make the puzzle more bizarre, IMF statistics up until 2004 had recorded a persistent BoP deficit for the entire globe, which P. Krugman dubbed “The Mystery of the missing Surplus”. Well, surplus is back with the vengeance – while this paper tries to make sense of the phenomenon and pinpoint both its determinants and likely economic consequences. In conclusion, it appears that 1 during international financial crises quality and accuracy of the BoP statistics worsens worldwide, 2 net global imbalances may still be much smaller than we commonly believe, 3 true culprits may not be our usual suspects, 4 gross trade exhibits stark differences once confronted with decomposed value-added net exports and imports free of double counted processed exports and indirect exporting, 5 also, deliberate misreporting of cross-border investment proceeds as well as MNE’s transfer pricing practices may account for a relevant portion of registered global imbalances, and finally, 6 even the latest 6th edition of the IMF’s BoP and IIP Manual explicitly tackles but a few of the factors behind the returning surplus mystery. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  11. The Maximum Surplus Distribution before Ruin in an Erlang(n)Risk Process Perturbed by Diffusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Zhong ZHANG; Jie Zhong ZOU; Yuan Yuan LIU

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,we consider the distribution of the maximum surplus before ruin in a generalized Erlang(n) risk process (i.e.,convolution of n exponential distributions with possibly different parameters) perturbed by diffusion.It is shown that the maximum surplus distribution before ruin satisfies the integro-differential equation with certain boundary conditions.Explicit expressions are obtained when claims amounts are rationally distributed.Finally,the surplus distribution at the time of ruin and the surplus distribution immediately before ruin are presented.

  12. Surplus Cost Potential as a Life Cycle Impact Indicator for Metal Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa D.M. Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the evaluation of product life cycles, methods to assess the increase in scarcity of resources are still under development. Indicators that can express the importance of an increase in scarcity of metals extracted include surplus ore produced, surplus energy required, and surplus costs in the mining and the milling stage. Particularly the quantification of surplus costs per unit of metal extracted as an indicator is still in an early stage of development. Here, we developed a method that quantifies the surplus cost potential of mining and milling activities per unit of metal extracted, fully accounting for mine-specific differences in costs. The surplus cost potential indicator is calculated as the average cost increase resulting from all future metal extractions, as quantified via cumulative cost-tonnage relationships. We tested the calculation procedure with 12 metals and platinum-group metals as a separate group. We found that the surplus costs range six orders of magnitude between the metals included, i.e., between $0.01–$0.02 (iron and $13,533–$17,098 (rhodium USD (year 2013 per kilogram of metal extracted. The choice of the reserve estimate (reserves vs. ultimate recoverable resource influenced the surplus costs only to a limited extent, i.e., between a factor of 0.7 and 3.2 for the metals included. Our results provide a good basis to regularly include surplus cost estimates as resource scarcity indicator in life cycle assessment.

  13. Three Driving Forces of Labor Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Zhanqiang

    2009-01-01

    @@ The sub prime in Wall Street of USA finally turned into global economic crisis. China, as the second largest export country in the world, caught in the biting cold economic storm. As the declining export directly plays on the weakness of Chinese economy, shrinking domestic demand and weak export market worsens the employment situation in China.

  14. The Democratic Surplus that Constitutionalised the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2015-01-01

    This article questions the very foundation of the doctrine of a so-called “democratic deficit” in the EU. Yet in order to argue beyond nationalist myths, clear-cut concepts are necessary. Speaking about democracy in the EU, the article exposes four dimensions that constitute a “democratic surplus.......” It offers, first, a narrative of European integration that does not insist on an identity logic of democratic sovereignty and self-determination; on the contrary, a differentiated and deconstructed constitution of a network society of intermediate institutions seems more realist. Contrary to the classical...

  15. Ruin Probabilities of a Surplus Process Described by PDMPs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-min He; Rong Wu; Hua-yue Zhang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we mainly study the ruin probability of a surplus process described by a piecewise deterministic Markov process (PDMP). An integro-differentiai equation for the ruin probability is derived. Under a certain assumption, it can be transformed into the ruin probability of a risk process whose premiums depend on the current reserves. Using the same argument as that in Asmussen and Nielsen[2], the ruin probability and its upper bounds are obtained. Finally, we give an analytic expression for ruin probability and its upper bounds when the claim-size is exponentially distributed.

  16. Analysis of VAR Dynamic Effect of Foreign Direct Investment on China's Labor Force Structure:Testing Based on Industrial Structure%外商直接投资对我国劳动力结构影响的VAR动态 效应分析——基于产业结构的检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭利

    2011-01-01

    There is relatively stable dynamic equilibrium relationship between foreign direct investment and labor force employment structure. This paper takes data from 1983 to 2007 as the subject of study, establishes vector autoregressive (VAR) model, using the impulse response function method, make empirical analysis for foreign direct investment and labor force structure.%我国外商直接投资与劳动力就业结构之间存在相对稳定的动态均衡关系,本文以1983~2007年的数据为研究对象,建立向量自回归(VAR)模型,采用脉冲响应函数的方法,对我国外商直接投资与劳动力结构进行实证分析.

  17. Exposures Resulting in Safety and Health Concerns for Child Laborers in Less Developed Countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shendell, Derek G; Noomnual, Saisattha; Chishti, Shumaila; Sorensen Allacci, MaryAnn; Madrigano, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Worldwide, over 200 million children are involved in child labor, with another 20 million children subjected to forced labor, leading to acute and chronic exposures resulting in safety and health (S&H...

  18. Plights and Countermeasures for the Development of Rural Labor Broker——Based on the Investigation of Rural Labor Brokers in Chongqing Munitipality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the investigation into the rural labor brokers in Chongqing Municipality,the developmental momentum of rural labor brokers in Chongqing Municipality is introduced.The valid questionnaires show that the main factors which limit the development of rural labor brokers in Chongqing Municipality are the scant effective information,low quality,insufficient education and training,absent of specialized policies and regulations,low degree of organization,and low social recognition.The requirements for the healthy development of rural labor brokers are concluded,which include healthy policies and regulations,healthy social culture and the external support from the government.Besides,the rural labor brokers should have high competence,high professional ethnics,strong awareness of law and relatively high educational level.At last,the targeted countermeasures are put forward,which cover strengthening the construction of rural infrastructure;perfecting the information platform;enhancing training efforts and improving the competence of labor brokers;establishing and consolidating laws and regulations,and fostering well legal atmosphere;paying attention to the construction of organization and trying to famous the famous brands of rural labors;intensifying the promotion and creating favorable cultural environment.These countermeasures aim at enhancing the capability of attracting rural surplus labors,accelerating the structure of income distribution and coordinating the urban and rural development.

  19. Patients' Attitudes towards the Surplus Frozen Embryos in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Jin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Assisted reproductive techniques have been used in China for more than 20 years. This study investigates the attitudes of surplus embryo holders towards embryos storage and donation for medical research. Methods. A total of 363 couples who had completed in vitro fertilization (IVF treatment and had already had biological children but who still had frozen embryos in storage were invited to participate. Interviews were conducted by clinics in a narrative style. Results. Family size was the major reason for participants’ (discontinuation of embryo storage; moreover, the moral status of embryos was an important factor for couples choosing embryo storage, while the storage fee was an important factor for couples choosing embryo disposal. Most couples discontinued the storage of their embryos once their children were older than 3 years. In our study, 58.8% of the couples preferred to dispose of surplus embryos rather than donate them to research, citing a lack of information and distrust in science as significant reasons for their decision. Conclusions. Interviews regarding frozen embryos, including patients’ expectations for embryo storage and information to assist them with decisions regarding embryo disposal, are beneficial for policies addressing embryo disposition and embryo donation in China.

  20. The Vulnerability of the Regional Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Rarița

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, the European and Romanian economies have been strongly affected by major changes which have influenced also the labor market: the alert pace of the international economic integration, the creation of work division in order to protect some economic sectors, the accelerated development and implementation of new technologies, the increase of the demographic aging trends. In the context of the amplified labor force crisis, the present paper will analyze some dysfunctions which have affected especially the regional labor market: the chronic unemployment, the mismatch between the demand and the offer of jobs and the localized consequences of the labor migration. The approach on these aspects was done in a vaster context intended to analyze the regional labor market of Galati and Braila, starting from the existent imbalances on these markets. The present paper starts from the premise that the proposal of some measurements which should lead to a balancing of the regional working market, must take into account the way in which the direct actors involved are defining these obstacles and opportunities for professional (reinsertion. In order to highlight both the opinions and the perceptions of the participants on the labor market, the research had to take place on two levels: among the groups with a difficult position on the labor market and among the employers.

  1. La Justicia Laboral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montoya Melgar, Alfredo

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Iniciada en el último cuarto del siglo XIX nuestra legislación laboral, pronto se plantea la exigencia de que las reglas sustantivas del nuevo Derecho vayan acompañadas de normas jurisdiccionales y procesales específicas, atentas a las exigencias de la justicia laboral. Tras una etapa de justicia social paritaria, obrero-patronal, la jurisdicción laboral pasa a ser desempeñada por jueces profesionales centrándose en la Magistratura de Trabajo y consolidándose el diseño procesal en sucesivas Leyes de Procedimiento Laboral.
    En la actualidad, y aunque la nueva Ley de Enjuiciamiento Civil ha incidido de modo relevante sobre el proceso laboral, es obvia la influencia que el modelo del proceso laboral ha ejercido con carácter previo sobre el nuevo proceso civil.

  2. Labor inspection in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Cardoso

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One aspect the literature overlooks on the effects of labor regulation of labor market efficiency is the degree of the legislation's effectiveness, i.e., its actual enforcement in daily work relations. Even the more sophisticated econometric studies (which take into account the effects of interaction between labor market regulatory institutions in explaining its dynamics leave this central issue aside, namely enforcement versus non-enforcement of the law. Keeping this issue in mind, we seek to answer the following question in this article: given that the effectiveness of labor legislation depends on the interaction between the overall sanctions and the probability of the employer getting caught breaking the law, and given that the law's effectiveness is a decisive aspect for the real measurement of a country's labor costs, to what extent is the Brazilian labor inspection system designed to meet its objective, namely, to enforce the law?

  3. 劳动力转移与工资差距同时扩大的“悖论”研究——基于市场分割的视角%A Study of the Paradox of Simultaneous Expansion of Labor Force Shift and Wage Gap: from the Perspective of Market Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓宁; 姚延婷

    2012-01-01

    从市场分割的角度出发,对劳动力流动与工资差距同时扩大的"悖论"和中国市场化过程中的"迁移谜题"进行了深入分析,认为劳动力市场的地区分割和城乡分割导致了劳动者之间必然存在工资收入差距,而且即使存在劳动力转移,也不能使工资差距收敛。这种制度性偏好导致的劳动力市场分割,对劳动者工资收入差距的扩大起了推波助澜的作用,因此构建全国统一、自由竞争的劳动力市场是非常必要的,并提出有关的政策建议。%From the angle of market segmentation,this paper conducts an in-depth analysis of the paradox of the simultaneous expansion of labor force flowing and wage gap,as well as the "migration riddle"during the process of China's marketization.It is believed that the regional division and the urban-rural division of the labor markets would inevitably lead to the wage income disparity between the workers;moreover,even if there is labor force shift,it could not restrain the wage disparity.This kind of labor market division caused by system preferences has played an important role in enlarging the wage income disparity of the workers.Therefore,it is essential to construct a nationally-unified and freely competitive labor market.So that this paper offers some related policy suggestions.

  4. Immigrants'assimilation process in a segmented labor market

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Planas, Núria; Alcobendas, Miguel Angel

    2010-01-01

    While much of the literature on immigrants' assimilation has focused on countries with a large tradition of receiving immigrants and with flexible labor markets, very little is known on how immigrants adjust to other types of host economies. With its severe dual labor market, and an unprecedented immigration boom, Spain presents a quite unique experience to analyze immigrations' assimilation process. Using data from the 2000 to 2008 Labor Force Survey, we find that immigrants are more occupat...

  5. Child Labor - Moral Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Lagasse, Caitlin

    2014-01-01

    In many instances, child labor is a way to exploit the cheap labor a child has to offer. Although in many situations, the exploitation of child labor is not normally the case, such as families living in a developing country. What individuals raised in Western cultures fail to realize is that in some nations and for some families, child labor is a necessary resource to survive, children act as an exceptional resource in these situations. Without the extra income a child could make working in t...

  6. An Analysis of the Differentials of the Rates of Return to Human Capital between Urban and Rural Labor Force in China-Analysis Based on Data of Chinese General Social Survey%中国人力资本回报率的城乡差异--基于中国综合社会调查数据的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡强; 熊家财

    2015-01-01

    通过教育回报率、任期回报率和其他经验回报率三个方面考察中国人力资本回报率的城乡差异,研究结果发现:(1)受教育年限对于城镇劳动力和农村劳动力的工资水平都有显著的正向影响,现职任职期和其他工作经验对于城镇劳动力的工资水平都有显著的正向影响,但对农村劳动力的工资水平均不存在显著影响,这说明提高受教育年限是提高农村劳动力工资水平的主要途径。(2)人力资本回报率存在显著的城乡差异,城乡劳动力教育回报率的差异在2%左右,任期回报率的差异也在2%左右,而其他经验回报率的差异在1%左右。人力资本回报率的城乡差异违背了劳动力市场的竞争性,成为劳动力市场进一步完善的阻碍。%Through the analysis on the rates of return to schooling,tenure and other experience,the differentials of the rates of re-turn to human capital between urban and rural labor force in China are examined.The evidence confirms that:(1 )the years of schooling has a significant positive impact on the wages of urban and rural labor force.Tenure and other experi-ence also have significant positive influence on wages of the urban labor force,but not on the wages of rural labor force. So extension of the years of schooling is the main way to raise the wage level of the rural labor force.(2)There exist sig-nificant differences between urban and rural labor force as regard to the rate of return to human capital,as the gap is a-bout 2% in the rates of return schooling,about 2% in tenure and 1% in other experience.The differences go against with the competition of the labor market and will be the obstacles to the improvement of labor market.

  7. 41 CFR 105-50.202-4 - Technical assistance incident to Federal surplus personal property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Technical assistance... Available From General Services Administration § 105-50.202-4 Technical assistance incident to Federal surplus personal property. Technical assistance will be provided in the screening and selection of surplus...

  8. The Impact of Financing Surpluses and Large Financing Deficits on Tests of the Pecking Order Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Abe; Verbeek, Marno; Verwijmeren, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the basic pecking order model of Shyam-Sunder and Myers by separating the effects of financing surpluses, normal deficits, and large deficits. Using a panel of US firms over the period 1971-2005, we find that the estimated pecking order coefficient is highest for surpluses (0.90),

  9. 41 CFR 102-37.270 - May a SASP retain surplus property for its own use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May a SASP retain surplus property for its own use? 102-37.270 Section 102-37.270 Public Contracts and Property Management... Property § 102-37.270 May a SASP retain surplus property for its own use? Yes, you can retain...

  10. The contrasting features of Asian summer monsoon during surplus and deficient rainfall over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P. V. S.; Mohanty, U. C.; Rao, P. L. S.; Bhatla, R.

    2002-12-01

    An endeavour is made to distinguish the mean summer monsoon features during surplus and deficient monsoon seasons. Based on all-India summer monsoon rainfall, over 42 years (1958-99), seven surplus and ten deficient monsoon seasons are identified. Making use of daily averaged (00 Z and 12 Z) reanalysis data sets from the National Center for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research for the corresponding surplus and deficient monsoon seasons, the mean circulation characteristics and large-scale energetics are examined.The circulation features denote that the cross equatorial flow, low-level jet and tropical easterly jet are stronger during a surplus monsoon. Further, strong Tibetan anticyclonic flow characterizes a surplus monsoon. The large-scale balances of kinetic energy, heat and moisture show a significantly large quantity of diabatic heating, adiabatic generation of kinetic energy, and horizontal convergence of heat and moisture during the surplus monsoon season compared with the deficient state. The regions with statistically significant difference between surplus and deficient monsoon seasons are delineated by a Student's t-test at the 95% confidence level. The remarkable aspect noticed in this study is that the Arabian Sea branch of the monsoon circulation is more vigorous during a surplus monsoon season, whereas the eastern Bay of Bengal branch is stronger during a deficient monsoon. The various large-scale budget terms of kinetic energy, heat and moisture are found to be consistent and in agreement with the seasonal monsoon activity over India.

  11. 41 CFR 102-37.35 - Who handles the donation of surplus property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.35 Who handles the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who handles the donation of surplus property? 102-37.35 Section 102-37.35 Public Contracts and Property Management...

  12. Ten Ways to Restrict Children's Freedom to Play: The Problem of Surplus Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyver, Shirley; Tranter, Paul; Naughton, Geraldine; Little, Helen; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Bundy, Anita

    2010-01-01

    Play and playgrounds provide essential experiences for young children's growth, development and enjoyment of life. However, such play experiences are now limited for many children due to excessive fear of risk, or "surplus safety". In this article, the authors examine the pervasiveness of surplus safety in the lives of young children. They argue…

  13. Can Graduate Students Re-Energize the Labor Movement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Deeb-Paul, II

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, issues pertaining to graduate student union organizing have been at the center of several political battles and court cases. This attention is, at least in part, due to the growth of graduate student unions at a time when organized labor's influence is receding in other, more traditionally unionized sectors of the labor force. As…

  14. High Technology, Work, and Inequality in Southern Labor Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colclough, Glenna; Tolbert, Charles M., II

    1990-01-01

    Explores the relationship among high technology industrialization, skill levels, and economic inequality. Finds that minority labor force participants experience more earnings discrimination in high tech industries than in other industries. Attributes findings to variations in local labor market contexts and to differing stages of product cycles…

  15. Labor Market Problems of Older Workers. A Policy Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on Employment Policy, Washington, DC.

    The National Council on Employment Policy found that there are small but substantial groups of older persons who are experiencing labor market problems--the working poor, the displaced unemployed, persons with health limitations, and groups of women who have been out of the labor force for large blocks of time. The problems of this generation, now…

  16. Labor Markets and Economic Incorporation among Recent Immigrants in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Irena

    2006-01-01

    The questions asked in the paper are whether and to what extent the employment situation among recent third-country immigrants differs across European Union countries and how it is related to these countries' labor market characteristics. The European Labor Force Survey data for the 1990s are used to disentangle the roles that the individual…

  17. Women in Workplace: Vocational Education and Segregated Division of Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasonen, Johanna; Burge, Penny L.

    The United States and Finland show a clear gender stratification in work life. The uneven, gender-biased division of labor has been maintained, even though about half of the total U.S. and Finnish labor force are women. In both countries, female students tend to make traditional occupational choices that prepare them for low-paying fields where…

  18. Labor Dystocia as First Presentation of Pelvic Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis van Hamont

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The underlying causes of labor dystocia can be various. Lack of expulsive forces or fetal malpresentation are amongst the most common ones. However, pelvic masses are described as well. Here we describe two cases of labor dystocia as first presentation of pelvic malignancy.

  19. Labor Dystocia as First Presentation of Pelvic Malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis van Hamont; Zusterzeel, Petra L. M.

    2011-01-01

    The underlying causes of labor dystocia can be various. Lack of expulsive forces or fetal malpresentation are amongst the most common ones. However, pelvic masses are described as well. Here we describe two cases of labor dystocia as first presentation of pelvic malignancy.

  20. Globalization, industrialization, and labor markets in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørlund, Irene; Tran, *Angie Ngoc

    2015-01-01

    exports in 2013. Evidence shows that the ‘high road’ to industrialization model – with domestic linkages and skills upgrading – does not accompany growth in exports, as low-skilled assembly, mostly young female workers join the labor force with non-liveable wages and substandard working conditions...

  1. Sex Discrimination and Women's Labor Market Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David; McLennan, Michele

    1995-01-01

    Using self-reported sex discrimination data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women, a study found that working women who report discrimination are more likely to change employers or interrupt their labor force participation. However, women who report discrimination do not accrue less experience or have lower wage growth. (SK)

  2. PROBLEMS OF MIGRANT LABOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WALLS, FOREST

    PRESENT MIGRANT LABOR PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS WHICH HAVE BEEN PROPOSED ARE PRESENTED. THE FIRST PROBLEM AREA IS PROVIDING EDUCATION FOR MIGRANT CHILDREN. THIS IS HINDERED BY THE PROBLEM OF SECURING COMPLIANCE WITH MINIMUM EDUCATION LAWS AND BY LAWS PROHIBITING EMPLOYMENT OF CHILDREN DURING SCHOOL HOURS. A SECOND PROBLEM AREA IS THAT OF CHILD LABOR.…

  3. Female Labor Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen-van den Brink, te Henriet

    1994-01-01

    To gain insight on factors that impede economic independence of women, this book concentrates on female labor supply in relation to child care, male-female wage differentials, the division of unpaid labor, and marital conflicts between women and men. It may very well be that restrictions on the opti

  4. Health sector employment growth calls for improvements in labor productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmarcher, Maria M; Festl, Eva; Bishop-Tarver, Leslie

    2016-08-01

    While rising costs of healthcare have put increased fiscal pressure on public finance, job growth in the health sector has had a stabilizing force on overall employment levels - not least in times of economic crises. In 2014 EU-15 countries employed 21 million people in the health and social care sector. Between 2000 and 2014 the share of employed persons in this sector rose from 9.5% to 12.5% of the total labor force in EU-15 countries. Over time labor input growth has shifted towards residential care activities and social work while labor in human health activities including hospitals and ambulatory care still comprises the major share. About half of the human health labor force works in hospital. Variation of health and social care employment is large even in countries with generally comparable institutional structures. While standard measures of productivity in health and social care are not yet comparable across countries, we argue that labor productivity of a growing health work force needs more attention. The long-term stability of the health system will require care delivery models that better utilize a growing health work force in concert with smart investments in digital infrastructure to support this transition. In light of this, more research is needed to explain variations in health and social care labor endowments, to identify effective policy measures of labor productivity enhancement including enhanced efforts to develop comparable productivity indicators in these areas.

  5. Quality of Labor Support during Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahri N

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:Providing appropriate and quality care for delivery process can be done in the form of the "Labor Support". This approach is one of the key factors in reducing maternal and neonatal mortality rates and fulfilling the Millennium Development Goals. It has also an important role in the promoting maternal satisfaction. This study aims at assessing mothers’ view regarding the labor support quality. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 100 women who were hospitalized in the postpartum ward of Gonabad 22 Bahman Hospital, and had normal vaginal delivery were chosen using convenience sampling method. Participants were asked to fill in the demographic questionnaire and the form of assessment quality of labor support. Data analysis was performed by SPSS11.5 software.  Results: In this study, the data showed a mean participants’ age of 27/14 ± 5/89 years and a mean admission-delivery time interval of 305/13 ± 147/30 minutes. Results showed that 74 percent of women evaluated the emotional support as good, 93% of the women had reported that they are satisfied with physical support, and 92 percent of the participants had expressed that they were content with the instructions/information provided by the personnel. Conclusion: According to this study, overall satisfaction from the quality of labor support has been acceptable in Gonabad 22 Bahman Hospital. Emotional supports stood lower when compared in terms of quality to two other categories.

  6. The local field potential reflects surplus spike synchrony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denker, Michael; Roux, Sébastien; Lindén, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    While oscillations of the local field potential (LFP) are commonly attributed to the synchronization of neuronal firing rate on the same time scale, their relationship to coincident spiking in the millisecond range is unknown. Here, we present experimental evidence to reconcile the notions...... of synchrony at the level of spiking and at the mesoscopic scale. We demonstrate that only in time intervals of significant spike synchrony that cannot be explained on the basis of firing rates, coincident spikes are better phase locked to the LFP than predicted by the locking of the individual spikes....... This effect is enhanced in periods of large LFP amplitudes. A quantitative model explains the LFP dynamics by the orchestrated spiking activity in neuronal groups that contribute the observed surplus synchrony. From the correlation analysis, we infer that neurons participate in different constellations...

  7. Building a 3D Computed Tomography Scanner From Surplus Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidekker, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanners are expensive imaging devices, often out of reach for small research groups. Designing and building a CT scanner from modular components is possible, and this article demonstrates that realization of a CT scanner from components is surprisingly easy. However, the high costs of a modular X-ray source and detector limit the overall cost savings. In this article, the possibility of building a CT scanner with available surplus X-ray parts is discussed, and a practical device is described that incurred costs of less than $16,000. The image quality of this device is comparable with commercial devices. The disadvantage is that design constraints imposed by the available components lead to slow scan speeds and a resolution of 0.5 mm. Despite these limitations, a device such as this is attractive for imaging studies in the biological and biomedical sciences, as well as for advancing CT technology itself.

  8. Using information technology for patient education: realizing surplus value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, Arjen P; van't Riet, Annemarie; Berg, Marc

    2004-08-01

    Computer-based patient information systems are introduced to replace traditional forms of patient education like brochures, leaflets, videotapes and, to a certain extent, face-to-face communication. In this paper, we claim that though computer-based patient information systems potentially have many advantages compared to traditional means, the surplus value of these systems is much harder to realize than often expected. By reporting on two computer-based patient information systems, both found to be unsuccessful, we will show that building computer-based patient information systems for patient education requires a thorough analysis of the advantages and limitations of IT compared to traditional forms of patient education. When this condition is fulfilled, however, these systems have the potential to improve health status and to be a valuable supplement to (rather than a substitute for) traditional means of patient education.

  9. Estimating the 'consumer surplus' for branded versus standardised tobacco packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendall, Philip; Eckert, Christine; Hoek, Janet; Farley, Tessa; Louviere, Jordan; Wilson, Nick; Edwards, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Tobacco companies question whether standardised (or 'plain') packaging will change smokers' behaviour. We addressed this question by estimating how standardised packaging compared to a proven tobacco control intervention, price increases through excise taxes, thus providing a quantitative measure of standardised packaging's likely effect. We conducted an online study of 311 New Zealand smokers aged 18 years and above that comprised a willingness-to-pay task comparing a branded and a standardised pack at four different price levels, and a choice experiment. The latter used an alternative-specific design, where the alternatives were a branded pack or a standardised pack, with warning theme and price varied for each pack. Respondents had higher purchase likelihoods for the branded pack (with a 30% warning) than the standardised pack (with a 75% warning) at each price level tested, and, on average, were willing to pay approximately 5% more for a branded pack. The choice experiment produced a very similar estimate of 'consumer surplus' for a branded pack. However, the size of the 'consumer surplus' varied between warning themes and by respondents' demographic characteristics. These two experiments suggest standardised packaging and larger warning labels could have a similar overall effect on adult New Zealand smokers as a 5% tobacco price increase. The findings provide further evidence for the efficacy of standardised packaging, which focuses primarily on reducing youth initiation, and suggest this measure will also bring notable benefits to adult smokers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. 41 CFR 102-37.80 - What happens to surplus property that isn't transferred for donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... property that isn't transferred for donation? 102-37.80 Section 102-37.80 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.80 What happens to surplus property that isn't transferred for donation? Surplus property not transferred...

  11. 41 CFR 102-37.50 - What is the general process for requesting surplus property for donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... process for requesting surplus property for donation? 102-37.50 Section 102-37.50 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.50 What is the general process for requesting surplus property for donation? The process...

  12. 41 CFR 102-37.110 - What are a holding agency's responsibilities in the donation of surplus property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agency's responsibilities in the donation of surplus property? 102-37.110 Section 102-37.110 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Holding Agency § 102-37.110 What are a holding agency's responsibilities in the donation of surplus property? Your...

  13. Antibiotics and preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, H L; Ernest, J M

    2001-08-01

    Prematurity is a profound obstetric problem and to date no effective treatment or prevention strategies have been found. Many animal and clinical data exist to link infection and preterm labor, yet clinical trials examining the effect of antibiotic treatment in patients with patterns labor and intact membranes have been conflicting and disappointing. Beyond treatment to reduce neonatal group B streptococcal infection, sexually transmitted infections, symptomatic bacterial vaginosis, and bacteriuria, no clinical data exist at this time to support the routine use of antibiotics in patients with preterm labor and intact membranes.

  14. Labor Agreement Information System (LAIRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Labor Agreement Information Retrieval System (LAIRS) is a database containing historical information on labor-management relations in the Federal Government. It...

  15. Comparative study of programmed labor and traditional management of labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin S. Kshirsagar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prolongation of labor leads to dehydration, ketoacidosis, infection, fetal asphyxia. Programmed labor aims at reducing the duration of labor, labor pain and incidence of cesarean section with improved maternal and neonatal outcome. Aims and Objectives: 1To evaluate the effect of programmed labor on duration of labor. 2To assess efficacy of analgesics in reducing pain of labor. 3To find out maternal and neonatal complications. 4To study impact of programmed labor on LSCS rates. Methods: Prospective randomized study of primigravida in active labor (after 4 cm cervical dilatation for which 100 women were selected for programmed labor (cases and 100 women were selected for traditional management of labor (controls. Cases were subjected to interventions to improve uterine contractions (ARM, Dinoprostone tablets, and Oxytocin drip, to facilitate cervical dilatation (Inj. Drotaverine, to relieve labor pains (Inj. Pentazocine & Diazepam. All labors were monitored by partogram. Results: Programmed labor reduced duration of first and second stage of labor. There was faster cervical dilatation (1.8 cm/hour against 1.2 cm/hour. Majority of the patients had better pain relief. There was no impact on LSCS rates Conclusions: Programmed labor significantly reduced duration of labor with good pain relief without compromising maternal and fetal/neonatal safety. But it had no impact on LSCS rates. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 209-212

  16. Women Workers in South Africa: Participation, Pay and Prejudice in the Formal Labor Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Carolyn

    Although concern over labor market inequities in South Africa has focused almost exclusively on racial differences in labor force participation and pay, gender also has been important, since women do not enjoy the same access, opportunities, and rewards in the formal labor market as men, especially among races traditionally subject to…

  17. 48 CFR 52.222-18 - Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products. 52.222-18 Section 52.222-18 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-18 Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor... Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products (FEB 2001) (a) Definition. Forced or indentured...

  18. Deviating from the standard: effects on labor continuity and career patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roman, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Deviating from a standard career path is increasingly becoming an option for individuals to combine paid labor with other important life domains. These career detours emerge in diverse labor forms such as part-time jobs, temporary working hour reductions, and labor force time-outs, used to alleviate

  19. Educational Mismatches and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from Both Vertical and Horizontal Mismatches in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pholphirul, Piriya

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Educational mismatches constitute negative impacts on labor markets in most countries, Thailand is no exception. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the degree of educational mismatch in Thailand and its impacts on labor market outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: This study analyzes data obtained from Thailand's Labor Force Survey…

  20. CHILD LABOR IN PALEMBANG

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ariyanti, Indri; Marwa, Taufiq; Tarmizi, Nurlina; Soebyakto, Bambang Bemby

    2016-01-01

    This research explains the effects of gender, parents’ education, parent’s income, the number of siblings, childbirth order, the presence of parents and patriarchal kinship system on the probability of child labor in Palembang...

  1. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum in Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlamkadem, Said; Labib, Smael; Harandou, Mustapha

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema also known as Hamman's syndrome is a very rare complication of labor that is often related to the valsalva maneuver during the labor. In most case, Hamman's syndrome is a self-limiting condition, rarely complicated unless there are underlying respiratory diseases. Chest X-ray can be a useful early diagnostic technique in severe clinical presentation. We report an uneventful pregnancy in a primigravid parturient, which was complicated in the late second stage of labor by the development of subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and mild pneumothorax. Spontaneous recovery occurred after four days of conservative management. This condition shows the major interest of labor analgesia especially locoregional techniques. PMID:28316849

  2. Bureau of Labor Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov Disability.gov Freedom of Information Act | Privacy & Security Statement | Disclaimers | Customer Survey | Important Web Site Notices U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics | Postal Square Building, 2 Massachusetts Avenue, NE Washington, ...

  3. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Scientific Name Preterm labor Preterm birth Preterm infant Late-preterm birth ... first-time pregnancies No benefit in treating mildly low thyroid function in pregnancy, NIH Network study finds ...

  4. Pregnancy and labor massage

    OpenAIRE

    Field, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    Massage therapy has been demonstrated to be effective during pregnancy. Women who received massage therapy reported decreased depression, anxiety, and leg and back pain. Cortisol levels decreased and, in turn, excessive fetal activity decreased, and the rate of prematurity was lower in the massage group. In a study of labor pain, women who received massage therapy experienced significantly less pain, and their labors were on average 3 h shorter with less need for medication. An underlying mec...

  5. [Active management of labor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Ortiz, E; Villalobos Román, M; Flores Murrieta, G; Sotomayor Alvarado, L

    1991-01-01

    Eighty three primigravidae patients at the end of latency labor, erased cervix, 3 cm dilation, vertex presentation and adequate pelvis, were studied. Two groups were formed: 53 patients in the study group, who received active management of labor, and 30 patients in the control group, treated in the traditional way. In all the patients a graphic recording of labor, was carried out; it included all the events, and as labor advanced, a signoidal curve of cervical dilatation, was registered, as well as the hyperbolic one for presentation descent. The study group received the method in a systematized manner, as follows: 1. Peridular block. 2. Amniotomy. 3. IV oxytocin one hour after amniotomy. 4. FCR monitoring. 5. Detection of dystocia origin. Materno-fetal morbidity was registered in both groups, as well as cesarean section rate, instrumental delivery and its indications, labor duration, and time of stay in labor room. Diminution of above intems and opportune detection of dystocia, were determined. It was concluded that a constructive action plan, starting at hospital admission in most healthy women, allows a normal delivery of brief duration.

  6. Oferta laboral y producto: 1970-1 999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Garavito

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es explorar los cambios en la fuerza laboral ante variaciones del producto, tanto para el caso de cambios en el volumen de la fuerza laboral como para cambios en la tasa global de actividad. Sobre la base de un análisis de series de tiempo encontramos que la fuerza laboral limeña tiene un comportamiento básicamente procíclico, lo cual lleva a que su volumen se incremente en el auge, determinando una menor efectividad de las políticas de generación de empleo. Esto determina una relativa estabilidad de la tasa de desempleo que está también asociada a la existencia de un sector de autoempleo, el cual absorbe los excedentes de fuerza laboral del sector moderno. Adicionalmente, encontramos que la sensibilidad de la fuerza laboral femenina con respecto de los cambios en el producto es mayor que el agregado, resultado esperado dado que la mayoría mujeres no son jefas de hogar y constituyen fuerza laboral secundaria en el contexto familiar. Finalmente, encontramos que la respuesta de la fuerza laboral ante cambios en el producto es menor en el agregado a partir de la década del 90, a pesar de que la sensibilidad en la participación laboral femenina es mayor en dicho período. Este resultado está asociado con una caída y una menor variabilidad en la participación laboral de los varones.---The objective of this article is to explore the changes in the labor force due to variations of the product, both for changes in the volume of labor force and for changes in the global rate of activity. By means of a time series analysis we find that the labor force in Lima has a basically procyclical behavior, which leads to an increase in its volume when product rices, hindering employment generating policies' effectiveness. This determines a relative stability of the unemployment rate, which is also associated to the existence of a self-employment sector, which absorbs the excesses of labor force of the modern sector

  7. 77 FR 50447 - Federal Management Regulation; Donation of Surplus Personal Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... Property AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Proposed... Regulation (FMR) by changing its personal property policy. The proposed changes will (1) include the addition... surplus property those organizations whose membership comprises substantially of veterans, as authorized...

  8. The drying of wood chips with surplus heat in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordhagen, E. [Norwegian Forest and Landscape Inst., As (Norway). Dept. of Forest Resources, Forest Operations and Economics

    2010-07-01

    The study evaluated a wood chip drying procedure that used surplus heat from 2 hydroelectric power plants in western Norway. The wood was chipped and then loaded into the dryer using a tractor-trailer and a container. Warm air from the plants was funnelled into the dryer from perforated floors in the plants and an electric fan. Trials of the procedure were conducted to determine the drying capacity of the trailer and container. The study showed that the temperature and the moisture content of the wood chips varied over the course of the drying period. The chips located at the bottom dried first. The moisture content in the chip ranged between 66.1 to 52.1 before drying and between 9.6 and 6.9 per cent after drying. No substantial difference in moisture content between wood chips located at the top and bottom of the piles was noted. The net calorific values of the wood chips ranged from 1340 to 2170 kWh per tonne before drying, and between 4710 to 4860 after drying. The study showed that the cheapest option for the production of wood chips is natural drying and chipping at the roadside.

  9. STATUS OF THE CHILD LABOR IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer TOR

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes numerical data and sectoral distribution relating to child labor in Turkey. The information is taken the labor force research data collected by the Turkish Statistical Institute. Several attempts have been made to resolve the problems of child workers in Turkey. The first stage was the implementation of the International Program on the Elimination of Child Labor (ILO/IPEC. After introduction of the program, many organizations started various activities directed towards children workers in Turkey. Since these initiatives were coordinated and complementary activities there were remarkable developments in the fight against problems of the child workers. The Turkish Statistical Institute examined the child labor force proportion by means of three separate statistical components and the results revealed that number of the child workers has a tendency to decrease. Despite some statistical research carried out in Turkey, the precise number of children that are working cannot be determined. Some of the leading factors can be listed as paucity of research carried out in this area, inaccurate official statistical data regarding the number of children who are working illegally, employed as unpaid family workers, working in the streets, working on the temporary or seasonal basis, and other related factors.

  10. 14 CFR 21.27 - Issue of type certificate: surplus aircraft of the Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... powered airplanes Before May 16, 1956After May 15, 1956 CAR Part 3, as effective May 15, 1956.CAR Part 3, or FAR Part 23. Small turbine engine-powered airplanes Before Oct. 2, 1959After Oct. 1, 1959 CAR Part..., 1955After Aug. 25, 1955 CAR Part 4b, as effective Aug. 25, 1955.CAR Part 4b or FAR Part 25. Large turbine...

  11. Management of preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hole, J W; Tressler, T B

    2001-02-01

    Preterm labor and delivery continues to be one of the most serious problems in obstetrics, both medically and socioeconomically. The more classically used definitions of preterm delivery may not be useful in this era of advances in neonatal care. Similarly, the classically used criteria for "success" in tocolysis may obscure benefits from prolongation of gestation that does not meet these criteria. This article reviews the etiologic theories, risk factors, diagnostic techniques, and possible primary and adjunctive modes of therapy for preterm labor. The emphasis of these recommendations is on their clinical utility for the practicing obstetric care provider.

  12. Surplus men, sex work, and the spread of HIV in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joseph D; Henderson, Gail E; Wang, Tian F; Huang, Ying Y; Parish, William; Pan, Sui M; Chen, Xiang S; Cohen, Myron S

    2005-03-24

    While 70% of HIV positive individuals live in sub-Saharan Africa, it is widely believed that the future of the epidemic depends on the magnitude of HIV spread in India and China, the world's most populous countries. China's 1.3 billion people are in the midst of significant social transformation, which will impact future sexual disease transmission. Soon approximately 8.5 million 'surplus men', unmarried and disproportionately poor and migrant, will come of age in China's cities and rural areas. Meanwhile, many millions of Chinese sex workers appear to represent a broad range of prices, places, and related HIV risk behaviors. Using demographic and behavioral data, this paper describes the combined effect of sexual practices, sex work, and a true male surplus on HIV transmission. Alongside a rapid increase in sexually transmitted disease incidence across developed parts of urban China, surplus men could become a significant new HIV risk group. The anticipated high sexual risk among many surplus men and injecting drug use use among a subgroup of surplus men may create bridging populations from high to low risk individuals. Prevention strategies that emphasize traditional measures--condom promotion, sex education, medical training--must be reinforced by strategies which acknowledge surplus men and sex workers. Reform within female sex worker mandatory re-education centers and site specific interventions at construction sites, military areas, or unemployment centers may hold promise in curbing HIV/sexually transmitted infections. From a sociological perspective, we believe that surplus men and sex workers will have a profound effect on the future of HIV spread in China and on the success or failure of future interventions.

  13. Labor Market Progeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeheaver, Dean

    1990-01-01

    Social ambivalence toward women's roles, sexuality, appearance, and aging combine with social standards of attractiveness to create both age and sex discrimination in the workplace. The life expectancy of presentability is shorter among women than men, thus creating an accelerated aging process termed labor market progeria. (SK)

  14. Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pushing your baby down and out of the birth canal. In other words, labor pain has a purpose. Try the following to help ... Opioids don't get rid of all the pain, and they are short-acting. They can make ... birth. Epidural and spinal blocks – An epidural involves placing ...

  15. The Influence of the Change of Gambling Industry Income on the Migration of Labor Force in Macao---Based on the Empirical Study of the Push Pull Theory%博彩收入变动对澳门迁入劳动力的影响--基于推拉理论的本土化拓展分析与实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁健

    2016-01-01

    Based on labor economics push-pull model , empirical analysis on the influence of the change of gambling industry income on the migration of labor force in Macao show that the Macao economic devel-opment of the pull agent variable for each increase of 1% ,it will pull into the labor force of 2.44% ;Macao economic development of the push agent variable for each increase of 1% will be reduced to migration of la-bor force 35.67% .This study further updates and enriches the scope of labor economics push-pull model theoretically ,and provides timely reference for the Macao economic development strategy in practice .%基于劳动经济学推拉模型对实证分析博彩收入变动对澳门迁入劳动力影响的结果表明,澳门经济发展的拉力代理变量每提升1%,就会拉动迁入劳动力的2.44%;澳门经济发展的推力代理变量每提升1%,将会减少迁入外地劳动力35.67%。本研究在理论上进一步更新和充实了劳动经济学推拉模型的适用范围,实践上为澳门经济发展战略走向提供了时效性参考。

  16. Child labor, agricultural shocks and labor sharing in rural Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.Y. Debebe (Zelalem)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe author studies the effect of an agricultural shock and a labor sharing arrangement (informal social network) on child labor. Albeit bad parental preference to child labor (as the strand of literature claims), poor households face compelling situations to send their child to work. Thi

  17. Child labor, agricultural shocks and labor sharing in rural Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.Y. Debebe (Zelalem)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe author studies the effect of an agricultural shock and a labor sharing arrangement (informal social network) on child labor. Albeit bad parental preference to child labor (as the strand of literature claims), poor households face compelling situations to send their child to work.

  18. Child Labor in America's History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harold

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  19. Child Labor in America's History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harold

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  20. Supplement to the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-05-14

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the ''Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS)''. ''The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Draft Environmental Impact Statement'' (SPD Draft EIS) (DOWEIS-0283-D) was prepared in accordance with NEPA and issued in July 1998. It identified the potential environmental impacts of reasonable alternatives for the proposed siting, construction, and operation of three facilities for plutonium disposition. These three facilities would accomplish pit disassembly and conversion, immobilization, and MOX fuel fabrication. For the alternatives that included MOX fuel fabrication, the draft also described the potential environmental impacts of using from three to eight commercial nuclear reactors to irradiate MOX fuel. The potential impacts were based on a generic reactor analysis that used actual reactor data and a range of potential site conditions. In May 1998, DCE initiated a procurement process to obtain MOX fuel fabrication and reactor irradiation services. The request for proposals defined limited activities that may be performed prior to issuance of the SPD EIS Record of Decision (ROD) including non-site-specific work associated with the development of the initial design for the MOX fuel fabrication facility, and plans (paper studies) for outreach, long lead-time procurements, regulatory management, facility quality assurance, safeguards, security, fuel qualification, and deactivation. No construction on the proposed MOX facility would begin before an SPD EIS ROD is issued. In March 1999, DOE awarded a contract to Duke Engineering & Services; COGEMA, Inc.; and Stone & Webster (known as DCS) to provide the requested

  1. Lactation and the labor market: breastfeeding, labor market changes, and public policy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtry, J

    1997-01-01

    Public health authorities in the United States actively promote breast-feeding, with target goals for increased beast-feeding rates by the year 2000. In recent decades, however, there has been an increase in the number of American mothers with infants who are in the labor market. Drawing together research examining the intersection of breast-feeding and women's involvement in paid employment, as well as various labor market analyses, this study explores how national recommendations advocating increased breast-feeding among new mothers in paid work are reconciled with economic pressures to return to the labor force in the early postpartum period. This analysis highlights those employment-related factors that constrain the practice of breast-feeding, thereby impeding "choice" over infant feeding method for many mothers. Finally, there is an attempt to explore various employer and public policies and strategies potentially supportive of breast-feeding among mothers in paid employment.

  2. Labor Arbitration and Dispute Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getman, Julius G.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the nature of labor arbitration; then explores the transferability of the labor arbitration model. Argues that the establishment and legitimation of unions and collective bargaining are responsible for the success of labor arbitration, not vice versa. Available from The Yale Law Journal, 401A Yale Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06520;…

  3. Does labor market history matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesner, Rune Vammen

    2014-01-01

    This paper finds that labor market history plays an important role in the Danish labor market both by directly affecting the transitions between labor market states and indirectly through the wage. When comparing the relative importance of different types of state dependence, it is found...

  4. 基于选择模型的农村劳动力非农就业影响因素分析——以陕西武功县为例%Analysis of Influence Factors Based on the Choice Model of Rural Labor Force Non-agricultural Employment — A Case Study of Wugong County in Shaanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚进; 王征兵

    2012-01-01

    Study the non-agricultural employment problems of rural labor force have great significance of increasing peasant's income and promote dual economic structure transformation. Along with market reform deepening, non-agricultural income was gradually becoming the main part of farmers' income growth, the trend of non-agricultural was obviously. According to the survey data of 83 peasants' household in Wugong County in August of 2011. Establish Probit Model as the representative of choice model, study on the condition of education degree, age, gender, training, marital status, effect of village cadre and land area per capita influence non-agricultural employment. Study found that, marital status, training status and family land area per capita are not significant. Gender, age, education and role of village cadres were significant. Based on the analysis results suggested that the rural education should greatly developed, the training of rural labor force should enhanced. To improve rural social security system and speed up the pace of construction of small towns. Construct efficient, lower energy consumption and environmental protection township enterprises. Foster new growth point of rural labor force employment.%为了研究农村劳动力的非农就业问题对提高农民收入,促进农民充分就业,推动二元经济结构转型有着重要意义.基于2011年8月陕西省武功县83个农户的调查数据,建立Probit为代表的选择模型,研究教育程度、性别、年龄、受培训状况、婚姻状态、村干部作用以及人均土地面积对非农就业决策的影响.研究结果表明:婚姻状况,受培训状况和家庭人均土地面积因素不显著,而性别、年龄、接受教育年限和村干部作用因素显著,基于分析结果提出应大力发展农村教育事业,加强对农村劳动力的培训力度;完善农村社会保障体系,加快小城镇建设步伐,发展高效、低耗、环保的乡镇企业,培育农村劳动力就业新的增长点.

  5. Division of Labor

    KAUST Repository

    Oke, Muse

    2014-09-12

    The first assignment of DNA polymerases at the eukaryotic replication fork was possible after the in vitro reconstitution of the simian virus 40 (SV40) replication system. In this system, DNA polymerase α (Pol α) provides both leading and lagging strands with RNA-DNA primers that are extended by DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ). Extrapolating the architecture of the replication fork from the SV40 model system to an actual eukaryotic cell has been challenged by the discovery of a third DNA polymerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε). A division of labor has been proposed for the eukaryotic replication fork whereby Pol ε replicates the leading strand and Pol δ replicates the lagging strand. However, an alternative model of unequal division of labor in which Pol δ can still participate in leading-strand synthesis is plausible.

  6. Labor Informality: General Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Sandoval Betancour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main causes of labor informality in order to verify the validity of classical theories that explain unemployment in market economies and its relationship to informality. Methodologically, the project was based, in the empirical part, on international statistics, comparing the evolution of labor market structure in a combined sample of highly industrialized countries and other less industrialized ones. Empirical evidence supports the conclusion that the classical economic theory of Marxist origin is inefficient to explain the causes of unemployment in contemporary market economies, as well as it fails to satisfactorily explain informality. On the contrary, we conclude that the theory in question is more relevant to explain informality in centrally planned economies where this phenomenon has been present even more significantly than in free market economies.

  7. Performance Analysis of a Manufacturing Line Operated under Optimal Surplus-Based Production Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Starkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine optimality and performance of a tandem manufacturing line driven by a surplus-based decentralized production control strategy. The main objective of this type of production strategies is to guarantee that the cumulative number of produced products follows the cumulative production demand on the output of the given network. The basic idea of surplus-based control strategy is presented for the case of one manufacturing machine. We prove that this strategy is optimal. Then, a flow model of a line composed of arbitrarily many machines with bounded buffers is analyzed. We prove that the surplus-based production control enables this network to efficiently follow the product demand and establish the relation between the efficiency in the production tracking error and the intermediate inventory levels of a line. Performance and robustness of the flow model of the closed-loop manufacturing line are illustrated by computer simulations.

  8. Im/Ex in July,2010: Biggest Trade Surplus in a Year and a Half

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ On Ausust10,2010,General Administration of Customs of the People's Republic of China(GAC)released the profile of China foreign trade import and export in July and the first seven months of this year.China's trade surplus for July widened to its highest level in a year and a half,likely adding to the pressure on Beijing to allow faster yuan appreciation.A sharp slowdown in import growth sent China's trade surplus to US(S)28.7 billion in July from US(S)20.02 billion in June,far surpassing expectations of economists.July's surplus was the highest since January 2009,when it was US(S)39.11 billion.

  9. Labor contractors: a conceptual overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P M

    1996-01-01

    "The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of labor brokering or contracting that helps to explain why employers turn to foreign workers to fill certain vacant jobs, and how the presence of foreign workers brought to a country by labor contractors can affect the size and duration of migration flows. The major conclusion is that East Asian policies that aim to avoid the settlement of unskilled foreign workers also make labor brokering a prominent feature of labor migration and migrant labor markets in the region."

  10. How to Tell When Labor Begins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Several days before labor begins or at the onset of labor What is false labor? Your uterus may contract ... for changes in your cervix that signal the onset of labor. One good way to tell the difference is ...

  11. Stabilization effects of surplus soft clay with cement and GBF slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jiang; Chirdchanin MODMOLTIN; Katsutada ONITSUKA

    2004-01-01

    Utilization of industrial waste and surplus construction soft clay as construction material was recommended, and many attempts at geotechnical waste utilization were undertaken. This study aimed at the application of cement and a kind of industrial wastes, i.e. granulated blast furnace slag, on stabilization of surplus soft clay. The results showed that the cement and slag can successfully stabilize Ariake clays even though this high organic clay fails to be stabilized by lime and cement. Addition of slag in cement for stabilization induces higher strength than cement alone for longer curing time. The application of the cement with slag is more suitable than cement alone for stabilization because of economical consideration.

  12. 住房自有率、人口流动与劳动力参与率--基于全国第六次人口普查数据的研究%The Rate of Homeownership, the Flow of Population and Labor Force Participation Rate---An Empirical Study based on Sixth National Census Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the sixth census data of China is used to establish a simultaneous equations model to study the influence of homeownership rate to population mobility and labor force participation rates. The empirical results show that high homeownership rate has a significant positive impact on labor force participation rate. The homeownership rate increases by 1%, and the labor force partici-pation rate increases about 0.13%. Meanwhile, high homeownership rate was significantly inhibited the mobility of the population. In addition, the research also finds that illiterate population, elderly population and unmarried, divorced widowed population proportion will reduce the labor force participation rate. The proportion of young people , unmarried people and secondary education will increase the mobility of the population. We put forward some policy suggestions, including eliminating the institutional barriers, blocking the floating population, developing rental housing business of the housing enterprises, further activing rental market, encouraging new employment population and floating population live in urban public rental housing.%文章以新型城镇化为背景,利用中国第六次人口普查分县数据建立联立方程模型,研究了中国住房自有率对人口流动性和劳动力参与率的影响。实证结果表明:高住房自有率对劳动力参与率具有显著的正向影响,住房自有率每提高1%,会引起劳动力参与率上升约0.13%;同时,高住房自有率对人口的流动性具有明显的抑制作用。此外,文章的研究还发现:文盲人口、老年人口和未婚、离婚丧偶人口比例越大,越有可能抑制劳动力参与率;而青年人口、未婚人口和中学学历等人口比重越大,人口流动性也会越大。在此基础上,文章还提出消除阻碍人口流动的制度性障碍;发展以住房租赁为主营业务的住房企业,进一步活跃租房市场;鼓励新

  13. 29 CFR 401.9 - Labor organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labor organization. 401.9 Section 401.9 Labor Regulations... MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.9 Labor organization. Labor organization means a labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce and includes any organization of any kind, any...

  14. 41 CFR 102-37.235 - What type of information must a SASP provide when requesting surplus property for cannibalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What type of information must a SASP provide when requesting surplus property for cannibalization? 102-37.235 Section 102-37.235... Surplus Property (SASP) Justifying Special Transfer Requests § 102-37.235 What type of information must...

  15. 45 CFR 205.25 - Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....25 Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility of supplemental security income beneficiaries for food stamps or surplus commodities. 205.25 Section 205.25 Public Welfare Regulations...

  16. 41 CFR 102-37.85 - Can surplus property being offered for sale be withdrawn and approved for donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... being offered for sale be withdrawn and approved for donation? 102-37.85 Section 102-37.85 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.85 Can surplus property being offered for sale be withdrawn and approved for...

  17. 41 CFR 102-37.65 - What happens to surplus property that has been approved for transfer when the prospective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.65 What... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens to surplus property that has been approved for transfer when the prospective transferee decides it cannot use...

  18. Study on the Lewis Turning Point of Chinese Labor Force Supply from the Perspective of Comparison Between China and Japan%中国劳动力供给刘易斯转折点探讨--基于中日比较的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江三良; 李攀

    2016-01-01

    Lewis turning point means the basic change in the supply of labor force.Based on three assumptions,contrasting with Japan in the level of urbanization,population change,economic turning point experience,this paper recognizes the reality of China that our urbanization is not complete,the employment structure lags behind the industrial structure transformation,and concludes that Chinese now has not reached the Lewis turning point.This paper also empirically analyzes the relationship between urban employment population and urbanization level using the relevant data of 1990-2014 and forecast that China will see a stable urbanization of 70%,which will reach a turning point around 2028.Before reaching the turning point,Chinese labor force supply can meet the labor demand of city industry and service industry.Now Chinese unemployment problem is rather serious.So it’s still an important task to solve the problem of employment of migrant workers and university students for Chinese government for a long period of time.%刘易斯转折点意味着劳动力供给的基本变化。基于3个假设,借鉴日本城镇化水平、人口变动、经济转折点经验,结合中国城镇化未完成、就业结构转换滞后于产业结构转换的实际,利用1990—2014年相关数据实证分析城镇就业人数和城镇化水平之间的关系,预测中国将在2028年左右达到刘易斯转折点。在到达转折点之前,中国的劳动力供给能满足城市工业部门和服务业的劳动力需求,同时政府在未来相当长一段时间内仍然要把解决农民工和大学生就业问题放在重要位置。

  19. Incapacidad laboral total

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Díaz Tabares

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio longitudinal, descriptivo y retrospectivo con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de la incapacidad permanente para el trabajo en el municipio "San Cristóbal" durante el decenio 1982-1991, y se aplicó el método de encuesta por el que se recogieron datos que fueron extraídos del modelo oficial de peritaje médico laboral y de la entrevista con el peritado. Los resultados fueron plasmados en tablas de contingencias donde se relacionan las variables por cada año estudiado, y se aplicó la prueba estadística de chi cuadrado. El número de individuos dictaminados con incapacidad laboral total fue de 693; predominó en reportes el año 1988 con 114 casos y muy discretamente el sexo femenino sobre el masculino, el grupo etáreo de 45 a 54 años con 360 casos y la artrosis como entidad valorada por ortopedia, con análisis estadísticos significativos. No resultó estadísticamente significativo, el predominio de la hipertensión arterial sistémica entre las entidades valoradas por la especialidad de medicina interna como causas de incapacidad laboral. Fue muy significativa la variación del número de dictaminados por la comisión en cada uno de los años estudiados y que el porcentaje de ellos que se encontraban realizando trabajos que demandan esfuerzo físico de moderado a intenso al momento de aplicar la encuesta, ascendió al 64,9.A longitudinal, descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in order to know the behavior of permanent labor disability at the municipality of San Cristóbal during 1982-1991. A survey was done to collect data taken from the official model of medical inspections and from the interview with the disabled worker. The results were shown in contingency tables where the variables are related by every year studied. The chi square statistical test was applied. The number of individuals with labor disability was 693. As for reports, the year 1988 predominated with 114. There was a discreet

  20. Commercial nuclear fuel from U.S. and Russian surplus defense inventories: Materials, policies, and market effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Nuclear materials declared by the US and Russian governments as surplus to defense programs are being converted into fuel for commercial nuclear reactors. This report presents the results of an analysis estimating the market effects that would likely result from current plans to commercialize surplus defense inventories. The analysis focuses on two key issues: (1) the extent by which traditional sources of supply, such as production from uranium mines and enrichment plants, would be displaced by the commercialization of surplus defense inventories or, conversely, would be required in the event of disruptions to planned commercialization, and (2) the future price of uranium considering the potential availability of surplus defense inventories. Finally, the report provides an estimate of the savings in uranium procurement costs that could be realized by US nuclear power generating companies with access to competitively priced uranium supplied from surplus defense inventories.

  1. A Survey on the Living Conditions of the Offspring of Migrant Labor Forces in Beijing%关于农民工子女在京生活状况的调研

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱凌云; 王育

    2011-01-01

    本文是在"志愿北京之蓝天行动"志愿服务项目进行过程中对在京农民工子女学习生活状况的跟进调查分析。主要针对所了解到的在京农民工子女学习生活状况,提出应加强项目调研,不仅关注农民工子女的学习需求,还要关注他们"融入城市"的渴望和必然趋势。为此,应当加强"关爱农民工子女"志愿服务项目的规范化、常态化建设管理。%As a part of'Volunteers′Beijing: The Blue Sky Move',the essay analyzes the living conditions of the migrant labor force′s children in Beijing.The authors suggest that the volunteer projects should be revised,while giving sufficient concern to their incentives of migrating to big cities,which also reflects the inevitable trends in current social advances.The authors concluded by advices to normalize and sustain current projects for volunteers in Beijing.

  2. Acupuncture and Acupressure in Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaeger, Judith M; Gabzdyl, Elizabeth M; Bussell, Jeanie L; Takakura, Nobuari; Yajima, Hiroyoshi; Takayama, Miho; Wilkie, Diana J

    2017-01-01

    Acupuncture and acupressure, 2 modalities of Traditional Chinese Medicine, are based on reducing pain and symptoms of disease through balancing yin and yang. Acupuncture and acupressure have been used in China for reduction of labor pain, labor augmentation, and other intrapartum indications for more than 2 millennia. This article presents a review of the current literature that has addressed the effects of acupuncture and acupressure on intrapartum events. Studies of acupuncture have demonstrated that acupuncture may reduce labor pain, the use of pharmacologic agents, the use of forceps and vacuum-assisted births, and the length of labor. Studies that examined the effect of acupuncture on labor that is induced or augmented for premature rupture of membranes have found that acupuncture may increase the degree of cervical ripening but does not reduce the amount of oxytocin or epidural analgesia administration, nor does it shorten length of induced labor. Acupressure may reduce labor pain and labor duration, but acupressure has not been found to increase cervical ripening or induce labor. There are insufficient studies about acupuncture and acupressure and their effects on labor at this time, and there is need for further research. Areas of uncertainty include efficacy, optimal point selection, best techniques, and length of time for point stimulation.

  3. Environmental contaminants in fish and mussels from Meddybemps Lake, the Dennys River, and East Machias River - Eastern Surplus Superfund Site, Meddybemps, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From 1946 to the early 1980s, the 3-acre Eastern Surplus Superfund Site in Meddybemps, Maine, was used for the disposal and storage of surplus military equipment and...

  4. The Key Issues of Labor Migration in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie JELINKOVA

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight some often occurring failures that need to be eliminated when attempting to develop an integral and efficient policy on labor migration. As an example, a brief overview of the development of immigration policies and its critical shortcomings in the Czech Republic is provided. Following this, the paper analyzes two aspects: the protection of migrant workers and the trafficking in human beings. In particular, the paper deals with three crucial issues of labor migration which are: (1 the inconsistent aims of immigration policies, (2 the client system, and (3 the dependence on middlemen. The paper also focuses on the role of state, police, and NGO’s in the trafficking in human beings and forced labor or labor exploitation in the Czech Republic. In addition, the legislation on forced labor and the possibilities of assistance to trafficked person are analyzed.By comparing various aspects of immigration policy, this paper covers some, but certainly not all, of the key issues concerning the process of immigrant integration. Several suggestions are made that could improve the situation of labor migrants in a significant way.

  5. 移业就民:人口高流出地区的城镇化策略选择*--基于推拉模型的反力研究%Job Moving for Labors:Urbanization Strategy in Labor-losing Regions:Based on Counterforce Analysis of Push-and-pull Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟睿; 张立

    2014-01-01

    通过跨区域的移民来解决本地农村剩余劳动力的就业,是我国城镇化发展的主要路径之一。人口的区域流动为流出地和流入地的经济社会发展都做出了贡献,但是近年来我国大部分地区出现了民工荒和招工难等现象,反映出人口结构和人口迁移的新变化。在宏观分析的基础上,结合若干地区的社会调研,以推拉模型作为研究框架,分析论证了人口流入地的“拉力”变化和人口流出地的“推力”变化。与城市拉力相对应,人口流入地的反推力在逐渐加大;与农村推力相对应,人口流出地的反拉力也在加强。顺应当下推力和拉力的双向变化,指出人口高流出地区在引导农村剩余劳动力外出务工的同时,也要积极通过产业的导入来顺应本地的人口结构,提高本地人口就业,即“移业就民”。最后,结合国家新型城镇化规划提出了若干的延伸探讨。%Seeking job opportunities in different regions for rural surplus labors is one of the paths of urbanization in labor-losing regions. Inter-regional migration contributes to economic and social development in labor-losing regions as well as labor-gaining regions, but in recent years the phenomenon of labor shortage appearing in eastern regions indicates new trends of population structure and migration. This paper, combining with macro statistical data and field surveys, imports push-and-pul model as an analysis framework and explores changes of pul factors from labor-gaining regions and changes of push factors from labor-losing regions. It finds that both counter-pul force from labor-gaining regions and counter-push force from labor-losing regions are increasing. Therefore, this paper, to echo such changes, points out that the labor-losing regions should import industries adapting local population structure when they steer labors migrating out for jobs. That is to say, the orientation should be

  6. FDI, agricultural technology progress and transference of redundant rural labor force --theoretical and empirical based on "integrated model"%FDI、农业技术进步与农村剩余劳动力转移——基于“合力模型”的理论与实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵德昭; 许和连

    2012-01-01

    It is necessary to use gradient transfer of FDI and agricultural technology progress to achieve coordinative development of ur- ban and rural areas for speeding up the transition of economic developing mode in current. On the basis of "Push - pull" theory, this paper constructs an analytical framework of "integrated model" that includes FDI, agricultural technology progress and transference of redundant rural labor force, and makes empirical study based on the panel data of 28 Chinese provinces from 1996 to 2009. Results from the whole country show that, the " pull" of FDI and the " push" of agricultural technology progress both have significant positive impacts on promoting the transference of redundant rural labor force. The real urban - rural income disparity and the size of non - agri- cultural industries have significant positive " pull" impacts too. " Intermediate power" plays complex roles, such as labor market flexi- bility has a significant positive impact, while the urban unemployment rate is all the other way. For diverse areas, the real urban - rural income disparity has a significant positive impact in the eastern, but appears contrary to the central and western on the transference of redundant rural labor force, and the unemployment rate is insignificant. The "pull" of FDI in the eastern is much higher, but the "push" of agricultural technology progress is significant lower than the central and western.%用FDI产业梯度转移和农业技术进步实现城乡统筹发展,已是当前加快中国经济发展方式转变的必然要求。系统构建了包含FDI、农业技术进步和农村剩余劳动力转移在内的“合力模型”的理论分析框架,采用1996—2009年中国28个省级单位的面板数据进行实证检验。全国层面的研究表明,FDI形成的“拉力”和农业技术进步形成的“推力”对农村剩余劳动力转移均有显著的正向影响。分地区层面的研究

  7. Migrant Labor in the Workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla DAHL-JØRGENSEN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We compared immigrant workers with native workers on several factors related to their perception of their work identity anchored in their psychosocial work environment, and the result of these factors on work stress and subjective health. The data for this study came from a survey among migrant laborers in the construction and cleaning business (N=125 and was compared to a native sample (N=654 we used in an earlier study. The present study showed that the migrant workers perceived more over-commitment and higher job stress than native workers. This finding was similar to the first study in relation to these two factors. In this study, however, the construction workers and cleaners did not have significant higher levels of mental health problems than native workers. The personal ambitions of the immigrants, measured as a higher level of over-commitment was seen as a driving force behind the patterns we found. In this new study, the construction workers and cleaners showed significantly lower commitment than the natives, but still a path from over-commitment to commitment was found and may function as a barrier from developing even more stress and mental health reactions over time.

  8. Child labor. A matter of health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Rahel; Reis, Chen; Iacopino, Vincent

    2003-01-01

    Despite the existence of laws in India that prohibit the labor of children under age 14, 70 to 115 million children between the ages of 5 and 14 are estimated to be part of India's labor force. Child labor in the agriculture sector accounts for 80% of child laborers in India and 70% of working children globally. From May 2001 to July 2001, Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) investigated the health experiences of 100 children in hybrid cottonseed production in rural Andhra Pradesh. Eighty-eight percent of the survey participants were girls, ages 7 to 14. PHR found that children worked on average 12 hours a day, were frequently exposed to pesticides, and were not provided with safety equipment, not even shoes or water to wash their hands and clothes. Children reported having frequent headaches and dizziness and skin and eye irritations after pesticide spraying. All 100 children reported that they were unable to go to school during the hybrid cottonseed season due to work demands. Ninety-four children reported to PHR that they would rather be in school. In addition, a majority of child workers interviewed by PHR reported physical and/or verbal abuse by their employers. Moreover, PHR interviews with representatives of multinational and national companies revealed knowledge of child labor practices for up to 10 years. Child labor is a significant health and human rights problem for children in India. The progressive elimination of child labor practices will require the support of a wide cross-section of civil society.

  9. [International trends in laboral risk legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vigil, José Luis

    2010-01-01

    It had been established that labor damage are: laboral injuries, professional diseases and others diseases related with laboral conditions. All of them are referred to as diseases or damages suffered as a consequence of a laboral relations. It is implicated that the damage occurs in the place or during a laboral scheduled time with a causal direct relation. There is a trend in the Spanish laboral legislation, which is controversial in laboral medicine, because it includes a Law for the Prevention of Laboral Risks that consider also to the chronic diseases as a cause no traumatic of a laboral risk to conditioned a damage during the laboral journey.

  10. 77 FR 44222 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Surplus Plutonium Disposition Supplemental Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... an oxide form of plutonium suitable for disposition, and the use of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabricated... the decision to fabricate 34 metric tons (MT) (37.5 tons) of surplus plutonium into MOX fuel in the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) (65 FR 1608, January 11, 2000 and 68 FR 20134, April 24,...

  11. Testing the Pecking Order Theory: The Impact of Financing Surpluses and Large Financing Deficits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Jong (Abe); M.J.C.M. Verbeek (Marno); P. Verwijmeren (Patrick)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper extends the basic pecking order model of Shyam-Sunder and Myers (1999) by separating the effects of financing surpluses, normal deficits, and large deficits. Using a broad cross-section of publicly traded firms for 1971 to 2005, we find that the estimated pecking order coeffic

  12. 75 FR 56520 - Information on Surplus Land at a Military Installation Designated for Disposal: NASJRB Willow...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... Willow Grove, PA AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice provides information on the surplus property at Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base (NASJRB) Willow Grove located in... INFORMATION: In 2005, NASJRB Willow Grove, PA was designated for closure under the authority of the...

  13. Demographic perspectives on agrarian transformations and 'surplus populations': supply-side banalities versus redistributive imperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper frames the discussion of agrarian transformations and 'surplus populations' in the Global South within a political economy and macro-structural consideration of the developmental challenges faced in the context of contemporary rapid population growth. The case is made that the

  14. The food waste hierarchy as a framework for the management of food surplus and food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papargyropoulou, Effie; Lozano, Rodrigo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/36412380X; K. Steinberger, Julia; Wright, Nigel; Ujang, Zaini Bin

    2014-01-01

    The unprecedented scale of food waste in global food supply chains is attracting increasing attention due to its environmental, social and economic impacts. Drawing on interviews with food waste specialists, this study construes the boundaries between food surplus and food waste, avoidable and

  15. A comparison of nitrogen use efficiency and surplus in two dairy farms typologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Referring to the Destra Brenta district (Veneto Region, Italy two farming systems were considered: grassland-hay (H vs. arable land-silage maize (M. Manure and crop products belonged to an internal flow, thus an annual farm gate balance of nitrogen (N was carried out to determine the nutrient use efficiency (NUE and surplus by using data from a survey. Surplus was determined as difference between inputs (I and outputs (O and NUE as ratio between O and I. The main I was represented by purchased concentrate, on the contrary fertilizer accounted only for low amounts. Surplus per surface unit was significantly higher in M-farms group than in H one (269 vs. 369 kg N per ha; P<0.01. Surplus referred to unit of fat corrected milk was significantly lower in M-farms (17.6 vs.15.6 kg of N per ton of FCM; P<0.01 leading to an higher N-NUE (0.260 vs. 0.278; P<0.05.

  16. The Traders' Cross: Identifying Traders' Surpluses in the Traditional Edgeworth Exchange Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulier, Scott A.; Prychitko, David L.

    2010-01-01

    The Edgeworth exchange diagram is a traditional tool of undergraduate microeconomic theory that depicts the mutually beneficial gains from voluntary trade. The authors take the analysis one step further. They identify the buyer's and seller's surpluses that accrue to both trading parties in the Edgeworth diagram. This is a straightforward exercise…

  17. The food waste hierarchy as a framework for the management of food surplus and food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papargyropoulou, Effie; Lozano, Rodrigo; K. Steinberger, Julia; Wright, Nigel; Ujang, Zaini Bin

    2014-01-01

    The unprecedented scale of food waste in global food supply chains is attracting increasing attention due to its environmental, social and economic impacts. Drawing on interviews with food waste specialists, this study construes the boundaries between food surplus and food waste, avoidable and unavo

  18. Stable Isotope Analyses of Ancient Penguin Tissues Support the Krill Surplus Hypothesis in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, S. D.; Polito, M. J.; Patterson, W. P.

    2010-12-01

    The krill surplus hypothesis in Antarctica is based on the premise that historic depletion of krill-eating whales and seals in the 18-20th centuries provided a surplus of krill in the southern ocean that benefited penguins. Previous study of δ13C and δ15N stable isotopes in ancient and modern tissues of Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) from dozens of active and abandoned colonies in Antarctica have provided the first test in support of this hypothesis (Emslie and Patterson 2007). Specifically, there is a significant decrease in both δ13C and δ15N isotope values in modern versus ancient Adélie Penguin tissues from an apparent dietary shift from fish to krill associated with the timing of the purported krill surplus. Here, we present new data on similar analyses of Gentoo Penguin (P. papua) tissues from active and abandoned colonies at two locations in the Antarctic Peninsula to determine if this species recorded a similar shift in its diet in association with the krill surplus. Our results demonstrate a significant decrease (1.5-2.0 ‰) in δ13C in modern versus fossil eggshells (two-tailed t-test of modern versus fossil mean values, t = 1.98, p Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104: 11666-11669. A pair of Adélie Penguins with their well-fed chick.

  19. Suitability of oil bioremediation in an Artic soil using surplus heating from an incineration facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couto, Nazare; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Jensen, Pernille Erland;

    2014-01-01

    A 168-day period field study, carried out in Sisimiut, Greenland, assessed the potential to enhance soil remediation with the surplus heating from an incineration facility. This approach searches a feasible ex situ remediation process that could be extended throughout the year with low costs. Ind...

  20. Session 6: The effect of oxygen surplus on No reduction by Pt-loaded zeolite catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huuhtanen, M.; Keiski, R.L. [Oulu Univ., Dept. of Process and Environmental Engineering (Finland); Rahkamaa-Tolonen, K.; Maunula, T. [ECOCAT Oy, Catalysts Research, Oulu (Finland)

    2004-07-01

    In this study, Pt-loaded zeolites, ZSM-5, Beta, Y, and Ferrierite have been investigated under reaction gas mixtures which contained NO and propene with or without excess oxygen to understand the effect of oxygen surplus on NO reduction. The obtained experimental results are explained. (O.M.)

  1. Knowledge Valorisation: A Route of Knowledge That Ends In Surplus Value (An Example of The Netherlands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladchenko, Myroslava

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the reasons of the success of the Netherlands in knowledge valorisation: what are the actors that participate in knowledge valorisation process and what are their functions; what is the route of knowledge in valorisation; what "surplus value" does knowledge gain in the valorisation…

  2. When Shortage Coexists with Surplus of Teachers: The Case of Arab Teachers in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaria, Ayman K.; Pinson, Halleli

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the nexus between pre-service teacher education polices and the supply and demand of minority teachers. It problematizes the recent reports on teacher shortages in Israel, which tend to focus on the shortage of Jewish teachers while dealing with the surplus of Arab teachers only tangentially. Specifically, this article…

  3. The Value Relevance of Dirty Surplus Accounting Flows in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.; Buijink, W.F.J.; Eken Ra, R.C.W.

    2003-01-01

    Recently the Dutch financial reporting standard setters have taken steps to make dirty surplus accounting flows more visible to parties outside firms, either by eliminating their possibility or by requiring comprehensive income type statements. These steps are presumably based on the idea that dirty

  4. Forecasting and optimal probabilistic scheduling of surplus gas systems in iron and steel industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李磊; 李红娟

    2015-01-01

    To make full use of the gas resource, stabilize the pipe network pressure, and obtain higher economic benefits in the iron and steel industry, the surplus gas prediction and scheduling models were proposed. Before applying the forecasting techniques, a support vector classifier was first used to classify the data, and then the filtering was used to create separate trend and volatility sequences. After forecasting, the Markov chain transition probability matrix was introduced to adjust the residual. Simulation results using surplus gas data from an iron and steel enterprise demonstrate that the constructed SVC-HP-ENN-LSSVM-MC prediction model prediction is accurate, and that the classification accuracy is high under different conditions. Based on this, the scheduling model was constructed for surplus gas operating, and it has been used to investigate the comprehensive measures for managing the operational probabilistic risk and optimize the economic benefit at various working conditions and implementations. It has extended the concepts of traditional surplus gas dispatching systems, and provides a method for enterprises to determine optimal schedules.

  5. 基于“推一拉”理论的农村剩余劳动力回流现象分析——以黑龙江省为例%Based on Push - pull Back the Theory of the Phenomenon of Rural Surplas labor -A Case of Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王炜; 许幸莲

    2011-01-01

    中国农村剩余劳动力回流自1997年以后出现,到2011年初更趋明显。在对农村剩余劳动力回流现象的积极和消极影响进行分析的基础上,以农业大省黑龙江省为例,运用“推一拉”理论对农村剩余劳动力回流现象做出了深层次分析,并指出解决农村剩余劳动力回流问题的相应对策措施。%Since 1997 the backflow of rural surplus labors has been appeared and this phenomenon became more apparent in the beginning of 2011.On the basis of analysis on the positive and negative effect of the backflow of rural surplus labors,taking the agriculture in Heilonjiang Province for instance,the paper make a deep analysis on the phenomenon of the baekflow of rural surplus labors exerting "Pull and Push" theory and point out the related countermeasure to solve the issue of haekflow of rural surplus labors.

  6. Compensating differentials, labor market segmentation, and wage inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, Jonathan; Hardie, Jessica Halliday

    2012-09-01

    Two literatures on work and the labor market draw attention to the importance of non-pecuniary job amenities. Social psychological perspectives on work suggest that workers have preferences for a range of job amenities (e.g. Halaby, 2003). The compensating differentials hypothesis predicts that workers navigate tradeoffs among different job amenities such that wage inequality overstates inequality in utility (Smith, 1979). This paper joins these perspectives by constructing a new measure of labor market success that evaluates the degree to which workers' job amenity preferences and outcomes match. This measure of subjective success is used to predict workers' job satisfaction and to test the hypothesis that some degree of labor force inequality in wages is due to preference-based tradeoffs among all job amenities. Findings demonstrate that the new measure predicts workers' job satisfaction and provides evidence for the presence of compensating differentials in the primary and intermediate, but not secondary, labor markets.

  7. Limiting labor input is an overall prerequisite for sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to show by a simple, aggregate, descriptive model, how the importance of labor input to the production sector has to be revised in a future aiming at sustainable development. Despite substantial technological potentials for more eco-efficient utilization of nature......, for instance giving it away to countries more in need, but in the longer term the only solution is to limit the labor input to production, which is here meant as labor’s total contribution to production. This input can be split up into following factors: 1) Population, 2) Labor force fraction, 3) Working time......, 4) Employ¬ment rate, and 5) Labor productivity. The mathematical product of these five factors is the production, which must be limited at some point in time. That is a physical fact, which points towards policies often contrary to present trend in conventional growth economies, but not necessarily...

  8. Negotiation within labor relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia BĂDOI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Negotiation is the process we use in order to obtain things that we want and are controlled by others. Any desire we intend to fulfill, any need that we are obliged to meet is a potential bargaining situations. Between groups and individuals, negotiation occurs naturally, as some have one thing that the other wants and is willing to bargain to get it. More or less we are all involved in negotiations: closing a contract, buying a thing, obtaining sponsorships, collective decision making, conflict resolution, agreement on work plans. Within the field of labor relations, negotiation can occur on the occasion of closing / amending employment contracts or in order to regulate employment or work relations. Moreover, used properly, the negotiation can be an effective tool for solving labor disputes, with benefits for both involved parties. This paper aims to present negotiating principles and steps to follow in planning and preparing negotiations and the negotiating techniques that can lead to a successful negotiation based on a well-developed plan.

  9. The Crime Rate and the Condition of the Labor Market: A Vector Autoregressive Model

    OpenAIRE

    Tadashi Yamada

    1985-01-01

    Few empirical studies of the economics of crime have doubted the deterrent effects of the legal sanctions on crime. Those studies, however, have not established a definitive understanding of the effects of labor market conditions on crime. In this paper, we examine the impact of labor market conditions, represented by either male civilian unemployment or labor force participation rates, on seven major categories of crime, using the quarterly crime-rate data for the United States. Based on an ...

  10. Advanced Training of Labour Force: The USA Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushentsev, Artem

    2014-01-01

    The importance of professional development of labor force directly in the workplace has been proved. It's revealed that this is due not only to questions of advanced training, but also to the improvement of the situation on the labor market of unskilled groups of citizen. The current labor market recognizes the value and importance of people.…

  11. Segmented Labor Markets and the Distributive Cycle: A Roadmap towards Inclusive Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Charpe

    2014-01-01

    structure with fluid, latent, and stagnant components. The model exhibits a unique balanced growth path which depends on the speeds with which workers are pushed into or out of the labor market segments. We investigate the stability properties of this growth path with segmented labor markets and find that, though there is a stabilizing inflation barrier term in the wage Phillips curve, the interaction with the latent and stagnant portions of the labor market generates potentially (slowly destabilizing forces if policy measures are absent that regulate these labor markets. We then introduce an activating labor market policy, where government in addition acts as employer of last resort thereby eliminating the stagnant portion of the labor market, whilst erecting benefit systems that partially sustain the incomes of workers that have to leave the floating/latent labor market of the private sector of the economy. We show that such policies guarantee the macrostability of the economy’s balanced growth path.

  12. Migration, transfers and child labor

    OpenAIRE

    Dimova, Ralitza; Epstein, Gil S; Gang, Ira N.

    2011-01-01

    We examine agricultural child labor in the context of emigration, transfers, and the ability to hire outside labor. We start by developing a theoretical background based on Basu and Van, (1998), Basu, (1999, 2000) and Epstein and Kahana (2008) and show how hiring labor from outside the household and transfers to the household might induce a reduction in children's working hours. Analysis using Living Standards Measurement Survey (LSMS) data on the Kagera region in Tanzania lend support to the...

  13. 41 CFR 102-37.210 - Must a SASP make a drug-free workplace certification when requesting surplus property for donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-free workplace certification when requesting surplus property for donation? 102-37.210 Section 102-37...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY State Agency for... workplace certification when requesting surplus property for donation? No, you must certify that you...

  14. Are labor markets segmented across occupations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H S

    1995-01-01

    The author uses data from the 1991 Current Population Survey and the fourth edition of the Dictionary of Occupational Titles to examine the extent to which U.S. labor markets are segmented across occupational as well as industrial divisions. Consideration is also given to the differences between the male and the female work force in this regard. The author uses differences in educational status to identify distinct wage regimes across occupations. The implications both for the market structure as a whole and for gender inequalities are assessed.

  15. HE CONVERSION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF LABOR, RESPECTIVELY OF LABOR PRODUCTIVITY IN THE ECONOMIC AND COMMERCIAL RATE OF RETURN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin CĂRUNTU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Generally, an activity is considered to be efficient if the production implies low costs or if the revenues from selling the products on the market outweigh the expenditures that were made to achieve them. Labor productivity as an efficiency indicator of a production process represents an expression of the relationship between effect (products, services and effort (work means, labor force, work items. Through the labor productivity conversion in rates of return (economic and commercial is determined an evolution and an influence on these rates, driving the company’s own efforts to innovate, produce and harness goods, works and services with maximum utility, efficiency and competitiveness services. The aim of this paper is to highlight the work efficiency, respectively the labor productivity detached from the factorial context in the trade and economic rates of return. The introduction presents some general aspects referring to labor productivity, then it will be presented and discussed the analytical methods used in the process of reflecting the labor productivity in the rates of return, the results analysis, and at the end of this paper it will be presented some conclusions based on the study case. The expected results consist in identifying the mechanisms by which labor efficiency is converted into the company’s economic and financial performance.

  16. On the Fermi Large Area Telescope Surplus of Diffuse Galactic Gamma-Ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völk, H. J.; Berezhko, E. G.

    2013-11-01

    Recent observations of diffuse Galactic γ-ray emission (DGE) by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) have shown significant deviations, above a few GeV to about 100 GeV, from DGE models that use the GALPROP code for the propagation of cosmic ray (CR) particles outside their sources in the Galaxy and their interaction with the target distributions of the interstellar gas and radiation fields. The surplus of radiation observed is most pronounced in the inner Galaxy, where the concentration of CR sources is strongest. The present study investigates this "Fermi-LAT Galactic Plane Surplus" by estimating the γ-ray emission from the sources themselves, which is disregarded in the above DGE models. It is shown that the expected hard spectrum of CRs, still confined in their sources (source cosmic rays, SCRs), can indeed explain this surplus. The method is based on earlier studies regarding the so-called EGRET GeV excess, which by now is generally interpreted as an instrumental effect. The contribution from SCRs is also predicted to increasingly exceed the DGE models above 100 GeV, up to γ-ray energies of about 10 TeV, where the corresponding surplus exceeds the hadronic part of the DGE by about one order of magnitude. Above such energies, the emission surplus should decrease again with energy due to the finite lifetime of the assumed supernova remnant sources. Observations of the DGE in the inner Galaxy at 15 TeV with the ground-based Milagro γ-ray detector and, at TeV energies, with the ARGO-YBJ detector are interpreted to provide confirmation of a significant SCR contribution to the DGE.

  17. ON THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE SURPLUS OF DIFFUSE GALACTIC GAMMA-RAY EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Völk, H. J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, P.O. Box 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Berezhko, E. G., E-mail: Heinrich.Voelk@mpi-hd.mpg.de [Yu. G. Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy, 31 Lenin Avenue, 677980 Yakutsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-10

    Recent observations of diffuse Galactic γ-ray emission (DGE) by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) have shown significant deviations, above a few GeV to about 100 GeV, from DGE models that use the GALPROP code for the propagation of cosmic ray (CR) particles outside their sources in the Galaxy and their interaction with the target distributions of the interstellar gas and radiation fields. The surplus of radiation observed is most pronounced in the inner Galaxy, where the concentration of CR sources is strongest. The present study investigates this 'Fermi-LAT Galactic Plane Surplus' by estimating the γ-ray emission from the sources themselves, which is disregarded in the above DGE models. It is shown that the expected hard spectrum of CRs, still confined in their sources (source cosmic rays, SCRs), can indeed explain this surplus. The method is based on earlier studies regarding the so-called EGRET GeV excess, which by now is generally interpreted as an instrumental effect. The contribution from SCRs is also predicted to increasingly exceed the DGE models above 100 GeV, up to γ-ray energies of about 10 TeV, where the corresponding surplus exceeds the hadronic part of the DGE by about one order of magnitude. Above such energies, the emission surplus should decrease again with energy due to the finite lifetime of the assumed supernova remnant sources. Observations of the DGE in the inner Galaxy at 15 TeV with the ground-based Milagro γ-ray detector and, at TeV energies, with the ARGO-YBJ detector are interpreted to provide confirmation of a significant SCR contribution to the DGE.

  18. Crime and the Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Richard B.

    1982-01-01

    Much work on crime has focused on the effect of criminal sanctions on crime, ignoring (except as a control variable) the effect of labor market conditions on crime. This study reviews studies of time series, cross area, and individual evidence pertaining to the effect of unemployment and other labor market variables on crime and compares the "strength" of the labor market-crime and the sanctions-crime relations. It concludes that there is a labor market-crime link but that this link is not we...

  19. Labor market reforms and wage inequality in Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Hyeon-Kyeong; Skott, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Temporary workers make up a sizeable part of the labor force in many countries and typically receive wages that are significantly lower than their permanent counterparts. This paper uses an efficiency wage model to explain the wage gap between temporary and permanent workers. High-performing temp......Temporary workers make up a sizeable part of the labor force in many countries and typically receive wages that are significantly lower than their permanent counterparts. This paper uses an efficiency wage model to explain the wage gap between temporary and permanent workers. High......-performing temporary workers may gain promotion to permanent status, and a high wage to permanent workers therefore serves a dual purpose: it affects the effort of both permanent and temporary workers. Applying the model to the Korean experience, we discuss the effects of the labor market reforms in 1998 on inequality....

  20. Child Labor and School Enrollment in Thailand in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzannatos, Zafiris

    2003-01-01

    Traces recent trends in child labor, conditions of employment, and schooling in Thailand. Finds, for example, that children withdraw from school and enter labor force because families cannot afford the cost of education. Describes the effect of education subsidies on poor families. Discusses policies and practices to eliminate exploitative forms…

  1. Child Labor and School Enrollment in Thailand in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzannatos, Zafiris

    2003-01-01

    Traces recent trends in child labor, conditions of employment, and schooling in Thailand. Finds, for example, that children withdraw from school and enter labor force because families cannot afford the cost of education. Describes the effect of education subsidies on poor families. Discusses policies and practices to eliminate exploitative forms…

  2. Managing an aging workforce and a tight labor market : views held by Dutch employers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remery, Chantal; Henkens, Kène; Schippers, Joop; Ekamper, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Despite the strong growth in employment of the past years, the Dutch labor market faces a number of persistent problems. One such problem is the large number of people on disability benefits. Another problem is the low labor force participation of women, not so much in terms of people, but in terms

  3. Apprenticeship, Vocational Training, and Early Labor Market Outcomes--Evidence from East and West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riphahn, Regina T.; Zibrowius, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We study the returns to apprenticeship and vocational training for three early labor market outcomes all measured at age 25 for East and West German youths: non-employment (i.e. unemployment or out of the labor force), permanent fulltime employment, and wages. We find strong positive effects of apprenticeship and vocational training. There are no…

  4. No-Fault Divorce Laws and the Labor Supply of Women with and without Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genadek, Katie R.; Stock, Wendy A.; Stoddard, Christiana

    2007-01-01

    We use a difference-in-difference-in-difference estimator to compare changes in labor force participation, weeks, and hours of work associated with no-fault divorce laws, allowing for differential responses for married women with and without children. Although other research has found that the labor supply of women in general does not respond to…

  5. Sweatshops in the Sun - Child Labor on the Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald B.

    In 1970 about a fourth of the country's farm workers were underage, working and living in conditions which are "sub-sub-substandard" in most parts of the country. These workers are often swindled or exploited by labor contractors or crew men. Since the work is seasonal, families are forced to travel great distances, under difficult circumstances,…

  6. The Role of Domestic Abuse in Labor and Marriage Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowlus, Audra J.; Seitz, Shannon N.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we study the effects of abusive behavior on the labor force andmarital status decisions of women. Using a unique Canadian data set on domestic violence, we estimate the effects of abuse on the marital history as well as current employment using a sequential, multi-state model. In our

  7. Recessive Forced Labor in Textile Industry in Transitional Period in China-A Case Study of a Large State-owned Shareholding Textile Enterprise in Southern Jiangsu%转型时期纺织行业隐性强制劳动研究--以苏南某大型股份制国有纺织企业为个案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕程; 陈友华

    2014-01-01

    Based on the participant observation of a textile corporation in the south of Jiangsu province,it is disclosed that migrant workers consent to work overtime is contributed to a skillful and concealed forced labor mechanism with hegemonic regime instead of despotic regime as usual think-ing,which includes the wage system and hypocritical piecework system.Firstly,the price of the piece is completely determined by the factory;secondly,it is the"unfixed price","unfixed production"and"fixed salary"strategy;thirdly,fuzziness and closure operation of the piece also works.This is the re-sult of gaming between the Chinese government and labor and the global capitals,which leads to the vertical and horizontal division of China's labor market.In the perspective of vertical line,the labor are divided into"old man"under the old system and"new man"in the market.In the perspective of hori-zontal line,local workers and migrant workers are divided into the"primary"and"secondary"in the labor market based on their different household registration.The empowerment theory supplies a pos-sible solution to this problem.%经过对苏南一家纺织工厂的观察、访谈发现,工人自愿性超长时间加班并不是工厂直接强制劳动的结果,而是在深富霸权性格的工厂体制里推行的一种更巧妙更隐秘的强制劳动---精心设计的薪酬制度、虚有其名的计件制。具体体现为计件的价格完全由工厂决定,工厂实施一种“浮动价格”、“浮动产量”与“固定工资”相关联的策略,计件工资操作的模糊性和封闭性。中国政府、劳工与全球资本利益博弈的结果,造就了当下中国特殊的横向和纵向分割的二元劳动力市场,从纵向“工龄”角度分割为旧体制下的“老人”和市场体制下的“新人”,从横向户籍身份分割为本地劳工和外地劳工。以赋权为核心的“行动社会学”为解决这一困境提供了方向。

  8. Female Labour Force Participation in Developing Countries: A Critique of Current Definitions and Data Collection Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, Richard

    1983-01-01

    This article discusses the difficulties involved in obtaining accurate labor force data for Third World women, from the point of view of interviewers, respondents, and labor statisticians or economists. Suggestions are then made regarding alternative definitions of the labor force and survey questionnaire structures in order to overcome some of…

  9. The labor market consequences of family illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Allison A.

    1999-12-01

    BACKGROUND: This study examines the impact of mental illness on the labor market performance of family members of afflicted individuals. Numerous research projects have attempted to measure the impact of mental illness and related disorders on the ill individual, yet have traditionally neglected estimating potential costs accruing to family members of the ill. AIMS OF THE STUDY: Previous research estimating the impact of illness on the time allocation decisions of family caregivers has been limited in scope. I obtain estimates of the impact of mental illness on the probability of labor force participation and hours of work of all family members. The general analysis used in this study will pave the way for more accurate assessments of the costs of all types of illness and the estimates obtained will provide policy makers with a much more complete picture of the costs of mental illness. METHODS: The main empirical work in this study includes a probit estimation of labor force participation and a tobit regression of hours worked (including sample selection correction). The data sample, taken from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey, is also partitioned by gender to clarify effects of family illness on labor supply for both females and males. RESULTS: Adult males are found to increase their probability of labor force participation in the presence of mental illness in the family (all else equal) when the mental illness is accompanied by a chronic physical illness. However, females are surprisingly found to have no significant impact on their probability of being a member of the labor market when a family member is afflicted with mental illness. On the other hand, hours of work are significantly reduced for both females and males when the mentally ill family member is afflicted with additional illnesses (physical and/or mental). DISCUSSION: Previous studies have traditionally not considered the effects of family illness on males because females are typically

  10. Migrant labor absorption in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayagam, J

    1992-01-01

    The use of migrant workers to ease labor shortages caused by rapid industrialization in Malaysia during the twentieth century is examined. "This paper will focus on: (1) the extent, composition and distribution of migrant workers; (2) the labor shortage and absorption of migrant workers; and (3) the role of migrant workers in the government's economic restructuring process."

  11. Murphy's Moral Economy of Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Roger D.

    1996-01-01

    Praises and summarizes James Bernard Murphy's "The Moral Economy of Labor: Aristotelian Themes in Economic Theory." Linking economic theories from Adam Smith to Karl Marx, Murphy criticizes traditional economic and social thinking regarding the division of labor. He proposes an integration of conceptualization and execution to humanize…

  12. Labor Unions and Asset Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Addessi, William

    The paper investigates the nexus between labor and financial markets, focusing on the interaction between labor union behavior in setting wages, firms' investment strategy and asset prices. The way unions set wage claims after observing firm's financial performance increases the volatility of firms...

  13. A Select Bibliography of Books on Labor Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.

    This annotated bibliography of 90 books on labor issues presents selections in the following areas: labor history, biographies, contemporary issues, labor economics and labor relations, labor law, labor unions, women and work, and reference books. (DB)

  14. Popularizing labor analgesia in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zi Tian; Gao, Xue Lian; Yang, Hui Xia

    2007-09-01

    In China many women in labor are young primigravidas whose fear of labor pain leads them to request cesarean deliveries. While the rate of cesarean deliveries has reached 50% in many hospitals, less than 1% of women in labor are given neuraxial analgesia. The necessary equipment is seldom available in China and many physicians have misconceptions about the risks associated with neuraxial analgesia, which are low with the ultra-low-dosages used today. However, attitudes have begun to change. Meetings held in China have brought together Chinese physicians and world experts on the various epidural and combined spinal-epidural techniques. Thanks to the information and support provided at these meetings clinical trials were carried out, more than 5000 women benefited from labor analgesia, and publications appeared in Chinese journals. An effective, safe, and cost-effective way to provide analgesia to women in labor may slow the increase in cesarean delivery rates across China and improve women's health in general.

  15. Misoprostol for induction of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Megan L; Wing, Deborah A

    2015-10-01

    Labor-induction rates have increased considerably in the United States as well as around the world. With up to half of all induced labors requiring cervical ripening, prostaglandins have been utilized to increase induction success and achieve vaginal delivery. Misoprostol, a synthetic prostaglandin E1 analog has the ability to mimic the changes of spontaneous labor and has been used off label for over 30 years as a labor-induction agent. In the following article, cervical ripening and induction of labor with misoprostol will be discussed. The risks and benefits of misoprostol for ripening and induction and routes of administration will be reviewed, as well as future directions and new developments for its use.

  16. Child Labor Requirements in Agriculture under the Fair Labor Standards Act. Child Labor Bulletin No. 102.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Wage and Hour Div.

    This booklet is a guide to the provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act (also known as the Wage-Hour Law) which apply to minors employed in agriculture. The content is as follows: coverage of the child labor provisions regarding agricultural employment, minimum age standards for employment in agriculture, school hours and employment in…

  17. NOW ON THE WEB SALES AND PURCHASE OF OBSOLETE OR SURPLUS EQUIPMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The Recuperation and Sales Service wishes to recall that obsolete or surplus equipment which is no longer needed at CERN may be sold to outside institutes, members of the personnel, companies, etc. For this purpose an 'on-line sales and purchase tool' has been developed and installed on the web: consult the 'Recuperation and Sales Service' site on the CERN homepage. Users wishing to eliminate or sell obsolete or surplus equipment are invited to use the tool to issue an 'on-line sales request' and users who are looking for cheap 2nd hand equipment may consult the 'on-line sales catalogue' and make 'on-line purchase bids'. The direct sale of low value equipment, which takes place Thursdays 13h30 ­ 15h30 in the Recuperation Centre, building 133, will continue as before. For more information contact the Recuperation & Sales Service, tel. 75782 or 78665.

  18. Conversion of Surplus Picric Acid/Explosive D to Higher Value Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, A R; Hsu, P C; Coburn, M D; Schmidt, R D; Pagoria, P F; Lee, G S; Kwak, S S W

    2003-02-28

    The global demilitarization of nuclear and conventional munitions is producing millions of pounds of surplus energetic materials. Historically, energetic materials (high explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics) have been disposed of by open burning/open detonation (OB/OD). The use of OB/OD is becoming unacceptable due to public concerns and increasingly stringent environmental regulations. Clearly, there is a great need to develop environmentally sound and cost-effective alternatives to OB/OD. The conversion of surplus picric acid and/or ammonium picrate (Explosive D) to 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) has been subject of extensive process development studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). LLNL, under the direction and sponsorship of the U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC), is developing a process for the conversion of picric acid to TATB on a pilot scale.

  19. US FDI in China Has Widened China-US Trade Surplus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨来科; 廖春

    2007-01-01

    The paper analyzes the impact of U.S.direct investment in Chino on the Sino-US trade balance.The research shows that US FDI in China has largely widened the US-Chino trade deficit.On the one hand,cost-oriented US investment enlarged Ch/nese export to the US;on the other hand,market-oriented investment decreased US exports to China.Moreover,China’s surplus against US high-technology products is mainly created by foreign invested enterprises.Therefore,the paper suggests that China should adjust its FDI policies to reduce the trade surplus against the US,thereby calming the trade dispute with the US as well as other countries.

  20. The problem of surplus body mass of humanitarian specialities students (girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesterova T.V.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Have been defined a degree of conformity of body mass to length of humanitarian specialities students. Have been research 526 students, the middle age of them is 18 years and 4 month. For definition conformity of body mass to length of body is used BMI. It is set that on the average 13,5% of all students have surplus mass of body, which they inherited on a female line. From childhood 36,4% students have surplus mass of body, 45,4% - from teens, At others this problem has arisen at the age of 16-17 years. Most of them would like to bring it over to the norm and to join regular employment by physical exercises.

  1. Disposition and transportation of surplus radioactive low specific activity nitric acid. Volume 1, Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    DOE is deactivating the PUREX plant at Hanford; this will involve the disposition of about 692,000 liters (183,000 gallons) of surplus nitric acid contaminated with low levels of U and other radionuclides. The nitric acid, designated as low specific activity, is stored in 4 storage tanks at PUREX. Five principal alternatives were evaluated: transfer for reuse (sale to BNF plc), no action, continued storage in Hanford upgraded or new facility, consolidation of DOE surplus acid, and processing the LSA nitric acid as waste. The transfer to BNF plc is the preferred alternative. From the analysis, it is concluded that the proposed disposition and transportation of the acid does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA; therefore an environmental impact statement is not required.

  2. 75 FR 77042 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar Containing Products of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... Comercio Exterior de Costa Rica. Based on this data, USTR determines that Costa Rica's trade surplus is 25... data published by the Ministerio de Fomento, Industria, y Comercio. Based on this data, USTR determines...

  3. Course of major depressive disorder and labor market outcome disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhehui; Cowell, Alexander J; Musuda, Yuta J; Novak, Scott P; Johnson, Eric O

    2010-09-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been found to be negatively associated with labor market outcomes. However, MDD has many different courses that are chronic or persistent, relapsing and remitting, or limited to a single lifetime episode. Such heterogeneity has been ignored in most past analyses. We examine the impact of heterogeneity in course of MDD on labor market outcomes. Wave I (2001-2002) respondents of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions - a nationally representative panel survey - were interviewed on average 3 years later (2004-2005). We categorized changes in MDD before and after wave I and before wave II into six courses: incident, recent remission, persistent remission, relapse, persistent depression, and no history of MDD. Odds ratios (ORs) and marginal effects of MDD transitions in multivariable multinomial regressions of labor market outcomes (being out of the labor force, being unemployed, working part-time, and working full-time -- the reference outcome) are reported. Men and women who exhibited persistent remission (2 to 3 years) were equally likely to be in the labor force, employed, and working full-time, compared to those with no history of MDD (reference group). For men, recently remitted MDD (less than 1 year), compared to the reference group, increased the likelihood of being unemployed (3.2% higher probability of being unemployed conditional on being in the labor force; OR = 1.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13--3.44) and working part-time (5.8% higher probability of working part-time conditional on being employed; OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.10-2.80). For women, no statistically significant effect for recent remission was found. The negative effects of incident onset, relapse, and persistence of MDD were found on some labor market outcomes for men and, to a lesser extent, for women. Clinical treatment for depression should be coordinated and/or integrated with work-related interventions that help

  4. Surplus Product Donation and Sustainability Strategy: Channels and Challenges for Corporate Product Donations

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Md.,; Vate, John,

    2013-01-01

    Part 1: Sustainable Production; International audience; Sustainability addresses three aspects of corporate responsibility: economic, environmental and social. Over the years, the operations and supply chain literature has focused on economic and environmental objectives limiting the social agenda to ethical sourcing practices. Yet the disposition of surplus inventories in particular and charitable giving in general are key components of corporate social responsibility. We discuss the channel...

  5. Anxiety and surplus in nursing practice: lessons from Lacan and Bataille.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alicia M; Glass, Nel; Traynor, Michael

    2014-07-01

    It is well established, following Menzies' work, that nursing practice produces considerable anxiety. Like Menzies, we bring a psychoanalytic perspective to a theorization of anxiety in nursing and do so in order to consider nursing practice in the light of psychoanalytic theory, although from a Lacanian perspective. We also draw on Bataille's notion of 'surplus'. These concepts provide the theoretical framework for a study investigating how some clinical nurses are able to remain in clinical practice rather than leave the profession or seek work at a distance from the bedside. We conducted focus groups and present here an analysis of two fragments of nurses' speech. We found the nurses responded from one of two positions. In the first position, the nurses focus on doctors, complain about the surplus afforded them, and call for it to be eliminated. In this way, the nursing group is similar to other groups, considered by Bataille, who also attempt to get rid of a surplus. However, in the second position, the nurses stay with the surplus, tolerating it as they nurse the patient. This latter position is one where the nurse practises with a focus on the patient rather than being distracted by their dispute over the doctor's privilege. The importance of this paper is in its illustration of two distinct positions from which the nurse can practise: one that is not optimal because the nurse is distracted and the other that is more focused on practice, and thus the nurse is in a position to provide the best care possible to patients.

  6. Im/Ex in November, 2010: Trade Surplus Jumps to Second Highest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ On December 10, 2010, General Administration of Customs of the People's Republic of China (GAC) released the profile of Chinas import and export in November and the first eleven months of this year. China's foreign trade in the first eleven months totaled US$2.68 trillion, a year-on-year increase of 36.3 percent, according to the GAC. Trade surplus for the first eleven months of the year totaled US$170.41 billion.

  7. The food waste hierarchy as a framework for the management of food surplus and food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Papargyropoulou, E; Lozano, R.; Steinberger, JK; Wright, N; Ujang, ZB

    2014-01-01

    The unprecedented scale of food waste in global food supply chains is attracting increasing attention due to its environmental, social and economic impacts. Drawing on interviews with food waste specialists, this study construes the boundaries between food surplus and food waste, avoidable and unavoidable food waste, and between waste prevention and waste management. This study suggests that the first step towards a more sustainable resolution of the food waste issue is to adopt a sustainable...

  8. Exposures Resulting in Safety and Health Concerns for Child Laborers in Less Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek G. Shendell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Worldwide, over 200 million children are involved in child labor, with another 20 million children subjected to forced labor, leading to acute and chronic exposures resulting in safety and health (S&H risks, plus removal from formal education and play. This review summarized S&H issues in child labor, including forced or indentured domestic labor as other sectors of child labor. Specifically, we focused on exposures leading to S&H risks. Methods. We used PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. References were in English, published in 1990–2015, and included data focused on exposures and S&H concerns of child labor. Results. Seventy-six journal articles were identified, 67 met criteria, 57 focused on individual countries, and 10 focused on data from multiple countries (comparing 3–83 countries. Major themes of concern were physical exposures including ergonomic hazards, chemical exposure hazards, and missed education. Childhood labor, especially forced, exploitative labor, created a significant burden on child development, welfare, and S&H. Conclusions. More field researche data emphasizing longitudinal quantitative effects of exposures and S&H risks are needed. Findings warranted developing policies and educational interventions with proper monitoring and evaluation data collection, plus multiple governmental, international organization and global economic reform efforts, particularly in lower-income, less developed countries.

  9. Exposures Resulting in Safety and Health Concerns for Child Laborers in Less Developed Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendell, Derek G; Noomnual, Saisattha; Chishti, Shumaila; Sorensen Allacci, MaryAnn; Madrigano, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Worldwide, over 200 million children are involved in child labor, with another 20 million children subjected to forced labor, leading to acute and chronic exposures resulting in safety and health (S&H) risks, plus removal from formal education and play. This review summarized S&H issues in child labor, including forced or indentured domestic labor as other sectors of child labor. Specifically, we focused on exposures leading to S&H risks. Methods. We used PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. References were in English, published in 1990-2015, and included data focused on exposures and S&H concerns of child labor. Results. Seventy-six journal articles were identified, 67 met criteria, 57 focused on individual countries, and 10 focused on data from multiple countries (comparing 3-83 countries). Major themes of concern were physical exposures including ergonomic hazards, chemical exposure hazards, and missed education. Childhood labor, especially forced, exploitative labor, created a significant burden on child development, welfare, and S&H. Conclusions. More field researche data emphasizing longitudinal quantitative effects of exposures and S&H risks are needed. Findings warranted developing policies and educational interventions with proper monitoring and evaluation data collection, plus multiple governmental, international organization and global economic reform efforts, particularly in lower-income, less developed countries.

  10. Does labor market history matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesner, Rune Vammen

    2014-01-01

    This paper finds that labor market history plays an important role in the Danish labor market both by directly affecting the transitions between labor market states and indirectly through the wage. When comparing the relative importance of different types of state dependence, it is found...... that occurrence dependence from non-employment states seems to have the strongest effect on the employment rate, while employment history is the main driver of state dependence in the wage. Predictions based on the estimated model reveal potential negative long-term effects from external employment shocks...... and potential positive benefits from employment programs for long-term unemployed....

  11. La contrarreforma laboral de 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Amorós, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    La reforma laboral de 2012 es vertebra entorn de la Llei 3/2012, de 6 de juliol, de mesures urgents per a la reforma del mercat laboral, text que va entrar en vigor el dia 8 de juliol de 2012. Una Llei que encimbella el “mercat” -“laboral”- a la categoria de subjecte de dret. Des de l'òptica de la política del dret, la Llei 3/2012, reordena les fonts reguladores de les relacions laborals reconfigurant els poders normatius; i des de l'òptica de la lògica jurídica, fa servir, inadequadament, ca...

  12. Labor market reforms and wage inequality in Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skott, Peter; Kim, Hyeon-Kyeong

    2016-01-01

    Temporary workers make up a sizeable part of the labor force in many countries and typically receive wages that are significantly lower than their permanent counterparts. This paper uses an efficiency wage model to explain the wage gap between temporary and permanent workers. High......-performing temporary workers may gain promotion to permanent status, and a high wage to permanent workers therefore serves a dual purpose: it affects the effort of both permanent and temporary workers. Applying the model to the Korean experience, we discuss the effects of the labor market reforms in 1998 on inequality....

  13. Financial Globalization and Labor: Employee Shareholding or Labor Regression?

    OpenAIRE

    Nacho Álvarez Peralta; Bibiana Medialdea García

    2008-01-01

    The authors review from a critical perspective the ‘patrimonial capitalism’ approach, as well as its analysis of wage-labor transformations in developed economies during the last thirty years. For this purpose, they take the economies of France and the United States as study cases. According to this approach, patrimonial financialization of working households has involved a radical transformation of the wage-labor nexus, paradigmatically exemplified by the concept of employee shareholding. Th...

  14. Capital injections with negative surplus and delays:models and analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuo JIN; George YIN

    2014-01-01

    This work develops a new model to deal with the scenario that some companies can still run business even the surplus falls below zero temporarily. With such a scenario in mind, we allow the surplus process to continue in this negative-surplus period, during which capital injections will be ordered to assist in the stabilization of financial structure, until the financial status becomes severe enough to file bankruptcy. The capital injections will be modeled as impulse controls. By introducing the capital injections with time delays, optimal dividend payment and capital injection policies are considered. Using the dynamic programming approach, the value function obeys a quasi-variational inequality. With delays in capital injections, the company will be exposed to the risk of bankruptcy during the delay period. In addition, the optimal dividend payment and capital injection strategies should balance the expected cost of the possible capital injections and the time value of the delay periods. This gives rise to a stochastic control problem with mixed singular and delayed impulse controls. Under general assumptions, the lower capital injection barrier is determined, where bankruptcy occurs. The closed-form solution to the value function and corresponding optimal policies are obtained.

  15. [Electricity generation of surplus sludge microbial fuel cells enhanced by additional enzyme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Liu, Zhi-Hu; Li, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Qi; Fang, Li; Huang, Hua-Jun; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Li, Shuo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the feasibility of enhanced electricity generation of microbial fuel cell fed surplus sludge by additional enzymes (neutral protease and alpha-amylase) was discussed. The effect of dosage of additional enzyme on characteristics of electricity generation of the surplus sludge microbial fuel cell (SSMFC) and the reduction of surplus sludge were investigated. The results indicated that the maximum output power destiny of the group of experiment was higher than that of control under the same condition. Moreover, the maximum output power density, coulomb efficiency, efficiency of reducing TCOD, efficiency of reducing TSS and efficiency of reducing VSS reached up to 507 W x m(-2) (700 mW x m(-2)), 3.98% (5.11%), 88.31% (94.09%), 83.18% (98.02%) and 89.03% (98.80%) respectively for protease (alpha-amylase) at the dosage of 10 mg x g(-1). This study demonstrated that additional enzyme greatly enhanced the electricity generation of MFC with simultaneous accomplishments of sludge treatment, providing a novel approach for the practical application of microbial fuel cell.

  16. Recent Progress on the Conversion of Surplus Picric Acid/Explosive D to Higher Value Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.Mitchell, A; Hsu, P C; Coburn, M D; Schmidt, R D; Pagoria, P F; Lee, G S; Kwak, S W

    2004-07-06

    The global demilitarization of nuclear and conventional munitions is producing millions of pounds of surplus energetic materials. Historically, energetic materials (high explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics) have been disposed of by open burning/open detonation (OB/OD). The use of OB/OD is becoming unacceptable due to public concerns and increasingly stringent environmental regulations. Clearly, there is a great need to develop environmentally sound and cost-effective alternatives to OB/OD. The conversion of surplus picric acid and/or ammonium picrate (Explosive D) to1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6- trinitrobenzene (TATB) has been subject of extensive process development studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). LLNL, under the direction and sponsorship of the U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC), is developing a process for the conversion of picric acid to TATB on a larger scale. In FY 03, a 10 g per batch process was developed with good results. Development for a one pound per batch system is required as part of overall scale up process for producing TATB from the surplus feedstocks.

  17. On The {\\it Fermi} -Lat Surplus of the Diffuse Galactic Gamma-Ray Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Voelk, Heinrich J

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations of the diffuse Galactic \\gr emission (DGE) by the {\\it Fermi} Large Area Telescope ({\\it Fermi}-LAT) have shown significant deviations, above a few GeV until about 100 GeV, from DGE models that use the GALPROP code for the propagation of cosmic ray (CR) particles outside their sources in the Galaxy and their interaction with the target distributions of the interstellar gas and radiation fields. The surplus of radiation observed is most pronounced in the inner Galaxy, where the concentration of CR sources is strongest. The present study investigates this "{\\it Fermi}-LAT Galactic Plane Surplus" by estimating the \\gr emission from the sources themselves, which is disregarded in the above DGE models. It is shown that indeed the expected hard spectrum of CRs, still confined in their sources (SCRs), can explain this surplus. The method is based on earlier studies regarding the so-called EGRET GeV excess which by now is generally interpreted as an instrumental effect. The contribution from SCRs ...

  18. Gender, labor, and prime-age adult mortality: evidence from South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Yamauchi, Futoshi; Buthelezi, Thabani; Velia, Myriam

    2006-01-01

    "This paper examines the impact of prime-age adult mortality on the transition from school to the labor market of adolescents and on decisions by female adults to participate in the labor force in South Africa. The analysis focuses on that period—1998–2004—when South Africa experienced excess mortality due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. We find, first, that deaths of prime-age adults significantly increase both male and female adolescents' labor force participation because they stop their schoolin...

  19. Perceived consequences of female labor-force participation: a multilevel latent-class analysis across 22 countries (Consecuencias percibidas de la participación femenina en el mercado de trabajo: un análisis multinivel de clases latentes en 22 países

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Glöckner-Rist

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether there are different patterns of traditionality in different countries with regard to a perceived negative impact of labor-force participation of mothers on their children and family life. For this purpose, individual-level traditionality subgroups and segments of countries with different traditionality patterns of their nationals were identified simultaneously by means of multilevel latent-class (ML-LC analysis of the answers to three items of the Changing Family and Gender Roles module of the International Social Survey Program (ISSP. This module was fielded in 22 countries in the years 1994 and 2002. Six individual-level subgroups and five country segments can be discerned. The structure of individual-level subgroups is almost identical in both years. Four individual-level subgroups differ only quantitatively in their level of traditionality. Two further subgroups are characterized by a unique tendency to defend working mothers against criticism. From 1994 to 2002 the sizes of traditional subgroups decrease, and there is also some change in the composition of country segments. This paper investigates whether there are different patterns of traditionality in different countries with regard to a perceived negative impact of labor-force participation of mothers on their children and family life. For this purpose, individual-level traditionality subgroups and segments of countries with different traditionality patterns of their nationals were identified simultaneously by means of multilevel latent-class (ML-LC analysis of the answers to three items of the Changing Family and Gender Roles module of the International Social Survey Program (ISSP. This module was fielded in 22 countries in the years 1994 and 2002. Six individual-level subgroups and five country segments can be discerned. The structure of individual-level subgroups is almost identical in both years. Four individual-level subgroups differ only

  20. Automatización de la elaboración de nutrición parenteral: adecuación a la legislación actual Automation of parenteral nutrition laboration: adaptation to in force legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Llop Talaverón

    2006-04-01

    fue de 2,41%, 1,35% y 1,25% respectivamente (tabla I. Esta disminución fue significativa (p=0,014. Al analizar el porcentaje de preparaciones fuera del límite de variación del 3% se observó una reducción significativa (p=0,00001 al comparar los 3 periodos (tabla II. El tiempo medio de elaboración con el SACV aumentó aproximadamente 4 minutos por bolsa (3min58s en el primer periodo estudiado y 3min10s al comparar las NP elaboradas con el SACV durante el segundo periodo de estudio con el SG. Conclusiones: El nuevo sistema de llenado de bolsas mediante control volumétrico supone un aumento en el control de la exactitud y una disminución del riesgo de superar los límites considerados aceptables. La puesta en marcha de un proceso tecnológico es una tarea difícil que implica el cambio en muchos aspectos de la actividad diaria y que hace necesario un cambio "cultural" en la Unidad de NP con el fin de optimizar todo el proceso. Sin embargo, estos aspectos permiten una adecuación a los requisitos legales existentes en cuanto a normas de correcta elaboración y control de calidad de fórmulas magistrales así como una mejora en la calidad asistencial integral.Introduction: Quality and efficiency criteria of allowances associated to technological procedures are developing in a setting that values quality, and from there the Real Decree RD175/2001 has been issued by which the rules of correct elaboration and quality control of formulations and pharmacy preparations. Parenteral nutrition (PN is a formulation and, as such, its elaboration and control have to agree with the in force regulations.With this aim, at the Bellvitge University Hospital we have developed a project for automation of elaboration of PN mixtures with the MicroMacro Pump 23 Baxa Compounder®. Objectives: To assess the impact of implementing an automated system of volumetric control in PN elaboration. Material and methods: The project development may be divided into two differentiated aspects. The

  1. [Cerebral blood flow during labor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendel, H; Funk, A; Jörn, H; Gans, A

    1990-01-01

    The successful results obtained using Doppler sonography for antepartal diagnosis gave cause to use the method during labor. For this purpose doppler measurements of the intern fetal carotid artery of a group of 7 patients with normal course of pregnancy were made and a continuous direct CTG was recorded simultaneously. The Doppler parameter, the S/D-ratio, for the contraction phases were compared with those of the contraction--free phases. During the contraction phase the S/D-ratio was higher than during the relaxation period of the uterus. The difference between these values were proved to be statistically significant. A comparison of the doppler parameter of the patients at onset of labor and the patients at the end of labor showed, that the S/D-ratio increased significantly at the end of labor. This result demonstrates, that the intravascular resistance in the fetal carotid artery increased due to the cephalic pressure.

  2. Groundwater nitrate pollution: High-resolution approach of calculating the nitrogen balance surplus for Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klement, Laura; Bach, Martin; Breuer, Lutz; Häußermann, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    The latest inventory of the EU Water Framework Directive determined that 26.3% of Germany's groundwater bodies are in a poor chemical state regarding nitrate. As of late October 2016, the European Commission has filed a lawsuit against Germany for not taking appropriate measures against high nitrate levels in water bodies and thus failing to comply with the EU Nitrate Directive. Due to over-fertilization and high-density animal production, Agriculture was identified as the main source of nitrate pollution. One way to characterize the potential impact of reactive nitrogen on water bodies is the soil surface nitrogen balance where all agricultural nitrogen inputs within an area are contrasted with the output, i.e. the harvest. The surplus nitrogen (given in kg N per ha arable land and year) can potentially leach into the groundwater and thus can be used as a risk indicator. In order to develop and advocate appropriate measures to mitigate the agricultural nitrogen surplus with spatial precision, high-resolution data for the nitrogen surplus is needed. In Germany, not all nitrogen input data is available with the required spatial resolution, especially the use of mineral fertilizers is only given statewide. Therefore, some elements of the nitrogen balance need to be estimated based on agricultural statistics. Hitherto, statistics from the Federal Statistical Office and the statistical offices of the 16 federal states of Germany were used to calculate the soil surface balance annually for the spatial resolution of the 402 districts of Germany (mean size 890 km2). In contrast, this study presents an approach to estimate the nitrogen surplus at a much higher spatial resolution by using the comprehensive Agricultural census data collected in 2010 providing data for 326000 agricultural holdings. This resulted in a nitrogen surplus map with a 5 km x 5 km grid which was subsequently used to calculate the nitrogen concentration of percolation water. This provides a

  3. Labor Supply and Optimization Frictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Jakob Egholt

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I investigate the nature of optimization frictions by studying the labor market of Danish students. This particular labor market is an interesting case study as it features a range of special institutional settings that affect students’ incentive to earn income and comparing outcomes...... theory. More concretely I find the dominate optimization friction to be individuals’ inattention about their earnings during the year, while real adjustment cost and gradual learning appears to be of less importance....

  4. Why Should We Care about Child Labor? The Education, Labor Market, and Health Consequences of Child Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev; Gatti, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Despite the extensive literature on the determinants of child labor, the evidence on the consequences of child labor on outcomes such as education, labor, and health is limited. We evaluate the causal effect of child labor participation among children in school on these outcomes using panel data from Vietnam and an instrumental variables strategy.…

  5. Why Should We Care about Child Labor? The Education, Labor Market, and Health Consequences of Child Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev; Gatti, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Despite the extensive literature on the determinants of child labor, the evidence on the consequences of child labor on outcomes such as education, labor, and health is limited. We evaluate the causal effect of child labor participation among children in school on these outcomes using panel data from Vietnam and an instrumental variables strategy.…

  6. 劳动法视域下新生代农民工权利缺失问题%Analysis of the Lack of Rights of the New Generation of Migrant Workers in the Perspection of Labor Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王业松

    2012-01-01

    With China reform and open going in depth, industrialization and urban construction going faster, also the temptation of better life in the city attract a great number of surplus labor forces have flock to the cities from countryside. We call these labor peasant-workers. The peasant-workers have made noticeable contributions to the cities they are staying; they should enjoy the same rights as the city inhabitants. But, four years has gone since the labor contract law issued, their legal rights cannot be realized and sometimes are seriously offended without in time remedy and protection. A right without remedy is not a right, Justice delayer is justice denied, so it is necessary for us to find a way to protect peasant-workers rights under labor law.%中国经济崛起和城市化进程过程中农民工的贡献有目共睹,城市让生活更美好的诱惑使得中国的新老两代农民工从农村流入城市,2008年1月1日的《劳动合同法》和《劳动争议调解仲裁法》让社会看到了改善农民工权利状况的希望,然而新生代农民工的权利保护尤其是作为一名劳动者的权利保护的现状依然不如人意,没有救济的权利不是真正的权利、迟来的正义是非正义,每年岁末对于农民工权益的突击性保障并不能从根本上解决问题,把包括农民工权益保障的社会问题纳入法治框架内、通过探析新生代农民工权利阙如问题及原因进而发现从制度层面进行解决才是解决农民工权益保障问题的根本途径。

  7. Oxytocin regimen for labor augmentation, labor progression, and perinatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Branch, D Ware; Ramirez, Mildred M; Laughon, S Katherine; Reddy, Uma; Hoffman, Mathew; Bailit, Jennifer; Kominiarek, Michelle; Chen, Zhen; Hibbard, Judith U

    2011-08-01

    To examine the effects and safety of high-dose (compared with low-dose) oxytocin regimen for labor augmentation on perinatal outcomes. Data from the Consortium on Safe Labor were used. A total of 15,054 women from six hospitals were eligible for the analysis. Women were grouped based on their oxytocin starting dose and incremental dosing of 1, 2, and 4 milliunits/min. Duration of labor and a number of maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared among these three groups stratified by parity. Multivariable logistic regression and generalized linear mixed model were used to adjust for potential confounders. Oxytocin regimen did not affect the rate of cesarean delivery or other perinatal outcomes. Compared with 1 milliunit/min, the regimens starting with 2 milliunits/min and 4 milliunits/min reduced the duration of first stage by 0.8 hours (95% confidence interval 0.5-1.1) and 1.3 hours (1.0-1.7), respectively, in nulliparous women. No effect was observed on the second stage of labor. Similar patterns were observed in multiparous women. High-dose regimen was associated with a reduced risk of meconium stain, chorioamnionitis, and newborn fever in multiparous women. High-dose oxytocin regimen (starting dose at 4 milliunits/min and increment of 4 millliunits/min) is associated with a shorter duration of first-stage of labor for all parities without increasing the cesarean delivery rate or adversely affecting perinatal outcomes. II.

  8. Department of Labor Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Fair Labor Standards Act 1235-AA04 ] Wage and Hour Division--Final Rule Stage Regulation Sequence Title Identifier Number Number 219 Amendments to the Fair Labor Standards Act 1235-AA00 220 Child Labor Regulations... Sequence Title Identifier Number Number 221 Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act to Domestic Service...

  9. [Trends in labor medicine in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Hernández, Rodolfo

    2010-01-01

    Labor medicine is the natural field for searching the relation between society, work and disease. It is also the field for preventing labor diseases, and for the application resulting from search as protection measures in the laboral services. At present, tendencies in laboral medicine services are multidisciplinary where the specialists need to development competences in epidemiology, clinics, investigation, toxicology, dermatology and many other fields.

  10. Tax Policy and Labor Market Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    In exploring the impact of tax policy on labor-market performance, the paper first investigates how tax reform impacts labor supply and equilibrium unemployment in representative agent models.The impact of tax policy on labor market performance depends importantly on various other labor-market insti

  11. 75 FR 13429 - Unfair Labor Practice Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Unfair Labor Practice Proceedings AGENCY: Office of the General Counsel, Federal Labor Relations...) revises portions of its regulations regarding unfair labor practice (ULP) proceedings. The purpose of the... analyses of the revisions to Part 2423--Unfair Labor Practice Proceedings are as follows: Part...

  12. Child labor and school policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago V. de V. Cavalcanti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether child labor is socially inefficient. Baland and Robinson (2000 show that child labor might be inefficient when parents care for their children's welfare. In their model, child labor is explained by two factors: poverty and capital market imperfections. However, education in their model is readily available in terms of access, affordability and quality. This paper shows that the incidence of child labor is negatively related to school quality and positively related to the labor market conditions for children. It also shows that when children have no access to school or their access is limited, child labor is socially efficient. Therefore, a ban on child labor is not necessarily Pareto improving.Este artigo investiga se o trabalho infantil é socialmente ineficiente. Em recente artigo, Baland and Robinson (2000 mostram que, quando os pais se preocupam com o bem-estar dos filhos, o trabalho infantil é ineficiente. O emprego de crianças, no modelo desses autores, é explicado por dois fatores: pobreza e imperfeicões no mercado de crédito. No entanto, educação é prontamente disponível na economia de Baland e Robinson, tanto em termos de acesso, quanto de qualidade. Contudo, nos países em desenvolvimento, escolas não são disponíveis para todas as crianças, principalmente nas áreas rurais, onde o problema de emprego de menores é mais acentuado. Este artigo mostra que o grau de incidência de trabalho infantil nas sociedades depende da qualidade do sistema educacional e das condições de mercado de trabalho para as crianças. O artigo demonstra, ainda, que quando o acesso à escola é limitado, o trabalho infantil é socialmente eficiente. Assim, restrições legais de emprego de menores não necessariamente implicam uma melhora de Pareto.

  13. REGIONAL DYNAMICS ORGANIZATION OF URBAN LABOR MARKETS: AN ANALYSIS FROM THE LABOR MARKETS IN THE TOWNS OF MICRO-REGION OF SANTA CRUZ DO SUL (RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Andre Cadoná

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes how regional development dynamics affect the organization of labor markets, but also the working conditions of people living labor. Taking as empirical reference research conducted in towns of micro-region of Santa Cruz do Sul (RS, whose economy is heavily dependent on tobacco agro-industrial production, attentive to how regional particularities contribute to defining the forms of employability and the use of force-of-work, but also and even the forms of unemployment. Keywords: Regional dynamics. Labor market. Employment. Unemployment. Working conditions.

  14. Child Labor Trafficking in the United States: A Hidden Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Kaufka Walts

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Emerging research brings more attention to labor trafficking in the United States. However, very few efforts have been made to better understand or respond to labor trafficking of minors. Cases of children forced to work as domestic servants, in factories, restaurants, peddling candy or other goods, or on farms may not automatically elicit suspicion from an outside observer as compared to a child providing sexual services for money. In contrast to sex trafficking, labor trafficking is often tied to formal economies and industries, which often makes it more difficult to distinguish from "legitimate" work, including among adolescents. This article seeks to provide examples of documented cases of child labor trafficking in the United States, and to provide an overview of systemic gaps in law, policy, data collection, research, and practice. These areas are currently overwhelmingly focused on sex trafficking, which undermines the policy intentions of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (2000, the seminal statute criminalizing sex and labor trafficking in the United States, its subsequent reauthorizations, and international laws and protocols addressing human trafficking.

  15. Do small labor market entry cohorts reduce unemployment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Garloff

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Germany, like many OECD countries, faces a shift in the age composition of its population,and will face an even more drastic demographic change in the years ahead. From a theoretical point of view, decreasing cohort sizes may on the one hand reduce unemployment due to inverse cohort crowding or, on the other hand, increase unemploymentif companies reduce jobs disproportionately. Consequently, the actual effect of cohort shrinkage on employment and unemployment is an empirical question. OBJECTIVE We quantitatively assess the relationship between (unemployment and cohort sizes. METHODS We analyze a long panel of population and labor-market data for Western German labor market regions. We isolate the direct, statistical effect of aging in a decomposition approach and estimate the overall effect by regression. In this context, we account for the likely endogeneity of cohort size due to migration of the young workforce across regions using lagged births as instrument. RESULTS The direct effect of the age composition of the labor force on unemployment is negligible.In contrast, the elasticities of unemployment and employment with regard to the labor-market entry cohort's size are significantly positive or negative, respectively. The causal effect indicates an over-elastic reaction by unemployment. CONCLUSIONS Our results provide good news for the Western German labor market: small entry cohorts are indeed likely to decrease the overall unemployment rate and thus to improve the situation of job seekers. Accordingly, we find the employment rate is positively affected by a decrease in the youth proportion.

  16. Population and labour force growth and patterns in ASEAN countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, S

    1988-01-01

    "The paper shows that the diverse labor dimensions prevailing in the ASEAN region can be attributed to changes in the structure of the society and economy in the course of recent economic development. It observes the considerable variety in the growth of the population and its effect on the labor force in the ASEAN region.... The paper details the similarity and diversity in the level and type of labor force participation rates. A common feature shared by ASEAN countries is a general pattern in the age-specific participation rate of men. In contrast, the women, aside from participating in the labor force at a much lower level than men at almost all ages, display diverse patterns of participation over the working age range. Lastly, the distribution of the labor force according to major industrial sectors in the six ASEAN countries is presented...."

  17. 76 FR 54835 - Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations-Civil...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... September 2, 2011 Part II Department of Labor Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Parts 570 and 579 Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations; Civil Money Penalties; Proposed...; ] DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Parts 570 and 579 RIN 1235-AA06 Child Labor Regulations...

  18. CHILD LABOR ABUSE: LEGAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Majhoshev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of child labor and ways of protection from child labor abuse. Child labor is a negative social phenomenon that is widespread throughout the world, and also in Republic of Macedonia. International and national institutions and organizations are making serious efforts to eradicate this negative phenomenon, through the adoption of numerous international legal instruments (conventions, recommendations, declarations, etc.. Child labor as a phenomenon refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability of education, and that is socially, mentally, physically, or morally dangerous and harmful. All international organizations define this practice as exploitative and destructive to the development of the whole society. With international legal instruments of the UN, ILO, Council of Europe and the EU child labor is strictly prohibited. There are some important differences which exist between the many kinds of work that is done by children. Some of them are demanding and difficult, others are hazardous and morally reprehensible. Children are doing a very wide range of activities and tasks when they work.

  19. Intrauterine infection and preterm labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Varkha; Hirsch, Emmet

    2011-01-01

    Summary Preterm labor is defined as labor that begins before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. More than 12% of infants born in the USA are preterm. At least 40% of preterm births are associated with intrauterine infection. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are members of a family of cell-surface proteins responsible for recognition of a diverse spectrum of bacterial, viral and fungal pathogens. TLRs initiate the host innate (i.e. non-adaptive) immune response, inducing a proinflammatory cascade involving cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins, and other effector molecules that result in the characteristic phenomena of labor, such as uterine contractions and rupture of fetal membranes. These cascades may also be activated by mechanisms that are not primarily infectious but are accompanied by inflammatory responses. Now that the molecular mechanisms linking infection and labor have been, to a large extent, elucidated, the challenge is to identify points of overlap with non-infectious causes of labor and to find intervention strategies that can minimize the negative impact of preterm delivery. PMID:21944863

  20. Child labor: An integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Técia Maria Santos Carneiro e Cordeiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify the knowledge available in the SciELO database of regarding child labor. It is an integrative review in SciELO Brazil database with the following selection criteria: a articles published in national journals; b articles published between 2010 to June 2011; c articles indexed in Portuguese; d addressing the child labor. The documentary corpus consists of six papers. The results point to the scarcity of publications for health professionals and the state of Bahia, the largest proportion of exploitation of child labor in rural areas, in males and in low income families, interference with the growing and physical and psychological development of children, and strategic proposals to combat the exploitation of child labor, combat poverty and compliance of the laws. It is concluded that child labor need to be the subject of debates, lectures, seminars and scientific researches to address the importance of this issue in society, its consequences, constitute a problem that economic, social, collective and that involves public health

  1. CHILD LABOR: AN INTEGRATIVE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Técia Maria Santos Carneiro e Cordeiro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify the knowledge available in the SciELO database of regarding child labor. It is an integrative review in SciELO Brazil database with the following selection criteria: a articles published in national journals; b articles published between 2010 to June 2011; c articles indexed in Portuguese; d addressing the child labor. The documentary corpus consists of six papers. The results point to the scarcity of publications for health professionals and the state of Bahia, the largest proportion of exploitation of child labor in rural areas, in males and in low income families, interference with the growing and physical and psychological development of children, and strategic proposals to combat the exploitation of child labor, combat poverty and compliance of the laws. It is concluded that child labor need to be the subject of debates, lectures, seminars and scientific researches to address the importance of this issue in society, its consequences, constitute a problem that economic, social, collective and that involves public health.

  2. Evaluation of Agri-Environmental Measures in the Venice Lagoon Watershed. Nitrogen Budgets and Surplus Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Trevisiol

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the main concerns of the environmental scientists and policy makers is related to the environmental compatibility of current agricultural systems and, in particular, to the losses of chemical fertilizers and manure in surface and ground-waters, as a consequence of run-off and leaching phenomena. In most cases European recent agrienvironmental schemes envisaged specific measures for the reduction of fertilizer rates and the control of manure applications, in order to limit the releases of nutrients in surface and ground-waters. Substantial financial resources are invested in those measures and therefore the issue raises interest in monitoring and evaluating their effectiveness. Nutrient balance indicators are often used for quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of the measures in limiting the environmental impact of farming activities. N-surplus is one of the most commonly used indicators. The paper refers the results of a research project aimed at assessing the outcomes of agri-environmental measures implemented in the Venice Lagoon Watershed with an approach based upon the gross nitrogen balance, called “Nboxes”. The results of applying the Nboxes procedure to a sample of 550 farms set are presented, evidencing the expectations of greater effectiveness in terms of nitrogen surplus reduction from the measure C.5.1.3a and C.5.1.3b (low input farming and buffer strips. Measures supporting improved irrigation systems, controlled drainage and more rational livestock nutritional programmes and technologies, showed instead only limited potential for tangible contributions to the reduction of nitrogen surplus in cultivated soils.

  3. LLNL MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R. [and others

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. The DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD) has developed a dual-path strategy for disposition of surplus weapons-grade plutonium. One of the paths is to disposition surplus plutonium through irradiation of MOX fuel in commercial nuclear reactors. MOX fuel consists of plutonium and uranium oxides (PuO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2}), typically containing 95% or more UO{sub 2}. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. LLNL has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. This includes receipt and storage of PuO{sub 2} powder, fabrication of MOX fuel pellets, assembly of fuel rods and bundles, and shipping of the packaged fuel to a commercial reactor site. Support activities will take place within a Category 1 area. Building 332 will be used to receive and store the bulk PuO{sub 2} powder, fabricate MOX fuel pellets, and assemble fuel rods. Building 334 will be used to assemble, store, and ship fuel bundles. Only minor modifications would be required of Building 332. Uncontaminated glove boxes would need to be removed, petition walls would need to be removed, and minor modifications to the ventilation system would be required.

  4. Numerical Ultimate Ruin Probabilities under Interest Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juma Kasozi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the issue of ruin of an insurer whose portfolio is exposed to insurance risk arising from the classical surplus process. Availability of a positive interest rate in the financial world forces the insurer to invest into a risk free asset. We derive a linear Volterra integral equation of the second kind and apply an order four Block-by-block method in conjuction with the Simpson rule to solve the Volterra equation for ultimate ruin. This probability is arrived at by taking a linear combination of some two solutions to the Volterra integral equation. The several numerical examples given show that our results are excellent and reliable.

  5. Women's Labor Force Attachment and Childbearing in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of women's economic activity, earnings and take-up of child home care allowance on childbearing, using a ten percent sample from a longitudinal register data set that covers the entire female population of reproductive age in Finland in 1988-2000. Results show that a woman's economic activity and income were positively correlated with entry into motherhood and to a lesser extent with having a second child. This supports the notion of a common pattern of this relationship in the Nordic countries. In the light of Finland's rollercoaster economic development in the 1990s, the effects of a change in female population composition by economic characteristics on the fertility trend were small.

  6. Free Movement of Labor Force in the Schengen Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George MĂGUREANU

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Common political, economic, social and security interests of some countries on the European continent led to the creation of the European Union, which although is not state or supra-state, is an organization formed by a group of independent European states. Among the major ambitions pursued by citizens of States which joined the European Union, and that of the movement in the European space, for finding a job or tourism purposes, without limitations or restrictions, such as citizenship, nationality, except those related to the compliance with EU Directives under all aspects, including the security ones.

  7. Labor Force Reentry: Issues for Injured Service Members and Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    using these resources include minimal computer access or com- puter illiteracy , lack of up-to-date information on job openings and training...computer illiteracy , lack of up-to-date information on job openings and training opportunities on existing websites, unclear information, and...1, January 21, 2009, p. CD007256. Loprest, Pamela, and Elaine Maag, Barriers to and Supports for Work Among Adults with Disabilities: Results

  8. Program participation, labor force dynamics, and accepted wage rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skipper, Lars

    2008-01-01

    transition rate from unemployment to employment upon completion. Most programs, therefore, increase the expected duration of unemployment spells. However, we find that the training undertaken while unemployed successfully increases the expected duration of subsequent spells of employment for many...... subpopulations. These longer spells of employment come at a cost of lower accepted hourly wage rates...

  9. Surpluses and Deficits: How University Partners Perceive University-Community Partnerships at One Ivy League Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Klebanoff Cohen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available University-community partnerships are a critical method for how universities can serve the public interest.  Yet key questions remain: how do these partnerships work in practice, and how can university and fill reciprocal and mutual needs effectively?  A participatory evaluation of university-community partnerships in education at an Ivy League university found that university partners had a surplus perspective of the university and a deficit perspective of community partners; practitioners must shift our paradigm towards mutually beneficial, asset-driven university-community partnerships to ensure success.

  10. Exact and asymptotic results for insurance risk models with surplus-dependent premiums

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecher, Hansjörg; Palmowski, Zbigniew; Regensburger, Georg; Rosenkranz, Markus

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we develop a symbolic technique to obtain asymptotic expressions for ruin probabilities and discounted penalty functions in renewal insurance risk models when the premium income depends on the present surplus of the insurance portfolio. The analysis is based on boundary problems for linear ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients. The algebraic structure of the Green's operators allows us to develop an intuitive way of tackling the asymptotic behavior of the solutions, leading to exponential-type expansions and Cram\\'er-type asymptotics. Furthermore, we obtain closed-form solutions for more specific cases of premium functions in the compound Poisson risk model.

  11. Im/Ex in August,2010: Trade Surplus in Surprise Drop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ On September 10,2010,General Administration of Customs of the People's Republic of China (GAC) released the profile of China foreign trade import and export in August and the first eight months of this year.China's foreign trade in the first eight months totaled US$1.88 trillion,a year-on-year increase of 40 percent,according to the GAC.Trade surplus for the first eight months of the year totaled US$103.9 billion,down 14.6 percent from the same period last year.

  12. Primary surplus and debt projections based on estimated fiscal reaction functions for euro area countries

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We project the path of the public debt and primary surpluses for a number of countries in the euro area under a fiscal rule based on a set of estimated fiscal policy reaction functions. Our fiscal rule represents a fiscal analogue to a well-known monetary policy rule, and it is calibrated using country-specific as well as euro area-wide parameter estimates. We then forecast the dynamics of the fiscal aggregates under different convergence, growth, and interest rate scenarios and investigate t...

  13. Emotional labor in nursing praxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel da Silva Vilelas

    Full Text Available Healthcare work is, by nature, an activity full of intense emotions and therefore, is opportune ground for exploring emotions in the workplace in different contexts of nursing care. It is a very fertile terrain if care is focused on the emotions of the client, nurses, healthcare teams, and on the interaction of all actors involved. This article presents a theoretical reflection exploring the concept of emotional labor in the context of nursing care. Theoretical references from several fields of knowledge, namely sociology and nursing, have been adopted to conceptualize the theme. Studies on emotional labor have contributed toward the understanding of the key issue of emotional management in healthcare institutions and both its positive and negative impact on clients and professionals. The development of the theme of emotional labor in nursing has given rise to numerous theoretical approaches and perspectives explaining this concept.

  14. Labor Unions and Asset Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Addessi, William

    The paper investigates the nexus between labor and financial markets, focusing on the interaction between labor union behavior in setting wages, firms' investment strategy and asset prices. The way unions set wage claims after observing firm's financial performance increases the volatility of firms......' returns and the riskiness of corporate ownership. To remunerate this higher volatility and stronger risk, firms' equities have to grant high return. This mechanism is able to offer an explanation of for the "equity puzzle", that is it can explain the difference between equity returns and the risk free...

  15. Long-Term Effects of a Recession at Labor Market Entry in Japan and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genda, Yuji; Kondo, Ayako; Ohta, Souichi

    2010-01-01

    We examine effects of entering the labor market during a recession on subsequent employment and earnings for Japanese and American men, using comparable household labor force surveys. We find persistent negative effects of the unemployment rate at graduation for less-educated Japanese men, in contrast to temporary effects for less-educated…

  16. Oxytocin Regimen for Labor Augmentation, Labor Progression, Perinatal Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Branch, D. Ware; Ramirez, Mildred M.; Laughon, S. Katherine; Reddy, Uma; Hoffman, Mathew; Bailit, Jennifer; Kominiarek, Michelle; Chen, Zhen; Hibbard, Judith U.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects and safety of high-dose (compared with low-dose) oxytocin regimen for labor augmentation on perinatal outcomes. Methods Data from the Consortium on Safe Labor were used. A total of 15,054 women from six hospitals were eligible for the analysis. Women were grouped based on their oxytocin starting dose and incremental dosing: 1, 2, and 4 mU/min. Duration of labor and a number of maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared among these three groups stratified by parity. Multivariable logistic regression and generalized linear mixed model were used to adjust for potential confounders. Results Oxytocin regimen did not affect the rate of cesarean delivery or other perinatal outcomes. Compared to 1 mU/min, the regimens starting with 2 mU/min and 4 mU/min reduced the duration of 1st stage by 0.8 hours (95% confidence interval 0.5 – 1.1) and 1.3 hours (1.0 – 1.7), respectively, in nulliparas. No effect was observed on the second stage of labor. Similar patterns were observed in multiparas. High-dose regimen was associated with a reduced risk of meconium stain, chorioamnionitis, and newborn fever in multiparas. Conclusion High-dose oxytocin regimen (starting dose at 4 mU/min and increment of 4 mU/min) is associated with a shorter duration of first stage of labor in all parities without increasing the cesarean delivery rate or adversely affecting perinatal outcomes. PMID:21775839

  17. 基于劳动力转移视角的职业教育发展对策探析%On the Strategy of Developing Vocational Education from the Perspective of Labor Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛

    2012-01-01

    农村剩余劳动力转移是我国社会经济发展的必然趋势,合理有效转移农村剩余劳动力是关系到我国新农村建设和社会稳定的重大战略问题。当前,我国农村剩余劳动力转移面临着受教育水平较低、转移就业缺乏稳定性和有序性等困境。职业教育是提高农村剩余劳动力职业技能,促进农村剩余劳动力向外有效转移的重要渠道。要顺利解决农村劳动力转移就业,必须大力发展职业教育培训。因此,提出以发展职业教育促进劳动力顺利转移的对策,实现职业教育和劳动转移的双向发展。%Transfer of rural surplus labor is an inevitable trend of social-economic development in our country.Operating it efficiently and reasonably matters a great deal to the New Rural Community construction and social stability.Nowadays,rural surplus labor transfer in our country faces with the dilemmas of the lower education level of the labors,the lack of stability and order in transfer.Vocational education is an important way to improve the rural surplus labors' skill and to stimulate surplus labor transfer.To successfully solve employment problem for the transferred labors,we must vigorously develop the vocational education training.Therefore,this thesis tries to put forward the solutions of vocational education to promote labor transfer and to achieve the goal of development of both vocational education and labor transfer.

  18. When health policy and empirical evidence collide: the case of cigarette package warning labels and economic consumer surplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Anna V; Brown, Paul; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-02-01

    In its graphic warning label regulations on cigarette packages, the Food and Drug Administration severely discounts the benefits of reduced smoking because of the lost "pleasure" smokers experience when they stop smoking; this is quantified as lost "consumer surplus." Consumer surplus is grounded in rational choice theory. However, empirical evidence from psychological cognitive science and behavioral economics demonstrates that the assumptions of rational choice are inconsistent with complex multidimensional decisions, particularly smoking. Rational choice does not account for the roles of emotions, misperceptions, optimistic bias, regret, and cognitive inefficiency that are germane to smoking, particularly because most smokers begin smoking in their youth. Continued application of a consumer surplus discount will undermine sensible policies to reduce tobacco use and other policies to promote public health.

  19. Macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land. A case study of Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicke, Birka; Smeets, Edward; Faaij, Andre [Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation - Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands); Tabeau, Andrzej [Landbouw Economisch Instituut - Wageningen University and Research Centre, Burgermeester Partijnlaan 19, 2585 BE Den Haag (Netherlands); Hilbert, Jorge [Instituto Ingenieria Rural - Instituto Nacional de la Tecnologia Agropecuario, C.C. 25, 1712 Castelar (Buenos Aires) (Argentina)

    2009-12-15

    This paper assesses the macroeconomic impacts in terms of GDP, trade balance and employment of large-scale bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land. An input-output model is developed with which the direct, indirect and induced macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production and agricultural intensification, which is needed to make agricultural land become available for bioenergy production, are assessed following a scenario approach. The methodology is applied to a case study of Argentina. The results of this study reveal that large-scale pellet production in 2015 would directly increase GDP by 4%, imports by 10% and employment by 6% over the reference situation in 2001. When accounting for indirect and induced impacts, GDP increases by 18%, imports by 20% and employment by 26% compared to 2001. Agricultural intensification reduces but does not negate these positive impacts of bioenergy production. Accounting for agricultural intensification, the increase in GDP as a result of bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land would amount to 16%, 20% in imports and 16% in employment compared to 2001. (author)

  20. Discharge of surplus phloem water may be required for normal grape ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Keller, Markus

    2017-01-01

    At the onset of ripening, some fleshy fruits shift the dominant water import pathway from the xylem to the phloem, but the cause for the decline in xylem inflow remains obscure. This study found that xylem-mobile dye movement into grape berries decreased despite transient increases in berry growth and transpiration during early ripening, whereas outward dye movement continued unless the roots were pressurized. Modeling berry vascular flows using measurements of pedicel phloem sap sugar concentration, berry growth, solute accumulation, and transpiration showed that a fraction of phloem-derived water was used for berry growth and transpiration; the surplus was recirculated via the xylem. Changing phloem sap sugar concentration to a much higher published value led to model simulations predicting xylem inflow or backflow depending on the developmental stage and genotype. Mathematically preventing net xylem flow resulted in large variations in phloem sap sugar concentration in pedicels serving neighboring berries on the same fruit cluster. Moreover, restricting water discharge via the xylem and/or across the skin impaired berry solute accumulation and color change. Collectively, these results indicate that discharge of surplus phloem water via berry transpiration and/or xylem backflow may be necessary to facilitate normal grape ripening. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.