WorldWideScience

Sample records for surplus electricity loads

  1. Management strategies for surplus electricity loads using electrolytic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez-Martin, F.; Garcia-De Maria, J.M.; Bairi, A.; Laraqi, N.

    2009-01-01

    Management of electricity-hydrogen binomials is greatly enhanced by the knowledge of power variations, together with an optimized performance of the electrolyzers. Strategies include the regulation of current densities to minimize hydrogen costs, which depend of the energy prices, the power of installations and utilization factors. The objective is to convert the energy in distinct periods of electricity demand, taking into account the size and efficiency of the equipments; this approach indicates the possibility to reduce costs below a reference price, either by using small facilities which consume high proportions of surplus energy or larger plants for shorter off-peak periods. Thus, we study the viability of large scale production of hydrogen via electrolysis, within the context of excess electricity loads in France (estimated at 22 TWh in 2007): that gives a daily hydrogen potential of 1314 ton, from a total installed power of 5800 MW and average utilization ratios of 42.8%; the production cost approaches 1$/kg H2 , and CO 2 reduction potential amounts 6720 kton/year (if all the produced hydrogen is used to feed 3 million of new fuel-cell vehicles). This analysis serves to demonstrate the great potentials for converting the surplus energy into hydrogen carriers and for managing the power subsystem in thoroughly electrified societies. (author)

  2. Surplus from and storage of electricity generated by intermittent sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Friedrich

    2016-12-01

    Data from the German electricity system for the years 2010, 2012, 2013, and 2015 are used and scaled up to a 100% supply by intermittent renewable energy sources (iRES). In the average, 330GW wind and PV power are required to meet this 100% target. A back-up system is necessary with the power of 89% of peak load. Surplus electricity accrues at high power levels. Curtailing surplus power to a large extent is found to be uneconomic. Demand-side management will suffer from the strong day-to-day variation of available surplus energy. A day storage is ineffective because of the day-night correlation of surplus power during winter. A seasonal storage loses its character when transformation losses are considered because it can contribute only after periods with excessive surplus production. The option of an oversized iRES system to feed the storage is also not effective because, in this case, energy can be taken directly from the large iRES supply, making storage superfluous. The capacities to be installed stress the difficulty to base heat supply and mobility also on iRES generated electricity in the future. As the German energy transition replaces one CO2-free electricity supply system by another one, no major reduction in CO2 emission can be expected till 2022, when the last nuclear reactor will be switched off. By 2022, an extremely oversized power supply system has to be created, which can be expected to continue running down spot-market electricity prices. The continuation of the economic response -to replace expensive gas fuel by cheap lignite- causes an overall increase in CO2 emission. The German GHG emission targets for 2020 and beyond are therefore in jeopardy.

  3. Residual load, renewable surplus generation and storage requirements in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schill, Wolf-Peter

    2014-01-01

    I examine the effects of increasing amounts of fluctuating renewable energy on residual load, which is defined as the difference between actual power demand and the feed-in of non-dispatchable and inflexible generators. I draw on policy-relevant scenarios for Germany and make use of extensive sensitivity analyses. Whereas yearly renewable surplus energy is low in most scenarios analyzed, peak surplus power can become very high. Decreasing thermal must-run requirements and increasing biomass flexibility substantially reduce surpluses. I use an optimization model to determine the storage capacities required for taking up renewable surpluses. Allowing curtailment of 1% of the yearly feed-in of non-dispatchable renewables would render storage investments largely obsolete until 2032 under the assumption of a flexible power system. Further restrictions of curtailment as well as lower system flexibility strongly increase storage requirements. By 2050, at least 10 GW of storage are required for surplus integration, of which a sizeable share is seasonal storage. Results suggest that policy makers should work toward avoiding surplus generation, in particular by decreasing the must-run of thermal generators. Concerns about surpluses should not be regarded as an obstacle to further renewable expansion. The findings are also relevant for other countries that shift toward fluctuating renewables. - Highlights: • I examine the effects of fluctuating renewable energy on residual load. • Surplus energies are generally low, but there are high surplus power peaks. • Increasing the flexibility of thermal generators substantially reduces surpluses. • Allowing curtailment of 1% renders storage investments largely obsolete by 2032. • Both storage requirements and the share of seasonal storage increase by 2050

  4. Management of surplus electricity-production from a fluctuating renewable-energy source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Münster, E.

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses and analyses different national strategies for solving a surplus production problem in Denmark, caused by electricity production from turbines and CHP.......The paper discusses and analyses different national strategies for solving a surplus production problem in Denmark, caused by electricity production from turbines and CHP....

  5. Utilization of surplus electricity from wind power for dynamic biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurgensen, Lars; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Born, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The methanation of CO2 has been increasingly discussed for the potential long term storage of electricity and for facilitating grid load management. Using the regions of northern Germany as a case study, the feasibility of CO2 conversion from biogas plants and its integration in existing natural...... gas grid was examined in this study. Furthermore the material and energy flows of in the methanation process, were evaluated to provide expression for the quantities of excess electrical energy which could be potentially stored using the biogas integrated systems. The study results showed...... that with 480 biogas plants in the region would be able to utilize up to 0.7 TWh surplus electricity could be used to produce 100 106 m3 at standard temperature and pressure of upgraded methane per year....

  6. Surplus electricity production in sugarcane mills using residual bagasse and straw as fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Moises; Ponce, Gustavo H.S.F.; Silva, Maria Aparecida; Ensinas, Adriano V.

    2015-01-01

    The cogeneration system is one of the most important parts of sugarcane mills which use the bagasse as fuel. In the recent years, modern equipments and energy efficiency measures made possible to the sugarcane industry, the production of surplus electricity which become, besides the sugar and ethanol, a third product from the same renewable source, the sugarcane. This work analyses the surplus electric power systems for three different schemes of cogeneration system in the sugarcane industry through the simulator Thermoflow"®. The analysis is made considering both the available bagasse and sugarcane straw recovery as fuel in three different scenarios for the industrial process energy requirements. The results show that the CEST (Condensing Extraction Steam Turbine) system can have a surplus of electricity of up to four times higher than the BPST (Backpressure Steam Turbine) system. The system CEST can have an increase in surplus power above 23% and 102% for the rate of 10% and 50% of cane straw recovery in the field respectively. The BPST-C (Backpressure and Condensing Turbines) system can produce similar values of surplus electricity when compared with the system CEST, but may represent an opportunity of flexible operation of the cogeneration systems in harvest and off-seasons. - Highlights: • At least three cogeneration system options are available in sugarcane mills. • Nowadays, only steam-based cycle cogeneration systems are used in sugarcane mills. • BPST system is limited to 70 e kWh/t cane of surplus electricity production. • CEST system increases the surplus electricity up to four times than the BPST. • Operation during off-season of the BPST-C system is an advantage for this option.

  7. Spatial electric load forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, H Lee

    2002-01-01

    Spatial Electric Load Forecasting Consumer Demand for Power and ReliabilityCoincidence and Load BehaviorLoad Curve and End-Use ModelingWeather and Electric LoadWeather Design Criteria and Forecast NormalizationSpatial Load Growth BehaviorSpatial Forecast Accuracy and Error MeasuresTrending MethodsSimulation Method: Basic ConceptsA Detailed Look at the Simulation MethodBasics of Computerized SimulationAnalytical Building Blocks for Spatial SimulationAdvanced Elements of Computerized SimulationHybrid Trending-Simulation MethodsAdvanced

  8. Countermeasure for Surplus Electricity of PV using Replacement Battery of EVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Masaaki; Iwafune, Yumiko; Yamamoto, Hiromi; Yamaji, Kenji; Okano, Kunihiko; Hiwatari, Ryouji; Ikeya, Tomohiko

    In the power sector, the national government has set the goal that the introduction of PV reaches 53 million kW by 2030. However, large-scale introduction of PV will cause several problems in power systems such as surplus electricity. We need large capacity of pumped storages or batteries for the surplus electricity, but the construction costs of these plants are very high. On the other hand, in the transport sector, Electric Vehicle (EV) is being developed as an environmentally friendly vehicle. To promote the diffusion of EV, it is necessary to build infrastructures that can charge EV in a short time; a battery switch station is one of the solutions to this problem. At a station, the automated switch platform will replace the depleted battery with a fully-charged battery. The depleted battery is placed in a storage room and recharged to be available to other drivers. In this study, we propose the use of station's battery as a countermeasure for surplus electricity of PV and evaluate the economic value of the proposed system. We assumed that 53 million kW of PV is introduced in the nationwide power system and considered two countermeasures for surplus electricity: (1) Pumped storage; (2) Battery of station. The difference in total annual cost between Pumped case and Battery case results in 792.6 billion yen. Hence, if a utility leases the batteries from stations fewer than 792.6 billion yen, the utility will have the cost advantage in Battery case.

  9. Microbial electrosynthesis: a novel strategy for flexible energy storage from electricity surplus and greenhouse gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Tian

    2014-01-01

    of the fluctuating electricity generated from renewable sources and to mitigate therelease of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Although MES is attracting a lot of attention and hasbeen studied intensively during the last five years, advances related to the engineering and the biologyof this process are required...... for pilot plant scale and commercialization. If MES reaches its fullpotential, it will serve as a highly flexible and tunable approach for the conversion of electrical energyinto chemical energy, generating valuable products especially from surplus electricity and CO2....

  10. Gas power production, surplus concepts and the transformation of hydro-electric rent into resource rent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundsen, Eirik S.

    1997-01-01

    The paper considers the effects of introducing large scale gas power production capacity into an electricity sector based on hydropower. In this process the economic rent is transmitted from the hydro power sector to the resource rent in the gas power sector, but is along the way intermingled with ordinary producer surplus and quasi-rent stemming from increasing cost conditions in the production infrastructure and capacity constraints. The net effect on total rent generated depends on development in demand, demand elasticities, costs saved from delaying hydropower projects and the existence of producer surplus in gas power generation. The paper closes with a discussion of possible tax base changes following from the introduction of a thermal power system based on natural gas

  11. Management of surplus electricity-production from a fluctuating renewable-energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, H.

    2003-01-01

    Renewable-energy sources and energy efficiency are important elements in Danish Energy Policy. The implementation of wind power and combined heat- and power-production (CHP) have already led to substantial fuel savings, and both technologies are intended for further expansion in the coming decade. Today, approximately 50% of both Danish electricity and heat demand are produced via CHP, and more than 15% of the electricity demands are produced by wind turbines. However, the electricity production from these technologies is linked to fluctuations either in wind or in heat demands rather than fluctuations in demand for electricity. Consequently, the electricity production exceeds the demand during certain periods and creates a problem of ''surplus production''. This paper discusses and analyses different national strategies for solving this problem. (author)

  12. Material constraints related to storage of future European renewable electricity surpluses with CO_2 methanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meylan, Frédéric D.; Moreau, Vincent; Erkman, Suren

    2016-01-01

    The main challenges associated with a growing production of renewable electricity are intermittency and dispersion. Intermittency generates spikes in production, which need to be curtailed when exceeding consumption. Dispersion means electricity has to be transported over long distances between production and consumption sites. In the Directive 2009/28/EC, the European Commission recommends sustainable and effective measures to prevent curtailments and facilitate transportation of renewable electricity. This article explores the material constraints of storing and transporting surplus renewable electricity by conversion into synthetic methane. Europe is considered for its mix of energy technologies, data availability and multiple energy pathways to 2050. Results show that the requirements for key materials and land remain relatively low, respecting the recommendations of the EU Commission. By 2050, more than 6 million tons of carbon dioxide might be transformed into methane annually within the EU. The efficiency of renewable power methane production is also compared to the natural process of converting solar into chemical energy (i.e. photosynthesis), both capturing and reenergizing carbon dioxide. Overall, the production of renewable methane (including carbon dioxide capture) is more efficient and less material intensive than the production of biofuels derived from photosynthesis and biomass conversion. - Highlights: •The potential of methanation to store renewable electricity surpluses is assessed. •Material constraints are relatively low. •Biogenic CO_2 will probably be insufficient. •Production of renewable power methane is more efficient than conventional biofuels. •Renewable power methane can help decarbonizing the global energy sector.

  13. Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2004-10-01

    As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

  14. Electrical load modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valgas, Helio Moreira; Pinto, Roberto del Giudice R.; Franca, Carlos [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lambert-Torres, Germano; Silva, Alexandre P. Alves da; Pires, Robson Celso; Costa, Junior, Roberto Affonso [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Accurate dynamic load models allow more precise calculations of power system controls and stability limits, which are critical mainly in the operation planning of power systems. This paper describes the development of a computer program (software) for static and dynamic load model studies using the measurement approach for the CEMIG system. Two dynamic load model structures are developed and tested. A procedure for applying a set of measured data from an on-line transient recording system to develop load models is described. (author) 6 refs., 17 figs.

  15. Spatial electric load forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, H Lee

    2002-01-01

    Containing 12 new chapters, this second edition contains offers increased-coverage of weather correction and normalization of forecasts, anticipation of redevelopment, determining the validity of announced developments, and minimizing risk from over- or under-planning. It provides specific examples and detailed explanations of key points to consider for both standard and unusual utility forecasting situations, information on new algorithms and concepts in forecasting, a review of forecasting pitfalls and mistakes, case studies depicting challenging forecast environments, and load models illustrating various types of demand.

  16. Challenges for Nordic power; How to handle the renewable electricity surplus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-15

    Almost two years after the EU Commission put forth the EUs 202020 Climate and Energy policy package, it is clear that the Nordic region may face investment in new renewable generation at levels that are unprecedented since the deregulation of the Nordic electricity market. This report explores the linkages between political choices and market dynamics on the basis of four scenarios for the Nordic Power Sector towards 2020 and 2030. The aim is to contribute to a common understanding of the market challenges and dynamics among different stakeholders: How do different policy and market drivers interact? What are the long-term implications for prices and the energy balance? And ultimately, what policy choices are available when it comes to handling the expected increase in renewable generation and the looming Nordic energy surplus. Econ Poeyry and THEMA Consulting Group have invited companies, industry organizations and government agencies to participate in the process to elaborate on the issues mentioned above. The participants have contributed through workshops, working groups and conferences. (Author)

  17. Potential for greenhouse gas emission reductions using surplus electricity in hydrogen, methane and methanol production via electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uusitalo, Ville; Väisänen, Sanni; Inkeri, Eero; Soukka, Risto

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Greenhouse gas emission reductions using power-to-x processes are studied using life cycle assessment. • Surplus electricity use led to greenhouse gas emission reductions in all studied cases. • Highest reductions can be achieved by using hydrogen to replace fossil based hydrogen. • High reductions are also achieved when fossil transportation fuels are replaced. - Abstract: Using a life cycle perspective, potentials for greenhouse gas emission reductions using various power-to-x processes via electrolysis have been compared. Because of increasing renewable electricity production, occasionally surplus renewable electricity is produced, which leads to situations where the price of electricity approach zero. This surplus electricity can be used in hydrogen, methane and methanol production via electrolysis and other additional processes. Life cycle assessments have been utilized to compare these options in terms of greenhouse gas emission reductions. All of the power-to-x options studied lead to greenhouse gas emission reductions as compared to conventional production processes based on fossil fuels. The highest greenhouse gas emission reductions can be gained when hydrogen from steam reforming is replaced by hydrogen from the power-to-x process. High greenhouse gas emission reductions can also be achieved when power-to-x products are utilized as an energy source for transportation, replacing fossil transportation fuels. A third option with high greenhouse gas emission reduction potential is methane production, storing and electricity conversion in gas engines during peak consumption hours. It is concluded that the power-to-x processes provide a good potential solution for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in various sectors.

  18. Intelligent electrical outlet for collective load control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Ford, Justin R.; Spires, Shannon V.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-10-27

    Various technologies described herein pertain to an electrical outlet that autonomously manages loads in a microgrid. The electrical outlet can provide autonomous load control in response to variations in electrical power generation supply in the microgrid. The electrical outlet includes a receptacle, a sensor operably coupled to the receptacle, and an actuator configured to selectively actuate the receptacle. The sensor measures electrical parameters at the receptacle. Further, a processor autonomously controls the actuator based at least in part on the electrical parameters measured at the receptacle, electrical parameters from one or more disparate electrical outlets in the microgrid, and a supply of generated electric power in the microgrid at a given time.

  19. Pay for load demand - electricity pricing with load demand component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrko, Jurek; Sernhed, Kerstin; Abaravicius, Juozas

    2003-01-01

    This publication is part of a project called Direct and Indirect Load Control in Buildings. Peak load problems have attracted considerable attention in Sweden during last three winters, caused by a significant decrease in available reserve power, which is a consequence of political decisions and liberalisation of the electricity market. A possible way to lower peak loads, avoiding electricity shortages and reducing electricity costs both for users and utilities, is to make customers experience the price difference during peak load periods and, in this way, become more aware of their energy consumption pattern and load demand. As of January 1st 2001, one of the Swedish energy utilities - Sollentuna Energi - operating in the Stockholm area, introduced a new electricity tariff with differentiated grid fees based on a mean value of the peak load every month. This tariff was introduced for all residential customers in the service area. The objective of this study is to investigate the extent to which a Load Demand Component, included in electricity pricing, can influence energy use and load demand in residential buildings. What are the benefits and disadvantages for customers and utilities? This paper investigates the impact of the new tariff on the utility and different types of typical residential customers, making comparisons with previous tariff. Keywords Load demand, electricity pricing, tariff, residential customers, energy behaviour

  20. A methodology for Electric Power Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisa Almeshaiei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Electricity demand forecasting is a central and integral process for planning periodical operations and facility expansion in the electricity sector. Demand pattern is almost very complex due to the deregulation of energy markets. Therefore, finding an appropriate forecasting model for a specific electricity network is not an easy task. Although many forecasting methods were developed, none can be generalized for all demand patterns. Therefore, this paper presents a pragmatic methodology that can be used as a guide to construct Electric Power Load Forecasting models. This methodology is mainly based on decomposition and segmentation of the load time series. Several statistical analyses are involved to study the load features and forecasting precision such as moving average and probability plots of load noise. Real daily load data from Kuwaiti electric network are used as a case study. Some results are reported to guide forecasting future needs of this network.

  1. Climate control loads prediction of electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ziqi; Li, Wanyong; Zhang, Chengquan; Chen, Jiangping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A model of vehicle climate control loads is proposed based on experiments. • Main climate control loads of the modeled vehicle are quantitatively analyzed. • Range reductions of the modeled vehicle under different conditions are simulated. - Abstract: A new model of electric vehicle climate control loads is provided in this paper. The mathematical formulations of the major climate control loads are developed, and the coefficients of the formulations are experimentally determined. Then, the detailed climate control loads are analyzed, and the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) range reductions due to these loads are calculated under different conditions. It is found that in an electric vehicle, the total climate control loads vary with the vehicle speed, HVAC mode and blower level. The ventilation load is the largest climate control load, followed by the solar radiation load. These two add up to more than 80% of total climate control load in summer. The ventilation load accounts for 70.7–83.9% of total heating load under the winter condition. The climate control loads will cause a 17.2–37.1% reduction of NEDC range in summer, and a 17.1–54.1% reduction in winter, compared to the AC off condition. The heat pump system has an advantage in range extension. A heat pump system with an average heating COP of 1.7 will extend the range by 7.6–21.1% based on the simulation conditions.

  2. Energy conservation prospects through electric load management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shirbeeny, E H.T.

    1984-04-01

    In this paper, concepts of electric load management are discussed for effective energy conservation. It is shown that the conservation program must be comprehensive to provide solutions to the problems facing the electric consumer, the electric utility and the society by reducing the rate of growth of energy consumption and power system peak demand requirements. The impact of energy management programs on electric energy conservation is examined, with emphasis on efficiency, storage, cogeneration and controls with computers.

  3. Power-to-Gas: storing surplus electrical energy. A design study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchholz, O.S.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Veneman, Rens; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik; Kersten, Sascha R.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this work a conceptual design of a Power-to-Gas (PtG) process for storing electrical energy in form of synthetic natural gas (SNG) of gas grid quality H is presented. The combination with a conventional lignite fired power plant (LPP) was investigated for possible improvement of its economic

  4. electrical load survey electrical load survey and forecast

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    scattered nature of the area and low load factor. In this ... employment and allow decentralized production of the ... and viable concept from energy production and .... VII Yr. ×. kWh. VIII Yr. ×. kWh. IX Yr. ×. kWh. X Yr. ×. kWh. 1. Residential. 147.

  5. multilevel buck converter for automotive electrical load

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The electrical low voltage load requirement in the passenger vehicle is ... oxides emissions, and 82% of carbon monoxides (CO). [4]. ... government placed an order restricting the movement ... transient and steady-state characteristics of the.

  6. Analysis of economic feasibility of sale of surplus electricity in cogeneration: case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodra, Marcelo; Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui

    2010-01-01

    The production of energy in large quantity and at competitive prices is crucial for economic development, which allied to the environmental question, has incentivated the use of renewable sources of energy. One of the most promising sources of renewable energy is the cogeneration from the residues of cane. Currently, the scenario for this kind of energy production is not consolidated, as production prices are not stable, inducing a risky situation for the environment. This work was aimed to study the economic viability of installing a main site for cogeneration of electricity, in a regional sugarcane factory located in the central region of Sao Paulo state that currently uses residues of sugar cane as fuel. The risk factor that was taken into consideration was the price paid for the MWh sold to the Chamber of Commerce of Electricity. The Monte Carlo Method was used to assess the risk factors for the analysis, by using of New Present Value (NPV), in a scenario that uses 20% of the initial investment made by the energy dealer. After the simulations were finished, considering the conditions used in this work, the project tends to be not feasible, as the behavior of the prices of cogenerated MWh are not sufficient for paying the initial investment and the operational costs. (author)

  7. Electricity load modelling using computational intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Borg, R.W.

    2005-01-01

    As a consequence of the liberalisation of the electricity markets in Europe, market players have to continuously adapt their future supply to match their customers' demands. This poses the challenge of obtaining a predictive model that accurately describes electricity loads, current in this thesis.

  8. How can the German electricity export surplus in 2013 be explained?; Wie laesst sich der deutsche Exportueberschuss fuer Strom in 2013 erklaeren?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Growitsch, Christian; Nagl, Stephan; Peter, Jakob; Tode, Christian [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.

    2014-11-15

    In principle cross-border electricity transmission can be accounted for by price differences between the relevant electricity exchanges. For any given level of electricity demand the price of electricity at the individual electricity exchanges is primarily influenced by fuel prices, power plant availability and the feed-in of electricity from renewable energy, and differences in electricity prices in turn are a determinant of cross-border transmission. Some may have been surprised by the high level of electricity export in the spring of 2011, only shortly after 8 GW of power plant capacity had been shut down as part of the nuclear energy phaseout. What in fact explains the existing export surplus are the continuing excess of power plant capacity, an efficient power plant fleet compared with other European countries and the continuing growth of renewable energies in Germany.

  9. Load profiles analysis for electricity market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Porumb

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of electric power system transition towards smart grids, and the adoption of the electric market schemes, electric utilities are facing the need of a better load profiles understanding for their customers. In this work, some key objectives were addresses, such as definition of the mathematical model for calculating the hourly energy specific, identification of the three target groups for users who have developed consumer profiles, definition of the two types of significant load and assessment of the impact of using consumer profiles on users.

  10. Electricity Crisis and Load Management in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Kanti Das

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a densely populated country. Only a small part of her area is electrified which cover around 18% of total population. The people who are in the electrified area are suffering from severe load shedding. A systematic load management procedure related to demand side may improve the situation is the research problem. The major objectives serve by the research are to analyze contemporary electricity status with a view to drawing inference about demand supply gap and extracting benefits from load management. Data supplied by the Bangladesh Power Development Board, World Bank and outcome of survey are analyzed with some simple statistical tools to test the hypothesis. Analysis discloses that with properly managed uses of electricity with load switch and rotation week-end can improve the concurrent condition of electricity. Moreover, introducing smart distribution system, reducing system loss, shifting load to off-peak, large scale use of prepaid mete, observing energy week and using energy efficient home and office appliance are recommended to improve load through demand side management. Some other recommendations such as introducing alternative energy, public private partnership and using renewable energy development and producing energy locally are made for load management from the supply side.

  11. Performance of fuzzy approach in Malaysia short-term electricity load forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, Rosnalini; Zulkifli, Malina; Yusof, Muhammad Mat; Ismail, Mohd Isfahani; Ismail, Suzilah; Yin, Yip Chee

    2014-12-01

    Many activities such as economic, education and manafucturing would paralyse with limited supply of electricity but surplus contribute to high operating cost. Therefore electricity load forecasting is important in order to avoid shortage or excess. Previous finding showed festive celebration has effect on short-term electricity load forecasting. Being a multi culture country Malaysia has many major festive celebrations such as Eidul Fitri, Chinese New Year and Deepavali but they are moving holidays due to non-fixed dates on the Gregorian calendar. This study emphasis on the performance of fuzzy approach in forecasting electricity load when considering the presence of moving holidays. Autoregressive Distributed Lag model was estimated using simulated data by including model simplification concept (manual or automatic), day types (weekdays or weekend), public holidays and lags of electricity load. The result indicated that day types, public holidays and several lags of electricity load were significant in the model. Overall, model simplification improves fuzzy performance due to less variables and rules.

  12. System and method employing a minimum distance and a load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A

    2014-12-23

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types, each of the different electric load types including a first load feature vector having at least four different load features; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the different electric loads; determining a second load feature vector comprising at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the different electric loads; and identifying by a processor one of the different electric load types by determining a minimum distance of the second load feature vector to the first load feature vector of the different electric load types of the load feature database.

  13. Electrical Load Survey and Forecast for a Decentralized Hybrid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrical Load Survey and Forecast for a Decentralized Hybrid Power System at Elebu, Kwara State, Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Technology ... The paper reports the results of electrical load demand and forecast for Elebu rural community ...

  14. Smart regulation of rural electricity grids. Modern communications technology reduces the voltage fluctuations and regulates the storage of surplus electricity; Laendliches Stromnetz smart geregelt. Moderne Kommunikationstechnik reduziert Spannungsschwankungen und regelt die Speicherung ueberschuessigen Stroms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durst, Anna

    2012-07-01

    In the ''Smart Country'' model project, researchers in Bitburg- Pruem were testing out the distribution network of the future. It is designed to respond flexibly to the increasingly decentralised generation of renewable electricity in the grid. For this purpose various operating resources were further developed: an optimised biogas plant, which controls the electricity supplied by the grid, virtually stores surplus electricity with an efficiency of 98 %. In addition, voltage regulators double the usable output capacity in the grid. The Eifel project successfully passed the field test after around one year. (orig.)

  15. Peak Electric Load Relief in Northern Manhattan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildegaard D. Link

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aphorism “Think globally, act locally,” attributed to René Dubos, reflects the vision that the solution to global environmental problems must begin with efforts within our communities. PlaNYC 2030, the New York City sustainability plan, is the starting point for this study. Results include (a a case study based on the City College of New York (CCNY energy audit, in which we model the impacts of green roofs on campus energy demand and (b a case study of energy use at the neighborhood scale. We find that reducing the urban heat island effect can reduce building cooling requirements, peak electricity loads stress on the local electricity grid and improve urban livability.

  16. A veracity preserving model for synthesizing scalable electricity load profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yunyou; Zhan, Jianfeng; Luo, Chunjie; Wang, Lei; Wang, Nana; Zheng, Daoyi; Fan, Fanda; Ren, Rui

    2018-01-01

    Electricity users are the major players of the electric systems, and electricity consumption is growing at an extraordinary rate. The research on electricity consumption behaviors is becoming increasingly important to design and deployment of the electric systems. Unfortunately, electricity load profiles are difficult to acquire. Data synthesis is one of the best approaches to solving the lack of data, and the key is the model that preserves the real electricity consumption behaviors. In this...

  17. Assessing and Reducing Miscellaneous Electric Loads (MELs) in Lodging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Emily M.

    2011-09-01

    Miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) are the loads outside of a building's core functions of heating, ventilating, air conditioning, lighting, and water heating. This report reviews methods to reduce MELs in lodging.

  18. Load management in electrical networks. Objectives, methods, prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabioud, D.

    2008-01-01

    This illustrated article takes up the problems related to the variation of the load in electricity networks. How to handle the peak load? Different solutions in the energy demand management are discussed. Method based on the price, method based on the reduction of the load by electric utilities. Information systems are presented which gives the consumer the needed data to participate in the local load management.

  19. System and method employing a self-organizing map load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Harley, Ronald G.; Du, Liang; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K.; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A.

    2014-06-17

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a self-organizing map load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types and a plurality of neurons, each of the load types corresponding to a number of the neurons; employing a weight vector for each of the neurons; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the loads; determining a load feature vector including at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the loads; and identifying by a processor one of the load types by relating the load feature vector to the neurons of the database by identifying the weight vector of one of the neurons corresponding to the one of the load types that is a minimal distance to the load feature vector.

  20. Surplus Facilities Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coobs, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    This is the second of two programs that are concerned with the management of surplus facilities. The facilities in this program are those related to commercial activities, which include the three surplus experimental and test reactors [(MSRE, HRE-2, and the Low Intensity Test Reactor (LITR)] and seven experimental loops at the ORR. The program is an integral part of the Surplus Facilities Management Program, which is a national program administered for DOE by the Richland Operations Office. Very briefly reported here are routine surveillance and maintenance of surplus radioactively contaminated DOE facilities awaiting decommissioning

  1. Experimenting with Electrical Load Sensing on a Backhoe Loader

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    2005-01-01

    Where traditional load sensing is made using hydro-mechanical regulators and load pressure is fed back hydraulically, electrical load sensing employs the usage of electronic sensors and electrically actuated components. This brings forth new possibilities, but also imposes problems concerning...... dynamic performance and stability. In this paper the possibilities for implementing electrical load sensing (ELS) on a backhoe loader is investigated. Major components in the system are modelled and verified, and a linear model of the pump is presented, which is used for designing the pump controller....... By comparing results from linear analyses performed on both the conventional hydraulic load sensing system (HLS) and the modified electrical load sensing system, it is concluded that system performance closely matching the conventional system is obtainable....

  2. Determining the Interruptible Load with Strategic Behavior in a Competitive Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyun Yoo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a deregulated market, independent system operators meet power balance based on supply and demand bids to maximize social welfare. Since electricity markets are typically oligopolies, players with market power may withhold capacity to maximize profit. Such exercise of market power can lead to various problems, including increased electricity prices, and hence lower social welfare. Here we propose an approach to maximize social welfare and prevent the exercising of market power by means of interruptible loads in a competitive market environment. Our approach enables management of the market power by analyzing the benefit to the companies of capacity withdrawal and scheduling resources with interruptible loads. Our formulation shows that we can prevent power companies and demand-resource owners from exercising market powers. The oligopolistic conditions are described using the Cournot model to reflect the capacity withdrawal in electricity markets. The numerical results confirm the effectiveness of proposed method, via a comparison of perfect competition and oligopoly scenarios. Our approach provides reductions in market-clearing prices, increases in social welfare, and more equal distribution of surpluses between players.

  3. Load management through agent based coordination of flexible electricity consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Demazeau, Yves; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    Demand Response (DR) offers a cost-effective and carbonfriendly way of performing load balancing. DR describes a change in the electricity consumption of flexible consumers in response to the supply situation. In DR, flexible consumers may perform their own load balancing through load management...

  4. Electric reaction arising in bone subjected to mechanical loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murasawa, Go; Cho, Hideo; Ogawa, Kazuma

    2006-03-01

    The aim of present study is the investigation of the electric reaction arising in bone subjected to mechanical loadings. Firstly, specimen was fabricated from femur of cow, and ultrasonic propagation in bone was measured by ultrasonic technique. Secondary, 4-point bending test was conducted up to fracture, and electric reaction arising in bone was measured during loading. Thirdly, cyclic 4-point bending test was conducted to investigate the effect of applied displacement speed on electric reaction.

  5. Predicting the Response of Electricity Load to Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Colman, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kalendra, Eric [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-28

    Our purpose is to develop a methodology to quantify the impact of climate change on electric loads in the United States. We perform simple linear regression, assisted by geospatial smoothing, on paired temperature and load time-series to estimate the heating- and coolinginduced sensitivity to temperature across 300 transmission zones and 16 seasonal and diurnal time periods. The estimated load sensitivities can be coupled with climate scenarios to quantify the potential impact of climate change on load, with a primary application being long-term electricity scenarios. The method allows regional and seasonal differences in climate and load response to be reflected in the electricity scenarios. While the immediate product of this analysis was designed to mesh with the spatial and temporal resolution of a specific electricity model to enable climate change scenarios and analysis with that model, we also propose that the process could be applied for other models and purposes.

  6. Methods for Analyzing Electric Load Shape and its Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Philip

    2010-05-12

    Current methods of summarizing and analyzing electric load shape are discussed briefly and compared. Simple rules of thumb for graphical display of load shapes are suggested. We propose a set of parameters that quantitatively describe the load shape in many buildings. Using the example of a linear regression model to predict load shape from time and temperature, we show how quantities such as the load?s sensitivity to outdoor temperature, and the effectiveness of demand response (DR), can be quantified. Examples are presented using real building data.

  7. multilevel buck converter for automotive electrical load

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... from internal combustion engine (ICE). The mass production of the hybrid electric (HE) and the electric vehicle (EV) is still awaited due to subsystem inefficiencies. Increasing the efficiencies of the power converters within subsystems of these HEVs and EVs will increase the performance of the new transportation vehicles.

  8. Online forecasting of electrical load for distributed management of plug-in electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Basu , Kaustav; Ovalle , Andres; Guo , Baoling; Hably , Ahmad; Bacha , Seddik; Hajar , Khaled

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The paper aims at making online forecast of electrical load at the MV-LV transformer level. Optimal management of the Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) charging requires the forecast of the electrical load for future hours. The forecasting module needs to be online (i.e update and make forecast for the future hours, every hour). The inputs to the predictor are historical electrical and weather data. Various data driven machine learning algorithms are compared to derive t...

  9. Energy efficiency indicators for high electric-load buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aebischer, Bernard; Balmer, Markus A.; Kinney, Satkartar; Le Strat, Pascale; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Varone, Frederic

    2003-06-01

    Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indicator for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed.

  10. Hybrid ellipsoidal fuzzy systems in forecasting regional electricity loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pai, Ping-Feng [Department of Information Management, National Chi Nan University, 1 University Road, Puli, Nantou 545, Taiwan (China)

    2006-09-15

    Because of the privatization of electricity in many countries, load forecasting has become one of the most crucial issues in the planning and operations of electric utilities. In addition, accurate regional load forecasting can provide the transmission and distribution operators with more information. The hybrid ellipsoidal fuzzy system was originally designed to solve control and pattern recognition problems. The main objective of this investigation is to develop a hybrid ellipsoidal fuzzy system for time series forecasting (HEFST) and apply the proposed model to forecast regional electricity loads in Taiwan. Additionally, a scaled conjugate gradient learning method is employed in the supervised learning phase of the HEFST model. Subsequently, numerical data taken from the existing literature is used to demonstrate the forecasting performance of the HEFST model. Simulation results reveal that the proposed model has better forecasting performance than the artificial neural network model and the regression model. Thus, the HEFST model is a valid and promising alternative for forecasting regional electricity loads. (author)

  11. Daily Air Temperature and Electricity Load in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valor, Enric; Meneu, Vicente; Caselles, Vicente

    2001-08-01

    Weather has a significant impact on different sectors of the economy. One of the most sensitive is the electricity market, because power demand is linked to several weather variables, mainly the air temperature. This work analyzes the relationship between electricity load and daily air temperature in Spain, using a population-weighted temperature index. The electricity demand shows a significant trend due to socioeconomic factors, in addition to daily and monthly seasonal effects that have been taken into account to isolate the weather influence on electricity load. The results indicate that the relationship is nonlinear, showing a `comfort interval' of ±3°C around 18°C and two saturation points beyond which the electricity load no longer increases. The analysis has also revealed that the sensitivity of electricity load to daily air temperature has increased along time, in a higher degree for summer than for winter, although the sensitivity in the cold season is always more significant than in the warm season. Two different temperature-derived variables that allow a better characterization of the observed relationship have been used: the heating and cooling degree-days. The regression of electricity data on them defines the heating and cooling demand functions, which show correlation coefficients of 0.79 and 0.87, and predicts electricity load with standard errors of estimate of ±4% and ±2%, respectively. The maximum elasticity of electricity demand is observed at 7 cooling degree-days and 9 heating degree-days, and the saturation points are reached at 11 cooling degree-days and 13 heating degree-days, respectively. These results are helpful in modeling electricity load behavior for predictive purposes.

  12. Electricity pricing and load dispatching in deregulated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geerli; Niioka, S.; Yokoyama, R.

    2003-01-01

    A rapid move to a market-based electric power industry will significantly alter the structure of electricity pricing and system operation. In this paper, we consider a game of negotiation in the electricity market, involving electric utilities, independent power producers (IPPs) and large-scale customers. We analyze the two-level game strategies for the negotiation process between utilities, IPPs and customers. These have been previously recognized as a way to come up with a rational decision for competitive markets, in which players intend to maximize their own profits. The derived operation rules based on competition can be viewed as an extension of the conventional equal incremental cost method for the deregulated power system. The proposed approach was applied to several systems to verify its effectiveness. (Author)

  13. Impacts of Electric Vehicle Loads on Power Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    operation. This paper investigates the effects on the key power distribution system parameters like voltages, line drops, system losses etc. by integrating electric vehicles in the range of 0-50% of the cars with different charging capacities. The dump as well as smart charging modes of electric vehicles......Electric vehicles (EVs) are the most promising alternative to replace a significant amount of gasoline vehicles to provide cleaner, CO2 free and climate friendly transportation. On integrating more electric vehicles, the electric utilities must analyse the related impacts on the electricity system...... is applied in this analysis. A typical Danish primary power distribution system is used as a test case for the studies. From the simulation results, not more than 10% of electric vehicles could be integrated in the test system for the dump charging mode. About 40% of electric vehicle loads could...

  14. New consumer load prototype for electricity theft monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullateef, A I; Salami, M J E; Musse, M A; Onasanya, M A; Alebiosu, M I

    2013-01-01

    Illegal connection which is direct connection to the distribution feeder and tampering of energy meter has been identified as a major process through which nefarious consumers steal electricity on low voltage distribution system. This has contributed enormously to the revenue losses incurred by the power and energy providers. A Consumer Load Prototype (CLP) is constructed and proposed in this study in order to understand the best possible pattern through which the stealing process is effected in real life power consumption. The construction of consumer load prototype will facilitate real time simulation and data collection for the monitoring and detection of electricity theft on low voltage distribution system. The prototype involves electrical design and construction of consumer loads with application of various standard regulations from Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET), formerly known as Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE). LABVIEW platform was used for data acquisition and the data shows a good representation of the connected loads. The prototype will assist researchers and power utilities, currently facing challenges in getting real time data for the study and monitoring of electricity theft. The simulation of electricity theft in real time is one of the contributions of this prototype. Similarly, the power and energy community including students will appreciate the practical approach which the prototype provides for real time information rather than software simulation which has hitherto been used in the study of electricity theft

  15. New consumer load prototype for electricity theft monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullateef, A. I.; Salami, M. J. E.; Musse, M. A.; Onasanya, M. A.; Alebiosu, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    Illegal connection which is direct connection to the distribution feeder and tampering of energy meter has been identified as a major process through which nefarious consumers steal electricity on low voltage distribution system. This has contributed enormously to the revenue losses incurred by the power and energy providers. A Consumer Load Prototype (CLP) is constructed and proposed in this study in order to understand the best possible pattern through which the stealing process is effected in real life power consumption. The construction of consumer load prototype will facilitate real time simulation and data collection for the monitoring and detection of electricity theft on low voltage distribution system. The prototype involves electrical design and construction of consumer loads with application of various standard regulations from Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET), formerly known as Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE). LABVIEW platform was used for data acquisition and the data shows a good representation of the connected loads. The prototype will assist researchers and power utilities, currently facing challenges in getting real time data for the study and monitoring of electricity theft. The simulation of electricity theft in real time is one of the contributions of this prototype. Similarly, the power and energy community including students will appreciate the practical approach which the prototype provides for real time information rather than software simulation which has hitherto been used in the study of electricity theft.

  16. Design of digital load torque observer in hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yukun; Zhang, Haoming; Wang, Yinghai

    2008-12-01

    In hybrid electric vehicle, engine begain to work only when motor was in high speed in order to decrease tail gas emission. However, permanent magnet motor was sensitive to its load, adding engine to the system always made its speed drop sharply, which caused engine to work in low efficiency again and produced much more environment pollution. Dynamic load torque model of permanent magnet synchronous motor is established on the basic of motor mechanical equation and permanent magnet synchronous motor vector control theory, Full- digital load torque observer and compensation control system is made based on TMS320F2407A. Experiment results prove load torque observer and compensation control system can detect and compensate torque disturbing effectively, which can solve load torque disturbing and decrease gas pollution of hybrid electric vehicle.

  17. 'Nonprofits' need surplus too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D W

    1982-01-01

    By definition profit refers to the difference between revenue and expenses. In for-profit organizations profit or surplus gives a return to the owners of the company and serves as a source of financing for capital acquisitions and working capital. Nonprofit organizations, which are not allowed a surplus, don't suffer on the first count because they have no owners. But they do suffer on the second count because, if expected to grow, they need to finance asset replacement and growth. In these days when funds for long-term debt are becoming scarcer, this author asserts, the need for regulators to allow 'nonprofits' to keep a surplus is increasing. In this article, he argues for a surplus and then discusses how managers and regulators can determine how much a nonprofit organization should be allowed. He presents a combination of a modified version of the return-on-asset pricing model used in for-profit organizations and a model for assessing working capital needs associated with growth.

  18. Racism and Surplus Repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Howard

    1983-01-01

    Explores the relationship between Herbert Marcuse's theory of "surplus repression" and Freud's theory of the "unconscious" with respect to latent, hidden, covert, or subliminal aspects of racism in the United States. Argues that unconscious racism, manifested in evasion/avoidance, acting out/projection, and attempted…

  19. 101 Modelling and Forecasting Periodic Electric Load for a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... Electricity load consumption in Nigeria is of great concern and its government is ... This is because the energy needed for any system is based on ... is a tool for verifying the validity and reliability of a chosen model. It tells how ...

  20. Using the internet of things to enable electrical load optimisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Butgereit, L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available about itself and also allowing the object to be controlled by some process. This paper describes a research project in balancing the electrical load in the kitchens of an IT organisation. Ten kitchen appliances were enhanced with digital intelligence...

  1. Power quality load management for large spacecraft electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollar, Louis F.

    1988-01-01

    In December, 1986, a Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) proposal was granted to study power system control techniques in large space electrical power systems. Presented are the accomplishments in the area of power system control by power quality load management. In addition, information concerning the distortion problems in a 20 kHz ac power system is presented.

  2. Temperature and seasonality influences on Spanish electricity load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, Angel; Meneu, Vicente; Valor, Enric

    2002-01-01

    Deregulation of the Spanish electricity market in 1998 and the possible listing of electricity or weather derivative contracts have encouraged the study of the relationship between electricity demand and weather in Spain. In this paper, a transfer function intervention model is developed for forecasting daily electricity load from cooling and heating degree-days. The influence of weather and seasonality is proved, and is significant even when the autoregressive effects and the dynamic specification of the temperature are taken into account. The estimated general model shows a high predictive power. The results and information presented in this paper could be of interest for current users and potential traders in the deregulated Spanish electricity market

  3. Temperature and seasonality influences on Spanish electricity load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, Angel; Meneu, Vicente [Departamento de Economia Financiera y Matematica, Facultad de Economia, Avda. de los Naranjos s/n., Edificio Departamental Oriental, Universidad de Valencia, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Valor, Enric [Departamento de Termodinamica, Universidad de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2002-01-01

    Deregulation of the Spanish electricity market in 1998 and the possible listing of electricity or weather derivative contracts have encouraged the study of the relationship between electricity demand and weather in Spain. In this paper, a transfer function intervention model is developed for forecasting daily electricity load from cooling and heating degree-days. The influence of weather and seasonality is proved, and is significant even when the autoregressive effects and the dynamic specification of the temperature are taken into account. The estimated general model shows a high predictive power. The results and information presented in this paper could be of interest for current users and potential traders in the deregulated Spanish electricity market.

  4. Load As A Reliability Resource in the Restructured Electricity Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueck, J.D.

    2002-06-10

    Recent electricity price spikes are painful reminders of the value that meaningful demand-side responses could bring to the restructuring US electricity system. Review of the aggregate offers made by suppliers confirms that even a modest increase in demand elasticity could dramatically reduce these extremes in price volatility. There is a strong need for dramatically increased customer participation in these markets to enhance system reliability and reduce price volatility. Indeed, allowing customers to manage their loads in response to system conditions might be thought of as the ultimate reliability resource. Most would agree that meaningful demand-side responses to price are the hallmark of a well-functioning competitive market [1]. Yet, in today's markets for electricity, little or no such response is evident. The reason is simple: customers currently do not experience directly the time-varying costs of their consumption decisions. Consequently, they have no incentive to modify these decisions in ways that might enhance system reliability or improve the efficiency of the markets in which electricity is traded. Increased customer participation is a necessary step in the evolution toward more efficient markets for electricity and ancillary services. This scoping report provides a three-part assessment of the current status of efforts to enhance the ability of customer's load to participate in competitive markets with a specific focus on the role of customer loads in enhancing electricity system reliability. First, this report considers the definitions of electricity-reliability-enhancing ancillary services (Section 2) and a preliminary assessment of the ability of customer's loads to provide these services. Second, is a review a variety of programs in which load has been called on as a system reliability resource (Section 3). These experiences, drawn from both past and current utility and ISO programs, focus on programs triggered by system

  5. Disposal of Surplus Weapons Grade Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsaed, H.; Gottlieb, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition is responsible for disposing of inventories of surplus US weapons-usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium as well as providing, technical support for, and ultimate implementation of, efforts to obtain reciprocal disposition of surplus Russian plutonium. On January 4, 2000, the Department of Energy issued a Record of Decision to dispose of up to 50 metric tons of surplus weapons-grade plutonium using two methods. Up to 17 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be immobilized in a ceramic form, placed in cans and embedded in large canisters containing high-level vitrified waste for ultimate disposal in a geologic repository. Approximately 33 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be used to fabricate MOX fuel (mixed oxide fuel, having less than 5% plutonium-239 as the primary fissile material in a uranium-235 carrier matrix). The MOX fuel will be used to produce electricity in existing domestic commercial nuclear reactors. This paper reports the major waste-package-related, long-term disposal impacts of the two waste forms that would be used to accomplish this mission. Particular emphasis is placed on the possibility of criticality. These results are taken from a summary report published earlier this year

  6. Machine learning based switching model for electricity load forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Shu; Lee, Wei-Jen [Energy Systems Research Center, The University of Texas at Arlington, 416 S. College Street, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Chen, Luonan [Department of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineering, Osaka Sangyo University, 3-1-1 Nakagaito, Daito, Osaka 574-0013 (Japan)

    2008-06-15

    In deregulated power markets, forecasting electricity loads is one of the most essential tasks for system planning, operation and decision making. Based on an integration of two machine learning techniques: Bayesian clustering by dynamics (BCD) and support vector regression (SVR), this paper proposes a novel forecasting model for day ahead electricity load forecasting. The proposed model adopts an integrated architecture to handle the non-stationarity of time series. Firstly, a BCD classifier is applied to cluster the input data set into several subsets by the dynamics of the time series in an unsupervised manner. Then, groups of SVRs are used to fit the training data of each subset in a supervised way. The effectiveness of the proposed model is demonstrated with actual data taken from the New York ISO and the Western Farmers Electric Cooperative in Oklahoma. (author)

  7. Machine learning based switching model for electricity load forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Shu [Energy Systems Research Center, University of Texas at Arlington, 416 S. College Street, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Chen Luonan [Department of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineering, Osaka Sangyo University, 3-1-1 Nakagaito, Daito, Osaka 574-0013 (Japan); Lee, Weijen [Energy Systems Research Center, University of Texas at Arlington, 416 S. College Street, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)], E-mail: wlee@uta.edu

    2008-06-15

    In deregulated power markets, forecasting electricity loads is one of the most essential tasks for system planning, operation and decision making. Based on an integration of two machine learning techniques: Bayesian clustering by dynamics (BCD) and support vector regression (SVR), this paper proposes a novel forecasting model for day ahead electricity load forecasting. The proposed model adopts an integrated architecture to handle the non-stationarity of time series. Firstly, a BCD classifier is applied to cluster the input data set into several subsets by the dynamics of the time series in an unsupervised manner. Then, groups of SVRs are used to fit the training data of each subset in a supervised way. The effectiveness of the proposed model is demonstrated with actual data taken from the New York ISO and the Western Farmers Electric Cooperative in Oklahoma.

  8. Machine learning based switching model for electricity load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Shu; Chen Luonan; Lee, Weijen

    2008-01-01

    In deregulated power markets, forecasting electricity loads is one of the most essential tasks for system planning, operation and decision making. Based on an integration of two machine learning techniques: Bayesian clustering by dynamics (BCD) and support vector regression (SVR), this paper proposes a novel forecasting model for day ahead electricity load forecasting. The proposed model adopts an integrated architecture to handle the non-stationarity of time series. Firstly, a BCD classifier is applied to cluster the input data set into several subsets by the dynamics of the time series in an unsupervised manner. Then, groups of SVRs are used to fit the training data of each subset in a supervised way. The effectiveness of the proposed model is demonstrated with actual data taken from the New York ISO and the Western Farmers Electric Cooperative in Oklahoma

  9. Assessing and Reducing Miscellaneous Electric Loads (MELs) in Banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Emily M.

    2012-09-01

    Miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) are loads outside of a building's core functions of heating, ventilating, air conditioning, lighting, and water heating. MELs are a large percentage of total building energy loads. This report reviews methods for reducing MELs in Banks. Reducing MELs in a bank setting requires both local and corporate action. Corporate action centers on activities to prioritize and allocate the right resources to correct procurement and central control issues. Local action includes branch assessment or audits to identify specific loads and needs. The worksheet at the end of this guide can help with cataloging needed information and estimating savings potential. The following steps provide a guide to MEL reductions in Bank Branches. The general process has been adapted from a process developed for office buildings the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, 2011).

  10. 77 FR 70484 - Preoperational Testing of Onsite Electric Power Systems To Verify Proper Load Group Assignments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ...-1294, ``Preoperational Testing of On-Site Electric Power Systems to Verify Proper Load Group... entitled ``Preoperational Testing of On- Site Electric Power Systems to Verify Proper Load Group... Electric Power Systems to Verify Proper Load Group Assignments, Electrical Separation, and Redundancy...

  11. Load Forecasting in Electric Utility Integrated Resource Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvallo, Juan Pablo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Larsen, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sanstad, Alan H [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-19

    Integrated resource planning (IRP) is a process used by many vertically-integrated U.S. electric utilities to determine least-cost/risk supply and demand-side resources that meet government policy objectives and future obligations to customers and, in many cases, shareholders. Forecasts of energy and peak demand are a critical component of the IRP process. There have been few, if any, quantitative studies of IRP long-run (planning horizons of two decades) load forecast performance and its relationship to resource planning and actual procurement decisions. In this paper, we evaluate load forecasting methods, assumptions, and outcomes for 12 Western U.S. utilities by examining and comparing plans filed in the early 2000s against recent plans, up to year 2014. We find a convergence in the methods and data sources used. We also find that forecasts in more recent IRPs generally took account of new information, but that there continued to be a systematic over-estimation of load growth rates during the period studied. We compare planned and procured resource expansion against customer load and year-to-year load growth rates, but do not find a direct relationship. Load sensitivities performed in resource plans do not appear to be related to later procurement strategies even in the presence of large forecast errors. These findings suggest that resource procurement decisions may be driven by other factors than customer load growth. Our results have important implications for the integrated resource planning process, namely that load forecast accuracy may not be as important for resource procurement as is generally believed, that load forecast sensitivities could be used to improve the procurement process, and that management of load uncertainty should be prioritized over more complex forecasting techniques.

  12. Impact Study on Power Factor of Electrical Load in Power Distribution System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syirrazie Che Soh; Harzawardi Hasim; Ahmad Asraf, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Low Power Factor of electrical loads cause high current is drawn from power supply. The impact of this circumstance is influenced by impedance of electrical load. Therefore, the key consideration of this study is how impedance of electrical loads influence power factor of electrical loads, and then power distribution as the whole. This study is important to evaluate the right action to mitigate low power factor effectively for electrical energy efficiency purpose. (author)

  13. Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging Station Load on Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchari Deb

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent concerns about environmental pollution and escalating energy consumption accompanied by the advancements in battery technology have initiated the electrification of the transportation sector. With the universal resurgence of Electric Vehicles (EVs the adverse impact of the EV charging loads on the operating parameters of the power system has been noticed. The detrimental impact of EV charging station loads on the electricity distribution network cannot be neglected. The high charging loads of the fast charging stations results in increased peak load demand, reduced reserve margins, voltage instability, and reliability problems. Further, the penalty paid by the utility for the degrading performance of the power system cannot be neglected. This work aims to investigate the impact of the EV charging station loads on the voltage stability, power losses, reliability indices, as well as economic losses of the distribution network. The entire analysis is performed on the IEEE 33 bus test system representing a standard radial distribution network for six different cases of EV charging station placement. It is observed that the system can withstand placement of fast charging stations at the strong buses up to a certain level, but the placement of fast charging stations at the weak buses of the system hampers the smooth operation of the power system. Further, a strategy for the placement of the EV charging stations on the distribution network is proposed based on a novel Voltage stability, Reliability, and Power loss (VRP index. The results obtained indicate the efficacy of the VRP index.

  14. Application of chaotic ant swarm optimization in electric load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, W.-C.

    2010-01-01

    Support vector regression (SVR) had revealed strong potential in accurate electric load forecasting, particularly by employing effective evolutionary algorithms to determine suitable values of its three parameters. Based on previous research results, however, these employed evolutionary algorithms themselves have several drawbacks, such as converging prematurely, reaching slowly the global optimal solution, and trapping into a local optimum. This investigation presents an SVR-based electric load forecasting model that applied a novel algorithm, namely chaotic ant swarm optimization (CAS), to improve the forecasting performance by searching its suitable parameters combination. The proposed CAS combines with the chaotic behavior of single ant and self-organization behavior of ant colony in the foraging process to overcome premature local optimum. The empirical results indicate that the SVR model with CAS (SVRCAS) results in better forecasting performance than the other alternative methods, namely SVRCPSO (SVR with chaotic PSO), SVRCGA (SVR with chaotic GA), regression model, and ANN model.

  15. Short-term electric load forecasting using computational intelligence methods

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado, Sergio; Peralta, J.; Nebot, Àngela; Mugica, Francisco; Cortez, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Accurate time series forecasting is a key issue to support individual and organizational decision making. In this paper, we introduce several methods for short-term electric load forecasting. All the presented methods stem from computational intelligence techniques: Random Forest, Nonlinear Autoregressive Neural Networks, Evolutionary Support Vector Machines and Fuzzy Inductive Reasoning. The performance of the suggested methods is experimentally justified with several experiments carried out...

  16. Bulk Electric Load Cost Calculation Methods: Iraqi Network Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qais M. Alias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is vital in any industry to regain the spent capitals plus running costs and a margin of profits for the industry to flourish. The electricity industry is an everyday life touching industry which follows the same finance-economic strategy. Cost allocation is a major issue in all sectors of the electric industry, viz, generation, transmission and distribution. Generation and distribution service costing’s well documented in the literature, while the transmission share is still of need for research. In this work, the cost of supplying a bulk electric load connected to the EHV system is calculated. A sample basic lump-average method is used to provide a rough costing guide. Also, two transmission pricing methods are employed, namely, the postage-stamp and the load-flow based MW-distance methods to calculate transmission share in the total cost of each individual bulk load. The three costing methods results are then analyzed and compared for the 400kV Iraqi power grid considered for a case study.

  17. Analyzing and Forecasting Electrical Load Consumption in Healthcare Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Gordillo-Orquera

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare buildings exhibit a different electrical load predictability depending on their size and nature. Large hospitals behave similarly to small cities, whereas primary care centers are expected to have different consumption dynamics. In this work, we jointly analyze the electrical load predictability of a large hospital and that of its associated primary care center. An unsupervised load forecasting scheme using combined classic methods of principal component analysis (PCA and autoregressive (AR modeling, as well as a supervised scheme using orthonormal partial least squares (OPLS, are proposed. Both methods reduce the dimensionality of the data to create an efficient and low-complexity data representation and eliminate noise subspaces. Because the former method tended to underestimate the load and the latter tended to overestimate it in the large hospital, we also propose a convex combination of both to further reduce the forecasting error. The analysis of data from 7 years in the hospital and 3 years in the primary care center shows that the proposed low-complexity dynamic models are flexible enough to predict both types of consumption at practical accuracy levels.

  18. Wind integration in self-regulating electric load distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkinson, Simon; Wang, Dan; Crawford, Curran; Djilali, Ned [University of Victoria, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute for Integrated Energy Systems, STN CSC, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2012-12-15

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce and assess an alternative method of mitigating short-term wind energy production variability through the control of electric loads. In particular, co-located populations of electric vehicles and heat pumps are targeted to provide regulation-based ancillary services, as the inherent operational flexibility and autonomous device-level control strategy associated with these load-types provide an ideal platform to mitigate enhanced variability within the power system. An optimal control strategy capable of simultaneously balancing these grid-side objectives with those typically expected on the demand-side is introduced. End-use digital communication hardware is used to track and control population dynamics through the development of online aggregate load models equivalent to conventional dispatchable generation. The viability of the proposed load control strategy is assessed through model-based simulations that explicitly track end-use functionality of responsive devices within a power systems analysis typically implemented to observe the effects of integrated wind energy systems. Results indicate that there is great potential for the proposed method to displace the need for increased online regulation reserve capacity in systems considering a high penetration of wind energy, thereby allowing conventional generation to operate more efficiently. (orig.)

  19. Coordinating plug-in electric vehicle charging with electric grid: Valley filling and target load following

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Jabbari, Faryar; Brown, Tim; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-12-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) shift energy consumption from petroleum to electricity for the personal transportation sector. This work proposes a decentralized charging protocol for PEVs with grid operators updating the cost signal. Each PEV calculates its own optimal charging profile only once based on the cost signal, after it is plugged in, and sends the result back to the grid operators. Grid operators only need to aggregate charging profiles and update the load and cost. The existing PEV characteristics, national household travel survey (NHTS), California Independent System Operator (CAISO) demand, and estimates for future renewable generation in California are used to simulate PEV operation, PEV charging profiles, grid demand, and grid net load (demand minus renewable). Results show the proposed protocol has good performance for overnight net load valley filling if the costs to be minimized are proportional to the net load. Annual results are shown in terms of overnight load variation and comparisons are made with grid level valley filling results. Further, a target load can be approached in the same manner by using the gap between current load and the target load as the cost. The communication effort involved is quite modest.

  20. Forecasting Strategies for Predicting Peak Electric Load Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Harshit

    Academic institutions spend thousands of dollars every month on their electric power consumption. Some of these institutions follow a demand charges pricing structure; here the amount a customer pays to the utility is decided based on the total energy consumed during the month, with an additional charge based on the highest average power load required by the customer over a moving window of time as decided by the utility. Therefore, it is crucial for these institutions to minimize the time periods where a high amount of electric load is demanded over a short duration of time. In order to reduce the peak loads and have more uniform energy consumption, it is imperative to predict when these peaks occur, so that appropriate mitigation strategies can be developed. The research work presented in this thesis has been conducted for Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), where the demand charges are decided based on a 15 minute sliding window panned over the entire month. This case study makes use of different statistical and machine learning algorithms to develop a forecasting strategy for predicting the peak electric load days of the month. The proposed strategy was tested for a whole year starting May 2015 to April 2016 during which a total of 57 peak days were observed. The model predicted a total of 74 peak days during this period, 40 of these cases were true positives, hence achieving an accuracy level of 70 percent. The results obtained with the proposed forecasting strategy are promising and demonstrate an annual savings potential worth about $80,000 for a single submeter of RIT.

  1. Decree nr 2014-764 of the 3 July 2014 related to electricity load managements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valls, Manuel; Royal, Segolene; Montebourg, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    This decree issued by the Ministry of ecology, sustainable development and energy aims at defining the methodology used to establish rules of valorisation of electricity load managements. It concerns energy suppliers and load management operators. A first chapter defines what electricity load management is and who a load management operator is. The next chapter addresses the methodology, the definition of the electricity load management volume, data used for the certification of load management volumes. The third chapter describes how to calculate the premium awarded to load management operators. The last chapters indicate how the ministries define the premium amount, and some aspects related to the communication of data to load management operators

  2. Recent research in electric power pricing and load management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabors, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    Reliable electricity is a necessity for industrial and economic development. In the developing nations, power systems are growing rapidly. Typically, demand for electricity grows faster than either total energy demand or gross domestic product. Load management systems and innovative tariff structures offer to utilities potentially significant operating and capital cost savings through increased efficiency. Benefits must be weighed against the costs of implementation, communication, control and monitoring. When comparing developed and developing country utilities one may conclude that the developing countries may have far more to gain from direct load management and innovative tariff systems. They may be able to introduce variable (cost dependent/time dependent) reliability as opposed to the constant reliability expected in the USA and Western Europe; and many utilities may be able to design more flexible (and less costly) utility systems around a combination of load management and pricing structures, that encourage a higher level of interaction between customer and utility than is the case in the more developed utilities. (author). 84 refs

  3. Dynamic intelligent cleaning model of dirty electric load data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaoxing; Sun Caixin

    2008-01-01

    There are a number of dirty data in the load database derived from the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system. Thus, the data must be carefully and reasonably adjusted before it is used for electric load forecasting or power system analysis. This paper proposes a dynamic and intelligent data cleaning model based on data mining theory. Firstly, on the basis of fuzzy soft clustering, the Kohonen clustering network is improved to fulfill the parallel calculation of fuzzy c-means soft clustering. Then, the proposed dynamic algorithm can automatically find the new clustering center (the characteristic curve of the data) with the updated sample data; At last, it is composed with radial basis function neural network (RBFNN), and then, an intelligent adjusting model is proposed to identify the dirty data. The rapid and dynamic performance of the model makes it suitable for real time calculation, and the efficiency and accuracy of the model is proved by test results of electrical load data analysis in Chongqing

  4. Establishment of windows-based load management system for electricity cost savings in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.H.; Kim, B.H.; Hur, D.

    2007-01-01

    For electricity markets to function in a truly competitive and efficient manner, it is not enough to focus solely on improving the efficiencies of power supply. To recognize price-responsive load as a reliability resource, the customer must be provided with price signals and an instrument to respond to these signals, preferably automatically. This paper attempts to develop the Windows-based load management system in competitive electricity markets, allowing the user to monitor the current energy consumption or billing information, to analyze the historical data, and to implement the consumption strategy for cost savings with nine possible scenarios adopted. Finally, this modeling framework will serve as a template containing the basic concepts that any load management system should address. (author)

  5. Load shift potential of electric vehicles in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babrowski, Sonja; Heinrichs, Heidi; Jochem, Patrick; Fichtner, Wolf

    2014-06-01

    Many governments highly encourage electric mobility today, aiming at a high market penetration. This development would bring forth an impact on the energy system, which strongly depends on the driving and charging behavior of the users. While an uncontrolled immediate charging might strain the local grid and/or higher peak loads, there are benefits to be gained by a controlled charging. We examine six European mobility studies in order to display the effects of controlled and uncontrolled unidirectional charging. Taking into account country-specific driving patterns, we generate for each country a charging load curve corresponding to uncontrolled charging and consider the corresponding parking time at charging facilities in order to identify load shift potentials. The main results are that besides the charging power of the vehicles, the possibility to charge at the work place has a significant influence on the uncontrolled charging curve. Neither national nor regional differences are as significant. When charging is only possible at home, the vehicle availability at charging facilities during the day for all countries is at least 24%. With the additional possibility to charge at work, at least 45% are constantly available. Accordingly, we identified a big potential for load shifting through controlled charging.

  6. HTGR-GT and electrical load integrated control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, T.; Openshaw, F.; Pfremmer, D.

    1980-05-01

    A discussion of the control and operation of the HTGR-GT power plant is presented in terms of its closely coupled electrical load and core cooling functions. The system and its controls are briefly described and comparisons are made with more conventional plants. The results of analyses of selected transients are presented to illustrate the operation and control of the HTGR-GT. The events presented were specifically chosen to show the controllability of the plant and to highlight some of the unique characteristics inherent in this multiloop closed-cycle plant

  7. Electricity Load Forecasting Using Support Vector Regression with Memetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyi Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electricity load forecasting is an important issue that is widely explored and examined in power systems operation literature and commercial transactions in electricity markets literature as well. Among the existing forecasting models, support vector regression (SVR has gained much attention. Considering the performance of SVR highly depends on its parameters; this study proposed a firefly algorithm (FA based memetic algorithm (FA-MA to appropriately determine the parameters of SVR forecasting model. In the proposed FA-MA algorithm, the FA algorithm is applied to explore the solution space, and the pattern search is used to conduct individual learning and thus enhance the exploitation of FA. Experimental results confirm that the proposed FA-MA based SVR model can not only yield more accurate forecasting results than the other four evolutionary algorithms based SVR models and three well-known forecasting models but also outperform the hybrid algorithms in the related existing literature.

  8. Equivalent electricity storage capacity of domestic thermostatically controlled loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sossan, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    A method to quantify the equivalent storage capacity inherent the operation of thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) is developed. Equivalent storage capacity is defined as the amount of power and electricity consumption which can be deferred or anticipated in time with respect to the baseline consumption (i.e. when no demand side event occurs) without violating temperature limits. The analysis is carried out for 4 common domestic TCLs: an electric space heating system, freezer, fridge, and electric water heater. They are simulated by applying grey-box thermal models identified from measurements. They describe the heat transfer of the considered TCLs as a function of the electric power consumption and environment conditions. To represent typical TCLs operating conditions, Monte Carlo simulations are developed, where models inputs and parameters are sampled from relevant statistical distributions. The analysis provides a way to compare flexible demand against competitive storage technologies. It is intended as a tool for system planners to assess the TCLs potential to support electrical grid operation. In the paper, a comparison of the storage capacity per unit of capital investment cost is performed considering the selected TCLs and two grid-connected battery storage systems (a 720 kVA/500 kWh lithium-ion unit and 15 kVA/120 kWh Vanadium flow redox) is performed. - Highlights: • The equivalent storage capacity of domestic TCLs is quantified • A comparison with battery-based storage technologies is performed • We derive metrics for system planners to plan storage in power system networks • Rule-of-thumb cost indicators for flexible demand and battery-based storage

  9. An electricity price model with consideration to load and gas price effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min-xiang; Tao, Xiao-hu; Han, Zhen-xiang

    2003-01-01

    Some characteristics of the electricity load and prices are studied, and the relationship between electricity prices and gas (fuel) prices is analyzed in this paper. Because electricity prices are strongly dependent on load and gas prices, the authors constructed a model for electricity prices based on the effects of these two factors; and used the Geometric Mean Reversion Brownian Motion (GMRBM) model to describe the electricity load process, and a Geometric Brownian Motion(GBM) model to describe the gas prices; deduced the price stochastic process model based on the above load model and gas price model. This paper also presents methods for parameters estimation, and proposes some methods to solve the model.

  10. Methods of qualifying electrical cabinets for the load case earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkel, F.-O.; Kennerknecht, H.; Haefeli, T.; Jorgensen, F.

    2005-01-01

    With the qualification of electrical system cabinets for the load case earthquake it is differentiated between the two objectives: a) stability of the cabinet, and b) functionality of the built-in electrical modules during and after the earthquake. There are three methods to attain these goals: analyses, tests and proof by analogy. A common method is the shaking of a complete cabinet on a shaking table, with the advantage that stability and functionality can be proved at the same time, but with the disadvantage that quite expensive test equipment, especially a multi-axle shaking table, is necessary and that generally a cabinet which was proved for SSE is pre-affected and thus may not be incorporated into the plant offhand, i.e. the extreme example would be that the cabinet must be built twice. As a rule, analyses are currently carried out by means of Finite-Element-Models of the supporting structure with consideration of the electrical components at least with their masses. This analysis can prove the stability and pursue the excitation until the anchoring point of the electrical components (Henkel et al., 1987). The combination of the aforementioned two methods often constitutes the best way. The stability of the cabinet is proved by calculations, the functionality of the safety-relevant modules by tests. Once tested, modules identical in construction can be used for cabinets without further testing for earthquakes of similar or lower levels. Proof by analogy is possible only if tests or analyses of similar cabinets were done in advance. By means of the comparison of supporting structure, mass allocation and distribution, level and shape of the earthquake excitation it can be shown that the cabinet planned is covered by cabinets already tested or analysed (Katona et al., 1995). All facets of the various methods with advantages and disadvantages are discussed and explained on the basis of numerous examples. (authors)

  11. Load calculation and system evaluation for electric vehicle climate control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aceves-Saborio, S.; Comfort, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    Providing air conditioning for electric vehicles (EV's) represents an important challenge, because vapor-compression air conditioners, which are common in gasoline-powered vehicles, may consume a substantial part of the total energy stored in the EV battery. The authors' work has two major parts: a cooling and heating load calculation for EV's, and an evaluation of several systems that can be used to provide the desired cooling and heating in EV's. Four cases are studied: short-range and full-range EV's are each analyzed twice, first with the regular vehicle equipment, and then with a fan and heat-reflecting windows, to reduce hot soak. Results indicate that for the batteries currently available for EV propulsion, an ice storage system has the minimum weight of all the systems considered. Vapor-compression air conditioners have the minimum for battery storage capacities above 270 kJ/kg

  12. Balance, analysis of emission and CO{sub 2} sequestration in the generation of electricity surplus in sugar and ethanol sector; Balanco, analise de emissao e sequestro de CO{sub 2} na geracao de eletricidade excedente no setor sucro-alcooleiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chohfi, Felipe Moreton [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil); Dupas, Franscisco Antonio [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Ambiental. Inst. de Recursos Naturais; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Excelencia em Geracao Termeletrica e Distribuida

    2004-07-01

    In recent years, research activities regarding the global environmental impacts of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions have been intensified. The carbon market aims to minimize the emissions of this dangerous gas as it allows incentives for developed and developing countries to be stimulated not to adjust to a high carbon dioxide energy matrix. This work studies the carbon dioxide emissions and capture mass balance in the sugar and alcohol sector. Through a life cycle analysis methodology of surplus electricity production the CO{sub 2} balance is calculated. The results obtained show that 145,3 tons CO{sub 2}/hectare are sequestered during sugarcane cultivation and 111,5 tons CO{sub 2}/hectare are emitted for electricity production, resulting in a viable capture balance scenario of 33,8 tons of carbon dioxide per hectare of plantation in one life cycle of surplus electricity production that is supplied to the electricity distribution companies. The life cycle analysis of the cultivation of sugarcane biomass for surplus electricity production allowed a high value to be obtained for the CO{sub 2} absorption figure. If compared with other forms of electricity generation, the energy produced in sugar mills presents the lowest values of carbon dioxide emissions of all the other forms of electricity production. (author)

  13. On load flow control in electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbig, Arnim

    2000-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the control of active power flow, or load flow in electric power systems. During the last few years, interest in the possibilities to control the active power flows in transmission systems has increased significantly. There is a number of reasons for this, coming both from the application side - that is, from power system operations - and from the technological side. where advances in power electronics and related technologies have made new system components available. Load flow control is by nature a multi-input multi-output problem, since any change of load flow in one line will be complemented by changes in other lines. Strong cross-coupling between controllable components is to be expected, and the possibility of adverse interactions between these components cannot be rejected straightaway. Interactions with dynamic phenomena in the power system are also a source of concern. Three controllable components are investigated in this thesis, namely the controlled series capacitor (CSC), the phase angle regulator (PAR), and the unified power flow controller (UPFC). Properties and characteristics of these devices axe investigated and discussed. A simple control strategy is proposed. This strategy is then analyzed extensively. Mathematical methods and physical knowledge about the pertinent phenomena are combined, and it is shown that this control strategy can be used for a fairly general class of devices. Computer simulations of the controlled system provide insight into the system behavior in a system of reasonable size. The robustness and stability of the control system are discussed as are its limits. Further, the behavior of the control strategy in a system where the modeling allows for dynamic phenomena are investigated with computer simulations. It is discussed under which circumstances the control action has beneficial or detrimental effect on the system dynamics. Finally, a graphical approach for analyzing the effect of controllers

  14. Impacts of rising air temperatures on electric transmission ampacity and peak electricity load in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Matthew; Chester, Mikhail; Johnson, Nathan; Gorman, Brandon; Eisenberg, Daniel; Linkov, Igor; Bates, Matthew

    2016-11-01

    Climate change may constrain future electricity supply adequacy by reducing electric transmission capacity and increasing electricity demand. The carrying capacity of electric power cables decreases as ambient air temperatures rise; similarly, during the summer peak period, electricity loads typically increase with hotter air temperatures due to increased air conditioning usage. As atmospheric carbon concentrations increase, higher ambient air temperatures may strain power infrastructure by simultaneously reducing transmission capacity and increasing peak electricity load. We estimate the impacts of rising ambient air temperatures on electric transmission ampacity and peak per-capita electricity load for 121 planning areas in the United States using downscaled global climate model projections. Together, these planning areas account for roughly 80% of current peak summertime load. We estimate climate-attributable capacity reductions to transmission lines by constructing thermal models of representative conductors, then forcing these models with future temperature projections to determine the percent change in rated ampacity. Next, we assess the impact of climate change on electricity load by using historical relationships between ambient temperature and utility-scale summertime peak load to estimate the extent to which climate change will incur additional peak load increases. We find that by mid-century (2040-2060), increases in ambient air temperature may reduce average summertime transmission capacity by 1.9%-5.8% relative to the 1990-2010 reference period. At the same time, peak per-capita summertime loads may rise by 4.2%-15% on average due to increases in ambient air temperature. In the absence of energy efficiency gains, demand-side management programs and transmission infrastructure upgrades, these load increases have the potential to upset current assumptions about future electricity supply adequacy.

  15. Grips for testing of electrical characteristics of a specimen under a mechanical load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Timothy; Loyola, Bryan

    2018-04-24

    Various technologies to facilitate coupled electrical and mechanical measurement of conductive materials are disclosed herein. A gripping device simultaneously holds a specimen in place and causes contact to be made between the specimen and a plurality of electrodes connected to an electrical measuring device. An electrical characteristic of the specimen is then measured while a mechanical load is applied to the specimen, and a relationship between the mechanical load and changes in the electrical characteristic can be identified.

  16. Strategies adopted by the sugarcane sector in the generation of surplus electricity; Estrategias adotadas pelo setor sucroalcooleiro na geracao de excedentes de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Zilmar Jose de [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil); Azevedo, Paulo Furquim de [Fundacao Getulio Vargas (FGV-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Considering the necessity to expand the installed national capacity of generation, as well as, to diversify it, the article investigated definitive aspects of the Institutional Environment where the electric energy commercialization by the sugarcane sector is inserted. Positive points in proposal of governmental energy policy for incentive this activity had been observed, as well as, the necessity of its improvement. (author)

  17. Generation potential of electric power surplus with the biogas produced from anaerobic bio digestion of vinasse in Brazilian sugar-ethanol industry; Potencial de geracao de excedentes de energia eletrica com o biogas produzido a partir da biodigestao da vinhaca na industria sucro-alcooleira brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamonica, Helcio Martins [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DE/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia

    2006-07-01

    This work evaluates the electric power potential of the Brazilian sugarcane industry using the biogas produced by vinasse biodigestion in internal combustion engine driven generators. The electric power surplus based on crop 2004/05 ethanol production data is 9,292 TJ/year (2.6 TWh/year), 0.75% of the total electric power consumption in Brazil during the year of 2003. In spite of its considerable potential the determined minimum selling price for its produced energy of R$ 89.98/GJ (R$ 323.92/MWh) is expensive for present Brazilian electric power market price. (author)

  18. Empirical Investigations of the Opportunity Limits of Automatic Residential Electric Load Shaping: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruickshank, Robert F.; Henze, Gregor P.; Balaji, Rajagopalan; Hodge, Bri-Mathias S.; Florita, Anthony R.

    2017-04-01

    Residential electric load shaping is often modeled as infrequent, utility-initiated, short-duration deferral of peak demand through direct load control. In contrast, modeled herein is the potential for frequent, transactive, intraday, consumer-configurable load shaping for storage-capable thermostatically controlled electric loads (TCLs), including refrigerators, freezers, and hot water heaters. Unique to this study are 28 months of 15-minute-interval observations of usage in 101 homes in the Pacific Northwest United States that specify exact start, duration, and usage patterns of approximately 25 submetered loads per home. The magnitudes of the load shift from voluntarily-participating TCL appliances are aggregated to form hourly upper and lower load-shaping limits for the coordination of electrical generation, transmission, distribution, storage, and demand. Empirical data are statistically analyzed to define metrics that help quantify load-shaping opportunities.

  19. Thermal to Electric Energy Conversion for Cyclic Heat Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Benjamin E.

    Today, we find cyclic heat loads almost everywhere. When we drive our cars, the engines heat up while we are driving and cool while parked. Processors heat while the computer is in use at the office and cool when idle at night. The sun heats the earth during the day and the earth radiates that heat into space at night. With modern technology, we have access to a number of methods to take that heat and convert it into electricity, but, before selecting one, we need to identify the parameters that inform decision making. The majority of the parameters for most systems include duty cycle, total cost, weight, size, thermal efficiency, and electrical efficiency. However, the importance of each of these will depend on the application. Size and weight take priority in a handheld device, while efficiency dominates in a power plant, and duty cycle is likely to dominate in highly demanding heat pump applications. Over the past decade, developments in semiconductor technology has led to the creation of the thermoelectric generator. With no moving parts and a nearly endlessly scalable nature, these generators present interesting opportunities for taking advantage of any source of waste heat. However, these generators are typically only capable of 5-8% efficiency from conversion of thermal to electric energy. [1]. Similarly, advancements in photovoltaic cells has led to the development of thermophotovoltaics. By heating an emitter to a temperature so it radiates light, a thermophotovoltaic cell then converts that light into electricity. By selecting materials that emit light in the optimal ranges of the appropriate photovoltaic cells, thermophotovoltaic systems can potentially exceed the current maximum of 10% efficiency. [2]. By pressurizing certain metal powders with hydrogen, hydrogen can be bound to the metal, creating a metal hydride, from which hydrogen can be later re-extracted under the correct pressure and temperature conditions. Since this hydriding reaction is

  20. Analysis of economic feasibility of sale of surplus electricity in cogeneration: case study; Analise de viabilidade economica de venda de energia eletrica excedente em cogeracao: estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fodra, Marcelo [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas; Universidade Sagrado Coracao (USC), Bauru, SP (Brazil)], email: marcelo.fodra@fca.unesp.br; Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial], email: maura@fca.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    The production of energy in large quantity and at competitive prices is crucial for economic development, which allied to the environmental question, has incentivated the use of renewable sources of energy. One of the most promising sources of renewable energy is the cogeneration from the residues of cane. Currently, the scenario for this kind of energy production is not consolidated, as production prices are not stable, inducing a risky situation for the environment. This work was aimed to study the economic viability of installing a main site for cogeneration of electricity, in a regional sugarcane factory located in the central region of Sao Paulo state that currently uses residues of sugar cane as fuel. The risk factor that was taken into consideration was the price paid for the MWh sold to the Chamber of Commerce of Electricity. The Monte Carlo Method was used to assess the risk factors for the analysis, by using of New Present Value (NPV), in a scenario that uses 20% of the initial investment made by the energy dealer. After the simulations were finished, considering the conditions used in this work, the project tends to be not feasible, as the behavior of the prices of cogenerated MWh are not sufficient for paying the initial investment and the operational costs. (author)

  1. Support Vector Regression Model Based on Empirical Mode Decomposition and Auto Regression for Electric Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Juan Li

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Electric load forecasting is an important issue for a power utility, associated with the management of daily operations such as energy transfer scheduling, unit commitment, and load dispatch. Inspired by strong non-linear learning capability of support vector regression (SVR, this paper presents a SVR model hybridized with the empirical mode decomposition (EMD method and auto regression (AR for electric load forecasting. The electric load data of the New South Wales (Australia market are employed for comparing the forecasting performances of different forecasting models. The results confirm the validity of the idea that the proposed model can simultaneously provide forecasting with good accuracy and interpretability.

  2. Short-Term City Electric Load Forecasting with Considering Temperature Effects: An Improved ARIMAX Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herui Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term electric load is significantly affected by weather, especially the temperature effects in summer. External factors can result in mutation structures in load data. Under the influence of the external temperature factors, city electric load cannot be easily forecasted as usual. This research analyzes the relationship between electricity load and daily temperature in city. An improved ARIMAX model is proposed in this paper to deal with the mutation data structures. It is found that information amount of the improved ARIMAX model is smaller than that of the classic method and its relative error is less than AR, ARMA and Sigmoid-Function ANN models. The forecasting results are more accurately fitted. This improved model is highly valuable when dealing with mutation data structure in the field of load forecasting. And it is also an effective technique in forecasting electric load with temperature effects.

  3. Summary of Market Opportunities for Electric Vehicles and Dispatchable Load in Electrolyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markel, Tony [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ma, Ookie [U.S Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-05-19

    Electric vehicles (EVs) and electrolyzers are potentially significant sources of new electric loads. Both are flexible in that the amount of electricity consumed can be varied in response to a variety of factors including the cost of electricity. Because both EVs and electrolyzers can control the timing of electricity purchases, they can minimize energy costs by timing the purchases of energy to periods of lowest costs.

  4. 利用多余光照光伏发电的温室透明覆盖材料的研制%Development of transparent greenhouse cover with function of generating electricity by surplus light and photovoltaic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯朝卿; 郑宏飞; 王瑞

    2014-01-01

    The common cover materials of greenhouses are glass and transparent plastic film. Generally speaking, they have no significant advantage for adjusting incidence lights of greenhouses. Given that the light intensity above the light saturation point is meaningless for plant growth, as in summer, the strong sunlight at noon is surplus, that is, surplus light is unused, so a new kind of entity Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) transparent greenhouse cover is proposed. The cover consists of many entity CPCs, meaning that the material is plexiglass (polymethyl methacrylate) and has high transparency. This cover can change the light paths, and the compound parabolic cells that stick to the bottom of the CPC can generate electricity. Lights of different incidence angles are tracked by optical simulation software; and, the relationship between the lights of incidence angles and transmittance has been analyzed. A test sample has been produced and a test system has been built. Also, an experimental study of transmittance and power generation under actual weather has been conducted. The test system consisted of an integral box (using the integrating sphere principle), a transparent entity CPC cover material (size:30 cm × 27 cm × 2 cm), a light meter, a voltmeter, an ammeter, and so on. Test method:1) Put the test device on horizontal ground and make sure that the front edge of the cover is vertical in the south direction;2) Raise the back of the cover and make sure that the angle between the normal of the cover and ground is the biggest solar elevation angle (33.8°) on the test day, and ensure that the incidence angle is 0° at noon. It can be seen from the transmittance test that the transmittance is lowest at noon. With the increase of the absolute value of the incidence angle, the change of the transmittance curve presents a trend that is rapid before becoming slow. The turning point of the transmittance curve appears at 10:15 AM and 14:15 PM, while the incidence

  5. Recycling and surplus chemical programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, T.J.

    1993-05-01

    In 1988, 45 years of defense production came to a close at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The mission of the Hanford Site was formally changed to environmental restoration and remediation. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is the management and operations (M ampersand O) contractor leading the cleanup. Within the framework of future Site cleanup, Hanford recycling and surplus chemical programs are making a viable contribution today to waste minimization, diversion of materials from the waste stream, and setting a standard for future operations. This paper focuses on two successful efforts: paper recycling and surplus chemical sales

  6. GMDH-Based Semi-Supervised Feature Selection for Electricity Load Classification Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lintao Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of smart power grids, communication network technology and sensor technology, there has been an exponential growth in complex electricity load data. Irregular electricity load fluctuations caused by the weather and holiday factors disrupt the daily operation of the power companies. To deal with these challenges, this paper investigates a day-ahead electricity peak load interval forecasting problem. It transforms the conventional continuous forecasting problem into a novel interval forecasting problem, and then further converts the interval forecasting problem into the classification forecasting problem. In addition, an indicator system influencing the electricity load is established from three dimensions, namely the load series, calendar data, and weather data. A semi-supervised feature selection algorithm is proposed to address an electricity load classification forecasting issue based on the group method of data handling (GMDH technology. The proposed algorithm consists of three main stages: (1 training the basic classifier; (2 selectively marking the most suitable samples from the unclassified label data, and adding them to an initial training set; and (3 training the classification models on the final training set and classifying the test samples. An empirical analysis of electricity load dataset from four Chinese cities is conducted. Results show that the proposed model can address the electricity load classification forecasting problem more efficiently and effectively than the FW-Semi FS (forward semi-supervised feature selection and GMDH-U (GMDH-based semi-supervised feature selection for customer classification models.

  7. Letter to the Editor: Electric Vehicle Demand Model for Load Flow Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; Vlachogiannis, Ioannis (John)

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces specific and simple model for electric vehicles suitable for load flow studies. The electric vehicles demand system is modelled as PQ bus with stochastic characteristics based on the concept of queuing theory. All appropriate variables of stochastic PQ buses are given...... with closed formulae as a function of charging time. Specific manufacturer model of electric vehicles is used as study case....

  8. Surplus yeast tank failing catastrophically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2016-01-01

    GOOD REASON FOR CAUTION I A large surplus yeast tank shot into the air leaving the floor plate and the contents behind. Although not designed for overpressure, the tank was kept at “very slight overpressure” to suppress nuisance foaming. The brewery was unaware of the hazards of compressed air...

  9. Social Security's Surpluses: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattalo, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    Notes that deliberation over how to manage social security's large trust fund balances is expected to continue. Urges social workers to participate in this debate because surpluses have implications for increasing quality of life of low- and moderate-income families. Continues earlier discussion (Dattalo, 1990) by assessing two recent proposals…

  10. 76 FR 50186 - Surplus Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... have been determined surplus to the United States needs in accordance with the Defense Base Closure and... State and local governments and other eligible entities for public benefit purposes. Notices of interest from representatives of the homeless, and other interested parties located in the vicinity of any...

  11. Consumer surplus and CES demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Raa, Thijs

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the consumer surplus formula for constant elasticity of substitution (CES) demands. The formula is used to compare the monopoly and optimum provisions of product variety. It is shown that a monopolist under-provides variety. This result is contrasted with Lambertini’s analysis

  12. Electrical properties of conducting loads produced from polyaniline deposited in natural fibers and nanoclays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosenhoski, Dirlaine; Saade, Wesley; Pinto, Camila P.; Becker, Daniela; Dalmolin, Carla; Pachekoski, Wagner M.

    2015-01-01

    Conducting polymers are known for their excellent magnetic and electrical properties, but they still are an expensive and limited choice to their use as a conducting load for composite materials. An alternative to optimize the electrical conductivity of polymeric composites is the deposition of a conducting polymer on materials already used as loads, as the deposition on natural fibers or the encapsulation of polymeric chains in the voids of host structures. In this work, bananastem fiber and montmorillonite nanoclay (MMT) were used as host structures for polyaniline synthesis in order to produce conducting loads. Samples were characterized by FT-IR and X-Rays Diffraction in order to confirm the formation of polyanilina / bananastem fibers or polyanilina / nanoclays loads. Influence on the electrical properties of the composites were evaluated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), showing the maintenance of the electric conductivity of polyaniline and its potential use as a load for the formation of conducting composites. (author)

  13. Modeling and Analysis of Commercial Building Electrical Loads for Demand Side Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardino, Jonathan

    In recent years there has been a push in the electric power industry for more customer involvement in the electricity markets. Traditionally the end user has played a passive role in the planning and operation of the power grid. However, many energy markets have begun opening up opportunities to consumers who wish to commit a certain amount of their electrical load under various demand side management programs. The potential benefits of more demand participation include reduced operating costs and new revenue opportunities for the consumer, as well as more reliable and secure operations for the utilities. The management of these load resources creates challenges and opportunities to the end user that were not present in previous market structures. This work examines the behavior of commercial-type building electrical loads and their capacity for supporting demand side management actions. This work is motivated by the need for accurate and dynamic tools to aid in the advancement of demand side operations. A dynamic load model is proposed for capturing the response of controllable building loads. Building-specific load forecasting techniques are developed, with particular focus paid to the integration of building management system (BMS) information. These approaches are tested using Drexel University building data. The application of building-specific load forecasts and dynamic load modeling to the optimal scheduling of multi-building systems in the energy market is proposed. Sources of potential load uncertainty are introduced in the proposed energy management problem formulation in order to investigate the impact on the resulting load schedule.

  14. Detection of Periodic Beacon Loads in Electrical Distribution Substation Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Guttromson, Ross T.; Lu, Ning; Boyd, Paul A.; Trudnowski, Daniel; Chassin, David P.; Bonebrake, Christopher A.; Shaw, James M.

    2006-05-31

    This research explores methods for identifying a whether a load is sending a signal to the utility SCADA system. Such a system can identify whether various loads are signialing using existing SCADA infrastructure, that is, without added, high cost communications infrastructure.

  15. Implementing peak load reduction algorithms for household electrical appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlamini, Ndumiso G.; Cromieres, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    Considering household appliance automation for reduction of household peak power demand, this study explored aspects of the interaction between household automation technology and human behaviour. Given a programmable household appliance switching system, and user-reported appliance use times, we simulated the load reduction effectiveness of three types of algorithms, which were applied at both the single household level and across all 30 households. All three algorithms effected significant load reductions, while the least-to-highest potential user inconvenience ranking was: coordinating the timing of frequent intermittent loads (algorithm 2); moving period-of-day time-flexible loads to off-peak times (algorithm 1); and applying short-term time delays to avoid high peaks (algorithm 3) (least accommodating). Peak reduction was facilitated by load interruptibility, time of use flexibility and the willingness of users to forgo impulsive appliance use. We conclude that a general factor determining the ability to shift the load due to a particular appliance is the time-buffering between the service delivered and the power demand of an appliance. Time-buffering can be ‘technologically inherent’, due to human habits, or realised by managing user expectations. There are implications for the design of appliances and home automation systems. - Highlights: ► We explored the interaction between appliance automation and human behaviour. ► There is potential for considerable load shifting of household appliances. ► Load shifting for load reduction is eased with increased time buffering. ► Design, human habits and user expectations all influence time buffering. ► Certain automation and appliance design features can facilitate load shifting.

  16. Spatial peak-load pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arellano, M. Soledad; Serra, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    This article extends the traditional electricity peak-load pricing model to include transmission costs. In the context of a two-node, two-technology electric power system, where suppliers face inelastic demand, we show that when the marginal plant is located at the energy-importing center, generators located away from that center should pay the marginal capacity transmission cost; otherwise, consumers should bear this cost through capacity payments. Since electric power transmission is a natural monopoly, marginal-cost pricing does not fully cover costs. We propose distributing the revenue deficit among users in proportion to the surplus they derive from the service priced at marginal cost. (Author)

  17. Mixed price and load forecasting of electricity markets by a new iterative prediction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjady, Nima; Daraeepour, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Load and price forecasting are the two key issues for the participants of current electricity markets. However, load and price of electricity markets have complex characteristics such as nonlinearity, non-stationarity and multiple seasonality, to name a few (usually, more volatility is seen in the behavior of electricity price signal). For these reasons, much research has been devoted to load and price forecast, especially in the recent years. However, previous research works in the area separately predict load and price signals. In this paper, a mixed model for load and price forecasting is presented, which can consider interactions of these two forecast processes. The mixed model is based on an iterative neural network based prediction technique. It is shown that the proposed model can present lower forecast errors for both load and price compared with the previous separate frameworks. Another advantage of the mixed model is that all required forecast features (from load or price) are predicted within the model without assuming known values for these features. So, the proposed model can better be adapted to real conditions of an electricity market. The forecast accuracy of the proposed mixed method is evaluated by means of real data from the New York and Spanish electricity markets. The method is also compared with some of the most recent load and price forecast techniques. (author)

  18. Short-Term Load Forecasting Based on the Analysis of User Electricity Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuancheng Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The smart meter is an important part of the smart grid, and in order to take full advantage of smart meter data, this paper mines the electricity behaviors of smart meter users to improve the accuracy of load forecasting. First, the typical day loads of users are calculated separately according to different date types (ordinary workdays, day before holidays, holidays. Second, the similarity between user electricity behaviors is mined and the user electricity loads are clustered to classify the users with similar behaviors into the same cluster. Finally, the load forecasting model based on the Online Sequential Extreme Learning Machine (OS-ELM is applied to different clusters to conduct load forecasting and the load forecast is summed to obtain the system load. In order to prove the validity of the proposed method, we performed simulation experiments on the MATLAB platform using smart meter data from the Ireland electric power cooperation. The experimental results show that the proposed method is able to mine the user electricity behaviors deeply, improve the accuracy of load forecasting by the reasonable clustering of users, and reveal the relationship between forecasting accuracy and cluster numbers.

  19. Optimizing electrical load pattern in Kuwait using grid connected photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hasan, A.Y.; Ghoneim, A.A.; Abdullah, A.H.

    2004-01-01

    Grid connected photovoltaic systems is one of the most promising applications of photovoltaic systems. These systems are employed in applications where utility service is already available. In this case, there is no need for battery storage because grid power may be used to supplement photovoltaic systems (PV) when the load exceeds available PV generation. The load receives electricity from both the photovoltaic array and the utility grid. In this system, the load is the total electrical energy consumption. The main objective of the present work is to optimize the electrical load pattern in Kuwait using grid connected PV systems. In this situation, the electric load demand can be satisfied from both the photovoltaic array and the utility grid. The performance of grid connected photovoltaic systems in the Kuwait climate has been evaluated. It was found that the peak load matches the maximum incident solar radiation in Kuwait, which would emphasize the role of using the PV station to minimize the electrical load demand. In addition, a significant reduction in peak load can be achieved with grid connected PV systems

  20. LOW-POWER AC LOADS AND ELECTRICAL POWER QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EPURE S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with experimental study and numerical simulation of single phase AC low power loads: artificial light sources, personal computers, refrigeration units, air conditioning units and TV receivers. These loads are in such large numbers that represents the main source of disturbances (harmonic current, reactive power and unbalanced three-phase network. The obtained simulation models, verified by comparison with experimental results may be used in larger simulation models for testing and sizing the optimum parameters of active power filters. Models can also be used to study the interactions between grid elements and various loads or situations.

  1. Long-term forecasting of hourly electricity load: Identification of consumption profiles and segmentation of customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Andersen, Frits; Larsen, Helge V.; Boomsma, Trine Krogh

    2013-01-01

    , to model and forecast long-term changes in the aggregated electricity load profile, we identify profiles for different categories of customers and link these to projections of the aggregated annual consumption by categories of customers. Long-term projection of the aggregated load is important for future......Data for aggregated hourly electricity demand shows systematic variations over the day, week, and seasons, and forecasting of aggregated hourly electricity load has been the subject of many studies. With hourly metering of individual customers, data for individual consumption profiles is available....... Using this data and analysing the case of Denmark, we show that consumption profiles for categories of customers are equally systematic but very different for distinct categories, that is, distinct categories of customers contribute differently to the aggregated electricity load profile. Therefore...

  2. Hanford Surplus Facilities Program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, M.C.; Wahlen, R.K.; Winship, R.A.

    1989-09-01

    The Hanford Surplus Facilities Program is responsible for the safe and cost-effective surveillance, maintenance, and decommissioning of surplus facilities at the Hanford Site. The management of these facilities requires a surveillance and maintenance program to keep them in a safe condition and development of a plan for ultimate disposition. Criteria used to evaluate each factor relative to decommissioning are based on the guidelines presented by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office, Defense Facilities Decommissioning Program Office, and are consistent with the Westinghouse Hanford Company commitment to decommission the Hanford Site retired facilities in the safest and most cost-effective way achievable. This document outlines the plan for managing these facilities to the end of disposition

  3. Small Signal Stability Improvement of Power Systems Using Optimal Load Responses in Competitive Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead in Denmark, the price could be transferred to the consumers and they may shift some of their loads from high price periods to the low price periods in order to save their energy costs. The optimal load response to an electricity price...... price is proposed. A 17-bus power system with high wind power penetrations, which resembles the Eastern Danish power system, is chosen as the study case. Simulation results show that the optimal load response to electricity prices is an effective measure to improve the small signal stability of power...... for demand side management generates different load profiles and may provide an opportunity to improve the small signal stability of power systems with high wind power penetrations. In this paper, the idea of power system small signal stability improvement by using optimal load response to the electricity...

  4. Wind farm electrical power production model for load flow analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura-Heras, Isidoro; Escriva-Escriva, Guillermo; Alcazar-Ortega, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The importance of renewable energy increases in activities relating to new forms of managing and operating electrical power: especially wind power. Wind generation is increasing its share in the electricity generation portfolios of many countries. Wind power production in Spain has doubled over the past four years and has reached 20 GW. One of the greatest problems facing wind farms is that the electrical power generated depends on the variable characteristics of the wind. To become competitive in a liberalized market, the reliability of wind energy must be guaranteed. Good local wind forecasts are therefore essential for the accurate prediction of generation levels for each moment of the day. This paper proposes an electrical power production model for wind farms based on a new method that produces correlated wind speeds for various wind farms. This method enables a reliable evaluation of the impact of new wind farms on the high-voltage distribution grid. (author)

  5. Experimental and computational approaches to electrical conductor loading characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vary, M.; Goga, V.; Paulech, J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes cooling analyses of horizontally arranged bare electric conductor using analytical and numerical methods. Results of these analyses will be compared to the results obtained from experimental measurement. (Authors)

  6. ENERGY EFFICIENCY DETERMINATION OF LOADING-BACK SYSTEM OF ELECTRIC TRACTION MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Afanasov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.Acceptance post-repair testsof electric traction machinesare conducted onloading-backstandsthat reducethe overall power costsfor the tests.Currentlya numberof possiblecircuit designs of loading-backsystems of electric machines are known, but there is nomethod of determiningtheir energy efficiency. This in turn makes difficult the choiceof rationaloptions. The purpose of the article is the development of the corresponding methodo-logy to make easier this process. Methodology. Expressions for determining theenergy efficiency ofa stand for testingof electric traction machineswere obtained using the generalizedscheme analysisof energy transformationsin the loading-backsystems of universal structure. Findings.Thetechnique wasoffered and the analytical expressions for determining the energy efficiency of loading-backsystemsof electric traction machines wereobtained. Energy efficiency coefficientofloading-backsystemisproposed to consider as the ratio of the total actionenergy of the mechanical and electromotive forces, providing anchors rotation and flowof currents in electric machines, which are being tested,to the total energy, consumed during the test from the external network. Originality. The concept was introduced and the analytical determination method of the energy efficiency of loading-backsystem in electric traction machines was offered. It differs by efficiency availability of power sources and converters, as well as energy efficiency factors of indirect methods of loss compensation. Practical value. The proposed technique of energy efficiency estimation of a loading-backsystemcan be used in solving the problem of rational options choice of schematics stands decisions for electric traction machines acceptance tests of main line and industrial transport.

  7. Electric vehicles as flexible loads – A simulation approach using empirical mobility data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, Michael; Doetsch, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Due to the rapid increase of wind and photovoltaic generation, flexible storage applications become more important. Electric vehicles are supposed as one option to fill the gap between a fixed energy demand and a stochastic feed in from fluctuating energy sources. But the charging loads will also affect the grid load, since the transport sector contributes considerably to the total energy consumption today. This study examines the conflicting relationship between user mobility and grid support and introduces an approach to simulate large vehicle fleets on the basis of individual driving profiles. 9744 driving profiles from the German mobility panel were used within this examination. 958 were classified as potential early adopters for electric vehicles. Those vehicles could provide grid support in 81% of the time, when charging spots are available at home and at work. We simulated the charging loads under the restrictions of the individual mobility for the scenario 2030. Uncoordinated charging will increase the load fluctuations, whereas coordinated charging loads allow load shifting without limiting the mobility. The additional electricity demand is moderate over the next two decades. -- Highlights: ► We processed and analyzed 9744 driving profiles from a German mobility study. ► We simulated 3 concepts for a charging control, resulting in different load profiles. ► Additional energy demand of electric vehicles is moderate over the next two decades. ► Uncoordinated charging will increase the total peak load, coordinated charging can balance fluctuations.

  8. Electric utility load management: rational use of energy program pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    In recognition of the role that load management can play in ensuring that the growing demand for electricity is met in a cost- and energy-efficient manner, in mid-1974, the NATO Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society sponsored all three meetings to provide a forum for representatives of U.S. and European utilities to exchange views and experiences on the various aspects of load management. It was the consensus of representatives at the meetings that three overall approaches offer significant opportunities for achieving improved load management: development of marginal-cost rate structures; power pooling and energy storage by utilities; and efforts by consumers. Industrial consumers can assist electric utilities in their efforts to level system loads through three important methods: interruptible power and deferred load control; peak self-generation; and shifts in operating schedules. Residential/commercial consumers also have an important role to play by managing both their electric heating load (through the interruption of direct-resistance heating and the storage of heat) and their air conditioning load. In response to the interest expressed by the participants in the CCMS conferences, the U.S. and several European governments, national electric utility industry organizations, state public utility commissions, and many individual utilities have undertaken R and D projects to investigate and test various aspects of these three approaches to load management. This report describes the projects that were presented by the utility representatives.

  9. Modelling the Load Torques of Electric Drive for Polymerization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Popenda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of mathematical modelling the load torques on shaft of driving motor designed for applications in polymerization reactors are presented in the paper. The real load of polymerization drive is determined as a function of angular velocity. Mentioned function results from friction in roll-formed slide bearing as well as from friction of ethylene molecules with mixer arms in polymerization reactor chamber. Application of mathematical formulas concerning the centrifugal ventilator is proposed to describe the mixer in reactor chamber. The analytical formulas describing the real loads of polymerization drive are applied in mathematical modelling the power unit of polymerization reactor with specially designed induction motor. The numerical analysis of transient states was made on the basis of formulated mathematical model. Examples of transient responses and trajectories resulting from analysis are presented in the paper.

  10. Analysis of thermal characteristics of electrical wiring for load groups in cattle barns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Doo Hyun; Yoo, Sang-Ok; Kim, Sung Chul; Hwang, Dong Kyu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to analyze the thermal characteristics of electrical wirings depending on the number of operating load by connecting four types of electrical wirings that are selected by surveying the conditions for the electric fans, automatic waterers and halogen warm lamps that were installed in cattle barns in different years. The conditions of 64 cattle barns were surveyed and an experimental test was conducted at a cattle barn. The condition-survey covered inappropriate design, construction and misuse of electrical facility, including electrical wiring mostly used, and the mode of load current was evaluated. The survey showed that the mode of load current increased as the installation year of the fans, waterers and halogen lamps became older. Accordingly, the cattle barn manager needed to increase the capacity of the circuit breaker, which promoted the degradation of insulation of the electrical wires' sheath and increased possibility for electrical fires in the long-run. The test showed that the saturation temperature of the wire insulated sheath increased depending on the installation year of the load groups, in case of VCTFK and VFF electric wires, therefore, requiring their careful usage in the cattle barns.

  11. Energy management for vehicle power net with flexible electric load demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Koot, M.W.T.; Jager, de A.G.

    2005-01-01

    The electric power demand in road vehicles increases rapidly and to supply all electric loads efficiently, energy management (EM) turns out to be a necessity. In general, EM exploits the storage capacity of a buffer connected to the vehicle's power net, such that energy is stored or retrieved at

  12. Neural networks approach to forecast several hour ahead electricity prices and loads in deregulated market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Paras; Senjyu, Tomonobu [Department of Electrical and Electronics, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru, Nagakami Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Funabashi, Toshihisa [Meidensha Corporation, Tokyo 103-8515 (Japan)

    2006-09-15

    In daily power markets, forecasting electricity prices and loads are the most essential task and the basis for any decision making. An approach to predict the market behaviors is to use the historical prices, loads and other required information to forecast the future prices and loads. This paper introduces an approach for several hour ahead (1-6h) electricity price and load forecasting using an artificial intelligence method, such as a neural network model, which uses publicly available data from the NEMMCO web site to forecast electricity prices and loads for the Victorian electricity market. An approach of selection of similar days is proposed according to which the load and price curves are forecasted by using the information of the days being similar to that of the forecast day. A Euclidean norm with weighted factors is used for the selection of the similar days. Two different ANN models, one for one to six hour ahead load forecasting and another for one to six hour ahead price forecasting have been proposed. The MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) results show a clear increasing trend with the increase in hour ahead load and price forecasting. The sample average of MAPEs for one hour ahead price forecasts is 9.75%. This figure increases to only 20.03% for six hour ahead predictions. Similarly, the one to six hour ahead load forecast errors (MAPE) range from 0.56% to 1.30% only. MAPE results show that several hour ahead electricity prices and loads in the deregulated Victorian market can be forecasted with reasonable accuracy. (author)

  13. Neural networks approach to forecast several hour ahead electricity prices and loads in deregulated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Paras; Senjyu, Tomonobu; Funabashi, Toshihisa

    2006-01-01

    In daily power markets, forecasting electricity prices and loads are the most essential task and the basis for any decision making. An approach to predict the market behaviors is to use the historical prices, loads and other required information to forecast the future prices and loads. This paper introduces an approach for several hour ahead (1-6 h) electricity price and load forecasting using an artificial intelligence method, such as a neural network model, which uses publicly available data from the NEMMCO web site to forecast electricity prices and loads for the Victorian electricity market. An approach of selection of similar days is proposed according to which the load and price curves are forecasted by using the information of the days being similar to that of the forecast day. A Euclidean norm with weighted factors is used for the selection of the similar days. Two different ANN models, one for one to six hour ahead load forecasting and another for one to six hour ahead price forecasting have been proposed. The MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) results show a clear increasing trend with the increase in hour ahead load and price forecasting. The sample average of MAPEs for one hour ahead price forecasts is 9.75%. This figure increases to only 20.03% for six hour ahead predictions. Similarly, the one to six hour ahead load forecast errors (MAPE) range from 0.56% to 1.30% only. MAPE results show that several hour ahead electricity prices and loads in the deregulated Victorian market can be forecasted with reasonable accuracy

  14. Modelling the Load Curve of Aggregate Electricity Consumption Using Principal Components

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo Manera; Angelo Marzullo

    2003-01-01

    Since oil is a non-renewable resource with a high environmental impact, and its most common use is to produce combustibles for electricity, reliable methods for modelling electricity consumption can contribute to a more rational employment of this hydrocarbon fuel. In this paper we apply the Principal Components (PC) method to modelling the load curves of Italy, France and Greece on hourly data of aggregate electricity consumption. The empirical results obtained with the PC approach are compa...

  15. Increasing economic benefits by load-shifting of electrical heat pumps

    OpenAIRE

    Laveyne, Joannes; Zwaenepoel, Brecht; Van Eetvelde, Greet; Vandevelde, Lieven

    2014-01-01

    Electrical heating is still widely used in the process industry. While the use of immersion heaters for the production of hot water or steam is declining, the adoption rate of electrical heat pumps is increasing rapidly. Heat pumps show great flexibility and potential for energy savings, e.g. through low temperature waste heat recuperation. In combination with thermal storage they also allow for load shifting. Because their main power source is electricity, which up to now cannot be stored ef...

  16. A new cascade NN based method to short-term load forecast in deregulated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouhi, Sajjad; Keynia, Farshid

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We are proposed a new hybrid cascaded NN based method and WT to short-term load forecast in deregulated electricity market. • An efficient preprocessor consist of normalization and shuffling of signals is presented. • In order to select the best inputs, a two-stage feature selection is presented. • A new cascaded structure consist of three cascaded NNs is used as forecaster. - Abstract: Short-term load forecasting (STLF) is a major discussion in efficient operation of power systems. The electricity load is a nonlinear signal with time dependent behavior. The area of electricity load forecasting has still essential need for more accurate and stable load forecast algorithm. To improve the accuracy of prediction, a new hybrid forecast strategy based on cascaded neural network is proposed for STLF. This method is consists of wavelet transform, an intelligent two-stage feature selection, and cascaded neural network. The feature selection is used to remove the irrelevant and redundant inputs. The forecast engine is composed of three cascaded neural network (CNN) structure. This cascaded structure can be efficiently extract input/output mapping function of the nonlinear electricity load data. Adjustable parameters of the intelligent feature selection and CNN is fine-tuned by a kind of cross-validation technique. The proposed STLF is tested on PJM and New York electricity markets. It is concluded from the result, the proposed algorithm is a robust forecast method

  17. Short-Term Load Forecast in Electric Energy System in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Asenova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As the accuracy of the electricity load forecast is crucial in providing better cost effective risk management plans, this paper proposes a Short Term Electricity Load Forecast (STLF model with high forecasting accuracy. Two kind of neural networks, Multilayer Perceptron network model and Radial Basis Function network model, are presented and compared using the mean absolute percentage error. The data used in the models are electricity load historical data. Even though the very good performance of the used model for the load data, weather parameters, especially the temperature, take important part for the energy predicting which is taken into account in this paper. A comparative evaluation between a traditional statistical method and artificial neural networks is presented.

  18. Using adaptive network based fuzzy inference system to forecast regional electricity loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, L.-C.; Pan, M.-C.

    2008-01-01

    Since accurate regional load forecasting is very important for improvement of the management performance of the electric industry, various regional load forecasting methods have been developed. The purpose of this study is to apply the adaptive network based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model to forecast the regional electricity loads in Taiwan and demonstrate the forecasting performance of this model. Based on the mean absolute percentage errors and statistical results, we can see that the ANFIS model has better forecasting performance than the regression model, artificial neural network (ANN) model, support vector machines with genetic algorithms (SVMG) model, recurrent support vector machines with genetic algorithms (RSVMG) model and hybrid ellipsoidal fuzzy systems for time series forecasting (HEFST) model. Thus, the ANFIS model is a promising alternative for forecasting regional electricity loads

  19. Using adaptive network based fuzzy inference system to forecast regional electricity loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, Li-Chih [Department of Marketing Management, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 11, Pu-tzu Lane, Peitun, Taichung City 406 (China); Pan, Mei-Chiu [Graduate Institute of Management Sciences, Nanhua University, 32, Chung Keng Li, Dalin, Chiayi 622 (China)

    2008-02-15

    Since accurate regional load forecasting is very important for improvement of the management performance of the electric industry, various regional load forecasting methods have been developed. The purpose of this study is to apply the adaptive network based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model to forecast the regional electricity loads in Taiwan and demonstrate the forecasting performance of this model. Based on the mean absolute percentage errors and statistical results, we can see that the ANFIS model has better forecasting performance than the regression model, artificial neural network (ANN) model, support vector machines with genetic algorithms (SVMG) model, recurrent support vector machines with genetic algorithms (RSVMG) model and hybrid ellipsoidal fuzzy systems for time series forecasting (HEFST) model. Thus, the ANFIS model is a promising alternative for forecasting regional electricity loads. (author)

  20. Harmonic Analysis of Electric Vehicle Loadings on Distribution System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yijun A [University of Southern California, Department of Electrical Engineering; Xu, Yunshan [University of Southern California, Department of Electrical Engineering; Chen, Zimin [University of Southern California, Department of Electrical Engineering; Peng, Fei [University of Southern California, Department of Electrical Engineering; Beshir, Mohammed [University of Southern California, Department of Electrical Engineering

    2014-12-01

    With the increasing number of Electric Vehicles (EV) in this age, the power system is facing huge challenges of the high penetration rates of EVs charging stations. Therefore, a technical study of the impact of EVs charging on the distribution system is required. This paper is applied with PSCAD software and aimed to analyzing the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) brought by Electric Vehicles charging stations in power systems. The paper starts with choosing IEEE34 node test feeder as the distribution system, building electric vehicle level two charging battery model and other four different testing scenarios: overhead transmission line and underground cable, industrial area, transformer and photovoltaic (PV) system. Then the statistic method is used to analyze different characteristics of THD in the plug-in transient, plug-out transient and steady-state charging conditions associated with these four scenarios are taken into the analysis. Finally, the factors influencing the THD in different scenarios are found. The analyzing results lead the conclusion of this paper to have constructive suggestions for both Electric Vehicle charging station construction and customers' charging habits.

  1. artificial neural network (ann) approach to electrical load

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-08-18

    Aug 18, 2004 ... self organizing feature map; which is back-propagating in nature. ... distribution scheduling. ... electricity demand with lead times that range from ... become increasingly vital since the rise of the ... implemented for advanced control, data and sensor ... inspired methods of computing are thought to be the.

  2. Electricity's "Disappearing Act": Understanding Energy Consumption and Phantom Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusk, Bryan; Mahfouz, Tarek; Jones, James

    2011-01-01

    Energy exists in many forms and can be converted from one form to another. However, this conversion is not 100% efficient, and energy is lost in the form of heat during conversion. In addition, approximately 6% of the monthly consumption of the average American household's electricity is neither lost nor used by its residents. These losses are…

  3. Chaotic particle swarm optimization algorithm in a support vector regression electric load forecasting model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, W.-C.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate forecasting of electric load has always been the most important issues in the electricity industry, particularly for developing countries. Due to the various influences, electric load forecasting reveals highly nonlinear characteristics. Recently, support vector regression (SVR), with nonlinear mapping capabilities of forecasting, has been successfully employed to solve nonlinear regression and time series problems. However, it is still lack of systematic approaches to determine appropriate parameter combination for a SVR model. This investigation elucidates the feasibility of applying chaotic particle swarm optimization (CPSO) algorithm to choose the suitable parameter combination for a SVR model. The empirical results reveal that the proposed model outperforms the other two models applying other algorithms, genetic algorithm (GA) and simulated annealing algorithm (SA). Finally, it also provides the theoretical exploration of the electric load forecasting support system (ELFSS)

  4. Electrical engineering unit for the reactive power control of the load bus at the voltage instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotenev, A. V.; Kotenev, V. I.; Kochetkov, V. V.; Elkin, D. A.

    2018-01-01

    For the purpose of reactive power control error reduction and decrease of the voltage sags in the electric power system caused by the asynchronous motors started the mathematical model of the load bus was developed. The model was built up of the sub-models of the following elements: a transformer, a transmission line, a synchronous and an asynchronous loads and a capacitor bank load, and represents the automatic reactive power control system taking into account electromagnetic processes of the asynchronous motors started and reactive power changing of the electric power system elements caused by the voltage fluctuation. The active power/time and reactive power/time characteristics based on the recommended procedure of the equivalent electric circuit parameters calculation were obtained. The derived automatic reactive power control system was shown to eliminate the voltage sags in the electric power system caused by the asynchronous motors started.

  5. 1991 Pacific Northwest loads and resources study, Pacific Northwest economic and electricity use forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This publication provides detailed documentation of the load forecast scenarios and assumptions used in preparing BPA's 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (the Study). This is one of two technical appendices to the Study; the other appendix details the utility-specific loads and resources used in the Study. The load forecasts and assumption were developed jointly by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) staff. This forecast is also used in the Council's 1991 Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan (1991 Plan)

  6. 308 Building electrical load list and panel schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giamberardini, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains two lists. The first lists equipment, load location, source of power, and breaker identification. The second compiles the same information but in a different format, namely, for each power source, the breaker, equipment, and location is given. Building 308 is part of the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility which houses the Secure Automated Fabrication process line for fabrication of reactor fuels and the Breeder Processing Engineering Test for processing Fast Flux Test Facility fuel to demonstrate closure of the fuel cycle

  7. The (Surplus) Value of Scientific Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Fröhlich, Gerhard

    1996-01-01

    In research on scientific communication there are above all theory-less and formal/natural scientific models of scientific communication. These are juxtaposed to social-scientific, power-sensitive models (Elias, Bourdieu, Merton). The (surplus) value of scientific communication can be variously understood: either as inherent surplus values in the sense of potential effects of stimulation, synergy, critique, quality control; or as symbolic surplus value in the sense of symbolic capital (Bourdi...

  8. Social surplus approach and heterodox economics

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Frederic; Jo, Tae-Hee

    2010-01-01

    Given the emphasis on social provisioning in heterodox economics, two of its central theoretical organizing principles are the concepts of the total social product and the social surplus. This appears to link heterodox economics to the social surplus approach associated with the classical economists and currently with Sraffian economists. However, heterodox economics connects agency with the social surplus and the social product, which the Sraffians reject as they take the level and composit...

  9. Study on Impact of Electric Vehicles Charging Models on Power Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chen; Hui-mei, Yuan

    2017-05-01

    With the rapid increase in the number of electric vehicles, which will lead the power load on grid increased and have an adversely affect. This paper gives a detailed analysis of the following factors, such as scale of the electric cars, charging mode, initial charging time, initial state of charge, charging power and other factors. Monte Carlo simulation method is used to compare the two charging modes, which are conventional charging and fast charging, and MATLAB is used to model and simulate the electric vehicle charging load. The results show that compared with the conventional charging mode, fast charging mode can meet the requirements of fast charging, but also bring great load to the distribution network which will affect the reliability of power grid.

  10. Common long-range dependence in a panel of hourly Nord Pool electricity prices and loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ergemen, Yunus Emre; Haldrup, Niels; Rodríguez-Caballero, Carlos Vladimir

    to strong seasonal periodicity, and along the cross-sectional dimension, i.e. the hours of the day, there is a strong dependence which necessarily has to be accounted for in order to avoid spurious inference when focusing on the time series dependence alone. The long-range dependence is modelled in terms...... of a fractionally integrated panel data model and it is shown that both prices and loads consist of common factors with long memory and with loadings that vary considerably during the day. Due to the competitiveness of the Nordic power market the aggregate supply curve approximates well the marginal costs...... data approaches to analyse the time series and the cross-sectional dependence of hourly Nord Pool electricity spot prices and loads for the period 2000-2013. Hourly electricity prices and loads data are characterized by strong serial long-range dependence in the time series dimension in addition...

  11. Simultaneous day-ahead forecasting of electricity price and load in smart grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shayeghi, H.; Ghasemi, A.; Moradzadeh, M.; Nooshyar, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents a novel MIMO-based support vector machine for forecasting. • Considered uncertainties for better simulation for filtering in input data. • Used LSSVM technique for learning. • Proposed a new modification for standard artificial bee colony algorithm to optimize LSSVM engine. - Abstract: In smart grids, customers are promoted to change their energy consumption patterns by electricity prices. In fact, in this environment, the electricity price and load consumption are highly corrected such that the market participants will have complex model in their decisions to maximize their profit. Although the available forecasting mythologies perform well in electricity market by way of little or no load and price interdependencies, but cannot capture load and price dynamics if they exist. To overcome this shortage, a Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) model is presented which can consider the correlation between electricity price and load. The proposed model consists of three components known as a Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT) to make valuable subsets, Generalized Mutual Information (GMI) to select best input candidate and Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) based on MIMO model, called LSSVM-MIMO, to make simultaneous load and price forecasts. Moreover, the LSSVM-MIMO parameters are optimized by a novel Quasi-Oppositional Artificial Bee Colony (QOABC) algorithm. Some forecasting indices based on error factor are considered to evaluate the forecasting accuracy. Simulations carried out on New York Independent System Operator, New South Wales (NSW) and PJM electricity markets data, and showing that the proposed hybrid algorithm has good potential for simultaneous forecasting of electricity price and load

  12. Hybridizing DEMD and Quantum PSO with SVR in Electric Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ling Peng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Electric load forecasting is an important issue for a power utility, associated with the management of daily operations such as energy transfer scheduling, unit commitment, and load dispatch. Inspired by strong non-linear learning capability of support vector regression (SVR, this paper presents an SVR model hybridized with the differential empirical mode decomposition (DEMD method and quantum particle swarm optimization algorithm (QPSO for electric load forecasting. The DEMD method is employed to decompose the electric load to several detail parts associated with high frequencies (intrinsic mode function—IMF and an approximate part associated with low frequencies. Hybridized with quantum theory to enhance particle searching performance, the so-called QPSO is used to optimize the parameters of SVR. The electric load data of the New South Wales (Sydney, Australia market and the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO, New York, USA are used for comparing the forecasting performances of different forecasting models. The results illustrate the validity of the idea that the proposed model can simultaneously provide forecasting with good accuracy and interpretability.

  13. A Universal Educational and Research Stand to Simulate Electrical Drive Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Grishin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Universal educational and research stand was developed for analyzing an electrical drive’s behavior with different load disturbance effects. Major components of the stand are two electrical drives with rigidly coupled shafts. As a result, first electrical drive (loader has a capability to imitate effects of different loading types to another one (trial drive.Control software for the stand is developed. It allows us to combine a variety of loading types and change parameters of current loading such as joint moment, damping, additional inertia, and external torque. Also there is a capability to imitate effects of elasticity and backlash of mechanical transmissions. The paper considers the main challenge of creating the given system, i.e. discretization with a variable step. Some methods to decrease its negative effects on system stability are suggested.The given system allows to change loading parameters more rapidly and in a wider range as compared to a system with real mechanical outfit.These stands are currently used for laboratory classes within the course “Electrical robotic drives” at SM7 department in Bauman Moscow State Technical University. Also the system of interdepended stands for semi-realistic simulation of manipulation systems is under development.

  14. Electric load forecasting by seasonal recurrent SVR (support vector regression) with chaotic artificial bee colony algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Wei-Chiang

    2011-01-01

    Support vector regression (SVR), with hybrid chaotic sequence and evolutionary algorithms to determine suitable values of its three parameters, not only can effectively avoid converging prematurely (i.e., trapping into a local optimum), but also reveals its superior forecasting performance. Electric load sometimes demonstrates a seasonal (cyclic) tendency due to economic activities or climate cyclic nature. The applications of SVR models to deal with seasonal (cyclic) electric load forecasting have not been widely explored. In addition, the concept of recurrent neural networks (RNNs), focused on using past information to capture detailed information, is helpful to be combined into an SVR model. This investigation presents an electric load forecasting model which combines the seasonal recurrent support vector regression model with chaotic artificial bee colony algorithm (namely SRSVRCABC) to improve the forecasting performance. The proposed SRSVRCABC employs the chaotic behavior of honey bees which is with better performance in function optimization to overcome premature local optimum. A numerical example from an existed reference is used to elucidate the forecasting performance of the proposed SRSVRCABC model. The forecasting results indicate that the proposed model yields more accurate forecasting results than ARIMA and TF-ε-SVR-SA models. Therefore, the SRSVRCABC model is a promising alternative for electric load forecasting. -- Highlights: → Hybridizing the seasonal adjustment and the recurrent mechanism into an SVR model. → Employing chaotic sequence to improve the premature convergence of artificial bee colony algorithm. → Successfully providing significant accurate monthly load demand forecasting.

  15. A model for hedging load and price risk in the Texas electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, Michael; Powell, Warren B.; Sircar, Ronnie

    2013-01-01

    Energy companies with commitments to meet customers' daily electricity demands face the problem of hedging load and price risk. We propose a joint model for load and price dynamics, which is motivated by the goal of facilitating optimal hedging decisions, while also intuitively capturing the key features of the electricity market. Driven by three stochastic factors including the load process, our power price model allows for the calculation of closed-form pricing formulas for forwards and some options, products often used for hedging purposes. Making use of these results, we illustrate in a simple example the hedging benefit of these instruments, while also evaluating the performance of the model when fitted to the Texas electricity market. - Highlights: • We present a structural model for electricity spot prices in the ERCOT market. • Relationships between power price and factors such as load and gas price are studied. • Seasonal patterns and load-dependent spikes are shown to be well captured. • Closed-form results for prices of forwards, options and spread options are derived. • We demonstrate the effectiveness of hedging power demand with forwards and options

  16. Projected costs of nuclear and conventional base load electricity generation in some IAEA Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The cost of nuclear and conventional electricity is one of the most important parameters for power system planning, and in particular for decisions on base load power projects. This study reviews the projected levelized electricity generation costs of the base load power generation options expected to be available in the medium term, using an agreed common economic methodology. Cost projections were obtained and evaluated for nuclear and fossil fuelled (mainly coal-fired) plants that could be commissioned in the mid- to late 1990s in 10 IAEA Member States. 27 refs, figs and tabs

  17. Analytic model for ultrasound energy receivers and their optimal electric loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorostiaga, M.; Wapler, M. C.; Wallrabe, U.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we present an analytic model for thickness resonating plate ultrasound energy receivers, which we have derived from the piezoelectric and the wave equations and, in which we have included dielectric, viscosity and acoustic attenuation losses. Afterwards, we explore the optimal electric load predictions by the zero reflection and power maximization approaches present in the literature with different acoustic boundary conditions, and discuss their limitations. To validate our model, we compared our expressions with the KLM model solved numerically with very good agreement. Finally, we discuss the differences between the zero reflection and power maximization optimal electric loads, which start to differ as losses in the receiver increase.

  18. Research and Application of a Hybrid Forecasting Model Based on Data Decomposition for Electrical Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqi Dong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate short-term electrical load forecasting plays a pivotal role in the national economy and people’s livelihood through providing effective future plans and ensuring a reliable supply of sustainable electricity. Although considerable work has been done to select suitable models and optimize the model parameters to forecast the short-term electrical load, few models are built based on the characteristics of time series, which will have a great impact on the forecasting accuracy. For that reason, this paper proposes a hybrid model based on data decomposition considering periodicity, trend and randomness of the original electrical load time series data. Through preprocessing and analyzing the original time series, the generalized regression neural network optimized by genetic algorithm is used to forecast the short-term electrical load. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid model can not only achieve a good fitting ability, but it can also approximate the actual values when dealing with non-linear time series data with periodicity, trend and randomness.

  19. Application of fuzzy – Neuro to model weather parameter variability impacts on electrical load based on long-term forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danladi Ali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term load forecasting provides vital information about future load and it helps the power industries to make decision regarding electrical energy generation and delivery. In this work, fuzzy – neuro model is developed to forecast a year ahead load in relation to weather parameter (temperature and humidity in Mubi, Adamawa State. It is observed that: electrical load increased with increase in temperature and relative humidity does not show notable effect on electrical load. The accuracy of the prediction is obtained at 98.78% with the corresponding mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of 1.22%. This confirms that fuzzy – neuro is a good tool for load forecasting. Keywords: Electrical load, Load forecasting, Fuzzy logic, Back propagation, Neuro-fuzzy, Weather parameter

  20. The load shift potential of plug-in electric vehicles with different amounts of charging infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnann, Till; Klingler, Anna-Lena; Kühnbach, Matthias

    2018-06-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles are the currently favoured option to decarbonize the passenger car sector. However, a decarbonisation is only possible with electricity from renewable energies and plug-in electric vehicles might cause peak loads if they started to charge at the same time. Both these issues could be solved with coordinated load shifting (demand response). Previous studies analyzed this research question by focusing on private vehicles with domestic and work charging infrastructure. This study additionally includes the important early adopter group of commercial fleet vehicles and reflects the impact of domestic, commercial, work and public charging. For this purpose, two models are combined. In a comparison of three scenarios, we find that charging of commercial vehicles does not inflict evening load peaks in the same magnitude as purely domestic charging of private cars does. Also for private cars, charging at work occurs during the day and may reduce the necessity of load shifting while public charging plays a less important role in total charging demand as well as load shifting potential. Nonetheless, demand response reduces the system load by about 2.2 GW or 2.8% when domestic and work charging are considered compared to a scenario with only domestic charging.

  1. A New Two-Stage Approach to Short Term Electrical Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Tasić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the deregulated energy market, the accuracy of load forecasting has a significant effect on the planning and operational decision making of utility companies. Electric load is a random non-stationary process influenced by a number of factors which make it difficult to model. To achieve better forecasting accuracy, a wide variety of models have been proposed. These models are based on different mathematical methods and offer different features. This paper presents a new two-stage approach for short-term electrical load forecasting based on least-squares support vector machines. With the aim of improving forecasting accuracy, one more feature was added to the model feature set, the next day average load demand. As this feature is unknown for one day ahead, in the first stage, forecasting of the next day average load demand is done and then used in the model in the second stage for next day hourly load forecasting. The effectiveness of the presented model is shown on the real data of the ISO New England electricity market. The obtained results confirm the validity advantage of the proposed approach.

  2. Climate Control Load Reduction Strategies for Electric Drive Vehicles in Warm Weather

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffers, M. A.; Chaney, L.; Rugh, J. P.

    2015-04-30

    Passenger compartment climate control is one of the largest auxiliary loads on a vehicle. Like conventional vehicles, electric vehicles (EVs) require climate control to maintain occupant comfort and safety, but cabin heating and air conditioning have a negative impact on driving range for all electric vehicles. Range reduction caused by climate control and other factors is a barrier to widespread adoption of EVs. Reducing the thermal loads on the climate control system will extend driving range, thereby reducing consumer range anxiety and increasing the market penetration of EVs. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory have investigated strategies for vehicle climate control load reduction, with special attention toward EVs. Outdoor vehicle thermal testing was conducted on two 2012 Ford Focus Electric vehicles to evaluate thermal management strategies for warm weather, including solar load reduction and cabin pre-ventilation. An advanced thermal test manikin was used to assess a zonal approach to climate control. In addition, vehicle thermal analysis was used to support testing by exploring thermal load reduction strategies, evaluating occupant thermal comfort, and calculating EV range impacts. Through stationary cooling tests and vehicle simulations, a zonal cooling configuration demonstrated range improvement of 6%-15%, depending on the drive cycle. A combined cooling configuration that incorporated thermal load reduction and zonal cooling strategies showed up to 33% improvement in EV range.

  3. Computation of the radiation Q of dielectric-loaded electrically small antennas in integral equation formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2016-01-01

    A new technique for estimating the impedance frequency bandwidth of electrically small antennas loaded with magneto-dielectric material from a single-frequency simulation in a surface integral equation solver is presented. The estimate is based on the inverse of the radiation Q computed using newly...... derived expressions for the stored energy and the radiated power of arbitrary coupled electric and magnetic currents in free space....

  4. Short term electric load forecast, 1991/92-2011/12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A long-term forecast is presented predicting electricity requirements to 2011/12. Total sales to the B.C. Hydro service area are projected to increase from 43,805 GWh in 1990/91 to 57,366 GWh in 2011/12, for an annual growth of 1.7%. Total gross generation requirements increase from 45,805 GWh in 1990/91 to 68,037 GWh in 2011/12 for an annual average growth of 1.9%. Integrated peak system demand is projected to increase from 8401 MW in 1990/91 to 11,981 MW in 2011/12. Residential sales are projected to increase from 11,783 GWh to 14,870 GWh for a growth rate of 1.7%. Commercial sector sales are projected to increase from 10,588 GWh to 17,116 GWh representing a growth rate of 2.3%. Industrial sector sales are projected to increase from 17,962 GWh to 25,380 GWh. The economic assumptions underlying the forecast, sensitivity analysis, impact of Power Smart programs, and a sectoral analysis of projected sales are presented. 10 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Hanford surplus facilities hazards identification document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egge, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    This document provides general safety information needed by personnel who enter and work in surplus facilities managed by Bechtel Hanford, Inc. The purpose of the document is to enhance access control of surplus facilities, educate personnel on the potential hazards associated with these facilities prior to entry, and ensure that safety precautions are taken while in the facility

  6. Analytic model for ultrasound energy receivers and their optimal electric loads II: Experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorostiaga, M.; Wapler, M. C.; Wallrabe, U.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we verify the two optimal electric load concepts based on the zero reflection condition and on the power maximization approach for ultrasound energy receivers. We test a high loss 1-3 composite transducer, and find that the measurements agree very well with the predictions of the analytic model for plate transducers that we have developed previously. Additionally, we also confirm that the power maximization and zero reflection loads are very different when the losses in the receiver are high. Finally, we compare the optimal load predictions by the KLM and the analytic models with frequency dependent attenuation to evaluate the influence of the viscosity.

  7. Predictive Scheduling for Electric Vehicles Considering Uncertainty of Load and User Behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bin; Huang, Rui; Wang, Yubo; Nazaripouya, Hamidreza; Qiu, Charlie; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Gadh, Rajit

    2016-05-02

    Un-coordinated Electric Vehicle (EV) charging can create unexpected load in local distribution grid, which may degrade the power quality and system reliability. The uncertainty of EV load, user behaviors and other baseload in distribution grid, is one of challenges that impedes optimal control for EV charging problem. Previous researches did not fully solve this problem due to lack of real-world EV charging data and proper stochastic model to describe these behaviors. In this paper, we propose a new predictive EV scheduling algorithm (PESA) inspired by Model Predictive Control (MPC), which includes a dynamic load estimation module and a predictive optimization module. The user-related EV load and base load are dynamically estimated based on the historical data. At each time interval, the predictive optimization program will be computed for optimal schedules given the estimated parameters. Only the first element from the algorithm outputs will be implemented according to MPC paradigm. Current-multiplexing function in each Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) is considered and accordingly a virtual load is modeled to handle the uncertainties of future EV energy demands. This system is validated by the real-world EV charging data collected on UCLA campus and the experimental results indicate that our proposed model not only reduces load variation up to 40% but also maintains a high level of robustness. Finally, IEC 61850 standard is utilized to standardize the data models involved, which brings significance to more reliable and large-scale implementation.

  8. Method and system employing finite state machine modeling to identify one of a plurality of different electric load types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liang; Yang, Yi; Harley, Ronald Gordon; Habetler, Thomas G.; He, Dawei

    2016-08-09

    A system is for a plurality of different electric load types. The system includes a plurality of sensors structured to sense a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the different electric loads; and a processor. The processor acquires a voltage and current waveform from the sensors for a corresponding one of the different electric load types; calculates a power or current RMS profile of the waveform; quantizes the power or current RMS profile into a set of quantized state-values; evaluates a state-duration for each of the quantized state-values; evaluates a plurality of state-types based on the power or current RMS profile and the quantized state-values; generates a state-sequence that describes a corresponding finite state machine model of a generalized load start-up or transient profile for the corresponding electric load type; and identifies the corresponding electric load type.

  9. Analysis of relationships between hourly electricity price and load in deregulated real-time power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, K.L.; Wu, Y.K.

    2004-01-01

    Risk management in the electric power industry involves measuring the risk for all instruments owned by a company. The value of many of these instruments depends directly on electricity prices. In theory, the wholesale price in a real-time market should reflect the short-run marginal cost. However, most markets are not perfectly competitive, therefore by understanding the degree of correlation between price and physical drivers, electric traders and consumers can manage their risk more effectively and efficiently. Market data from two power-pool architectures, both pre-2003 ISO-NE and Australia's NEM, have been studied. The dynamic character of electricity price is mean-reverting, and consists of intra-day and weekly variations, seasonal fluctuations, and instant jumps. Parts of them are affected by load demands. Hourly signals on both price and load are divided into deterministic and random components with a discrete Fourier transform algorithm. Next, the real-time price-load relationship for periodic and random signals is examined. In addition, time-varying volatility models are constructed on random price and random load with the GARCH model, and the correlation between them analysed. Volatility plays a critical role on evaluating option pricing and risk management. (author)

  10. Integration scenarios of Demand Response into electricity markets: Load shifting, financial savings and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuerriegel, Stefan; Neumann, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Demand Response allows for the management of demand side resources in real-time; i.e. shifting electricity demand according to fluctuating supply. When integrated into electricity markets, Demand Response can be used for load shifting and as a replacement for both control reserve and balancing energy. These three usage scenarios are compared based on historic German data from 2011 to determine that load shifting provides the highest benefit: its annual financial savings accumulate to €3.110 M for both households and the service sector. This equals to relative savings of 2.83% compared to a scenario without load shifting. To improve Demand Response integration, the proposed model suggests policy implications: reducing bid sizes, delivery periods and the time-lag between market transactions and delivery dates in electricity markets. - Highlights: •Comparison of 3 scenarios to integrate Demand Response into electricity markets. •These are: optimize procurement, offer as control reserve, avoid balancing energy. •Ex post simulation to quantify financial impact and policy implications. •Highest savings from load shifting with a cost reduction of 3%. •Model suggests reducing bid sizes, delivery periods and time lags as policy issues.

  11. Effect of blade flutter and electrical loading on small wind turbine noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of blade flutter and electrical loading on the noise level of two different size wind turbines was investigated at the Conservation and Production Research Laboratory (CPRL) near Bushland, TX. Noise and performance data were collected on two blade designs tested on a wind turbine rated a...

  12. Power Stabilization Strategy of Random Access Loads in Electric Vehicles Wireless Charging System at Traffic Lights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Tan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An opportunity wireless charging system for electric vehicles when they stop and wait at traffic lights is proposed in this paper. In order to solve the serious power fluctuation caused by random access loads, this study presents a power stabilization strategy based on counting the number of electric vehicles in a designated area, including counting method, power source voltage adjustment strategy and choice of counting points. Firstly, the circuit model of a wireless power system with multi-loads is built and the equation of each load is obtained. Secondly, after the counting method of electric vehicles is stated, the voltage adjustment strategy, based on the number of electric vehicles when the system is at a steady state, is set out. Then, the counting points are chosen according to power curves when the voltage adjustment strategy is adopted. Finally, an experimental prototype is implemented to verify the power stabilization strategy. The experimental results show that, with the application of this strategy, the charging power is stabilized with the fluctuation of no more than 5% when loads access randomly.

  13. Parametric analysis of parameters for electrical-load forecasting using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, William J.; Gonzalez, Avelino J.; Georgiopoulos, Michael

    1997-04-01

    Accurate total system electrical load forecasting is a necessary part of resource management for power generation companies. The better the hourly load forecast, the more closely the power generation assets of the company can be configured to minimize the cost. Automating this process is a profitable goal and neural networks should provide an excellent means of doing the automation. However, prior to developing such a system, the optimal set of input parameters must be determined. The approach of this research was to determine what those inputs should be through a parametric study of potentially good inputs. Input parameters tested were ambient temperature, total electrical load, the day of the week, humidity, dew point temperature, daylight savings time, length of daylight, season, forecast light index and forecast wind velocity. For testing, a limited number of temperatures and total electrical loads were used as a basic reference input parameter set. Most parameters showed some forecasting improvement when added individually to the basic parameter set. Significantly, major improvements were exhibited with the day of the week, dew point temperatures, additional temperatures and loads, forecast light index and forecast wind velocity.

  14. Electrical transformer handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R.W.; Horne, D. (eds.)

    2005-07-01

    This handbook is a valuable user guide intended for electrical engineering and maintenance personnel, electrical contractors and electrical engineering students. It provides current information on techniques and technologies that can help extend the life of transformers. It discusses transformer testing, monitoring, design, commissioning, retrofitting and other elements involved in keeping electrical transformers in safe and efficient operation. It demonstrates how a power transformer can be put to use and common problems faced by owners. In addition to covering control techniques, testing and maintenance procedures, this handbook covers the power transformer; control electrical power transformer; electrical power transformer; electrical theory transformer; used electrical transformer; down electrical step transformer; electrical manufacturer transformer; electrical picture transformer; electrical transformer work; electrical surplus transformer; current transformer; step down transformer; voltage transformer; step up transformer; isolation transformer; low voltage transformer; toroidal transformer; high voltage transformer; and control power transformer. The handbook includes articles from leading experts on overcurrent protection of transformers; ventilated dry-type transformers; metered load factors for low-voltage, and dry-type transformers in buildings. The maintenance of both dry-type or oil-filled transformers was discussed with reference to sealing, gaskets, oils, moisture and testing. The adoption of dynamic load practices was also discussed along with the reclamation or recycling of used lube oil, transformer dielectric fluids and aged solid insulation. A buyer's guide and directory of transformer manufacturers and suppliers was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

  15. Electricity demand load forecasting of the Hellenic power system using an ARMA model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, S.Sp. [ASPETE - School of Pedagogical and Technological Education Department of Electrical Engineering Educators N. Heraklion, 141 21 Athens (Greece); Ekonomou, L.; Chatzarakis, G.E.; Skafidas, P.D. [ASPETE-School of Pedagogical and Technological Education, Department of Electrical Engineering Educators, N. Heraklion, 141 21 Athens (Greece); Karampelas, P. [Hellenic American University, IT Department, 12 Kaplanon Str., 106 80 Athens (Greece); Karamousantas, D.C. [Technological Educational Institute of Kalamata, Antikalamos, 24 100 Kalamata (Greece); Katsikas, S.K. [University of Piraeus, Department of Technology Education and Digital Systems, 150 Androutsou St., 18 532 Piraeus (Greece)

    2010-03-15

    Effective modeling and forecasting requires the efficient use of the information contained in the available data so that essential data properties can be extracted and projected into the future. As far as electricity demand load forecasting is concerned time series analysis has the advantage of being statistically adaptive to data characteristics compared to econometric methods which quite often are subject to errors and uncertainties in model specification and knowledge of causal variables. This paper presents a new method for electricity demand load forecasting using the multi-model partitioning theory and compares its performance with three other well established time series analysis techniques namely Corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICC), Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) and Schwarz's Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). The suitability of the proposed method is illustrated through an application to actual electricity demand load of the Hellenic power system, proving the reliability and the effectiveness of the method and making clear its usefulness in the studies that concern electricity consumption and electricity prices forecasts. (author)

  16. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  17. Modelling Load Shifing Using Electric Vehicles in a Smart Grid Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) represent both a new demand for electricity and a possible storage medium that could supply power to utilities. The 'load shifting' and 'vehicle-to-grid' concepts could help cut electricity demand during peak periods and prove especially helpful in smoothing variations in power generation introduced to the grid by variable renewable resources such as wind and solar power. This paper proposes a method for simulating the potential benefits of using EVs in load shifting and 'vehicle-to-grid' applications for four different regions -- the United States, Western Europe, China and Japan -- that are expected to have large numbers of EVs by 2050.

  18. Research of Charging(Discharging Orderly and Optimizing Load Curve for Electric Vehicles Based on Dynamic Electric Price and V2G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, using the Monte Carlo method and simulation analysis, this paper builds models for the behaviour of electric vehicles, the conventional charging model and the fast charging model. Secondly, this paper studies the impact that the number of electric vehicles which get access to power grid has on the daily load curve. Then, the paper put forwards a dynamic pricing mechanism of electricity, and studies how this dynamic pricing mechanism guides the electric vehicles to charge orderly. Last but not the least, the paper presents a V2G mechanism. Under this mechanism, electric vehicles can charge orderly and take part in the peak shaving. Research finds that massive electric vehicles’ access to the power grid will increase the peak-valley difference of daily load curve. Dynamic pricing mechanism and V2G mechanism can effectively lead the electric vehicles to take part in peak-shaving, and optimize the daily load curve.

  19. Distribution Locational Marginal Pricing for Optimal Electric Vehicle Charging Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ruoyang; Wu, Qiuwei; Oren, Shmuel S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated distribution locational marginal pricing (DLMP) method designed to alleviate congestion induced by electric vehicle (EV) loads in future power systems. In the proposed approach, the distribution system operator (DSO) determines distribution locational marginal...... shown that the socially optimal charging schedule can be implemented through a decentralized mechanism where loads respond autonomously to the posted DLMPs by maximizing their individual net surplus...

  20. Safe disposal of surplus plutonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W. L.; Naz, S.; Lutze, W.; Busch, R.; Prinja, A.; Stoll, W.

    2001-06-01

    About 150 tons of weapons grade and weapons usable plutonium (metal, oxide, and in residues) have been declared surplus in the USA and Russia. Both countries plan to convert the metal and oxide into mixed oxide fuel for nuclear power reactors. Russia has not yet decided what to do with the residues. The US will convert residues into a ceramic, which will then be over-poured with highly radioactive borosilicate glass. The radioactive glass is meant to provide a deterrent to recovery of plutonium, as required by a US standard. Here we show a waste form for plutonium residues, zirconia/boron carbide (ZrO 2/B 4C), with an unprecedented combination of properties: a single, radiation-resistant, and chemically durable phase contains the residues; billion-year-old natural analogs are available; and criticality safety is given under all conceivable disposal conditions. ZrO 2/B 4C can be disposed of directly, without further processing, making it attractive to all countries facing the task of plutonium disposal. The US standard for protection against recovery can be met by disposal of the waste form together with used reactor fuel.

  1. Improving electrical power systems reliability through locally controlled distributed curtailable load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehbozorgi, Mohammad Reza

    2000-10-01

    Improvements in power system reliability have always been of interest to both power companies and customers. Since there are no sizable electrical energy storage elements in electrical power systems, the generated power should match the load demand at any given time. Failure to meet this balance may cause severe system problems, including loss of generation and system blackouts. This thesis proposes a methodology which can respond to either loss of generation or loss of load. It is based on switching of electric water heaters using power system frequency as the controlling signal. The proposed methodology encounters, and the thesis has addressed, the following associated problems. The controller must be interfaced with the existing thermostat control. When necessary to switch on loads, the water in the tank should not be overheated. Rapid switching of blocks of load, or chattering, has been considered. The contributions of the thesis are: (A) A system has been proposed which makes a significant portion of the distributed loads connected to a power system to behave in a predetermined manner to improve the power system response during disturbances. (B) The action of the proposed system is transparent to the customers. (C) The thesis proposes a simple analysis for determining the amount of such loads which might be switched and relates this amount to the size of the disturbances which can occur in the utility. (D) The proposed system acts without any formal communication links, solely using the embedded information present system-wide. (E) The methodology of the thesis proposes switching of water heater loads based on a simple, localized frequency set-point controller. The thesis has identified the consequent problem of rapid switching of distributed loads, which is referred to as chattering. (F) Two approaches have been proposed to reduce chattering to tolerable levels. (G) A frequency controller has been designed and built according to the specifications required to

  2. Gait Planning Research for an Electrically Driven Large-Load-Ratio Six-Legged Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chao Zhuang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gait planning is an important basis for the walking of a legged robot. To improve the walking stability of multi-legged robots and to reduce the impact force between the foot and the ground, gait planning strategies are presented for an electrically driven large-load-ratio six-legged robot. First, the configuration and walking gait of the electrically driven large-load-ratio six-legged robot are designed. The higher-stable swing sequences of legs and typical walking modes are respectively obtained. Based on the Denavit–Hartenberg (D–H method, the analyses of the forward and inverse kinematics are implemented. The mathematical models of the articulated rotation angles are respectively established. In view of the buffer device installed at the end of shin to decrease the impact force between the foot and the ground, an initial lift height of the leg is brought into gait planning when the support phase changes into the transfer phase. The mathematical models of foot trajectories are established. Finally, a prototype of the electrically driven large-load-ratio six-legged robot is developed. The experiments of the prototype are carried out regarding the aspects of the walking speed and surmounting obstacle. Then, the reasonableness of gait planning is verified based on the experimental results. The proposed strategies of gait planning lay the foundation for effectively reducing the foot–ground impact force and can provide a reference for other large-load-ratio multi-legged robots.

  3. Simulation of fatigue damage in ferroelectric polycrystals under mechanical/electrical loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozinov, S.; Kuna, M.

    2018-07-01

    The reliability of smart-structures made of ferroelectric ceramics is essentially reduced by the formation of cracks under the action of external electrical and/or mechanical loading. In the current research a numerical model for low-cycle fatigue in ferroelectric mesostructures is proposed. In the finite element simulations a combination of two user element routines is utilized. The first one is used to model a micromechanical ferroelectric domain switching behavior inside the grains. The second one is used to simulate fatigue damage of grain boundaries by a cohesive zone model (EMCCZM) based on an electromechanical cyclic traction-separation law (TSL). For numerical simulations a scanning electron microscope image of the ceramic's grain structure was digitalized and meshed. The response of this mesostructure to cyclic electrical or mechanical loading is systematically analyzed. As a result of the simulations, the distribution of electric potential, field, displacement and polarization as well as mechanical stresses and deformations inside the grains are obtained. At the grain boundaries, the formation and evolution of damage are analyzed until final failure and induced degradation of electric permittivity. It is found that the proposed model correctly mimics polycrystalline behavior during poling processes and progressive damage under cyclic electromechanical loading. To the authors' knowledge, it is the first model and numerical analysis of ferroelectric polycrystals taking into account both domain reorientation and cohesive modeling of intergranular fracture. It can help to understand failure mechanisms taking place in ferroelectrics during fatigue processes.

  4. Factor Analysis of the Aggregated Electric Vehicle Load Based on Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles (EVs and the related infrastructure are being developed rapidly. In order to evaluate the impact of factors on the aggregated EV load and to coordinate charging, a model is established to capture the relationship between the charging load and important factors based on data mining. The factors can be categorized as internal and external. The internal factors include the EV battery size, charging rate at different places, penetration of the charging infrastructure, and charging habits. The external factor is the time-of-use pricing (TOU policy. As a massive input data is necessary for data mining, an algorithm is implemented to generate a massive sample as input data which considers real-world travel patterns based on a historical travel dataset. With the input data, linear regression was used to build a linear model whose inputs were the internal factors. The impact of the internal factors on the EV load can be quantified by analyzing the sign, value, and temporal distribution of the model coefficients. The results showed that when no TOU policy is implemented, the rate of charging at home and range anxiety exerts the greatest influence on EV load. For the external factor, a support vector regression technique was used to build a relationship between the TOU policy and EV load. Then, an optimization model based on the relationship was proposed to devise a TOU policy that levels the load. The results suggest that implementing a TOU policy reduces the difference between the peak and valley loads remarkably.

  5. Measurements and simulations for peak electrical load reduction in cooling dominated climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadineni, Suresh B.; Boehm, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Peak electric demand due to cooling load in the Desert Southwest region of the US has been an issue for the electrical energy suppliers. To address this issue, a consortium has been formed between the University of Nevada Las Vegas, Pulte Homes (home builder) and NV Energy (local utility) in order to reduce the peak load by more than 65%. The implemented strategies that were used to accomplish that goal consist of energy efficiency in homes, onsite electricity generation through roof integrated PV, direct load control, and battery storage at the substation level. The simulation models developed using building energy analysis software were validated against measured data. The electrical energy demand for the upgraded home during peak period (1:00–7:00 PM) decreased by approximately 37% and 9% compared to a code standard home of the same size, due to energy efficiency and PV generation, respectively. The total decrease in electrical demand due to energy efficiency and PV generation during the peak period is 46%. Additionally, a 2.2 °C increase in thermostat temperature from 23.9 °C to 26.1 °C between 4:00 PM and 7:00 PM has further decreased the average demand during the peak period by 69% of demand from a standard home. -- Highlights: ► A study to demonstrate peak load reductions of 65% at the substation. ► A new residential energy efficient community named Villa Trieste is being developed. ► The peak demand from the homes has decreased by 37% through energy efficiency. ► A 1.8 kWp system along with energy efficiency measures decreased peak by 46%.

  6. Application of SVR with chaotic GASA algorithm in cyclic electric load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wen Yu; Hong, Wei-Chiang; Dong, Yucheng; Tsai, Gary; Sung, Jing-Tian; Fan, Guo-feng

    2012-01-01

    The electric load forecasting is complicated, and it sometimes reveals cyclic changes due to cyclic economic activities or climate seasonal nature, such as hourly peak in a working day, weekly peak in a business week, and monthly peak in a demand planned year. Hybridization of support vector regression (SVR) with chaotic sequence and evolutionary algorithms has successfully been applied to improve forecasting accuracy, and to effectively avoid trapping in a local optimum. However, it has not been widely explored to employ SVR-based model to deal with cyclic electric load forecasting. This paper will firstly investigate the potentiality of a novel hybrid algorithm, namely chaotic genetic algorithm-simulated annealing algorithm (CGASA), with an SVR model to improve load forecasting accurate performance. In which, the proposed CGASA employs internal randomness of chaotic iterations to overcome premature local optimum. Secondly, the seasonal mechanism will then be applied to well adjust the cyclic load tendency. Finally, a numerical example from an existed reference is employed to compare the forecasting performance of the proposed SSVRCGASA model. The forecasting results show that the SSVRCGASA model yields more accurate forecasting results than ARIMA and TF-ε-SVR-SA models. -- Highlights: ► Hybridizing the seasonal adjustment mechanism into an SVR model. ► Employing chaotic sequence to improve the premature convergence of genetic algorithm and simulated annealing algorithm. ► Successfully providing significant accurate monthly load demand forecasting.

  7. Climate Control Load Reduction Strategies for Electric Drive Vehicles in Cold Weather: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffers, Matthew; Chaney, Lawrence; Rugh, John

    2016-03-31

    When operated, the climate control system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle. This load has significant impact on fuel economy for conventional and hybrid vehicles, and it drastically reduces the driving range of all electric vehicles (EVs). Heating is even more detrimental to EV range than cooling because no engine waste heat is available. Reducing the thermal loads on the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning system will extend driving range and increase the market penetration of EVs. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory have evaluated strategies for vehicle climate control load reduction with special attention toward grid connected electric vehicles. Outdoor vehicle thermal testing and computational modeling were used to assess potential strategies for improved thermal management and to evaluate the effectiveness of thermal load reduction technologies. A human physiology model was also used to evaluate the impact on occupant thermal comfort. Experimental evaluations of zonal heating strategies demonstrated a 5.5% to 28.5% reduction in cabin heating energy over a 20-minute warm-up. Vehicle simulations over various drive cycles show a 6.9% to 18.7% improvement in EV range over baseline heating using the most promising zonal heating strategy investigated. A national-level analysis was conducted to determine the overall national impact. If all vehicles used the best zonal strategy, the range would be improved by 7.1% over the baseline heating range. This is a 33% reduction in the range penalty for heating.

  8. Mutual Information-Based Inputs Selection for Electric Load Time Series Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Floranović

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Providing accurate load forecast to electric utility corporations is essential in order to reduce their operational costs and increase profits. Hence, training set selection is an important preprocessing step which has to be considered in practice in order to increase the accuracy of load forecasts. The usage of mutual information (MI has been recently proposed in regression tasks, mostly for feature selection and for identifying the real instances from training sets that contains noise and outliers. This paper proposes a methodology for the training set selection in a least squares support vector machines (LS-SVMs load forecasting model. A new application of the concept of MI is presented for the selection of a training set based on MI computation between initial training set instances and testing set instances. Accordingly, several LS-SVMs models have been trained, based on the proposed methodology, for hourly prediction of electric load for one day ahead. The results obtained from a real-world data set indicate that the proposed method increases the accuracy of load forecasting as well as reduces the size of the initial training set needed for model training.

  9. Investigation of control system of traction electric drive with feedbacks on load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, N. K.; Iov, I. A.; Iov, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    In the article, by the example of a walking excavator, the results of a study of a control system of traction electric drive with a rigid and flexible feedback on the load are mentioned. Based on the analysis of known works, the calculation scheme has been chosen; the equations of motion of the electromechanical system have been obtained, taking into account the elasticity of the rope and feedbacks on the load in the elastic element. A simulation model of this system has been developed and mathematical modeling of the transient processes to evaluate the influence of feedback on the dynamic characteristics of the mechanism and its efficiency of work was carried out. It is shown that the use of rigid and flexible feedbacks makes it possible to reduce dynamic loads in the traction mechanism and to limit the elastic oscillation of the executive mechanism in transient operating modes in comparison with the standard control system; however, there is some decrease in productivity. It has been also established that the sign-variable of the loading of the electric drive, connected with the opening of the backlashes in the gearbox due to the action of feedbacks on the load in the elastic element, under certain conditions, can lead to undesirable phenomena in the operation of the drive and a decrease in the reliability of its operation.

  10. 75 FR 70916 - Surplus Properties; Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... (Volunteer Army Ammunition Plant) USARC that was determined surplus to the United States needs in accordance... Community Redevelopment and Homeless Assistance Act of 1994, Public Law 103-421 and 10 U.S.C. 113. Dated...

  11. Probabilistic Constrained Load Flow Considering Integration of Wind Power Generation and Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachogiannis, Ioannis (John)

    2009-01-01

    A new formulation and solution of probabilistic constrained load flow (PCLF) problem suitable for modern power systems with wind power generation and electric vehicles (EV) demand or supply is represented. The developed stochastic model of EV demand/supply and the wind power generation model...... are incorporated into load flow studies. In the resulted PCLF formulation, discrete and continuous control parameters are engaged. Therefore, a hybrid learning automata system (HLAS) is developed to find the optimal offline control settings over a whole planning period of power system. The process of HLAS...

  12. A model of market power in electricity industries subject to peak load pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arellano, Maria-Soledad; Serra, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the exercise of market power in price-regulated electricity industries under peak-load pricing and merit order dispatching, but where investment decisions are taken by independent generating companies. Within this context, we show that producers can exercise market power by under-investing in base-load capacity, compared to the welfare-maximizing configuration. We also show that when there is free entry with an exogenous fixed entry cost that is later sunk, more intense competition results in higher welfare but fewer firms. (author)

  13. Space station electrical power distribution analysis using a load flow approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Ervin M.

    1987-01-01

    The space station's electrical power system will evolve and grow in a manner much similar to the present terrestrial electrical power system utilities. The initial baseline reference configuration will contain more than 50 nodes or busses, inverters, transformers, overcurrent protection devices, distribution lines, solar arrays, and/or solar dynamic power generating sources. The system is designed to manage and distribute 75 KW of power single phase or three phase at 20 KHz, and grow to a level of 300 KW steady state, and must be capable of operating at a peak of 450 KW for 5 to 10 min. In order to plan far into the future and keep pace with load growth, a load flow power system analysis approach must be developed and utilized. This method is a well known energy assessment and management tool that is widely used throughout the Electrical Power Utility Industry. The results of a comprehensive evaluation and assessment of an Electrical Distribution System Analysis Program (EDSA) is discussed. Its potential use as an analysis and design tool for the 20 KHz space station electrical power system is addressed.

  14. Remote control and load management of electric power distribution networks; Fjaerroevervakning och belastningsstyrning av eldistributionsnaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Mats; Larsson, Mikael

    1993-02-01

    Remote control and load management increase the electricity distributors possibilities to even out the consumption of electricity for optimal usage of electricity subscription and supply system. Controlling can be done either through technology or through encouragement of off-peak consumption. There are a number of similar systems for controlling consumption, where the manufacturers have chosen different ways to solve the main problem, namely the communication. We have concentrated in examining systems which communicate through the supply system, different types of telephone connections and wireless communication links. In the future demands for better electricity consumption control will be put forward. This will bring along a greater need at distribution level for continuous monitoring of purchased and used electricity flow. The distributors will also need better possibilities to directly affect power consumption. Those manufacturers who do not use load management today should acquire experience through provincial installations in suitable areas with equipment ready for tomorrows needs and requirements. Today there are some different systems on the market that offer flexibility and ready-to-use possibilities. (3 refs., 17 figs.)

  15. Data-based method for creating electricity use load profiles using large amount of customer-specific hourly measured electricity use data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raesaenen, Teemu; Voukantsis, Dimitrios; Niska, Harri; Karatzas, Kostas; Kolehmainen, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    The recent technological developments monitoring the electricity use of small customers provides with a whole new view to develop electricity distribution systems, customer-specific services and to increase energy efficiency. The analysis of customer load profile and load estimation is an important and popular area of electricity distribution technology and management. In this paper, we present an efficient methodology, based on self-organizing maps (SOM) and clustering methods (K-means and hierarchical clustering), capable of handling large amounts of time-series data in the context of electricity load management research. The proposed methodology was applied on a dataset consisting of hourly measured electricity use data, for 3989 small customers located in Northern-Savo, Finland. Information for the hourly electricity use, for a large numbers of small customers, has been made available only recently. Therefore, this paper presents the first results of making use of these data. The individual customers were classified into user groups based on their electricity use profile. On this basis, new, data-based load curves were calculated for each of these user groups. The new user groups as well as the new-estimated load curves were compared with the existing ones, which were calculated by the electricity company, on the basis of a customer classification scheme and their annual demand for electricity. The index of agreement statistics were used to quantify the agreement between the estimated and observed electricity use. The results indicate that there is a clear improvement when using data-based estimations, while the new-estimated load curves can be utilized directly by existing electricity power systems for more accurate load estimates.

  16. Data-based method for creating electricity use load profiles using large amount of customer-specific hourly measured electricity use data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raesaenen, Teemu; Niska, Harri; Kolehmainen, Mikko [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Eastern Finland P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Voukantsis, Dimitrios; Karatzas, Kostas [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2010-11-15

    The recent technological developments monitoring the electricity use of small customers provides with a whole new view to develop electricity distribution systems, customer-specific services and to increase energy efficiency. The analysis of customer load profile and load estimation is an important and popular area of electricity distribution technology and management. In this paper, we present an efficient methodology, based on self-organizing maps (SOM) and clustering methods (K-means and hierarchical clustering), capable of handling large amounts of time-series data in the context of electricity load management research. The proposed methodology was applied on a dataset consisting of hourly measured electricity use data, for 3989 small customers located in Northern-Savo, Finland. Information for the hourly electricity use, for a large numbers of small customers, has been made available only recently. Therefore, this paper presents the first results of making use of these data. The individual customers were classified into user groups based on their electricity use profile. On this basis, new, data-based load curves were calculated for each of these user groups. The new user groups as well as the new-estimated load curves were compared with the existing ones, which were calculated by the electricity company, on the basis of a customer classification scheme and their annual demand for electricity. The index of agreement statistics were used to quantify the agreement between the estimated and observed electricity use. The results indicate that there is a clear improvement when using data-based estimations, while the new-estimated load curves can be utilized directly by existing electricity power systems for more accurate load estimates. (author)

  17. Anisotropy of domain switching in prepoled lead titanate zirconate ceramics under multiaxial electrical loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan-Ming; Li, Fa-Xin; Fang, Dai-Ning

    2007-01-01

    The authors report an observation of anisotropic domain switching process in prepoled lead titanate zirconate (PZT) ceramics under multiaxial electrical loading. Prepoled PZT blocks were obliquely cut to apply an electric field at discrete angles θ (0°-180°) to the initial poling direction. Both the coercive field and switchable polarization are found to decrease significantly when sinθ increases from zero to unity. The measured strain curves show that most domains that accomplished 180° domain switching actually experienced two successive 90° switching. The oriented domain texture after poling plus the induced nonuniform stress are used to explain the observed domain switching anisotropy.

  18. Condition Assessment and End-of-Life Prediction System for Electric Machines and Their Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Toliyat, Hamid A.

    2005-01-01

    An end-of-life prediction system developed for electric machines and their loads could be used in integrated vehicle health monitoring at NASA and in other government agencies. This system will provide on-line, real-time condition assessment and end-of-life prediction of electric machines (e.g., motors, generators) and/or their loads of mechanically coupled machinery (e.g., pumps, fans, compressors, turbines, conveyor belts, magnetic levitation trains, and others). In long-duration space flight, the ability to predict the lifetime of machinery could spell the difference between mission success or failure. Therefore, the system described here may be of inestimable value to the U.S. space program. The system will provide continuous monitoring for on-line condition assessment and end-of-life prediction as opposed to the current off-line diagnoses.

  19. Adaptive complementary fuzzy self-recurrent wavelet neural network controller for the electric load simulator system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complexities existing in the electric load simulator, this article develops a high-performance nonlinear adaptive controller to improve the torque tracking performance of the electric load simulator, which mainly consists of an adaptive fuzzy self-recurrent wavelet neural network controller with variable structure (VSFSWC and a complementary controller. The VSFSWC is clearly and easily used for real-time systems and greatly improves the convergence rate and control precision. The complementary controller is designed to eliminate the effect of the approximation error between the proposed neural network controller and the ideal feedback controller without chattering phenomena. Moreover, adaptive learning laws are derived to guarantee the system stability in the sense of the Lyapunov theory. Finally, the hardware-in-the-loop simulations are carried out to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms in different working styles.

  20. Advanced Intelligent System Application to Load Forecasting and Control for Hybrid Electric Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James; Chattopadhyay, Deb; Elfayoumy, Mahmoud

    1996-01-01

    The primary motivation for this research emanates from providing a decision support system to the electric bus operators in the municipal and urban localities which will guide the operators to maintain an optimal compromise among the noise level, pollution level, fuel usage etc. This study is backed up by our previous studies on study of battery characteristics, permanent magnet DC motor studies and electric traction motor size studies completed in the first year. The operator of the Hybrid Electric Car must determine optimal power management schedule to meet a given load demand for different weather and road conditions. The decision support system for the bus operator comprises three sub-tasks viz. forecast of the electrical load for the route to be traversed divided into specified time periods (few minutes); deriving an optimal 'plan' or 'preschedule' based on the load forecast for the entire time-horizon (i.e., for all time periods) ahead of time; and finally employing corrective control action to monitor and modify the optimal plan in real-time. A fully connected artificial neural network (ANN) model is developed for forecasting the kW requirement for hybrid electric bus based on inputs like climatic conditions, passenger load, road inclination, etc. The ANN model is trained using back-propagation algorithm employing improved optimization techniques like projected Lagrangian technique. The pre-scheduler is based on a Goal-Programming (GP) optimization model with noise, pollution and fuel usage as the three objectives. GP has the capability of analyzing the trade-off among the conflicting objectives and arriving at the optimal activity levels, e.g., throttle settings. The corrective control action or the third sub-task is formulated as an optimal control model with inputs from the real-time data base as well as the GP model to minimize the error (or deviation) from the optimal plan. These three activities linked with the ANN forecaster proving the output to the

  1. Method of bringing nuclear power plant to fractional electrical load conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iljunin, V.G.; Kuznetsoy, I.A.; Murogov, V.M.; Shmelev, A.N.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described of bringing a nuclear power plant to fractional electric load conditions, which power plant comprises at least two nuclear reactors, at least one nuclear reactor being a breeder and both reactors transferring heat to the turbine working substance, consisting in that the consumption of the turbine working substance is reduced in accordance with a predetermined fractional load. At the same time, the amount of heat being transferred from the nuclear reactors to the turbine working substance is reduced, for which purpose the reactors are included in autonomous cooling circuits to successively transfer heat to the turbine working substance. The breeding reactor is included in the cooling circuit with a lower coolant temperature, the temperature of the coolant at the inlet and outlet of the breeder being reduced to a level ensuring the operation of the nuclear power plant in predetermined fractional load conditions, due to which the power of the breeder is increased, and afterheat is removed

  2. A pattern recognition methodology for evaluation of load profiles and typical days of large electricity customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsekouras, G.J.; Kotoulas, P.B.; Tsirekis, C.D.; Dialynas, E.N.; Hatziargyriou, N.D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a pattern recognition methodology for the classification of the daily chronological load curves of each large electricity customer, in order to estimate his typical days and his respective representative daily load profiles. It is based on pattern recognition methods, such as k-means, self-organized maps (SOM), fuzzy k-means and hierarchical clustering, which are theoretically described and properly adapted. The parameters of each clustering method are properly selected by an optimization process, which is separately applied for each one of six adequacy measures. The results can be used for the short-term and mid-term load forecasting of each consumer, for the choice of the proper tariffs and the feasibility studies of demand side management programs. This methodology is analytically applied for one medium voltage industrial customer and synoptically for a set of medium voltage customers of the Greek power system. The results of the clustering methods are presented and discussed. (author)

  3. Computerized optimum distribution of loads among the turbogenerators of fossil-fuel electric power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foshko, L S; Zusmanovich, L B; Flos, S L; Pal' chik, V A; Konevskii, B I

    1979-04-01

    The problem of determining the optimum distribution of loads among turbogenerators in a fossil-fuel power plant is considered based on satisfying the following requirements: distribution of electrical and thermal loads to minimize the heat expended on the turbine unit; calculation based on turbogenerator characteristics that most completely describe operating conditions; no constraints on the configuration of turbogenerator performance characteristics; calculation of load distribution based on net characteristics including the internal needs of the turbogenerators; consideration of all operational limitations in turbogenerator working conditions; results should be applicable to any predetermined differential of the load change. A flowchart is given showing the organization of the Optim-76 program complex for solution of this problem. An example is given showing application of the Optim-76 program implemented by a Minsk-32 computer in the case of a heat and electric power station with three turbogenerators. The results show that a dynamic programming method has considerable advantages for this applicaton on third-generation computers.

  4. Improving the principles of short-term electric load forecasting of the Irkutsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornilov Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting of electric load (EL is an important task for both electric power entities and large consumers of electricity [1]. Large consumers are faced with the need to compose applications for the planned volume of EL, and the deviation of subsequent real consumption from previously announced leads to the appearance of penalties from the wholesale market. In turn, electricity producers are interested in forecasting the demand for electricity for prompt response to its fluctuations and for the purpose of optimal infrastructure development. The most difficult and urgent task is the hourly forecasting of EL, which is extremely important for the successful solution of problems of optimization of generating capacities, minimization of power losses, dispatching control, security assessment of power supply, etc. Ultimately, such forecasts allow optimizing the cash costs for electricity and fuel or water consumption during generation. This paper analyzes the experience of the branch of JSC "SO UPS" Irkutsk Regional Dispatch Office of the procedure for short-term forecasting of the EL of the Irkutsk region.

  5. Thermal Energy Storage for Building Load Management: Application to Electrically Heated Floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Thieblemont

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In cold climates, electrical power demand for space conditioning becomes a critical issue for utility companies during certain periods of the day. Shifting a portion or all of it to off-peak periods can help reduce peak demand and reduce stress on the electrical grid. Sensible thermal energy storage (TES systems, and particularly electrically heated floors (EHF, can store thermal energy in buildings during the off-peak periods and release it during the peak periods while maintaining occupants’ thermal comfort. However, choosing the type of storage system and/or its configuration may be difficult. In this paper, the performance of an EHF for load management is studied. First, a methodology is developed to integrate EHF in TRNSYS program in order to investigate the impact of floor assembly on the EHF performance. Then, the thermal comfort (TC of the night-running EHF is studied. Finally, indicators are defined, allowing the comparison of different EHF. Results show that an EHF is able to shift 84% of building loads to the night while maintaining acceptable TC in cold climate. Moreover, this system is able to provide savings for the customer and supplier if there is a significant difference between off-peak and peak period electricity prices.

  6. Advances in electric power and energy systems load and price forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive review of state-of-the-art approaches to power systems forecasting from the most respected names in the field, internationally. Advances in Electric Power and Energy Systems is the first book devoted exclusively to a subject of increasing urgency to power systems planning and operations. Written for practicing engineers, researchers, and post-grads concerned with power systems planning and forecasting, this book brings together contributions from many of the world’s foremost names in the field who address a range of critical issues, from forecasting power system load to power system pricing to post-storm service restoration times, river flow forecasting, and more. In a time of ever-increasing energy demands, mounting concerns over the environmental impacts of power generation, and the emergence of new, smart-grid technologies, electricity price forecasting has assumed a prominent role within both the academic and industrial ar nas. Short-run forecasting of electricity prices has become nece...

  7. Effect of Enhanced Air Temperature (extreme heat, and Load of Non-Linear Against the Use of Electric Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Wijaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Usage Electric power is very easy to do, because the infrastructure for connecting  already available and widely sold. Consumption electric power is not accompanied by the ability to recognize electric power. The average increase of electricity power in Bali in extreme weather reaches 10% in years 2014, so that Bali suffered power shortages and PLN as the manager of electric power to perform scheduling on of electric power usage. Scheduling is done because many people use electric power as the load  of fan and Air Conditioner exceeding the previous time. Load of fan, air conditioning, and computers including non-linear loads which can add heat on the conductor of electricity. Non-linear load and hot weather can lead to heat on conductor so  insulation damaged  and cause electrical short circuit. Data of electric power obtained through questionnaires, surveys, measurement and retrieve data from various parties. Fires that occurred in 2014, namely 109 events, 44 is  event caused by an electric short circuit (approximately 40%. Decrease power factors can cause losses of electricity and hot. Heat can cause and adds heat on the  conductor electric. The analysis showed  understanding electric power of the average  is 27,700 with value between 20 to 40. So an understanding of the electrical power away from the understand so that many errors because of the act own. Installation tool ELCB very necessary but very necessary provide counseling   of electricity to the community.

  8. Decoupling Weather Influence from User Habits for an Optimal Electric Load Forecast System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Massidda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The balance between production and consumption in a smart grid with high penetration of renewable sources and in the presence of energy storage systems benefits from an accurate load prediction. A general approach to load forecasting is not possible because of the additional complication due to the increasing presence of distributed and usually unmeasured photovoltaic production. Various methods are proposed in the literature that can be classified into two classes: those that predict by separating the portion of load due to consumption habits from the part of production due to local weather conditions, and those that attempt to predict the load as a whole. The characteristic that should lead to a preference for one approach over another is obviously the percentage of penetration of distributed production. The study site discussed in this document is the grid of Borkum, an island located in the North Sea. The advantages in terms of reducing forecasting errors for the electrical load, which can be obtained by using weather information, are explained. In particular, when comparing the results of different approaches gradually introducing weather forecasts, it is clear that the correct functional dependency of production has to be taken into account in order to obtain maximum yield from the available information. Where possible, this approach can significantly improve the quality of the forecasts, which in turn can improve the balance of a network—especially if energy storage systems are in place.

  9. Towards smart energy systems: application of kernel machine regression for medium term electricity load forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamaniotis, Miltiadis; Bargiotas, Dimitrios; Tsoukalas, Lefteri H

    2016-01-01

    Integration of energy systems with information technologies has facilitated the realization of smart energy systems that utilize information to optimize system operation. To that end, crucial in optimizing energy system operation is the accurate, ahead-of-time forecasting of load demand. In particular, load forecasting allows planning of system expansion, and decision making for enhancing system safety and reliability. In this paper, the application of two types of kernel machines for medium term load forecasting (MTLF) is presented and their performance is recorded based on a set of historical electricity load demand data. The two kernel machine models and more specifically Gaussian process regression (GPR) and relevance vector regression (RVR) are utilized for making predictions over future load demand. Both models, i.e., GPR and RVR, are equipped with a Gaussian kernel and are tested on daily predictions for a 30-day-ahead horizon taken from the New England Area. Furthermore, their performance is compared to the ARMA(2,2) model with respect to mean average percentage error and squared correlation coefficient. Results demonstrate the superiority of RVR over the other forecasting models in performing MTLF.

  10. Public policy analysis of energy efficiency and load management in changing electricity business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis Dept.; Hamrin, J. [Centre for Resource Solutions (United States); Eyre, N. [Energy Savings Trust (United Kingdom); Crossley, D.; Maloney, M.; Watt, G. [Energy Futures Australia Pty Ltd (Australia)

    2003-04-01

    The focus of this paper is (1) the potential effectiveness of the reform of the electricity industry on promoting energy efficiency and load management, and (2) the potential effectiveness of new mechanisms for promoting energy efficiency and load management. Many countries are initiating reforms of their power sectors to stimulate private investment, increase operation and management efficiencies, and lower the cost of power. These countries are unbundling vertically integrated utilities into distinct generation, transmission, distribution and retail supply companies; introducing commercial management principles to government-owned monopolies; and in many cases transferring operation or ownership to private companies. Electric industry restructuring may force regulators and policy makers to re-examine existing mechanisms for promoting load management and energy efficiency. In some cases, electric industry restructuring replaces the long-standing relationship between a single monopoly provider and protected customer franchise with a new set of relationships among retail electricity suppliers and customers who may now be free to choose suppliers. In these types of situations, markets, not government regulators and utility monopolies, are seen as determining future energy production and consumption decisions. However, it is uncertain whether this type of restructuring will overcome important market barriers to energy efficiency that limit markets for energy-efficient products and services from functioning effectively. As a result of these barriers, a large, untapped potential for cost-effective energy-efficiency investments exists. Supporters of public policies argue that energy-efficiency programs are an appropriate government strategy to capture economic efficiencies that the market cannot secure unassisted. (author)

  11. Public policy analysis of energy efficiency and load management in changing electricity businesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, Edward; Hamrin, Jan; Eyre, Nick; Crossley, David; Maloney, Michelle; Watt, Greg

    2003-04-01

    The focus of this paper is (1) the potential effectiveness of the reform of the electricity industry on promoting energy efficiency and load management, and (2) the potential effectiveness of new mechanisms for promoting energy efficiency and load management. Many countries are initiating reforms of their power sectors to stimulate private investment, increase operation and management efficiencies, and lower the cost of power. These countries are unbundling vertically integrated utilities into distinct generation, transmission, distribution and retail supply companies; introducing commercial management principles to government-owned monopolies; and in many cases transferring operation or ownership to private companies. Electric industry restructuring may force regulators and policy makers to re-examine existing mechanisms for promoting load management and energy efficiency. In some cases, electric industry restructuring replaces the long-standing relationship between a single monopoly provider and protected customer franchise with a new set of relationships among retail electricity suppliers and customers who may now be free to choose suppliers. In these types of situations, markets, not government regulators and utility monopolies, are seen as determining future energy production and consumption decisions. However, it is uncertain whether this type of restructuring will overcome important market barriers to energy efficiency that limit markets for energy-efficient products and services from functioning effectively. As a result of these barriers, a large, untapped potential for cost-effective energy-efficiency investments exists. Supporters of public policies argue that energy-efficiency programs are an appropriate government strategy to capture economic efficiencies that the market cannot secure unassisted.

  12. Public policy analysis of energy efficiency and load management in changing electricity businesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vine, Edward; Hamrin, Jan; Eyre, Nick; Crossley, David; Maloney, Michelle; Watt, Greg

    2003-01-01

    The focus of this paper is (1) the potential effectiveness of the reform of the electricity industry on promoting energy efficiency and load management, and (2) the potential effectiveness of new mechanisms for promoting energy efficiency and load management. Many countries are initiating reforms of their power sectors to stimulate private investment, increase operation and management efficiencies, and lower the cost of power. These countries are unbundling vertically integrated utilities into distinct generation, transmission, distribution and retail supply companies; introducing commercial management principles to government-owned monopolies; and in many cases transferring operation or ownership to private companies. Electric industry restructuring may force regulators and policy makers to re-examine existing mechanisms for promoting load management and energy efficiency. In some cases, electric industry restructuring replaces the long-standing relationship between a single monopoly provider and protected customer franchise with a new set of relationships among retail electricity suppliers and customers who may now be free to choose suppliers. In these types of situations, markets, not government regulators and utility monopolies, are seen as determining future energy production and consumption decisions. However, it is uncertain whether this type of restructuring will overcome important market barriers to energy efficiency that limit markets for energy-efficient products and services from functioning effectively. As a result of these barriers, a large, untapped potential for cost-effective energy-efficiency investments exists. Supporters of public policies argue that energy-efficiency programs are an appropriate government strategy to capture economic efficiencies that the market cannot secure unassisted

  13. New approaches to provide ride-through for critical loads in electric power distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Hernandez, Oscar C.

    2001-07-01

    The extensive use of electronic circuits has enabled modernization, automation, miniaturization, high quality, low cost, and other achievements regarding electric loads in the last decades. However, modern electronic circuits and systems are extremely sensitive to disturbances from the electric power supply. In fact, the rate at which these disturbances happen is considerable as has been documented in recent years. In response to the power quality concerns presented previously, this dissertation is proposing new approaches to provide ride-through for critical loads during voltage disturbances with emphasis on voltage sags. In this dissertation, a new approach based on an AC-DC-AC system is proposed to provide ride-through for critical loads connected in buildings and/or an industrial system. In this approach, a three-phase IGBT inverter with a built in Dc-link voltage regulator is suitably controlled along with static by-pass switches to provide continuous power to critical loads. During a disturbance, the input utility source is disconnected and the power from the inverter is connected to the load. The remaining voltage in the AC supply is converted to DC and compensated before being applied to the inverter and the load. After detecting normal utility conditions, power from the utility is restored to the critical load. In order to achieve an extended ride-through capability a second approach is introduced. In this case, the Dc-link voltage regulator is performed by a DC-DC Buck-Boost converter. This new approach has the capability to mitigate voltage variations below and above the nominal value. In the third approach presented in this dissertation, a three-phase AC to AC boost converter is investigated. This converter provides a boosting action for the utility input voltages, right before they are applied to the load. The proposed Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) control strategy ensures independent control of each phase and compensates for both single-phase or poly

  14. Correlated wind-power production and electric load scenarios for investment decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baringo, L.; Conejo, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Investment models require an accurate representation of the involved uncertainty. ► Demand and wind power production are correlated and uncertain parameters. ► Two methodologies are provided to represent uncertainty and correlation. ► An accurate uncertainty representation is crucial to get optimal results. -- Abstract: Stochastic programming constitutes a useful tool to address investment problems. This technique represents uncertain input data using a set of scenarios, which should accurately describe the involved uncertainty. In this paper, we propose two alternative methodologies to efficiently generate electric load and wind-power production scenarios, which are used as input data for investment problems. The two proposed methodologies are based on the load- and wind-duration curves and on the K-means clustering technique, and allow representing the uncertainty of and the correlation between electric load and wind-power production. A case study pertaining to wind-power investment is used to show the interest of the proposed methodologies and to illustrate how the selection of scenarios has a significant impact on investment decisions.

  15. Habit formation, surplus consumption and return predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Hyde, Stuart; Vinther Møller, Stig

    2010-01-01

    On an international post World War II dataset, we use an iterated GMM procedure to estimate and test the Campbell and Cochrane (1999, By force of habit: a consumption-based explanation of aggregate stock market behavior. Journal of Political Economy 107, 205–251.) habit formation model with a time......-varying risk-free rate. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future stock and bond returns. We find that, although there are important cross-country differences and economically significant pricing errors, for the majority of countries in our sample the model gets...... significant information about future stock returns, also during the 1990s. In addition, in most countries the surplus consumption ratio is also a powerful predictor of future bond returns. Thus, the surplus consumption ratio captures time-varying expected returns in both stock and bond markets....

  16. Prediction of crack density and electrical resistance changes in indium tin oxide/polymer thin films under tensile loading

    KAUST Repository

    Mora Cordova, Angel; Khan, Kamran; El Sayed, Tamer

    2014-01-01

    We present unified predictions for the crack onset strain, evolution of crack density, and changes in electrical resistance in indium tin oxide/polymer thin films under tensile loading. We propose a damage mechanics model to quantify and predict

  17. Analysis for Involvement of TPP Operating in Accordance with Heating Schedule to Passing Through Failures of Electric Load Schedules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Nazarov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes technical and economic evaluation of various methods pertaining to passing through failures of electric load at TPP which is operating in accordance with heating schedule.

  18. Internalizing carbon costs in electricity markets: Using certificates in a load-based emissions trading scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillenwater, Michael; Breidenich, Clare

    2009-01-01

    Several western states have considered developing a regulatory approach to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the electric power industry, referred to as a load-based (LB) cap-and-trade scheme. A LB approach differs from the traditional source-based (SB) cap-and-trade approach in that the emission reduction obligation is placed upon Load Serving Entities (LSEs), rather than electric generators. The LB approach can potentially reduce the problem of emissions leakage, relative to a SB system. For any of these proposed LB schemes to be effective, they must be compatible with modern, and increasingly competitive, wholesale electricity markets. LSE's are unlikely to know the emissions associated with their power purchases. Therefore, a key challenge for a LB scheme is how to assign emissions to each LSE. This paper discusses the problems with one model for assigning emissions under a LB scheme and proposes an alternative, using unbundled Generation Emission Attribute Certificates. By providing a mechanism to internalize an emissions price signal at the generator dispatch level, the tradable certificate model addresses both these problems and provides incentives identical to a SB scheme

  19. Monitoring and Characterization of Miscellaneous Electrical Loads in a Large Retail Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentile-Polese, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frank, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheppy, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lobato, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rader, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Long, N. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Buildings account for 40% of primary energy consumption in the United States (residential 22%; commercial 18%). Most (70% residential and 79% commercial) is used as electricity. Thus, almost 30% of U.S. primary energy is used to provide electricity to buildings. Plug loads play an increasingly critical role in reducing energy use in new buildings (because of their increased efficiency requirements), and in existing buildings (as a significant energy savings opportunity). If all installed commercial building miscellaneous electrical loads (CMELs) were replaced with energy-efficient equipment, a potential annual energy saving of 175 TWh, or 35% of the 504 TWh annual energy use devoted to MELs, could be achieved. This energy saving is equivalent to the annual energy production of 14 average-sized nuclear power plants. To meet DOE's long-term goals of reducing commercial building energy use and carbon emissions, the energy efficiency community must better understand the components and drivers of CMEL energy use, and develop effective reduction strategies. These goals can be facilitated through improved data collection and monitoring methodologies, and evaluation of CMELs energy-saving techniques.

  20. Electricity demand loads modeling using AutoRegressive Moving Average (ARMA) models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, S.S. [Department of Information and Communication Systems Engineering, University of the Aegean, Karlovassi, 83 200 Samos (Greece); Ekonomou, L.; Chatzarakis, G.E. [Department of Electrical Engineering Educators, ASPETE - School of Pedagogical and Technological Education, N. Heraklion, 141 21 Athens (Greece); Karamousantas, D.C. [Technological Educational Institute of Kalamata, Antikalamos, 24100 Kalamata (Greece); Katsikas, S.K. [Department of Technology Education and Digital Systems, University of Piraeus, 150 Androutsou Srt., 18 532 Piraeus (Greece); Liatsis, P. [Division of Electrical Electronic and Information Engineering, School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, Information and Biomedical Engineering Centre, City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-15

    This study addresses the problem of modeling the electricity demand loads in Greece. The provided actual load data is deseasonilized and an AutoRegressive Moving Average (ARMA) model is fitted on the data off-line, using the Akaike Corrected Information Criterion (AICC). The developed model fits the data in a successful manner. Difficulties occur when the provided data includes noise or errors and also when an on-line/adaptive modeling is required. In both cases and under the assumption that the provided data can be represented by an ARMA model, simultaneous order and parameter estimation of ARMA models under the presence of noise are performed. The produced results indicate that the proposed method, which is based on the multi-model partitioning theory, tackles successfully the studied problem. For validation purposes the produced results are compared with three other established order selection criteria, namely AICC, Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) and Schwarz's Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). The developed model could be useful in the studies that concern electricity consumption and electricity prices forecasts. (author)

  1. Free vibration analysis of magneto-electro-elastic microbeams subjected to magneto-electric loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaezi, Mohamad; Shirbani, Meisam Moory; Hajnayeb, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Different types of actuating and sensing mechanisms are used in new micro and nanoscale devices. Therefore, a new challenge is modeling electromechanical systems that use these mechanisms. In this paper, free vibration of a magnetoelectroelastic (MEE) microbeam is investigated in order to obtain its natural frequencies and buckling loads. The beam is simply supported at both ends. External electric and magnetic potentials are applied to the beam. By using the Hamilton's principle, the governing equations and boundary conditions are derived based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The equations are solved, analytically to obtain the natural frequencies of the MEE microbeam. Furthermore, the effects of external electric and magnetic potentials on the buckling of the beam are analyzed and the critical values of the potentials are obtained. Finally, a numerical study is conducted. It is found that the natural frequency can be tuned directly by changing the magnetic and electric potentials. Additionally, a closed form solution for the normalized natural frequency is derived, and buckling loads are calculated in a numerical example.

  2. Distributed Smart Device for Monitoring, Control and Management of Electric Loads in Domotic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Perez-Vidal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a microdevice for monitoring, control and management of electric loads at home. The key idea is to compact the electronic design as much as possible in order to install it inside a Schuko socket. Moreover, the electronic Schuko socket (electronic microdevice + Schuko socket has the feature of communicating with a central unit and with other microdevices over the existing powerlines. Using the existing power lines, the proposed device can be installed in new buildings or in old ones. The main use of this device is to monitor, control and manage electric loads to save energy and prevent accidents produced by different kind of devices (e.g., iron used in domestic tasks. The developed smart device is based on a single phase multifunction energy meter manufactured by Analog Devices (ADE7753 to measure the consumption of electrical energy and thento transmit it using a serial interface. To provide current measurement information to the ADE7753, an ultra flat SMD open loop integrated circuit current transducer based on the Hall effect principle manufactured by Lem (FHS-40P/SP600 has been used. Moreover, each smart device has a PL-3120 smart transceiver manufactured by LonWorks to execute the user’s program, to communicate with the ADE7753 via serial interface and to transmit information to the central unit via powerline communication. Experimental results show the exactitude of the measurements made using the developed smart device.

  3. Distributed smart device for monitoring, control and management of electric loads in domotic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Ricardo; Badesa, Francisco J; García-Aracil, Nicolas; Perez-Vidal, Carlos; Sabater, Jose María

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a microdevice for monitoring, control and management of electric loads at home. The key idea is to compact the electronic design as much as possible in order to install it inside a Schuko socket. Moreover, the electronic Schuko socket (electronic microdevice + Schuko socket) has the feature of communicating with a central unit and with other microdevices over the existing powerlines. Using the existing power lines, the proposed device can be installed in new buildings or in old ones. The main use of this device is to monitor, control and manage electric loads to save energy and prevent accidents produced by different kind of devices (e.g., iron) used in domestic tasks. The developed smart device is based on a single phase multifunction energy meter manufactured by Analog Devices (ADE7753) to measure the consumption of electrical energy and then to transmit it using a serial interface. To provide current measurement information to the ADE7753, an ultra flat SMD open loop integrated circuit current transducer based on the Hall effect principle manufactured by Lem (FHS-40P/SP600) has been used. Moreover, each smart device has a PL-3120 smart transceiver manufactured by LonWorks to execute the user's program, to communicate with the ADE7753 via serial interface and to transmit information to the central unit via powerline communication. Experimental results show the exactitude of the measurements made using the developed smart device.

  4. Impact of optimal load response to real-time electricity price on power system constraints in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead in Denmark, the price could be transferred to the consumers and they may shift their loads from high price periods to the low price periods in order to save their energy costs. The optimal load response to a real-time electricity price...... and may represent the future of electricity markets in some ways, is chosen as the studied power system in this paper. A distribution system where wind power capacity is 126% of maximum loads is chosen as the study case. This paper presents a nonlinear load optimization method to real-time power price...... for demand side management in order to save the energy costs as much as possible. Simulation results show that the optimal load response to a real-time electricity price has some good impacts on power system constraints in a distribution system with high wind power penetrations....

  5. Decommissioning of surplus facilities at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myrick, T.E.; Coobs, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) National SFMP, administered by the Richland Operations Office. This program was established to provide for the management of certain DOE surplus radioactively contaminated facilities from the end of their operating life until final facility disposition is completed. As part of this program, the ORNL SFMP oversees some 75 facilities, ranging in complexity from abandoned waste storage tanks to large experimental reactors. This paper describes the scope of the ORNL program and outlines the decommissioning activities currently underway, including a brief description of the decontamination techniques being utilized. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Minimization of Impact from Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment to the Electric Grid Using a Dynamically Controlled Battery Bank for Peak Load Shaving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castello, Charles C [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    This research presents a comparison of two control systems for peak load shaving using local solar power generation (i.e., photovoltaic array) and local energy storage (i.e., battery bank). The purpose is to minimize load demand of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) on the electric grid. A static and dynamic control system is compared to decrease demand from EVSE. Static control of the battery bank is based on charging and discharging to the electric grid at fixed times. Dynamic control, with 15-minute resolution, forecasts EVSE load based on data analysis of collected data. In the proposed dynamic control system, the sigmoid function is used to shave peak loads while limiting scenarios that can quickly drain the battery bank. These control systems are applied to Oak Ridge National Laboratory s (ORNL) solar-assisted electric vehicle (EV) charging stations. This installation is composed of three independently grid-tied sub-systems: (1) 25 EVSE; (2) 47 kW photovoltaic (PV) array; and (3) 60 kWh battery bank. The dynamic control system achieved the greatest peak load shaving, up to 34% on a cloudy day and 38% on a sunny day. The static control system was not ideal; peak load shaving was 14.6% on a cloudy day and 12.7% on a sunny day. Simulations based on ORNL data shows solar-assisted EV charging stations combined with the proposed dynamic battery control system can negate up to 89% of EVSE load demand on sunny days.

  7. Crack density and electrical resistance in indium-tin-oxide/polymer thin films under cyclic loading

    KAUST Repository

    Mora Cordova, Angel

    2014-11-01

    Here, we propose a damage model that describes the degradation of the material properties of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on polymer substrates under cyclic loading. We base this model on our earlier tensile test model and show that the new model is suitable for cyclic loading. After calibration with experimental data, we are able to capture the stress-strain behavior and changes in electrical resistance of ITO thin films. We are also able to predict the crack density using calibrations from our previous model. Finally, we demonstrate the capabilities of our model based on simulations using material properties reported in the literature. Our model is implemented in the commercially available finite element software ABAQUS using a user subroutine UMAT.[Figure not available: see fulltext.].

  8. Base-Load and Peak Electricity from a Combined Nuclear Heat and Fossil Combined-Cycle Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, Jim; Forsberg, Charles W.

    2007-01-01

    A combined-cycle power plant is proposed that uses heat from a high-temperature reactor and fossil fuel to meet base-load and peak electrical demands. The high-temperature gas turbine produces shaft power to turn an electric generator. The hot exhaust is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. A simplified computational model of the thermal power conversion system was developed in order to parametrically investigate two different steady-state operation conditions: base load nuclear heat only from an Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), and combined nuclear heat with fossil heat to increase the turbine inlet temperature. These two cases bracket the expected range of power levels, where any intermediate power level can result during electrical load following. The computed results indicate that combined nuclear-fossil systems have the potential to offer both low-cost base-load electricity and lower-cost peak power relative to the existing combination of base-load nuclear plants and separate fossil-fired peak-electricity production units. In addition, electric grid stability, reduced greenhouse gases, and operational flexibility can also result with using the conventional technology presented here for the thermal power conversion system coupled with the AHTR

  9. A novel method for decomposing electricity feeder load into elementary profiles from customer information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerossier, Alexis; Barbier, Thibaut; Girard, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Use of aggregated electricity load profiles and customer description at feeder level. •Statistical recovery of elementary load profiles with customer categorization. •Generation of load demand profiles for unknown feeders and new local areas. •Relevancy of the different categorizations. -- Abstract: To plan a distribution grid involves making a long-term forecast of sub-hourly demand, which requires modeling the demand and its dynamics with aggregated measurement data. Distribution system operators (DSOs) have been recording electricity sub-hourly demand delivered by their medium-voltage feeders (around 1000—10,000 customers) for several years. Demand profiles differ widely among the various considered feeders. This is partly due to the varying mix of customer categories from one feeder to another. To overcome this issue, elementary demand profiles are often associated with customer categories and then combined according to a mix description. This paper presents a novel method to estimate elementary profiles that only requires several feeder demand curves and a description of customers. The method relies on a statistical blind source model and a new estimation procedure based on the augmented Lagrangian method. The use of feeders to estimate elementary profiles means that measurements are fully representative and continuously updated. We illustrate the proposed method through a case study comprising around 1000 feeder demand curves operated by the main French DSO Enedis. We propose an application o that uses the obtained profiles to evaluate the contribution of any set of new customers to a feeder peak load. We show that profiles enable a simulation of new unmeasured areas with errors of around 20%. We also show how our method can be used to evaluate the relevancy of different customer categorizations.

  10. Electronic load as part of the test complex of the power processing unit of electric and plasma propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Chubov, S. V.; Soldatov, Aleksey Ivanovich

    2017-01-01

    This article provides the advantages and technical solutions for the use of electronic loads as part of a testing complex of power and management systems of electric and plasma propulsion of three types. The paper shows the parameters that were applied to select the electronic loads and describes their functionality.

  11. Adaptive algorithm for predicting increases in central loads of electrical energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbachyauskene, N A; Pushinaytis, K V

    1982-01-01

    An adaptive algorithm for predicting increases in central loads of the electrical energy system is suggested for the task of evaluating the condition. The algorithm is based on the Kalman filter. In order to calculate the coefficient of intensification, the a priori assigned noise characteristics with low accuracy are used only in the beginning of the calculation. Further, the coefficient of intensification is calculated from the innovation sequence. This approach makes it possible to correct errors in the assignment of the statistical noise characteristics and to follow their changes. The algorithm is experimentally verified.

  12. Probabilistic modeling of nodal electric vehicle load due to fast charging stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Difei; Wang, Peng; Wu, Qiuwei

    2016-01-01

    In order to reduce greenhouse gas emission and fossil fuel dependence, Electric Vehicle (EV) has drawn increasing attention due to its zero emission and high efficiency. However, new problems such as range anxiety, long charging duration and high charging power may threaten the safe and efficient...... station into consideration. Fuzzy logic inference system is applied to simulate the charging decision of EV drivers at fast charging station. Due to increasing EV loads in power system, the potential traffic congestion in fast charging stations is modeled and evaluated by queuing theory with spatial...

  13. Analysis of electrical circuits with variable load regime parameters projective geometry method

    CERN Document Server

    Penin, A

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces electric circuits with variable loads and voltage regulators. It allows to define invariant relationships for various parameters of regime and circuit sections and to prove the concepts characterizing these circuits. Generalized equivalent circuits are introduced. Projective geometry is used for the interpretation of changes of operating regime parameters. Expressions of normalized regime parameters and their changes are presented. Convenient formulas for the calculation of currents are given. Parallel voltage sources and the cascade connection of multi-port networks are d

  14. Superconducting magnetic energy storage for electric utility load leveling: A study of cost vs. stored energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luongo, C.A.; Loyd, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) is a promising technology for electric utility load leveling. This paper presents the results of a study to establish the capital cost of SMES as a function of stored energy. Energy-related coil cost and total installed plant cost are given for construction in nominal soil and in competent rock. Economic comparisons are made between SMES and other storage technologies and peaking gas turbines. SMES is projected to be competitive at stored energies as low as 1000 MWh

  15. Application of high-resolution domestic electricity load profiles in network modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2016-01-01

    the generated profiles are inputted in a low-voltage network model created in DIgSILENT PowerFactory. By means of employing 1 hour based demand and generation profiles in during dynamic studies, the representation of the local power system performance might sometimes not be as accurate as needed. In the test...... with modeling when 1-minute domestic electricity demand and generation profiles are used as inputs. The analysis is done with a case study of low-voltage network located in Northern Denmark. The analysis includes two parts. The first part focuses on modeling the domestic demands and on-site generation in 1......-minute resolution. The load profiles of the household appliances are created using a bottom-up model, which uses the 1-minute cycle power use characteristics of a single appliance as the main building block. The profiles of heavy electric appliances, such as heat pump, are not included in the above...

  16. Effects of interruptible load program on equilibrium outcomes of electricity markets with wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Xuena; Zhang, Shaohua; Li, Xue [Shanghai Univ. (China). Key Lab. of Power Station Automation Technology

    2013-07-01

    High wind power penetration presents a lot of challenges to the flexibility and reliability of power system operation. In this environment, various demand response (DR) programs have got much attention. As an effective measure of demand response programs, interruptible load (IL) programs have been widely used in electricity markets. This paper addresses the problem of impacts of the IL programs on the equilibrium outcomes of electricity wholesale markets with wind power. A Cournot equilibrium model of wholesale markets with wind power is presented, in which IL programs is included by a market demand model. The introduction of the IL programs leads to a non-smooth equilibrium problem. To solve this equilibrium problem, a novel solution method is proposed. Numerical examples show that IL programs can lower market price and its volatility significantly, facilitate the integration of wind power.

  17. A small firm leads to curious outcomes: Social surplus, consumer surplus

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumura, Toshihiro; Matsushima, Noriaki

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates an asymmetric duopoly model with a Hotelling line. We find that helping a small (minor) firm can reduce both social and consumer surplus. This makes a sharp contrast to existing works showing that helping minor firms can reduce social surplus but always improves consumer surplus. We also investigate R&D competition. We find that a minor firm may engage in R&D more intensively than a major firm in spite of economies of scale in R&D activities.

  18. Real-Time Vehicle Energy Management System Based on Optimized Distribution of Electrical Load Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuefei Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As a result of severe environmental pressure and stringent government regulations, refined energy management for vehicles has become inevitable. To improve vehicle fuel economy, this paper presents a bus-based energy management system for the electrical system of internal combustion engine vehicles. Both the model of an intelligent alternator and the model of a lead-acid battery are discussed. According to these models, the energy management for a vehicular electrical system is formulated as a global optimal control problem which aims to minimize fuel consumption. Pontryagin’s minimum principle is applied to solve the optimal control problem to realize a real-time control strategy for electrical energy management in vehicles. The control strategy can change the output of the intelligent alternator and the battery with the changes of electrical load and driving conditions in real-time. Experimental results demonstrate that, compared to the traditional open-loop control strategy, the proposed control strategy for vehicle energy management can effectively reduce fuel consumption and the fuel consumption per 100 km is decreased by approximately 1.7%.

  19. Overview of surplus weapons plutonium disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy, G.

    1996-05-01

    The safe disposition of surplus weapons useable plutonium is a very important and urgent task. While the functions of long term storage and disposition directly relate to the Department`s weapons program and the environmental management program, the focus of this effort is particularly national security and nonproliferation.

  20. Nutrient surpluses on integrated arable farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, J.J.; Asperen, van P.; Dongen, van G.J.M.; Wijnands, F.G.

    1996-01-01

    From 1990 to 1993 nutrient fluxes were monitored on 38 private arable farms that had adopted farming strategies aiming at reduced nutrient inputs and substitution of mineral fertilizers by organic fertilizers. The nutrient surplus was defined as the difference between inputs (including inputs

  1. 7 CFR 987.47 - Surplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... that any producer or handler may dispose of any such surplus dates of his own production within his own... regulations necessary and incidental to administration of this regulation. [27 FR 6818, July 19, 1962, as...

  2. Real-Time Load-Side Control of Electric Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changhong

    Two trends are emerging from modern electric power systems: the growth of renewable (e.g., solar and wind) generation, and the integration of information technologies and advanced power electronics. The former introduces large, rapid, and random fluctuations in power supply, demand, frequency, and voltage, which become a major challenge for real-time operation of power systems. The latter creates a tremendous number of controllable intelligent endpoints such as smart buildings and appliances, electric vehicles, energy storage devices, and power electronic devices that can sense, compute, communicate, and actuate. Most of these endpoints are distributed on the load side of power systems, in contrast to traditional control resources such as centralized bulk generators. This thesis focuses on controlling power systems in real time, using these load side resources. Specifically, it studies two problems. (1) Distributed load-side frequency control: We establish a mathematical framework to design distributed frequency control algorithms for flexible electric loads. In this framework, we formulate a category of optimization problems, called optimal load control (OLC), to incorporate the goals of frequency control, such as balancing power supply and demand, restoring frequency to its nominal value, restoring inter-area power flows, etc., in a way that minimizes total disutility for the loads to participate in frequency control by deviating from their nominal power usage. By exploiting distributed algorithms to solve OLC and analyzing convergence of these algorithms, we design distributed load-side controllers and prove stability of closed-loop power systems governed by these controllers. This general framework is adapted and applied to different types of power systems described by different models, or to achieve different levels of control goals under different operation scenarios. We first consider a dynamically coherent power system which can be equivalently modeled with

  3. Analysis of the reactive power consumption and the harmonics in the network by the non-linear electrical loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogo, Joao Roberto [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    The non linear electrical loads can give rise to a number of disturbances in electrical power networks. Among them, the high consumption of relative power is to be noted and so is the several harmonic components which may be injected in the industry system and very often in the utility system. So, by using appropriate technical considerations, as well as measurements in typical special electrical loads, such negative effects are analyzed and ways of minimizing them are suggested. (author) 3 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Investigation of load leveling in Hokuriku Electric Power Co., Inc.; Hokuriku denryoku no fuka heijunka eno torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    Hokuriku Electric Power Co., Inc. aims at an around 2% improvement of the load factor up to 2005, by which the quick and proper service and the proposal of load leveling menu are planned. This paper describes an outline of the investigation of load leveling. Various programs have been proposed so that the customers can further shift the load by their consideration. Proposed systems include the time-of-day electricity rate system, the load regulation contract system for industries, the seasonal time-of-day rate system, the electric power system for snowmelt in which the load is dumped at the peak, and the secondary electric power system for snowmelt. Accompanying with the revision of electric utility law, the enlargement of its available time, the price reduction, and the discount rate system for the ice regenerative air conditioners have been provided. For the business activities, a demonstration model house was exhibited to indicate a proper house with local characteristics in Hokuriku district. Furthermore, the spreading activities of regenerative systems and the consulting activities have been positively promoted. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Radio-frequency electrical design of the WEST long pulse and load-resilient ICRH launchers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helou, Walid, E-mail: walid.helou@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Colas, Laurent; Hillairet, Julien [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Milanesio, Daniele [Department of Electronics, Politecnico di Torino, Torino (Italy); Mollard, Patrick [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Argouarch, Arnaud [CEA DAM/DIF/DP2I, Bruyère le Chatel (France); Berger-By, Gilles; Bernard, Jean-Michel [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Chen, Zhaoxi [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Delaplanche, Jean-Marc [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Dumortier, Pierre; Durodié, Frédéric [Laboratoire de physique des plasmas de l’ERM, Laboratorium voor plasmafysica van de KMS – (LPP-ERM/KMS), Ecole royale militaire–Koninklijke militaire school, BE-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Ekedahl, Annika; Fedorczak, Nicolas; Ferlay, Fabien; Goniche, Marc [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Jacquot, Jonathan [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Joffrin, Emmanuel; Litaudon, Xavier; Lombard, Gilles [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Three new ion cyclotron resonance heating launchers designed for WEST. • Operation at 3 MW/launcher for 30 s and 1 MW/launcher for 1000 s on H-mode plasmas. • Unique combination of continuous-wave operation at high power and load tolerance. • International team led by the CEA/IRFM. • RF design performed using electromagnetic solvers and electric circuit calculations. - Abstract: Three new ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) launchers have been designed for the WEST project (W-Tungsten Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) in order to operate at 3 MW/launcher for 30 s and 1 MW/launcher for 1000 s on H-mode plasmas. These new launchers will be to date the first ICRH launchers to offer the unique combination of continuous-wave (CW) operation at high power and load tolerance capabilities for coupling on H-mode edge. The radio-frequency (RF) design optimization process has been carried out using full-wave electromagnetic solvers combined with electric circuit calculations. Cavity modes occurring between the launchers structures and the vacuum vessel ports have been evaluated and cleared out.

  6. We Need to Talk... Developing Communicating Power Supplies to Monitor & Control Miscellaneous Electric Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Andrew; Lanzisera, Steven; Liao, Anna; Meier, Alan

    2014-08-11

    Plug loads represent 30percent of total electricity use in residential buildings. Significant energy savings would result from an accurate understanding of which miscellaneous electric devices are using energy, at what time, and in what quantity. Commercially available plug load monitoring and control solutions replace or limit the attached device's native controls - forcing the user to adapt to a separate set of controls associated with the monitoring and control hardware. A better solution is integration of these capabilities at the power supply level. In this paper, we demonstrate a method achieving this integration. Our solution allows unobtrusive power monitoring and control while retaining native device control features. Further, our prototype enables intelligent behaviors by allowing devices to respond to the state of one another automatically. The CPS enables energy savings while demonstrating an added level of functionality to the user. If CPS technology became widespread in devices, a combination of automated and human interactive solutions would enable high levels of energy savings in buildings.

  7. An electrical betweenness approach for vulnerability assessment of power grids considering the capacity of generators and load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Bu-han; Zhang, Zhe; Yin, Xiang-gen; Wang, Bo

    2011-11-01

    Most existing research on the vulnerability of power grids based on complex networks ignores the electrical characteristics and the capacity of generators and load. In this paper, the electrical betweenness is defined by considering the maximal demand of load and the capacity of generators in power grids. The loss of load, which reflects the ability of power grids to provide sufficient power to customers, is introduced to measure the vulnerability together with the size of the largest cluster. The simulation results of the IEEE-118 bus system and the Central China Power Grid show that the cumulative distributions of node electrical betweenness follow a power-law and that the nodes with high electrical betweenness play critical roles in both topological structure and power transmission of power grids. The results prove that the model proposed in this paper is effective for analyzing the vulnerability of power grids.

  8. ANALYSIS OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF OPERATING MODES OF ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS WITH THE TRACTION LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Bondarenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Innovative scenarios of reliable energy supply of transportation process aimed at reducing the specific energy consumption and increase energy efficiency of the systems of electric traction. The paper suggests innovative energy saving directions in traction networks of railways and new circuit solutions accessing traction substations in energy systems networks, ensure energy security of the transportation process. To ensure the energy security of rail transport special schemes were developed to propose the concept of external power traction substations, which would increase the number of connections to the networks of 220 – 330 kV, as well as the creation of transport and energy corridors, development of its own supply of electric networks of 110 kV substations and mobile RP-110 kV of next generation. Therefore, the investment program of the structures owned by the Ukrainian Railways (Ukrzaliznytsia need to be synchronized in their technological characteristics, as well as the criteria of reliability and quality of power supply with the same external energy investment programs. It is found that without any load on left or right supplying arm one of two less loaded phases of traction transformer begins generating specific modes in the supplying three-phase line. Thus, modes of mobile substation cause leakage in one of the phases of the supply line of traction transformers of active-capacitive current, and as a result generating energy in the main power line of 154 kV, which is fixed and calculated by electricity meters. For these three phase mode supply network is necessary to use 1st algorithm, i.e. taking into account the amount of electricity as the energy in all phases. For effective application of reactive power compensation devices in the AC traction power supply systems it is proposed to develop regulatory documentation on necessity of application and the order of choice of parameters and placement of compensation systems taking into

  9. Development of an Energy-Savings Calculation Methodology for Residential Miscellaneous Electric Loads: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.

    2006-08-01

    In order to meet whole-house energy savings targets beyond 50% in residential buildings, it will be essential that new technologies and systems approaches be developed to address miscellaneous electric loads (MELs). These MELs are comprised of the small and diverse collection of energy-consuming devices found in homes, including what are commonly known as plug loads (televisions, stereos, microwaves), along with all hard-wired loads that do not fit into other major end-use categories (doorbells, security systems, garage door openers). MELs present special challenges because their purchase and operation are largely under the control of the occupants. If no steps are taken to address MELs, they can constitute 40-50% of the remaining source energy use in homes that achieve 60-70% whole-house energy savings, and this percentage is likely to increase in the future as home electronics become even more sophisticated and their use becomes more widespread. Building America (BA), a U.S. Department of Energy research program that targets 50% energy savings by 2015 and 90% savings by 2025, has begun to identify and develop advanced solutions that can reduce MELs.

  10. Short-Term Forecasting of Electric Loads Using Nonlinear Autoregressive Artificial Neural Networks with Exogenous Vector Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Buitrago

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term load forecasting is crucial for the operations planning of an electrical grid. Forecasting the next 24 h of electrical load in a grid allows operators to plan and optimize their resources. The purpose of this study is to develop a more accurate short-term load forecasting method utilizing non-linear autoregressive artificial neural networks (ANN with exogenous multi-variable input (NARX. The proposed implementation of the network is new: the neural network is trained in open-loop using actual load and weather data, and then, the network is placed in closed-loop to generate a forecast using the predicted load as the feedback input. Unlike the existing short-term load forecasting methods using ANNs, the proposed method uses its own output as the input in order to improve the accuracy, thus effectively implementing a feedback loop for the load, making it less dependent on external data. Using the proposed framework, mean absolute percent errors in the forecast in the order of 1% have been achieved, which is a 30% improvement on the average error using feedforward ANNs, ARMAX and state space methods, which can result in large savings by avoiding commissioning of unnecessary power plants. The New England electrical load data are used to train and validate the forecast prediction.

  11. Electric-Loading Enhanced Kinetics in Oxide Ceramics: Pore Migration, Sintering and Grain Growth: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, I-Wei [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science & Engineering

    2018-02-02

    Solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide electrolysis cells rely on solid electrolytes in which a large ionic current dominates. This project was initiated to investigate microstructural changes in such devices under electrochemical forces, because nominally insignificant processes may couple to the large ionic current to yield non-equilibrium phenomena that alter the microstructure. Our studies had focused on yttria-stabilized cubic zirconia (YSZ) widely used in these devices. The experiments have revealed enhanced grain growth at higher temperatures, pore and gas bubble migration at all temperatures, and the latter also lead to enhanced sintering of highly porous ceramics into fully dense ceramics at unprecedentedly low temperatures. These results have shed light on kinetic processes that fall completely outside the realm of classical ceramic processing. Other fast-oxygen oxide ceramics closely related to, and often used in conjunction with zirconia ceramics, have also be investigated, as are closely related scientific problems in zirconia ceramics. These include crystal structures, defects, diffusion kinetics, oxygen potentials, low temperature sintering, flash sintering, and coarsening theory, and all have resulted in greater clarity in scientific understanding. The knowledge is leveraged to provide new insight to electrode kinetics and near-electrode mixed conductivity and to new materials. In the following areas, our research has resulted in completely new knowledge that defines the state-of-the-art of the field. (a) Electrical current driven non-equilibrium phenomena, (b) Enhanced grain growth under electrochemically reducing conditions, (c) Development of oxygen potential polarization in electrically loaded electrolyte, (d) Low temperature sintering and grain growth, and (e) Structure, defects and cation kinetics of fluorite-structured oxides. Our research has also contributed to synthesis of new energy-relevant electrochemical materials and new understanding

  12. Renewable energy the best remedy for electrical load shedding in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhutta, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Average 33% time of daily electrical load shedding in Pakistan is most serious as it has affected all activities. Industries are crippled, commercial, official activities and daily life is being deteriorated Total loss to Export is 1.3 and oil import bill is $ 9 Billion. If appropriate actions are not taken immediately; the situation is going to get worse when people will fight for every watt of electricity. The impounding crises are not foreseen and its gravity is not yet properly realized by the decision makers. Politics and several lobbies work against construction of major projects of hydel power and baseless controversies have been created. Pakistan is blessed with abundant renewable energy i.e. 2.9 million MW solar, tidal, wind 346,000 MW and 59,000 MW potentials of hydro electricity. Analysis of the reasons for the slow and no growth of these vital renewable potentials in Pakistan indicate that there are barriers which need to be mitigated to take immediate benefits to overcome menace of load shedding. Local R and D, Design, manufacturing, installation and feasibility study capabilities are negligible. Institutional capabilities in most of the organizations can at best be ranked as average or weak. Other impediments and barriers that continue to hamper the load shedding are losses, attitude in the promotion of renewable and hydro power projects include: lack of serious attempts to mitigate the barriers, integrate the programs with profitability; inadequate evaluation of resources; non availability of reliable baseline data; and lack of coordination among the relevant agencies; weak institutional arrangements for renewable energy promotion; absence of fiscal and financing mechanisms; lack of understanding, awareness, information and outreach; uneven allocation of resources; lack of appropriate quality management, monitoring and evaluation programs; and need of attractive policy framework and legislative support, building consensus among people and provinces

  13. Theoretical Studying the Cyclic Loading of Electric Drive Parts of the Stand duo-160

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Maltsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An electric drive of work rolls of the single-stand rolling mill duo-160 located in the laboratory of Bauman Moscow State Technical University (BMSTU is selected as an object of the theoretical study. After the work rolls have gripped the work-piece the torsional vibrations occur in the drive; a 5-mass dynamic model is built to determine their forms and frequencies. Equations of torsionalvibration movement of masses with time are based on the Lagrange equations of type II. The paper identifies intrinsic moments of inertia and angular stiffness of parts and units of the electric drive. The graphs of the moments of elastic forces are built taking into consideration the dampers and backlashes. A revealed transition process has shown that given amplitudes of the cyclic shear stresses arising in dangerous section of the most loaded top spindle do not exceed the limit of its endurance in this section. In case of excess revealed, it would lead to accumulation of fatigue damage in the spindle metal and to formation of fatigue crack that most probably would appear near the shaft surface rather than in the metal mass. With further using the electric drive this micro-crack would be gradually evolved into macro-crack, the working cross-sectional area of the shaft would be reduced so that there would be a spindle failure and on the surface of a fatigue fracture of its shaft a strongly marked crack growth zone and a completely broken zone would be observed.

  14. Tapping the energy storage potential in electric loads to deliver load following and regulation, with application to wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, Duncan S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops new methods to model and control the aggregated power demand from a population of thermostatically controlled loads, with the goal of delivering services such as regulation and load following. Previous work on direct load control focuses primarily on peak load shaving by directly interrupting power to loads. In contrast, the emphasis of this paper is on controlling loads to produce relatively short time scale responses (hourly to sub-hourly), and the control signal is applied by manipulation of temperature set points, possibly via programmable communicating thermostats or advanced metering infrastructure. To this end, the methods developed here leverage the existence of system diversity and use physically-based load models to inform the development of a new theoretical model that accurately predicts - even when the system is not in equilibrium - changes in load resulting from changes in thermostat temperature set points. Insight into the transient dynamics that result from set point changes is developed by deriving a new exact solution to a well-known hybrid state aggregated load model. The eigenvalues of the solution, which depend only on the thermal time constant of the loads under control, are shown to have a strong effect on the accuracy of the model. The paper also shows that load heterogeneity - generally something that must be assumed away in direct load control models - actually has a positive effect on model accuracy. System identification techniques are brought to bear on the problem, and it is shown that identified models perform only marginally better than the theoretical model. The paper concludes by deriving a minimum variance control law, and demonstrates its effectiveness in simulations wherein a population of loads is made to follow the output of a wind plant with very small changes in the nominal thermostat temperature set points.

  15. Load leveling efforts of The Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc.; Hokkaido Denryoku no fuka heijunka eno torikumi ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc., aiming to enhance power generation efficiency through power load levelling, strives to expand and substantiate its electricity billing menu and to popularize and encourage the use of levelling-oriented apparatuses and systems most of which are designed for utilizing midnight power. The billing menu has in it a snow-melting power which is cut off for load levelling during the peak demand time zone. For domestic use, a time zone-specified lighting system named Dream Eight is created, which is one of the billing systems dependent upon time zone. Introduced therein for industrial use is a demand/supply adjustment contract system. Furthermore, in compliance with the amended Electricity Business Law that came into force in 1995, efforts are under way for revising the period wherein power is to be supplied for melting snow, expanding the scope of application of the power supply system dependent upon time zone, and newly introducing a heat accumulation assisted peak adjustment contract system and an operation adjustment contract system. As for business efforts in relation to load levelling, the company proposes household electrical systems centering about 200V high-efficiency apparatuses, electric water warmer contributing to the enhancement of year-round load levelling, popularization and reinforcement of electric snow melting systems, and power utilizing technologies capable of meeting local demands raised for example by agriculture and fishery.

  16. Electric vehicles in imperfect electricity markets: The case of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schill, Wolf-Peter

    2011-01-01

    We use a game-theoretic model to analyze the impacts of a hypothetical fleet of plug-in electric vehicles on the imperfectly competitive German electricity market. Electric vehicles bring both additional demand and additional storage capacity to the market. We determine the effects on prices, welfare, and electricity generation for various cases with different players in charge of vehicle operations. Vehicle loading increases generator profits, but decreases consumer surplus in the power market. If excess vehicle batteries can be used for storage, welfare results are reversed: generating firms suffer from the price-smoothing effect of additional storage, whereas power consumers benefit despite increasing overall demand. Strategic players tend to under-utilize the storage capacity of the vehicle fleet, which may have negative welfare implications. In contrast, we find a market power-mitigating effect of electric vehicle recharging on oligopolistic generators. Overall, electric vehicles are unlikely to be a relevant source of market power in Germany in the foreseeable future. - Highlights: → We study the effect of electric vehicles on an imperfectly competitive electricity market. → We apply a game-theoretic model to the German market. → There is a market power-mitigating effect of vehicle loading on oligopolistic generating firms. → Consumers benefit from electric vehicles if excess battery capacity can be used for grid storage. → Electric vehicles are unlikely to be a source of market power in Germany in the near future.

  17. Perspectives for the electricity surplus generation at the paper and cellulose segment through the gasification of black liquor; Perspectivas para a geracao de excedentes de eletricidade no segmento de papel e celulose atraves da gaseificacao de lixivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia]. E-mail: velazquez@mackenzie.com.br; Coelho, Suani Teixeira [CENBIO - Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa, Sao Paulo, Sp (Brazil)]. E-mail: suani@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    The pulp/paper segment is enclosed enters the most energointensive of the industrial sector. Its industries generate great part of the energy that consume from by-products of the process, but still are not self-sufficient. On the other hand, the difficulties of the industrial sector to the availability energy guarantee are well known, due to lack of trustworthiness of the electricity transmission and distribution. In this context, the increase of the self generation of electricity in the segment's plants certainly would go to collaborate for bigger flexibility in the Brazilian energy matrix, not only for the option of Demand Side Management, but even for the possibility of electricity excesses generation, as it is considered in this study. Thus, this work presents an economic and technique analysis of the energy cogeneration and the generation of electricity excesses in the pulp and paper segment and cellulose using more efficient technologies (although in development), as the black liquor gasification. The perspectives for the use of black liquor gasification systems and coupling of this unit to a gas turbine (BLGCC) are studied, with exploitation of the exhaustion gases in cogeneration systems. One is about technology in development phase in the industrialized countries and that it allows high conversion efficiency. They are, also, calculated the excesses generation costs, by means of the thermo economy, on the basis of the exergy concept, the most adjusted methodology to analyze cogeneration processes. Despite the biggest efficiency, the exceeding electricity, in some of the studied configurations, presented generation costs that do not reveal competitive with the sale's price of electricity, defined for the PROINFA, leaving evident the necessity of other mechanisms that make possible the implementation of new technologies, as the incorporation of the external factors and the carbon credits discouragement of the generation costs. In the pulp and paper

  18. Process for improving the load factor of an electricity generating power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostaing, Michel.

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of a process for improving the load factor of an electricity generating power station feeding a supply network in which all or part of the power not required by the network during off-peak hours is used for producing hydrogen which is then stored. The stored hydrogen is then burned and the heat generated is employed for superheating the steam generated by the nuclear reactor of the power plant. This combustion is carried out permanently. The hydrogen is produced by water electrolysis. The oxygen also produced in this manner is used as a comburent in the combustion of the hydrogen. The reactor is of the pressurized water type [fr

  19. Are daily and weekly load and spot price dynamics in Australia's National Electricity Market governed by episodic nonlinearity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, Phillip; Hinich, Melvin J.; Foster, John

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we use half hourly spot electricity prices and load data for the National Electricity Market (NEM) of Australia for the period from December 1998 to June 2009 to test for episodic nonlinearity in the dynamics governing daily and weekly cycles in load and spot price time series data. We apply the portmanteau correlation, bicorrelation and tricorrelation tests introduced in Hinich (1996) to the time series of half hourly spot prices and load demand from 7/12/1998 to 30/06/2009 using a FORTRAN 95 program. We find the presence of significant third and fourth-order (nonlinear) serial dependence in the weekly load and spot price data in particular, but to a much more marginal extent, in the daily data. (author)

  20. The influence of the structure of the metal load removal from liquid steel in electric arc furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pǎcurar, Cristina; Hepuť, Teodor; Crisan, Eugen

    2016-06-01

    One of the main technical and economic indicators in the steel industry and steel respectively the development it is the removal of liquid steel. This indicator depends on several factors, namely technology: the structure and the quality metal load, the degree of preparedness of it, and the content of non-metallic material accompanying the unit of drawing up, the technology for the elaboration, etc. research has been taken into account in drawing up steel electric arc furnace type spring EBT (Electric Bottom taping), seeking to load and removing components of liquid steel. Metal load has been composed of eight metal grades, in some cases with great differences in terms of quality. Data obtained were processed in the EXCEL spreadsheet programs and MATLAB, the results obtained being presented both graphically and analytically. On the basis of the results obtained may opt for a load optimal structure metal.

  1. An electrical load measurements dataset of United Kingdom households from a two-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, David; Stankovic, Lina; Stankovic, Vladimir

    2017-01-05

    Smart meter roll-outs provide easy access to granular meter measurements, enabling advanced energy services, ranging from demand response measures, tailored energy feedback and smart home/building automation. To design such services, train and validate models, access to data that resembles what is expected of smart meters, collected in a real-world setting, is necessary. The REFIT electrical load measurements dataset described in this paper includes whole house aggregate loads and nine individual appliance measurements at 8-second intervals per house, collected continuously over a period of two years from 20 houses. During monitoring, the occupants were conducting their usual routines. At the time of publishing, the dataset has the largest number of houses monitored in the United Kingdom at less than 1-minute intervals over a period greater than one year. The dataset comprises 1,194,958,790 readings, that represent over 250,000 monitored appliance uses. The data is accessible in an easy-to-use comma-separated format, is time-stamped and cleaned to remove invalid measurements, correctly label appliance data and fill in small gaps of missing data.

  2. A New Neural Network Approach to Short Term Load Forecasting of Electrical Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Keynia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Short-term load forecast (STLF is an important operational function in both regulated power systems and deregulated open electricity markets. However, STLF is not easy to handle due to the nonlinear and random-like behaviors of system loads, weather conditions, and social and economic environment variations. Despite the research work performed in the area, more accurate and robust STLF methods are still needed due to the importance and complexity of STLF. In this paper, a new neural network approach for STLF is proposed. The proposed neural network has a novel learning algorithm based on a new modified harmony search technique. This learning algorithm can widely search the solution space in various directions, and it can also avoid the overfitting problem, trapping in local minima and dead bands. Based on this learning algorithm, the suggested neural network can efficiently extract the input/output mapping function of the forecast process leading to high STLF accuracy. The proposed approach is tested on two practical power systems and the results obtained are compared with the results of several other recently published STLF methods. These comparisons confirm the validity of the developed approach.

  3. An electrical load measurements dataset of United Kingdom households from a two-year longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, David; Stankovic, Lina; Stankovic, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Smart meter roll-outs provide easy access to granular meter measurements, enabling advanced energy services, ranging from demand response measures, tailored energy feedback and smart home/building automation. To design such services, train and validate models, access to data that resembles what is expected of smart meters, collected in a real-world setting, is necessary. The REFIT electrical load measurements dataset described in this paper includes whole house aggregate loads and nine individual appliance measurements at 8-second intervals per house, collected continuously over a period of two years from 20 houses. During monitoring, the occupants were conducting their usual routines. At the time of publishing, the dataset has the largest number of houses monitored in the United Kingdom at less than 1-minute intervals over a period greater than one year. The dataset comprises 1,194,958,790 readings, that represent over 250,000 monitored appliance uses. The data is accessible in an easy-to-use comma-separated format, is time-stamped and cleaned to remove invalid measurements, correctly label appliance data and fill in small gaps of missing data.

  4. Study about hydrogen and methanation as power surplus valorization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the use of technologies that allow converting power into gas as ways of providing added value to power surpluses. In the Anglo-Saxon world, and in numerous other countries, this concept is known as Power-to-Gas (PtG or P2G). The massive integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources ((wind and photovoltaic principally) into electricity systems implies more and more time periods during which production will exceed consumption. The volumes at stake could surpass the conventional capacities of flexibility and storage of the electricity system: the conversion into another energy carrier therefore appears as a solution for giving value to these surpluses. As the basic technology of Power-to-Gas, electrolysis converts electrical energy into chemical energy in the form of hydrogen gas (H2), by separating molecules of water (H 2 O). The gas produced can be used on-site in different manners, for example by a manufacturer for it's own process needs or by a filling station for hydrogen-fuelled vehicles (fuel-cell motorisation), or it can be stored locally for being later converted back into power through a fuel-cell. However it can also be directly injected into the gas distribution or transmission networks, thus creating a coupling of various energy networks and carriers: in this way the possibilities to create added-value from power surpluses are significantly increased and diversified both in terms of final use as well as across a scope of time and space. The development of Power-to-Gas can be summarized in three key steps. In the short to mid-term, hydrogen represents, when incorporated into the gas network in limited proportions (a few %) and/or used directly in some niche markets (particularly via fuel cells) a way to provide added value to substantial renewable electricity surpluses.. In the longer term, a transition toward synthetic methane production would allow to overcome all technical barriers linked with gas

  5. Field data collection of miscellaneous electrical loads in Northern California: Initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.; Pratt, Stacy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.; Willem, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.; Claybaugh, Erin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.; Desroches, Louis-Benoit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.; Beraki, Bereket [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.; Nagaraju, Mythri [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.; Price, Sarah K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.; Young, Scott J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.

    2013-02-25

    This report describes efforts to measure energy use of miscellaneous electrical loads (MELs) in 880 San Francisco Bay Area homes during the summer of 2012. Ten regions were selected for metering: Antioch, Berkeley, Fremont, Livermore, Marin County (San Rafael, Novato, Fairfax, and Mill Valley), Oakland/Emeryville, Pleasanton, Richmond, San Leandro, and Union City. The project focused on three major categories of devices: entertainment (game consoles, set-top boxes, televisions and video players), home office (computers, monitors and network equipment), and kitchen plug-loads (coffee/espresso makers, microwave ovens/toaster ovens/toasters, rice/slow cookers and wine chillers). These categories were important to meter because they either dominated the estimated overall energy use of MELs, are rapidly changing, or there are very little energy consumption data published. A total of 1,176 energy meters and 143 other sensors were deployed, and 90% of these meters and sensors were retrieved. After data cleaning, we obtained 711 valid device energy use measurements, which were used to estimate, for a number of device subcategories, the average time spent in high power, low power and “off” modes, the average energy use in each mode, and the average overall energy use. Consistent with observations made in previous studies, we find on average that information technology (IT) devices (home entertainment and home office equipment) consume more energy (15.0 and 13.0 W, respectively) than non-IT devices (kitchen plug-loads; 4.9 W). Opportunities for energy savings were identified in almost every device category, based on the time spent in various modes and/or the power levels consumed in those modes. Future reports will analyze the collected data in detail by device category and compare results to those obtained from prior studies.

  6. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan. Appendix D, Conservation, Load Management and Fuel Switching Analysis : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    Various conservation, load management, and fuel switching programs were considered as ways to reduce or shift system peak load. These programs operate at the end-use level, such as residential water heat. Figure D-1a shows what electricity consumption for water heat looks like on normal and extreme peak days. Load management programs, such as water heat control, are designed to reduce electricity consumption at the time of system peak. On the coldest day in average winter, system load peaks near 8:00 a.m. In a winter with extremely cold weather, electricity consumption increases fr all hours, and the system peak shifts to later in the morning. System load shapes in the Puget Sound area are shown in Figure D-1b for a normal winter peak day (February 2, 1988) and extreme peak day (February 3, 1989). Peak savings from any program are calculated to be the reduction in loads on the entire system at the hour of system peak. Peak savings for all programs are measured at 8:00 a.m. on a normal peak day and 9:00 a.m. on an extreme peak day. On extremely cold day, some water heat load shifts to much later in the morning, with less load available for shedding at the time of system peak. Models of hourly end-use consumption were constructed to simulate the impact of conservation, land management, and fuel switching programs on electricity consumption. Javelin, a time-series simulating package for personal computers, was chosen for the hourly analysis. Both a base case and a program case were simulated. 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Functional electrical stimulation of intrinsic laryngeal muscles under varying loads in exercising horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Cheetham

    Full Text Available Bilateral vocal fold paralysis (BVCP is a life threatening condition and appears to be a good candidate for therapy using functional electrical stimulation (FES. Developing a working FES system has been technically difficult due to the inaccessible location and small size of the sole arytenoid abductor, the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA muscle. A naturally-occurring disease in horses shares many functional and etiological features with BVCP. In this study, the feasibility of FES for equine vocal fold paralysis was explored by testing arytenoid abduction evoked by electrical stimulation of the PCA muscle. Rheobase and chronaxie were determined for innervated PCA muscle. We then tested the hypothesis that direct muscle stimulation can maintain airway patency during strenuous exercise in horses with induced transient conduction block of the laryngeal motor nerve. Six adult horses were instrumented with a single bipolar intra-muscular electrode in the left PCA muscle. Rheobase and chronaxie were within the normal range for innervated muscle at 0.55±0.38 v and 0.38±0.19 ms respectively. Intramuscular stimulation of the PCA muscle significantly improved arytenoid abduction at all levels of exercise intensity and there was no significant difference between the level of abduction achieved with stimulation and control values under moderate loads. The equine larynx may provide a useful model for the study of bilateral fold paralysis.

  8. Ice thermal storage air conditioning system for electric load leveling; Denryoku heijunka to hyochikunetsu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigenaga, Y. [Daikin Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-08-15

    Thermal storage air conditioning system is the one to use energy stored into thermal storing materials by using night electric power and to operate effective air conditioning. Therefore, as load can be treated by the stored energy, volume of the apparatus can be reduced. And, by reduction of the consumed power at day time, it can contribute to leveling of electric power demand. In general, there are two types in the thermal storage method: one is a method to store as thermal energy, and the other is that to store as chemical energy. For conditions required for the storing materials, important elements on their actual uses are not only physical properties such as large thermal storage per unit and easy thermal in- and out-puts, but also safety, long-term reliability, and easy receiving and economics containing future. The ice thermal storage air conditioning system is classified at the viewpoint of type of ice, kind of thermal storing medium, melting method on using cooling and heating, kinds of thermal medium on cooling and heating. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. A Power Load Distribution Algorithm to Optimize Data Center Electrical Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Maciel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption is a matter of common concern in the world today. Research demonstrates that as a consequence of the constantly evolving and expanding field of information technology, data centers are now major consumers of electrical energy. Such high electrical energy consumption emphasizes the issues of sustainability and cost. Against this background, the present paper proposes a power load distribution algorithm (PLDA to optimize energy distribution of data center power infrastructures. The PLDA, which is based on the Ford-Fulkerson algorithm, is supported by an environment called ASTRO, capable of performing the integrated evaluation of dependability, cost and sustainability. More specifically, the PLDA optimizes the flow distribution of the energy flow model (EFM. EFMs are responsible for estimating sustainability and cost issues of data center infrastructures without crossing the restrictions of the power capacity that each device can provide (power system or extract (cooling system. Additionally, a case study is presented that analyzed seven data center power architectures. Significant results were observed, achieving a reduction in power consumption of up to 15.5%.

  10. Muscle electrical activity during exercises with and without load executed on dry land and in an aquatic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Nayra Paz Santos

    Full Text Available Introduction Muscle activity in the aquatic environment was investigated using electromyographic analyses. The physical properties of water and the resistance used may influence the response of the muscle during exercise. The objective of this study was to evaluate the electrical activity in water and on the floor during flexion and knee extension exercises with and without load and aimed at understanding the muscular response while performing resistance exercises in water. Methods The sample consisted of 14 volunteers between 18 and 35 years old who were subjected to active exercises involving knee flexion and extension with and without load on the floor and in water. Electromyography was performed during the movement. Results A significant increase was found in the electrical activity of the rectus femoris muscle during exercises on the floor. The biceps femoris muscle showed increased electromyographic activity when resistance was used. A significant increase was found in the electrical activity of the rectus femoris muscle compared with exercises with and without load and the moment of rest in immersion. The electrical activity of the rectus and biceps femoris muscles was reduced in exercises with load and without load in a therapy pool compared with on the floor. Conclusion There was a reduction of the electromyographic activity in the aquatic environment compared with that on the ground, which could be attributed to the effects from hot water. Therefore, it is believed that resistance exercises can be performed early in a therapy pool, which will facilitate the prevention and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders.

  11. Assessment of high temperature nuclear energy storage systems for the production of intermediate and peak-load electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, E.C.; Fuller, L.C.; Silverman, M.D.

    1977-01-01

    Increased cost of energy, depletion of domestic supplies of oil and natural gas, and dependence on foreign suppliers, have led to an investigation of energy storage as a means to displace the use of oil and gas presently being used to generate intermediate and peak-load electricity. Dedicated nuclear thermal energy storage is investigated as a possible alternative. An evaluation of thermal storage systems is made for several reactor concepts and economic comparisons are presented with conventional storage and peak power producing systems. It is concluded that dedicated nuclear storage has a small but possible useful role in providing intermediate and peak-load electric power

  12. Electricity trade: Generating benefits for British Columbians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Electricity has been traded in British Columbia since the turn of the century. In 1988, the provincial government established the British Columbia Power Exchange Corporation (Powerex) to conduct electricity trade activities in order to make the most efficient use of the electrial system and generate benefits for British Columbians. The trade is made possible by an interconnected system linking producers and consumers in western Canada and the USA. Provincial participants in the trade include British Columbia Hydro, independent power producers, and cogenerators. Benefits of the electricity trade include generation of revenue from sale of surplus power, being able to buy electricity when the mainly hydroelectric provincial system is in a drought condition or when major shutdowns occur, and enabling postponement of development of new power projects. Powerex conducts its trade under provincial and federal permits and licenses. Different types of trade contracts are negotiated depending on the amount and availability of electricity and the kind of trade being conducted. Exchanges and coordination agreements allow transfer and return between utilities with no net export occurring, allowing balancing of loads between different reigons. Surplus electricity is bought or sold on a short- or long-term basis and on firm or non-firm terms. Electricity exports are not subsidized and are only allowed if the electricity is surplus to provincial needs and can be sold at a profit. A new provincial policy allows private industry to export long-term firm electricity; this involves construction of new private-sector generating facilities solely for the purpose of export. 1 fig

  13. Regulation of unbalanced electromagnetic moment in mutual loading systems of electric machines of traction rolling stock and multiple unit of mainline and industrial transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Afanasov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The research data are aimed to identify the regulatory principles of unbalanced electromagnetic moment of mutually loaded electric machines of traction rolling stock and multiple unit of main and industrial transport. The purpose of this study is energy efficiency increase of the testing of traction electric machines of direct and pulse current using the improvement methods of their mutual loading, including the principles of automatic regulation of mutual loading system. Methodology. The general theoretical provisions and principles of system approach to the theoretical electric engineering, the theory of electric machines and theoretical mechanics are the methodological basis of this research. The known methods of analysis of electromagnetic and electromechanical processes in electrical machines of direct and pulse current are used in the study. Methods analysis of loading modes regulation of traction electric machines was conducted using the generalized scheme of mutual loading. It is universal for all known methods to cover the losses of idling using the electric power. Findings. The general management principles of mutual loading modes of the traction electric machines of direct and pulse current by regulating their unbalanced electric magnetic moment were developed. Regulatory options of unbalanced electromagnetic moment are examined by changing the difference of the magnetic fluxes of mutually loaded electric machines, the current difference of electric machines anchors, the difference of the angular velocities of electric machines shafts. Originality. It was obtained the scientific basis development to improve the energy efficiency test methods of traction electric machines of direct and pulse current. The management principles of mutual loading modes of traction electric machines were formulated. For the first time it is introduced the concept and developed the principles of regulation of unbalanced electromagnetic moment in

  14. Investigation of efficiency of electric drive control system of excavator traction mechanism based on feedback on load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, N. K.; Iov, I. A.; Iov, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    The article presents the results of a study of the efficiency of the electric drive control system of the traction mechanism of a dragline based on the use of feedback on load in the traction cable. The investigations were carried out using a refined electromechanical model of the traction mechanism, which took into account not only the elastic elements of the gearbox, the backlashes in it and the changes in the kinematic parameters of the mechanism during operation, but also the mechanical characteristics of the electric drive and the features of its control system. By mathematical modeling of the transient processes of the electromechanical system, it is shown that the introduction of feedback on the load in the elastic element allows one to reduce the dynamic loads in the traction mechanism and to limit the elastic oscillations of the actuating mechanism in comparison with the standard control system. Fixed as a general decrease in the dynamic load of the nodes of traction mechanism in the modes of loading and latching of the bucket, and a decrease the operating time of the mechanism at maximum load. At the same time, undesirable phenomena in the operation of the electric drive were also associated with the increase in the recovery time of the steady-state value of the speed of the actuating mechanism under certain operating conditions, which can lead to a decrease in the reliability of the mechanical part and the productivity of the traction mechanism.

  15. The effect of utility time-varying pricing and load control strategies on residential summer peak electricity use. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsham, Guy R.; Bowker, Brent G.

    2010-01-01

    Peak demand for electricity in North America is expected to grow, challenging electrical utilities to supply this demand in a cost-effective, reliable manner. Therefore, there is growing interest in strategies to reduce peak demand by eliminating electricity use, or shifting it to non-peak times. This strategy is commonly called 'demand response'. In households, common strategies are time-varying pricing, which charge more for energy use on peak, or direct load control, which allows utilities to curtail certain loads during high demand periods. We reviewed recent North American studies of these strategies. The data suggest that the most effective strategy is a critical peak price (CPP) program with enabling technology to automatically curtail loads on event days. There is little evidence that this causes substantial hardship for occupants, particularly if they have input into which loads are controlled and how, and have an override option. In such cases, a peak load reduction of at least 30% is a reasonable expectation. It might be possible to attain such load reductions without enabling technology by focusing on household types more likely to respond, and providing them with excellent support. A simple time-of-use (TOU) program can only expect to realise on-peak reductions of 5%. (author)

  16. Sizing community energy storage systems to reduce transformer overloading with emphasis on plug-in electric vehicle loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowler, Derik Wesley

    The research objective of this study was to develop a sizing method for community energy storage systems with emphasis on preventing distribution transformer overloading due to plug-in electric vehicle charging. The method as developed showed the formulation of a diversified load profile based upon residential load data for several customers on the American Electric Power system. Once a load profile was obtained, plug-in electric vehicle charging scenarios which were based upon expected adoption and charging trends were superimposed on the load profile to show situations where transformers (in particular 25 kVA, 50 kVA, and 100 kVA) would be overloaded during peak hours. Once the total load profiles were derived, the energy and power requirements of community energy storage systems were calculated for a number of scenarios with different combinations of numbers of homes and plug-in electric vehicles. The results were recorded and illustrated into charts so that one could determine the minimum size per application. Other topics that were covered in this thesis were the state of the art and future trends in plug-in electric vehicle and battery chemistry adoption and development. The goal of the literature review was to confirm the already suspected notion that Li-ion batteries are best suited and soon to be most cost-effective solution for applications requiring small, efficient, reliable, and light-weight battery systems such as plug-in electric vehicles and community energy storage systems. This thesis also includes a chapter showing system modeling in MATLAB/SimulinkRTM. All in all, this thesis covers a wide variety of considerations involved in the designing and deploying of community energy storage systems intended to mitigate the effects of distribution transformer overloading.

  17. Beating swords into plowshares. [Surplus plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    With the end of the Cold War and the consequent dismantling of United States and Russian nuclear weapons, comes the problem of what to do with the plutonium and highly enriched uranium thus produced. This surplus fissile material could pose a national and international security hazard and recent studies have stresses the need for mutual and cooperative monitoring of fissile material stocks. Long term proposals for disposal, such as burning the plutonium in nuclear plants, vitrifying it into high-level waste glass logs and burying it in deep boreholes in the Earth's surface are all considered with respect to safety and economic viability. (UK).

  18. Surplus Highly Enriched Uranium Disposition Program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide upper level guidance for the program that will downblend surplus highly enriched uranium for use as commercial nuclear reactor fuel or low-level radioactive waste. The intent of this document is to outline the overall mission and program objectives. The document is also intended to provide a general basis for integration of disposition efforts among all applicable sites. This plan provides background information, establishes the scope of disposition activities, provides an approach to the mission and objectives, identifies programmatic assumptions, defines major roles, provides summary level schedules and milestones, and addresses budget requirements

  19. Modelling changes to electricity demand load duration curves as a consequence of predicted climate change for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, Marcus J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a method for constructing regional electricity demand data sets at 30 min intervals, which are consistent with climate change scenarios. Specifically, we modify a commonly used linear regression model between regional electricity demand and climate to also describe intraday variability in demand so that regional load duration curves (LDCs) can be predicted. The model is evaluated for four different Australian states that are participants in the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM) and the resultant data sets are found to reproduce each state's LDCs with reasonable accuracy. We also apply the demand model to CSIRO's Mk 3 global climate model data sets that have been downscaled to 60 km resolution using CSIRO's conformal-cubic atmospheric model to estimate how LDCs change as a consequence of a 1 C increase in the average temperature of Australian state capital cities. These regional electricity demand data sets are then useful for economic modelling of electricity markets such as the NEM. (author)

  20. Effect of graphite loading on the electrical and mechanical properties of Poly (Ethylene Oxide)/Poly (Vinyl Chloride) polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajar, M. D. S.; Supri, A. G.; Hanif, M. P. M.; Yazid, M. I. M.

    2017-10-01

    In this study, films consisting of a blend of poly (ethylene oxide)/poly (vinyl chloride) (PEO/PVC) and a conductive filler, graphite were prepared and characterized for their mechanical and electrical properties. Solid polymer blend films based on PEO/PVC (50/50 wt%/wt%) with different graphite loading were prepared by using solution casting technique. Electrical conductivity results discovered the conductivity increased with increasing of filler loading. However, increasing amount of graphite loading led to a decreased in tensile strength and young’s modulus of PEO/PVC/Graphite polymer films. The dispersion of graphite and mechanism of conductive path in the polymer films were also investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The morphology of the PEO/PVC/Graphite polymer films shows that agglomeration occurred to complete the connection of conductive path, thus improving the conductivity behavior of the polymer films.

  1. An assessment of household electricity load curves and corresponding CO2 marginal abatement cost curves for Gujarat state, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Amit; Shukla, P.R.; Maheshwari, Jyoti; Upadhyay, Jigeesha

    2014-01-01

    Gujarat, a large industrialized state in India, consumed 67 TWh of electricity in 2009–10, besides experiencing a 4.5% demand–supply short-fall. Residential sector accounted for 15% of the total electricity consumption. We conducted load research survey across 21 cities and towns of the state to estimate residential electricity load curves, share of appliances by type and usage patterns for all types of household appliances at utility, geographic, appliance, income and end-use levels. The results indicate that a large scope exists for penetration of energy efficient devices in residential sector. Marginal Abatement Cost (MAC) curves for electricity and CO 2 were generated to analyze relative attractiveness of energy efficient appliance options. Results indicate that up to 7.9 TWh of electricity can be saved per year with 6.7 Mt-CO 2 emissions mitigation at negative or very low CO 2 prices of US$ 10/t-CO 2 . Despite such options existing, their penetration is not realized due to myriad barriers such as financial, institutional or awareness and therefore cannot be taken as baseline options for CO 2 emission mitigation regimes. - Highlights: • Residential sector provides focused mitigation opportunities. • Energy efficient space cooling is the main technology transition required. • Almost 26% residential load could be reduced by DSM measures. • Myriad barriers limit penetration of negative marginal cost efficient options

  2. The Effect of Electric Load Profiles on the Performance of Off-Grid Residential Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Treado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the energy performance of off-grid residential hybrid renewable electric power systems, particularly the effect of electric load profiles on the ability to harvest available solar energy and avoid the consumption of auxiliary energy in the form of propane. The concepts are illustrated by an analysis of the energy performance of electric and propane-fired refrigerators. Off-grid electric power systems frequently incorporate a renewable source, such as wind or solar photovoltaic (PV, with a back-up power provided by a propane fueled motor/generator. Among other design decisions, residential consumers face the choice of employing an electric refrigerator with a conventional vapor compression refrigeration system, or a fuel-fired refrigerator operating as an absorption refrigeration system. One interesting question is whether it is more advantageous from an energy perspective to use electricity to run the refrigerator, which might be provided by some combination of the PV and propane motor/generator, thereby taking advantage of the relatively higher electric refrigerator Coefficient of Performance (COP and free solar energy but having to accept a low electrical conversion efficiency of the motor/generator, or use thermal energy from the combustion of propane to produce the refrigeration effect via an absorption system, albeit with a much lower COP. The analysis is complicated by the fact that most off-grid renewable electrical power systems utilize a battery bank to provide electrical power when it is not available from the wind turbine or PV system, so the state of charge of the battery bank will have a noticeable impact on what energy source is available at any moment in time. Daily electric load profiles combined with variable solar energy input determine the state of charge of the battery bank, with the degree of synchronization between the two being a critical factor in determining performance. The annual energy usage

  3. Control of thumb force using surface functional electrical stimulation and muscle load sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Stroke survivors often have difficulties in manipulating objects with their affected hand. Thumb control plays an important role in object manipulation. Surface functional electrical stimulation (FES) can assist movement. We aim to control the 2D thumb force by predicting the sum of individual muscle forces, described by a sigmoidal muscle recruitment curve and a single force direction. Methods Five able bodied subjects and five stroke subjects were strapped in a custom built setup. The forces perpendicular to the thumb in response to FES applied to three thumb muscles were measured. We evaluated the feasibility of using recruitment curve based force vector maps in predicting output forces. In addition, we developed a closed loop force controller. Load sharing between the three muscles was used to solve the redundancy problem having three actuators to control forces in two dimensions. The thumb force was controlled towards target forces of 0.5 N and 1.0 N in multiple directions within the individual’s thumb work space. Hereby, the possibilities to use these force vector maps and the load sharing approach in feed forward and feedback force control were explored. Results The force vector prediction of the obtained model had small RMS errors with respect to the actual measured force vectors (0.22±0.17 N for the healthy subjects; 0.17±0.13 N for the stroke subjects). The stroke subjects showed a limited work range due to limited force production of the individual muscles. Performance of feed forward control without feedback, was better in healthy subjects than in stroke subjects. However, when feedback control was added performances were similar between the two groups. Feedback force control lead, especially for the stroke subjects, to a reduction in stationary errors, which improved performance. Conclusions Thumb muscle responses to FES can be described by a single force direction and a sigmoidal recruitment curve. Force in desired direction can be

  4. Barriers to electricity load shift in companies: A survey-based exploration of the end-user perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsthoorn, Mark; Schleich, Joachim; Klobasa, Marian

    2015-01-01

    As countries move toward larger shares of renewable electricity, the slow diffusion of active electricity load management should concern energy policy makers and users alike. Active load management can increase capacity factors and thereby reduce the need for new capacity, improve reliability, and lower electricity prices. This paper conceptually and empirically explores barriers to load shift in industry from an end-user perspective. An online survey, based on a taxonomy of barriers developed in the realm of energy efficiency, was carried out among manufacturing sites in mostly Southern Germany. Findings suggest that the most important barriers are risk of disruption of operations, impact on product quality, and uncertainty about cost savings. Of little concern are access to capital, lack of employee skills, and data security. Statistical tests suggest that companies for which electricity has higher strategic value rate financial and regulatory risk higher than smaller ones. Companies with a continuous production process report lower barrier scores than companies using batch or just-in-time production. A principal component analysis clusters the barriers and multivariate analysis with the factor scores confirms the prominence of technical risk as a barrier to load shift. The results provide guidance for policy making and future empirical studies. - Highlights: • We quantitatively assess barriers to load shift adoption among manufacturing firms. • Conceptually, we build on the literature on barriers to energy efficiency. • The most important barriers are interference with production and with product quality. • Companies with a continuous production process report lower barrier scores. • The barriers to load shift may be organized in distinct clusters via principal component analysis

  5. Load levelling measures being tackled by shikoku Electric Power Co. Inc.; Shikoku Denryoku Kabushi Kaisha no fuka heijunka eno torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    For the electric power companies, the activity of pushing forward the load levelling contributes greatly to the curtailment of cost by means of effective formation and utilization of facilities. It is planned to take up more positive activities with a target of 3% improvement in the load factor in ten years. Concrete measures for further promotion of load levelling are the diversity of the rate menu of appraising the load levelling effort of the customers and the promotion of the spread of equipment and systems relating to load levelling such as electric water heating apparatuses and thermal energy storage air conditioning systems. The rate system has been reviewed taking the opportunity of rate revision made in January, 1996. Particularly, further load shift to midnight time zone is expected as a result of better rate incentive for customers which is brought about by large reduction of the rate level due to the cost reduction effect accompanying the improvement in atomic power generation ratio. Outlines are given on the fields relating to general households, business, dwellings, buildings, and industry. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Heterodox surplus approach: production, prices, and value theory

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I argue that that there is a heterodox social surplus approach that has its own account of output-employment and prices, and its own value theory which draws upon various heterodox traditions. Starting with the Sraffian technical definition of the social surplus and then working with a Sraffa-Leontief input-output framework, the particular distinguishing feature of the heterodox approach is the role of agency in determining prices, the social surplus, and total social product a...

  7. Savannah River Site Surplus Facilities Available for Reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.M.; Owens, M.B.; Lentz, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a current, centralized list of Savannah River Site facilities, which are surplus and available for reuse. These surplus facilities may be made available for other DOE site missions, commercial economic development reuse, or other governmental reuse. SRS procedures also require that before new construction can be approved, available surplus facilities are screened for possible reuse in lieu of the proposed new construction

  8. Disposition of surplus fissile materials via immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Kan, T.; Sutcliffe, W.G.; McKibben, J.M.; Danker, W.

    1995-01-01

    In the Cold War aftermath, the US and Russia have agreed to large reductions in nuclear weapons. To aid in the selection of long-term management options, the USDOE has undertaken a multifaceted study to select options for storage and disposition of surplus plutonium (Pu). One disposition alternative being considered is immobilization. Immobilization is a process in which surplus Pu would be embedded in a suitable material to produce an appropriate form for ultimate disposal. To arrive at an appropriate form, we first reviewed published information on HLW immobilization technologies to identify forms to be prescreened. Surviving forms were screened using multi-attribute utility analysis to determine promising technologies for Pu immobilization. We further evaluated the most promising immobilization families to identify and seek solutions for chemical, chemical engineering, environmental, safety, and health problems; these problems remain to be solved before we can make technical decisions about the viability of using the forms for long-term disposition of Pu. All data, analyses, and reports are being provided to the DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition to support the Record of Decision that is anticipated in Summer of 1996

  9. Effects of load voltage on voltage breakdown modes of electrical exploding aluminum wires in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jian; Li, Xingwen, E-mail: xwli@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Yang, Zefeng; Wang, Kun; Chao, Youchuang; Shi, Zongqian; Jia, Shenli; Qiu, Aici [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2015-06-15

    The effects of the load voltage on the breakdown modes are investigated in exploding aluminum wires driven by a 1 kA, 0.1 kA/ns pulsed current in air. From laser probing images taken by laser shadowgraphy, schlieren imaging, and interferometry, the position of the shockwave front, the plasma channel, and the wire core edge of the exploding product can be determined. The breakdown mode makes a transition from the internal mode, which involves breakdown inside the wire core, to the shunting mode, which involves breakdown in the compressed air, with decreasing charging voltage. The breakdown electrical field for a gaseous aluminum wire core of nearly solid density is estimated to be more than 20 kV/cm, while the value for gaseous aluminum of approximately 0.2% solid density decreases to 15–20 kV/cm. The breakdown field in shunting mode is less than 20 kV/cm and is strongly affected by the vaporized aluminum, the desorbed gas, and the electrons emitted from the wire core during the current pause. Ohmic heating during voltage collapses will induce further energy deposition in the current channel and thus will result in different expansion speeds for both the wire core and the shockwave front in the different modes.

  10. Dynamic analysis of electric equipment for nuclear power stations under seismic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, K.E.; Bodisco, U. von; Winkler, K.

    1977-01-01

    The response spectrum method, generally accepted as the most practical method for linear seismic analysis of power station components, is here applied in conjunction with the finite element method to electric components. The fully dynamic analysis based on the superposition of the natural modes as carried out for an electronics cabinet and for transmitter supports is outlined and selected results are presented. Several different methods are in use for the superposition of the contributions of the different modes. Here addition of absolute values, the square-root of the sum of squares, and a mixed method taking account of closely spaced modes is applied. For different structures, the degree of conservativity is thus demonstrated, the largest difference in the stresses computed by the different methods being approximately 30%. For structures whose natural frequencies are in the spectrum range with zero period response, a simplified response analysis using static loads is often carried out. This is demonstrated for the electronics cabinet and transmitter mountings, and the results are compared with the fully dynamic analyses. It is seen that this 'pseudo-dynamic' analysis yields useful approximations for the distributions of stresses. Practical details of the structural models as well as results are presented for several switchgear and electronics cabinets

  11. Impact Analysis of Customized Feedback Interventions on Residential Electricity Load Consumption Behavior for Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the limitations of traditional energy-saving policies, a kind of energy conservation method called the Information Feedback to Residential Electricity Load Customers, which could impact the demand response capacity, has increasingly received more attention. However, most of the current feedback programs provide the same feedback information to all customers regardless of their diverse characteristics, which may reduce the energy-saving effects or even backfire. This paper attempts to investigate how different types of customers may change their behaviors under a set of customized feedback. We conducted a field survey study in Qinhuangdao (QHD, China. First, we conducted semi-structured interviews to classify four groups of customers of different energy-saving awareness, energy-saving potential, and behavioral variability. Then, 156 QHD households were surveyed using scenarios to collect feedback of different scenarios. Social science theories were used to guide the discussion on the behavior changes as a result of different feedback strategies and reveal the reasons for customers’ behaviors. Using the Chi-Square test of independence, the variables that have strong correlations with the categories of residents are extracted to provide references for residents’ classification. Finally, the practical implications and needs for future research are discussed.

  12. Tests of an alternating current propulsion subsystem for electric vehicles on a road load simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, F. J.

    1982-12-01

    The test results of a breadboard version of an ac electric-vehicle propulsion subsystem are presented. The breadboard was installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center Road Load Simulator facility and tested under steady-state and transient conditions. Steady-state tests were run to characterize the system and component efficiencies over the complete speed-torque range within the capability of the propulsion subsystem in the motoring mode of operation. Transient tests were performed to determine the energy consumption of the breadboard over the acceleration and cruise portions of SAE J227 and driving schedules B, C, and D. Tests in the regenerative mode were limited to the low-gear-speed range of the two speed transaxle used in the subsystem. The maximum steady-state subsystem efficiency observed for the breadboard was 81.5 percent in the high-gear-speed range in the motoring mode, and 76 percent in the regenerative braking mode (low gear). The subsystem energy efficiency during the transient tests ranged from 49.2 percent for schedule B to 68.4 percent for Schedule D.

  13. Hydrogen or Fossil Combustion Nuclear Combined Cycle Systems for Baseload and Peak Load Electricity Production. Annex X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    A combined cycle power plant is described that uses: (i) heat from a high temperature nuclear reactor to meet baseload electrical demands; and (ii) heat from the same high temperature reactor and burning natural gas, jet fuel or hydrogen to meet peak load electrical demands. For baseload electricity production, fresh air is compressed, then flows through a heat exchanger, where it is heated to between 700 and 900{sup o}C by using heat provided by a high temperature nuclear reactor via an intermediate heat transport loop, and finally exits through a high temperature gas turbine to produce electricity. The hot exhaust from the Brayton cycle gas turbine is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. To meet peak electricity demand, the air is first compressed and then heated with the heat from a high temperature reactor. Natural gas, jet fuel or hydrogen is then injected into the hot air in a combustion chamber, combusts and heats the air to 1300{sup o}C - the operating conditions for a standard natural gas fired combined cycle plant. The hot gas then flows through a gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator before being sent to the exhaust stack. The higher temperatures increase the plant efficiency and power output. If hydrogen is used, it can be produced at night using energy from the nuclear reactor and stored until required. With hydrogen serving as the auxiliary fuel for peak power production, the electricity output to the electrical grid can vary from zero (i.e. when hydrogen is being produced) to the maximum peak power while the nuclear reactor operates at constant load. As nuclear heat raises air temperatures above the auto-ignition temperatures of the various fuels and powers the air compressor, the power output can be varied rapidly (compared with the capabilities of fossil fired turbines) to meet spinning reserve requirements and stabilize the electrical grid. This combined

  14. Analysing socioeconomic diversity and scaling effects on residential electricity load profiles in the context of low carbon technology uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, R.; Hofmann, L.; Merkel, E.; Fichtner, W.; Strachan, N.

    2016-01-01

    Adequately accounting for interactions between Low Carbon Technologies (LCTs) at the building level and the overarching energy system means capturing the granularity associated with decentralised heat and power supply in residential buildings. The approach presented here adds novelty in terms of a realistic socioeconomic differentiation by employing dwelling/household archetypes (DHAs) and neighbourhood clusters at the Output Area (OA) level. These archetypes are combined with a mixed integer linear program (MILP) to generate optimum (minimum cost) technology configurations and operation schedules. Even in the baseline case, without any LCT penetration, a substantial deviation from the standard load profile (SLP) is encountered, suggesting that for some neighbourhoods this profile is not appropriate. With the application of LCTs, including heat pumps, micro-CHP and photovoltaic (PV), this effect is much stronger, including more negative residual load, more variability, and higher ramps with increased LCT penetration, and crucially different between neighbourhood clusters. The main policy implication of the study is the importance of understanding electrical load profiles at the neighbourhood level, because of the consequences they have for investment in the overarching energy system, including transmission and distribution infrastructure, and centralised generation plant. Further work should focus on attaining a superior socioeconomic differentiation between households. - Highlights: • Low carbon technologies (LCTs) for heat/electricity in residential buildings. • Socioeconomic effects and interactions with overarching energy system. • Building thermal/electrical model combined with optimisation. • Significant differences between neighbourhood load profiles. • Policy implications: support for LCTs and investment in infrastructure.

  15. A Hybrid Seasonal Mechanism with a Chaotic Cuckoo Search Algorithm with a Support Vector Regression Model for Electric Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongquan Dong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Providing accurate electric load forecasting results plays a crucial role in daily energy management of the power supply system. Due to superior forecasting performance, the hybridizing support vector regression (SVR model with evolutionary algorithms has received attention and deserves to continue being explored widely. The cuckoo search (CS algorithm has the potential to contribute more satisfactory electric load forecasting results. However, the original CS algorithm suffers from its inherent drawbacks, such as parameters that require accurate setting, loss of population diversity, and easy trapping in local optima (i.e., premature convergence. Therefore, proposing some critical improvement mechanisms and employing an improved CS algorithm to determine suitable parameter combinations for an SVR model is essential. This paper proposes the SVR with chaotic cuckoo search (SVRCCS model based on using a tent chaotic mapping function to enrich the cuckoo search space and diversify the population to avoid trapping in local optima. In addition, to deal with the cyclic nature of electric loads, a seasonal mechanism is combined with the SVRCCS model, namely giving a seasonal SVR with chaotic cuckoo search (SSVRCCS model, to produce more accurate forecasting performances. The numerical results, tested by using the datasets from the National Electricity Market (NEM, Queensland, Australia and the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO, NY, USA, show that the proposed SSVRCCS model outperforms other alternative models.

  16. Software for optimal selection of places for installation of balancing devices in 0,4 kV electric power systems loaded with electric motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This publication considers the issues of development of the software program for designing of 0,4 kV power supply systems with motor-actuated load under voltage unsymmetry conditions (using the example of the Trans-Baikal Territory. Voltage unsymmetry is practically constant phenomenon in the electric power networks of different voltage types. Voltage unsymmetry effects significantly the electric power consumers, including the supply mains itself. It has especially negative impact on the electrical equipment operation process and its lifetime. The urgency of the problem is confirmed by multiple research on the same topic and by significant number of damages suffered by the electric power consumers staying in service (especially in the Trans-Baikal Territory and in the Far-East regions. Voltage unsymmetry causes economic loss and reduction of the electromagnetic interference value by the voltage unsymmetry coefficient in negative-phase sequence (K2U gives inevitable economic effect accordingly. However, the payback period for the activities aimed at reduction of electromagnetic interference, will vary from some months to several years. The more accurate value of the payback period may be obtained using the developed software program. The developed software design program is implemented by means of the programming language C# in Microsoft Visual Studio environment, using the built-in cross-platform database SQLite. The software program shall allow making quick and accurate calculation of the power losses, to determine the economic feasibility of provision special measures for removal of the voltage unsymmetry, for determination of optimal application and location of the balancing devices. The software implementation in power systems loaded with electric motors will improve reliability and efficiency of asynchronous motors. The software is of interest for developers of projects on power supply systems for regions with non-linear loads.

  17. Multi-Temporal Decomposed Wind and Load Power Models for Electric Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Karim, Noha

    This thesis is motivated by the recognition that sources of uncertainties in electric power systems are multifold and may have potentially far-reaching effects. In the past, only system load forecast was considered to be the main challenge. More recently, however, the uncertain price of electricity and hard-to-predict power produced by renewable resources, such as wind and solar, are making the operating and planning environment much more challenging. The near-real-time power imbalances are compensated by means of frequency regulation and generally require fast-responding costly resources. Because of this, a more accurate forecast and look-ahead scheduling would result in a reduced need for expensive power balancing. Similarly, long-term planning and seasonal maintenance need to take into account long-term demand forecast as well as how the short-term generation scheduling is done. The better the demand forecast, the more efficient planning will be as well. Moreover, computer algorithms for scheduling and planning are essential in helping the system operators decide what to schedule and planners what to build. This is needed given the overall complexity created by different abilities to adjust the power output of generation technologies, demand uncertainties and by the network delivery constraints. Given the growing presence of major uncertainties, it is likely that the main control applications will use more probabilistic approaches. Today's predominantly deterministic methods will be replaced by methods which account for key uncertainties as decisions are made. It is well-understood that although demand and wind power cannot be predicted at very high accuracy, taking into consideration predictions and scheduling in a look-ahead way over several time horizons generally results in more efficient and reliable utilization, than when decisions are made assuming deterministic, often worst-case scenarios. This change is in approach is going to ultimately require new

  18. An implementation of particle swarm optimization to evaluate optimal under-voltage load shedding in competitive electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Bioki, M. M.; Rashidinejad, M.; Abdollahi, A.

    2013-11-01

    Load shedding is a crucial issue in power systems especially under restructured electricity environment. Market-driven load shedding in reregulated power systems associated with security as well as reliability is investigated in this paper. A technoeconomic multi-objective function is introduced to reveal an optimal load shedding scheme considering maximum social welfare. The proposed optimization problem includes maximum GENCOs and loads' profits as well as maximum loadability limit under normal and contingency conditions. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) as a heuristic optimization technique, is utilized to find an optimal load shedding scheme. In a market-driven structure, generators offer their bidding blocks while the dispatchable loads will bid their price-responsive demands. An independent system operator (ISO) derives a market clearing price (MCP) while rescheduling the amount of generating power in both pre-contingency and post-contingency conditions. The proposed methodology is developed on a 3-bus system and then is applied to a modified IEEE 30-bus test system. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in implementing the optimal load shedding satisfying social welfare by maintaining voltage stability margin (VSM) through technoeconomic analyses.

  19. Optimal Planning Method of On-load Capacity Regulating Distribution Transformers in Urban Distribution Networks after Electric Energy Replacement Considering Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Su

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Electric energy replacement is the umbrella term for the use of electric energy to replace oil (e.g., electric automobiles, coal (e.g., electric heating, and gas (e.g., electric cooking appliances, which increases the electrical load peak, causing greater valley/peak differences. On-load capacity regulating distribution transformers have been used to deal with loads with great valley/peak differences, so reasonably replacing conventional distribution transformers with on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers can effectively cope with load changes after electric energy replacement and reduce the no-load losses of distribution transformers. Before planning for on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers, the nodal effective load considering uncertainties within the life cycle after electric energy replacement was obtained by a Monte Carlo method. Then, according to the loss relation between on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers and conventional distribution transformers, three characteristic indexes of annual continuous apparent power curve and replacement criteria for on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers were put forward in this paper, and a set of distribution transformer replaceable points was obtained. Next, based on cost benefit analysis, a planning model of on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers which consists of investment profitability index within the life cycle, investment cost recouping index and capacity regulating cost index was put forward. The branch and bound method was used to solve the planning model within replaceable point set to obtain upgrading and reconstruction scheme of distribution transformers under a certain investment. Finally, planning analysis of on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers was carried out for electric energy replacement points in one urban distribution network under three scenes: certain load, uncertain load and nodal

  20. Policy, planning and generation of energy surpluses in a sugar and alcohol plants; Politica, planejamento e geracao de excedentes de energia eletrica no setor sucroalcooleiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarussi, Maria Alessandra Silva Nunes; Martins, Juliana Marinho Cavalcanti [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos

    2008-07-01

    This present work has as it main purpose to analyze briefly the Decenal Plan of Energy Expansion and the National Energy Plan 2030 in relation to the surplus energy cogeneration capacity from sugar and alcohol industry in Brazil. At the same time, this work also intends to compare the existent public policies to foment the surplus electric energy production such as the Proinfa and energy auctions and the acquisition of more efficient cogeneration systems by the sugar cane sector. (author)

  1. Power system operation risk analysis considering charging load self-management of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhe; Wang, Dan; Jia, Hongjie; Djilali, Ned

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The interactive mechanism between system and PHEVs is presented. • The charging load self-management without sacrificing user requirements is proposed. • The charging load self-management is coupled to system operation risk analysis. • The charging load self-management can reduce the extra risk brought by PHEVs. • The charging load self-management can shift charging power to the time with low risk. - Abstract: Many jurisdictions around the world are supporting the adoption of electric vehicles through incentives and the deployment of a charging infrastructure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), with offer mature technology and stable performance, are expected to gain an increasingly larger share of the consumer market. The aggregated effect on power grid due to large-scale penetration of PHEVs needs to be analyzed. Nighttime-charging which typically characterizes PHEVs is helpful in filling the nocturnal load valley, but random charging of large PHEV fleets at night may result in new load peaks and valleys. Active response strategy is a potentially effective solution to mitigate the additional risks brought by the integration of PHEVs. This paper proposes a power system operation risk analysis framework in which charging load self-management is used to control system operation risk. We describe an interactive mechanism between the system and PHEVs in conjunction with a smart charging model is to simulate the time series power consumption of PHEVs. The charging load is managed with adjusting the state transition boundaries and without violating the users’ desired charging constraints. The load curtailment caused by voltage or power flow violation after outages is determined by controlling charging power. At the same time, the system risk is maintained under an acceptable level through charging load self-management. The proposed method is implemented using the Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) and

  2. Approach undertaken by our Company for leveling electric loads; Chubu Denryoku Kabushi Kaisha no fuka heijunka eno torikumi ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Measures for leveling the electric loads relying upon two facets - tariff system and business activities - in Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc. are presented. Firstly, the existing pricing systems for midnight electric power and electric light according to the period of time for the household as well as those of seasonal and time zone electric power, modifiable contract with the time zone and so forth for large industry users, together with a similar contract for the owner of regenerating installation are outlined. In addition, a price reduction system is indicated in favor of a scheduled shutdown of large industry operations as a means of avoiding electric consumption during weekdays in summer and between 13h and 16h when large demands exist. Further, a selective contract system put in service in 1995 and the price reduction for ice regenerating air conditioning system are cited. As for business facet, 1995 is regarded as the first year of the ice regenerator for its generalization through exhibition and promotive campaign to the foods processing industry, and the application of the latent heat regenerative system to perishable foods is recommended. Moreover, installation of energy saving type automatic vending machine, so-called eco-vendor is encouraged for its merit of peak-cut and energy price lowering. Lastly, activities to extend the use of electric calorifiers and the regenerative floor heating are mentioned. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. The assessment of labour surplus in agricultural farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Marcysiak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polish agriculture is characterised by high labour surplus in agricultural farms. The aim of the study is showing the methods used for assessment of labour surplus in agricultural farms. The assessment was made considering two criteria: objective and subjective.

  4. 50 CFR 30.2 - Disposition of surplus range animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of surplus range animals. 30.2... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range Animals § 30.2 Disposition of surplus range animals. Disposition shall be made only during regularly scheduled disposal...

  5. 50 CFR 30.1 - Surplus range animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Surplus range animals. 30.1 Section 30.1... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range Animals § 30.1 Surplus range animals. Range animals on fenced wildlife refuge areas, including buffalo and longhorn cattle, determined...

  6. 50 CFR 31.1 - Determination of surplus wildlife populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of surplus wildlife populations. 31.1 Section 31.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDLIFE SPECIES MANAGEMENT Surplus...

  7. 12 CFR 615.5330 - Minimum surplus ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum surplus ratios. 615.5330 Section 615.5330 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Surplus and Collateral Requirements § 615.5330 Minimum...

  8. Prediction of crack density and electrical resistance changes in indium tin oxide/polymer thin films under tensile loading

    KAUST Repository

    Mora Cordova, Angel

    2014-06-11

    We present unified predictions for the crack onset strain, evolution of crack density, and changes in electrical resistance in indium tin oxide/polymer thin films under tensile loading. We propose a damage mechanics model to quantify and predict such changes as an alternative to fracture mechanics formulations. Our predictions are obtained by assuming that there are no flaws at the onset of loading as opposed to the assumptions of fracture mechanics approaches. We calibrate the crack onset strain and the damage model based on experimental data reported in the literature. We predict crack density and changes in electrical resistance as a function of the damage induced in the films. We implement our model in the commercial finite element software ABAQUS using a user subroutine UMAT. We obtain fair to good agreement with experiments. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Electric Car Users’ Time of Charging Problem under Peak Load Pricing When Delay in Charging Time Involves Uncertain Cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie

    The problem of peak load arises when demand fluctuates over time while the pro- duction technology is not flexible (or making it flexible is economically inefficient) and/or when a product is non-storable (or storage cost is huge). Peak load is a com- mon problem in consumption of public utilities......, on the one hand, observed cost saving benefit of postponing the time of charging to off-peak lower fee of charging and, on the other hand, the cost of delay in departure time for planned trips and uncertain cost of late charging associated with likelihood occur- rence of unanticipated trip before the car...... of electricity. The electric vehicle (EV) users choice of time of charging problem under PLP is different from that of general households using energy for house appliances since there is uncertain cost to the former as- sociated with likelihood occurrence of unanticipated trips such as visiting hospital...

  10. Short-term forecasting of individual household electricity loads with investigating impact of data resolution and forecast horizon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildiz Baran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart grid components such as smart home and battery energy management systems, high penetration of renewable energy systems, and demand response activities, require accurate electricity demand forecasts for the successful operation of the electricity distribution networks. For example, in order to optimize residential PV generation and electricity consumption and plan battery charge-discharge regimes by scheduling household appliances, forecasts need to target and be tailored to individual household electricity loads. The recent uptake of smart meters allows easier access to electricity readings at very fine resolutions; hence, it is possible to utilize this source of available data to create forecast models. In this paper, models which predominantly use smart meter data alongside with weather variables, or smart meter based models (SMBM, are implemented to forecast individual household loads. Well-known machine learning models such as artificial neural networks (ANN, support vector machines (SVM and Least-Square SVM are implemented within the SMBM framework and their performance is compared. The analysed household stock consists of 14 households from the state of New South Wales, Australia, with at least a year worth of 5 min. resolution data. In order for the results to be comparable between different households, our study first investigates household load profiles according to their volatility and reveals the relationship between load standard deviation and forecast performance. The analysis extends previous research by evaluating forecasts over four different data resolution; 5, 15, 30 and 60 min, each resolution analysed for four different horizons; 1, 6, 12 and 24 h ahead. Both, data resolution and forecast horizon, proved to have significant impact on the forecast performance and the obtained results provide important insights for the operation of various smart grid applications. Finally, it is shown that the load profile of some

  11. Short-term forecasting of individual household electricity loads with investigating impact of data resolution and forecast horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Baran; Bilbao, Jose I.; Dore, Jonathon; Sproul, Alistair B.

    2018-05-01

    Smart grid components such as smart home and battery energy management systems, high penetration of renewable energy systems, and demand response activities, require accurate electricity demand forecasts for the successful operation of the electricity distribution networks. For example, in order to optimize residential PV generation and electricity consumption and plan battery charge-discharge regimes by scheduling household appliances, forecasts need to target and be tailored to individual household electricity loads. The recent uptake of smart meters allows easier access to electricity readings at very fine resolutions; hence, it is possible to utilize this source of available data to create forecast models. In this paper, models which predominantly use smart meter data alongside with weather variables, or smart meter based models (SMBM), are implemented to forecast individual household loads. Well-known machine learning models such as artificial neural networks (ANN), support vector machines (SVM) and Least-Square SVM are implemented within the SMBM framework and their performance is compared. The analysed household stock consists of 14 households from the state of New South Wales, Australia, with at least a year worth of 5 min. resolution data. In order for the results to be comparable between different households, our study first investigates household load profiles according to their volatility and reveals the relationship between load standard deviation and forecast performance. The analysis extends previous research by evaluating forecasts over four different data resolution; 5, 15, 30 and 60 min, each resolution analysed for four different horizons; 1, 6, 12 and 24 h ahead. Both, data resolution and forecast horizon, proved to have significant impact on the forecast performance and the obtained results provide important insights for the operation of various smart grid applications. Finally, it is shown that the load profile of some households vary

  12. Short-Term Electricity-Load Forecasting Using a TSK-Based Extreme Learning Machine with Knowledge Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Uk Yeom

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses short-term electricity-load forecasting using an extreme learning machine (ELM with automatic knowledge representation from a given input-output data set. For this purpose, we use a Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK-based ELM to develop a systematic approach to generating if-then rules, while the conventional ELM operates without knowledge information. The TSK-ELM design includes a two-phase development. First, we generate an initial random-partition matrix and estimate cluster centers for random clustering. The obtained cluster centers are used to determine the premise parameters of fuzzy if-then rules. Next, the linear weights of the TSK fuzzy type are estimated using the least squares estimate (LSE method. These linear weights are used as the consequent parameters in the TSK-ELM design. The experiments were performed on short-term electricity-load data for forecasting. The electricity-load data were used to forecast hourly day-ahead loads given temperature forecasts; holiday information; and historical loads from the New England ISO. In order to quantify the performance of the forecaster, we use metrics and statistical characteristics such as root mean squared error (RMSE as well as mean absolute error (MAE, mean absolute percent error (MAPE, and R-squared, respectively. The experimental results revealed that the proposed method showed good performance when compared with a conventional ELM with four activation functions such sigmoid, sine, radial basis function, and rectified linear unit (ReLU. It possessed superior prediction performance and knowledge information and a small number of rules.

  13. The effect of load and thickness variation on stress analysis of monocoque frame of electric city car using FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhrojan, Agus; Suprihadi, Agus; Budi, Sigit Setijo; Jamari, J.; Ismail, Rifky

    2017-01-01

    The electric car is transportation which growing and constantly put through improvisation vehicle design. One of the structural components of the electric car which holds a major role is a frame. The purpose of this study is to get monocoque frame design which lightweight and powerful for a city car with two passengers that was able to improve the efficiency of the battery voltage source. Monocoque frame should be able to accept the normal loads such as the weight of batteries, passenger, and body. The most important thing, monocoque frame should also be able to protect the driver and passengers in the event of a collision. Mild steel was chosen for the design because it is easy to obtain and reasonable price as well as easy to shaped for two-seater electric car. FEM (finite element method) was used to determine stress determination and rigidity of the monocoque frame when receiving a static load. The results show that the monocoque frame was still able to withstand the required loads with minimal deflection.

  14. Modelling and analysis of a novel compressed air energy storage system for trigeneration based on electrical energy peak load shifting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Song; He, Wei; Zhang, Aifeng; Li, Guiqiang; Luo, Bingqing; Liu, Xianghua

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new CAES system for trigeneration based on electrical peak load shifting is proposed. • The theoretical models and the thermodynamics process are established and analyzed. • The relevant parameters influencing its performance have been discussed and optimized. • A novel energy and economic evaluation methods is proposed to evaluate the performance of the system. - Abstract: The compressed air energy storage (CAES) has made great contribution to both electricity and renewable energy. In the pursuit of reduced energy consumption and relieving power utility pressure effectively, a novel trigeneration system based on CAES for cooling, heating and electricity generation by electrical energy peak load shifting is proposed in this paper. The cooling power is generated by the direct expansion of compressed air, and the heating power is recovered in the process of compression and storage. Based on the working principle of the typical CAES, the theoretical analysis of the thermodynamic system models are established and the characteristics of the system are analyzed. A novel method used to evaluate energy and economic performance is proposed. A case study is conducted, and the economic-social and technical feasibility of the proposed system are discussed. The results show that the trigeneration system works efficiently at relatively low pressure, and the efficiency is expected to reach about 76.3% when air is compressed and released by 15 bar. The annual monetary cost saving annually is about 53.9%. Moreover, general considerations about the proposed system are also presented.

  15. Annual Electric Load Forecasting by a Least Squares Support Vector Machine with a Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of annual electric load forecasting plays an important role in the economic and social benefits of electric power systems. The least squares support vector machine (LSSVM has been proven to offer strong potential in forecasting issues, particularly by employing an appropriate meta-heuristic algorithm to determine the values of its two parameters. However, these meta-heuristic algorithms have the drawbacks of being hard to understand and reaching the global optimal solution slowly. As a novel meta-heuristic and evolutionary algorithm, the fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA has the advantages of being easy to understand and fast convergence to the global optimal solution. Therefore, to improve the forecasting performance, this paper proposes a LSSVM-based annual electric load forecasting model that uses FOA to automatically determine the appropriate values of the two parameters for the LSSVM model. By taking the annual electricity consumption of China as an instance, the computational result shows that the LSSVM combined with FOA (LSSVM-FOA outperforms other alternative methods, namely single LSSVM, LSSVM combined with coupled simulated annealing algorithm (LSSVM-CSA, generalized regression neural network (GRNN and regression model.

  16. Steady-state and dynamic evaluation of the electric propulsion system test bed vehicle on a road load simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, M. O.

    1983-01-01

    The propulsion system of the Lewis Research Center's electric propulsion system test bed vehicle was tested on the road load simulator under the DOE Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program. This propulsion system, consisting of a series-wound dc motor controlled by an infinitely variable SCR chopper and an 84-V battery pack, is typical of those used in electric vehicles made in 1976. Steady-state tests were conducted over a wide range of differential output torques and vehicle speeds. Efficiencies of all of the components were determined. Effects of temperature and voltage variations on the motor and the effect of voltage changes on the controller were examined. Energy consumption and energy efficiency for the system were determined over the B and C driving schedules of the SAE J227a test procedure.

  17. Short-Term Multiple Forecasting of Electric Energy Loads for Sustainable Demand Planning in Smart Grids for Smart Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeshina Y. Alani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption in the form of fuel or electricity is ubiquitous globally. Among energy types, electricity is crucial to human life in terms of cooking, warming and cooling of shelters, powering of electronic devices as well as commercial and industrial operations. Users of electronic devices sometimes consume fluctuating amounts of electricity generated from smart-grid infrastructure owned by the government or private investors. However, frequent imbalance is noticed between the demand and supply of electricity, hence effective planning is required to facilitate its distribution among consumers. Such effective planning is stimulated by the need to predict future consumption within a short period. Although several interesting classical techniques have been used for such predictions, they still require improvement for the purpose of reducing significant predictive errors when used for short-term load forecasting. This research develops a near-zero cooperative probabilistic scenario analysis and decision tree (PSA-DT model to address the lacuna of enormous predictive error faced by the state-of-the-art models. The PSA-DT is based on a probabilistic technique in view of the uncertain nature of electricity consumption, complemented by a DT to reinforce the collaboration of the two techniques. Based on detailed experimental analytics on residential, commercial and industrial data loads, the PSA-DT model outperforms the state-of-the-art models in terms of accuracy to a near-zero error rate. This implies that its deployment for electricity demand planning will be of great benefit to various smart-grid operators and homes.

  18. Research on light rail electric load forecasting based on ARMA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yifan

    2018-04-01

    The article compares a variety of time series models and combines the characteristics of power load forecasting. Then, a light load forecasting model based on ARMA model is established. Based on this model, a light rail system is forecasted. The prediction results show that the accuracy of the model prediction is high.

  19. A case study review of technical and technology issues for transition of a utility load management program to provide system reliability resources in restructured electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, G.H.

    2001-07-15

    Utility load management programs--including direct load control and interruptible load programs--were employed by utilities in the past as system reliability resources. With electricity industry restructuring, the context for these programs has changed; the market that was once controlled by vertically integrated utilities has become competitive, raising the question: can existing load management programs be modified so that they can effectively participate in competitive energy markets? In the short run, modified and/or improved operation of load management programs may be the most effective form of demand-side response available to the electricity system today. However, in light of recent technological advances in metering, communication, and load control, utility load management programs must be carefully reviewed in order to determine appropriate investments to support this transition. This report investigates the feasibility of and options for modifying an existing utility load management system so that it might provide reliability services (i.e. ancillary services) in the competitive markets that have resulted from electricity industry restructuring. The report is a case study of Southern California Edison's (SCE) load management programs. SCE was chosen because it operates one of the largest load management programs in the country and it operates them within a competitive wholesale electricity market. The report describes a wide range of existing and soon-to-be-available communication, control, and metering technologies that could be used to facilitate the evolution of SCE's load management programs and systems to provision of reliability services. The fundamental finding of this report is that, with modifications, SCE's load management infrastructure could be transitioned to provide critical ancillary services in competitive electricity markets, employing currently or soon-to-be available load control technologies.

  20. The social surplus of broadband initiatives in compulsory education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Peter Parsons

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the New Zealand government embarked upon an ambitious programme of broadband infrastructure investment, a process that will continue until at least 2019. Part of this investment is specifically targeted at compulsory education, with initiatives that include bringing fibre connections to the school gate, supporting on-site network upgrades (including wireless and providing teaching, learning and support services delivered through these networks. Such investments are not made without some projections of the likely rate of return, but calculating return on investment (ROI in educational broadband is complex, as it encompasses a range of factors. This article reports on an interview-based study engaging a range of stakeholders in educational broadband provision. The study utilises a research model that considers the various elements of social surplus, namely; producer surplus (savings, producer surplus (profit and consumer surplus (perceived value over and above cost, to explore the elements of social surplus that have been used to define educational broadband ROI calculations and justify the scale of investment. The results indicate that all three components of social surplus are relevant, though the concept of profit can only be seen in the broader context of long term contributions to the economy. A note of caution is that projections of ROI based only on positive returns fail to acknowledge the potential for some innovations to actually increase costs. Further, purely quantitative models do not properly take into account qualitative components of consumer surplus.

  1. Active load current sharing in fuel cell and battery fed DC motor drive for electric vehicle application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pany, Premananda; Singh, R.K.; Tripathi, R.K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Load current sharing in FC and battery fed dc drive. • Active current sharing control using LabVIEW. • Detail hardware implementation. • Controller performance is verified through MATLAB simulation and experimental results. - Abstract: In order to reduce the stress on fuel cell based hybrid source fed electric drive system the controller design is made through active current sharing (ACS) technique. The effectiveness of the proposed ACS technique is tested on a dc drive system fed from fuel cell and battery energy sources which enables both load current sharing and source power management. High efficiency and reliability of the hybrid system can be achieved by proper energy conversion and management of power to meet the load demand in terms of required voltage and current. To overcome the slow dynamics feature of FC, a battery bank of adequate power capacity has to be incorporated as FC voltage drops heavily during fast load demand. The controller allows fuel cell to operate in normal load region and draw the excess power from battery. In order to demonstrate the performance of the drive using ACS control strategy different modes of operation of the hybrid source with the static and dynamic behavior of the control system is verified through simulation and experimental results. This control scheme is implemented digitally in LabVIEW with PCI 6251 DAQ I/O interface card. The efficacy of the controller performance is demonstrated in system changing condition supplemented by experimental validation.

  2. Direct participation of electrical loads in the California independent system operator markets during the Summer of 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marnay, Chris; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Khavkin, Mark; Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2001-01-01

    California's restructured electricity markets opened on 1 April 1998. The former investor-owned utilities were functionally divided into generation, transmission, and distribution activities, all of their gas-fired generating capacity was divested, and the retail market was opened to competition. To ensure that small customers shared in the expected benefit of lower prices, the enabling legislation mandated a 10% rate cut for all customers, which was implemented in a simplistic way that fossilized 1996 tariff structures. Rising fuel and environmental compliance costs, together with a reduced ability to import electricity, numerous plant outages, and exercise of market power by generators drove up wholesale electricity prices steeply in 2000, while retail tariffs remained unchanged. One of the distribution/supply companies entered bankruptcy in April 2001, and another was insolvent. During this period, two sets of interruptible load programs were in place, longstanding ones organized as special tariffs by the distribution/supply companies and hastily established ones run directly by the California Independent System Operator (CAISO). The distribution/supply company programs were effective at reducing load during the summer of 2000, but because of the high frequency of outages required by a system on the brink of failure, customer response declined and many left the tariff. The CAISO programs failed to attract enough participation to make a significant difference to the California supply demand imbalance. The poor performance of direct load participation in California's markets reinforces the argument for accurate pricing of electricity as a stimulus to energy efficiency investment and as a constraint on market volatility

  3. Solar electricity: An effective asset to supply urban loads in hot climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Fabien Chidanand; Gopalan, Sundararaman

    2018-04-01

    While human population has been multiplied by four in the last hundred years, the world energy consumption was multiplied by ten. The common method of using fossil fuels to provide energy and electricity has dangerously disturbed nature's and climate's balance. It has become urgent and crucial to find sustainable and eco-friendly alternatives to preserve a livable environment with unpolluted air and water. Renewable energy is the unique eco-friendly opportunity known today. The main challenge of using renewable energy is to ensure the constant balance of electricity demand and generation on the electrical grid. This paper investigates whether the solar electricity generation is correlated with the urban electricity consumption in hot climates. The solar generation and total consumption have been compared for three cities in Florida. The hourly solar generation has been found to be highly correlated with the consumption that occurs 6 h later, while the monthly solar generation is correlated with the monthly energy consumption. Producing 30% of the electricity using solar energy has been found to compensate partly for the monthly variation in the urban electricity demand. In addition, if 30% of the world electricity is produced using solar, global CO2 emissions would be reduced by 11.7% (14.6% for India). Thus, generating 30% solar electricity represents a valuable asset for urban areas situated in hot climates, reducing the need for electrical operating reserve, providing local supply with minimal transmission losses, but above all reducing the need for fossil fuel electricity and reducing global CO2 emission.

  4. Characterizing Surplus US Plutonium for Disposition - 13199

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allender, Jeffrey S. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken SC 29808 (United States); Moore, Edwin N. [Moore Nuclear Energy, LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The United States (US) has identified 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) operates a Feed Characterization program for the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM). SRNL manages a broad program of item tracking through process history, laboratory analysis, and non-destructive assay. A combination of analytical techniques allows SRNL to predict the isotopic and chemical properties that qualify materials for disposition through the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). The research also defines properties that are important for other disposition paths, including disposal to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as transuranic waste (TRUW) or to high-level waste (HLW) systems. (authors)

  5. Hanford surplus facilities hazards identification document. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egge, R.G.

    1996-02-01

    This document provides general safety information needed by personnel who enter and work in surplus facilities managed by Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI). The purpose of the document is to enhance access control of surplus facilities, educate personnel on the potential hazards associated with these facilities prior to entry, and ensure that safety precautions are taken while in the facility. Questions concerning the currency of this information should be directed to the building administrator (as listed in BHI-FS-01, Field Support Administration, Section 1.1, ''Access Control for ERC Surplus Facilities'')

  6. Efforts of load leveling in Tohoku Electric Power Co. Inc.; Tohoku denryoku no fuka heijunka eno torikumi ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes efforts of load leveling in Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc. from the viewpoint of the rate system and business development. For the approach from the rate system, various rate menus for the peak shift have been arranged for domestic and large industry customers. To create the midnight demand, spread and expansion of electric hot water service are promoted. Consequently, the contract of midnight power has reached 914,000 kW at the end of 1995, which was 774,000 kW in 1985. To spread the ice regenerative air conditioning systems, the grant of incentive to the manufacturers and special discount of electricity rate have been conducted. These systems have been introduced in the eight places of Tohoku Electric Power`s business. The spread incident system has been created to introduce the automatic vending machines for beverages with the power peak cut function. Unused energy, such as exhaust heat from the non-treated sewage water and substations has been utilized as a heat supply project for city redevelopment. Multi-functional heat pump with regenerative function has been developed. This system aims at the peak shift by combining multi-functional heat pump and electric hot water service. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. To Problem Pertaining to Provision of Electric Power Load Schedules of Power Sys- tems while Involving Potential of Power Technological Sources of Industrial Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Khroustalev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a possibility to use co-generated complexes having heat technological industrial load for operation in accordance with the requirements of irregularity of electric power generation schedule.

  8. Methodology of demand forecast by market analysis of electric power and load curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiro, C.J.; Atmann, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    A methodology for demand forecast of consumer classes and their aggregation is presented. An analysis of the actual attended market can be done by appropriate measures and load curves studies. The suppositions for the future market behaviour by consumer classes (industrial, residential, commercial, others) are shown, and the actions for optimise this market are foreseen, obtained by load curves modulations. The process of future demand determination is obtained by the appropriate aggregation of this segmented demands. (C.G.C.)

  9. Ensuring dynamic load smoothness in problem of controlling Atomic Electric Power Stations exclusive mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumilov, V.F.

    2003-01-01

    New methods for the investigation of automatic systems based on the inverse tasks of dynamics with the use of rational, trigonometric and polynomial spline functions are discussed. By means of SH function the technological regimes: start-up, steadiness, racing, braking, reverse, stop were determined. Procedure for the provision of dynamic load smoothness is suggested, and example of control over the transport systems for fuel load is considered [ru

  10. Possible standards for relieving the load of operational thermal power plants to the minimum of the power system's electric loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitman, M.I.; Smirnov, I.A.

    1988-03-01

    Describes how operational measures involving feeding the steam extraction load into existing off-peak hot-water boilers produce a reduction in electric power at night and on public holidays by an average of 35% without the need for reconstruction, special equipment or changing the heat circuit. This method enables coal-fired central heating systems to be relieved by 20-30% and gaz-mazout systems (the majority) by 50-70%. To compensate for the loss of manoeuverability in central heating units on holidays in the colder period of the year, it may be necessary to stop supplementary power units (KEhS units) several times a year. 5 refs.

  11. Designing the input vector to ANN-based models for short-term load forecast in electricity distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, P.J.; Martins, A.G.; Pires, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    The present trend to electricity market restructuring increases the need for reliable short-term load forecast (STLF) algorithms, in order to assist electric utilities in activities such as planning, operating and controlling electric energy systems. Methodologies such as artificial neural networks (ANN) have been widely used in the next hour load forecast horizon with satisfactory results. However, this type of approach has had some shortcomings. Usually, the input vector (IV) is defined in a arbitrary way, mainly based on experience, on engineering judgment criteria and on concern about the ANN dimension, always taking into consideration the apparent correlations within the available endogenous and exogenous data. In this paper, a proposal is made of an approach to define the IV composition, with the main focus on reducing the influence of trial-and-error and common sense judgments, which usually are not based on sufficient evidence of comparative advantages over previous alternatives. The proposal includes the assessment of the strictly necessary instances of the endogenous variable, both from the point of view of the contiguous values prior to the forecast to be made, and of the past values representing the trend of consumption at homologous time intervals of the past. It also assesses the influence of exogenous variables, again limiting their presence at the IV to the indispensable minimum. A comparison is made with two alternative IV structures previously proposed in the literature, also applied to the distribution sector. The paper is supported by a real case study at the distribution sector. (author)

  12. Analysis on learning curves of end-use appliances for the establishment of price-sensitivity load model in competitive electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Wook; Kim, Jung Hoon [Hongik University (Korea); Song, Kyung Bin [Keimyung University (Korea); Choi, Joon Young [Jeonju University (Korea)

    2001-07-01

    The change of the electricity charge from cost base to price base due to the introduction to the electricity market competition causes consumer to choose a variety of charge schemes and a portion of loads to be affected by this change. Besides, it is required the index that consolidate the price volatility experienced on the power exchange with gaming and strategic bidding by suppliers to increase profits. Therefore, in order to find a mathematical model of the sensitively-responding to-price loads, the price-sensitive load model is needed. And the development of state-of- the-art technologies affects the electricity price, so the diffusion of high-efficient end-uses and these price affect load patterns. This paper shows the analysis on learning curves algorithms which is used to investigate the correlation of the end-uses' price and load patterns. (author). 6 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Building Automation and Control Systems and Electrical Distribution Grids: A Study on the Effects of Loads Control Logics on Power Losses and Peaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Favuzza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Growing home comfort is causing increasing energy consumption in residential buildings and a consequent stress in urban medium and low voltage distribution networks. Therefore, distribution system operators are obliged to manage problems related to the reliability of the electricity system and, above all, they must consider investments for enhancing the electrical infrastructure. The purpose of this paper is to assess how the reduction of building electricity consumption and the modification of the building load profile, due to load automation, combined with suitable load control programs, can improve network reliability and distribution efficiency. This paper proposes an extensive study on this issue, considering various operating scenarios with four load control programs with different purposes, the presence/absence of local generation connected to the buildings and different external thermal conditions. The study also highlights how different climatic conditions can influence the effects of the load control logics.

  14. Strength of the phase change materials on loading with the products of electric explosion of conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenkov, Georgiy; Morozov, Viktor; Kats, Victor

    2018-05-01

    Results of the experimentation on the destruction of the phase change materials (beeswax and paraffin) by the electric explosion of conductors are presented. The process of the explosion of copper and nickel titanium wires in both pure PCM and its mixture with nonosized additives of cuprous oxide is analyzed. The effect of this additive on the process of the expansion of the electric-discharge plasma during the electric explosion of conductors and on the strength of composite materials is demonstrated. The piezoprobe-based method of measurement of the radial pressure during samples destruction is developed. The experiments made it possible to determine the dimensions of the melting channel formed inside the samples during the explosion and the subsequent expansion of the electric-discharge plasma. The experiments are performed on the generator of short-term high-voltage pulses capable to shape the voltage of (10-24) kV.

  15. Matching of renewable source of energy generation graphs and electrical load in local energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezhniuk, Petro; Komar, Vyacheslav; Sobchuk, Dmytro; Kravchuk, Sergiy; Kacejko, Piotr; Zavidsky, Vladislav

    2017-08-01

    The paper contains the method of matching generation graph of photovoltaic electric stations and consumers. Characteristic feature of this method is the application of morphometric analysis for assessment of non-uniformity of the integrated graph of energy supply, optimal coefficients of current distribution, that enables by mean of refining the powers, transferring in accordance with the graph , to provide the decrease of electric energy losses in the grid and transport task, as the optimization tool.

  16. Real-Time Vehicle Energy Management System Based on Optimized Distribution of Electrical Load Power

    OpenAIRE

    Yuefei Wang; Hao Hu; Li Zhang; Nan Zhang; Xuhui Sun

    2016-01-01

    As a result of severe environmental pressure and stringent government regulations, refined energy management for vehicles has become inevitable. To improve vehicle fuel economy, this paper presents a bus-based energy management system for the electrical system of internal combustion engine vehicles. Both the model of an intelligent alternator and the model of a lead-acid battery are discussed. According to these models, the energy management for a vehicular electrical system is formulated as ...

  17. Load Frequency Control in Isolated Micro-Grids with Electrical Vehicles Based on Multivariable Generalized Predictive Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In power systems, although the inertia energy in power sources can partly cover power unbalances caused by load disturbance or renewable energy fluctuation, it is still hard to maintain the frequency deviation within acceptable ranges. However, with the vehicle-to-grid (V2G technique, electric vehicles (EVs can act as mobile energy storage units, which could be a solution for load frequency control (LFC in an isolated grid. In this paper, a LFC model of an isolated micro-grid with EVs, distributed generations and their constraints is developed. In addition, a controller based on multivariable generalized predictive control (MGPC theory is proposed for LFC in the isolated micro-grid, where EVs and diesel generator (DG are coordinated to achieve a satisfied performance on load frequency. A benchmark isolated micro-grid with EVs, DG, and wind farm is modeled in the Matlab/Simulink environment to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Simulation results demonstrate that with MGPC, the energy stored in EVs can be managed intelligently according to LFC requirement. This improves the system frequency stability with complex operation situations including the random renewable energy resource and the continuous load disturbances.

  18. The effect of linear spring number at side load of McPherson suspension in electric city car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, Sigit Setijo; Suprihadi, Agus; Makhrojan, Agus; Ismail, Rifky; Jamari, J.

    2017-01-01

    The function of the spring suspension on Mc Pherson type is to control vehicle stability and increase ride convenience although having tendencies of side load presence. The purpose of this study is to obtain simulation results of Mc Pherson suspension spring in the electric city car by using the finite element method and determining the side load that appears on the spring suspension. This research is conducted in several stages; they are linear spring designing models with various spring coil and spring suspension modeling using FEM software. Suspension spring is compressed in the vertical direction (z-axis) and at the upper part of the suspension springs will be seen the force that arises towards the x, y, and z-axis to simulate the side load arising on the upper part of the spring. The results of FEM simulation that the side load on the spring toward the x and y-axis which the value gets close to zero is the most stable spring.

  19. Exploring the impact of network tariffs on household electricity expenditures using load profiles and socio-economic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarova, Valeriya; Engel, Dominik; Ferner, Cornelia; Kollmann, Andrea; Reichl, Johannes

    2018-04-01

    Growing self-generation and storage are expected to cause significant changes in residential electricity utilization patterns. Commonly applied volumetric network tariffs may induce imbalance between different groups of households and their respective contribution to recovering the operating costs of the grid. Understanding consumer behaviour and appliance usage together with socio-economic factors can help regulatory authorities to adapt network tariffs to new circumstances in a fair way. Here, we assess the effects of 11 network tariff scenarios on household budgets using real load profiles from 765 households. Thus we explore the possibly disruptive impact of applying peak-load-based tariffs on the budgets of households when they have been mainly charged for consumed volumes before. Our analysis estimates the change in household network expenditure for different combinations of energy, peak and fixed charges, and can help to design tariffs that recover the costs needed for the sustainable operation of the grid.

  20. Heating load of buildings. Room heat from decentralized renewable electricity; Heizlast von Gebaeuden. Raumwaerme aus dezentral erneuerbarem Strom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Frank

    2013-10-15

    If one would like to get the heating load of a building by using peripheral generated electrical energy from photovoltaics or small wind power, one must deal with both the specific building, as well as the heating load, the heating temperature limit and the differentiation of specific heating period for the building. Here, a ground source heat pump with an intelligent energy storage system seems to be the first choice. [German] Moechte man mit dezentral erzeugter elektrischer Energie aus Photovoltaik oder Kleinst-Windkraft die Heizlast eines Gebaeudes besorgen, muss man sich sowohl mit dem spezifischen Gebaeude, als auch mit der Heizlast, der Heizgrenztemperatur und der Differenzierung der spezifischen Heizperiode fuer das Gebaeude auseinandersetzen. Dabei scheint eine erdgekoppelte Waermepumpe mit einem intelligenten Speichersystem die erste Wahl.

  1. Application of surplus and waste materials in roads pavement making

    OpenAIRE

    Mousavi, S. M.; Fazli, A. H.; Rouzmehr, F.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays there are a lot of problems about surpluses and debris made by humans all around the world. Lots of these surpluses seriously harm our natural environment. Reuse of this kind of materials in other processes like building constructions or pavement help our natural environment in every aspect. Asphalt concrete is the main part of pavements in most parts of the world with an increasing rate of production in need of more ways and roads. In this paper we will provide...

  2. UK surplus source disposal programme - 16097

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Gordon H.; Reeves, Nigel; Nisbet, Amy C.; Garnett, Andrew; Williams, Clive R.

    2009-01-01

    The UK Surplus Source Disposal Programme (SSDP), managed by the Environment Agency, was designed to remove redundant radioactive sources from the public domain. The UK Government Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) was concerned that disused sources were being retained by hospitals, universities and businesses, posing a risk to public health and the environment. AMEC provided a range of technical and administrative services to support the SSDP. A questionnaire was issued to registered source holders and the submitted returns compiled to assess the scale of the project. A member of AMEC staff was seconded to the Environment Agency to provide technical support and liaise directly with source holders during funding applications, which would cover disposal costs. Funding for disposal of different sources was partially based on a sliding scale of risk as determined by the IAEA hazard categorisation system. This funding was also sector dependent. The SSDP was subsequently expanded to include the disposal of luminised aircraft instruments from aviation museums across the UK. These museums often hold significant radiological inventories, with many items being unused and in a poor state of repair. These instruments were fully characterised on site by assessing surface dose rate, dimensions, source integrity and potential contamination issues. Calculations using the Microshield computer code allowed gamma radiation measurements to be converted into total activity estimates for each source. More than 11,000 sources were disposed of under the programme from across the medical, industrial, museum and academic sectors. The total activity disposed of was more than 8.5 E+14 Bq, and the project was delivered under budget. (authors)

  3. An electric-powered vehicle with contactless battery loading from the grid; Un vehicule electrique alimente sans contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    In this short article the prototype of a 3.5 t pick-up vehicle with an electric drive by Numexia is described. Its unique feature is the contactless battery loading from the grid, by means of an electromagnetic coil located in the ground under the vehicle at the loading station. This technology has been developed at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland in the framework of an abandoned project named Swissmetro. (The aim of this project was to connect the main Swiss cities of Geneva, Lausanne, Berne, Lucerne, Zurich and St-Gallen by an underground fast train that would have needed about 12 minutes from one city to the next, i.e. for a distance of 60 to 100 km. Several innovative technologies were developed in the preliminary phase of the project.) The pick-up vehicle, a modified Renault Maxity, reaches 100 km/h. The electric motor power is 100 kW. LiFePO{sub 4} batteries are used to store energy. Reloading takes 30 minutes under optimum conditions. An energy management unit and a 33 kW auxiliary diesel-engine-powered generator are integrated. The pick-up is able to carry a useful load up to 1557 kg and to cover a distance of 100 km with one battery load, without using the auxiliary generator. This new propulsion system is thought to become a frequently used device in vehicles for urban transportation. Numexia intends to cooperate with big car manufacturers to build in its new drive into their vehicles.

  4. The effects of variable renewable electricity on energy efficiency and full load hours of fossil-fired power plants in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Mats; Crijns-Graus, Wina; Harmsen, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the effects of variable renewable electricity (VRE) on full load hours and energy efficiency of fossil-fired power generation in the European Union from 1990-2014. Member states were aggregated into three groups based on the level of VRE penetration. Average full load hours are

  5. Provision of Flexible Load Control by Multi-Flywheel-Energy-Storage System in Electrical Vehicle Charging Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Andrade, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    in order to support basic electrical operation. This paper proposes a local implementation of a hysteresis-based aggregation algorithm for coordinated control of multiple stations that can provide functions such as peak shaving, spinning reserves, frequency control, regulation and load following. Local......Electrical vehicle (EV) chargers are going to occupy a considerable portion of total energy consumption in the future smart grid. Fast charging stations (FCS), as the most demanding representatives of charging infrastructure, will be requested to provide some ancillary services to the power system...... stability. Finally, corresponding hardware in the loop results based on dSPACE1006 platform have been reported in order to verify the validity of proposed approach....

  6. Hierarchical Load Tracking Control of a Grid-connected Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Maximum Electrical Efficiency Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yonghui; Wu, Qiuwei; Zhu, Haiyu

    2015-01-01

    efficiency operation obtained at different active power output levels, a hierarchical load tracking control scheme for the grid-connected SOFC was proposed to realize the maximum electrical efficiency operation with the stack temperature bounded. The hierarchical control scheme consists of a fast active...... power control and a slower stack temperature control. The active power control was developed by using a decentralized control method. The efficiency of the proposed hierarchical control scheme was demonstrated by case studies using the benchmark SOFC dynamic model......Based on the benchmark solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) dynamic model for power system studies and the analysis of the SOFC operating conditions, the nonlinear programming (NLP) optimization method was used to determine the maximum electrical efficiency of the grid-connected SOFC subject...

  7. Voltage Stability Control of Electrical Network Using Intelligent Load Shedding Strategy Based on Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houda Jouini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a perspective to ensure the power system stability and to avoid the vulnerability leading to the blackouts, several preventive and curative means are adopted. In order to avoid the voltage collapse, load shedding schemes represent a suitable action to maintain the power system service quality and to control its vulnerability. In this paper, we try to propose an intelligent load shedding strategy as a new approach based on fuzzy controllers. This strategy was founded on the calculation of generated power sensitivity degree related to those injected at different network buses. During the fault phase, fuzzy controller algorithms generate monitor vectors ensuring a precalculated load shedding ratio in the purpose to reestablish the power balance and conduct the network to a new steady state.

  8. Approach to load leveling in Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc.; Kansai Denryoku no fuka heijunka eno torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This paper presents an electric hot-water heater and ice storage air conditioning system as systems to be recommended for load leveling. Electric hot-water heater is featured by safety, cleanliness, silence and convenience because of no use of fire. Its electricity charge is only 7.15 yen/kWh less than 1/3 of that for ordinary homes because of use of midnight power. Mainly used MPU-control type electric hot-water heater is more economical because of a 15% discount system. Ice storage air conditioning system is operated in the daytime using ice made by midnight power. It is featured by reduction of facility and installation costs due to the small capacity of heat source equipment, use of inexpensive midnight power, and reduction of running cost due to small contract demand. However, since an ice storage air conditioning system is in the initial stage of diffusion, its initial cost is expensive as compared with conventional non-heat storage air conditioning systems, remaining the issue of cost reduction. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Managing charging loads of electric vehicles by monetary incentives. A model-based optimization; Monetaere Anreize zur Steuerung der Ladelast von Elektrofahrzeugen. Eine modellgestuetzte Optimierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paetz, Alexandra-Gwyn; Kaschub, Thomas; Kopp, Martin; Jochem, Patrick; Fichtner, Wolf [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Industriebetriebslehre und Industrielle Produktion

    2013-03-15

    Electric mobility is supposed to contribute to climate policy targets by reducing CO{sub 2}-emissions in the transportation sector. Increasing penetration rates of electric vehicles (EV) can lead to new challenges in the electricity sector, especially with regard to local distribution networks. Thus the management of charging loads is discussed as a key issue in energy economics. Due to their long parking times, high electricity and power demand, EV seem to be predestined for load management. Monetary incentives as dynamic pricing can be suitable for that: They reflect the current supply situation, pass the information to the consumers and can thus lead to a corresponding charging behaviour. In this article we analyse this interaction between dynamic pricing and charging loads. For this reason we have developed the optimization model DS-Opt+. It models a total number of 4,000 households in two residential areas of a major city with regard to its electricity demand, its mobility behaviour and its equipment of photovoltaic systems. Four different pricing models are tested for their effects on charging behaviour and thus the total load of the residential area. The results illustrate that only fairly high penetration rates of EV lead to remarkably higher electricity demand and require some load management. The tested dynamic pricing models are suitable for influencing charging loads; load-based tariffs are best in achieving a balanced load curve. In our analysis uncontrolled charging strategies are superior regarding a balanced load curve than controlled strategies by time-varying tariffs. Our results lead to several implications relevant for the energy industry and further research.

  10. Crack density and electrical resistance in indium-tin-oxide/polymer thin films under cyclic loading

    KAUST Repository

    Mora Cordova, Angel; Khan, Kamran; El Sayed, Tamer

    2014-01-01

    Here, we propose a damage model that describes the degradation of the material properties of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on polymer substrates under cyclic loading. We base this model on our earlier tensile test model and show

  11. Assessing the influence of the temporal resolution of electrical load and PV generation profiles on self-consumption and sizing of PV-battery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, T.; Kondziella, H.; Huard, G.; Bruckner, T.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • MILP optimization model for operation and investment of PV-battery systems. • Use of high resolution (10 s) electrical household load and PV generation profiles. • Analysis of influence of temporal resolution on self-consumption and optimal sizing. • Electrical load profile characteristics influence required temporal resolution. - Abstract: The interest in self-consumption of electricity generated by rooftop photovoltaic systems has grown in recent years, fueled by decreasing levelized costs of electricity and feed-in tariffs as well as increasing end customer electricity prices in the residential sector. This also fostered research on grid-connected PV-battery storage systems, which are a promising technology to increase self-consumption. In this paper a mixed-integer linear optimization model of a PV-battery system that minimizes the total discounted operating and investment costs is developed. The model is employed to study the effect of the temporal resolution of electrical load and PV generation profiles on the rate of self-consumption and the optimal sizing of PV and PV-battery systems. In contrast to previous studies high resolution (10 s) measured input data for both PV generation and electrical load profiles is used for the analysis. The data was obtained by smart meter measurements in 25 different households in Germany. It is shown that the temporal resolution of load profiles is more critical for the accuracy of the determination of self-consumption rates than the resolution of the PV generation. For PV-systems without additional storage accurate results can be obtained by using 15 min solar irradiation data. The required accuracy for the electrical load profiles depends strongly on the load profile characteristics. While good results can be obtained with 60 s for all electrical load profiles, 15 min data can still be sufficient for load profiles that do not exhibit most of their electricity consumption at power levels above 2 k

  12. Fault and load flows analysis of electricity transmission and distribution system in Casanare (Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Castro-Galeano, Juan Carlos; Cabra-Sarmiento, Wilson Javier; Ortiz-Portilla, Jhony Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This article describes a simulation of the electrical local distribution and regional transmission system of Enerca S.A. E.S.P. at 34.5 kV and 115 kV, identifying the most critical circuits and substations. The company is located in one of the major petroleum production areas in Colombia, and because of a massive growth in this sector, the electrical company expanded its networks in a radial way. This expansion was improvised and poorly planned due to the accelerated need to meet the...

  13. Probabilistic Load-Flow Analysis of Biomass-Fuelled Gas Engines with Electrical Vehicles in Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Ruiz-Rodríguez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Feeding biomass-fueled gas engines (BFGEs with olive tree pruning residues offers new opportunities to decrease fossil fuel use in road vehicles and electricity generation. BFGEs, coupled to radial distribution systems (RDSs, provide renewable energy and power that can feed electric vehicle (EV charging stations. However, the combined impact of BFGEs and EVs on RDSs must be assessed to assure the technical constraint fulfilment. Because of the stochastic nature of source/load, it was decided that a probabilistic approach was the most viable option for this assessment. Consequently, this research developed an analytical technique to evaluate the technical constraint fulfilment in RDSs with this combined interaction. The proposed analytical technique (PAT involved the calculation of cumulants and the linearization of load-flow equations, along with the application of the cumulant method, and Cornish-Fisher expansion. The uncertainties related to biomass stock and its heating value (HV were important factors that were assessed for the first time. Application of the PAT in a Spanish RDS with BFGEs and EVs confirmed the feasibility of the proposal and its additional benefits. Specifically, BFGEs were found to clearly contribute to the voltage constraint fulfilment. The computational cost of the PAT was lower than that associated with Monte-Carlo simulations (MCSs.

  14. Decentralized Electric Vehicle Charging Strategies for Reduced Load Variation and Guaranteed Charge Completion in Regional Distribution Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weige Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel, fully decentralized strategy to coordinate charge operation of electric vehicles is proposed in this paper. Based on stochastic switching control of on-board chargers, this strategy ensures high-efficiency charging, reduces load variations to the grid during charging periods, achieves charge completion with high probability, and accomplishes approximate “valley-filling”. Further improvements on the core strategy, including individualized power management, adaptive strategies, and battery support systems, are introduced to further reduce power fluctuation variances and to guarantee charge completion. Stochastic analysis is performed to establish the main properties of the strategies and to quantitatively show the performance improvements. Compared with the existing decentralized charging strategies, the strategies proposed in this paper can be implemented without any information exchange between grid operators and electric vehicles (EVs, resulting in a communications cost reduction. Additionally, it is shown that by using stochastic charging rules, a grid-supporting battery system with a very small energy capacity can achieve substantial reduction of EV load fluctuations with high confidence. An extensive set of simulations and case studies with real-world data are used to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed strategies.

  15. Further Development of the Nordic Electricity Market - a Common Solution for Investments in Transmission, Congestion Management and Peak Load Capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granstroem, Per-Olof

    2005-06-01

    The Nordic market fits well into place as a regional market in the over all European development, and it is therefore necessary to change the perspectives from a national one to a common Nordic approach. Despite the fact that the Nordic market is seen as a success, significant further improvements for customers and society can be made through deeper Nordic integration. The ongoing work on the Nordic electricity market within the Nordic Council of Ministers is therefore very welcomed and the Nordel report 'Enhancing Efficient Functioning of the Nordic Electricity Market' constitutes a good basis material for the further development of the market. There is a need to accelerate the pace of the harmonisation process, by making a clear timetable and prioritisation for the further work. Key issues for the next step are: Harmonisation of the legal framework and hence intensified co-operation among the Nordic governments; Implementation of the five known transmission investments, including a cost-benefit analysis; A more precise definition of the TSO responsibilities and core businesses, including operational reserves a prerequisite for further work on, e.g. the peak load issue; Initiation of cost-benefit analysis concerning future transmission investments; Guaranteed cross border capacity for market players; An analysis on settlement of imbalances and how this is affecting the peak load issue

  16. Load demand profile for a large charging station of a fleet of all-electric plug-in buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. Rios

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a general procedure to compute the load demand profile from a parking lot where a fleet of buses with electric propulsion mechanisms are charged. Such procedure is divided in three different stages, the first one models the daily energy utilisation of the batteries based on Monte Carlo simulations and route characteristics. The second one models the process in the charging station based on discrete event simulation of queues of buses served by a lot of available chargers. The third step computes the final demand profile in the parking lot because of the charging process based on the power consumption of batteries’ chargers and the utilisation of the available charges. The proposed procedure allows the computation of the number of required batteries’ chargers to be installed in a charging station placed at a parking lot in order to satisfy and ensure the operation of the fleet, the computation of the power demand profile and the peak load and the computation of the general characteristics of electrical infrastructure to supply the power to the station.

  17. Effect of elastic and plastic tensile mechanical loading on the magnetic properties of NGO electrical steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leuning, N., E-mail: nora.leuning@iem.rwth-aachen.de [Institute of Electrical Machines, RWTH Aachen University, D-52062 Aachen (Germany); Steentjes, S. [Institute of Electrical Machines, RWTH Aachen University, D-52062 Aachen (Germany); Schulte, M.; Bleck, W. [Steel Institute, RWTH Aachen University, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Hameyer, K. [Institute of Electrical Machines, RWTH Aachen University, D-52062 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    The magnetic properties of non-grain-oriented (NGO) electrical steels are highly susceptible to mechanical stresses, i.e., residual, external or thermal ones. For rotating electrical machines, mechanical stresses are inevitable and originate from different sources, e.g., material processing, machine manufacturing and operating conditions. The efficiency and specific losses are largely altered by different mechanical stress states. In this paper the effect of tensile stresses and plastic deformations on the magnetic properties of a 2.9 wt% Si electrical steel are studied. Particular attention is paid to the effect of magnetic anisotropy, i.e., the influence of the direction of applied mechanical stress with respect to the rolling direction. Due to mechanical stress, the induced anisotropy has to be evaluated as it is related to the stress-dependent magnetostriction constant and the grain alignment. - Highlights: • A detailed look at magnetic anisotropy of FeSi NGO electrical steel. • Study of magnetic behavior under elastic as well as plastic tensile stresses. • Correlation of magnetic behavior with microscopic deformation mechanisms. • Discussion of detrimental and beneficial effects of external stresses. • Loss separation at different polarizations and frequencies under increasing stress.

  18. Economic assessment of electric energy storage for load shifting in positive energy building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumont, Olivier; Do Carmo, Carolina Madeira Ramos; Georges, Emeline

    2017-01-01

    Net zero energy buildings and positive energy buildings are gaining more and more interest. This paper evaluates the impact of the integration of a battery in a positive energy building used to increase its self-consumption of electricity. Parametric studies are carried out by varying the buildin...... and a 3.7 kWh battery. Finally, simple correlations (based on the feed-in tariff, the annual electrical consumption and production) to predict the optimal size of battery and the lowest payback period are proposed.......Net zero energy buildings and positive energy buildings are gaining more and more interest. This paper evaluates the impact of the integration of a battery in a positive energy building used to increase its self-consumption of electricity. Parametric studies are carried out by varying the building...... envelope characteristics, the power supply system, the climate, the lighting and appliances profiles, the roof tilt angle, the battery size and the electricity tariffs, leading to 3200 cases. The analysis is performed on an annual basis in terms of self-consumption and self-production rate and payback...

  19. Innovative impact assessment of electric vehicles charging loads on distribution transformers using real data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godina, R.; Rodrigues, E.M.G.; Paterakis, N.G.; Erdinç, O.; Catalaõ, J.P.S.

    2016-01-01

    Widespread adoption of Electric Vehicles (EVs) could bring social and economic benefits. The effort of promoting the use of EVs in transportation is indispensable to meet the climate change related targets and to reduce the dependency on the ever unstable prices of diminishing fossil fuels. However,

  20. Effect of elastic and plastic tensile mechanical loading on the magnetic properties of NGO electrical steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuning, N.; Steentjes, S.; Schulte, M.; Bleck, W.; Hameyer, K.

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic properties of non-grain-oriented (NGO) electrical steels are highly susceptible to mechanical stresses, i.e., residual, external or thermal ones. For rotating electrical machines, mechanical stresses are inevitable and originate from different sources, e.g., material processing, machine manufacturing and operating conditions. The efficiency and specific losses are largely altered by different mechanical stress states. In this paper the effect of tensile stresses and plastic deformations on the magnetic properties of a 2.9 wt% Si electrical steel are studied. Particular attention is paid to the effect of magnetic anisotropy, i.e., the influence of the direction of applied mechanical stress with respect to the rolling direction. Due to mechanical stress, the induced anisotropy has to be evaluated as it is related to the stress-dependent magnetostriction constant and the grain alignment. - Highlights: • A detailed look at magnetic anisotropy of FeSi NGO electrical steel. • Study of magnetic behavior under elastic as well as plastic tensile stresses. • Correlation of magnetic behavior with microscopic deformation mechanisms. • Discussion of detrimental and beneficial effects of external stresses. • Loss separation at different polarizations and frequencies under increasing stress.

  1. Surplus plutonium disposition draft environmental impact statement. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent (NOI) in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS). DOE's disposition strategy allows for both the immobilization of surplus plutonium and its use as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in existing domestic, commercial reactors. The disposition of surplus plutonium would also involve disposal of the immobilized plutonium and MOX fuel (as spent nuclear fuel) in a geologic repository. The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement analyzes alternatives that would use the immobilization approach (for some of the surplus plutonium) and the MOX fuel approach (for some of the surplus plutonium); alternatives that would immobilize all of the surplus plutonium; and the No Action Alternative. The alternatives include three disposition facilities that would be designed so that they could collectively accomplish disposition of up to 50 metric tons (55 tons) of surplus plutonium over their operating lives: (1) the pit disassembly and conversion facility would disassemble pits (a weapons component) and convert the recovered plutonium, as well as plutonium metal from other sources, into plutonium dioxide suitable for disposition; (2) the immobilization facility would include a collocated capability for converting nonpit plutonium materials into plutonium dioxide suitable for immobilization and would be located at either Hanford or SRS. DOE has identified SRS as the preferred site for an immobilization facility; (3) the MOX fuel fabrication facility would fabricate plutonium dioxide into MOX fuel. Volume 2 contains the appendices to the report and describe the following: Federal Register notices; contractor nondisclosure statement; adjunct melter

  2. Surplus plutonium disposition draft environmental impact statement. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent (NOI) in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS). DOE's disposition strategy allows for both the immobilization of surplus plutonium and its use as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in existing domestic, commercial reactors. The disposition of surplus plutonium would also involve disposal of the immobilized plutonium and MOX fuel (as spent nuclear fuel) in a geologic repository. The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement analyzes alternatives that would use the immobilization approach (for some of the surplus plutonium) and the MOX fuel approach (for some of the surplus plutonium); alternatives that would immobilize all of the surplus plutonium; and the No Action Alternative. The alternatives include three disposition facilities that would be designed so that they could collectively accomplish disposition of up to 50 metric tons (55 tons) of surplus plutonium over their operating lives: (1) the pit disassembly and conversion facility would disassemble pits (a weapons component) and convert the recovered plutonium, as well as plutonium metal from other sources, into plutonium dioxide suitable for disposition; (2) the immobilization facility would include a collocated capability for converting nonpit plutonium materials into plutonium dioxide suitable for immobilization and would be located at either Hanford or SRS. DOE has identified SRS as the preferred site for an immobilization facility; (3) the MOX fuel fabrication facility would fabricate plutonium dioxide into MOX fuel

  3. Reducing food waste through direct surplus food redistribution : the Norwegian case

    OpenAIRE

    Capodistrias, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Food waste is a global problem with significant economic and environmental consequences. Food waste management approaches include production of biogas, animal feed and compost and surplus food redistribution. From a sustainability point of view, surplus food redistribution is the most favorable approach. Surplus food redistribution can be either direct (between suppliers of surplus food and charity food services) or indirect (Through Food banks). This paper is a case study on direct surplus f...

  4. Survey State of the Art: Electrical Load Management Techniques and Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-31

    setback 0 Sequenced start-up 0 Duty cycling 0 Holiday scheduling %~. Load shedding 0 Chiller control Optimized start-stop e Boiler control Cf Enthalpy...efficiency fac- and a local 80 column serial printer. tors, building loss factors, occupancy temperature setpoint and history. The optimized start and/or...capilt, water temperature, number of chillers optimal sarut-up of heating and cool- running and the percent operating lev . ing equipment can be

  5. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the Smart Grid Environment: An Economic Model of Load Management by Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poudineh R.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental concern regarding the consumption of fossil fuels is among the most serious challenges facing the world. As a result, utilisation of more renewable resources and promotion of a clean transport system such as the use of Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs became the forefront of the new energy policies. However, the breakthrough of PHEVs in the automotive fleet increases concerns around the stability of power system and in particular, the power network. This research simulates the aggregate load profile of the UK with presence of PHEVs based upon different price scenarios. The results show that under the fixed rate and time of use programmes in the current grid, the extra load of the electric vehicles intensifies the consumption profile and also creates new critical points. Thus, there should always be excess standby capacity to satisfy peak demand even for a short period of time. On the other hand, when the consumers do not pay the price based on the actual cost of supply, those who consume less in peak hours subsidise the ones who consume more and this cross subsidy raises a regulatory issue. On the contrary, a smart grid can accommodate PHEVs without creating technical and regulatory problems. This positive consequence is the result of demand response to the real time pricing. From a technical point of view, the biggest chunk of PHEVs' load will be shifted to the late evening and the hours of minimum demand. Besides, from a welfare analysis standpoint, real time pricing creates no deadweight losses and corresponding demand response will limit the ability of suppliers to increase the spot market clearing price above its equilibrium level.

  6. Neurite, a finite difference large scale parallel program for the simulation of electrical signal propagation in neurites under mechanical loading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián A García-Grajales

    Full Text Available With the growing body of research on traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury, computational neuroscience has recently focused its modeling efforts on neuronal functional deficits following mechanical loading. However, in most of these efforts, cell damage is generally only characterized by purely mechanistic criteria, functions of quantities such as stress, strain or their corresponding rates. The modeling of functional deficits in neurites as a consequence of macroscopic mechanical insults has been rarely explored. In particular, a quantitative mechanically based model of electrophysiological impairment in neuronal cells, Neurite, has only very recently been proposed. In this paper, we present the implementation details of this model: a finite difference parallel program for simulating electrical signal propagation along neurites under mechanical loading. Following the application of a macroscopic strain at a given strain rate produced by a mechanical insult, Neurite is able to simulate the resulting neuronal electrical signal propagation, and thus the corresponding functional deficits. The simulation of the coupled mechanical and electrophysiological behaviors requires computational expensive calculations that increase in complexity as the network of the simulated cells grows. The solvers implemented in Neurite--explicit and implicit--were therefore parallelized using graphics processing units in order to reduce the burden of the simulation costs of large scale scenarios. Cable Theory and Hodgkin-Huxley models were implemented to account for the electrophysiological passive and active regions of a neurite, respectively, whereas a coupled mechanical model accounting for the neurite mechanical behavior within its surrounding medium was adopted as a link between electrophysiology and mechanics. This paper provides the details of the parallel implementation of Neurite, along with three different application examples: a long myelinated axon

  7. Influence of applied load on wear behavior of C/C-Cu composites under electric current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Using carbon fiber needled fabrics with Cu-mesh and graphite powder as the preform, Cu mesh modified carbon/carbon(C/C-Cu composites were prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD with C3H6 and impregnation-carbonization (I/C with furan resin. C/C composites, as a comparison, were also prepared. Their microstructures and wear morphologies were observed by optical microscopy (OM and scanning electron microscope (SEM, respectively. Wear behavior of C/C and C/C-Cu composites under different applied loads were investigated on a pin-on-disc wear tester. The results show that Cu meshes are well dispersed and pyrolytic carbon is in rough laminar structure. Both C/C and C/C-Cu composites had good wear properties. The current-carrying capacity of C/C-Cu composites increases and the arc discharge is hindered as the applied load increases from 40 N to 80 N. Both C/C and C/C-Cu composites had good wear properties. The mass wear rate of C/C-Cu composites under 80 N was only 4.2% of that under 60 N. In addition, C/C-Cu composites represent different wear behaviors because wear mechanisms of arc erosion, abrasive wear, adhesive wear, and oxidative wear are changing under different applied loads.

  8. The prediction of the impact of climatic factors on short-term electric power load based on the big data of smart city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yunfei; Li, Xizhong; Zheng, Wei; Hu, Qinghe; Wei, Zhanmeng; Yue, Yaqin

    2017-08-01

    The climate changes have great impact on the residents’ electricity consumption, so the study on the impact of climatic factors on electric power load is of significance. In this paper, the effects of the data of temperature, rainfall and wind of smart city on short-term power load is studied to predict power load. The authors studied the relation between power load and daily temperature, rainfall and wind in the 31 days of January of one year. In the research, the authors used the Matlab neural network toolbox to establish the combinational forecasting model. The authors trained the original input data continuously to get the internal rules inside the data and used the rules to predict the daily power load in the next January. The prediction method relies on the accuracy of weather forecasting. If the weather forecasting is different from the actual weather, we need to correct the climatic factors to ensure accurate prediction.

  9. Assessment of load of beam-balanced pumping units by electric motor power indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Д. И. Шишлянников

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of experimental studies on the loading of beam-balanced pumping units (BP of sucker rod- pumping equipment (SRPE are presented. It is noted that the key factor that has the most significant effect causing the SRPE failure is the balance of the beam pumping unit, which determines the amount of specific energy consumption for the rise of reservoir fluid and the level of dynamic loads on the machine units. The urgency of using software-recording systems for estimating the loading of units of oil field pumping installations is substantiated. The principle of operation and design of the «AKD-SK» software recording system is described. The prospects of using this method for controlling the performance parameters and evaluating the technical state of the sicker rod-pumping units is proved on the basis of an analysis of the magnitude and nature of the changes in the loads of drive motors determined by the registration of the instantaneous values of the consumed power. The main provisions of the methodology for analyzing the watt-meters of drive motors of the sucker rod-pumping units are outlined. The nature of the manifestation of the main defects of submersible pumps and beam-balanced pumping units is described. The results of pilot-industrial tests of the beam-balanced pumping units equipped with advanced permanent magnet motors and intelligent control stations are presented. It is proved that the use of permanent magnet motors allows to reduce the specific energy consumption for the rise of reservoir fluid, which increases the efficiency of the SRPE.However, the presence of transient processes and generator operating modes of the permanent magnet motors results in the occurrence of significant dynamic loads, which, due to the rigid fixing of the rotor of magnet motor on the reducer shaft, negatively affect the life of the gearbox bearings. It has been shown that the lack of its own bearings in the tested motors causes a high probability

  10. Valence of wind power, photovoltaic and peak-load power plants as a part of the entire electricity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schüppel, A.

    2014-01-01

    The transition to a higher share of renewable energy sources in the electricity sector leads to a multitude of challenges for the current electricity system. Within this thesis, the development of wind power and photovoltaics generation capacities in Germany is analysed based on the evaluation of technical and economic criteria. In order to derive those criteria, different scenarios with a separated and combined increase of wind and photovoltaics capacity are simulated using the model ATLANTIS. The results are compared to a reference scenario without additional wind and PV capacities. Furthermore, the value and functionality of the energy only market based on economic methods, as well as the value of peak load power plants based on opportunity costs are determined. The results of this thesis show, that the current market system is able to gain an additional annual welfare of four to six billion Euro at the best. This result shows that the task of optimising the power plant dispatch is well fulfilled by the current market design. However, the effects, e.g. fuel costs, which may influence this margin. The value of wind power and photovoltaics within the overall electricity system can be derived from the effort which is necessary to integrate these generation technologies into the existing system, and the changes in total costs of electricity generation. Based on the evaluation of time dependencies (seasonality of energy yield from wind and PV) as well as the development of total generation costs, the conclusion can be drawn that wind power is the more suitable RES generation technology for Germany. However, when it comes to grid integration measures, PV shows better results due to a higher generation potential in Southern Germany, which leads to a higher degree of utilisation. Therefore, there is no need to transport electricity from Northern to Southern Germany as it is the case with wind power. A common expansion of wind power and photovoltaics even shows slight

  11. Estimating the value of electricity storage in PJM. Arbitrage and some welfare effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sioshansi, Ramteen; Denholm, Paul; Jenkin, Thomas; Weiss, Jurgen

    2009-01-01

    Significant increases in prices and price volatility of natural gas and electricity have raised interest in the potential economic opportunities for electricity storage. In this paper, we analyze the arbitrage value of a price-taking storage device in PJM (power transmission organization in the USA) during the six-year period from 2002 to 2007, to understand the impact of fuel prices, transmission constraints, efficiency, storage capacity, and fuel mix. The impact of load-shifting for larger amounts of storage, where reductions in arbitrage are offset by shifts in consumer and producer surplus as well as increases in social welfare from a variety of sources, is also considered. (author)

  12. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourash, F.

    1984-01-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  13. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourash, F.

    1984-02-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  14. Load curve impact of large electric vehicles fleet in the Paris Ile-de-France region

    OpenAIRE

    Assoumou , Edi; Marmorat , Jean-Paul; Houel , Jérôme; Roy , Valérie

    2015-01-01

    The EV-STEP project was carried out within the ERANET+ Electromobility framework. Funding for the research work presented in this paper by the French Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy is gratefully acknowledged. Complementary support was provided by the Chair Modeling for sustainable development, driven by MINES ParisTech, Ecole des Ponts ParisTech, and AgroParisTech; supported by ADEME, EDF, GRTgaz, Schneider Electric and the Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development...

  15. Dynamic segmentation techniques applied to load profiles of electric energy consumption from domestic users

    OpenAIRE

    Benítez Sánchez, Ignacio Javier

    2015-01-01

    [EN] The electricity sector is currently undergoing a process of liberalization and separation of roles, which is being implemented under the regulatory auspices of each Member State of the European Union and, therefore, with different speeds, perspectives and objectives that must converge on a common horizon, where Europe will benefit from an interconnected energy market in which producers and consumers can participate in free competition. This process of liberalization and separation of...

  16. C-Vine copula mixture model for clustering of residential electrical load pattern data

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, M; Konstantelos, I; Strbac, G

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing deployment of residential smart meters in numerous jurisdictions has led to an influx of electricity consumption data. This information presents a valuable opportunity to suppliers for better understanding their customer base and designing more effective tariff structures. In the past, various clustering methods have been proposed for meaningful customer partitioning. This paper presents a novel finite mixture modeling framework based on C-vine copulas (CVMM) for carrying out cons...

  17. Electricity use and load management in electricity heated one-family houses from customer and utility perspective; Effekten av effekten - Elanvaendning och laststyrning i elvaermda smaahus ur kund- och foeretagsperspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sernhed, Kerstin

    2004-11-01

    Until recently, the increase in electricity demand and peak power demand has been met by expansion of the electricity production. Today, due to the deregulation of the electricity market, the production capacity is decreasing. Therefore, there is a national interest in finding solutions to peak problems also on the demand side. In the studies described here (Study 1 and 2) ten households in electrically heated houses were examined. In 1999 the utility equipped their customers with a remote metering system (CustCom) that has an in-built load control component. In Study 1, the load pattern of ten households was examined by using energy diaries combined with frequent meter readings (every five minutes) of the load demand for heating, hot water service and domestic electricity use. Household members kept energy diaries over a four-day period in January 2004, noting time, activities and the use of household appliances that run on electricity. The analysis showed that the use of heat-producing household appliances, e.g. sauna, washing machine and dryer, appliances used for cooking, dishwasher and extra electric heaters, contribute to the household's highest peaks. Turning on the sauna and at the same time using the shower equates to a peak load of 7-9 kW. This, in addition to the use of electricity for heating and lighting along alongside electricity use for refrigerators and freezers, results in some households reaching their main fuse level (roughly 13,8 kW for a main fuse of 20 A). This means that the domestic use of electricity makes up a considerable part of the highest peak loads in a household, but the highest peaks occur together with the use of electricity for heating and hot water. In the second study, Study 2, the households participated in a load control experiment, in which the utility was able to turn on and switch off the heating and hot water systems remotely, using the CustCom system. Heating and water heaters were switched off for periods of 1

  18. The effect of optimal wall loads and blanket technologies on the cost of fusion electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, P.J.; Ward, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of trends in fusion economics based on technology, as well as, physics arguments. Based on relatively simple physics considerations, supported by detailed systems code calculations, it is shown that optimal wall loads are not high. The results of systems code calculations, focussing on the economic impact of different blanket technologies, are described. These suggest that the economically favourable thermodynamic efficiencies of some blankets capable of operating at higher temperatures may be counterbalanced by the economic penalties of shorter lifetimes

  19. Electric Resistance Tests on Compacted Clay Material under Dynamic Load Coupled with Dry-Wet Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of compacted clay material under dynamic load coupled with dry-wet cycling is one of the most important areas in the field of transportation. In this paper, experiments in terms of compacted clay under dynamic load coupled with dry-wet cycling are performed, and synchronous resistivity tests are also conducted. According to the test results, the influences of cumulative plastic strain, dry-wet cycles, and amplitudes on the soil resistivity are analyzed. Then a new damage factor based on resistivity is proposed to evaluate the long-term performance of compacted clay material. The result of research shows that the evolution of the soil resistivity can be divided into two stages, which has a contrary tendency with that of cumulative plastic strain. The dry-wet cycles and amplitudes have a significant effect on the damage of the compacted soil, which indicates that the dry-wet cycling of compacted soil materials should not be ignored in road engineering, especially in rainy and humid areas.

  20. H∞ robust control of load frequency in diesel-battery hybrid electric propulsion ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Hongyue

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the load frequency fluctuation in the shipboard integrated power system caused by such stochastic uncertainty as wind, wave and current, the battery is adopted here to compensate for the difference between diesel generator output power and ship demand power, and the secondary frequency control is used for the diesel generator to guarantee the power balance in the shipboard integrated power system and suppress the frequency fluctuation. The load frequency control problem is modeled as a state space equation, the robust controller is designed by selecting the appropriate sensitivity function and complementary sensitivity function based on the H∞ mixed sensitivity principle, and the controller is solved by the linear matrix inequality(LMIapproach. The amplitude frequency characteristics denote the reasonability of the designed controller and the design requirement is satisfied by the impact of the impulse signal. The simulation results show that, compared with the classical PI controller, the controller designed by the H∞ robust method can significantly suppress frequency fluctuation under stochastic uncertainty, and improve the power variation of the diesel generator, battery and state of charge(SOC. The robust stability and robust performance of the power system are also advanced.

  1. A new load frequency control strategy for micro-grids with considering electrical vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khooban, Mohammad Hassan; Niknam, Taher; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    , by using a recently introduced plane representation, GT2FLS can be regarded as a combination of several interval type-2 fuzzy logic systems (IT2FLS), each with its own corresponding α level and linguistic rules can directly be incorporated into the controller. This paper further presents a new modified...... is working in an island operation mode. Meanwhile, electric vehicles (EVs) are growing in popularity, being used as dispersed energy storage units instead of small batteries in the systems. Accordingly, the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power control can be applied to compensate for the inadequate LFC capacity...

  2. A stochastic surplus production model in continuous time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Wæver; Berg, Casper Willestofte

    2017-01-01

    surplus production model in continuous time (SPiCT), which in addition to stock dynamics also models the dynamics of the fisheries. This enables error in the catch process to be reflected in the uncertainty of estimated model parameters and management quantities. Benefits of the continuous-time state......Surplus production modelling has a long history as a method for managing data-limited fish stocks. Recent advancements have cast surplus production models as state-space models that separate random variability of stock dynamics from error in observed indices of biomass. We present a stochastic......-space model formulation include the ability to provide estimates of exploitable biomass and fishing mortality at any point in time from data sampled at arbitrary and possibly irregular intervals. We show in a simulation that the ability to analyse subannual data can increase the effective sample size...

  3. THE CLOWER CONSTRAINTS MODEL DARI SURPLUS ATAU DEFISIT FISKAL PEMERINTAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonni Manurung

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has something as a purpose to building the empirical models and the new hypothesis between the broad money, surpluses or fiscal deficit, the general price index or inflation rate, demand for monetary base and demand for bank deposit. This study also head for optimal interest rate for bank deposit at the given value of broad money, surplus or fiscal deficit, general price index, demand for monetary base, and demand for bank deposit. The model build consist to balance central bank, intertemporal budget constraint at the maximum expected utility for hold monetary base and bank deposit. The evaluation of the surplus or fiscal deficit stabilization is with the alteration of the requirement reserve ratio, Gross Domestic Product, general price index and interest rate. The results of the study show that the requirement reserve ratio, Gross Domestic Product, general price index and interest rate is very respect to surplus or deficit fiscal. The contribution requirement reserve ratio and interest rate for surplus or deficit fiscal are relatively high. This results show that the clower constraint model can explain the necessary of fiscal and monetary coordinate. Fiscal policy still weak and cause the real business cycle slow down, high inflation and interest rate. The other hands, monetary policy is very strong and cause fiscal surplus is relatively high. The prudent of government and monetary authority are needed to build the fiscal and monetary policy for create the dynamic economy, lower inflation, requirement reserve ratio and interest rate, and the monetary and fiscal dynamic equilibrium. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Studi ini bertujuan membuat model empiris dan hipotesis baru tentang faktor-faktor broad money, surplus dan defisit fiskal, tingkat bunga secara umum, atau tingkat inflasi, permintaan uang primer dan deposito. Selain itu studi ini juga mencari tingkat suku bunga deposito optimal pada nilai tertentu dari faktor-faktor tersebut

  4. Investment and protection of the OAPEC surplus: a strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuwayhid, H.S.

    1981-02-01

    The Arab countries could not absorb the surplus dollars when oil prices rose in the 1970s, nor were they prepared to move into Western financial markets without causing disruptions. A strategy for protecting these surpluses takes into account market realities and the responsibilities of Arab oil-exporting countries toward the Third World. The Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) strategy mainly applies to those countries that cannot absorb their surpluses for internal development. Emphasizing asset protection rather than investment, the strategy suggests a new oil-pricing method, and a shift toward real assets, especially those in the Arab and Third World. Success will require help from the rest of the world to reform the International Monetary System, east stagflation, and recycle petrodollars. 6 references, 2 tables. (DCK)

  5. Fatigue crack propagation under combined cyclic mechanical loading and electric field in piezoelectric ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakihara, Kaori; Tanaka, Keisuke; Akiniwa, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Yasuyoshi; Mukai, Hirokatsu

    2006-01-01

    Fatigue crack propagation tests of PZT specimens were performed under cyclic four-point bending with and without superposition of electric fields. The specimens were poled in the longitudinal direction (PL specimens) perpendicular to the crack plane. The crack propagation rate for the case of open circuit was faster than that for the case of short circuit. The application of a negative or positive electric field parallel to the poling direction accelerated the crack propagation rate, and the amount of acceleration was larger for the case of the negative field. The change of the crack propagation rate with crack extension can be divided into three regions. In the region I, the crack propagation rate decreases with increasing crack length, and then turn to increase in the region III. In the region II, the propagation rate is nearly constant. The mechanisms of fatigue crack propagation were correlated to domain switching near the crack tip. The grain boundary fracture was predominant in the low-rate region, while transgranular fracture became abundant on the unstable fracture surface. (author)

  6. Economic analysis of second use electric vehicle batteries for residential energy storage and load-levelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heymans, Catherine; Walker, Sean B.; Young, Steven B.; Fowler, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The reuse of Li-ion EV batteries for energy storage systems (ESS) in stationary settings is a promising technology to support improved management of demand and supply of electricity. In this paper, MatLAB simulation of a residential energy profile and regulated cost structure is used to analyze the feasibility of and cost savings from repurposing an EV battery unit for peak-shifting. in situ residential energy storage can contribute to the implementation of a smart grid by supporting the reduction of demand during typical peak use periods. Use of an ESS increases household energy use but potentially improves economic effectiveness and reduces greenhouse gas emissions. The research supports the use of financial incentives for Li-ion battery reuse in ESS, including lower energy rates and reduced auxiliary fees. - Highlights: • EV Li-ion batteries can be reused in stationary energy storage systems (ESS). • A single ESS can shift 2 to 3 h of electricity used in a house. • While energy use increases, potential economic and environmental effectiveness improve. • ESS supports smart grid objectives. • Incentives like reduced fees are needed to encourage implementation of Li-ion battery ESS

  7. Nuclear power generation in competition with other sources for base load electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notari, C.; Rey, F.C.

    1996-01-01

    The latest studies performed by OECD and IAEA on the subject were analyzed in order to clarify the international context. Nuclear, gas and coal are compared. The general conclusion is that nuclear power is competitive for electricity generation considering new plants to be commissioned around year 2000. If the discount rate is 5% per annum it is considered the best option in most of the countries included in the studies. If 10% is chosen the levelized costs favour the gas option. In the Argentine case, the analysis of possible plants for the near future shows a clear advantage for the gas projects. This is mainly due to the low capital costs and low local gas prices. The possible evolution of this situation is considered: gas prices will most probably increase because they should approach the price of fuel oil or diesel oil which are used as substitutes in winter for electricity generation and the export projects to Chile and Brasil will also push prices up. The environmental aspects of the question and its influence on regulations and costs is a matter of speculation. Some countries have already penalized greenhouse gases emissions but it is not clear how and when this trend will affect local prices. (author). 4 refs., 6 tabs

  8. MODEL FOR ELECTRIC LOAD OF COMMUNITY HOUSING PROJECTS TO INVESTIGATE “GENERATOR – ACCUMULATOR – CONSUMER” SYSTEM WHILE USING MONTE-CARLO METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Dobrego

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays we observe rather rapid growth of energy accumulators market. There are prerequisites to their extensive application in Belarus. In spite of technology development problems pertaining to optimization of electric power and their operation under conditions of specific systems “generator – accumulator – consumer” (GAC have not obtained proper consideration. At the same time tuning and optimization of the GAC system may provide competitive advantages to various accumulating systems because application of accumulator batteries in non-optimal charge – discharge conditions reduces its operating resource. Optimization of the GAC system may include utilization of hybrid accumulator systems together with heterogeneous chemical and mechanical accumulators, tuning of system controller parameters etc. Research papers present a great number of empirical and analytical methods for calculation of electric loads. These methods use the following parameters as initial data: time-averaged values of actual electric power consumption, averaged apartment electric loads, empirical and statistical form coefficients, coefficients of maximum electric load for a group of uniform consumers. However such models do not meet the requirements of detailed simulation of relatively small system operation when the simulation must correspond to non-stationary, non-averaged, stochastic load nature. The paper provides a simple approach to the detailed simulation of electric loads in regard to small projects such as multi-unit apartment building or small agricultural farm. The model is formulated both in physical and algorithmic terms that make it possible to be easily realized in any programming environment. The paper presents convergence of integral electric power consumption, which is set by the model, to statistically averaged parameters. Autocorrelation function has been calculated in the paper that shows two scales for autocorrelation of simulated load diagrams

  9. Electric Load Forecasting Based on a Least Squares Support Vector Machine with Fuzzy Time Series and Global Harmony Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hong Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new electric load forecasting model by hybridizing the fuzzy time series (FTS and global harmony search algorithm (GHSA with least squares support vector machines (LSSVM, namely GHSA-FTS-LSSVM model. Firstly, the fuzzy c-means clustering (FCS algorithm is used to calculate the clustering center of each cluster. Secondly, the LSSVM is applied to model the resultant series, which is optimized by GHSA. Finally, a real-world example is adopted to test the performance of the proposed model. In this investigation, the proposed model is verified using experimental datasets from the Guangdong Province Industrial Development Database, and results are compared against autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA model and other algorithms hybridized with LSSVM including genetic algorithm (GA, particle swarm optimization (PSO, harmony search, and so on. The forecasting results indicate that the proposed GHSA-FTS-LSSVM model effectively generates more accurate predictive results.

  10. Artificial intelligence in short term electric load forecasting: a state-of-the-art survey for the researcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metaxiotis, K.; Kagiannas, A.; Askounis, D.; Psarras, J. [National Technical University of Athens, Zografou (Turkey). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2003-06-01

    Intelligent solutions, based on artificial intelligence (AI) technologies, to solve complicated practical problems in various sectors are becoming more and more widespread nowadays. AI-based systems are being developed and deployed worldwide in myriad applications, mainly because of their symbolic reasoning, flexibility and explanation capabilities. This paper provides an overview for the researcher of AI technologies, as well as their current use in the field of short term electric load forecasting (STELF). The history of AI in STELF is outlined, leading to a discussion of the various approaches as well as the current research directions. The paper concludes by sharing thoughts and estimations on AI future prospects in this area. This review reveals that although still regarded as a novel methodology, AI technologies are shown to have matured to the point of offering real practical benefits in many of their applications. (Author)

  11. Electricity supply in Sweden 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The year 1983 was characterized by a continued decrease in oil consumption and an increase in electricity consumption. Totally the supply of fuels decreased from 278TWh to 264 TWh in 1983. The electricity supply increased from 99.9 TWh in 1982 to 110.8 TWh in 1983. The consumers total energy use decreased from 358 TWh in 1982 to 355 TWh in 1983. Electricity consumption excluding transmission losses increased from 91,4 TWh in 1982 to 101.1TWh in 1983. The increase was due to electric space heating disconnectable electric boilers and to industry. At the end of 1983 the electric heating subscriptions are estimated to corresponds to 45 percent of all one-family houses. Hydropower accounted for 54 percent and nucler power accounted for 34 percent of the total supply of electricity in 1983. The highest hourly load during 1983 amounted to 20862 MW. The lowest load during 1983 amounted to 5185 MW. Ten nuclear power units were in commercial operation during the year. The energy availability figures were as follows: Barsebaeck 1 85 percent, Barsebaeck 2 82 percent, Forsmark 1 84 percent, Forsmark 2 88 percent, Oskarshamn 1 87 percent, Oskarshamn 2 83 percent, Ringhals 1 59 percent and Ringhals 2 68 percent. The production of electricity from conventional thermal power stations was only 4.0 TWh. Back pressure power in industry contributed 2.5 TWh of this figure and combined power and district heating stations 1.3 TWh. Two coal fired combined power and district heating plants were added and sevearl combined power and district heating plants have been rebuilt to be coal fired. The high voltage power grid system permits joint operation by all the power companies in the country, and the major power companies utilize the network for exchanging surplus power with other power companies. An account of the public debate on energy in Sweden during 1983 is also given.(L.E.)

  12. Self-Sensing of Position-Related Loads in Continuous Carbon Fibers-Embedded 3D-Printed Polymer Structures Using Electrical Resistance Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Congcong; Yao, Xinhua; Shen, Hongyao; Fu, Jianzhong

    2018-03-27

    Condition monitoring in polymer composites and structures based on continuous carbon fibers show overwhelming advantages over other potentially competitive sensing technologies in long-gauge measurements due to their great electromechanical behavior and excellent reinforcement property. Although carbon fibers have been developed as strain- or stress-sensing agents in composite structures through electrical resistance measurements, the electromechanical behavior under flexural loads in terms of different loading positions still lacks adequate research, which is the most common situation in practical applications. This study establishes the relationship between the fractional change in electrical resistance of carbon fibers and the external loads at different loading positions along the fibers' longitudinal direction. An approach for real-time monitoring of flexural loads at different loading positions was presented simultaneously based on this relationship. The effectiveness and feasibility of the approach were verified by experiments on carbon fiber-embedded three-dimensional (3D) printed thermoplastic polymer beam. The error in using the provided approach to monitor the external loads at different loading positions was less than 1.28%. The study fully taps the potential of continuous carbon fibers as long-gauge sensory agents and reinforcement in the 3D-printed polymer structures.

  13. Self-Sensing of Position-Related Loads in Continuous Carbon Fibers-Embedded 3D-Printed Polymer Structures Using Electrical Resistance Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong Luan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Condition monitoring in polymer composites and structures based on continuous carbon fibers show overwhelming advantages over other potentially competitive sensing technologies in long-gauge measurements due to their great electromechanical behavior and excellent reinforcement property. Although carbon fibers have been developed as strain- or stress-sensing agents in composite structures through electrical resistance measurements, the electromechanical behavior under flexural loads in terms of different loading positions still lacks adequate research, which is the most common situation in practical applications. This study establishes the relationship between the fractional change in electrical resistance of carbon fibers and the external loads at different loading positions along the fibers’ longitudinal direction. An approach for real-time monitoring of flexural loads at different loading positions was presented simultaneously based on this relationship. The effectiveness and feasibility of the approach were verified by experiments on carbon fiber-embedded three-dimensional (3D printed thermoplastic polymer beam. The error in using the provided approach to monitor the external loads at different loading positions was less than 1.28%. The study fully taps the potential of continuous carbon fibers as long-gauge sensory agents and reinforcement in the 3D-printed polymer structures.

  14. Fully-distributed Load Frequency Control Strategy in an Islanded Microgrid Considering Plug-In Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Qi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available With large-scale integration of electric vehicles, this paper investigates the load frequency control problem in an islanded microgrid with plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs, which can be regarded as mobile battery energy storages to provide a valuable contribution to frequency regulation. A novel fully-distributed control strategy is proposed to achieve fast frequency regulation of islanded microgrids and effective coordination control of distributed energy sources. Firstly, distributed control based on an improved linear active disturbance rejection algorithm is realized through a multi-agent system, and it greatly enhances the anti-disturbance capability of the microgrid. Then, in order to guarantee the effectiveness of PEVs in frequency regulation, PEVs are controlled following the controllable power rate (CPR calculated from the consensus-based multi-agent system. Furthermore, the system control construction in this paper is well designed to avoid the negative effects caused by system communication time delay. Finally, numerical simulations under different disturbances are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy in comparison with other previous control strategies.

  15. Hierarchical Load Tracking Control of a Grid-Connected Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Maximum Electrical Efficiency Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the benchmark solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC dynamic model for power system studies and the analysis of the SOFC operating conditions, the nonlinear programming (NLP optimization method was used to determine the maximum electrical efficiency of the grid-connected SOFC subject to the constraints of fuel utilization factor, stack temperature and output active power. The optimal operating conditions of the grid-connected SOFC were obtained by solving the NLP problem considering the power consumed by the air compressor. With the optimal operating conditions of the SOFC for the maximum efficiency operation obtained at different active power output levels, a hierarchical load tracking control scheme for the grid-connected SOFC was proposed to realize the maximum electrical efficiency operation with the stack temperature bounded. The hierarchical control scheme consists of a fast active power control and a slower stack temperature control. The active power control was developed by using a decentralized control method. The efficiency of the proposed hierarchical control scheme was demonstrated by case studies using the benchmark SOFC dynamic model.

  16. The effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and renewable power in support of holistic environmental goals: Part 2 - Design and operation implications for load-balancing resources on the electric grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarroja, Brian; Eichman, Joshua D.; Zhang, Li; Brown, Tim M.; Samuelsen, Scott

    2015-03-01

    A study has been performed that analyzes the effectiveness of utilizing plug-in vehicles to meet holistic environmental goals across the combined electricity and transportation sectors. In this study, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) penetration levels are varied from 0 to 60% and base renewable penetration levels are varied from 10 to 63%. The first part focused on the effect of installing plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on the environmental performance of the combined electricity and transportation sectors. The second part addresses impacts on the design and operation of load-balancing resources on the electric grid associated with fleet capacity factor, peaking and load-following generator capacity, efficiency, ramp rates, start-up events and the levelized cost of electricity. PHEVs using smart charging are found to counteract many of the disruptive impacts of intermittent renewable power on balancing generators for a wide range of renewable penetration levels, only becoming limited at high renewable penetration levels due to lack of flexibility and finite load size. This study highlights synergy between sustainability measures in the electric and transportation sectors and the importance of communicative dispatch of these vehicles.

  17. Will we be heating with green electricity tomorrow? The large potential of load-variable private customer tariffs; Heizen wir kuenftig mit Oekostrom? Das grosse Potenzial lastvariabler Privatkundentarife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zierdt, Tobias; Lang, Dirk [RWE Effizienz GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Momentous changes loom ahead for Germany's energy supply system as a result of the energy turnaround. One central question is how load peaks from renewable energy plants can be conveniently accommodated on the demand side. Two research projects are currently being carried out to examine the acceptance of time-variable and load-variable tariffs for private households. First results show that using green electricity for heat generation is significantly more attractive for both customers and energy suppliers than using it to cover day-to-day electricity demand at a later time.

  18. Households under the impression of the energy turnaround. Development of electricity demand and load profiles; Die Haushalte im Zeichen der Energiewende. Entwicklung der Stromnachfrage und Lastprofile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsland, Rainer; Bossmann, Tobias; Gnann, Till; Wietschel, Martin [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Hartel, Rupert; Fichtner, Wolf [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Industriebetriebslehre und Industrielle Produktion (IIP)

    2013-01-15

    One of the central components of the energy turnaround is the improvement of energy efficiency. Households play a key role in this connection, not only due to their high potentials for saving energy and shifting loads, but also because of the growing importance of electricity as an energy carrier. This makes it interesting to explore how the continuing dissemination of efficient energy applications, electromobility and decentralised electricity production through photovoltaics will impact on load and electricity production profiles in the German household sector until the year 2040. The results show that with ambitious energy policy goals it will be possible to lower the electricity demand of households by 30%. However, this decrease could be more than undone by electromobility.

  19. A Novel Hybrid Model Based on Extreme Learning Machine, k-Nearest Neighbor Regression and Wavelet Denoising Applied to Short-Term Electric Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weide Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Electric load forecasting plays an important role in electricity markets and power systems. Because electric load time series are complicated and nonlinear, it is very difficult to achieve a satisfactory forecasting accuracy. In this paper, a hybrid model, Wavelet Denoising-Extreme Learning Machine optimized by k-Nearest Neighbor Regression (EWKM, which combines k-Nearest Neighbor (KNN and Extreme Learning Machine (ELM based on a wavelet denoising technique is proposed for short-term load forecasting. The proposed hybrid model decomposes the time series into a low frequency-associated main signal and some detailed signals associated with high frequencies at first, then uses KNN to determine the independent and dependent variables from the low-frequency signal. Finally, the ELM is used to get the non-linear relationship between these variables to get the final prediction result for the electric load. Compared with three other models, Extreme Learning Machine optimized by k-Nearest Neighbor Regression (EKM, Wavelet Denoising-Extreme Learning Machine (WKM and Wavelet Denoising-Back Propagation Neural Network optimized by k-Nearest Neighbor Regression (WNNM, the model proposed in this paper can improve the accuracy efficiently. New South Wales is the economic powerhouse of Australia, so we use the proposed model to predict electric demand for that region. The accurate prediction has a significant meaning.

  20. Variability of electricity load patterns and its effect on demand response: A critical peak pricing experiment on Korean commercial and industrial customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Dongsik; Eom, Jiyong; Jae Park, Min; Jeung Rho, Jae

    2016-01-01

    To the extent that demand response represents an intentional electricity usage adjustment to price changes or incentive payments, consumers who exhibit more-variable load patterns on normal days may be capable of altering their loads more significantly in response to dynamic pricing plans. This study investigates the variation in the pre-enrollment load patterns of Korean commercial and industrial electricity customers and their impact on event-day loads during a critical peak pricing experiment in the winter of 2013. Contrary to conventional approaches to profiling electricity loads, this study proposes a new clustering technique based on variability indices that collectively represent the potential demand–response resource that these customers would supply. Our analysis reveals that variability in pre-enrollment load patterns does indeed have great predictive power for estimating their impact on demand–response loads. Customers in relatively low-variability clusters provided limited or no response, whereas customers in relatively high-variability clusters consistently presented large load impacts, accounting for most of the program-level peak reductions. This study suggests that dynamic pricing programs themselves may not offer adequate motivation for meaningful adjustments in load patterns, particularly for customers in low-variability clusters. - Highlights: • A method of clustering customers by variability indices is developed. • Customers in high-variability clusters provide substantial peak reductions. • Low-variability clusters exhibit limited reductions. • For low-variability customers, alternative policy instruments is well advised. • A model of discerning customer's demand response potential is suggested.

  1. Rising above Decline: Some Uses of Surplus Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Dale E.

    In many communities new arrangements of surplus school space have been made that facilitate use of the space by the people of the districts, encourage government agencies to anticipate and support social transitions where they are necessary, and allow school districts to improve the quality of their programs. This paper is a survey of some of…

  2. Analysis of yam marketable surplus in Imo state, Nigeria | Onyenobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in Imo State in the southeastern agricultural zone of Nigeria, to determine socio-economic characteristics of farmers; cost and return of farmers and factors that determine the marketable surplus of farmers. Among the farm enterprises in the state, yam has high- income elasticity of demand by ...

  3. Determinants of rural household marketed surplus for cereal crops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and supply of cereal crops to the market (market surplus). The study utilized cross sectional data obtained through multistage random sampling method. Ordinary least square method was used for the analysis. Finding revealed that the quantity of food crops reserved for home consumption by households increased their ...

  4. Surplus biomass through energy efficient kilns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Jan-Olof; Westerlund, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The magnitude of the national heat demand for drying lumber in kilns is established. → Each part of the total heat consumption is divided and shown between the main drying conditions. → The potential to increase the energy efficiency in kilns with available techniques is presented. → The market demand for the biomass, available with increase kiln energy efficiency, is reviled. -- Abstract: The use of biomass in the European Union has increased since the middle of the 1990s, mostly because of high subsidies and CO 2 emission regulation through the Kyoto protocol. The sawmills are huge biomass suppliers to the market; out of the Swedish annual lumber production of 16.4 Mm 3 , 95% is produced by medium to large-volume sawmills with a lumber quotient of 47%. The remaining part is produced as biomass. An essential part (12%) of the entering timber is used for supply of heat in their production processes, mostly in the substantial drying process. The drying process is the most time and heat consuming process in the sawmill. This study was undertaken to determine the sawmills' national use of energy and potential magnitude of improvements. If the drying process can be made more effective, sawmills' own use of biomass can be decreased and allow a considerably larger supply to the biomass market through processed or unprocessed biomass, heat or electricity production. The national electricity and heat usage when drying the lumber have been analysed by theoretical evaluation and experimental validation at a batch kiln. The main conclusion is that the heat consumption for drying lumber among the Swedish sawmills is 4.9 TW h/year, and with available state-of-the-art techniques it is possible to decrease the national heat consumption by approximately 2.9 TW h. This additional amount of energy corresponds to the market's desire for larger energy supply.

  5. Electricity exchange and the valuation of transnational transmission access: A case study of intra-regional integration of the electric industries of Argentina and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brereton, Beverly Ann

    The interconnection of neighboring electricity networks provides opportunities for the realization of synergies between electricity systems. Examples of the synergies to be realized are the rationalized management of the electricity networks whose fuel source domination differs, and the exploitation of non-coincident system peak demands. These factors allow technology diversity in the satisfaction of electricity demand, the coordination of planning and maintenance schedules between the networks by exploiting the cost differences in the pool of generation assets and the load configuration differences in the neighboring locations. The interconnection decision studied in this dissertation focused on the electricity networks of Argentina and Chile whose electricity systems operate in isolation at the current time. The cooperative game-theoretic framework was applied in the analysis of the decision facing the two countries and the net surplus to be derived from interconnection was evaluated. Measurement of the net gains from interconnection used in this study were reflected in changes in generating costs under the assumption that demand is fixed under all scenarios. With the demand for electricity assumed perfectly inelastic, passive or aggressive bidding strategies were considered under the scenarios for the generators in the two countries. The interconnection decision was modeled using a linear power flow model which utilizes linear programming techniques to reflect dispatch procedures based on generation bids. Results of the study indicate that the current interconnection project between Argentina and Chile will not result in positive net surplus under a variety of scenarios. Only under significantly reduced interconnection cost will the venture prove attractive. Possible sharing mechanisms were also explored in the research and a symmetric distribution of the net surplus to be derived under the reduced interconnection cost scenario was recommended to preserve equity

  6. Non parametric forecasting of functional-valued processes: application to the electricity load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cugliari, J.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of predicting a functional valued stochastic process. We first explore the model proposed by Antoniadis et al. (2006) in the context of a practical application -the french electrical power demand- where the hypothesis of stationarity may fail. The departure from stationarity is twofold: an evolving mean level and the existence of groups that may be seen as classes of stationarity. We explore some corrections that enhance the prediction performance. The corrections aim to take into account the presence of these nonstationary features. In particular, to handle the existence of groups, we constraint the model to use only the data that belongs to the same group of the last available data. If one knows the grouping, a simple post-treatment suffices to obtain better prediction performances. If the grouping is unknown, we propose it from data using clustering analysis. The infinite dimension of the not necessarily stationary trajectories have to be taken into account by the clustering algorithm. We propose two strategies for this, both based on wavelet transforms. The first one uses a feature extraction approach through the Discrete Wavelet Transform combined with a feature selection algorithm to select the significant features to be used in a classical clustering algorithm. The second approach clusters directly the functions by means of a dissimilarity measure of the Continuous Wavelet spectra.The third part of thesis is dedicated to explore an alternative prediction model that incorporates exogenous information. For this purpose we use the framework given by the Autoregressive Hilbertian processes. We propose a new class of processes that we call Conditional Autoregressive Hilbertian (carh) and develop the equivalent of projection and resolvent classes of estimators to predict such processes. (author)

  7. [On the temporary surplus population in the elementary stage of socialism in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Chen, L

    1988-07-01

    The causes and patterns of China's surplus population are analyzed for the period 1951-1980. The authors view the surplus population as a temporary phenomenon that is advantageous to social development.

  8. Research and Application of Hybrid Forecasting Model Based on an Optimal Feature Selection System—A Case Study on Electrical Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunxuan Dong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of modernizing smart grid prominently increases the complexity and uncertainty in scheduling and operation of power systems, and, in order to develop a more reliable, flexible, efficient and resilient grid, electrical load forecasting is not only an important key but is still a difficult and challenging task as well. In this paper, a short-term electrical load forecasting model, with a unit for feature learning named Pyramid System and recurrent neural networks, has been developed and it can effectively promote the stability and security of the power grid. Nine types of methods for feature learning are compared in this work to select the best one for learning target, and two criteria have been employed to evaluate the accuracy of the prediction intervals. Furthermore, an electrical load forecasting method based on recurrent neural networks has been formed to achieve the relational diagram of historical data, and, to be specific, the proposed techniques are applied to electrical load forecasting using the data collected from New South Wales, Australia. The simulation results show that the proposed hybrid models can not only satisfactorily approximate the actual value but they are also able to be effective tools in the planning of smart grids.

  9. Electricity Storage. Technology Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbolotti, G. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development ENEA, Rome (Italy); Kempener, R. [International Renewable Energy Agency IRENA, Bonn (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Electricity storage is a key technology for electricity systems with a high share of renewables as it allows electricity to be generated when renewable sources (i.e. wind, sunlight) are available and to be consumed on demand. It is expected that the increasing price of fossil fuels and peak-load electricity and the growing share of renewables will result in electricity storage to grow rapidly and become more cost effective. However, electricity storage is technically challenging because electricity can only be stored after conversion into other forms of energy, and this involves expensive equipment and energy losses. At present, the only commercial storage option is pumped hydro power where surplus electricity (e.g. electricity produced overnight by base-load coal or nuclear power) is used to pump water from a lower to an upper reservoir. The stored energy is then used to produce hydropower during daily high-demand periods. Pumped hydro plants are large-scale storage systems with a typical efficiency between 70% and 80%, which means that a quarter of the energy is lost in the process. Other storage technologies with different characteristics (i.e. storage process and capacity, conversion back to electricity and response to power demand, energy losses and costs) are currently in demonstration or pre-commercial stages and discussed in this brief report: Compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems, Flywheels; Electrical batteries; Supercapacitors; Superconducting magnetic storage; and Thermal energy storage. No single electricity storage technology scores high in all dimensions. The technology of choice often depends on the size of the system, the specific service, the electricity sources and the marginal cost of peak electricity. Pumped hydro currently accounts for 95% of the global storage capacity and still offers a considerable expansion potential but does not suit residential or small-size applications. CAES expansion is limited due to the lack of suitable

  10. Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Basford, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Electricity Made Simple covers the fundamental principles underlying every aspect of electricity. The book discusses current; resistance including its measurement, Kirchhoff's laws, and resistors; electroheat, electromagnetics and electrochemistry; and the motor and generator effects of electromagnetic forces. The text also describes alternating current, circuits and inductors, alternating current circuits, and a.c. generators and motors. Other methods of generating electromagnetic forces are also considered. The book is useful for electrical engineering students.

  11. 41 CFR 102-37.40 - What type of surplus property is available for donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... property is available for donation? 102-37.40 Section 102-37.40 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.40 What type of surplus property is available for donation? All surplus property (including property held by...

  12. A flexible control strategy of plug-in electric vehicles operating in seven modes for smoothing load power curves in smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khemakhem, Siwar; Rekik, Mouna; Krichen, Lotfi

    2017-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) seem to be an interesting new electrical load for improving the reliability of smart grid. The purpose of this work is to investigate a supervision strategy based on regulated charging of PEVs in order to guarantee an optimized power management of the system and consequently a flatter power demand curve. The system mainly includes PEVs powered by a Lithium-ion battery ensuring the charging and discharging operations of these PEVs at home and a daily load power demanded by home appliances. The purpose of the considered strategy is to detect the connection status of each PEV and to establish the priority order between these PEVs with certain flexibility which results in managing the PEVs through seven operating modes. The response of the control algorithm enables to ensure the power flow exchange between the PEVs and the electrical grid, especially at rush hours, and to minimize load power variance aiming to achieve the smoothness for the power demand curve and to reduce the stress of the electrical grid. The simulation results are presented in order to illustrate the efficiency of this power control approach. - Highlights: • A flexible power management algorithm of Plug-in electric vehicle is proposed. • This control can be applied for any home equipped with two PEVs. • The response is to ensure the power flow exchange between PEVs and power grid. • The main contribution is to achieve the smoothness for the daily power demand curve.

  13. Distribution of health-related social surplus in pharmaceuticals: an estimation of consumer and producer surplus in the management of high blood lipids and COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refoios Camejo, Rodrigo; Camejo, Rodrigo Refoios; McGrath, Clare; Miraldo, Marisa; Rutten, Frans

    2014-05-01

    Following suggestions that developers should be allowed to capture a defined share of the total value generated by their technologies, the amount of surplus accruing to the pharmaceutical industry has become an important concept when discussing policies to encourage innovation in healthcare. Observational clinical and market data spanning over a period of 20 years were applied in order to estimate the social surplus generated by pharmaceuticals used in the management of high cholesterol and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The distribution of social surplus between consumers and producers was also computed and the dynamics of rent extraction examined. Health-related social surplus increased consistently over time for both disease areas, mostly due to the launch of more effective technologies and a greater number of patients being treated for the conditions. However, the growth rate of social surplus differed for each disease and dissimilar patterns of distribution between consumer and producer surplus emerged across the years. For lipid-lowering therapies, yearly consumer surplus reaches 85 % of total health-related social surplus after the loss of exclusivity of major molecules, whilst for COPD it ranges from 54 to 69 %. Average producer surplus is approximately 25 % of total health-related social surplus in the lipid-lowering market between 1990 and 2010, and 37 % for COPD between 2001 and 2010. The share of surplus captured by non-innovative generic producers also varies differently across periods for both markets, reaching 11.12 % in the case of lipid-lowering therapies but just 1.55 % in the case of COPD. A considerable amount of the value may be recouped by consumers only towards the end of the lifecycle. Elements affecting the distribution of social surplus vary across disease areas and include the market pricing structure and the pattern of clinical effectiveness observed over time. The application of a longer-term disease specific perspective

  14. A Bi-Level Optimization Approach to Charging Load Regulation of Electric Vehicle Fast Charging Stations Based on a Battery Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Bao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast charging stations enable the high-powered rapid recharging of electric vehicles. However, these stations also face challenges due to power fluctuations, high peak loads, and low load factors, affecting the reliable and economic operation of charging stations and distribution networks. This paper introduces a battery energy storage system (BESS for charging load control, which is a more user-friendly approach and is more robust to perturbations. With the goals of peak-shaving, total electricity cost reduction, and minimization of variation in the state-of-charge (SOC range, a BESS-based bi-level optimization strategy for the charging load regulation of fast charging stations is proposed in this paper. At the first level, a day-ahead optimization strategy generates the optimal planned load curve and the deviation band to be used as a reference for ensuring multiple control objectives through linear programming, and even for avoiding control failure caused by insufficient BESS energy. Based on this day-ahead optimal plan, at a second level, real-time rolling optimization converts the control process to a multistage decision-making problem. The predictive control-based real-time rolling optimization strategy in the proposed model was used to achieve the above control objectives and maintain battery life. Finally, through a horizontal comparison of two control approaches in each case study, and a longitudinal comparison of the control robustness against different degrees of load disturbances in three cases, the results indicated that the proposed control strategy was able to significantly improve the charging load characteristics, even with large disturbances. Meanwhile, the proposed approach ensures the least amount of variation in the range of battery SOC and reduces the total electricity cost, which will be of a considerable benefit to station operators.

  15. A study of plasma facing tungsten components with electrical discharge machined surface exposed to cyclic thermal loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Yohji, E-mail: seki.yohji@jaea.go.jp; Ezato, Koichiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Kenji; Yamada, Hirokazu; Hirayama, Tomoyuki

    2016-11-01

    Through R&D for a plasma facing units (PFUs) in an outer vertical target of an ITER full-tungsten (W) divertor, Japan Atomic Energy Agency succeeded in demonstrating the durability of the W divertor shaped by an electrical discharge machining (EDM). To prevent melting of W armors in the PFUs, an adequate technology to meet requirements of a geometrical shape and a tolerance is one of the most important key issues in a manufacturing process. From the necessity, the EDM has been evaluated to control the final shape of the W armor. Though the EDM was known to be advantages such as an easy workability, a potential disadvantage of presence of micro-cracks on the W surface appeared. In order to examine a potential effect of the micro-crack on a heat removal durability, a high heat flux testing was carried out for the W divertor mock-up with the polish and the EDM. As the result, all of the W armors endured the repetitive heat load of 1000 cycles at an absorbed heat flux of more than 20 MW/m{sup 2}, which strongly encourages the realization of the PFUs of the ITER full-W divertor with the various geometrical shape and the high accuracy tolerance.

  16. A study of plasma facing tungsten components with electrical discharge machined surface exposed to cyclic thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Yohji; Ezato, Koichiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Kenji; Yamada, Hirokazu; Hirayama, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Through R&D for a plasma facing units (PFUs) in an outer vertical target of an ITER full-tungsten (W) divertor, Japan Atomic Energy Agency succeeded in demonstrating the durability of the W divertor shaped by an electrical discharge machining (EDM). To prevent melting of W armors in the PFUs, an adequate technology to meet requirements of a geometrical shape and a tolerance is one of the most important key issues in a manufacturing process. From the necessity, the EDM has been evaluated to control the final shape of the W armor. Though the EDM was known to be advantages such as an easy workability, a potential disadvantage of presence of micro-cracks on the W surface appeared. In order to examine a potential effect of the micro-crack on a heat removal durability, a high heat flux testing was carried out for the W divertor mock-up with the polish and the EDM. As the result, all of the W armors endured the repetitive heat load of 1000 cycles at an absorbed heat flux of more than 20 MW/m"2, which strongly encourages the realization of the PFUs of the ITER full-W divertor with the various geometrical shape and the high accuracy tolerance.

  17. Dealing with a dangerous surplus from the cold war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.

    1997-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear materials is a threat to national security and world peace. This threat complicates the safeguarding and management of fissile materials that have become surplus since the end of the Cold War. The dismantling of weapons and the cessation of new nuclear weapons manufacturing, while positive for world peace, have raised a problem: what to do about the fissile materials recovered from the weapons or in inventories that will remain unused. These materials--primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium--are environmental, safety, and health concerns. But of more urgency is the threat they pose to national and international security if they fall into the hands of terrorists or rogue nations. As arms reduction continues and amounts of surplus fissile materials increase, the potential for such security breaches will increase

  18. Share-of-Surplus Product Line Optimisation with Price Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. G. Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kraus and Yano (2003 established the share-of-surplus product line optimisation model and developed a heuristic procedure for this nonlinear mixed-integer optimisation model. In their model, price of a product is defined as a continuous decision variable. However, because product line optimisation is a planning process in the early stage of product development, pricing decisions usually are not very precise. In this research, a nonlinear integer programming share-of-surplus product line optimization model that allows the selection of candidate price levels for products is established. The model is further transformed into an equivalent linear mixed-integer optimisation model by applying linearisation techniques. Experimental results in different market scenarios show that the computation time of the transformed model is much less than that of the original model.

  19. Understanding and overcoming the “positive profits with negative surplus-value” paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSTAVO DAOU LUCAS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper explains the “positive profits with negative surplus-value” example of Steedman (1975 and shows that while in joint production systems individual labour values can be negative, the claim that the total labour embodied in the surplus product of the economy (surplus-value can also be negative is based on assumptions that have no economic meaning (such as negative activity levels.The paper also provides a way to measure the surplus-value of joint production systems which overcomes the problems of the traditional concept and restates the proposition that a positive amount of surplus labour is a necessary condition for positive profits.

  20. Current Account Surpluses and the Interest Rate Island in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Mauro

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes some long-run aspects of the Swiss balance of payments, highlighting two macroeconomic phenomena that make Switzerland stand out among other countries: first, it has had a persistent current account surplus and the largest ratio of net foreign assets to GDP in the world; second, its real interest rates have been significantly lower than those of most other industrialized countries, earning it the label “interest rate island”. These two distinctive features may be related,...

  1. An efficient approach for electric load forecasting using distributed ART (adaptive resonance theory) and HS-ARTMAP (Hyper-spherical ARTMAP network) neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yuan; Wang, Jian-zhou; Tang, Yun; Yang, Yu-chen

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a neural network based on adaptive resonance theory, named distributed ART (adaptive resonance theory) and HS-ARTMAP (Hyper-spherical ARTMAP network), applied to the electric load forecasting problem. The distributed ART combines the stable fast learning capabilities of winner-take-all ART systems with the noise tolerance and code compression capabilities of multi-layer perceptions. The HS-ARTMAP, a hybrid of an RBF (Radial Basis Function)-network-like module which uses hyper-sphere basis function substitute the Gaussian basis function and an ART-like module, performs incremental learning capabilities in function approximation problem. The HS-ARTMAP only receives the compressed distributed coding processed by distributed ART to deal with the proliferation problem which ARTMAP (adaptive resonance theory map) architecture often encounters and still performs well in electric load forecasting. To demonstrate the performance of the methodology, data from New South Wales and Victoria in Australia are illustrated. Results show that the developed method is much better than the traditional BP and single HS-ARTMAP neural network. -- Research highlights: → The processing of the presented network is based on compressed distributed data. It's an innovation among the adaptive resonance theory architecture. → The presented network decreases the proliferation the Fuzzy ARTMAP architectures usually encounter. → The network on-line forecasts electrical load accurately, stably. → Both one-period and multi-period load forecasting are executed using data of different cities.

  2. Load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, H.

    1995-01-01

    Slides used in a presentation at The Power of Change Conference in Vancouver, BC in April 1995 about the changing needs for load forecasting were presented. Technological innovations and population increase were said to be the prime driving forces behind the changing needs in load forecasting. Structural changes, market place changes, electricity supply planning changes, and changes in planning objectives were other factors discussed. It was concluded that load forecasting was a form of information gathering, that provided important market intelligence

  3. Modeling electric load and water consumption impacts from an integrated thermal energy and rainwater storage system for residential buildings in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upshaw, Charles R.; Rhodes, Joshua D.; Webber, Michael E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydronic integrated rainwater thermal storage (ITHERST) system concept presented. • ITHERST system modeled to assess peak electric load shifting and water savings. • Case study shows 75% peak load reduction and 9% increase in energy consumption. • Potable rainwater collection could provide ∼50–90% of water used for case study. - Abstract: The United States’ built environment is a significant direct and indirect consumer of energy and water. In Texas, and other parts of the Southern and Western US, air conditioning loads, particularly from residential buildings, contribute significantly to the peak electricity load on the grid, straining transmission. In parallel, water resources in these regions are strained by growing populations and shrinking supplies. One potential method to address both of these issues is to develop integrated thermal energy and auxiliary water (e.g. rainwater, greywater, etc.) storage and management systems that reduce peak load and freshwater consumption. This analysis focuses on a proposed integrated thermal energy and rainwater storage (ITHERST) system that is incorporated into a residential air-source chiller/heat pump with hydronic distribution. This paper describes a step-wise hourly thermodynamic model of the thermal storage system to assess on-peak performance, and a daily volume-balance model of auxiliary water collection and consumption to assess water savings potential. While the model is generalized, this analysis uses a case study of a single family home in Austin, Texas to illustrate its capabilities. The results indicate this ITHERST system could reduce on-peak air conditioning electric power demand by over 75%, with increased overall electric energy consumption of approximately 7–9%, when optimally sized. Additionally, the modeled rainwater collection reduced municipal water consumption by approximately 53–89%, depending on the system size.

  4. Addiction surplus: the add-on margin that makes addictive consumptions difficult to contain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Peter J; Livingstone, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Addictive consumptions generate financial surpluses over-and-above non-addictive consumptions because of the excessive consumption of addicted consumers. This add-on margin or 'addiction surplus' provides a powerful incentive for beneficiaries to protect their income by ensuring addicted consumers keep consuming. Not only that, addiction surplus provides the financial base that enables producers to sponsor activities which aim to prevent public health initiatives from reducing consumption. This paper examines the potency of addiction surplus to engage industry, governments and communities in an on-going reliance on addiction surplus. It then explores how neo-liberal constructions of a rational consumer disguise the ethical and exploitative dynamics of addiction surplus by examining ways in which addictive consumptions fail to conform to notions of autonomy and rationality. Four measures are identified to contain the distorting effects of addiction surplus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Future energy loads for a large-scale adoption of electric vehicles in the city of Los Angeles: Impacts on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae D.; Rahimi, Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Using plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) has become an important component of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction strategy in the transportation sector. Assessing the net effect of PEVs on GHG emissions, however, is dependent on factors such as type and scale of electricity generation sources, adoption rate, and charging behavior. This study creates a comprehensive model that estimates the energy load and GHG emissions impacts for the years 2020 and 2030 for the city of Los Angeles. For 2020, model simulations show that the PEV charging loads will be modest with negligible effects on the overall system load profile. Contrary to previous study results, the average marginal carbon intensity is higher if PEV charging occurs during off-peak hours. These results suggest that current economic incentives to encourage off-peak charging result in greater GHG emissions. Model simulations for 2030 show that PEV charging loads increase significantly resulting in potential generation shortages. There are also significant grid operation challenges as the region's energy grid is required to ramp up and down rapidly to meet PEV loads. For 2030, the average marginal carbon intensity for off-peak charging becomes lower than peak charging mainly due to the removal of coal from the power generation portfolio. - Highlights: • Future energy load from PEV charging in the city of Los Angeles is modeled. • Changes in the marginal carbon intensity of the region's electric grid are modeled. • In the short run, offpeak charging results in higher marginal carbon intensity. • There is a mismatch between emissions and economic incentives for charging

  6. Optimizing the Operation of Windfarms, Energy Storage and Flexible Loads in Modern Power Systems and Deregulated Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Zamiyad

    most turbines is quite close to 1/3 and yaw angle acts as the dominant optimization variable. In the next part of this dissertation, a system comprising of a windfarm and energy storage operating in real-time electricity markets is studied. An Energy-balancing Threshold Price (ETP) policy is proposed to maximize the revenue of a windfarm with on-site storage. We propose and analyze a scheme for a windfarm to store or sell energy based on a threshold price. The threshold price is calculated based on long-term distributions of the electricity price and wind power generation processes, and is chosen so as to balance the energy flows in and out of the storage-equipped windfarm. It is also shown mathematically that the proposed policy is optimal in terms of the long-term revenue generated. Comparing it with the optimal policy that has knowledge of the future, we observe that the revenue obtained by the proposed ETP policy is approximately 90% of the maximum attainable revenue at a storage capacity of 10-15 times the power rating of the windfarm. The intermittent nature of wind power is a hindrance to the efficient participation of windfarms in the day-ahead and forward electricity markets. In this regard, a flexible forward contract is proposed in this dissertation which allows the windfarms to enter into a forward contract with flexible load with an option to deviate from the contracted amount of power. Using such a flexible contract would allow the windfarms to supply more or less than the contracted amount of power in case of unexpected wind conditions or real-time prices. We also propose models for forecasting wind power and real-time electricity prices. The comparison between the proposed contracting framework and a simple fixed contract (currently existing in the market) for different levels of flexibility and load shows that there is a net gain in windfarm revenues, if the transaction price of the two contracts are set equal. Lastly, we present and analyze

  7. Acoustic emissions and electric signal recordings, when cement mortar beams are subjected to three-point bending under various loading protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kyriazopoulos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Two experimental techniques are used study the response of cement mortar beams subjected to three-point bending under various load¬ing protocols. The techniques used are the detection of weak electric current emissions known as Pressure Stimulated Currents and the Acoustic Emissions (in particular, the cumulative AE energy and the b-value analysis. Patterns are detected that can be used to predict upcoming fracture, regard¬less of the adopted loading protocol in each experiment. The expe¬rimental results of the AE and PSC techniques lead to the conclusion that when the calculated Ib values decrease, the PSC starts increasing strongly.

  8. Design and operational procedures for ORC-based systems coupled with internal combustion engines driving electrical generators at full and partial load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badescu, Viorel; Aboaltabooq, Mahdi Hatf Kadhum; Pop, Horatiu; Apostol, Valentin; Prisecaru, Malina; Prisecaru, Tudor

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste heat recovery from Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs). • Organic Ranking Cycle (ORC) systems driving Electric Generators (EGs). • ICE-EG partial load operation. • Optimum design geometry of ORC system. • Optimum operation of ORC system at partial EG load. - Abstract: This paper refers to recovering waste heat from the hot gases exhausted by internal combustion engines (ICEs) driving electric generators (EGs) at full and partial load. The topic is of particular interest for developing countries where electric grids are underdeveloped or missing and electricity is generated locally by using classical fuels. The heat recovery system is based on an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). A novel method is proposed for the optimum design of ORC-based systems operating in combination with ICE at partial EG loads. First, ORC-based systems coupled with ICEs operating at full EG load is treated. Specific results for the operation at full EG load are as follows: (i) the optimum superheating increment ranges between 30 and 40 °C, depending on the type of the working fluids; (ii) a pinch point temperature difference exits between the flue gas temperature and the working fluid at the evaporator inlet; (iii) the total area of the evaporator is very close to the total area of the condenser, a fact which facilitates manufacturing; (iv) the surface area of the preheater zone is about 75% of the total surface area, while those of the boiler zone and superheater zone is about 13.5% and 11.5%, respectively. Second, the case of the ORC-based systems coupled with ICEs operating at partial EG load is considered. Specific results for this case are as follows: (v) the net power may be maximized by optimizing the working fluid mass flow rate; (vi) when the ICE is coupled with an ORC-based system, the overall thermal efficiency of the combined system, η ICE-ORC , is higher than the thermal efficiency of the ICE operating alone. As an example, for the case treated here,

  9. Dynamic preventive control of electric power systems through load shedding; Controle preventivo dinamico de sistemas de energia eletrica: formulacao atraves do corte de carga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Righeto, Luzia F.P.; Minussi, Carlos R. [UNESP, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica

    1997-12-31

    This work presents a model to be used in Electric Power System preventive control, taking into account the dynamic network aspects, the effects caused by great oscillations in the synchronous machines angles (transient stability), electric equipment outages, short-circuit, etc. The energy function will be used as a form of measure the system stability degree using a criterion defined as security margin. The used control action will be the load shedding. (author) 16 refs.; e-mail: minussi at dee.feis.unesp.br

  10. 41 CFR 102-37.200 - What certifications must a SASP make when requesting surplus property for donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a SASP make when requesting surplus property for donation? 102-37.200 Section 102-37.200 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY State Agency for Surplus... requesting surplus property for donation? When requesting or applying for property, you must certify that: (a...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load Efficiency of Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Efficiency of Electric Motors B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Electric Motors Pt. 431... Efficiency of Electric Motors 1. Definitions. Definitions contained in §§ 431.2 and 431.12 are applicable to...

  12. Real-time electricity pricing mechanism in China based on system dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yongxiu; Zhang, Jixiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The system dynamics is used to research the real-time electricity pricing mechanism. • Four kinds of the real-time electricity pricing models are carried out and simulated. • It analysed the electricity price, the user satisfaction and the social benefits under the different models. • Market pricing is the trend of the real-time electricity pricing mechanism. • Initial development path of the real-time price mechanism for China is designed between 2015 and 2030. - Abstract: As an important means of demand-side response, the reasonable formulation of the electricity price mechanism will have an important impact on the balance between the supply and demand of electric power. With the introduction of Chinese intelligence apparatus and the rapid development of smart grids, real-time electricity pricing, as the frontier electricity pricing mechanism in the smart grid, will have great significance on the promotion of energy conservation and the improvement of the total social surplus. From the perspective of system dynamics, this paper studies different real-time electricity pricing mechanisms based on load structure, cost structure and bidding and analyses the situation of user satisfaction and the total social surplus under different pricing mechanisms. Finally, through the comparative analysis of examples under different real-time pricing scenarios, this paper aims to explore and design the future dynamic real-time electricity pricing mechanism in China, predicts the dynamic real-time pricing level and provides a reference for real-time electricity price promotion in the future

  13. The dispatch and load duration curve of the interconnected electrical system, in the hypothetical context of the 450ppm scenario of the Iea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva M, C.

    2017-09-01

    The concept of the annual load duration curve of the national interconnected system is presented, which by means of a quadrature procedure becomes a 3-block diagram: one for the base load that occurs at 8,760 hours of the year; another for intermediate load, above the minimum that occurs in a variable number of hours of the year, and another for the peak demand that only happens a few hours of the year. The data of the table of capacity and generation of electric power in 2014, according to Annex A of the Mexico Energy Outlook document of the International Energy Agency (Iea), are converted into a block diagram adjusted to the annual curve of load duration of that year. The procedure is repeated with the capacity and electric power generation data projected by the Iea at 2030 and 2040, according to the 450ppm scenario, which is considered necessary to stabilize the concentration of CO 2 in the atmosphere at 450 parts per million and ensure that the increase in the global temperature of the planet does not exceed 2 degrees Celsius, compared to pre-industrial levels. Then, the same capacity and generation data projected by the Iea by 2040 are tabulated by technology type, grouped now within the base, intermediate and peak blocks of the annual load duration curve for that year, and ordered from according to its plant factor, indicative of its availability to be dispatched. The above, in order to estimate the aggregate result of the annual dispatch that could be made by CENACE, if the projections of electric power generation to the year 2040 foreseen in the ambitious 450ppm scenario were given. Finally, an exercise is carried out to estimate, at 2015 prices, the unit costs of technologies generation in the year 2040, expressed in US D (2015)/ MWh and broken down into fixed and variable reference costs. (Author)

  14. Runoff load estimation of particulate and dissolved nitrogen in Lake Inba watershed using continuous monitoring data on turbidity and electric conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J; Nagano, Y; Furumai, H

    2012-01-01

    Easy-to-measure surrogate parameters for water quality indicators are needed for real time monitoring as well as for generating data for model calibration and validation. In this study, a novel linear regression model for estimating total nitrogen (TN) based on two surrogate parameters is proposed based on evaluation of pollutant loads flowing into a eutrophic lake. Based on their runoff characteristics during wet weather, electric conductivity (EC) and turbidity were selected as surrogates for particulate nitrogen (PN) and dissolved nitrogen (DN), respectively. Strong linear relationships were established between PN and turbidity and DN and EC, and both models subsequently combined for estimation of TN. This model was evaluated by comparison of estimated and observed TN runoff loads during rainfall events. This analysis showed that turbidity and EC are viable surrogates for PN and DN, respectively, and that the linear regression model for TN concentration was successful in estimating TN runoff loads during rainfall events and also under dry weather conditions.

  15. A Mystery of the Global Surplus and its Ramification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko G Malovic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with phenomenon of the increasingly indicative global imbalances and lagging genesis of balance of payments (BoP accounting in an attempt to accommodate the ongoing mutation of international trade and finance. Namely, although BoP of the world as a whole should be zero since international trade in goods, services and financial assets ought to be a zero-sum game, our planet apparently runs a non-negligible and rising BoP surplus, projected to reach 1% of global GDP by 2015! To make the puzzle more bizarre, IMF statistics up until 2004 had recorded a persistent BoP deficit for the entire globe, which P. Krugman dubbed “The Mystery of the missing Surplus”. Well, surplus is back with the vengeance – while this paper tries to make sense of the phenomenon and pinpoint both its determinants and likely economic consequences. In conclusion, it appears that 1 during international financial crises quality and accuracy of the BoP statistics worsens worldwide, 2 net global imbalances may still be much smaller than we commonly believe, 3 true culprits may not be our usual suspects, 4 gross trade exhibits stark differences once confronted with decomposed value-added net exports and imports free of double counted processed exports and indirect exporting, 5 also, deliberate misreporting of cross-border investment proceeds as well as MNE’s transfer pricing practices may account for a relevant portion of registered global imbalances, and finally, 6 even the latest 6th edition of the IMF’s BoP and IIP Manual explicitly tackles but a few of the factors behind the returning surplus mystery. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  16. TEORI SURPLUS BERSIH: VALUASI PERUSAHAAN BERDASARKAN DATA AKUNTANSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEWA GEDE WIRAMA

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental accounting research under measurement perspective regained researchers’ consideration following the publications of Ohlson (1995 and Feltham and Ohlson (1995 valuation models. While fundamental researches before Ball and Brown (1968 were mostly focusing on the determination of the “correct” income number in economic sense, current fundamental researches are more about firm valuation based on accounting numbers.Ohlson (1995 and Feltham and Ohlson (1995 valuation models are based on clean surplus theory. The theory considers accounting as a wealth creation and distribution recording system, and thus provides the base of the relation between firm value and accounting numbers. Based on neoclassical concept of value, clean surplus theory states that a firm value is equal to its book value plus the present value of expected abnormal earnings, termed as goodwill. Based on that relation, Ohlson (1995 formulated a closed-form valuation model that explain firm value based only on current and one period ahead book value and earnings. Feltham and Ohlson (1995 is an attempt to generalized Ohlson (1995 for accounting conservatism and growth.Clean surplus theory is now used as an alternative to CAPM in estimating cost of capital and risk. While Feltham and Ohlson (1995 model seems to have a misspecification for conservatism, the empirical validity of Ohslon (1995 model has been tested with relatively satisfactory results. The model is deemed to be valid as it explains stock prices. The test results, however, also suggest that there is plenty of room to make further contribution in refining the theory. Further research suggestion includes, among others, examination of factors affecting abnormal earnings and the validity of the theory in general, more accurate specification of LID, and enhancement of Feltham and Ohlson (1995 model in dealing with accounting conservatism and growth.

  17. A Mystery of the Global Surplus and its Ramification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malović Marko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with phenomenon of the increasingly indicative global imbalances and lagging genesis of balance of payments (BoP accounting in an attempt to accommodate the ongoing mutation of international trade and finance. Namely, although BoP of the world as a whole should be zero since international trade in goods, services and financial assets ought to be a zero-sum game, our planet apparently runs a non-negligible and rising BoP surplus, projected to reach 1% of global GDP by 2015! To make the puzzle more bizarre, IMF statistics up until 2004 had recorded a persistent BoP deficit for the entire globe, which P. Krugman dubbed “The Mystery of the missing Surplus”. Well, surplus is back with the vengeance – while this paper tries to make sense of the phenomenon and pinpoint both its determinants and likely economic consequences. In conclusion, it appears that 1 during international financial crises quality and accuracy of the BoP statistics worsens worldwide, 2 net global imbalances may still be much smaller than we commonly believe, 3 true culprits may not be our usual suspects, 4 gross trade exhibits stark differences once confronted with decomposed value-added net exports and imports free of double counted processed exports and indirect exporting, 5 also, deliberate misreporting of cross-border investment proceeds as well as MNE’s transfer pricing practices may account for a relevant portion of registered global imbalances, and finally, 6 even the latest 6th edition of the IMF’s BoP and IIP Manual explicitly tackles but a few of the factors behind the returning surplus mystery.

  18. Habit Formation, Surplus Consumption and Return Predictability: International Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Hyde, Stuart; Møller, Stig V.

    On an international post World War II dataset, we use an iterated GMM pro- cedure to estimate and test the Campbell-Cochrane (1999) habit formation model. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future asset returns. We find that, although...... there are important cross-country differences, for the majority of countries in our sample the model gets empirical support in a variety of diffrent dimensions, including reasonable estimates of risk- free rates, and the model dominates the time-separable power utility model in terms of pricing errors. Further...... ratio is also a powerful predictor of future bond returns....

  19. STEM crisis or STEM surplus? Yes and yes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yi; Larson, Richard C

    2015-05-01

    The last decade has seen considerable concern regarding a shortage of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workers to meet the demands of the labor market. At the same time, many experts have presented evidence of a STEM worker surplus. A comprehensive literature review, in conjunction with employment statistics, newspaper articles, and our own interviews with company recruiters, reveals a significant heterogeneity in the STEM labor market: the academic sector is generally oversupplied, while the government sector and private industry have shortages in specific areas.

  20. The Democratic Surplus that Constitutionalised the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2015-01-01

    This article questions the very foundation of the doctrine of a so-called “democratic deficit” in the EU. Yet in order to argue beyond nationalist myths, clear-cut concepts are necessary. Speaking about democracy in the EU, the article exposes four dimensions that constitute a “democratic surplus...... nation-state, the EU, secondly, is not build by nobles and monarchs, nor by war. Third, a separation of powers is obvious. And fourth, this article demonstrates how the EU rescued the democratic nation-state....

  1. Optimization of Surplus Reinsurance Treaty using the Conditional Tail Expectation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahim El Attar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose a new optimization strategy for reinsurance using the genetic algorithms. This approach is to determine an optimal structure of a "surplus" reinsurance contract by finding the optimal cession rates through an optimization model which is based on the minimization of the Conditional Tail Expectation (CTE risk measure under the constraint of technical benefit. This approach can be seen as a decision support tool that can be used by managers to minimize the actuarial risk and maximize the technical benefit in the insurance company.

  2. Westinghouse Hanford Company risk management strategy for retired surplus facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, W.E.; Coles, G.A.; Shultz, M.V.; Egge, R.G.

    1993-09-01

    This paper describes an approach that facilitates management of personnel safety and environmental release risk from retired, surplus Westinghouse Hanford Company-managed facilities during the predemolition time frame. These facilities are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1,450-km 2 (570-mi 2 ) Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The production reactors are located in the 100 Area and the chemical separation facilities are located in the 200 Area. This paper also includes a description of the risk evaluation process, shows applicable results, and includes a description of comparison costs for different risk reduction options

  3. Two ways to handle a pension plan surplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beautyman, M J

    1991-01-01

    A healthcare organization wanting to tap into its pension plan surplus may be reluctant to do so for fear of Medicare recapture. By following a recent court decision and a reasonable interpretation of Medicare regulations, however, a facility may terminate an existing pension plan, purchase a group annuity contract, and reduce Medicare recapture. Two methods for treating termination of a plan are in line with Medicare rules. A facility considering termination should analyze the effects of both and use the method likely to produce a better financial result.

  4. Variable electricity and steam from salt, helium and sodium cooled base-load reactors with gas turbines and heat storage - 15115

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.; McDaniel, P.; Zohuri, B.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in utility natural-gas-fired air-Brayton combed cycle technology is creating the option of coupling salt-, helium-, and sodium-cooled nuclear reactors to Nuclear air-Brayton Combined Cycle (NACC) power systems. NACC may enable a zero-carbon electricity grid and improve nuclear power economics by enabling variable electricity output with base-load nuclear reactor operations. Variable electricity output enables selling more electricity at times of high prices that increases plant revenue. Peak power is achieved using stored heat or auxiliary fuel (natural gas, bio-fuels, hydrogen). A typical NACC cycle includes air compression, heating compressed air using nuclear heat and a heat exchanger, sending air through a turbine to produce electricity, reheating compressed air, sending air through a second turbine, and exhausting to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). In the HRSG, warm air produces steam that is used to produce added electricity. For peak power production, auxiliary heat (natural gas, stored heat) is added before the air enters the second turbine to raise air temperatures and power output. Like all combined cycle plants, water cooling requirements are dramatically reduced relative to other power cycles because much of the heat rejection is in the form of hot air. (authors)

  5. Charging and discharging time control of electric vehicles for the purpose of load leveling; Fuka heijunka wo mokuteki to suru denki jidosha no juhoden jikan seigyo hosaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyanagi, F.; Uriu, Y. [Seikei University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    By ZEV regulation of the California government in 1990, not only the United States but also European countries and Japan are largely interested in replacing gasoline car by electric vehicle. Electric utilities expect that the electric vehicle improves the difference between the daytime and nighttime of a recent demand as a new market of electric power demand. There are some reports that indicates on the danger which generates the new peaks as the electric vehicles spread through the market in charging start hour. As the countermeasure for avoiding this problem, the authors propose that 1) inverse load flow by discharging of the contract private use EV is carried out as an energy shift in daytime, 2) the regional charging time shift method is introduced in the midnight charging time zone, in this paper. Therefore, the energy actual consumption of the automobile was investigated, and future demand was predicted by the mathematical consumption modeling. Especially, it is described a strategy of optimum introduction on scheme of effective electric vehicle for energy shift in section 2.2. And authors point out the necessity of market regulation for EV. 14 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombs, F.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed, with particular reference to the electricity industry in the United Kingdom, under the headings; importance and scope of the industry's work; future fuel supplies (estimated indigenous fossil fuels reserves); outlook for UK energy supplies; problems of future generating capacity and fuel mix (energy policy; construction programme; economics and pricing; contribution of nuclear power - thermal and fast reactors; problems of conversion of oil-burning to coal-burning plant). (U.K.)

  7. Fatigue of Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} for different electrical-load forms; Ermuedung von Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} fuer unterschiedliche elektrische Belastungsformen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balke, N

    2006-07-01

    The present work deals with the effect of unipolar, sesquipolar, and bipolar cycling on material properties of Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT) ceramics and works out models to describe and explain the observed effects. In the case of bipolar fatigue the influence of different dopants and electrode material was observed. Additionally, the change of material parameters with applied dc voltages was investigated. The application of dc voltage and the unipolar cycling lead to the asymmetry and shifts of the ferroelectric hystereses. These changes can be explained by the separation of charge carriers which built up an offset field and offset polarisation in the material. In the case of bipolar fatigue two different scenarios can occur. If the electric contact between sample and electrode is bad or the grain boundaries are mechanically weak (microcrack formation), then drastic material changes in near electrode regions can be observed. The damaged region can be identified by colour changes and the microstructure in this region seem to be molten. The origin of the material damage is supposed to be decomposition of the sample, this is the formation of PbO due to electrical breakdowns at the microcracks and the accompanied temperature increase. Is the electric contact between sample and electrode good and no microcracks form, the sample is homogeneously fatigued and no material damage can be observed. In this case space charges are created in the material which influences the orientation of the polarisation by pinning of domains. PFM (Piezoresponse Force Microscopy) measurements show that the space charges must be positive. Also the local switching behaviour, which can be measured with PFM, influences the fatigue behaviour. A small distribution of coercive voltages leads to much less fatigue than a broader distribution. A broad distribution of coercive voltages is accompanied by more mechanical stress during switching and more cracking can occur. Besides the pure unipolar and pure

  8. Disposition of surplus highly enriched uranium: Draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    This document assesses the environmental impacts at four potential sites that may result from alternatives for the disposition of United States-origin weapons-usable highly enriched uranium (HEU) that has been or may be declared surplus to national defense or defense-related program needs. In addition to the no action alternative, it assesses four alternatives that would eliminate the weapons-usability of HEU by blending it with depleted uranium, natural uranium, or low-enriched uranium (LEU) to create low-enriched uranium, either as commercial reactor fuel feedstock or as low-level radioactive waste. The potential blending sites are DOE's Y-12 Plant at Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; DOE's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina; the Babcock ampersand Wilcox Naval Nuclear Fuel Division Facility in Lynchburg, Virginia; and the Nuclear Fuel Services Fuel Fabrication Plant in Erwin, Tennessee. Evaluations of impacts on site infrastructure, water resources, air quality and noise, socioeconomic resources, waste management, public and occupational health, and environmental justice for the potential blending sites are included in the assessment. The intersite transportation of nuclear and hazardous materials is also assessed. The preferred alternative is to blend down surplus HEU to LEU for maximum commercial use as reactor fuel feed which would likely be done at a combination of DOE and commercial sites

  9. Patients' Attitudes towards the Surplus Frozen Embryos in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Jin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Assisted reproductive techniques have been used in China for more than 20 years. This study investigates the attitudes of surplus embryo holders towards embryos storage and donation for medical research. Methods. A total of 363 couples who had completed in vitro fertilization (IVF treatment and had already had biological children but who still had frozen embryos in storage were invited to participate. Interviews were conducted by clinics in a narrative style. Results. Family size was the major reason for participants’ (discontinuation of embryo storage; moreover, the moral status of embryos was an important factor for couples choosing embryo storage, while the storage fee was an important factor for couples choosing embryo disposal. Most couples discontinued the storage of their embryos once their children were older than 3 years. In our study, 58.8% of the couples preferred to dispose of surplus embryos rather than donate them to research, citing a lack of information and distrust in science as significant reasons for their decision. Conclusions. Interviews regarding frozen embryos, including patients’ expectations for embryo storage and information to assist them with decisions regarding embryo disposal, are beneficial for policies addressing embryo disposition and embryo donation in China.

  10. Surplus Cost Potential as a Life Cycle Impact Indicator for Metal Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa D.M. Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the evaluation of product life cycles, methods to assess the increase in scarcity of resources are still under development. Indicators that can express the importance of an increase in scarcity of metals extracted include surplus ore produced, surplus energy required, and surplus costs in the mining and the milling stage. Particularly the quantification of surplus costs per unit of metal extracted as an indicator is still in an early stage of development. Here, we developed a method that quantifies the surplus cost potential of mining and milling activities per unit of metal extracted, fully accounting for mine-specific differences in costs. The surplus cost potential indicator is calculated as the average cost increase resulting from all future metal extractions, as quantified via cumulative cost-tonnage relationships. We tested the calculation procedure with 12 metals and platinum-group metals as a separate group. We found that the surplus costs range six orders of magnitude between the metals included, i.e., between $0.01–$0.02 (iron and $13,533–$17,098 (rhodium USD (year 2013 per kilogram of metal extracted. The choice of the reserve estimate (reserves vs. ultimate recoverable resource influenced the surplus costs only to a limited extent, i.e., between a factor of 0.7 and 3.2 for the metals included. Our results provide a good basis to regularly include surplus cost estimates as resource scarcity indicator in life cycle assessment.

  11. Bulk simulation for establishing the potential within the planning of load distribution and load shifting of an enhanced number of electrical consumers; Massensimulation zur Potenzialermittlung bei der Lastverlaufsplanung und -verlagerung einer hohen Anzahl elektrischer Verbraucher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunagel, Johannes; Schaefers, Hans; Renz, Wolfgang [Hochschule fuer Angewandte Wissenschaften Hamburg (Germany). Center for Demand Side Integration (C4DSI); Wiechmann, Holger [EnBW Vertrieb GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The shift to a renewable electricity production requires a reconstruction of the current electricity supply system. In a system with a big share of fluctuating electricity producers using renewable resources the production as well as the consumption has to be able to react flexibly to the current supply situation. This applies for the grid as a whole and in particular for parts of the distribution grid. In this context there is a demand for a robust, cheap and flexible control system which enables a utility to activate large numbers of consumers in the low power range. In this context the Center for Demand Side Integration at the University of Applied Sciences (HAW) Hamburg has been contracted by Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg (EnBW) (Germany's 3{sup rd} largest utility) to conduct a study on the development of control algorithms to control a large number (several tens of thousands) of decentralized applications. These algorithms were tested in an extensive modeling and simulation approach in which the behavior of the system was analyzed. The focus was on electric heating systems like domestic heat pumps and night storage heating. Thermal models of the applications and of domestic buildings were developed using Matlab/Simulink. Compiled as dynamic-link libraries these models were transferred to the multi-agent framework Jadex. This way it was possible to test the developed control algorithms on a network of up to 100,000 consumers. The mass simulation model was analyzed in terms of potentials, scale effects and reliability of load schedules and load shifting potentials. (orig.)

  12. Multi nodal load forecasting in electric power systems using a radial basis neural network; Previsao de carga multinodal em sistemas eletricos de potencia usando uma rede neural de base radial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altran, A.B.; Lotufo, A.D.P.; Minussi, C.R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], Emails: lealtran@yahoo.com.br, annadiva@dee.feis.unesp.br, minussi@dee.feis.unesp.br; Lopes, M.L.M. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica], E-mail: mara@mat.feis.unesp.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology for electrical load forecasting, using radial base functions as activation function in artificial neural networks with the training by backpropagation algorithm. This methodology is applied to short term electrical load forecasting (24 h ahead). Therefore, results are presented analyzing the use of radial base functions substituting the sigmoid function as activation function in multilayer perceptron neural networks. However, the main contribution of this paper is the proposal of a new formulation of load forecasting dedicated to the forecasting in several points of the electrical network, as well as considering several types of users (residential, commercial, industrial). It deals with the MLF (Multimodal Load Forecasting), with the same processing time as the GLF (Global Load Forecasting). (author)

  13. Development of methods for evaluation of electricity saving and load levelling measures. Part 2: The planning and implementation of a power conservation campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm Soerensen, M.; Madsen, P.K. [NESA A/S, Research and Development Dept. (Denmark)

    1997-12-01

    In recent years many campaigns and projects have been carried out with the purpose of reducing the energy consumption. Simultaneously a lot of economic and structural changes are taking place in society in general; changes which also affect the size of the electricity consumption. Furthermore, there is a trend towards increased use of wind mills and decentral combined heating and power plants, which affects the electricity load of the local area. It is difficult to identify and separate the effect of each of these attitude-adjusting activities. The project `Development of methods for evaluation of the effect of electricity saving and load levelling measures` focuses on two different methods which, on different levels, can be used to determine the impact of different different activities on the electricity consumption. Both methods are based on mathematical statistics, and they consist of an analysis of historical data and a test campaign which will make it possible to test specific activities in a comparatively small scale. The historical part covers the years 1974 to 1994 and include such variables as: demography, economic factors, climatic conditions, periods of electricity saving campaigns, the start of billing according to time of day tariff etc. The wish to be able to measure the extent of these energy saving and load reducing initiatives resulted in a test campaign which was carried out under very restricted conditions starting in the fall of 1996. If the effect of the test campaign can be measured and as a consequence of this a method can be estimated, it will be possible to place models which can measure the effect of future campaigns. The primary object of the campaign is not the size of the electricity savings of the individual customer, but rather to obtain total savings for the entire group of customers. The test has been structured in a way which makes it possible to perform an analysis of the effect of the campaign by use of analysis of intervention

  14. Regenerative electronic load for electric power sources tests using capacitive idling converter; Carga eletronica regenerativa para testes de fontes de energia eletrica utilizando conversor com capacitor flutuante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendrusculo, Edson Adriano

    1996-07-01

    The conventional method for testing power supplies, batteries, uninterruptible power supply and other sources of electric power uses resistors as load. This results in wasted heat and increases the equipment production cost. This work presents a Regenerative electronic Load to substitute those resistors. The basic topology is a capacitive idling Cuk converter. This converter allows to control independently the input current and permits to provide a sinusoidal output current. An appropriate gate command allows to have some soft-commutation without the use of any auxiliary circuit. The same converter, with input and output changed, can operate as a Power Supply with Input Power Factor Correction. The characteristics of soft-commutation and high efficiency are maintained. A simple high-efficiency transformer allows output isolation. All theoretical results are experimentally verified. (author)

  15. The Potential of Combined Heat and Power Generation, Wind Power Generation and Load Management Techniques for Cost Reduction in Small Electricity Supply Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Jeremy Hugh

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. An evaluation is made of the potential fuel and financial savings possible when a small, autonomous diesel system sized to meet the demands of an individual, domestic consumer is adapted to include: (1) combined heat and power (CHP) generation, (2) wind turbine generation, (3) direct load control. The potential of these three areas is investigated by means of time-step simulation modelling on a microcomputer. Models are used to evaluate performance and a Net Present Value analysis used to assess costs. A cost/benefit analysis then enables those areas, or combination of areas, that facilitate and greatest savings to be identified. The modelling work is supported by experience gained from the following: (1) field study of the Lundy Island wind/diesel system, (2) laboratory testing of a small diesel generator set, (3) study of a diesel based CHP unit, (4) study of a diesel based direct load control system, (5) statistical analysis of data obtained from the long-term monitoring of a large number of individual household's electricity consumption. Rather than consider the consumer's electrical demand in isolation, a more flexible approach is adopted, with consumer demand being regarded as the sum of primarily two components: a small, electricity demand for essential services and a large, reschedulable demand for heating/cooling. The results of the study indicate that: (1) operating a diesel set in a CHP mode is the best strategy for both financial and fuel savings. A simple retrofit enables overall conversion efficiencies to be increased from 25% to 60%, or greater, at little cost. (2) wind turbine generation in association with direct load control is a most effective combination. (3) a combination of both the above areas enables greatest overall financial savings, in favourable winds resulting in unit energy costs around 20% of those of diesel only operation.

  16. The approaching plutonium surplus: a Japanese/European predicament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, F.; Suzuki, Tatsujiro; Walker, W.

    1990-01-01

    The vision of cheap energy independence through civil nuclear power has faded in the late 1980s as the costs of nuclear programmes have come to light. But present nuclear plans in Japan, France and Britain are set to produce quantities of plutonium in the 1990s which, the authors argue, will be surplus to requirements and very difficult to use. The over-production of plutonium will pose political and security problems - particularly for Japan, which owns large stocks of separated plutonium in Europe that it may not be able to bring back home. Nuclear strategy in Japan and Europe needs to be rethought if serious international problems are to be avoided. (author)

  17. The local field potential reflects surplus spike synchrony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denker, Michael; Roux, Sébastien; Lindén, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    While oscillations of the local field potential (LFP) are commonly attributed to the synchronization of neuronal firing rate on the same time scale, their relationship to coincident spiking in the millisecond range is unknown. Here, we present experimental evidence to reconcile the notions...... of synchrony at the level of spiking and at the mesoscopic scale. We demonstrate that only in time intervals of significant spike synchrony that cannot be explained on the basis of firing rates, coincident spikes are better phase locked to the LFP than predicted by the locking of the individual spikes....... This effect is enhanced in periods of large LFP amplitudes. A quantitative model explains the LFP dynamics by the orchestrated spiking activity in neuronal groups that contribute the observed surplus synchrony. From the correlation analysis, we infer that neurons participate in different constellations...

  18. ELIMINATION OF CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS DURING SURPLUS ACTIVATED SLUDGE HANDLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudiusz Grűbel

    2014-10-01

    Basis on the results of the research was concluded that microwave radiation (700W and 900W shows disintegration action expressed in COD value in the supernatant increase: 12 times increase value of COD with power 700W and 13 times for 900W radiation power. Electromagnetic wave contributed to partial higienisation of surplus activated sludge. The number of Clostridium perfringens decrease about 52% and 56% during the 120s of higienisation process with power 700W and 900W, respectively. Reduction of the overall number of bacteria under the influence of microwave radiation was 42% and 51% (respectively for 700W and 900W, and sticks from the family Enterobacteriaceae from 54% to 70% depending on the power of radiation, the time of operation and biochemical properties.

  19. Advantages of geosynchronous solar power satellites for terrestrial base-load electrical supply compared to other renewable energy sources - or why civilization needs solar power satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, J.K. Jr. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The arguments in favour of using solar power satellites for primary base-load electrical supply are presented and compared with the advantages and drawbacks of other renewable energy sources, especially ground solar and wind systems. Popular misconceptions about energy use and the importation of space solar energy to the Earth`s surface are examined and discounted. Finally an optimal mix of space solar (focusing on geosynchronous solar power satellites), ground solar, and other energy sources is described which, it is argued, would be capable to meet future global energy demand. (UK)

  20. Dielectric properties of PLZT-x/65/35 (2≤x≤13 under mechanical stress, electric field and temperature loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pytel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of uniaxial pressure (0÷1000 bars applied parallely to the ac electric field on dielectric properties of PLZT-x/65/35 (2≤x≤13 ceramics. There was revealed a significant effect of the external stress on these properties. The application of uniaxial pressure leads to the change of the peak intensity of the electric permittivity (ϵ, of the frequency dispersion as well as of the dielectric hysteresis. The peak intensity ϵ becomes diffused/sharpened and shifts to a higher/lower temperatures with increasing the pressure. It was concluded that the application of uniaxial pressure induces similar effects as increasing the Ti ion concentration in PZT system. We interpreted our results based on the domain switching processes under the action of combined electromechanical loading.

  1. Estimating the 'consumer surplus' for branded versus standardised tobacco packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendall, Philip; Eckert, Christine; Hoek, Janet; Farley, Tessa; Louviere, Jordan; Wilson, Nick; Edwards, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Tobacco companies question whether standardised (or 'plain') packaging will change smokers' behaviour. We addressed this question by estimating how standardised packaging compared to a proven tobacco control intervention, price increases through excise taxes, thus providing a quantitative measure of standardised packaging's likely effect. We conducted an online study of 311 New Zealand smokers aged 18 years and above that comprised a willingness-to-pay task comparing a branded and a standardised pack at four different price levels, and a choice experiment. The latter used an alternative-specific design, where the alternatives were a branded pack or a standardised pack, with warning theme and price varied for each pack. Respondents had higher purchase likelihoods for the branded pack (with a 30% warning) than the standardised pack (with a 75% warning) at each price level tested, and, on average, were willing to pay approximately 5% more for a branded pack. The choice experiment produced a very similar estimate of 'consumer surplus' for a branded pack. However, the size of the 'consumer surplus' varied between warning themes and by respondents' demographic characteristics. These two experiments suggest standardised packaging and larger warning labels could have a similar overall effect on adult New Zealand smokers as a 5% tobacco price increase. The findings provide further evidence for the efficacy of standardised packaging, which focuses primarily on reducing youth initiation, and suggest this measure will also bring notable benefits to adult smokers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Trust and Exchange : Effects of Temporal Embeddedness and Network Embeddedness on Providing and Dividing a Surplus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautschi, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Dissertation of the University of Utrecht Mutually profitable cooperation is characterized by the fact that the combined efforts of the cooperating parties generate a certain surplus. The first part of the book studies the production of a surplus as a trust problem between two actors. Should an

  3. Dealing with surplus emissions in the climate negotiations after Copenhagen: What are the options for compromise?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzen, Michel den; Roelfsema, Mark; Slingerland, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the environmental and financial consequences of various strategies of dealing with surplus emission allowances in the aftermath of the Copenhagen Accord. This topic remains relevant, in particular, with respect to the Russian negotiation position, as this country is the largest holder of surplus emissions. It is concluded that not addressing the surplus problem is not a feasible negotiation option, as the sheer size of the surpluses would jeopardise the environmental integrity of any future agreement. Cancelling surpluses against Russia's will, though viable, is not desirable, as it might well lead to this country opting out of this climate treaty. Three options for compromise have been selected and analysed here: (1) stricter targets for Annex I countries; (2) strategic reserve for Russia; (3) institutionalising optimal banking. It is concluded that, whereas option 1 is environmentally the best, in the present political context it is probably less feasible. The other two options, although environmentally suboptimal, seem politically more favourable. Our analysis suggests that maximal revenues for surplus-holding countries arise by releasing only a limited amount of surplus credits to the market. The institutionalisation of this effect could be a key lever to a politically feasible agreement on surplus emissions.

  4. The Impact of Financing Surpluses and Large Financing Deficits on Tests of the Pecking Order Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Abe; Verbeek, Marno; Verwijmeren, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the basic pecking order model of Shyam-Sunder and Myers by separating the effects of financing surpluses, normal deficits, and large deficits. Using a panel of US firms over the period 1971-2005, we find that the estimated pecking order coefficient is highest for surpluses (0.90),

  5. Essays on the relevance and use of dirty surplus accounting flows in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis intends to add empirical evidence to a recently heavily debated regulatory issue, the necessity of promoting a clean surplus income statement. I document the magnitude, and assess the relevance of dirty surplus accounting flows in European member states. In particular, this thesis

  6. Sensitivity of whitewater rafting consumers surplus to pecuniary travel cost specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald B.K. English; J. Michael Bowker

    1996-01-01

    Considerable research has examined how different ways of accounting for onsite and travel time affect surplus estimates from travel cost models. However, little has been done regarding different definitions of out-of-pocket costs. Estimates of per trip consumer surplus are developed for a zonal travel cost model for outfitted rafting on the Chattooga River. Nine price...

  7. 5 CFR 330.607 - Notification of surplus and displaced employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... employees. 330.607 Section 330.607 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Agency Career Transition Assistance Plans (CTAP) for Local Surplus and Displaced Employees § 330.607 Notification of surplus and displaced employees...

  8. 76 FR 53699 - Labor Surplus Area Classification Under Executive Orders 12073 and 10582

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Surplus Area Classification Under Executive Orders 12073 and 10582 AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: The purpose of this notice is to announce the annual list of labor surplus areas for Fiscal Year...

  9. 78 FR 63248 - Labor Surplus Area Classification under Executive Orders 12073 and 10582

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Surplus Area Classification under Executive Orders 12073 and 10582 AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The purpose of this notice is to announce the annual list of labor surplus areas for Fiscal Year...

  10. 75 FR 9955 - Labor Surplus Area Classification Under Executive Orders 12073 and 10582

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Surplus Area Classification Under Executive Orders 12073 and 10582 AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The purpose of this notice is to update the 2010 Labor Surplus Areas annual list published in the...

  11. The analysis and compensation of errors of precise simple harmonic motion control under high speed and large load conditions based on servo electric cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chen-xi; Ding, Guo-qing

    2017-10-01

    Simple harmonic waves and synthesized simple harmonic waves are widely used in the test of instruments. However, because of the errors caused by clearance of gear and time-delay error of FPGA, it is difficult to control servo electric cylinder in precise simple harmonic motion under high speed, high frequency and large load conditions. To solve the problem, a method of error compensation is proposed in this paper. In the method, a displacement sensor is fitted on the piston rod of the electric cylinder. By using the displacement sensor, the real-time displacement of the piston rod is obtained and fed back to the input of servo motor, then a closed loop control is realized. There is compensation of pulses in the next period of the synthetic waves. This paper uses FPGA as the processing core. The software mainly comprises a waveform generator, an Ethernet module, a memory module, a pulse generator, a pulse selector, a protection module, an error compensation module. A durability of shock absorbers is used as the testing platform. The durability mainly comprises a single electric cylinder, a servo motor for driving the electric cylinder, and the servo motor driver.

  12. Optimisation of load control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, P.

    1998-01-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  13. Optimisation of load control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  14. Calculation of the Intensity of electrical field at the end of the loaded path in the solid-state nuclear track detectors by using the numerical calculation of Laplace equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolahdooz, M.; Abotalebi, A.; Sheikh Aleslam, F.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this article is calculation of the electric field at the end of loaded path in solid-state track detectors. For the calculation, Laplace-Equation has been solved numerically. By solving the equation, upon considering a specific potential at the boundary of the region, in addition to calculating the electric field at the end of path, the parameters which are affecting the electric field have also been investigated.

  15. Energisation of an MV electric boiler for load control in power systems with large share of renewables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth; Davidsen, Troels

    2014-01-01

    , minimising energy losses. The boilers under analysis in this paper operate by increasing/decreasing the water level. Electric arcs appear between the electrodes and the water surface for a period of approximately 2s during the energisation. These arcs can be seen as faults to ground by the protections relays...... and trigger the ground fault protection. This paper uses field measurements made in a boiler installed in a power plant for the analysis of this issue. The measurements are used to design a simulation model of the electric arc, which is used to study different energisation scenarios: With/without isolating...

  16. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  17. The U.S.-Russian joint studies on using power reactors to disposition surplus weapons plutonium as spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebeskov, A.; Kalashnikov, A.; Pavlovichev, A.

    1997-09-01

    In 1996, the US and the Russian Federation completed an initial joint study of the candidate options for the disposition of surplus weapons plutonium in both countries. The options included long term storage, immobilization of the plutonium in glass or ceramic for geologic disposal, and the conversion of weapons plutonium to spent fuel in power reactors. For the latter option, the US is only considering the use of existing light water reactors (LWRs) with no new reactor construction for plutonium disposition, or the use of Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) heavy water reactors. While Russia advocates building new reactors, the cost is high, and the continuing joint study of the Russian options is considering only the use of existing VVER-1000 LWRs in Russia and possibly Ukraine, the existing BN-60O fast neutron reactor at the Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant in Russia, or the use of the Canadian CANDU reactors. Six of the seven existing VVER-1000 reactors in Russia and the eleven VVER-1000 reactors in Ukraine are all of recent vintage and can be converted to use partial MOX cores. These existing VVER-1000 reactors are capable of converting almost 300 kg of surplus weapons plutonium to spent fuel each year with minimum nuclear power plant modifications. Higher core loads may be achievable in future years

  18. Intelligent Electricity Broker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grode, Jesper Nicolai Riis; Væggemose, Poul Erik; Kulik, Tomas

    The Intelligent Electricity Broker (IEB) is a new energy storage and energy broker facility that serves two purposes. Firstly, it allows for storing excessive energy in the Smart Grid [1, 2, 3] it is connected to. Secondly, it runs a broker-algorithm that ensures that energy is purchased and sold...... when feasible to the system owner. This paper describes how the IEB can be used by house owners, in building clusters, and/or by energy providers to take advantage of electricity stock market prices and weather forecasts to control energy surplus storage suffers as well as to lower electricity bills...

  19. Load leveling by a battery system in an electric power system with a photovoltaic system; Taiyoko hatsuden system ga donyusareta denryoku keito no chikudenchi ni yoru fuka heijunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Storage battery-aided load leveling system is introduced into a power system having a photovoltaic power generation (PV) system, and the effect of the introduction is examined. For this purpose, the resultant improvement on the load factor and reduction in the annual cost are evaluated. Used as the load factor in the studies are the hourly records of power transmitted and received by Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., in 1995. The output of the PV system is calculated using weather data collected in Nagoya City in the same year. Findings as the result of the studies are stated below. The maximum power is suppressed but a little if it is only the PV system that is introduced into the system. That is, a 2GW PV system introduced into the system suppresses the maximum power only by 0.5GW or less. The maximum power is suppressed more effectively when a storage battery is added, and it decreases linearly with an increase in the storage battery capacity. As for reduction in the cost, the reducing effect is higher when the rate of storage battery capacity/introduced PV capacity is higher in the presence of an introduced PV capacity of 0.8GW or more. 2 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Modeling of plug-in electric vehicle travel patterns and charging load based on trip chain generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dai; Gao, Junyu; Li, Pan; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Cong; Saxena, Samveg

    2017-08-01

    Modeling PEV travel and charging behavior is the key to estimate the charging demand and further explore the potential of providing grid services. This paper presents a stochastic simulation methodology to generate itineraries and charging load profiles for a population of PEVs based on real-world vehicle driving data. In order to describe the sequence of daily travel activities, we use the trip chain model which contains the detailed information of each trip, namely start time, end time, trip distance, start location and end location. A trip chain generation method is developed based on the Naive Bayes model to generate a large number of trips which are temporally and spatially coupled. We apply the proposed methodology to investigate the multi-location charging loads in three different scenarios. Simulation results show that home charging can meet the energy demand of the majority of PEVs in an average condition. In addition, we calculate the lower bound of charging load peak on the premise of lowest charging cost. The results are instructive for the design and construction of charging facilities to avoid excessive infrastructure.

  1. A Bankruptcy Problem Approach to Load-shedding in Multiagent-based Microgrid Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujin Lim

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A microgrid is composed of distributed power generation systems (DGs, distributed energy storage devices (DSs, and loads. To maintain a specific frequency in the islanded mode as an important requirement,  the control of DGs’ output and charge action of DSs are used in supply surplus conditions and load-shedding and discharge action of DSs are used in supply shortage conditions. Recently, multiagent systems for autonomous microgrid operation have been studied. Especially, load-shedding, which is intentional reduction of electricity use, is a critical problem in islanded microgrid operation based on the multiagent system. Therefore, effective schemes for load-shedding are required. Meanwhile, the bankruptcy problem deals with dividing short resources among multiple agents. In order to solve the bankruptcy problem, division rules, such as the constrained equal awards rule (CEA, the constrained equal losses rule (CEL, and the random arrival rule (RA, have been used. In this paper, we approach load-shedding as a bankruptcy problem. We compare load-shedding results by above-mentioned rules in islanded microgrid operation based on wireless sensor network (WSN as the communication link for an agent’s interactions.

  2. A bankruptcy problem approach to load-shedding in multiagent-based microgrid operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Man; Kinoshita, Tetsuo; Lim, Yujin; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    A microgrid is composed of distributed power generation systems (DGs), distributed energy storage devices (DSs), and loads. To maintain a specific frequency in the islanded mode as an important requirement, the control of DGs' output and charge action of DSs are used in supply surplus conditions and load-shedding and discharge action of DSs are used in supply shortage conditions. Recently, multiagent systems for autonomous microgrid operation have been studied. Especially, load-shedding, which is intentional reduction of electricity use, is a critical problem in islanded microgrid operation based on the multiagent system. Therefore, effective schemes for load-shedding are required. Meanwhile, the bankruptcy problem deals with dividing short resources among multiple agents. In order to solve the bankruptcy problem, division rules, such as the constrained equal awards rule (CEA), the constrained equal losses rule (CEL), and the random arrival rule (RA), have been used. In this paper, we approach load-shedding as a bankruptcy problem. We compare load-shedding results by above-mentioned rules in islanded microgrid operation based on wireless sensor network (WSN) as the communication link for an agent's interactions.

  3. 41 CFR 102-37.80 - What happens to surplus property that isn't transferred for donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... property that isn't transferred for donation? 102-37.80 Section 102-37.80 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.80 What happens to surplus property that isn't transferred for donation? Surplus property not transferred for...

  4. 41 CFR 102-37.50 - What is the general process for requesting surplus property for donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... process for requesting surplus property for donation? 102-37.50 Section 102-37.50 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.50 What is the general process for requesting surplus property for donation? The process for...

  5. Calculation of cooling internal circuits loss of load curve in giant electric machines; Calculo da curva de perda de carga dos circuitos axiais internos de refrigeracao de maquinas eletricas gigantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Hilton Penha [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia do Produto; Passos, Alex Sandro Barbosa [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento do Produto

    2001-07-01

    This article describes a method for calculation of the loss of load curve for the ventilation axial circuits. The method assumes the ventilation circuit representation in a way similar to the electrical circuits. The great difficulty of circuit solution resides in the non linearity of the loss of load resistances and the equations relating the pressures and flows. The method is based on the association of the resistance curves of loss of load in a such way that, when the resistance curve of the total circuit loss of load is obtained, the blower operation point can be easily obtained and, consequently, the individual flows for each section of the circuit.

  6. Flexible Local Load Controller for Fast ElectricVehicle Charging Station Supplemented with Flywheel Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; SUN, BO; Schaltz, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Electric vehicle charging infrastructure is hitting the stage where its impact on performance and operation of power systems becomes more and more pronounced. Aiming to utilize the existing power distribution infrastructure and delay its expansion, an approach that includes installation of dedica......Electric vehicle charging infrastructure is hitting the stage where its impact on performance and operation of power systems becomes more and more pronounced. Aiming to utilize the existing power distribution infrastructure and delay its expansion, an approach that includes installation...... of dedicated flywheel energy storage system (FESS) within the charging station and compensating some of the adverse effects of high power charging is explored in this paper. Although sharing some similarities with vehicle to grid (V2G) technology, the principal advantage of this strategy is the fact that many...

  7. Feasibility Study on UAV-assisted Construction Surplus Soil Tracking Control and Management Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jieh Haur, Chen; Kuo, Lin Sheng; Fu, Chen Ping; Li Hsu, Yeh; Da Heng, Chen

    2018-01-01

    Construction surplus soil tracking management has been the key management issue in Taiwan since 1991. This is mainly due to the construction surplus soils were often regarded as disposable waste and were disposed openly without any supervision, leading to environmental pollution. Even though the surplus soils were gradually being viewed as reusable resources, some unscrupulous enterprises still dump them freely for their own convenience. In order to dispose these surplus soils, site offices are required to confirm with the soil treatment plant regarding the approximate soil volume for hauling vehicle dispatch. However, the excavated soil volume will transform from bank volume to loose volume upon excavation, which may differ by a certain speculative coefficient (1.3), depending on the excavation site and geological condition. For managing and tracking the construction surplus soils, local government authorities frequently performed on-site spot check, but the lack of rapid assessment tools for soil volume estimation increased the evaluation difficulty for on-site inspectors. This study adopted unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in construction surplus soil tracking and rapidly acquired site photography and point cloud data, the excavated soil volume can be determined promptly after post-processing and interpretation, providing references to future surplus soil tracking management.

  8. Decontamination and decommissioning of the Argonne National Laboratory East Area radioactively contaminated surplus facilities: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, W.H.; Fassnacht, G.F.; Moe, H.J.

    1987-07-01

    ANL has decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D) seven radiologically contaminated surplus facilities at its Illinois site: a ''Hot'' Machine Shop (Building 17) and support facilities; Fan House No. 1 (Building 37), Fan House No. 2 (Building 38), the Pangborn Dust Collector (Building 41), and the Industrial Waste Treatment Plant (Building 34) for exhaust air from machining of radioactive materials. Also included were a Nuclear Materials Storage Vault (Building 16F) and a Nuclear Research Laboratory (Building 22). The D and D work involved dismantling of all process equipment and associated plumbing, ductwork, drain lines, etc. After radiation surveys, floor and wall coverings, suspended ceilings, room partitions, pipe, conduit and electrical gear were taken down as necessary. In addition, underground sewers were excavated. The grounds around each facility were also thoroughly surveyed. Contaminated materials and soil were packaged and shipped to a low-level waste burial site, while nonactive debris was buried in the ANL landfill. Clean, reusable items were saved, and clean metal scrap was sold for salvage. After the decommissioning work, each building was torn down and the site relandscaped. The project was completed in 1985, ahead of schedule, with substantial savings

  9. Maintenance of working capacity of movement mechanism of load trolley with linear traction electric drive of bridge type crane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, K. A.; Denisov, I. A.

    2017-10-01

    The article considers the influence of the air gap size between the linear motor elements on the stability of the traction drive of the movement mechanism of the trolley of the bridge type crane. The main factors affecting the air gap size and the causes of their occurrence are described. The technique of calculating the magnitude of air gap variation is described in relation to the general deformation of the crane metal structure. Recommendations on the need for installation of additional equipment for load trolleys of various designs are given. The optimal values of the length of the trolley base are proposed. Observance of these values ensures normal operation of the traction drive.

  10. Performance assessment of DOE spent nuclear fuel and surplus plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguid, J.O.; Vallikat, V.; McNeish, J.

    1998-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is under consideration by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as a potential site for the disposal of the nation's radioactive wastes in a geologic repository. The wastes consist of commercial spent fuel, DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF), high level waste (HLW), and surplus plutonium. The DOE was mandated by Congress in the fiscal 1997 Energy and Water Appropriations Act to complete a viability assessment (VA) of the repository in September of 1998. The assessment consists of a preliminary design concept for the critical elements of the repository, a total system performance assessment (TSPA), a plan and cost estimate for completion of the license application, and an estimate of the cost to construct and operate the repository. This paper presents the results of the sensitivity analyses that were conducted to examine the behavior of DOE SNF and plutonium waste forms in the environment of the base case repository that was modeled for the TSPA-VA. Fifteen categories of DOE SNF and two Plutonium waste forms were examined and their contribution to radiation dose to humans was evaluated

  11. A Permutation Importance-Based Feature Selection Method for Short-Term Electricity Load Forecasting Using Random Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nantian Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The prediction accuracy of short-term load forecast (STLF depends on prediction model choice and feature selection result. In this paper, a novel random forest (RF-based feature selection method for STLF is proposed. First, 243 related features were extracted from historical load data and the time information of prediction points to form the original feature set. Subsequently, the original feature set was used to train an RF as the original model. After the training process, the prediction error of the original model on the test set was recorded and the permutation importance (PI value of each feature was obtained. Then, an improved sequential backward search method was used to select the optimal forecasting feature subset based on the PI value of each feature. Finally, the optimal forecasting feature subset was used to train a new RF model as the final prediction model. Experiments showed that the prediction accuracy of RF trained by the optimal forecasting feature subset was higher than that of the original model and comparative models based on support vector regression and artificial neural network.

  12. Method for controlling a nuclear fueled electric power generating unit and interfacing the same with a load dispatching system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, N.P.; Meyer, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    A pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear fueled, electric power generating unit is controlled through the use of on-line calculations of the rapid, step and ramp, power change capabilities of the unit made from measured values of power level, axial offset, coolant temperature and rod position taking into account operator generated, safety and control, and balance of plant limits. The power change capabilities so generated may be fed to an automatic dispatch system which provides closed loop control of a power grid system. (author)

  13. Variants for the development of electricity generating sources to meet the load requirements of Republic of Moldova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comendant, I.; Sula, A.

    1996-01-01

    The Institute of Power Engineering of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova elaborated a project of the Energy Programme of Republic Moldova in 1994. Within the framework of this project it was studied the development of electricity generating sources taking into account a possibility of utilization of power reserves of Romanian power system. Under the condition of acute lack of investments and high uncertainty concerning the development of the national economy it was found a rational solution which supposes a wide integration of the power systems of Republic Moldova and Romania. (author) 1 tab

  14. Treatment of swine manure: case studies in European’s N-surplus areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cruz García-González

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study, eight different manure treatment plants were monitored. The plants were four on-farm and four centralized treatment plants, all of them at full-scale level. Assessment includes a total of seven pre-treatment and process units as follows: mechanical separation, with and without coagulant and flocculant addition, pasteurization, nitrification-denitrification, anaerobic digestion, and composting. The plants are located in nutrient surplus areas of three European Member States (Spain, Italy and Denmark, the majority of these areas being Nitrate Vulnerable Zones (NVZ. Results presented herein are data collected over a six-month period and comprise performance data of the treatment plants, pathogen indicators (E.coli and Salmonella and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions data under two scenarios: 1 the baseline scenario and 2 the treatment plant scenario. The assessment includes GHG emissions of the storage facilities, transportation, and subsequent intermediate storage, electric consumption, electric production, composting, and land application. All treatment plants studied generated a significant reduction in GHG emissions (between 53 and 90 % in comparison to the baseline scenario. Organic matter and total solids (TS content in manure were also greatly reduced, with values ranging between 35-53 % of chemical oxygen demand (COD and, 24-61 % of TS for anaerobic digestion (AD treatment plants, 77-93 % COD and 70 % TS in the case of AD combined with nitrogen (N-removal unit plants. Nitrogen concentrations were also greatly reduced (between 65-85 % total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN and 68-83 % ammonium (NH4+-N in plants with N-removal units.

  15. Natural gas and electricity generation in New South Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.

    2001-01-01

    In its Profile of the Australian Electricity Industry, ABARE noted that NSW was the first State in Australia to unbundle the operations of its State owned electricity industry. The process commenced in 1991, when the Electricity Commission of NSW was renamed Pacific Power and reorganised into six generation and transmission sectors. The power generation fuel mix for NSW in 1999-2000 was as follows: black coal, 97 percent and natural gas, 3 percent. NSW has also imported some brown coal generated electricity from Victoria in recent years. The import of cheap brown coal power from this State due to a marked increase in the availability of brown coal base-load generators in the Latrobe Valley forced some surplus black coal generating capacity in NSW to be withdrawn from the marketplace. Four generating units were closed down in 1998 two 500 MW units at Liddell and two 300 MW units at Munmorah. Further prospects for natural gas are reported to be good; its share in the thermal electricity generation market is forecasted to rise from 3 percent in 1999-2000 to 12 percent in 2014-1015

  16. Budget Surpluses: Experiences of Other Nations and Implications for the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    ... should be used. While balancing the budget has been the clear and generally accepted fiscal goal for many years in the United States, there is not yet agreement on the appropriate fiscal policy during a period of budget surpluses...

  17. Immobilization as a route to surplus fissile materials disposition. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Kan, T.; McKibben, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The safe management of surplus weapons plutonium is a very important and urgent task with profound environmental, national and international security implications. In the aftermath of the Cold War, Presidential Police Directive 13 and various analysis by renown scientific, technical and international policy organizations have brought about a focused effort within the Department of Energy to identify and implement paths forward for the long term disposition of surplus weapons usable plutonium. The central, overarching goal is to render surplus weapons plutonium as inaccessible and unattractive for reuse in nuclear weapons, as the much larger and growing stock of plutonium contained in civilian spent reactor fuel. One disposition alternative considered for surplus Pu is immobilization, in which plutonium would be emplaced in glass, ceramic or glass-bonded zeolite. This option, along with some of the progress over the last year is discussed

  18. Surplus Facilities and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure program plan, fiscal year 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, M.C.; Wahlen, R.K.; Winship, R.A.

    1991-10-01

    The Surplus Facilities and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure program is responsible to US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland for the safe, cost-effective surveillance, maintenance, and decommissioning of surplus facilities at the Hanford Site. The Surplus Facilities and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure program is also responsible to US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland for the program management of specific Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closures at the Hanford Site. This program plan addresses only the surplus facilities. The criteria used to evaluate each factor relative to decommissioning are based on the guidelines presented by the US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland, Environmental Restoration Division. The guidelines are consistent with the Westinghouse Hanford Company commitment to decommission Hanford Site retired facilities in the safest and most cost-effective way achievable. This document outlines the plan for managing these facilities until disposal

  19. Consumer Surplus in the Digital Economy: Estimating the Value of Increased Product Variety at Online Booksellers

    OpenAIRE

    Brynjolfsson, Erik; Smith, Michael D.; Yu, (Jeffrey) Hu

    2003-01-01

    We present a framework and empirical estimates that quantify the economic impact of increased product variety made available through electronic markets. While efficiency gains from increased competition significantly enhance consumer surplus, for instance, by leading to lower average selling prices, our present research shows that increased product variety made available through electronic markets can be a significantly larger source of consumer surplus gains. One reason for increased product...

  20. Surplus plutonium disposition draft environmental impact statement. Volume 1, Part A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent (NOI) in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS). DOE's disposition strategy allows for both the immobilization of surplus plutonium and its use as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in existing domestic, commercial reactors. The disposition of surplus plutonium would also involve disposal of the immobilized plutonium and MOX fuel (as spent nuclear fuel) in a geologic repository. The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement analyzes alternatives that would use the immobilization approach (for some of the surplus plutonium) and the MOX fuel approach (for some of the surplus plutonium); alternatives that would immobilize all of the surplus plutonium; and the No Action Alternative. The alternatives include three disposition facilities that would be designed so that they could collectively accomplish disposition of up to 50 metric tons (55 tons) of surplus plutonium over their operating lives: (1) the pit disassembly and conversion facility would disassemble pits (a weapons component) and convert the recovered plutonium, as well as plutonium metal from other sources, into plutonium dioxide suitable for disposition; (2) the immobilization facility would include a collocated capability for converting nonpit plutonium materials into plutonium dioxide suitable for immobilization and would be located at either Hanford or SRS. DOE has identified SRS as the preferred site for an immobilization facility; (3) the MOX fuel fabrication facility would fabricate plutonium dioxide into MOX fuel. This volume includes background information; purpose of and need for the proposed action; alternatives for disposition of surplus weapons useable plutonium; and