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Sample records for suriname netherlands antilles

  1. HIV transmission patterns among The Netherlands, Suriname, and The Netherlands Antilles: a molecular epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Merlijn A; Cornelissen, Marion; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Prins, Maria; Coutinho, Roel A; van Sighem, Ard I; Sabajo, Lesley; Duits, Ashley J; Winkel, Cai N; Prins, Jan M; van der Ende, Marchina E; Kauffmann, Robert H; Op de Coul, Eline L

    2011-02-01

    We aimed to study patterns of HIV transmission among Suriname, The Netherlands Antilles, and The Netherlands. Fragments of env, gag, and pol genes of 55 HIV-infected Surinamese, Antillean, and Dutch heterosexuals living in The Netherlands and 72 HIV-infected heterosexuals living in Suriname and the Antilles were amplified and sequenced. We included 145 pol sequences of HIV-infected Surinamese, Antillean, and Dutch heterosexuals living in The Netherlands from an observational cohort. All sequences were phylogenetically analyzed by neighbor-joining. Additionally, HIV-1 mobility among ethnic groups was estimated. A phylogenetic tree of all pol sequences showed two Surinamese and three Antillean clusters of related strains, but no clustering between ethnic groups. Clusters included sequences of individuals living in Suriname and the Antilles as well as those who have migrated to The Netherlands. Similar clustering patterns were observed in env and gag. Analysis of HIV mobility among ethnic groups showed significantly lower migration between groups than expected under the hypothesis of panmixis, apart from higher HIV migration between Antilleans in The Netherlands and all other groups. Our study shows that HIV transmission mainly occurs within the ethnic group. This suggests that cultural factors could have a larger impact on HIV mobility than geographic distance.

  2. Netherlands Antilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    This discussion of the Netherlands Antilles focuses on the following: geography, the people, history, government, political conditions, economy, and foreign relations. In 1980 the population totaled 253,400 with an annual growth rate of 1%. The Netherlands Antilles consists of 2 groups of 3 islands each, situated in the Caribbean Sea about 880 kilometers apart. 40 nationalities are represented. Dutch is the official language, but Spanish and English are spoken widely. Alonzo de Ojeda, a Spanish navigator, landed on Curacao in 1499, and in 1527 the Spanish took possession of Curacao, Bonaire, and Aruba. In 1634 the 3 islands passed to the Netherlands, where they have remained except for 2 short periods during the Napoleonic wars when the British ruled at Willemstad. According to the statute of 1954, which serves as the constitution, the Netherlands Antilles has a constitutional and parliamentary form of government. The highest power in the Kingdom of the Netherlands is the sovereign, Queen Beatrix, who is represented in the Antilles by an appointed governor. The independent court system is under the control of the chief justice of the Supreme Court of Justice. Each of the island territories has its own representative body, the Island Council. Politics are dominated by 3 issues: economic problems, the prospect of independence, and Aruban separatism. The economic well-being of the Netherlands Antilles is based principally on the operations of 2 huge oil refineries. Because of the high volume of shipments in and out of the 2 islands, Curacao and Aruba ports are among the busiest in the world. Until recently, petroleum or petroleum products accounted for about 85% of the dollar volume of imports and exports from the Netherlands Antilles. That figure has declined with the worldwide oil glut, and the refineries are using only 50-60% of capacity. The next most important industries are tourism and offshore investment and banking. The per capita income in the Antilles is one

  3. Mosquitoes of the Netherlands Antilles and their hygienic importance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyp, van der Edwin

    1954-01-01

    The Netherlands Antilles may be divided into: (1) The Curaçao Group (or Netherlands Leeward Islands): Curaçao, Aruba and Bonaire. (2) The St. Martin Group (or Netherlands Windward Islands): (Netherlands) St. Maarten, Saba and St. Eustatius. The latter islands are very small, forming together only 8.

  4. Situation Reports--Bahamas, Brasil, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General…

  5. Preliminary Assessment of Sponge Biodiversity on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thacker, R.W.; Díaz, M.C.; de Voogd, N.J.; van Soest, R.W.M.; Freeman, C.J.; Mobley, A.S.; LaPietra, J.; Cope, K.; McKenna, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Saba Bank Atoll, Netherlands Antilles, is one of the three largest atolls on Earth and provides habitat for an extensive coral reef community. To improve our knowledge of this vast marine resource, a survey of biodiversity at Saba Bank included a multi-disciplinary team that sampled fishe

  6. Preliminary Assessment of Sponge Biodiversity on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thacker, R.W.; Díaz, M.C.; de Voogd, N.J.; van Soest, R.W.M.; Freeman, C.J.; Mobley, A.S.; LaPietra, J.; Cope, K.; McKenna, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Saba Bank Atoll, Netherlands Antilles, is one of the three largest atolls on Earth and provides habitat for an extensive coral reef community. To improve our knowledge of this vast marine resource, a survey of biodiversity at Saba Bank included a multi-disciplinary team that sampled

  7. Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    A summary description of Suriname's population, geography, history, government, economy, and foreign relations is provided. Suriname, a tropical country, situated on the northern coast of South America, consists of a coastal zone, a central forested region, and a sparsely populated southern savanna zone. Most of the country's approximately 400,000 inhabitants live in the coastal zone, which contains most of the country's agricultural land. The population is ethnically diverse and is 37% Hindustani, 31% Creole, 15.3% Javanese, 10.3% Bush Negro, 2.7% Amerindian, 2.7% Chinese, and 1% European. European settlement began in 1651. Between 1667-1815 the country was rule alternately by the Netherlands and Great Britian. In 1975 Suriname obtained independence from the Netherlands and was governed as a parliamentary democracy between 1975-80. In 1980 the government was overthrown by a military coup, and the constitution was suspended. Although there have been several changes in government structure and leadership since 1980, the country continues to be ruled by military decree. In 1984 a Supreme Council, composed of representives of the military, labor federations, and business organizations and chaired by the army commander, Desire D. Bouterse, was established. Although ultimate authority resides in the commander and in the military, there is also a Council of Ministers, composed of labor and business leaders and headed by the Minister-President, L.F. Ramdat-Misier. The government exerts considerable control over the news media. During the colonial era, a plantation economy, based on the production of cocoa, coffee, sugar, and cotton, was established. The system was supported first by African slave labor, and then by Asian contract agricultural laborers. Suriname's current economy is based largely on the mining, processing and exporting of bauxite. The bauxite industry is dominated by the Suriname Aluminum Company, a subsidiary of the Aluminum Company of America, and by the

  8. Scale insects from the Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyne, A.

    1964-01-01

    The following species have been reported from the Netherlands’ Antilles: Margarodes formicarum Guilding, collected in 1884 or 1885 by Prof. W. F. R. Suringar in Curaçao; specimens in the State Museum of Natural History at Leiden. Protortonia cacti (Linn.), collected in 1756 by Daniel Rolander in St.

  9. Scale insects from the Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyne, A.

    1964-01-01

    The following species have been reported from the Netherlands’ Antilles: Margarodes formicarum Guilding, collected in 1884 or 1885 by Prof. W. F. R. Suringar in Curaçao; specimens in the State Museum of Natural History at Leiden. Protortonia cacti (Linn.), collected in 1756 by Daniel Rolander in St.

  10. Total and free available fluoride in toothpastes in Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, the Netherlands and Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benzian, H.; Holmgren, C.J.; Buijs, M.; van Loveren, C.; van der Weijden, F.; van Palenstein Helderman, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed total and free fluoride concentrations in samples of toothpaste from Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, the Netherlands and Suriname, and investigated the labelling practices of the respective manufacturers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Convenience samples were bought in the five

  11. Buruli ulcer in traveler from Suriname, South America, to the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, William R; de Jong, Bouke; de Vries, Henry J C; Zeegelaar, Jim E; Portaels, Françoise

    2015-03-01

    We report Buruli ulcer in a man in the Netherlands. Phenotyping of samples indicate the Buruli pathogen was acquired in Suriname and activated by trauma on return to the Netherlands. Awareness of this disease by clinicians in non-Buruli ulcer-endemic areas is critical for identification.

  12. Preliminary assessment of sponge biodiversity on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles.

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    Robert W Thacker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Saba Bank Atoll, Netherlands Antilles, is one of the three largest atolls on Earth and provides habitat for an extensive coral reef community. To improve our knowledge of this vast marine resource, a survey of biodiversity at Saba Bank included a multi-disciplinary team that sampled fishes, mollusks, crustaceans, macroalgae, and sponges. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A single member of the dive team conducted surveys of sponge biodiversity during eight dives at six locations, at depths ranging from 15 to 30 m. This preliminary assessment documented the presence of 45 species pooled across multiple locations. Rarefaction analysis estimated that only 48 to 84% of species diversity was sampled by this limited effort, clearly indicating a need for additional surveys. An analysis of historical collections from Saba and Saba Bank revealed an additional 36 species, yielding a total of 81 sponge species recorded from this area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This observed species composition is similar to that found on widespread Caribbean reefs, indicating that the sponge fauna of Saba Bank is broadly representative of the Caribbean as a whole. A robust population of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, appeared healthy with none of the signs of disease or bleaching reported from other Caribbean reefs; however, more recent reports of anchor chain damage to these sponges suggests that human activities can have dramatic impacts on these communities. Opportunities to protect this extremely large habitat should be pursued, as Saba Bank may serve as a significant reservoir of sponge species diversity.

  13. Human papillomavirus testing as a cytology gold standard : comparing Surinam with the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wachtel, MS; Boon, ME; Korporaal, H; Kok, LP

    2005-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction to detect high- risk human papillomavirus has been suggested as a gold standard for cytology. The Netherlands and Surinam were prospectively compared in regard to the proportions of Negative, Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance, and Squamous Intraepithelial

  14. Total and free available fluoride in toothpastes in Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, the Netherlands and Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Benzian; C.J. Holmgren; M. Buijs; C. van Loveren; F. van der Weijden; W.H. van Palenstein Helderman

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed total and free fluoride concentrations in samples of toothpaste from Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, the Netherlands and Suriname, and investigated the labelling practices of the respective manufacturers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Convenience samples were bought in the five coun

  15. Human papillomavirus testing as a cytology gold standard : comparing Surinam with the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wachtel, MS; Boon, ME; Korporaal, H; Kok, LP

    2005-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction to detect high- risk human papillomavirus has been suggested as a gold standard for cytology. The Netherlands and Surinam were prospectively compared in regard to the proportions of Negative, Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance, and Squamous Intraepithelial

  16. Molecular Evidence for Dissemination of Unique Campylobacter jejuni Clones in Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duim, B.; Godschalk, P.C.R.; Braak, N. van den; Dingle, K.E.; Dijkstra, J.R.; Leyde, E.; Plas, J. van der; Colles, F.M.; Endtz, H.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Maiden, M.C.J.; Belkum, A. van

    2003-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni isolates (n = 234) associated with gastroenteritis and the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in the island of Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles, and collected from March 1999 to March 2000 were investigated by a range of molecular typing techniques. Data obtained by pulsed-field gel ele

  17. Molecular Evidence for Dissemination of Unique Campylobacter jejuni Clones in Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duim, B.; Godschalk, P.C.R.; Braak, N. van den; Dingle, K.E.; Dijkstra, J.R.; Leyde, E.; Plas, J. van der; Colles, F.M.; Endtz, H.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Maiden, M.C.J.; Belkum, A. van

    2003-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni isolates (n = 234) associated with gastroenteritis and the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in the island of Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles, and collected from March 1999 to March 2000 were investigated by a range of molecular typing techniques. Data obtained by pulsed-field gel

  18. The role of Surinamese migrants in the transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis between Paramaribo, Suriname and Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bom, Reinier J M; van der Helm, Jannie J; Bruisten, Sylvia M; Grünberg, Antoon W; Sabajo, Leslie O A; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; de Vries, Henry J C

    2013-01-01

    The large Surinamese migrant population in the Netherlands is a major risk group for urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Suriname, a former Dutch colony, also has a high prevalence of C. trachomatis. Surinamese migrants travel extensively between the Netherlands and Suriname. Our objective was to assess whether the Surinamese migrants in the Netherlands form a bridge population facilitating transmission of C. trachomatis between Suriname and the Netherlands. If so, joint prevention campaigns involving both countries might be required. Between March 2008 and July 2010, participants were recruited at clinics in Paramaribo, Suriname and in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants were grouped as native Surinamese, native Dutch, Surinamese migrant, Dutch migrant, or Other, based on country of residence and country of birth of the participant and of their parents. Risk behavior, such as sexual mixing between ethnic groups, was recorded and C. trachomatis positive samples were typed through multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A minimum spanning tree of samples from 426 participants showed four MLST clusters. The MLST strain distribution of Surinamese migrants differed significantly from both the native Surinamese and Dutch populations, but was not an intermediate state between these two populations. Sexual mixing between the Surinamese migrants and the Dutch and Surinamese natives occurred frequently. Yet, the MLST cluster distribution did not differ significantly between participants who mixed and those who did not. Sexual mixing occurred between Surinamese migrants in Amsterdam and the native populations of Suriname and the Netherlands. These migrants, however, did not seem to form an effective bridge population for C. trachomatis transmission between the native populations. Although our data do not seem to justify the need for joint campaigns to reduce the transmission of C. trachomatis strains between both countries, intensified preventive campaigns to

  19. The role of Surinamese migrants in the transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis between Paramaribo, Suriname and Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinier J M Bom

    Full Text Available The large Surinamese migrant population in the Netherlands is a major risk group for urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Suriname, a former Dutch colony, also has a high prevalence of C. trachomatis. Surinamese migrants travel extensively between the Netherlands and Suriname. Our objective was to assess whether the Surinamese migrants in the Netherlands form a bridge population facilitating transmission of C. trachomatis between Suriname and the Netherlands. If so, joint prevention campaigns involving both countries might be required. Between March 2008 and July 2010, participants were recruited at clinics in Paramaribo, Suriname and in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants were grouped as native Surinamese, native Dutch, Surinamese migrant, Dutch migrant, or Other, based on country of residence and country of birth of the participant and of their parents. Risk behavior, such as sexual mixing between ethnic groups, was recorded and C. trachomatis positive samples were typed through multilocus sequence typing (MLST. A minimum spanning tree of samples from 426 participants showed four MLST clusters. The MLST strain distribution of Surinamese migrants differed significantly from both the native Surinamese and Dutch populations, but was not an intermediate state between these two populations. Sexual mixing between the Surinamese migrants and the Dutch and Surinamese natives occurred frequently. Yet, the MLST cluster distribution did not differ significantly between participants who mixed and those who did not. Sexual mixing occurred between Surinamese migrants in Amsterdam and the native populations of Suriname and the Netherlands. These migrants, however, did not seem to form an effective bridge population for C. trachomatis transmission between the native populations. Although our data do not seem to justify the need for joint campaigns to reduce the transmission of C. trachomatis strains between both countries, intensified preventive

  20. Notes on marine fishes from the Netherlands Antilles, with the description of a new species, Eutyx tumidifrons (Brotulidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeseman, M.

    1960-01-01

    A small number of fishes from the Netherlands Antilles has been collected and recently presented to the Leiden Museum by Dr. J. S. Zaneveld, Head of the Biology Department, College of William and Mary, Norfolk, Va., formerly Director of the Caraibisch Marien Biologisch Instituut, Curaçao; and Dr. L.

  1. On the water relation in limestone and diabase vegetation in the Leeward Islands of the Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffers, A.L.; Mansour Elassaiss, C.J.A.

    1967-01-01

    In a same macroclimate on the islands of the Leeward Group of the Netherlands Antilles two types of vegetation are chiefly found. A vegetation pertaining to the dry evergreen formation series on limestone and a vegetation on diabase belonging to the seasonal formation series. Study was made of the w

  2. Biodiversity assessment of the fishes of Saba Bank atoll, Netherlands Antilles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey T Williams

    Full Text Available Biodiversity surveys were conducted on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles, to assess ichthyofaunal richness and to compare with published surveys of other Caribbean localities. The primary objective was to estimate the total species richness of the Saba Bank ichthyofauna. A variety of sampling techniques was utilized to survey the fish species of both the visually accessible megafauna and the camouflaged and small-sized species comprising the cryptic ichthyofauna.Based on results presented herein, the number of species known on Saba Bank is increased from 42 previously known species to 270 species. Expected species-accumulation curves demonstrate that the current estimate of species richness of fishes for Saba Bank under represents the actual richness, and our knowledge of the ichthyofauna has not plateaued. The total expected fish-species richness may be somewhere between 320 and 411 species.The Saba Bank ichthyofaunal assemblage is compared to fish assemblages found elsewhere in the Caribbean. Despite the absence of shallow or emergent shore habitats like mangroves, Saba Bank ranks as having the eighth highest ichthyofaunal richness of surveyed localities in the Greater Caribbean. Some degree of habitat heterogeneity was evident. Fore-reef, patch-reef, and lagoonal habitats were sampled. Fish assemblages were significantly different between habitats. Species richness was highest on the fore reef, but 11 species were found only at lagoonal sites.A comprehensive, annotated list of the fishes currently known to occur on Saba Bank, Netherland Antilles, is provided and color photographs of freshly collected specimens are presented for 165 of the listed species of Saba Bank fishes to facilitate identification and taxonomic comparison with similar taxa at other localities. Coloration of some species is shown for the first time. Preliminary analysis indicates that at least six undescribed new species were collected during the survey and these are

  3. Yellow fever in a traveller returning from Suriname to the Netherlands, March 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Marjan; Knoester, Marjolein; van den Berg, Aad P; GeurtsvanKessel, Corine H; Koopmans, Marion Pg; Van Leer-Buter, Coretta; Oude Velthuis, Bob; Pas, Suzan D; Ruijs, Wilhelmina Lm; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Vreden, Stephen Gs; van der Werf, Tjip S; Reusken, Chantal Bem; Bierman, Wouter Fw

    2017-03-16

    A Dutch traveller returning from Suriname in early March 2017, presented with fever and severe acute liver injury. Yellow fever was diagnosed by (q)RT-PCR and sequencing. During hospital stay, the patient's condition deteriorated and she developed hepatic encephalopathy requiring transfer to the intensive care. Although yellow fever has not been reported in the last four decades in Suriname, vaccination is recommended by the World Health Organization for visitors to this country.

  4. Rapid assessment of octocoral diversity and habitat on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Etnoyer

    Full Text Available Saba Bank is a large submerged platform (approximately 2200 km(2, average depth 30 m, located 4 km southwest of Saba Island in Netherlands Antilles, Caribbean Sea. Ships traveling to and from oil terminals on nearby St. Eustatius routinely anchor on the Bank, damaging benthic megafauna. Gorgonian octocorals are vulnerable to anchor damage, and they are common and conspicuous in shallow water (15-50 m around the banks. This prompted a rapid assessment of octocoral habitat and diversity. The primary objectives were to estimate total species richness and to characterize habitats vis a vis gorgonians. Landsat imagery and multibeam bathymetry were employed to identify random sites for quantitative transects. A Seabotix LBV200L remotely operated vehicle (ROV and SCUBA were used to collect and survey to 130 m. A total of 14 scuba dives and 3 ROV dives were completed in 10 days. During that time, 48 octocoral species were collected, including two likely undescribed species in the genera Pterogorgia and Lytreia. Gorgonian richness was exceptional, but not all species were collected, because the species accumulation curve remained steeply inclined after all surveys. Two shallow-water gorgonian habitat types were identified using multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analyses: 1 a high diversity, high density fore-reef environment characterized by Eunicea spp., Gorgonia spp., and Pseudopterogorgia spp. and 2 a low diversity, low density plateau environment characterized by Pseudopterogorgia acerosa, Pterogorgia guadalupensis, and Gorgonia mariae. The analyses support hypotheses of broad (approximately 15 km habitat homogeneity (ANOSIM, P>0.05, but a significant difference between fore-reef and plateau environments (ANOSIM, P<0.05. However, there was some indication of habitat heterogeneity along the 15 km study section of the 50 km platform edge along the southeast rim. Our results highlight the complexity and biodiversity of the Saba Bank, and

  5. Reef fishes of Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles: assemblage structure across a gradient of habitat types.

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    Wes Toller

    Full Text Available Saba Bank is a 2,200 km(2 submerged carbonate platform in the northeastern Caribbean Sea off Saba Island, Netherlands Antilles. The presence of reef-like geomorphic features and significant shelf edge coral development on Saba Bank have led to the conclusion that it is an actively growing, though wholly submerged, coral reef atoll. However, little information exists on the composition of benthic communities or associated reef fish assemblages of Saba Bank. We selected a 40 km(2 area of the bank for an exploratory study. Habitat and reef fish assemblages were investigated in five shallow-water benthic habitat types that form a gradient from Saba Bank shelf edge to lagoon. Significant coral cover was restricted to fore reef habitat (average cover 11.5% and outer reef flat habitat (2.4% and declined to near zero in habitats of the central lagoon zone. Macroalgae dominated benthic cover in all habitats (average cover: 32.5--48.1% but dominant algal genera differed among habitats. A total of 97 fish species were recorded. The composition of Saba Bank fish assemblages differed among habitat types. Highest fish density and diversity occurred in the outer reef flat, fore reef and inner reef flat habitats. Biomass estimates for commercially valued species in the reef zone (fore reef and reef flat habitats ranged between 52 and 83 g/m(2. The composition of Saba Bank fish assemblages reflects the absence of important nursery habitats, as well as the effects of past fishing. The relatively high abundance of large predatory fish (i.e. groupers and sharks, which is generally considered an indicator of good ecosystem health for tropical reef systems, shows that an intact trophic network is still present on Saba Bank.

  6. Shoreline changes and high-energy wave impacts at the leeward coast of Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Max; Brückner, Helmut; Messenzehl, Karoline; Frenzel, Peter; May, Simon Matthias; Scheffers, Anja; Scheffers, Sander; Wennrich, Volker; Kelletat, Dieter

    2012-10-01

    Supralittoral coarse-clast deposits along the shores of Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles) as well as increased hurricane frequency during the past decade testify to the major hazard of high-energy wave impacts in the southern Caribbean. Since deducing certain events from the subaerial coarse-clast record involves major uncertainties and historical reports are restricted to the past 500 years, we use a new set of vibracore and push core data (i) to contribute to a more reliable Holocene history of regional extreme-wave events and (ii) to evaluate their impact on shoreline evolution. Multi-proxy palaeoenvironmental analyses (XRF, XRD, grain size distribution, carbonate, LOI, microfossils) were carried out using nearshore sedimentary archives from the sheltered western (leeward) side of Bonaire and its small neighbour Klein Bonaire. In combination with 14C-AMS age estimates the stratigraphy reflects a long-term coastal evolution controlled by relative sea level rise, longshore sediment transport, and short-term morphodynamic impulses by extreme wave action, all three of which may have significantly influenced the development of polyhaline lagoons and the demise of mangrove populations. Extreme wave events may be categorized into major episodic incidents (c. 3.6 ka [?] BP; 3.2-3.0 ka BP; 2.0-1.8 ka BP; post-1.3 ka [?] BP), which may correspond to tsunamis and periodic events recurring on the order of decades to centuries, which we interpret as severe tropical cyclones. Extreme wave events seem to control to a certain extent the formation of coastal ridges on Bonaire and, thus, to cause abrupt shifts in the long-term morphodynamic and ecological boundary conditions of the circumlittoral inland bays.

  7. Zika virus infection in 18 travellers returning from Surinam and the Dominican Republic, The Netherlands, November 2015–March 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Duijster (Janneke W.); A. Goorhuis (Abraham); P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry); L.G. Visser (Leo); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); J.H.J. Reimerink (Johan); M.P. Grobusch (Martin P.); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); J.H.C.T. van Den Kerkhof (Johannes H. C. T.); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); S.J. Hahné (Susan); The Dutch Zikv Study Team

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: We report 18 cases of confirmed Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in travellers returning to the Netherlands from Surinam (South America, bordering northern Brazil) and the Dominican Republic. Methods: In a multi-centre study, we collected epidemiological, virological and clinical

  8. Zika virus infection in 18 travellers returning from Surinam and the Dominican Republic, The Netherlands, November 2015–March 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Duijster (Janneke W.); A. Goorhuis (Abraham); P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry); L.G. Visser; M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); J.H.J. Reimerink (Johan); M.P. Grobusch (Martin P.); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); J.H.C.T. van Den Kerkhof (Johannes H. C. T.); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); S.J. Hahné (Susan); The Dutch Zikv Study Team

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: We report 18 cases of confirmed Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in travellers returning to the Netherlands from Surinam (South America, bordering northern Brazil) and the Dominican Republic. Methods: In a multi-centre study, we collected epidemiological, virological and clinical cha

  9. Zika virus infection in 18 travellers returning from Surinam and the Dominican Republic, The Netherlands, November 2015–March 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Duijster (Janneke W.); A. Goorhuis (Abraham); P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry); L.G. Visser; M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); J.H.J. Reimerink (Johan); M.P. Grobusch (Martin P.); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); J.H.C.T. van Den Kerkhof (Johannes H. C. T.); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); S.J. Hahné (Susan); The Dutch Zikv Study Team

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: We report 18 cases of confirmed Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in travellers returning to the Netherlands from Surinam (South America, bordering northern Brazil) and the Dominican Republic. Methods: In a multi-centre study, we collected epidemiological, virological and clinical cha

  10. Is self-rated health lower in refugees in the Netherlands compared to other migrants?

    OpenAIRE

    Devillé, W; Groenewegen, P.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Self-rated health is a good predictor of morbidity, mortality and use of care. It can be measured by one simple question. As such it is included in many surveys in many countries, making general health measurements comparable between countries. Besides the four major migrant populations from Surinam, Netherlands Antilles, Turkey and Morocco, refugees from many countries are looking for a new life in the Netherlands. Differences in self-rated health may be partly due to personal ch...

  11. Yellow fever in a traveller returning from Suriname to the Netherlands, March 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Marjan; Knoester, Marjolein; van den Berg, Aad P; GeurtsvanKessel, Corine H; Koopmans, Marion Pg; Van Leer-Buter, Coretta; Oude Velthuis, Bob; Pas, Suzan D; Ruijs, Wilhelmina Lm; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Vreden, Stephen Gs; van der Werf, Tjip S; Reusken, Chantal Bem; Bierman, Wouter Fw

    2017-01-01

    A Dutch traveller returning from Suriname in early March 2017, presented with fever and severe acute liver injury. Yellow fever was diagnosed by (q)RT-PCR and sequencing. During hospital stay, the patient's condition deteriorated and she developed hepatic encephalopathy requiring transfer to the int

  12. Oceanographic data collected during the Bonaire 2008: Exploring Coral Reef Sustainability with New Technologies (bonaire2008) on Fetch1 AUV and Gavia AUV's in Netherlands, Antilles from January 6, 2008 - January 29, 2008 (NODC Accession 0072312)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles, is arguably the most pristine coral reef environment in the Caribbean. The percent coral cover is the highest and percent algal cover...

  13. High-energy wave deposits at the eastern shore of Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, M.; Willershäuser, T.; Bolten, A.; Brückner, H.; Daut, G.; Wennrich, V.; Kelletat, D.; Scheffers, A.; Scheffers, S. R.; Schäbitz, F.

    2009-04-01

    The island of Bonaire is part of the Leeward Netherlands Antilles and lies 90 km off the Venezuelan coast. It mainly consists of two upper cretaceous cores of basalt, andesite, and dacite, fringed by a sequence of Quaternary marine limestone terraces. These well-defined platforms formed by in-situ growth of coral reefs and deposition of coral debris during high stands of sea level and subsequent exposure due to slow tectonic uplift. Bonaire has a semi-arid climate with an average annual precipitation of less than 500 mm, though large year-to-year variation occurs. Due to its peripheral position within the Caribbean hurricane belt the island rarely experiences severe storm events. Nevertheless, along the eastern windward coast several high-energy wave impacts of mid- to late Holocene age have created a well-diversified sedimentary record. Broad ramparts of imbricated coral rubble north of Lac Bai are 4 m high, proceed up to 400 m inland, and follow the shore over a distance of 12 km. Reef communities of the island's eastern sublittoral obviously never regenerated after their destruction during extreme wave events. Furthermore, massive boulders of up to 260 tons are distributed over the broad elevated Pleistocene reef platform deriving from the foreshore zone (Scheffers et al., 2008). The windward nearshore morphological depressions provide excellent conditions for preserving sedimentary inputs of exceptionally large wave impacts. We carried out numerous vibracorings and gravity corings inside shallow sinkholes on the Pleistocene terrace north of Lac Bai and the landward floodplain of the Lagun embayment at Washikemba. Several vibracorings of up to 5 m below surface at Lagun show multiple interruptions of continuous sedimentation patterns by poorly-sorted shell hash within a carbonate-rich matrix of marine origin. The lowermost bioclastic unit dates back before 6000 BP. Within a superimposed layer of pure mangrove peat another cluster of shells, partly broken, is

  14. Microeconomic determinants of skilled migration: The case of Suriname

    OpenAIRE

    Dulam, Tina; Franses, Philip Hans

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Suriname witnesses a brain drain, in particular to the Netherlands. We study the determinants of this brain drain for skilled individuals, where we rely on an adaptation of the survey proposed in Gibson and McKenzie (2011). We managed to interview a unique set of 286 former top students, who studied in Suriname and now work and live either in the Netherlands or Suriname. We find that important determinants for skilled migration are (1) the social economic status, ...

  15. Goudafzettingen in Suriname (Gold deposits in Surinam)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinck, J.W.

    1956-01-01

    THE GOLD DEPOSITS IN SURINAM AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF CONCESSIONS THROUGH THE COUNTRY The fieldwork on the occurrence of primary and secondary gold deposits in Surinam on which this thesis is based was carried out by order of the Welfare Fund Surinam (Welvaarts Fonds Suriname) during the periods

  16. Goudafzettingen in Suriname (Gold deposits in Surinam)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinck, J.W.

    1956-01-01

    THE GOLD DEPOSITS IN SURINAM AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF CONCESSIONS THROUGH THE COUNTRY The fieldwork on the occurrence of primary and secondary gold deposits in Surinam on which this thesis is based was carried out by order of the Welfare Fund Surinam (Welvaarts Fonds Suriname) during the periods Dece

  17. Goudafzettingen in Suriname (Gold deposits in Surinam)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinck, J.W.

    1956-01-01

    THE GOLD DEPOSITS IN SURINAM AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF CONCESSIONS THROUGH THE COUNTRY The fieldwork on the occurrence of primary and secondary gold deposits in Surinam on which this thesis is based was carried out by order of the Welfare Fund Surinam (Welvaarts Fonds Suriname) during the periods Dece

  18. The relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocken, P.L.; Dorst, A.G. van; Schaalma, H.

    2006-01-01

    A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex educa

  19. The Relevance of Cultural Factors in Predicting Condom-Use Intentions among Immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocken, P. L.; van Dorst, A. G.; Schaalma, H.

    2006-01-01

    A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex education and machismo beliefs on gender and power…

  20. The relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocken, P.L.; Dorst, A.G. van; Schaalma, H.

    2006-01-01

    A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex

  1. The relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocken, P.L.; Dorst, A.G. van; Schaalma, H.

    2006-01-01

    A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex educa

  2. The Relevance of Cultural Factors in Predicting Condom-Use Intentions among Immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocken, P. L.; van Dorst, A. G.; Schaalma, H.

    2006-01-01

    A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex education and machismo beliefs on gender and power…

  3. Return migration of high skilled workers : The case of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this paper we study the determinants of skilled return migration from the Netherlands to Suriname. Based on a survey of Gibson and McKenzie (2011) we managed to interview 283 former top students from Suriname. This unique database is informative in various dimensions

  4. The relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocken, Pl; van Dorst, Ag; Schaalma, H

    2006-04-01

    A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex education and machismo beliefs on gender and power relationships is addressed. The study was conducted among 346 Dutch Antilleans from a random sample of an Antillean population aged 15-50 years. The response rate was 37.8%. The results showed that condom-use intentions were primarily determined by perceived subjective norms, the perceived taboo on discussing sex, machismo attitudes, gender, age and educational background. Moreover, the respondent's opinion regarding machismo was an effect modificator for the association between condom-use intentions and subjective social norm. It is concluded that, in predicting condom-use intentions, factors specific to the culture of a population contribute significantly to the determinants drawn from the general social-cognition models. It is recommended that future research should use measurement instruments that are adapted to culture-specific beliefs, and should explore the influence of cultural factors on actual condom use. Moreover, interventions promoting condom use among migrant populations should target the cultural correlates of condom use.

  5. Origins of the Suriname Kwinti Maroons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Hoogbergen

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Narrative history of the Kwinti Maroons covering approximately 250 years. They had settled West of Paramaribo before 1750. Only in 1887, 24 years after the abolition of slavery, did the authorities acknowledge the Kwinti as free Maroons. Based on archival sources in Suriname and the Netherlands.

  6. Origins of the Suriname Kwinti Maroons

    OpenAIRE

    Wim Hoogbergen

    1992-01-01

    Narrative history of the Kwinti Maroons covering approximately 250 years. They had settled West of Paramaribo before 1750. Only in 1887, 24 years after the abolition of slavery, did the authorities acknowledge the Kwinti as free Maroons. Based on archival sources in Suriname and the Netherlands.

  7. Triatominae species of Suriname (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) and their role as vectors of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwat, Hélène

    2014-07-01

    Nine species of Triatominae, representing three tribes and five genera, are currently known in Suriname. An annotated list of the species based on the collections of the Bureau of Public Health (Suriname), the National Zoological Collection Suriname and the National History Museum Leiden (the Netherlands) is provided. Additionally, the results of several years of opportunistic collection in two domestic environments are presented. The most common species are Rhodnius pictipes Stål, 1972, Rhodnius robustus Larrouse, 1972 and Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811). The significance of the species as vectors of Chagas disease in Suriname is discussed.

  8. Triatominae species of Suriname (Heteroptera: Reduviidae and their role as vectors of Chagas disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Hiwat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nine species of Triatominae, representing three tribes and five genera, are currently known in Suriname. An annotated list of the species based on the collections of the Bureau of Public Health (Suriname, the National Zoological Collection Suriname and the National History Museum Leiden (the Netherlands is provided. Additionally, the results of several years of opportunistic collection in two domestic environments are presented. The most common species are Rhodnius pictipes Stål, 1972, Rhodnius robustus Larrouse, 1972 and Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811. The significance of the species as vectors of Chagas disease in Suriname is discussed.

  9. The bats of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, A.M.

    1962-01-01

    CONTENTS I. Introduction.................. 3 A. Scope of the present paper............. 3 B. Measurements................ 7 C. Nomenclature................ 8 D. Acknowledgements............... 9 II. General Part.................. 10 A. History of the study of Suriname bats.......... 10 B. Remarks on

  10. The bats of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, A.M.

    1962-01-01

    CONTENTS I. Introduction.................. 3 A. Scope of the present paper............. 3 B. Measurements................ 7 C. Nomenclature................ 8 D. Acknowledgements............... 9 II. General Part.................. 10 A. History of the study of Suriname bats.......... 10 B. Remarks on

  11. Freshwater sponges of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezcurra de Drago, Inés

    1975-01-01

    This paper is the first contribution to the knowledge of the freshwater sponges of Suriname. Four species have been identified up till now: Metania spinata (Carter, 1881), Trochospongilla paulula (Bowerbank, 1863), Radiospongilla crateriformis (Potts, 1882), and Drulia uruguayensis Bonetto & Ezcurra

  12. Pénicillates du Surinam et du Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Condé, B.; Terver, D.

    1964-01-01

    Les Pénicillates de la famille des Lophoproctidés ont été signalés de plusieurs Antilles, de Trinidad et de la côte vénézuélienne. Abondants à la Jamaïque (matériaux inédits de P. F. BELLINGER, ils sont seuls représentés dans les récoltes faites au Surinam par le Dr. J. VAN DER DRIFT et nous en

  13. Parasitic mites of Surinam XXXIII. Feather mites (Analgoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Černý, V.; Lukoschus, F.S.

    1975-01-01

    The mites listed in the present paper have been collected from July to October 1971 by the junior author and Drs. N. J. J. KOK during their stay in Surinam with financial aid of the Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research (WOTRO). Mites have been collected occasionally mainly

  14. Assessment of dietary intake among Moroccan women and Surinam men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp-Baart, M-A.J. van; Westenbrink, S.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Brussaard, J.H.

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To establish a method for food consumption data collection in ethnic groups in the Netherlands. Methods. Two pilot studies have been carried out, one among Moroccan women and one among Surinam men. First, focus group discussions were held to obtain background information from members of t

  15. Notes on the herpetofauna of Surinam : III. A new species of Dendrobates (Amphibia salientia, Dendrobatidae) from Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1969-01-01

    INTRODUCTION During a recent collecting trip, financed by grant W 956-2 from WOTRO (Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research), I spent 47 days (22 August-7 October 1968) on the Sipaliwini savannah in southern Surinam. The Sipaliwini savannah is part of an extensive savannah th

  16. Maroons in Suriname and Guyane: how many and where

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Price

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] While conducting research with Sally Price for a book (R. & S. Price 2002 about Maroons in Guyane (French Guiana - all of whom have recent or ancestral roots in Suriname - 1 have come to realize that the Maroon population figures routinely used in the scholarly and popular literature are considerably out of date, for both Suriname and Guyane, as well as for the Maroon diaspora in the Netherlands.1 This brief essay is intended to provide new estimates, some of which have startling implications.

  17. Stomatopod Crustacea of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, L.B.

    1959-01-01

    The present report is based in the first place on material collected by the trawler “Coquette”, which, from April to August 1957, explored the offshore waters of Suriname and French Guiana from the mouth of the Nickerie River in the west to the Iles de Salut in the east. Most of the hauls were made

  18. Bomenboek voor Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeman, J.C.; Mennega, A.M.W.

    1963-01-01

    The aim of this book is to provide all persons interested in the tree and wood species of Suriname with a simple means to find the name of a given tree. To this end two dichotomous keys have been drawn up with the help of punched cards prepared from studies of conserved material and field observatio

  19. Stomatopod Crustacea of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, L.B.

    1959-01-01

    The present report is based in the first place on material collected by the trawler “Coquette”, which, from April to August 1957, explored the offshore waters of Suriname and French Guiana from the mouth of the Nickerie River in the west to the Iles de Salut in the east. Most of the hauls were made

  20. In and Out of Suriname

    OpenAIRE

    Carlin, E.B.; L; Migge, B.; Tjon Sie Fat, P.B.

    2015-01-01

    This title is available online in its entirety in Open Access In and Out of Suriname: Language, Mobility and Identity offers a fresh multidisciplinary approach to multilingual Surinamese society, that breaks through the notion of bounded ethnicity enshrined in historical and ethnographic literature on Suriname.

  1. Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    Focus in this discussion of the Netherlands is on the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between the Netherlands and the US. The Dutch, primarily of Germanic stock with some Gallo-Celtic mixture, have clung to their small homeland against the constant threat of destruction by the North Sea and recurrent invasions by the great European powers. Religion influences Dutch history, society, institutions, and attitudes and is closely related to political life but to a diminishing degree. The present constitution dates from 1848 and has been amended several times. The government, based on the principles of ministerial responsibility and parliamentary government common to most constitutional monarchies in Western Europe, is composed of 3 basic institutions: the crown (monarch, Council of Ministers, and Council of State); the States General (Parliament); and the courts. Catholics, Protestants, Labor, and Liberals are the groups which form the historical basis for the 3 main political parties. The Dutch economy is based on private enterprise. The government has little direct ownership or participation, but it heavily influences the economy. More than 45% of the gross national product is involved in government operations and social programs. Services, which account for half of the national income, are primarily in transport and financial areas, such as banking and insurance. Industrial activity provides about 19% of the national income and is dominated by the metalworking, oil refining, chemical, and food-processing industries. In the last several years Dutch economic growth has been limited by the world's general economic slowdown. After an average 2% growth in 1984-86, real growth in 1987 is estimated at 1.5%. For much of its modern history, the Netherlands pursued a neutralist foreign policy. The good relationship between the US and the Netherlands is based on close historical

  2. A Lithothamnion bank at Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaneveld, J.S.

    1958-01-01

    The part certain lime-secreting marine algae play in the building of coral reefs and in the formation of banks was discussed chiefly at the end of the last and in the beginnig of this century. At that time it was already known that extensive parts of the sublittoral zone of the Arctic sea were cover

  3. A Lithothamnion bank at Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaneveld, J.S.

    1958-01-01

    The part certain lime-secreting marine algae play in the building of coral reefs and in the formation of banks was discussed chiefly at the end of the last and in the beginnig of this century. At that time it was already known that extensive parts of the sublittoral zone of the Arctic sea were cover

  4. Trends of influenza infection in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhin, Malti R; Grunberg, Meritha; Labadie-Bracho, Mergiory

    2013-09-01

    The trends of influenza infection in Suriname were assessed from February 2010 through February 2011. Testing of 393 patients with symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI) revealed 15.3% Influenza B and 18.6% could be identified as influenza A positive, consisting of 56% influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and 44% seasonal A(H3N2). Influenza infection occurred throughout the year, and all three influenza types affected young children as the primary population. The annual incidence of A(H1N1)pdm09 was 6.88 per 100,000 inhabitants [CI] 4.87-9.45. The spread of influenza could neither be linked to tourist flow from the Netherlands nor to contact rates related to school schedules.

  5. Beleid en Bestuur in Suriname

    OpenAIRE

    Dougal Martin

    2001-01-01

    This study, which is in Dutch, surveys governance issues in Suriname. It looks at the Constitution, the National Assembly, the executive branch of government, the justice sector, local government, civil society and corruption.

  6. French Antilles and Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    This discussion of French Antilles and Guiana cover the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, and relations with the US. In 1983 the population totaled 303,000 with an annual growth rate of 0.09%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 12.6/1000 and life expectancy 68 years. About 98% of the people of Martinique are of Afro European or Afro European Indian descent. The remainder are the old planter families and a sizable number of metropolitan French. Most of the work force are employed in agriculture or food processing and associated industries. Most permanent residents of Guadeloupe are of mixed Afro European descent. A few thousand Metropolitan French reside there. Most French Guianese live along the coast, about 1/2 of them in the capital. Martinique is the northernmost of the Windward Islands, which are part of the Lesser Antilles chain in the Caribbean Sea southeast of Puerto Rico. Guadeloupe comprises 2 of the Leeward Islands, which are also part of the Lesser Antilles chain. French Guiana is located on the northern coast of South America, a few degrees north of the Equator. Indians were the 1st known indigenous inhabitants of French Guiana and the French Antilles. Columbus sighted Guadeloupe in 1493, Martinique in 1493 or 1502, and the Guiana coast probably during his 3rd voyage in 1498. French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique, as overseas departments of France since 1946, are integral parts of the French Republic. Their relationship to Metropolitan France is somewhat similar to that of Alaska and Hawaii to the counterminous US. Each department has a general council composed of 1 representative elected by each canton. Guadeloupe and Martinique each elect 2 senators to the French Senate and 3 deputies to the National Assembly. French Guiana elects 1 senator and 1 deputy. In each of the 3 departments exist individuals and small political parties that advocate immediate independence, but their adherents form only

  7. Sea turtles nesting in Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    PREFACE The first manuscript for this book originated in 1970 in the form of a revised translation of 'Zeeschildpadden in Suriname,, a mimeographed report written primarily for internal use. This English version was of the same hybrid nature as the Dutch booklet, which was meant to be a comprehensiv

  8. The Zoological Exploration of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geijskes, D.G.

    1957-01-01

    For a long time, investigation of the fauna of Suriname encountered great difficulties. These included: great abundance of species; inaccessibility of the territory concerned; lack of zoologists on the spot, and little interest in Neotropical material on the part of Dutch biologists. Moreover, the p

  9. Sea turtles nesting in Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    PREFACE The first manuscript for this book originated in 1970 in the form of a revised translation of 'Zeeschildpadden in Suriname,, a mimeographed report written primarily for internal use. This English version was of the same hybrid nature as the Dutch booklet, which was meant to be a comprehensiv

  10. Rivulid Fishes of the Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedeman, J.J.

    1958-01-01

    The present paper is chiefly based on the Rivulid fishes collected by Dr. P. Wagenaar Hummelinck in the Antilles during the years 1930, 1936, 1937, and 1955, and in addition on some specimens collected by various other investigators at earlier dates. Some of the specimens, in particular those belong

  11. Ophiuroidea of the Lesser Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parslow, Rosemary E.; Clark, Ailsa M.

    1963-01-01

    This paper deals mainly with a collection of ophiuroids from the Lesser Antilles sent to the British Museum (Natural History) by Dr. P. WAGENAAR HUMMELINCK in 1959. The identifications were made by ROSEMARY PARSLOW, but the discussion and figures of Amphiodia and Ophiocomella are by AILSA CLARK. The

  12. Parasitic mites of Surinam XXVII. Gastronyssidae, Rhinonyssidae and Ereynetidae from the nasal cavities of bats or birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fain, A.; Lukoschus, F.S.

    1972-01-01

    The mites listed in the present paper have been collected by the junior author and Drs. N. J. J. KOK during a stay in Surinam from 6.VII—1.XI.1971 with financial aid of the Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research (WOTRO). The collection enlarges our knowledge on parasites of

  13. Towards an Alternative Development Model in Suriname

    OpenAIRE

    Dougal Martin

    2002-01-01

    This study advocates the adoption of an alternative development model in Suriname. Suriname adopted a state-centered and inward-looking development model in the early 1980s, although elements of the model had been present long before that time.

  14. Description of a Shrew from Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1910-01-01

    In my “Catalogue systématique des Mammifères, T. XII, 1888, p. 131” I recorded a small shrew from Surinam under the specific title pyrrhonota; till now the animal waits for a description. It seems that Shrews are very rare animals in Surinam, as I nowhere could hunt out another mentioned specimen; a

  15. [Tuberculosis among Trio-Indians in Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crevel, R. van; Doorninck, D.J. van; Ams, J.E. van; Fat, H.T.; Vreden, S.G.S.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the extent and possible causes of the increased incidence of tuberculosis among Amazonian Indians in Surinam. DESIGN: Descriptive. METHOD: In two cross-sectional surveys in 1998 and 2000, the inhabitants of Kwamalasamutu, a village of Trio-Indians in Surinam, were examined f

  16. Home-making of older Antillean migrants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijering, Louise; Lager, Debbie

    A group of 141,345 immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles, a former colony, live in the Netherlands. An increasing number of these migrants are at or above retirement age, and for them, the question of where they want to grow old becomes relevant. It is important for people to age in a place where

  17. Gender differences in health and health care utilisation in various ethnic groups in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devillé Walter L

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine gender differences in health and health care utilisation within and between various ethnic groups in the Netherlands. Methods Data from the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (2000–2002 were used. A total of 7,789 persons from the indigenous population and 1,512 persons from the four largest migrant groups in the Netherlands – Morocco, Netherlands Antilles, Turkey and Surinam – aged 18 years and older were interviewed. Self-reported health outcomes studied were general health status and the presence of acute (past 14 days and chronic conditions (past 12 months. And self-reported utilisation of the following health care services was analysed: having contacted a general practitioner (past 2 months, a medical specialist, physiotherapist or ambulatory mental health service (past 12 months, hospitalisation (past 12 months and use of medication (past 14 days. Gender differences in these outcomes were examined within and between the ethnic groups, using logistic regression analyses. Results In general, women showed poorer health than men; the largest differences were found for the Turkish respondents, followed by Moroccans, and Surinamese. Furthermore, women from Morocco and the Netherlands Antilles more often contacted a general practitioner than men from these countries. Women from Turkey were more hospitalised than Turkish men. Women from Morocco more often contacted ambulatory mental health care than men from this country, and women with an indigenous background more often used over the counter medication than men with an indigenous background. Conclusion In general the self-reported health of women is worse compared to that of men, although the size of the gender differences may vary according to the particular health outcome and among the ethnic groups. This information might be helpful to develop policy to improve the health status of specific groups according to gender and ethnicity. In

  18. The Netherlands : Old Emigrants - Young Immigrant Country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Veenman, J.M.C.

    1999-01-01

    Since the mid 1960s the Netherlands has an immigration surplus, mainly because of manpower recruitment from Turkey and Morocco and because of immigration from the former Dutch colony of Surinam. Immigrant workers have a weak labour market position, which is mainly related to their educational level

  19. Scrapping Maroon history : Brazil's promise, Suriname's shame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Price

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Argues that all American nations except Suriname now provide legal protection for its indigenous/Maroon populations. Demonstrates that successive Suriname governments have been pursuing an increasingly militant and destructive policy against both Maroons and indigenous communities. Calls for rapid legislation, to bring Suriname's constitution and legal code in line with the various human rights and ecological treaties to which the country is party. Also reviews recent work on remnants of quilombos in Brazil, which often uses research on Caribbean Maroon communities as implicit or explicit models.

  20. Bauxite formation on Proterozoic bedrock of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsels, Dewany A.; van Bergen, Manfred J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07009277X

    Lateritic bauxite deposits in Suriname rest on a variety of metamorphic, igneous and sedimentary parent rocks. Remnants of multiple planation surfaces with duricrusts that mark the tropical landscape are associated with recurrent episodes of bauxite formation since Late Cretaceous times.

  1. Towards a typology of Suriname nationalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Meel

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Study of Suriname nationalism and the mechanisms that foster and hamper its course. Uses Anthony Smith's National identity to determine the place Suriname nationalism occupies in the Smith's typological ranking of nationalisms. In the second section, the author discusses national myths, invented traditions, and monuments in Paramaribo to highlight the (cultural problems of integration nationalism. Concludes that integration nationalism has been frustrated as a result of the strong forces of ethnicity.

  2. Towards a typology of Suriname nationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Meel

    1998-01-01

    Study of Suriname nationalism and the mechanisms that foster and hamper its course. Uses Anthony Smith's National identity to determine the place Suriname nationalism occupies in the Smith's typological ranking of nationalisms. In the second section, the author discusses national myths, invented traditions, and monuments in Paramaribo to highlight the (cultural) problems of integration nationalism. Concludes that integration nationalism has been frustrated as a result of the strong forces of ...

  3. Suriname; A Case Study of High Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhdev Shah; Benedikt Braumann

    1999-01-01

    Suriname recently went through a period of destabilizationthat that bordered on hyperinflation. The country’s experience provides a good illustration to study the genesis and dynamics of high inflation and includes some unusual phenomena, such as a monetary overhang, an eight-tiered exchange rate, and inflationary gold purchases by the central bank. High inflation also had a significant impact on the real economy. This paper compares the experience of Suriname with other countries discussed i...

  4. Suriname: World Oil Report 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-01

    The paper reports that Suriname's wells drilled were off slightly at 47, compared with 52 in 1989. However, the number completed as oil producers rose to 34, and their share of the total shot up to 72.3%. Dry holes decreased from 21 to 13. Footage was off a bit at 50,932 ft, in line with the decrease in completions. State oil company Staatsolie forecasts that it will boost drilling all the way to 88 wells this year. It should be pointed out, however, that Staatsolie last year forecast 87 wells and drilled barely more than half of that. Crude oil production at the only producing field, Tambaredjo, rose 110 bpd to 3,910 bpd. The number of active oil wells jumped from 99 to 124, while those capable of producing rose from 102 to 127. Output per well dropped from 38.4 to 31.5 bopd. As per a three-year plan that started this year, production will be increased to 6,500 bopd. About 150 new wells will be drilled in Tambaredjo field to obtain the increase. A 37-mi pipeline is slated to be built to transport the crude from the field in Saramacca to the capital city Paramaribo.

  5. Suriname installing first crude-oil pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAllister, E.W. (E.W. McAllister Engineering Services, Houston, TX (US))

    1992-04-27

    This paper reports that the first cross country crude-oil pipeline in the south American country of Suriname is currently under construction. The State Oil Co. of Suriname (Staatsolie) is building the 34.4-mile, 14-in. pipeline to deliver crude oil from the Catharina Sophia field (Tambaredjo) to the Tout Lui Faut terminal near the capital, Paramaribo. Crude oil from the Jossi Kreek field will be injected at mile point (MP) 3.4. Oil from these two fields is now being moved to tout Lui Faut by Staatsolie-owned motorized ocean barges. Increased production to meet requirements of a planned refinery near Tout Lui Faut prompted the pipeline.

  6. The Educational Attainment of Second Generation Immigrants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Veenman, J.M.C.

    2001-01-01

    Since the mid-1960's the Netherlands has had an immigration surplus, mainly because of manpower recruitment from Turkey and Morocco and immigration from the former Dutch colony of Surinam.Immigrants have a weak labor market position, which is related to their educational level and language skills.Ch

  7. Opisthobranchs from the Lesser Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bois-Reymond Marcus, Eveline du; Marcus, Ernst

    1963-01-01

    Thanks to help of the Government of the Netherlands, Dr. DIVA DINIZ CORRÊA, a lecturer in our Department, was able to work at the “Caraïbisch Marien-Biologisch Instituut” (Caribbean Marine Biological Institute; Carmabi) Curaçao, from January to July 1962. Besides actinians and nemerteans for her own

  8. Dental Nursing in Suriname: Training and Deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guile, E. Ernest; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A program for training dental nurses in Surinam is described whose objective is to alleviate a serious labor shortage. Its unique characteristics include an extra year of training for advanced techniques, absence of direct supervision, and acceptance by the national professional association for dentists. (MSE)

  9. Size and value effects in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.S. Bodeutsch (Denice); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper studies the link between stock returns and size and book-to-market equity effects for 10 companies listed at the Suriname Stock Exchange. We analyze the cross-sectional variation in average returns and we find that there is apparently no size effect, but the

  10. New or noteworthy Euphorbiaceae from Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanjouw, J.

    1940-01-01

    Among the collections made by H. E. ROMBOUTS from 1935— 1938 on the expeditions to the Suriname-Brazil frontier there are a number of Euphorbiaceae which are either new, or rare. As I was engaged in other work I could not begin the study of these specimens before August of this year. Because of the

  11. The changing shoreline of Suriname (South America)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustinus, P.G.E.F.

    1978-01-01

    The Surinam coast forms part of the extensive tropical mud coast between the Amazon River (Brazil) and the Orinoco River (Venezuela). It is classified as a low to medium energy coast. A substantially longshore supply of mud originates from the Amazon River. The fine grained sediment (pelite) is tran

  12. Additions to the Avifauna of suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1974-01-01

    It is self-evident that as the avifauna of a country becomes better known, the number of additions to its avifauna one can expect to make in a given period, must decrease. On the other hand, it may be said that for the same reason the value of each addition increases. During a stay in Suriname of ab

  13. English-speaking in early Surinam?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, N.S.H.; Selbach, R.; Cardoso, H.C.; van den Berg, M.

    2009-01-01

    I assess the opportunities of English-learning for slaves in early Surinam. Under the gradualist approach no creole could develop until the population balance had shifted significantly in favour of the slaves. With the population figures given by Arends for the years 1675, 1684 and 1695, I calculate

  14. Notes on the Myrtaceae of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amshoff, G.J.H.

    1942-01-01

    In trying to prepare the account of the Myrtaceae for PULLE’s Flora of Suriname I soon found that a revision of the Myrtaceae of whole Guiana, especially of French Guiana, and preferably also of the Amazonian district, is necessary. The account would be of little value as long as our knowledge of th

  15. Size and value effects in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.S. Bodeutsch (Denice); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper studies the link between stock returns and size and book-to-market equity effects for 10 companies listed at the Suriname Stock Exchange. We analyze the cross-sectional variation in average returns and we find that there is apparently no size effect, but

  16. Reconnaissance soil survey in northern Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eyk, van der J.J.

    1957-01-01

    By aerial photography and numerous field observations a map with soil landscapes of the northern part of Surinam on a scale of approximately 1: 600,000 was constructed. On this map three main landscapes were distinguished: the landscapes with young soils from sedimentary parent materials on young co

  17. Notes on the Primates of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, A.M.

    1957-01-01

    The zoological collections made by the 1948—1949 Surinam Expedition contain about 200 mammals, brought together by the zoologists Dr. D. C. GEIJSKES and Mr. P. H. CREUTZBERG. Though the collection consists mainly of species which had already been reported from Dutch Guiana, it is of considerable val

  18. Culicinae from the Netherlands Antilles and some other Caribbean localities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyp, van der Edwin

    1953-01-01

    Dr P. Wagenaar Hummelinck entrusted me with the identification of the mosquitoes he collected during his trips to the West Indies in 1936—1937 and 1948—1949. Although dr Hummelinck told me that it was not his intention to catch representative material, the present collection is of particular hygieni

  19. Anthicid Beetles from Venezuela, Colombia, Cuba, and the Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buck, F.D.

    1960-01-01

    The material of Anthicidae covered in this paper was taken by Prof. H. J. MAC GILLAVRY in 1930 and 1933, when being a studentmember of two geological excursions under the leadership of the late Prof. L. M. R. RUTTEN. It comprises ten species, three of which are new to science, viz. Formicillia graci

  20. Competition in three Cyprinodont fish species in the Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristensen, Ingvar

    1970-01-01

    Cyprinodon dearborni, Poecilia sphenops and Rivulus marmoratus seem to fill almost the same niche. In most of the landlocked bays, lagoons or pools the three species were not found together. In only two landlocked locations two of the species were found together. In the locations with an open connec

  1. Anthicid Beetles from Venezuela, Colombia, Cuba, and the Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buck, F.D.

    1960-01-01

    The material of Anthicidae covered in this paper was taken by Prof. H. J. MAC GILLAVRY in 1930 and 1933, when being a studentmember of two geological excursions under the leadership of the late Prof. L. M. R. RUTTEN. It comprises ten species, three of which are new to science, viz. Formicillia

  2. Competition in three Cyprinodont fish species in the Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristensen, Ingvar

    1970-01-01

    Cyprinodon dearborni, Poecilia sphenops and Rivulus marmoratus seem to fill almost the same niche. In most of the landlocked bays, lagoons or pools the three species were not found together. In only two landlocked locations two of the species were found together. In the locations with an open connec

  3. Asteroids from the Netherlands Antilles and other Caribbean localities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ummels, F.

    1963-01-01

    The material brought back by Dr. P. WAGENAAR HUMMELINCK from his various trips to the West Indies includes a number of starfish, which — with exception of the specimens belonging to Astropectinidae, Echinasteridae and Goniasteridae — were given to the present author as a subject for taxonomic examin

  4. Anthicid Beetles from Venezuela, Colombia, Cuba, and the Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buck, F.D.

    1960-01-01

    The material of Anthicidae covered in this paper was taken by Prof. H. J. MAC GILLAVRY in 1930 and 1933, when being a studentmember of two geological excursions under the leadership of the late Prof. L. M. R. RUTTEN. It comprises ten species, three of which are new to science, viz. Formicillia graci

  5. Notes on the herpetofauna of Surinam : V. On a new species of Leptotyphlops from Surinam, with notes on the other Surinam species of the genus (Leptotyphlopidae, Serpentes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    In the present paper Leptotyphlops collaris nov. spec. from Surinam and French Guiana is described, whereas L. cupinensis Bailey & Carvalho, L. dimidiatus (Jan) and L septemstriatus (Schneider) are reported from Surinam for the first time. A total of six species (the four mentioned above plus L. mac

  6. Quilombolas e direitos humanos no Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Price

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Desde a independência do Suriname em 1975, o relacionamento entre o Estado e sua população quilombola (cerca de 52 mil pessoas, talvez 15% da população nacional deteriorou. Do ponto de vista quilombola, os tipos de atrocidades associadas às guerras coloniais do século dezoito voltaram à tona. A Guerra Civil que começou em 1986, que jogou o exército nacional contra os “Jungle Commandos” (compostos principalmente de quilombolas só fez piorar a situação dos quilombolas. Um grande julgamento pela Corte Inter-Americana de Direitos Humanos em 1992, tendo como réu o Estado do Suriname, terminou com uma vultosa indenização por danos aos quilombolas Saramaka, autores da queixa. Recentemente a situação piorou, quando os quilombolas – sem qualquer proteção legal sob a constituição do Suriname – viram as terras pelas quais os seus antepassados lutaram e morreram serem confiscadas unilateralmente pelo Estado e doadas, em concessões gigantescas, a companhias madeireiras e mineradoras multinacionais (da Indonésia, da Malásia, da China e do Canadá. O efeito das atuais políticas para os quilombolas não é nada menos do que etnocídio.

  7. Slavery, religion, and abolition in Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Postma

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] "Om werk van jullie te hebben": Plantageleven in Suriname, 1730-1750. RUDI OTTO BEELDSNIJDER. Utrecht: Vakgroep Culturele Antropologie - Bronnen voor de Studie van Afro-Surinaamse Samenlevingen, 1994. xii + 351 pp. (Paper NLG 35.00 Surinaams contrast: Roofbouw en overleven in een Caraibische plantagekolonie 1750-1863. ALEX VAN STIPRIAAN. Leiden: KITLV Press, 1995. xiii + 494 pp. (Paper NLG 60.00 Strijders voor het Lam: Leven en werk van Herrnhutter broeders en zusters in Suriname, 1735-1900. MARIA LENDERS. Leiden: KITLV Press, 1996. xii + 451 pp. (Paper NLG 65.00 Fifty Years Later: Antislavery, Capitalism and Modernity in the Dutch Orbit. GERT OOSTINDIE (ed.. Leiden: KITLV Press, 1995; Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1996. viii + 272 pp. (Paper NLG 45.00, US$ 22.50, Cloth US$ 45.00 The publication of the books under review is evidence of a growing scholarly interest in the history of Dutch activities in the Atlantic. Three of them are doctoral dissertations on Suriname history; the fourth contains the published proceedings of a conference held in 1993 that focused on the abolition of slavery in the Dutch colonies. Three were published by the Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology (KITLV, which exhibits an increasing interest in publishing scholarly books about Dutch overseas history.

  8. Preliminary survey of the vegetation types of northern Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeman, J.C.; Moolenaar, S.P.

    1959-01-01

    Desde el punto de vista geológico el norte de Surinam se divide en 4 zonas distintas, a saber: I°. la parte del sur que pertenece, como también el resto de Surinam, a la capa precambriana de Guyana, que, a su vez, consiste principalmente en granitos, granitodioritas y esquistos, y que, por la mayor

  9. Preliminary survey of the vegetation types of northern Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeman, J.C.; Moolenaar, S.P.

    1959-01-01

    Desde el punto de vista geológico el norte de Surinam se divide en 4 zonas distintas, a saber: I°. la parte del sur que pertenece, como también el resto de Surinam, a la capa precambriana de Guyana, que, a su vez, consiste principalmente en granitos, granitodioritas y esquistos, y que, por la mayor

  10. [Coping with leprosy in the Dutch West Indies in the 19th century; opposing but meaningful views from Suriname].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Henk; Snelders, Stephen; Pieters, Toine

    2009-01-01

    Leprosy was highly prevalent among African slaves in the Dutch West Indian colony of Suriname. Largely based on observations in Suriname, Dutch physicians described the aetiology of leprosy in terms of'a substrate' to which all sorts of mixtures of infection, heredity and hygiene contributed ('seed and soil'). This explanatory model with multiple options for prevention and treatment left room for different developmental trajectories to control the spread of the disease in the various tropical colonies of the Dutch empire. In Suriname there was a growing worry in the 19th century regarding the spread of leprosy, threatening the health of slaves, settlers and colonial administrators. And this could be harmful to an already weakening plantation economy. This concern prompted the local administration to develop a rigorous policy of strict isolation of leprosy sufferers. This, in turn, intersected with a changing insight in Europe - including the Netherlands - that leprosy was non-contagious. However,'in splendid isolation' in the economically and politically marginal colony Suriname, Dutch physicians like Charles Landre and his son, Charles Louis Drognat Landré, could afford to ignore the European non-contagious approach and continue to support the strict isolation policies. Moreover, they developed a dissident radical explanation of leprosy as a disease caused only by contagion. In the absence of a receptive Dutch audience Drognat Landré published his contagion theory in French and so succeeded in inspiring the Norwegian Hansen, who subsequently discovered the culpable micro-organism. At the same time colonial administrators and physicians in the economically and politically important Dutch colonies in the East Indies adhered to the prevailing European concept and changed policies: the system of isolation was abolished. Given the rather different trajectories of leprosy health policies in the Dutch East and West Indies we point out the importance of a comparative

  11. Freshwater fishes of suriname : the genus Heptapterus (Pimelodidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1967-01-01

    Ichthyological investigations in Suriname, carried out in connection with the "Brokopondo project", financed jointly by the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie and the Stichting voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek in de Tropen, have yielded large collections of freshwater fishes. These collections will

  12. Zeeschildpadden in Suriname: de lederschildpad als ‘flagship species’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilterman, M.; Goverse, E.

    2004-01-01

    Vijf van de zeven soorten zeeschildpadden komen voor in Suriname en buurlanden Guyana en Frans Guyana. De lederschildpad (Dermochelys coriacea), soepschildpad (Chelonia mydas), olijfkleurige dwergsch lidpad (Lepidochelys olivacea) en karetschilpad (Eretmochelys imbricata) leggen er hun eieren, de dl

  13. Annotated list of the Phlebotominae (Diptera) of Suriname

    OpenAIRE

    A.M. Burgos; Hudson, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    Phlebotomine sandflies were collected between 1952 and 1984 at 30 localities in the tropical rainforest and savanna regions of Suriname. Thirty-nine species were identified in the collections (2 Brumptomyia, 37 lutzomyia), including two known vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis, Lutzomyia flaviscutellata and L. umbratilis. Nineteen of the species are new records for Suriname. In the rainforest region, the commonest phlebotomines were L. squatniventris maripaensis (79.8%), L. umbratilis (8.4%) ...

  14. Geology of the Tambaredjo oil field, Suriname

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dronkert, H. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)); Wong, T.E. (Geological Survey of the Netherlands, Haarlem (Netherlands))

    1993-02-01

    After the initial discovery in the sixties of oil below the coastal plain of Suriname (S. America), the State Oil Company of Suriname started production of the unique Tambaredjo field in 1982. The heavy, biodegraded oil (14-16[degrees] API) is produced under compaction drive, from the Paleocene T-sand (average thickness 5 m) at a depth of about 300 m. More than 300 wells have been drilled in an area of about 200 km[sup 2]. High resolution seismics makes it possible to correlate units down to 2 m thick. This dense network of bore holes is very suitable for geological correlations and 3D modeling. The T-sand reservoir consists of angular, medium to coarse grained unconsolidated sands with interfingering clays and lignites. The sands are deposited on a well cemented erosional Cretaceous basement. The reservoir is sealed by locally continuous clays. The oil is trapped in structural highs created by syn-sedimentary rejuvenated basement faults. The depositional environment of the T-sand ranges from fluviatile to deltaic. Frequent avulsion and synsedimentary faulting created a highly compartmented reservoir. Although interconnectedness of the sand bodies is high, clay smears and silting out of the edges confine reservoir compartments. The best genetic sand units such as channel fills or mouth bar deposits hardly correlate over more than a few hundred meters. The Tambaredjo oil field offers an unique opportunity to study the detailed sedimentology and petroleum geology of a fluvio-deltaic transitional realm on the passive margin along the Guiana coast.

  15. First Cases of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi Infection in Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.A.M. van Thiel; T. van Gool; P.A. Kager; A. Bart

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Surinam is generally caused by infection by Leishmania guyanensis. We report three cases of infection with Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi, a Leishmania species not described from Surinam before. Treatment with pentamidine proved to be effective

  16. Earthquake foci in metropolitan France and the lesser Antilles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorel, J.; Gagnepain-Beyneix, J. (Institut de Physique du Globe, Univ. Paris-6 (France)); Frechet, J. (Universite Scientifique et Medical de Grenoble, Saint Martin d' Heres (France))

    A selection of local mechanism for metropolitan France and the lesser Antilles is presented. The data has been chosen on the basis of its quality and only mechanisms for which the faults planes would be determined with a precision of less than 20/sup 0/ are presented. The data concerns four principal regions: The Jura-Rhein graben, the Alps, the Pyrenees and the lesser Antilles. Finally a brief review of the neotectonic environment of the earthquakes in metropolitan France is presented.

  17. Gold mining areas in Suriname: reservoirs of malaria resistance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhin MR

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Malti R Adhin,1 Mergiory Labadie-Bracho,2 Stephen Vreden31Faculty of Medical Sciences, Department of Biochemistry, Anton de Kom Universiteit van Suriname, 2Prof Dr Paul C Flu Institute for Biomedical Sciences, 3Academic Hospital Paramaribo, Paramaribo, SurinameBackground: At present, malaria cases in Suriname occur predominantly in migrants and people living and/or working in areas with gold mining operations. A molecular survey was performed in Plasmodium falciparum isolates originating from persons from gold mining areas to assess the extent and role of mining areas as reservoirs of malaria resistance in Suriname.Methods: The status of 14 putative resistance-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms in the pfdhfr, pfcrt, pfmdr1, and pfATP6 genes was assessed for 28 samples from gold miners diagnosed with P. falciparum malaria using polymerase chain reaction amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and the results were compared with earlier data from nonmining villagers.Results: Isolates from miners showed a high degree of homogeneity, with a fixed pfdhfr Ile51/Asn108, pfmdr1 Phe184/Asp1042/Tyr1246, and pfcrt Thr76 mutant genotype, while an exclusively wild-type genotype was observed for pfmdr1 Asn86 and pfdhfr Ala16, Cys59, and Ile164, and for the pfATP6 positions Leu263/Ala623/Ser769. Small variations were observed for pfmdr1 S1034C. No statistically significant difference could be detected in allele frequencies between mining and nonmining villagers.Conclusion: Despite the increased risk of malaria infection in individuals working/living in gold mining areas, we did not detect an increase in mutation frequency at the 14 analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms. Therefore, mining areas in Suriname cannot yet be considered as reservoirs for malaria resistance.Keywords: Plasmodium falciparum, gold mining, mutation frequency, Suriname

  18. Suriname - politics, technology, and Third World energy strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auty, R.M.

    Suriname illustrates how some developing countries responded to the oil price shocks by developing domestic energy sources as a substitute for imported oil. Suriname's effort to develop a capital-intensive hydrosmelter aluminum project ran into both technical and political problems despite its economic appeal. A combination of delays, inflation, and disappointing bauxite deposits raised the final cost estimation of the first stage from $460 to $740 million. A military coup slowed the project until the appeal of a green-technology option of small-scale rural development revived interest. The country's response to the 1973 oil shock still lacks coherence. 1 figure, 1 table.

  19. Alternative electric power supply in the interior parts of Surinam. Alternatieve elektriciteitsvoorziening in het binnenland van Suriname

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Castro, J.F.M. (Castro Consulting Engineer CCE, Amersfoort (Netherlands)); Jansen, J.C. (Unit ECN Policy Studies, Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, Petten (Netherlands))

    1993-03-01

    This report presents mission findings on the possibilities for introduction of cost-effective renewable sources of energy for power supply at remote locations in Surinam. As renewable energy options micro hydro, photovoltaic, and wind power generation were considered. Case studies have been made of six locations with marked differences among each other as regards the energy situation. Wind power turned out not to be feasible in Surinam, while the economic potential for micro hydro power is marginal at best. On the other hand, PV denotes a cost-effective option for electricity supply at several remote locations. This conclusion is corroborated, when environmental impacts are properly taken into account. The presentation of a blueprint for implementation of power in the interior of Surinam concludes the report. 5 figs., 4 tabs., 3 apps., 23 refs.

  20. Control de la lepra y contagiosmo en Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menke, H.; Snelders, S.A.M.; Pieters, A.H.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Leprosy is nowadays a disappearing but not yet defeated disease in Suriname. In colonial times it was a burden for colonial government and people, the majority of patients (in preabolition times) being slaves. In the 18th century a control system was established, with detection and isolation, anchor

  1. Control de la Lepra y Contagionismo en Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menke, Henk E; Snelders, S.A.M.; Pieters, T

    2015-01-01

    Leprosy is nowadays a disappearing but not yet defeated disease in Suriname. In colonial times it was a burden for colonial government and people, the majority of patients (in preabolition times) being slaves. In the 18th century a control system was established, with detection and isolation, anchor

  2. Bauxite deposits in Suriname and Demerara (British Guiana)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersen, van J.F.

    1956-01-01

    On the basis of the morphology and stratigraphic positions, the bauxite deposits in Suriname and Demerara (British Guiana) were divided into four main groups, namely: 1. Plateau type bauxite, 2. High-level type bauxite, 3. Medium-level type bauxite, 4. Low-level type bauxite. The age of these

  3. Notes on a few Opisthobranch Mollusca from Surinam (Guianas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen-Meyer, J.

    1965-01-01

    The Opisthobranchs dealt with in this paper were entrusted to me by Dr. C. O. van Regteren Altena, Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden, and belong to that museum. They are part of a large collection of marine molluscs from Surinam of which Dr. van Regteren Altena intends to publish an annot

  4. Landforms and soils in eastern Surinam (South America)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de M.W.H.

    1972-01-01

    Quaternary geogenesis in eastern Surinam was studied by field methods and sedimentary-petrographic research. The development of the river valleys was explained in terms of changes in sea level, tectonic movements and changes in climate. A preliminary stratigraphy was established.Eight soil profiles

  5. Control de la Lepra y Contagionismo en Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menke, Henk E; Snelders, S.A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125095759; Pieters, T|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/188785833

    2015-01-01

    Leprosy is nowadays a disappearing but not yet defeated disease in Suriname. In colonial times it was a burden for colonial government and people, the majority of patients (in preabolition times) being slaves. In the 18th century a control system was established, with detection and isolation,

  6. Borkenkäfer der Bodenfauna in Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schedl, Karl E.

    1963-01-01

    Dr. J. van der Drift hat im Jahre 1959 in Surinam umfangreiche Untersuchungen über die Bodenfauna angestellt, wobei unter anderen über 2.500 Scolytiden bezw. Platypodiden zutage kamen, die mir entgegenkommenderweise zur Bearbeitung überlassen wurden. Die Determination ergab dabei zwanzig Arten und

  7. Ecological studies on rain forest in Northern Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, J.P.

    1960-01-01

    During the years 1955-1957 ecological data were collected in various types of mesophytic forest occurring in the northern half of central Suriname (fig. 1). Physiognomically as well as floristically these forests correspond with the type of vegetation which in the other parts of tropical America

  8. Verslag van een bezoek aan Suriname. Werkplan 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putter, de H.; Sauers-Muller, van A.

    2007-01-01

    Het Surituin project is in 2005 van start gegaan als samenwerking tussen het Ministerie van Landbouw, Veeteelt en Visserij (LVV) in Suriname en het Ministerie van Landbouw, Natuur en Voedselkwaliteit (LNV), Nederland, samen met het Surinaams en Nederlands bedrijfsleven. Het project sluit aan bij de

  9. Terugdringen van bestrijdingsmiddel residu op groenten uit Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putter, de H.; Sauers-Muller, van A.

    2007-01-01

    Het Surituin project is in 2005 van start gegaan als samenwerking tussen het Ministerie van Landbouw, Veeteelt en Visserij (LVV) in Suriname en het Ministerie van Landbouw, Natuur en Voedselkwaliteit (LNV), Nederland, samen met het Surinaams en Nederlands bedrijfsleven. De doelstelling van het proje

  10. Ecological studies on rain forest in Northern Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, J.P.

    1960-01-01

    During the years 1955-1957 ecological data were collected in various types of mesophytic forest occurring in the northern half of central Suriname (fig. 1). Physiognomically as well as floristically these forests correspond with the type of vegetation which in the other parts of tropical America gen

  11. The Holocene and Recent marine Bivalve Mollusca of Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.

    1968-01-01

    As the preparation of an annotated check list of the marine Mollusca of Surinam (Dutch Guiana) will take some more years, it was thought appropriate to publish a preliminary report on the bivalves. This report consists of a list of 126 species with a few notes containing, i.a., the description of se

  12. An ecological and phytogeographic study of northern Surinam savannas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donselaar, van J.

    1965-01-01

    Geology and soils in general Surinam is situated at the northern edge of the very old and stable Guiana shield. Six-sevenths of the country’s surface are occupied by formations belonging to the shield and designated together as the basal complex. However, the Roraima formation does not belong to the

  13. Ecological studies on rain forest in Northern Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, J.P.

    1960-01-01

    During the years 1955-1957 ecological data were collected in various types of mesophytic forest occurring in the northern half of central Suriname (fig. 1). Physiognomically as well as floristically these forests correspond with the type of vegetation which in the other parts of tropical America gen

  14. An ecological and phytogeographic study of northern Surinam savannas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donselaar, van J.

    1965-01-01

    Geology and soils in general Surinam is situated at the northern edge of the very old and stable Guiana shield. Six-sevenths of the country’s surface are occupied by formations belonging to the shield and designated together as the basal complex. However, the Roraima formation does not belong to the

  15. Aspects of the ecology of mosquitoes in Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijf, de H.A.M.

    1972-01-01

    For about two years (1967—1968) investigations were conducted on the ecology of mosquitoes in relation to the transmission of arboviruses in Surinam (DE KRUIJF 1970). Part of this study dealing with the daily activity of biting mosquitoes is presented here. Daily activity of biting anopheline female

  16. Landforms and soils in eastern Surinam (South America)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de M.W.H.

    1972-01-01


    Quaternary geogenesis in eastern Surinam was studied by field methods and sedimentary-petrographic research. The development of the river valleys was explained in terms of changes in sea level, tectonic movements and changes in climate. A preliminary stratigraphy was

  17. Studies of the vegetation of the Suriname savannahs and swamps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanjouw, J.

    1936-01-01

    1. The following definition is proposed for the term Savannah. Savannahs are plains in the West Indian Islands and Northern South America covered with more or less xeromorph herbs and small shrubs and with few trees or larger shrubs. 2. It is suggested that the Suriname Savannahs have originated fro

  18. Physical working capacity of male inhabitants from Upper Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staudt, F.J.

    1978-01-01

    Aerobic power tests were carried out on twenty male Bushnegroes, as part of a medical survey in two villages on the Upper Marowijn river in the interior of Surinam (South America). The subjects were submitted to a discontinuous series of increasing submaximal loads by means of a bicycle ergometer. H

  19. Energy saving to guarantee the electricity supply in Surinam; De elektriciteitsvoorziening van Suriname is goed af met besparing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moerdijk, M.C.W. [Eco-Energy Engineering, Velp (Netherlands)

    1995-10-01

    A brief overview is given of the problems in Surinam regarding the electric power supply. By realizing short-term energy conservation options the electric power supply can be guaranteed, without large investments, up to the year 2004. The power generating capacity after 2004 can be increased by means of a large-scale hydro power plant. 1 fig., 1 ills., 1 tab.

  20. How do psychosocial determinants in migrant women in the Netherlands differ from these among their counterparts in their country of origin? A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Nierkens; M.V. van der Ploeg; M.Y. van Eer; K. Stronks

    2011-01-01

    Migration of non-Western women into Western countries often results in an increase in smoking prevalence among migrant women. To gain more insight into how to prevent this increase, we compared psychosocial determinants of smoking between Surinamese women in Suriname and those in the Netherlands. Da

  1. Notes on the Herpetofauna of Suriname : X. Coleodactylus Septentrionalis Vanzolini, a Lizard new for the Surinamese Fauna (Sauria: Gekkonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    During fieldwork in western Suriname, the recently described diminutive, ground-dwelling sphaerodactyline gekko Coleodactylus septentrionalis was found. A diagnosis and some details on its ecology are presented. A key to the species of Coleodactylus occurring in Suriname is provided.

  2. Physicians, Healers, and their Remedies in Colonial Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Natalie Zemon

    2016-01-01

    Medical pluralism flourished in the 18th century in the Dutch colony of Suriname. White physicians and surgeons, trained in European medicine, existed along with Indigenous priest/healers and herbalists, slave priest/diviners, and healers of African origin, their diverse practices played out on the plantation itself. While decrying the "superstition" of slave healers, physicians began to take note of their plant remedies, such as the local bark used to reduce fever discovered by the celebrated diviner Quassie. Some slave healers were trained in European surgical practices. The Suriname government acted against the slave "poisoners," who were feared by slaves as well, but they did not act against other non-European healers.

  3. Annotated list of the Phlebotominae (Diptera of Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Burgos

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Phlebotomine sandflies were collected between 1952 and 1984 at 30 localities in the tropical rainforest and savanna regions of Suriname. Thirty-nine species were identified in the collections (2 Brumptomyia, 37 lutzomyia, including two known vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis, Lutzomyia flaviscutellata and L. umbratilis. Nineteen of the species are new records for Suriname. In the rainforest region, the commonest phlebotomines were L. squatniventris maripaensis (79.8%, L. umbratilis (8.4% and L. flaviscutellata (6.3% in human bait catches, L. umbratilis (26.2%, L. infraspinosa (23.9% and L. trichopyga (8.3% in CDC light traps and L. umbratilis (84.3%, L. whitmani (6.8% and L. shannoni (4.3% in collections from tree trunks. The mean incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis from 1979-1985 was 4.9 per 1000 inhabitants for the rainforest region and 0.66 per 1000 for Surinameas a whole.

  4. Evaluation of tsunami risk in the Lesser Antilles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zahibo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to give the preliminary estimates of the tsunami risks for the Lesser Antilles. We investigated the available data of the tsunamis in the French West Indies using the historical data and catalogue of the tsunamis in the Lesser Antilles. In total, twenty-four (24 tsunamis were recorded in this area for last 400 years; sixteen (16 events of the seismic origin, five (5 events of volcanic origin and three (3 events of unknown source. Most of the tsunamigenic earthquakes (13 occurred in the Caribbean, and three tsunamis were generated during far away earthquakes (near the coasts of Portugal and Costa Rica. The estimates of tsunami risk are based on a preliminary analysis of the seismicity of the Caribbean area and the historical data of tsunamis. In particular, we investigate the occurrence of historical extreme runup tsunami data on Guadeloupe, and these data are revised after a survey in Guadeloupe.

  5. Corixidae of Suriname and the Amazon with records of other neotropical species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieser, N.

    1970-01-01

    The material studied was mainly collected by Dr. P. H. van Doesburg Jr. during his stay in Suriname and by Dr. P. Wagenaar Hummelinck during various collecting trips while visiting Venezuela and Suriname. In addition, specimens from the Western Hemisphere brought together in the Rijksmuseum at

  6. On Blarina pyrrhonota and Echimys macrourus: Two Mammals incorrectly assigned to the Suriname Fauna.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, A.M.

    1962-01-01

    When revising the Suriname mammals preserved in the collection of the Leiden Museum I also examined the type specimens of Echimys macrourus and Blarina pyrrhonota, described from Suriname by JENTINK in 1879 and 1910, respectively. As a result of this investigation I reached the conclusion that the t

  7. A record from Surinam of the bat Chiroderma trinitatum Goodwin, 1958 (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, W.

    1979-01-01

    Re-examination of a collection of bats from Surinam in the Zoölogisch Museum, Amsterdam, uncovered a specimen representing the Phyllostomatid bat Chiroderma trinitatum Goodwin, 1958. This species does not appear in the monograph of the Chiroptera of Surinam by Husson (1962), nor in his more recent

  8. Patronen van communicatie en hun organisatorisch verband bij de landbouwvoorlichting in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalshoven, G.

    1977-01-01

    Agricultural extension in Surinam: communication patterns and their organizational structure.This empirical research in Surinam was designed to study socio-economic variables that influence communication and change resulting from extension work in two rural areas. The study focusses on environmental

  9. Studies on the flora of the Guianas. 3. A survey of Habenaria Willd. in Suriname (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Snuverink, J.H.; Westra, L.Y.Th.

    1983-01-01

    This is a preliminary survey of the Habenaria species now known from Suriname. A key and descriptions, as well as analytical drawings of the flowers are provided. The descriptions are based not only on collections from Suriname, but also on material from the other Guianas.

  10. The Akuriyo of Surinam. A Case of Emergence from Isolation. IWGIA Document 27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, Peter

    In 1968, the Amerindian nomads of southeast Surinam, South America known as the Akuriyo were rediscovered by the West Indies Mission through the Wayana and Trio Indians with whom the Mission worked in Surinam. Although the Akuriyo had always been suspicious of other peoples, they soon realized the missionaries and the Trio meant them no harm.…

  11. Re-democratization in Guyana and Suriname: Critical Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitram Singh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Guyana and Suriname both re-assumed the path to  democracy in the early 1990s. Guyana had from  1968 to 1992 experienced an authoritarian regime  with the People’s National Congress (PNC, led by  Forbes Burnham, maintaining power by rigged  elections and the support of the security forces. In  Suriname, on the other hand, the elected government of Prime Minister Henck Arron was overthrown by a military coup in 1980. This article traces  the establishment of authoritarianism in these two  countries and examines the factors which propelled  each country towards the restoration of democracy.  The central argument is that authoritarianism in  Guyana resulted from the success of Forbes Burnham in subordinating the military to party rule  while the military take-over in Suriname resulted  from the mismanagement of civil-military relations  by the government of Henck Arron. However,  maintaining an authoritarian regime proved costly  in both cases. The need for external aid rendered  the regimes susceptible to foreign pressure for a  return to free and fair elections. All of this occurred  in a new hemispheric context shaped by the end of  the Cold War, the stated goal of the United States  to have the area become a zone of democracy, and  impending foreign military intervention to restore  the ousted Aristide government to power in Haiti. Resumen: Redemocratización en Guyana y Suriname: Comparaciones CríticasTanto Guyana como Suriname retomaron el  camino hacia la democracia a comienzos de la  década de los noventa. Desde 1968 hasta 1992,  Guyana tuvo un régimen autoritario con el Congreso Nacional del Pueblo (People’s National  Congress o PNC, liderado por Forbes Burnham,  que se mantuvo en el poder gracias a la manipulación de las elecciones y al apoyo de las fuerzas  de seguridad. En Suriname, por otro lado, el  gobierno electo del primer ministro Henck Arron  fue derrocado por un golpe de estado militar en

  12. Kansen en knelpunten van exportketens van groenten uit Suriname naar Nederland als onderdeel van project tuinbouwtechnologische vernieuwingsimpuls voor de groneteteelt in Suriname (Surituin) : verslag stakeholders workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milton, P.Y.; Debie, R.; Wiersema, S.G.

    2005-01-01

    In het project Surituin is een stakeholder workshop gehouden waarin relevante stakeholders zijn uitgenodigd deel te nemen aan een discussie betreffende kansen en knelpunten in de exportketen van groenten uit Suriname naar Nederland.

  13. God dekoloniseert niet. Een kritiek op de Nederlandse geschiedschrijving over de neergang van Nederlands-Indië en Nederlands Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. de Beus

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available God has nothing to do with decolonization: A criticism of Dutch historiography on the demise of the Dutch East Indies and Dutch SurinamInevitably, there is a moral side to decolonisation. In the Netherlands, the focus on this aspect has been encouraged by the culture of gospel preaching: that curious constant which permeates the history of the Netherlands. More specifically, however, we have identified an important trend stemming from the 1960s whereby many politicians and influential people placed pressure on historians to bear witness to this aspect. This fitted in with the general pattern of moralizing history, alongside tracing the history of morality. This jarred with the professional self-image of historians who, during the 1960s, had in fact shaken off the roles of moralist, educator of the common man and keeper of souls. Yet, generally speaking, the historiography of the colonies still has a touch of national self-purging about it: various authors still write about decolonization in a judgmental tone.Despite the unmistakable scientific merits of this wave of Dutch East Indian studies and Surinam studies, the effect of this moralising is rather futile: it has not resulted in any great consensus of opinion, nor to any visible demonstration of being able to cope with the past or public reconciliation (as far as historical moralism is actually capable of achieving this. Thisis all the more reason for us to ask ourselves to explain why the art of moralising continues. The reasons for can be attributed to a variety of factors, partly of a professional nature and partly social. With respect to the former, this demonstrates a contrived battle between different schools of thought, a fixation on everything that is Dutch and a lack of interesting historiography from the Indonesian and Caribbean side. As far as the latter is concerned, this centres around afear of losing momentum in a society that is not retrospective, coupled with the post

  14. God dekoloniseert niet. Een kritiek op de Nederlandse geschiedschrijving over de neergang van Nederlands-Indië en Nederlands Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. de Beus

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available God has nothing to do with decolonization: A criticism of Dutch historiography on the demise of the Dutch East Indies and Dutch SurinamInevitably, there is a moral side to decolonisation. In the Netherlands, the focus on this aspect has been encouraged by the culture of gospel preaching: that curious constant which permeates the history of the Netherlands. More specifically, however, we have identified an important trend stemming from the 1960s whereby many politicians and influential people placed pressure on historians to bear witness to this aspect. This fitted in with the general pattern of moralizing history, alongside tracing the history of morality. This jarred with the professional self-image of historians who, during the 1960s, had in fact shaken off the roles of moralist, educator of the common man and keeper of souls. Yet, generally speaking, the historiography of the colonies still has a touch of national self-purging about it: various authors still write about decolonization in a judgmental tone.Despite the unmistakable scientific merits of this wave of Dutch East Indian studies and Surinam studies, the effect of this moralising is rather futile: it has not resulted in any great consensus of opinion, nor to any visible demonstration of being able to cope with the past or public reconciliation (as far as historical moralism is actually capable of achieving this. Thisis all the more reason for us to ask ourselves to explain why the art of moralising continues. The reasons for can be attributed to a variety of factors, partly of a professional nature and partly social. With respect to the former, this demonstrates a contrived battle between different schools of thought, a fixation on everything that is Dutch and a lack of interesting historiography from the Indonesian and Caribbean side. As far as the latter is concerned, this centres around afear of losing momentum in a society that is not retrospective, coupled with the post

  15. Polyplacophora of the Caribbean Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaas, P.

    1972-01-01

    The present monograph has been drawn up chiefly from material collected by Dr. P. WAGENAAR HUMMELINCK, secretary of the Foundation for Scientific Research in Surinam and the Netherlands Antilles, during his trips to the Caribbean in 1936/37, 1948/49, 1955, 1963, and 1967. This collection comprises

  16. A new species of Myotis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from Suriname

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moratelli, Ricardo; Wilson, Don E.; Gardner, Alfred; Fisher, Robert D.; Gutiérrez, Eliécer E.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of bat in the genus Myotis (Vespertilionidae: Myotinae) from the district of Sipaliwini, Suriname. The new species (Myotis clydejonesi sp. nov.), known from a single specimen, is sister to a clade of M. nigricans (Schinz) from southern South America, but differs from all Neotropical species of Myotis in qualitative and quantitative morphological characters and in its cytochrome-b gene sequence. Our findings also indicate that M. nigricans remains composite and provide support for restricting M. nigricans (sensu stricto) to southern South America.

  17. Tracing the origin of modality in the creoles of Suriname

    OpenAIRE

    Migge, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    The present paper attempts to shed light on the origin of creole TMA systems by investigating the emergence of two subsystems of modality in the creoles of Suriname. The investigation is based on a comparative linguistic analysis of modality in three maroon creoles and six Gbe varieties, and on a preliminary investigation of early historical documents (Goury 2003). The aim is to determine the role of the Gbe languages in the formation of these creol es and to show how input from both European...

  18. TIME REDUCTION FOR SURINAM GRASS SEED GERMINATION TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Aquino Tomaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe period for the germination test of Surinam grass seeds established by the Rules for Seeds Testing is 28 days, considered too lengthy by producers, venders, and seed analysis laboratories. So, the objective of this research was to evaluate the possibility of reducing the time for the germination test of Surinam grass seeds and to establish a method for dormancy breaking and the ideal temperature. Ten seed lots were submitted to the following treatments to overcome seed dormancy: control; substrate moistening with 0.2% KNO3; and scarification with sulfuric acid (98% 36 N for 15 minutes. After the treatments, the lots were submitted to seed water content, germination and tetrazolium tests. During the germination test, conducted with four replicates of 100 seeds per treatment for 28 days, two conditions of alternating temperatures (20-35 °C and 15-35 °C with 8 hours of light were tested. Attempting to determine the test end date, daily counts of the number of normal seedlings were made and for each lot, treatment, and temperature, a growth curve for the evaluation of germination was adjusted. The segmented regression model parameter estimations were calculated for each treatment. The germination test of Braquiaria decumbensseeds may be evaluated in 12 days after sowing using alternating temperatures of 20-35 °C and without any treatment to overcome dormancy.

  19. Passalidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) of the Greater and Lesser Antilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ferbans, Larry; Reyes-Castillo, Pedro; Schuster, Jack C

    2015-05-12

    We present a synthesis of the state of knowledge concerning the species of Passalidae (Coleoptera) of the West Indies and we present a key to the species. The recently described genus Antillanax Boucher renders the subgenus Passalus (Pertinax) Kaup paraphyletic, therefore we place Antillanax in synonymy with Passalus (Pertinax) and we propose a new combination for Passalus (Pertinax) doesburgi (Boucher). The island richest in species is Hispaniola, with five species, three of them endemic. Excluding Trinidad and Tobago, the passalid fauna of the West Indies comprises 13 species; this is low richness, but with high endemism (50%), especially for the Greater Antilles.

  20. Vitrinellidae (Marine Mollusca Gastropoda) from Holocene deposits in Surinam (Dutch Guiana)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.

    1966-01-01

    Five species of Vitrinellidae have been found in the Holocene shell ridges of Surinam. Of these, Vitrinella (Striovitrinella) cupidinensis,Cochliolepis surinamensis, and Solariorbis guianensis are new species, while Cyclostremiscus caraboboensis Weisbord is known from Pliocene beds in Venezuela and

  1. Bdelyrus Geijskesi, a new Scarab (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from suriname associated with Bromeliaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, J.

    1984-01-01

    Bdelyrus geijskesi, a new bromeliadicolous species from Suriname is described and figured. Polymorphism and sexual dimorphism in the dentation of the hind tibia within the genus Bdelyrus are reported. Lectotypes are designated for B. lagopus Harold and B. seminudus (Bates).

  2. New attaphilous Histeridae (Coleoptera) from Suriname, with notes on other species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanaar, P.

    1997-01-01

    The following new attaphilous Histeridae from Suriname are described and illustrated: Carcinops subcarinatus, Phelister geijskesi and Phelister degallieri. New records are given for Phoxonotus tuberculatus Marseul and Phelister striatinotum Wenzel & Dybas.

  3. Five new species of Guatteria (Annonaceae) from French Guiana, Guyana and Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharf, U.; Maas, P.J.M.; Morawetz, W.

    2006-01-01

    As a precursor to a taxonomic treatment of Annonaceae for the Flora of the Guianas project, five new species of Guatteria Ruiz & Pav. from French Guiana, Guyana and Suriname (Northern South America) are described here.

  4. Studies on the flora of the Guianas. II. A new species of Asterophorum (Tiliaceae) from Suriname

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen-Jacobs, Marion J.; Westra, L.Y.Th.

    1983-01-01

    A new species of Asterophorum, A. mennegae, is described from the Sipaliwini Savanne (Suriname). The position of Asterophorum within the family is briefly reviewed, and a key to the 2 species is given.

  5. First case of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ricardo V P F; Kent, Alida D; Adams, Emily R; van der Veer, Charlotte; Sabajo, Leslie O A; Mans, Dennis R A; de Vries, Henry J C; Schallig, Henk D F H; Lai A Fat, Rudy F M

    2012-05-01

    The main causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Suriname is Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis. This case report presents a patient infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, a species never reported before in Suriname. This finding has clinical implications, because L. braziliensis has a distinct clinical phenotype characterized by mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, a more extensive and destructive form of CL that requires different treatment. Clinicians should be aware that chronic cutaneous ulcers in patients from the Guyana region could be caused by L. braziliensis.

  6. The tropical rain forests of Suriname : exploitation and management 1600-1975

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Boomgaard

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available First, an introduction of the geomorphology of Suriname and the characteristics of its forests is given. Then, the author explains how it is possible that Suriname still has a high proportion of tropical rainforest while it has been a plantation economy for centuries. He looks at the usual sources of destruction of wooded areas, government policy, role of the Forest Service, and Western enterprise.

  7. Theory and relevance of currency substitution with case studies for Canada and the Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractAbstract--This paper develops the theory of currency substitution from a choice theoretic point of view. The main result offers a simple relationship between the relative amount of currencies held and their opportunity costs, i.e., interest and capital gains. Our hypothesis is tested by

  8. Risk factors associated with Campylobacter jejuni infections in Curacao, Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.P. Endtz (Hubert); L. de Haan (Lidewij); R. van Koningsveld (Rinske); Y. Halabi; N.P.W.C.J. van den Braak (Nicole); B.I. Kesztyus; C.W. Ang (Wim); I. Gerstenbluth; E. Leyde; A. Ott (Alewijn); F.G. Rodgers; R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel); D.L. Woodward; A.F. van Belkum (Alex); L.J. Price; H. West; P.C.R. Godschalk (Peggy)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA steady increase in the incidence of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) with a seasonal preponderance, almost exclusively related to Campylobacter jejuni, and a rise in the incidence of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter enteritis have been reported from Curacao,

  9. Additions to the marine algal flora of Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegenga, H.; Vroman, M.

    1988-01-01

    Nine species of benthic marine algae are reported from the Caribbean island of Curaçao for the first time: Chlorophyta: Derbesia marina and Trichosolen longipedicellata; Phaeophyta: Ectocarpus rhodochortonoides, Feldmannia elachistaeformis, Hecatonema floridanum, Herponema tortugense and Sphacelaria

  10. The marine Algal Vegetation of St. Martin, St. Eustatius and Saba (Netherlands Antilles)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroman, M.

    1968-01-01

    Along the coast of St. Martin, St. Eustatius and Saba the rocks above sea-level often show a number of differently coloured zones. This is clearly visible when the coast over a larger distance is formed by one type of rock, as for instance on Saba. In many places a light-coloured belt is seen above

  11. The marine Algal Vegetation of St. Martin, St. Eustatius and Saba (Netherlands Antilles)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroman, M.

    1968-01-01

    Along the coast of St. Martin, St. Eustatius and Saba the rocks above sea-level often show a number of differently coloured zones. This is clearly visible when the coast over a larger distance is formed by one type of rock, as for instance on Saba. In many places a light-coloured belt is seen above

  12. Ecological aspects of the distribution of reef corals in the Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bak, Rolf P.M.

    1975-01-01

    The vertical and horizontal patterns of the distribution of corals and coral reefs (to a depth of 90 m) are discussed in relation to the environmental factors: geomorphology of the bottom, available substrate, light, turbidity, sedimentation, water movement and temperature. There is a general

  13. Calcium carbonate precipitation in the Cueva di Watapana on Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer Mohr, van der C.G.

    1978-01-01

    Calcium carbonate precipitates as low Mg-calcite and aragonite in slightly brackish water in a cave in the Pleistocene Middle Terrace of southern Bonaire. The calcium carbonate precipitates at the atmosphere-water interface forming floating calcite scales (calcite ice). Aragonite crystals frequently

  14. Rapid Assessment of Stony Coral Richness and Condition on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Sheila A.; Etnoyer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The benthic habitats of Saba Bank (17°25′N, 63°30′W) are at risk from maritime traffic, especially oil tankers (e.g., anchoring). To mitigate this risk, information is needed on the biodiversity and location of habitats to develop a zone use plan. A rapid survey to document the biodiversity of macro-algae, sponges, corals and fishes was conducted. Here we report on the richness and condition of stony coral species at 18 select sites, and we test for the effects of bottom type, depth, and distance from platform edge. Species richness was visually assessed by roving scuba diver with voucher specimens of each species collected. Coral tissue was examined for bleaching and diseases. Thirty-three coral species were documented. There were no significant differences in coral composition among bottom types or depth classes (ANOSIM, P>0.05). There was a significant difference between sites (ANOSIM, Pcoral species observed ranged from zero and one in algal dominated habitats to 23 at a reef habitat on the southern edge of the Bank. Five reef sites had stands of Acropora cervicornis, a critically endangered species on the IUCN redlist. Bleaching was evident at 82% of the sites assessed with 43 colonies bleached. Only three coral colonies were observed to have disease. Combining our findings with that of other studies, a total of 43 species have been documented from Saba Bank. The coral assemblage on the bank is representative and typical of those found elsewhere in the Caribbean. Although our findings will help develop effective protection, more information is needed on Saba Bank to create a comprehensive zone use plan. Nevertheless, immediate action is warranted to protect the diverse coral reef habitats documented here, especially those containing A. cervicornis. PMID:20505771

  15. Netherlands Antilles and French West Indies. Section 23. Weather and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-05-01

    Le Lamontin ....... 0800 18 11 11 B 8 6 6 it 15 14 16 18 136 8-10 Southiwest Group: Aruba: Princesa Boatrix Airport ......... 0700 17 1. 16 12 13 13...24 21 24 264 10-12 Lo Mai-n..... Z.004 12 9 8 8 10 12 18 13 14 16 15 12 144 23 Lea Anaes d’Arlet. M0,004 9 8 6 9 8 12 16 13 15 12 10 9 126 a Lo

  16. Surveillance and Spatial Characterization of Aedes aegypti in Sint Eustatius, Netherlands Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    monitoring purposes (56). Oviposition traps, or ovitraps , function on the nature of the Aedes mosquitoes to lay their eggs above the water line of a...container. Typical ovitrap construction consists of a black glass or plastic cup partially filled with water and a wooden paddle or paper strip where...the mosquitoes can lay their eggs (12). Ovitraps have been adapted through several modifications that include the addition of an organic infusion in

  17. Rapid assessment of stony coral richness and condition on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Sheila A; Etnoyer, Peter

    2010-05-21

    The benthic habitats of Saba Bank (17 degrees 25'N, 63 degrees 30'W) are at risk from maritime traffic, especially oil tankers (e.g., anchoring). To mitigate this risk, information is needed on the biodiversity and location of habitats to develop a zone use plan. A rapid survey to document the biodiversity of macro-algae, sponges, corals and fishes was conducted. Here we report on the richness and condition of stony coral species at 18 select sites, and we test for the effects of bottom type, depth, and distance from platform edge. Species richness was visually assessed by roving scuba diver with voucher specimens of each species collected. Coral tissue was examined for bleaching and diseases. Thirty-three coral species were documented. There were no significant differences in coral composition among bottom types or depth classes (ANOSIM, P>0.05). There was a significant difference between sites (ANOSIM, PAcropora cervicornis, a critically endangered species on the IUCN redlist. Bleaching was evident at 82% of the sites assessed with 43 colonies bleached. Only three coral colonies were observed to have disease. Combining our findings with that of other studies, a total of 43 species have been documented from Saba Bank. The coral assemblage on the bank is representative and typical of those found elsewhere in the Caribbean. Although our findings will help develop effective protection, more information is needed on Saba Bank to create a comprehensive zone use plan. Nevertheless, immediate action is warranted to protect the diverse coral reef habitats documented here, especially those containing A. cervicornis.

  18. Rapid assessment of stony coral richness and condition on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila A McKenna

    Full Text Available The benthic habitats of Saba Bank (17 degrees 25'N, 63 degrees 30'W are at risk from maritime traffic, especially oil tankers (e.g., anchoring. To mitigate this risk, information is needed on the biodiversity and location of habitats to develop a zone use plan. A rapid survey to document the biodiversity of macro-algae, sponges, corals and fishes was conducted. Here we report on the richness and condition of stony coral species at 18 select sites, and we test for the effects of bottom type, depth, and distance from platform edge. Species richness was visually assessed by roving scuba diver with voucher specimens of each species collected. Coral tissue was examined for bleaching and diseases. Thirty-three coral species were documented. There were no significant differences in coral composition among bottom types or depth classes (ANOSIM, P>0.05. There was a significant difference between sites (ANOSIM, P<0.05 near and far from the platform edge. The number of coral species observed ranged from zero and one in algal dominated habitats to 23 at a reef habitat on the southern edge of the Bank. Five reef sites had stands of Acropora cervicornis, a critically endangered species on the IUCN redlist. Bleaching was evident at 82% of the sites assessed with 43 colonies bleached. Only three coral colonies were observed to have disease. Combining our findings with that of other studies, a total of 43 species have been documented from Saba Bank. The coral assemblage on the bank is representative and typical of those found elsewhere in the Caribbean. Although our findings will help develop effective protection, more information is needed on Saba Bank to create a comprehensive zone use plan. Nevertheless, immediate action is warranted to protect the diverse coral reef habitats documented here, especially those containing A. cervicornis.

  19. Ecological aspects of the distribution of reef corals in the Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bak, Rolf P.M.

    1975-01-01

    The vertical and horizontal patterns of the distribution of corals and coral reefs (to a depth of 90 m) are discussed in relation to the environmental factors: geomorphology of the bottom, available substrate, light, turbidity, sedimentation, water movement and temperature. There is a general patter

  20. Mercury and methylmercury contamination related to artisanal gold mining, Suriname

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Labson, Victor F.; Weaver, Jean N.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2002-12-01

    Elemental Hg-Au amalgamation mining practices are used widely in many developing countries resulting in significant Hg contamination of surrounding ecosystems. We have measured total Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations in sediment and water collected from artisanal Au mines and these are the first Hg speciation data from such mines in Suriname. Total Hg and methyl-Hg contents in mine-waste sediment and water are elevated over local uncontaminated baselines. Total Hg (10-930 ng/L) and methyl-Hg (0.02-3.8 ng/L) are highly elevated in mine waters. Increasing total Hg contents in discharged mine waters correlate with increasing water turbidity indicating that most Hg transport is on suspended particulates. Our Hg results are similar to those found in artisanal Au mines in the Amazon basin, where Hg contamination has led to adverse effects on tropical ecosystems.

  1. Inpatient hospital outcomes following injury in Suriname: lessons for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pracht, Etienne

    2014-03-01

    Traumatic injury is an important and indiscriminant contributor to mortality. Hypothesizing that outcomes from severe injuries do not vary by demographic factors or socioeconomic status, this research analyzed the relationship between race, ethnicity, injury characteristics, and fatality following hospitalization in Suriname. Data were obtained for all hospital episodes in 2008 from the only hospital within the greater Paramaribo area that provides emergency department services. A logistic regression was used to analyze the subset of 544 non-elderly adult trauma victims to assess the contribution of patient demographics and anatomic injury severity to outcome, which was defined as mortality during acute hospitalization. The specific demographics included were patient age, gender, race, and insurance status. Injury severity was measured using the International Classification Injury Severity Score. The results indicate that age, insurance status, injury type, and injury severity were significant predictors for survival. While the uninsured experienced a higher rate of mortality, the model suggests this result is not due to physiologic reasons but behavioral and socioeconomic. The higher mortality is driven by greater injury severity, which increases not only the mortality rate but also the cost of care. Injury severity itself, independent of all other factors, is the most important contributor. The results suggest that a reduction of 10% in injury severity, around the mean, would reduce the probability of mortality by 70%. This suggests that targeting risk-taking behavior, perhaps relating to compliance with safety practices (e.g. seat belt and helmet laws), driver education, and road safety measures can play important roles in reducing mortality and morbidity from injury in Suriname.

  2. How do psychosocial determinants in migrant women in the Netherlands differ from these among their counterparts in their country of origin? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stronks Karien

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Migration of non-Western women into Western countries often results in an increase in smoking prevalence among migrant women. To gain more insight into how to prevent this increase, we compared psychosocial determinants of smoking between Surinamese women in Suriname and those in the Netherlands. Methods Data were obtained between 2000 and 2004 from two cross-sectional studies, the CVRFO study in Suriname (n = 702 and the SUNSET study in the Netherlands (n = 674. For analyses of determinants, we collected additional data in CVRFO study population (n = 85. Differences between the two groups were analysed by chi-square analyses and logistic regression analyses. Results As was found in other studies among migrant women, more Surinamese migrant women in the Netherlands smoked (31% than women in Suriname (16%. More Surinamese women in the Netherlands than in Suriname had a positive affective and cognitive attitude towards smoking (OR = 2.6 (95%CI 1.05;6.39 and OR = 3.3 (95%CI 1.31;8.41. They perceived a positive norm within their partners and friends regarding smoking more frequently (OR = 6.5 (95%CI 2.7;15.6 and OR = 3.3 (95%CI 1.50;7.25. Conclusion Migrant women are more positive towards smoking and perceived a more positive norm towards smoking when compared with women in the country of origin. Interventions targeted at the psychosocial determinants regarding smoking for newly migrated women, in particular the consequences of smoking and the norm towards smoking might help to prevent an increase in smoking in those populations.

  3. Muon tomography: Plans for observations in the Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, D.; Beauducel, F.; Déclais, Y.; Lesparre, N.; Marteau, J.; Nicollin, F.; Tarantola, A.

    2010-02-01

    The application of muon tomography to monitor and image the internal structure of volcanoes in the Lesser Antilles is discussed. Particular focus is directed towards the three volcanoes that fall under the responsibility of the Institut de Physique du Globe of Paris, namely La Montagne Pelée in Martinique, La Soufriére in Guadeloupe, and the Soufriére Hills in Montserrat. The technological criteria for the design of portable muon telescopes are presented in detail for both their mechanical and electronic aspects. The detector matrices are constructed with scintillator strips, and their detection characteristics are discussed. The tomography inversion is presented, and its distinctive characteristics are briefly discussed. Details are given on the implementation of muon tomography experiments on La Soufriére in Guadeloupe.

  4. A short review of the Surinam Loricariinae; with additional information on Surinam Harttiinae, including the description of a new species (Loricariidae, Siluriformes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeseman, M.

    1976-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The present paper forms the continuation of a series pretending to cover at least most of the Surinam representatives of loricariid armoured catfishes (for earlier papers, see Boeseman, 1968, 1969, 1971, and 1974), but for various reasons it is less extensive in scope than its forerunne

  5. Habitat preferences, diet, feeding strategy and social organisation of the black spider monkey (Ateles panisius paniscus L.) in Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosmalen, van M.G.M.

    1980-01-01

    This study describes habitat choice of the Surinam black spider monkey ( Atelespaniscuspaniscus ) and clarifies complex temporal and spatial effects of food sources on the behaviour of a group of spider monkeys in a 350 ha study area in central Surinam in terms of food category,

  6. Cleansing the world of the germ of laziness: hygiene, sanitation, and the Javanese population in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefte, Rosemarijn

    2014-01-01

    In 1915 the Rockefeller Foundation took its hookworm eradication campaign to Suriname, but was soon disappointed because of opposition from its main target group: the Javanese. Moreover, authorities and planters objected to the construction of latrines because of the costs and their belief that the Javanese were "unhygienic". In describing the labor migration from Java to Suriname, I show that this "lack of hygiene" was closely related to the system's organization. I argue that uncleanliness was the consequence of harmful socio-economic and ecological conditions. Secondly I suggest that even though the Foundation did not manage to cleanse Suriname of hookworm, its educational efforts, its emphasis on prevention, and its training of local health workers probably had more impact than Rockefeller officials thought.

  7. Decolonizing social sciences in Suriname: a strategic view in favor of regionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack K Menke

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Social sciences research about Suriname is euro-centric. It is dominated by the Dutch and evolved in the context of academic colonialism. From the Surinamese point of view, this situation is undesired. Some lessons can be learned from others, e.g. South East Asian and New Zealand/Maori scientific communities. In order to decolonize research it is suggested that the Surinamese social scientists community is strengthened and that cooperation with institutions in the South-American and Caribbean region is intensified. To achieve sustainability in a regional context concerted action of social scientists and academic institutions is required. The focus in this article is on cooperation with Brazil, the Southern neighbor of Suriname and a leading nation in the region. Referring to common factors in history and current social developments in Suriname and Brazil, it is suggested that the cooperation that started in the last decades of the 20th century is intensified.

  8. Actual development of the chenier coast of suriname (South America)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinus, Pieter G. E. F.

    1980-04-01

    The Holocene coastal plain of Suriname is a chenier plain. Its actual sedimentological development has been studied during three field-work periods (1966, 1967/1968, 1972). Clay is the predominant sediment in this low- to medium-energy environment. It accumulates in extensive shoreface-attached mudflats (sometimes considered as giant mudwaves), which migrate continuously to the west due to deposition of slingmud at their west side and simultaneous erosion of the east side. In between the mudflats cheniers may develop. Thin-section analysis of the clay deposits revealed that they are built up of an alternation of thick clayey laminae and thin laminae of silt and fine sand. The clayey laminae chiefly show a unistrial plasmic fabric. Disturbaces in the upper zone are caused by bioturbation. Two types of cheniers can be distinguished. One type contains fine sand which has been winnowed out of the pelite deposits. Since this sand is brought from the shelf the chenier formation begins at approximately mean low-water level. Longshore bars are formed and these are driven shoreward by wave action. The other type is built up of medium to coarse sand supplied by a local river. It is transported westward by beachdrift in a narrow zone around the mean high-water line. These cheniers develop therefore at or just above the mean high-tide level. The sedimentary structures of both types of cheniers have many characteristics in common. However, each type also has its own distinct features.

  9. Hexanchorus bifurcatus sp. nov., a new tepui riffle beetle (Coleoptera: Elmidae: Larainae) from Tafelberg, Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Crystal A; Short, Andrew Edward Z

    2014-12-12

    Here we present the first published record of a laraine elmid from Suriname, which represents a new species - Hexanchorus bifurcatus sp. nov. Specimens were collected from the summit of Tafelberg, a table mountain near the Wilhelmina Range of Suriname. This species can be distinguished from all other Hexanchorus by the bifurcate elytral apices and median projection of the third abdominal ventrite of the female, as well as the distinctive male genitalia. Habitus photos, illustrations of the genitalia, a distribution map, notes on habitat, and comparative diagnoses are provided. 

  10. La crise sociale aux Antilles françaises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Daniel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La crise sociale qui a récemment secoué les Antilles françaises consacre le retour de la « question sociale » sur les scènes politiques insulaires. Elle s’est également traduite par un dessaisissement du personnel politique dont la parole est devenue inaudible, et une montée en puissance de la société civile. Loin d’avoir réglé les problèmes structurels, elle témoigne cependant d’une évolution significative des rapports entre l’outre-mer et l’Hexagone.The social crisis which recently shook the French West Indies legitimises the return of the “social question” on the insular political scenes. It also resulted in a withdrawal of the political personnel whose discourse became inaudible and in the emergence of civil society. Far from having resolved the structural problems, it reveals a significant change of the relationship between the overseas territories  and the Hexagon.

  11. First Chikungunya Outbreak in Suriname; Clinical and Epidemiological Features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah T van Genderen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In June 2014, Suriname faced the first Chikungunya outbreak. Since international reports mostly focus on hospitalized patients, the least affected group, a study was conducted to describe clinical characteristics of mainly outpatients including children. In addition, the cumulative incidence of this first epidemic was investigated.During August and September 2014, clinically suspected Chikungunya cases were included in a prospective follow-up study. Blood specimens were collected and tested for viral RNA presence. Detailed clinical information was gathered through multiple telephone surveys until day 180. In addition, a three stage household-based cluster with a cross-sectional design was conducted in October, December 2014 and March 2015 to assess the cumulative incidence.Sixty-eight percent of symptomatic patients tested positive for Chikungunya virus (CHIKV. Arthralgia and pain in the fingers were distinctive for viremic CHIKV infected patients. Viremic CHIKV infected children (≤12 years characteristically displayed headache and vomiting, while arthralgia was less common at onset. The disease was cleared within seven days by 20% of the patients, while 22% of the viremic CHIKV infected patients, mostly women and elderly reported persistent arthralgia at day 180. The extrapolated cumulative CHIKV incidence in Paramaribo was 249 cases per 1000 persons, based on CHIKV self-reported cases in 53.1% of the households and 90.4% IgG detected in a subset of self-reported CHIKV+ persons. CHIKV peaked in the dry season and a drastic decrease in CHIKV patients coincided with a governmental campaign to reduce mosquito breeding sites.This study revealed that persistent arthralgia was a concern, but occurred less frequently in an outpatient setting. The data support a less severe pathological outcome for Caribbean CHIKV infections. This study augments incidence data available for first outbreaks in the region and showed that actions undertaken at the

  12. First Chikungunya Outbreak in Suriname; Clinical and Epidemiological Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Genderen, Farah T.; Krishnadath, Ingrid; Sno, Rachel; Grunberg, Meritha G.; Zijlmans, Wilco; Adhin, Malti R.

    2016-01-01

    Background In June 2014, Suriname faced the first Chikungunya outbreak. Since international reports mostly focus on hospitalized patients, the least affected group, a study was conducted to describe clinical characteristics of mainly outpatients including children. In addition, the cumulative incidence of this first epidemic was investigated. Methodology During August and September 2014, clinically suspected Chikungunya cases were included in a prospective follow-up study. Blood specimens were collected and tested for viral RNA presence. Detailed clinical information was gathered through multiple telephone surveys until day 180. In addition, a three stage household-based cluster with a cross-sectional design was conducted in October, December 2014 and March 2015 to assess the cumulative incidence. Principal Findings Sixty-eight percent of symptomatic patients tested positive for Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Arthralgia and pain in the fingers were distinctive for viremic CHIKV infected patients. Viremic CHIKV infected children (≤12 years) characteristically displayed headache and vomiting, while arthralgia was less common at onset. The disease was cleared within seven days by 20% of the patients, while 22% of the viremic CHIKV infected patients, mostly women and elderly reported persistent arthralgia at day 180. The extrapolated cumulative CHIKV incidence in Paramaribo was 249 cases per 1000 persons, based on CHIKV self-reported cases in 53.1% of the households and 90.4% IgG detected in a subset of self-reported CHIKV+ persons. CHIKV peaked in the dry season and a drastic decrease in CHIKV patients coincided with a governmental campaign to reduce mosquito breeding sites. Conclusions/Significance This study revealed that persistent arthralgia was a concern, but occurred less frequently in an outpatient setting. The data support a less severe pathological outcome for Caribbean CHIKV infections. This study augments incidence data available for first outbreaks in the

  13. The beetles of the Lesser Antilles (Insecta, Coleoptera) : diversity and distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Peck, Stewart B.

    2016-01-01

    The island arc of the Lesser Antilles lies at the eastern margin of the Caribbean Sea in the Western Hemisphere, and stretches from the eastern end of the islands of the Greater Antilles (at the Virgin Islands), south to a position near the continental islands of Trinidad and Tobago at the north eastern corner of South America. The islands are a part of the West Indian Islands biodiversity “hotspot” and have been available for terrestrial colonization for about the past 15 million years. This...

  14. Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome in three patients from Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Langerak (Thomas); Yang, H. (Harvey); Baptista, M. (Mark); Doornekamp, L. (Laura); Kerkman, T. (Tessa); Codrington, J. (John); Roosblad, J. (Jimmy); Vreden, S.G.S. (Stephen G.S.); E.I. de Bruin (Esther); R. Mögling (Ramona); B.C. Jacobs (Bart); S.D. Pas (Suzan); C.H. Geurts van Kessel (Corine); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); E.C.M. van Gorp (Eric); Alberga, H. (Henk)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe present three patients from Suriname who were diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) during the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in this country. One patient had a positive ZIKV urine real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) result. The other two patients had a negative ZIKV urine qRT-PCR but a

  15. Language Planning and Development in the Caribbean: Multi-Ethnic Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Hilaire, Aonghas

    1999-01-01

    Examines language planning and development in Suriname in reference to a Caribbean-wide phenomenon arising from movements of cultural nationalism in the region after the Second World War. During this period, people throughout the Caribbean began to question local supremacy of European languages and cultures and denigration of creole language and…

  16. Returns to General, Technical, and Vocational Education in Developing Countries: Recent Evidence from Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Andrew W.; Schenzler, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    Employing a new Surinam data set, estimates private and social returns to technical, vocational, and two general-education tracks (mathematics and language). For both genders, returns to either track exceed returns to general or vocational education. Female returns to the language track exceed those to mathematics; males show the reverse. (36…

  17. HIV-1 Genetic Diversity and Drug Resistance Mutations Among Treatment-Naive Adult Patients in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoel Wahid, Firoz; Sno, Rachel; Darcissac, Edith; Lavergne, Anne; Adhin, Malti R; Lacoste, Vincent

    2016-12-01

    The molecular epidemiologic profile of HIV-1 in Suriname was determined through protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences obtained from HIV-1 strains collected from 100 drug-naive HIV-1-infected persons. Subtype determination revealed that most viruses were of subtype B (94.9%) in both PR and RT genomic regions, followed by B/D recombinants (5.1%). Analysis of drug resistance mutations showed only one transmitted dug resistance mutation (TDRM) (V75M) in a single strain. The genetic data obtained can serve as a baseline for Suriname to monitor emerging mutations. This study reveals that the HIV-1 epidemic in Suriname is still characterized by a low TDRM rate (1%) and a low level of subtype diversity. However, both genes display a high genetic polymorphism. This high polymorphism may ultimately lead to drug resistance. Continuous monitoring of the baseline resistance is therefore a prerequisite to safeguard effective long-term treatment for people living with HIV-1 in Suriname.

  18. The Stock Exchange of Suriname: Returns, Volatility, Correlations and Weak-form Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.S. Bodeutsch (Denice); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The empirical properties of stock returns are studied for 10 companies listed at the Suriname Stock Exchange (SSE), which is a young and growing stock market. Individual stock returns are found to be predictable from the own past to some extent, but the equal-weighted

  19. Hydrometridae of Suriname and the Amazon, with additional records of other neotropical species (Hemiptera – Heteroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieser, N.

    1970-01-01

    This study is based on material collected by Dr. P. H. van Doesburg Jr. in Suriname and by other workers during investigations sponsored by the “Max-Planck-Institut fur Limnologie, Abt. Tropenokologie” at Plön, director Prof. Dr. H. Sioli; the “Institute Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia” at Manaus

  20. Gerridae of Suriname and the Amazon with additional records of other neotropical species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieser, N.

    1970-01-01

    The material studied was collected by Dr. P. H. van Doesburg Jr. during his stay in Surinam and by various workers during investigations sponsored by the “Max-Planck-Institut fur Limnologie, Abt. Tropenökologie” at Plon (director Prof. Dr. H. Sioli), and the “Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da

  1. Some preliminary notes on Surinam Sting Rays, including the description of a new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeseman, M.

    1948-01-01

    In Dr. D. C. Geijskes' collection of Surinam fishes, mentioned in my previous paper on this subject (Boeseman, 1948), I found six specimens belonging to the so-called "sting rays" (Dasyatidae), representing three different species, and all very interesting in some respects. I. Dasyatis schmardae (We

  2. Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome in three patients from Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Langerak (Thomas); Yang, H. (Harvey); Baptista, M. (Mark); Doornekamp, L. (Laura); Kerkman, T. (Tessa); Codrington, J. (John); Roosblad, J. (Jimmy); Vreden, S.G.S. (Stephen G.S.); E.I. de Bruin (Esther); R. Mögling (Ramona); B.C. Jacobs (Bart); S.D. Pas (Suzan); C.H. Geurts van Kessel (Corine); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); E.C.M. van Gorp (Eric); Alberga, H. (Henk)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe present three patients from Suriname who were diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) during the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in this country. One patient had a positive ZIKV urine real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) result. The other two patients had a negative ZIKV urine qRT-PCR but a pos

  3. The Stock Exchange of Suriname: Returns, Volatility, Correlations and Weak-form Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.S. Bodeutsch (Denice); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The empirical properties of stock returns are studied for 10 companies listed at the Suriname Stock Exchange (SSE), which is a young and growing stock market. Individual stock returns are found to be predictable from the own past to some extent, but the

  4. Using Intervention Mapping for a Needs Assessment on Preconception Care in Suriname: The Perisur Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, M.E.; Korfker, D.G.; Detmar, S.B.; Hindori, M.P.; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; Vondeling, H.; Hindori-Mohangoo, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Every year approximately 10,000 babies are born in Suriname of which an estimated 400 die in the perinatal period. The main purpose of the Perisur project is to improve perinatal outcomes and improve under-five and maternal health. This study focused on introducing preconception care in

  5. Patterns in medicinal plant knowledge and use in a Maroon village in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, van 't Charlotte; Andel, van Tinde; Reis, Ria

    2016-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Traditional medicine plays an important role in the primary health care practices of Maroons living in the interior of Suriname. Large numbers of medicinal plants are employed to maintain general health and cure illnesses. Little is known, however, on how knowledge

  6. The kyanite quartzite of Bosland (Suriname) : evidence for a Precambrian metamorphosed alteration system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijnaar, Ginny; van Bergen, Manfred J.; Wong, Theo E.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the origin of a rare occurrence of kyanite quartzites in the Palaeoproterozoic greenstone belt of Suriname. The rocks form elongated hills in the Bosland area, Brokopondo district, where they are associated with meta-sedimentary, meta-volcanic and granitic lithologies. Thei

  7. Ecological data on some neotropical Scolytidae, Platypodidae and Bostrychidae (Coleoptera), mainly of Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalshoven, L.G.E.

    1963-01-01

    When working at the Tropical Institute, Amsterdam (1952—1957), some cases came to my notice of small borers belonging to the Scolytidae, Platypodidae and Bostrychidae attacking newly felled timber in Surinam and causing the same well-known trouble as in other tropical regions. My interest in the

  8. Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome in three patients from Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Langerak (Thomas); Yang, H. (Harvey); Baptista, M. (Mark); Doornekamp, L. (Laura); Kerkman, T. (Tessa); Codrington, J. (John); Roosblad, J. (Jimmy); Vreden, S.G.S. (Stephen G.S.); E.I. de Bruin (Esther); R. Mögling (Ramona); B.C. Jacobs (Bart); S.D. Pas (Suzan); C.H. Geurts van Kessel (Corine); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); E.C.M. van Gorp (Eric); Alberga, H. (Henk)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe present three patients from Suriname who were diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) during the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in this country. One patient had a positive ZIKV urine real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) result. The other two patients had a negative ZIKV urine qRT-PCR but a pos

  9. Studies on the epidemiology of spear rot in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in Suriname.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lande, van de H.L.

    1993-01-01

    The epidemiology of spear rot, an infectious disease of unknown etiology, was studied over 10 years at three government-owned oil palm plantations in Suriname. As with other and similar diseases, amarelecimento fatal in Brazil and pudrición del cogollo in Latin America, which too show rot and yellow

  10. Ethnic differences in prediabetes and diabetes in the Suriname health study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.S.K. Krishnadath (Ingrid S.K.); L.M. Nahar-van Venrooij (Lenny M.); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); J.R. Toelsie (Jerry R.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Diabetes is increasing worldwide, and information on risk factors to develop targeted interventions is limited. Therefore, we analyzed data of the Suriname Health Study to estimate the prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes. We also explored whether ethnic differences in

  11. Risk attitudes in company boardrooms in a developing country : An empirical study for Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.S. Bodeutsch (Denice); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We test risk attitude and risk propensity of executive and non-executive directors of almost all (read: 10) companies listed at the Suriname Stock Exchange. This stock exchange associates with an emerging market, which currently seems to be at its initial stage. With a

  12. New data on Metaloricaria paucidens from French Guiana and Surinam (Pisces, Siluriformes, Loricariidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isbrücker, I.J.H.; Nijssen, H.

    1982-01-01

    A large number of previously unrecorded specimens of mailed catfishes of the genus Metaloricaria Isbrücker, 1975 (Loricariinae, tribe Harttiini, subtribe Metaloricariina) is compared with the known specimens from French Guiana and Surinam. This results in the recognition of two subspecies, viz., M.

  13. Early senescence of rice and Drechslera oryzae in the Wageningen polder, Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, A.O.

    1977-01-01

    Rice is grown in monoculture in the Wageningen Polder, Surinam, South America, which comprises 10 000 ha of heavy clay soil. Fungal diseases caused appreciable losses of the rice crop in several years. Drechslera oryzae van Breda de Haan was found to be the major pathogen of rice. Its most conspicuo

  14. Voedingsstatus van Hindoestaanse en Creoolse Surinamers en autochtone Nederlanders in Nederland : Het SUNSET-onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaik-Kloosterman J; van Valkengoed IGM; de Boer EJ; Nicolaou M; van der A DL; CVG

    2011-01-01

    Dit onderzoek toont aan dat de vitamine D status met name in Surinamers en de ijzerstatus van vrouwen in de vruchtbare leeftijd in het algemeen ontoereikend zijn. Daarnaast is aandacht nodig voor de matige vitamine D-status (< 50 nmol/L) bij autochtone Nederlanders, matige vitamine B12-status in

  15. Using Intervention Mapping for a Needs Assessment on Preconception Care in Suriname: The Perisur Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, M.E.; Korfker, D.G.; Detmar, S.B.; Hindori, M.P.; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; Vondeling, H.; Hindori-Mohangoo, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Every year approximately 10,000 babies are born in Suriname of which an estimated 400 die in the perinatal period. The main purpose of the Perisur project is to improve perinatal outcomes and improve under-five and maternal health. This study focused on introducing preconception care in

  16. Irrigatie uit een moeras : een hydrologische studie van de Nannizwamp in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevenhuysen, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Tropical Swamp areas are sometimes suitable for agricultural expansion. In Suriname reclamation of relatively small parts of the coastal swamp has been carried out for centuries. Many of these polders are abandoned or have been made suitable for (wet) rice cultivation. For further development of thi

  17. 78 FR 25781 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Suriname

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Suriname Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2012 (Div. I, Pub. L. 112-74) (``the Act''), and Department...

  18. 78 FR 47046 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Suriname

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Suriname Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2012 (Div. I, Pub. L.112-74) (``the Act''), as carried...

  19. Patterns in medicinal plant knowledge and use in a Maroon village in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, van 't Charlotte; Andel, van Tinde; Reis, Ria

    2016-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Traditional medicine plays an important role in the primary health care practices of Maroons living in the interior of Suriname. Large numbers of medicinal plants are employed to maintain general health and cure illnesses. Little is known, however, on how knowledge

  20. Revision of the Penard oölogical collection from Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellebrekers, W.Ph.J.

    1942-01-01

    In 1910 the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden obtained the important egg collection from Surinam, brought together by Messrs. F. P. and A. P. Penard. Owing to different circumstances this collection as a whole was not studied again, and, with the exception of some notes in papers by Sch

  1. Studies on the epidemiology of spear rot in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lande, van de H.L.

    1993-01-01

    The epidemiology of spear rot, an infectious disease of unknown etiology, was studied over 10 years at three government-owned oil palm plantations in Suriname. As with other and similar diseases, amarelecimento fatal in Brazil and pudrición del cogollo in Latin America, which too show rot

  2. High rates of suicide and attempted suicide using pesticides in Nickerie, Suriname, South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafsma, T.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Gibson, D.; Badloe, R.; Beek, van L.M.

    2006-01-01

    Suicide and attempted suicide are identified as a serious mental health problem in Suriname, especially in the district of Nickerie. An epidemiological study in the Nickerie catchment area revealed high rates of suicide (48 per 100,000) and attempted suicide (207 per 100,000) on average in the years

  3. Moving Frontiers in the Amazon: Brazilian Small-Scale Gold Miners in Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjo de Theije

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the national, local, and personal frontiers that Brazilian small-scale gold miners – called garimpeiros – cross in their quest for gold in the larger Amazon region. Ethnographic research was conducted among garimpeiros and mining service providers in Suriname. In the past three decades, thousands of Brazilian migrants have entered Suriname and consequently affected its society, economy, and culture. It is argued that in the absence of strong state control, these garimpeiros, along with local forest peoples and legal title holders, are traversing the fluctuating boundaries. These boundaries include national borders, customary and legal regulations, technological limitations, and personal livelihood goals. The continuous reformulation of these multiple boundaries drives the development of local mining cultures. Social networks increase the volatility of formal and informal borders, and are the key to these mining cultures as well. The authors conclude that while entering Suriname and its gold mines is relatively easy, financial and conceptual barriers often prevent miners from leaving.Resumen: Fronteras fluctuantes en el Amazonas: los mineros artesanales de oro en SurinameEste artículo explora las fronteras nacionales, locales y personales que cruzan los garimpeiros (como se llama a los mineros brasileños que trabajan explotaciones auríferas a pequeña escala en su búsqueda de oro en la región amazónica. La investigación etnográfica en que se basa este artículo se realizó entre garimpeiros y proveedores de servicios para la minería en Suriname. En las últimas tres décadas, miles de inmigrantes brasileños han llegado a Suriname y afectado su sociedad, economía y cultura. En el artículo se sostiene que en ausencia de un control estatal fuerte, los garimpeiros, junto con grupos indígenas locales y tenedores de tierra legítimos, cruzan estas fronteras fluctuantes, que incluyen las fronteras nacionales, las

  4. Developments of the Tropical NDSC-site in Paramaribo, Suriname

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verver, G.; Allaart, M.; Becker, C.; Fortuin, J.; Kelder, H.

    2003-04-01

    In 1999 KNMI and MDS started an atmospheric observation program at the tropical site in Paramaribo, Suriname (South America, 5.8 N, 55.2 W). Initially the observations consisted of weekly ozone soundings and continuous observations of UV spectra, ozone columns and (stratospheric) Umkehr profiles with a Brewer spectrofotometer. Nearly 2.5 years of ozone soundings have been analysed by Peters et al.(2002), indicating the alternating NH and SH character of the station, reflecting the unique position of this site in the middle of the latitude range of the migrating ITCZ. Observed temperature, humidity and wind profiles from this station have been used in a study on the dynamical structure of the tropopause region by Fortuin et al. (2003). Several satellite validation studies have used the Paramaribo data in the last few years. The data are now routinely submitted to international networks such as NDSC, SHADOZ, WOUDC and CALVAL. In the year 2002 the site has been upgraded to host several additional instruments. A sunphotometer has been installed measuring the direct solar irradiance at 6 wavelengths. The observations are stored with a high frequency in order to be able to derive the aerosol optical depths and Angstrom exponents also in partly cloudy skies. A solar radiation station is installed to observe direct, diffuse and global solar radiation (300-3000 nm) with (ventilated) pyrano-/pyrheliometers. In addition the ozone concentration near the surface is monitored continuously and a Total-Sky Imager stores a wide angle picture of the sky every minute during daytime and automatically derives the cloud cover. In cooperation with the university of Kyoto (Japan) a sounding program has started using a chilled mirror humidity sensor 'SnowWhite' from Meteolabor in order to obtain more detailed humidity profiles near the tropopause. Since April 2002 several atmospheric species are measured by remote sensing from the surface using a MAX-DOAS spectrometer operated by the

  5. Seismic ambient noise study at Bouillante geothermal system, French Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousset, Philippe; Bitri, Adnan; Loiseau, Justine; Bouchot, Vincent

    2010-05-01

    Seismic ambient noise analyses have been shown to be able to image structural features of the crust and to monitor underground changes of seismic wave ground velocity. We present results of cross-correlation techniques at Bouillante geothermal field, French Antilles, the largest French high-enthalpy geothermal system exploited for electrical power from 3 collocated productive wells. Two power plants generate electricity and fluid extraction rate varies with time and wells are sometimes closed for equipment maintenance. Under the support of the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) and the French Research Agency (ANR), BRGM has been analyzing seismic data from a network comprising 5 broadband seismological stations set-up at Bouillante area since 2004. Amongst the large number of earthquakes recorded, we show that no single earthquake could be related to the fluid exploitation. Instead, they are due to the intense regional seismicity. Despite the small number of stations, surface wave travel times computed from ambient noise cross-correlation for about a year suggest that the velocity structure is consistent with the conceptual model of hot (250°C) and permeable (fractured) geothermal reservoir of Bouillante. We show at several instances that changes of the fluid extraction rate have spatial and temporal slight perturbations on medium wave velocity. For example, when the production stops for maintenance, velocity increases by several percent and with larger amplitude at stations within 1 km distance from the production wells and lower amplitudes (by more than 50 %) at stations further than 2 km from the production wells. In addition, we note that velocity perturbations have a delay of at most 1 day at further stations. We discuss several mechanisms to explain those observations like pressure and stress variations in the geothermal system. The results suggest that the inferred velocity changes, owing the fine sensibility of the inter

  6. Assessing parasite clearance during uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infection treated with artesunate monotherapy in Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vreden SGS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stephen GS Vreden,1 Rakesh D Bansie,2 Jeetendra K Jitan,3 Malti R Adhin4 1Foundation for Scientific Research Suriname (SWOS, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Academic Hospital Paramaribo, 3Department of Public Health, Ministry of Health, 4Department of Biochemistry, Anton de Kom University of Suriname, Paramaribo, Suriname Background: Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum is suspected when the day 3 parasitemia is >10% when treated with artemisinin-based combination therapy or if >10% of patients treated with artemisinin-based combination therapy or artesunate monotherapy harbored parasites with half-lives ≥5 hours. Hence, a single-arm prospective efficacy trial was conducted in Suriname for uncomplicated P. falciparum infection treated with artesunate-based monotherapy for 3 days assessing day 3 parasitemia, treatment outcome after 28 days, and parasite half-life. Methods: The study was conducted in Paramaribo, the capital of Suriname, from July 2013 until July 2014. Patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infection were included and received artesunate mono-therapy for three days. Day 3 parasitaemia, treatment outcome after 28 days and parasite half-life were determined. The latter was assessed with the parasite clearance estimator from the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN. Results: Thirty-nine patients were included from July 2013 until July 2014. The day 3 parasitemia was 10%. Eight patients (20.5% could be followed up until day 28 and showed adequate clinical and parasitological response. Parasite half-life could only be determined from ten data series (25.7%. The median parasite half-life was 5.16 hours, and seven of these data series had a half-life ≥5 hours, still comprising 17.9% of the total data series. Conclusion: The low follow-up rate and the limited analyzable data series preclude clear conclusions about the efficacy of artesunate monotherapy in Suriname and the parasite half

  7. Increased pfmdr1 copy number in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadie-Bracho, Mergiory; Adhin, Malti R

    2013-07-01

    Amplification of the pfmdr1 gene is associated with clinical failures and reduced in vivo and in vitro sensitivity to both mefloquine and artemether-lumefantrine in South-East Asia. Several African countries have reported the absence or very low prevalence of increased copy number, whilst South American reports are limited to Peru without and Venezuela with increased pfmdr1 multiplication. The relative pfmdr1 copy numbers were assessed in 68 isolates from Suriname collected from different endemic villages (2005) and from mining areas (2009). 11% of the isolates harbour multiple copies of the pfmdr1 gene. Isolates originating from mining areas do not yet display a higher tendency for increased copy number and no significant differences could be registered within a time span of 4 years, but the mere presence of increased copy number warrants caution and should be considered as an early warning sign for emerging drug resistance in Suriname and South America.

  8. Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections among ethnic groups in Paramaribo, Suriname; determinants and ethnic sexual mixing patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannie J van der Helm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the epidemiology of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection (chlamydia in Suriname. Suriname is a society composed of many ethnic groups, such as Creoles, Maroons, Hindustani, Javanese, Chinese, Caucasians, and indigenous Amerindians. We estimated determinants for chlamydia, including the role of ethnicity, and identified transmission patterns and ethnic sexual networks among clients of two clinics in Paramaribo, Suriname. METHODS: Participants were recruited at two sites a sexually transmitted infections (STI clinic and a family planning (FP clinic in Paramaribo. Urine samples from men and nurse-collected vaginal swabs were obtained for nucleic acid amplification testing. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants of chlamydia. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST was performed to genotype C. trachomatis. To identify transmission patterns and sexual networks, a minimum spanning tree was created, using full MLST profiles. Clusters in the minimum spanning tree were compared for ethnic composition. RESULTS: Between March 2008 and July 2010, 415 men and 274 women were included at the STI clinic and 819 women at the FP clinic. Overall chlamydia prevalence was 15% (224/1508. Age, ethnicity, and recruitment site were significantly associated with chlamydia in multivariable analysis. Participants of Creole and Javanese ethnicity were more frequently infected with urogenital chlamydia. Although sexual mixing with other ethnic groups did differ significantly per ethnicity, this mixing was not independently significantly associated with chlamydia. We typed 170 C. trachomatis-positive samples (76% and identified three large C. trachomatis clusters. Although the proportion from various ethnic groups differed significantly between the clusters (P = 0.003, all five major ethnic groups were represented in all three clusters. CONCLUSION: Chlamydia prevalence in Suriname is high and targeted prevention

  9. A national study on the prevalence of child abuse and neglect in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooij, Inger W; Nieuwendam, Josta; Bipat, Shandra; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J L; Graafsma, Tobi L G

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of child maltreatment in Suriname has never been subjected to a reliable assessment. The only data available include rough estimates of a range of internationally comparable indicators extrapolated from child protection and police corps statistics for offenses against children. This study aimed to provide a reliable estimate of the prevalence of all forms of child maltreatment in Suriname. One thousand three hundred and ninety-one (1,391) adolescents and young adults of different ethnicities completed a questionnaire about child maltreatment. The study sample, obtained by random probability sampling, consisted of students (ages 12 through 22) from five districts in Suriname. A significant proportion of Surinamese children experienced maltreatment. In total, 86.8% of adolescents and 95.8% of young adults reported having been exposed to at least one form of child maltreatment during their lives. Among the adolescents, 57.1% were exposed to child maltreatment in the past year. When the definition of the National Incidence Study was applied, 58.2% of adolescents and 68.8% of young adults had been exposed to at least one form of maltreatment. Among adolescents, 36.8% reported having experienced at least one form of maltreatment in the past year. The results indicate the (extremely) high lifetime and year prevalence of child maltreatment in Suriname. The serious and often lifelong consequences of such maltreatment indicate that a national approach to child abuse and neglect, including the development of a national strategic plan, a national surveillance system and changes to the state's programmatic and policy response, is urgently needed.

  10. The Stock Exchange of Suriname: Returns, Volatility, Correlations and Weak-form Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Bodeutsch, Denice; Franses, Philip Hans

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The empirical properties of stock returns are studied for 10 companies listed at the Suriname Stock Exchange (SSE), which is a young and growing stock market. Individual stock returns are found to be predictable from the own past to some extent, but the equal-weighted index returns are not. Dynamic correlations with large Latin-American stock markets appear to be zero. It is concluded that there is much more efficiency to be gained for the SSE.

  11. Palpada panorama sp. n. (Diptera: Syrphidae), a big-eyed hoverfly from Peru and Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reemer, Menno; Morales, Mirian N

    2016-03-15

    The hoverfly species Palpada panorama sp. n. (Diptera: Syrphidae) is described based on specimens from Peru and Suriname. It belongs to the scutellaris species group and it is most similar to P. erratica (Curran, 1930), from which it differs most notably by the strongly enlarged ommatidia in the upper half of the eye. Additional differences between these two species and an adjustment for the latest identification key for the species of the scutellaris group are given.

  12. Moengo on strike: The politics of labour in Suriname's bauxite industry

    OpenAIRE

    Anouk de Koning

    2011-01-01

    This article examines one crucial moment of contestation in colonial Suriname, the years 1941- 42, when sustained labour unrest in bauxite town Moengo led to the founding of the first mining unions. It argues that these strikes laid the groundwork for future relations between labour, company and the state and explores the kinds of socio-political alliances that were forged between labour and nationalist politicians on the one hand, and government and transnational company on the other, thereb...

  13. Nuancing stigma through ethnography: the case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdas, Sahienshadebie; van der Geest, Sjaak; Schallig, Henk D F H

    2016-02-01

    Health-related stigma and its dramatic consequences for those stigmatized have long been a crucial concern for public health authorities globally. However, before concluding that stigma spoils the lives of people with a particular disease or disability and is a major obstacle to obtaining/providing adequate health care, it is necessary to first determine whether there is actual stigmatization related to the condition concerned. The purpose of this article is to nuance the concept of stigma through a detailed ethnographic exploration of the experiences and views of patients and others affected by the parasitic skin disease cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Suriname, South America. Qualitative data on the perceptions, treatment and illness experiences of CL in Suriname was collected in 2009 and 2010 among 205 CL patients at the Dermatology Service in the capital city Paramaribo, and among 321 people in different rural hinterland villages. The exploration reveals the complex and sometimes confusing statements of patients and observers of social reactions to the disease. The authors conclude that--in contrast to other societies--CL is not generally a stigmatized disease in Suriname (though this is not to deny that stigmatization may occur occasionally). Over the past decades, the concepts of stigma and stigmatization have been abundantly theorized. But when theory drifts away from ethnographic evidence, it may turn into imprecise popular speech. In this article, we warn against inflation of the term stigma and show, through an in-depth qualitative description of reactions to symptoms of CL in Suriname, why negative reactions may not necessarily entail stigma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Is the Dog a Possible Reservoir for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Suriname?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alida Kent

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is an emerging disease in Suriname, with at least 200 cases per year. Little is known about the biology of CL in the country. The most important parasite species is Leishmania Viannia guyanensis, but possible vectors and reservoirs are hardly incriminated. In the present study, it was investigated whether the dog could possibly be a zoonotic reservoir for the disease in Suriname. Forty-seven dogs were examined for overt clinical signs of leishmaniasis, and blood samples were collected on filter paper for serology (direct agglutination test and molecular biology (by polymerase chain reaction. Three dogs had clinical signs that could be compatible with canine cutaneous leishmaniosis: dermatitis (two or nasal lesion (one. Two dogs were seropositive with DAT (titre > 1 : 1600, and three animals had a borderline titre (1 : 800. All other animals (n=42 were DAT negative. PCR analysis found Leishmania DNA equivalent to 1 parasite per mL in only one dog at a first round of analysis, but this animal was negative after retesting. The clinical, serological, and molecular data show some preliminary lines of evidence that canine leishmaniosis is present in Suriname, but further studies are needed to incriminate the reservoir, including a possible sylvatic cycle.

  15. Is the dog a possible reservoir for cutaneous leishmaniasis in suriname?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Alida; Ramkalup, Prakash; Mans, Dennis; Schallig, Henk

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an emerging disease in Suriname, with at least 200 cases per year. Little is known about the biology of CL in the country. The most important parasite species is Leishmania Viannia guyanensis, but possible vectors and reservoirs are hardly incriminated. In the present study, it was investigated whether the dog could possibly be a zoonotic reservoir for the disease in Suriname. Forty-seven dogs were examined for overt clinical signs of leishmaniasis, and blood samples were collected on filter paper for serology (direct agglutination test) and molecular biology (by polymerase chain reaction). Three dogs had clinical signs that could be compatible with canine cutaneous leishmaniosis: dermatitis (two) or nasal lesion (one). Two dogs were seropositive with DAT (titre > 1 : 1600), and three animals had a borderline titre (1 : 800). All other animals (n = 42) were DAT negative. PCR analysis found Leishmania DNA equivalent to 1 parasite per mL in only one dog at a first round of analysis, but this animal was negative after retesting. The clinical, serological, and molecular data show some preliminary lines of evidence that canine leishmaniosis is present in Suriname, but further studies are needed to incriminate the reservoir, including a possible sylvatic cycle.

  16. Incidence of Alpha-Herpes virus induced ocular disease in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhin, Malti R; Grunberg, Meritha G; Labadie-Bracho, Mergiory; Pawiroredjo, Jerrel

    2012-12-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the corneal stroma is the most prominent cause of scar formation impairing visual acuity and HSV keratitis is the leading cause of corneal opacity throughout the world. Suriname lacked test systems for microbial causes of ocular disease, therefore a polymerase chain reaction-based Herpes virus assay was introduced, enabling prompt recognition, and timely treatment, preventing progressive eye damage. The incidence and epidemiology of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), type 2 (HSV-2), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) in ocular disease in Suriname was assessed. In a cross-sectional prospective study, ocular swabs were collected from 91 patients with a presumptive α-Herpes virus ocular infection attending the Academic Hospital between November 2008 and August 2010 and were tested by a PCR-based α-Herpes virus assay. Alpha-Herpes virus ophthalmic infections were caused predominantly by HSV-1 with a prevalence of 31%. The prevalences of VZV, HSV-2, and a mixed HSV-1/HSV-2 infection were 4%, 3%, and 2%, respectively. The first reported annual incidence of herpetic induced ocular disease in Suriname was estimated at 11.4 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI, 4.8-18.1). No clear age, ethnic or gender dependent difference in incidence was observed. The information obtained on α-Herpes virus positive ocular infections and the distribution of subtypes provided the first insight in the South American situation of α-Herpes virus induced ocular disease.

  17. Molecular surveillance as monitoring tool for drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhin, Malti R; Labadie-Bracho, Mergiory; Bretas, Gustavo

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this translational study was to show the use of molecular surveillance for polymorphisms and copy number as a monitoring tool to track the emergence and dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance. A molecular baseline for Suriname was established in 2005, with P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) and P. falciparum multidrug resistance (pfmdr1) markers and copy number in 40 samples. The baseline results revealed the existence of a uniformly distributed mutated genotype corresponding with the fully mefloquine-sensitive 7G8-like genotype (Y184F, S1034C, N1042D, and D1246Y) and a fixed pfmdr1 N86 haplotype. All samples harbored the pivotal pfcrtK76T mutation, showing that chloroquine reintroduction should not yet be contemplated in Suriname. After 5 years, 40 samples were assessed to trace temporal changes in the status of pfmdr1 polymorphisms and copy number and showed minor genetic alterations in the pfmdr1 gene and no significant changes in copy number, thus providing scientific support for prolongation of the current drug policy in Suriname.

  18. Tracing ancestor rice of Suriname Maroons back to its African origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Tinde R; Meyer, Rachel S; Aflitos, Saulo A; Carney, Judith A; Veltman, Margaretha A; Copetti, Dario; Flowers, Jonathan M; Havinga, Reinout M; Maat, Harro; Purugganan, Michael D; Wing, Rod A; Schranz, M Eric

    2016-10-03

    African rice (Oryza glaberrima) and African cultivation practices are said to have influenced emerging colonial plantation economies in the Americas(1,2). However, the level of impact of African rice practices is difficult to establish because of limited written or botanical records(2,3). Recent findings of O. glaberrima in rice fields of Suriname Maroons bear evidence of the high level of knowledge about rice among African slaves and their descendants, who consecrate it in ancestor rituals(4,5). Here we establish the strong similarity, and hence likely origin, of the first extant New World landrace of O. glaberrima to landraces from the Upper Guinean forests in West Africa. We collected African rice from a Maroon market in Paramaribo, Suriname, propagated it, sequenced its genome(6) and compared it with genomes of 109 accessions representing O. glaberrima diversity across West Africa. By analysing 1,649,769 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in clustering analyses, the Suriname sample appears sister to an Ivory Coast landrace, and shows no evidence of introgression from Asian rice. Whereas the Dutch took most slaves from Ghana, Benin and Central Africa(7), the diaries of slave ship captains record the purchase of food for provisions when sailing along the West African Coast(8), offering one possible explanation for the patterns of genetic similarity. This study demonstrates the utility of genomics in understanding the largely unwritten histories of crop cultures of diaspora communities.

  19. Problems related to the foreign exchange earnings of Surinam's shrimp industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pottier, D.

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The shrimp grounds of Surinam are actually fully exploited by some 136 trawlers of the Florida type, ranging from 100 to 130 GRT. Through export and import levies and fishing licence fees the country was able to obtain a small piece of the foreign currency cake. The Republic of Surinam has been looking for means to increase the benefits from its shrimp business. The alleged huge profits made by foreign vessels inspired the country to invest in a national shrimp fleet and man it with national crew (SUGAM. For reasons explained in the text Sugam has difficultes to operate with a gain. This paper will review Sugam's attempt to earn hard currency. An analysis is made of the foreign exchange earnings of Sugam and is compared with the results of a Korean company. The main conclusions are as follows : shrimp exploitation in a fully exploited Exclusive Economic Zone can only be brought to success by fishermen of proven ability. Each vessel should make trips lasting from 45 to 60 days and be some 280 days at sea per year. Surinam should also reconsider its present policy of shrimp purchasing.

  20. Leapfrog to the future: Energy scenarios and strategies for Suriname to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachman, Daniel A., E-mail: danny_lachman@yahoo.com [Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, University of Suriname, Suriname, South America (Suriname)

    2011-09-15

    This paper formulates energy strategies for Suriname. A conceptual model, identifying relationships in the energy sector, is conceived. One of the striking characteristics is that various relationships inhibit significant uncertainty; our contemporary age is characterized by more complex becoming relations, decreasing predictability and increasing chaos. Simple extrapolation of past events is therefore futile, since deviations from anticipated outcomes have significant impacts. The Scenario Planning methodology has been used to deal with this uncertainty. The most uncertain high-impact driving forces that shape the future of the energy sector in Suriname have been identified and are used to create energy scenarios to 2050. Next, robust strategies have been formulated which primarily focus on institutionalization, renewable resources, cost-reflecting tariffs, decentralization of energy supply, and energy efficiency and savings. Leading indicators have been identified that identify towards which scenario the present develops, and hence which set of strategies need to be applied. - Highlights: > The Scenario Planning methodology is advocated, in particular in developing countries. > Using energy scenarios, energy strategies for Suriname to 2050 are conceived. > First, the current state of energy security is assessed. > Next, critical uncertainties are identified to create the scenario logic. > The scenarios (with robustness analysis) are used to create energy strategies.

  1. Eclampsia in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, J.J.; Richters, A.; Ory, F.; Vries, J.I. de; Bloemenkamp, K.W.; Roosmalen, J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The incidence of maternal mortality due to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in the Netherlands is greater than in other Western countries. We aimed to confirm and explain this difference by assessing incidence, risk factors, and substandard care of eclampsia in the Netherlands. Methods

  2. National report: Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, S.; de Wind, A.; Beudeker, E.; Oude Mulders, J.; Hasselhorn, H.M.; Apt, W.

    2015-01-01

    As in many other European countries, the population in the Netherlands is ageing rapidly. It used to be common practice in the Netherlands to leave the labour market through early retirement and disability schemes. To tackle the rising economic burden that an older society may place on the working-a

  3. Intervention mapping to address social and economic factors impacting indigenous people's health in Suriname's interior region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplow, Daniel; Augustine, Sarah

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies found that while internationally financed economic development projects reduced poverty when measured in terms of per capita GDP, they also caused indigenous people to become disassociated, impoverished and alienated minorities whose health status has declined to unacceptable lows when measured in terms of mercury poisoning and the burgeoning rate of suicide. In this study, we developed a needs assessment and a policy-oriented causal diagram to determine whether the impaired health of the people in this region was at least partially due to the role the country has played within the global economy. Specifically, could the health and well-being of indigenous people in Suriname be understood in terms of the foreign investment programs and economic development policies traceable to the Inter-American Development Bank's Suriname Land Management Project. Interviews took place from 2004 through 2015 involving stakeholders with an interest in public health and economic development. A policy-oriented causal diagram was created to model a complex community health system and weave together a wide range of ideas and views captured during the interview process. Converting land and resources held by indigenous people into private ownership has created an active market for land, increased investment and productivity, and reduced poverty when measured in terms of per capita GDP. However, it has also caused indigenous people to become disassociated, impoverished and alienated minorities whose health status has declined to unacceptable lows. While the effects of economic development programs on the health of vulnerable indigenous communities are clear, the governance response is not. The governance response appeared to be determined less by the urgency of the public health issue or by the compelling logic of an appropriate response, and more by competing economic interests and the exercise of power. The health and well-being of the indigenous Wayana in Suriname

  4. The polyphased tectonic evolution of the Anegada Passage in the northern Lesser Antilles subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurencin, M.; Marcaillou, B.; Graindorge, D.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Lallemand, S.; Laigle, M.; Lebrun, J.-F.

    2017-05-01

    The influence of the highly oblique plate convergence at the northern Lesser Antilles onto the margin strain partitioning and deformation pattern, although frequently invoked, has never been clearly imaged. The Anegada Passage is a set of basins and deep valleys, regularly related to the southern boundary of the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands (PRVI) microplate. Despite the publications of various tectonic models mostly based on bathymetric data, the tectonic origin and deformation of this Passage remains unconstrained in the absence of deep structure imaging. During cruises Antithesis 1 and 3 (2013-2016), we recorded the first deep multichannel seismic images and new multibeam data in the northern Lesser Antilles margin segment in order to shed a new light on the structure and tectonic pattern of the Anegada Passage. We image the northeastern extent of the Anegada Passage, from the Sombrero Basin to the Lesser Antilles margin front. Our results reveal that this northeastern segment is an EW trending left-stepping en échelon strike-slip system that consists of the Sombrero and Malliwana pull-apart basins, the Malliwana and Anguilla left-lateral faults, and the NE-SW compressional restraining bend at the Malliwana Hill. Reviewing the structure of the Anegada Passage, from the south of Puerto Rico to the Lesser Antilles margin front, reveals a polyphased tectonic history. The Anegada Passage is formed by a NW-SE extension, possibly related to the rotation or escape of PRVI block due to collision of the Bahamas Bank. Currently, it is deformed by an active WNW-ESE strike-slip deformation associated to the shear component of the strain partitioning resulting from the subduction obliquity.

  5. Deep structure of the central Lesser Antilles Island Arc : relevance for the formation of continental crust

    OpenAIRE

    H. Kopp; Weinzierl, W.; Becel, A.; Charvis, Philippe; Evain, M.; Flueh, E. R.; Gailler, A.; Galve, A.; Hirn, A.; Kandilarov, A.; D. Klaeschen; M. Laigle; Papenberg, C.; L. Planert; Roux, E.

    2011-01-01

    Oceanic island arcs are sites of high magma production and contribute to the formation of continental crust. Geophysical studies may provide information on the configuration and composition of island arc crust, however, to date only few seismic profiles exist across active island arcs, limiting our knowledge on the deep structure and processes related to the production of arc crust. We acquired active-source wide-angle seismic data crossing the central Lesser Antilles island arc north of Domi...

  6. Contrasted patterns of genetic differentiation across eight bird species in the Lesser Antilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimoun, Aurélie; Arnoux, Emilie; Martel, Guillaume; Pot, Alexandre; Eraud, Cyril; Condé, Béatriz; Loubon, Maxime; Théron, Franck; Covas, Rita; Faivre, Bruno; Garnier, Stéphane

    2016-02-01

    Archipelagoes are considered as "natural laboratories" for studying processes that shape the distribution of diversity. The Lesser Antilles provide a favorable geographical context for divergence to occur. However, although morphological subspecies have been described across this archipelago in numerous avian species, the potential for the Lesser Antilles in driving intra-specific genetic divergence in highly mobile organisms such as birds remains understudied. Here, we assessed level of intra-specific genetic diversity and differentiation between three islands of the Lesser Antilles (Guadeloupe, Dominica and Martinique) using a multi-species approach on eight bird species. For each species, we built a set of microsatellite markers from cross-species amplifications. Significant patterns of inter-island and/or within-island genetic differentiation were detected in all species. However, levels of intra-specific genetic differentiation among the eight bird species were not always consistent with the boundaries of subspecies previously described in the sampled islands. These results suggest different histories of colonization/expansion and/or different species-specific ecological traits affecting gene flow, advocating for multi-species studies of historical and contemporary factors shaping the distribution of diversity on islands.

  7. A Caribbean evaluation of public versus private drinking water provision: the case of St. Maarten, Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.C. Schouten (Marco); D. Brdjanovic (Damir); M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article assesses how a small island state can choose the best option in the process of private sector involvement. It reviews the decision process to involve or not the private sector in water and sanitation supply and in which way. Nine criteria are used to make the choice. A caref

  8. 76 FR 54928 - Export Administration Regulations: Netherlands Antilles, Curaçao, Sint Maarten and Timor-Leste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... Roques, La Orchilla, La Blanquilla, Los Hermanos, Los Testigos. The support documentation exemption for... Office Building, Washington, DC 20503; and to Jasmeet Seehra, OMB Desk Officer, by e-mail at Jasmeet_K...

  9. Waist circumference as a measurement of obesity in the Netherlands Antilles; associations with hypertension and diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grievink, L.; Alberts, J.F.; O'Neil, J.; Gerstenbluth, I.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate waist circumference ( WC) as a screening tool for obesity in a Caribbean population. To identify risk groups with a high prevalence of ( central) obesity in a Caribbean population, and to evaluate associations between ( central) obesity and self-reported hypertension and diab

  10. Waist circumference as a measurement of obesity in the Netherlands Antilles; associations with hypertension and diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grievink, L.; Alberts, J.F.; O'Neil, J.; Gerstenbluth, I.

    Objectives: To evaluate waist circumference ( WC) as a screening tool for obesity in a Caribbean population. To identify risk groups with a high prevalence of ( central) obesity in a Caribbean population, and to evaluate associations between ( central) obesity and self-reported hypertension and

  11. Relationship between anthropogenic impacts and bleaching-associated tissue mortality of corals in Curaçao (Netherlands Antilles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nagelkerken

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic anthropogenic impacts can have a negative effect on coral health and on coral energy budgets needed for regeneration of lesions. I therefore hypothesise that during massive bleaching events, the degree of corals showing bleaching-related tissue mortality is higher in areas subject to chronic anthropogenic impacts than in relatively pristine areas. In the present study, the degree of bleaching and bleaching-related tissue mortality was estimated for eight abundant coral species in Curaçao, at the onset of a massive Caribbean bleaching event in 1995, and three months afterwards. To study the possible effects of anthropogenic disturbances, the study was done at four unpolluted control sites, two polluted sites (sedimentation, sewage, and four sites at the mouth of lagoons with outflow of nutrient-rich, warm and turbid seawater. No pattern of an overall difference in bleaching between impacted and control sites was found for the degree of bleaching. However, the percentage of corals showing bleaching-related tissue mortality was higher at the impacted sites than at the control sites for the total number of corals and for corals with Los impactos antropogénicos crónicos pueden tener efectos negativos en la salud y en las cantidades de energía necesarias para la regeneración de lesiones en los corales. Mi hipótesis fue que durante los casos de blanqueamiento masivo, el grado en que los corales muestren mortalidades de tejido relacionadas con el blanqueamiento, será mayor en áreas sujetas a impactos antropogénicos crónicos que en áreas relativamente prístinas. Estimé los grados de blanqueamiento y mortalidad tisular en ocho especies de coral abundantes en Curaçao, durante el comienzo de un de blanqueamiento masivo en el Caribe en 1995 y tres meses después. El estudio se realizó en cuatro sitios control no contaminados, dos sitios contaminados (sedimentación, aguas residuales, y cuatro sitios en la boca de lagunas con aguas tibias, ricas en nutrientes y turbias. En general, no se encontró ningún patrónx de diferencias en el grado de blanqueamiento entre sitios. Sin embargo, el porcentaje de corales que mostraron mortalidad tisular relacionada con el blanqueamiento fue mayor en los sitios impactados que en los controles, tanto en el número total de corales como en corales con <50% de su superficie blanquedada. Los valores más altos y más significativos de mortalidad tisular se encontraron en un arrecife que experimentaba contaminación crónica por aguas residuales crudas. La información sugiere que las condiciones desfavorables causadas por la influencia antropogénica, como el incremento en la sedimentación, eutrofización y la temperatura del agua, tienen un efecto negativo adicional en la supervivencia del tejido de las colonias de coral, durante el blanqueamiento.

  12. Relationship between anthropogenic impacts and bleaching-associated tissue mortality of corals in Curaçao (Netherlands Antilles)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelkerken, I.

    2007-01-01

    Chronic anthropogenic impacts can have a negative effect on coral health and on coral energy budgets needed for regeneration of lesions. I therefore hypothesise that during massive bleaching events, the degree of corals showing bleaching-related tissue mortality is higher in areas subject to chronic

  13. Relationship between anthropogenic impacts and bleaching-associated tissue mortality of corals in Curaçao (Netherlands Antilles)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelkerken, I.

    2007-01-01

    Chronic anthropogenic impacts can have a negative effect on coral health and on coral energy budgets needed for regeneration of lesions. I therefore hypothesise that during massive bleaching events, the degree of corals showing bleaching-related tissue mortality is higher in areas subject to chronic

  14. Status of potential PfATP6 molecular markers for artemisinin resistance in Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhin Malti R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphisms within the PfATP6 gene have been indicated as potential molecular markers for artemisinin efficacy. Since 2004, the use of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT was introduced as first-line treatment of the uncomplicated malaria cases in Suriname. The aim of this research was to determine changes in Suriname in the status of the polymorphic markers in the PfATP6 gene before and after the adoption of the ACT-regimen, particularly of the S769N mutation, which was reported to be associated with in vitro Artemether resistance in the neighboring country French Guiana. Methods The PfATP6 gene from Plasmodium falciparum parasites in Suriname was investigated in 28 samples using PCR amplification and restriction enzyme analysis, to assess and determine the prevalence of potentially interesting single nucleotide polymorphisms. The polymorphisms [L263E; A623E; S769N], which may be associated with the artemisinin resistant phenotype were characterized in parasites from three endemic regions before and after the adoption of the ACT-regimen. In addition, the status of these molecular markers was compared in paired P. falciparum isolates from patients with recurring malaria after controlled ACT. Results All the investigated samples exhibit the wild-type genotype at all three positions; L263, A623, S769. Conclusion All investigated isolates before and after the adoption of the ACT-regimen and independent of endemic region harbored the wild-type genotype for the three investigated polymorphisms. The study revealed that decreased artemisinin susceptibility could occur independent from PfATP6 mutations, challenging the assumption that artemisinin resistance is associated with these mutations in the PfATP6 gene.

  15. Cruel disease, cruel medicine: self-treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis with harmful chemical substances in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdas, Sahienshadebie

    2012-09-01

    Why are potentially harmful, non-biomedical chemical substances, such as battery acid, chlorine, herbicides, and insecticides, used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL)? What drives people to use these products as medicine? This article is about perceptions of CL, and the quest for a cure, in Suriname, South America. It highlights the associative style of reasoning behind health seeking and discusses the use of harmful chemical substances as medicines. Cutaneous leishmaniasis, a parasitic disease, affects 1 to 1.5 million people globally. It has a spectrum of clinical manifestations, but the most prominent and disfiguring elements are extensive dermatological ulceration and scar formation from lesions. The data upon which this article is based are derived from anthropological research carried out in different parts of Suriname between September 2009 and December 2010. Data was collected through mainly qualitative methods, including interviewing 205 CL patients using structured questionnaires at the Dermatological Service in the capital Paramaribo. Almost all people with CL said they tried self-treatment, varying from the use of ethno-botanical products to non-biomedical chemical solutions. This article presents and interprets the views and practices of CL patients who sought treatment using harsh chemicals. It argues that a confluence of contextual factors - environmental, occupational, infrastructural, geographical, socio-cultural, economic, socio-psychological - leads to the use of harmful chemical substances to treat CL sores. This study is the first in Suriname - and one of the few done globally - focusing on social and cultural aspects related to CL health seeking. It aims to encourage health policy makers and health professionals to carefully initiate, provide, and evaluate CL treatment and prevention programs.

  16. The influence of sea-level changes on tropical coastal lowlands; the Pleistocene Coropina Formation, Suriname

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Th. E.; de Kramer, R.; de Boer, P. L.; Langereis, C.; Sew-A-Tjon, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Pleistocene Coropina Formation largely constitutes the Old Coastal Plain of Suriname. It is exposed fully only in open-pit bauxite mines in the central coastal plain as part of the unconsolidated overburden of Paleocene-Eocene bauxites. This study deals with the stratigraphy, sedimentology and chronology of this formation, and is based on a study in the recently closed Lelydorp-III bauxite mine operated by N.V. BHP Billiton Maatschappij Suriname. The Coropina Formation consists of the Para and Lelydorp Members. We present a detailed lithological subdivision of these members. In the Para Member, four units are discerned which are grouped in two transgressive cycles, both ranging upward from terrestrial towards chenier and coastal mudflat deposits reflecting glacio-eustatic sea-level changes. The sandy sediments represent fluviatile and beach-bar (chenier) deposits, and were supplied by rivers from the Precambrian basement and to a lesser extent by westward longshore coastal drift. Clays, largely derived from the Amazon River and transported alongshore over the shelf, were deposited in extensive coastal mudflats. The Lelydorp Member, also comprising four units, represents a depositional system that is closely comparable to the recent Suriname coastal setting, i.e., a lateral and vertical alternation of mudflat and chenier deposits formed over a period characterised by more or less constant sea level. Palaeomagnetic data indicate a dominantly reversed magnetic polarity in the Para Member, whereas the Lelydorp Member shows a normal magnetic polarity with a minor reversed polarity overprint. The reversed polarities of the Para Member exclude a Brunhes Chron (0.78-0.0 Ma) age, and thus assign it to the Matuyama Chron (2.58-0.78 Ma). This implies that the Coropina Formation is much older than hitherto assumed, and that one or more (long-term) hiatuses are not recognizable in the lithological succession.

  17. Zika Virus Infection and Guillain-Barré Syndrome in Three Patients from Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langerak, Thomas; Yang, Harvey; Baptista, Mark; Doornekamp, Laura; Kerkman, Tessa; Codrington, John; Roosblad, Jimmy; Vreden, Stephen G S; De Bruin, Erwin; Mögling, Ramona; Jacobs, Bart C; Pas, Suzan D; GeurtsvanKessel, Corine H; Reusken, Chantal B E M; Koopmans, Marion P; Van Gorp, Eric C M; Alberga, Henk

    2016-01-01

    We present three patients from Suriname who were diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) during the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in this country. One patient had a positive ZIKV urine real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) result. The other two patients had a negative ZIKV urine qRT-PCR but a positive virus neutralization test and presence of IgG antibodies against ZIKV in the serum. Considering the evidence of a past ZIKV infection and absence of evidence for recent infections with the most common preceding infections of GBS, it is very likely that these GBS cases were triggered by ZIKV.

  18. The fish fauna of Brokopondo Reservoir, Suriname, during 40 years of impoundment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Mol

    Full Text Available We investigated long-term changes in the fish fauna of Brokopondo Reservoir, Suriname, the first large reservoir (1560 km² that was created in tropical rainforest. Before closure of the dam in 1964, the fish fauna of Suriname River had 172 species, high diversity and high evenness. The riverine fauna was dominated by small-sized species, but no single species was dominant in numbers. Large catfishes were dominant in biomass. Species were evenly distributed over riverine habitats: rapids, tributaries and main channel. Four years after closure of the dam, only 62 fish species were collected from Brokopondo Reservoir, but the composition of the fish fauna was still changing. The reservoir fauna in 1978 was very similar to the reservoir fauna in 2005, indicating that a stable equilibrium had been reached 14 years after closure of the dam. The reservoir fauna had 41 species, low diversity and low evenness. Most species of Suriname River and its tributaries with strict habitat requirements did not survive in Brokopondo Reservoir. Fish community structure was different among four habitats of Brokopondo Reservoir. The open-water habitat (10 species was dominated by the piscivores Serrasalmus rhombeus, Acestrorhynchus microlepis and Cichla ocellaris and their prey Bryconops melanurus and two Hemiodus species. B. melanurus fed on zooplankton, Culicinae pupae and terrestrial invertebrates. Hemiodus fed on fine flocculent detritus, demonstrating that the detritus-based food chain was still important in late stages of reservoir development. Serrasalmus rhombeus also fed on peccaries that drowned when swimming across the large reservoir in rough weather. The shore community (27 species was dominated by seven cichlids, but early stages and juveniles of the open-water species S. rhombeus and B. melanurus also occurred in the shore habitat. Fish biomass in the shore habitat was 66.5±59.9 kg ha-1. The cichlid Geophagus surinamensis and the characid B. melanurus

  19. Zika Virus Infection and Guillain–Barré Syndrome in Three Patients from Suriname

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langerak, Thomas; Yang, Harvey; Baptista, Mark; Doornekamp, Laura; Kerkman, Tessa; Codrington, John; Roosblad, Jimmy; Vreden, Stephen G. S.; De Bruin, Erwin; Mögling, Ramona; Jacobs, Bart C.; Pas, Suzan D.; GeurtsvanKessel, Corine H.; Reusken, Chantal B. E. M.; Koopmans, Marion P.; Van Gorp, Eric C. M.; Alberga, Henk

    2016-01-01

    We present three patients from Suriname who were diagnosed with Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) during the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in this country. One patient had a positive ZIKV urine real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) result. The other two patients had a negative ZIKV urine qRT-PCR but a positive virus neutralization test and presence of IgG antibodies against ZIKV in the serum. Considering the evidence of a past ZIKV infection and absence of evidence for recent infections with the most common preceding infections of GBS, it is very likely that these GBS cases were triggered by ZIKV. PMID:28066317

  20. Mercury Levels in Pristine and Gold Mining Impacted Aquatic Ecosystems of Suriname, South America

    OpenAIRE

    Paul E. Ouboter; Landburg, Gwendolyn A.; Quik, Jan H. M.; Mol, Jan H. A.; van der Lugt, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Mercury levels in sediment and predatory fish were measured for 53 localities in Suriname. The average mercury level in bottom sediment surpassed the Canadian standard for sediment in most localities, except the coastal plains. Of the predatory fish, 41 % had a mercury level above the European Union standard for human consumption of 0.5 μg g−1. Highest mercury levels were found in fish from the Brokopondo Reservoir and from the Upper Coppename River. High levels of mercury in fish in pristine...

  1. AGE-DEPENDENT VITAMIN-D STATUS AND VERTEBRAL CONDITION OF WHITE WOMEN LIVING IN CURACAO (THE NETHERLANDS-ANTILLES) AS COMPARED WITH THEIR COUNTERPARTS IN THE NETHERLANDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DUBBELMAN, R; JONXIS, JHP; MUSKIET, FAJ; SALEH, AEC

    1993-01-01

    Plasma vitamin D metabolites and parathyroid hormone concentrations of two groups of white women, aged 26-46 and 63-83 y, in Curacao were studied to evaluate the effect of yearlong abundant sunlight on frequency of vertebral compression fractures in elderly women. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D of the younger

  2. Drie eeuwen grondpolitiek in Suriname : with a summary in English ; con un resumen en espagñol ; een historische studie van de achtergrond en de ontwikkeling van de Surinaamsche rechten op de grond = (Three centuries of landpolicy in Suriname')

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quintus Bosz, Aksel Johann Albrecht

    1954-01-01

    In this book dealing with the history of land policy in Surinam, the results have been laid down of an inquiry into the background and the development of land rights in this country. In doing so attention has been paid to legal, political, social and economic factors, which have exercised their infl

  3. The rare rhinoceros beetle, Ceratophileurus lemoulti Ohaus, 1911, in French Guiana and Suriname (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae, Phileurini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad Gillett

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The rare dynastine, Ceratophileurus lemoulti Ohaus, 1911, previously known only from French Guiana, is here reported for the first time from Suriname. All biological, distributional and temporal data available for the species in both territories are presented and discussed.

  4. Charnockites and UHT metamorphism in the Bakhuis Granulite Belt, western Suriname : Evidence for two separate UHT events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, Martijn; de Roever, Emond W F; Nanne, Josefine A M; Mason, Paul R D; Davies, Gareth R.

    2015-01-01

    The Bakhuis Granulite Belt in western Suriname is an ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metamorphic terrain in the centre of the Paleoproterozoic (Transamazonian) Guiana Shield. Next to the UHT granulites, the belt contains a 30 by 30km body of orthopyroxene-bearing granitoids: the Kabalebo charnockites. T

  5. Habitat preferences, diet, feeding strategy and social organization of the black spider monkey (Ateles paniscus paniscus Linnaeus 1758) in Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosmalen, van M.G.M.

    1980-01-01

    This study describes habitat choice of the Surinam black spider monkey ( Atelespaniscuspaniscus ) and clarifies complex temporal and spatial effects of food sources on the behaviour of a group of spider monkeys in a 350 ha study area in

  6. Relations between two rice borers in Surinam, Rupela albinella (Cr.) and Diatraea saccharalis (F.), and their hymenopterous larval parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummelen, P.J.

    1974-01-01

    In many tropical countries, lepidopterous stem borers are major pests of the rice crop. Study of the rice borers in Surinam, Rupela albinella and Diatraea saccharalis, was made in the Paramaribo area, at the experimental station 'CELOS' during 1971, 1972 and 1973, since data on the ecology and econo

  7. Prevalence, determinants and genetic diversity of hepatitis C virus in the multi-ethnic population living in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mac Donald-Ottevanger, M.S.; Vreden, S.; Helm, J.J. van der; Laar, T. van de; Molenkamp, R.; Dams, E.; Roosblad, J.; Codrington, J.; Hindori-Mohangoo, A.D.; Prins, M.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of HCV in Suriname, a former Dutch colony in South America. To study the prevalence, determinants and genetic diversity of HCV, a one-month survey was conducted at the only Emergency Department in the capital Paramaribo. Participants (≥18 years) completed an in

  8. High acetone concentrations throughout the 0-12 km altitude range over the tropical rainforest in Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poschl, U; Williams, J; Hoor, P; Fischer, H; Crutzen, PJ; Warneke, C; Holzinger, R; Hansel, A; Jordan, A; Lindinger, W; Scheeren, HA; Peters, W; Lelieveld, J

    2001-01-01

    Airborne measurements of acetone were performed over the tropical rainforest in Surinam (2 degrees -7 degrees N, 54 degrees -58 degrees W, 0-12 km altitude) during the LBA-CLAIRE campaign in March 1998, using a novel proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) that enables the on-line monito

  9. Leprosy and Slavery in Suriname : Godfried Schilling and the Framing of a Racial Pathology in the Eighteenth Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelders, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The skin disease boasie became a major health problem in the Dutch colony of Suriname from the 1740s-1750s onwards. European doctors attempted to come to a closer understanding of the disease, and established that it was identical to the leprosy of Antiquity and the Middle Ages. The Prussian surgeon

  10. Novel strategies lead to pre-elimination of malaria in previously high-risk areas in Suriname, South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiwat, H.; Hardjopawiro, L.S.; Takken, W.; Villegas, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Suriname was a high malaria risk country before the introduction of a new five-year malaria control program in 2005, the Medical Mission Malaria Programme (MM-MP). Malaria was endemic in the forested interior, where especially the stabile village communities were affected. Case descriptio

  11. Distinctive distribution of HPV genotypes in cervical cancers in multi-ethnic Suriname: implications for prevention and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunberg, M G; Chan, M; Adhin, M R

    2017-01-01

    Suriname is ranked as high-risk country for cervical cancer, but recent national data of HPV prevalence and distribution in cervical cancer is scarce. In a retrospective cross-sectional study, cervical cancer incidence, HPV prevalence and HPV-type-specific distribution were investigated in all cervical cancer cases (n = 111), diagnosed in two consecutive years. HPV presence and type-specific prevalence were determined in paraffin-embedded biopsies utilizing master-nested multiplex PCR assays, targeting 14 HPV types. The age-standardized incidence rate of cervical cancer was 22·4/100 000 women, justifying revision of the current international ranking of Suriname. Eleven HPV types were detected, with the most common types in descending order of frequency: 16, 18, 45, 66, 58/52/35. HPV16 was predominant, although with markedly low presence (25%). HPV16 or 18 infections were detected in 43% of the cases, while 28% were untyped, implicating a divergent HPV-type distribution in Suriname with significant variation in the prevalence of less common high-risk virus types and/or presence of HPV16 variants. HPV-type distribution differed between ethnic groups. A vaccination efficacy of just 28-30% was anticipated, next to an uneven vaccination impact in different ethnic groups, cautioning Suriname and other multi-ethnic countries to tailor the information presented to different ethnic communities.

  12. Notes on Bulimulidae (Gastropoda, Euthyneura), 41) some Bulimulidea from French Guyana and Surinam, with notes on their Anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breure, A.S.H.

    1976-01-01

    During work for a generic revision of the family Bulimulidae some material from French Guyana and Surinam came to my hands. This material stems from the collections of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN), the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden (RMNH) and the Zoölogisch M

  13. Impulsive but fatal self-poisoning with pesticides among south asians in Nickerie, Suriname. An exploratory autopsy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, van B.A.J.; Graafsma, T.; Dullaart, H.I.A.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Intentional self-poisoning with pesticides is a serious problem in many developing countries. It is a commonly used method among South Asians all over the world. Aims: To describe the circumstances and characteristics of suicides in Nickerie, Suriname, in order to gain insight into why S

  14. High spatial and temporal resolution measurements of primary organics and their oxidation products over the tropical forests of Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crutzen, PJ; Williams, J; Poschl, U; Hoor, P; Fischer, H; Warneke, C; Holzinger, R; Hansel, A; Lindinger, W; Scheeren, B; Lelieveld, J

    2000-01-01

    Tropical forests with emissions greater than 10(15) g C of reactive hydrocarbons per year strongly affect atmospheric chemistry. Here we report aircraft-borne measurements of organics during March 1998 in Surinam, a largely unpolluted region which is optimally located to study chemical processes ind

  15. Novel strategies lead to pre-elimination of malaria in previously high-risk areas in Suriname, South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiwat, H.; Hardjopawiro, L.S.; Takken, W.; Villegas, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Suriname was a high malaria risk country before the introduction of a new five-year malaria control program in 2005, the Medical Mission Malaria Programme (MM-MP). Malaria was endemic in the forested interior, where especially the stabile village communities were affected. Case

  16. Relocations of sea turtle nests of Lepidochelys olivacea, Dermochelys coriacea and Chelonia mydas in the Galibi Nature Reserve, Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, A.D.; Weijerman, M.; Tienen, van L.H.G.; Hoekert, W.E.J.

    1997-01-01

    SCHOUTEN, A.D., WEIJERMAN, M., VAN TIENEN, L.H.G. & W.E.J. HOEKERT, 1997. Relocations of Sea Turtle nests of Lepidochelys olivacea, Dermochelys coriace and Chelonia mydas in the Galibi Nature Reserve, Suriname. Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 73, Amsterdam, 1997: 63-69. Relocation of nests of th

  17. Relations between two rice borers in Surinam, Rupela albinella (Cr.) and Diatraea saccharalis (F.), and their hymenopterous larval parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummelen, P.J.

    1974-01-01

    In many tropical countries, lepidopterous stem borers are major pests of the rice crop. Study of the rice borers in Surinam, Rupela albinella and Diatraea saccharalis, was made in the Paramaribo area, at the experimental station 'CELOS' during

  18. High spatial and temporal resolution measurements of primary organics and their oxidation products over the tropical forests of Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crutzen, PJ; Williams, J; Poschl, U; Hoor, P; Fischer, H; Warneke, C; Holzinger, R; Hansel, A; Lindinger, W; Scheeren, B; Lelieveld, J

    2000-01-01

    Tropical forests with emissions greater than 10(15) g C of reactive hydrocarbons per year strongly affect atmospheric chemistry. Here we report aircraft-borne measurements of organics during March 1998 in Surinam, a largely unpolluted region which is optimally located to study chemical processes

  19. Insecticide gebruik in Oker, Sopropo en Kouseband in Suriname : Resultaten van een enquête onder 23 telers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putter, de H.; Sauers-Muller, van A.

    2007-01-01

    Dit onderzoek vindt plaats in het kader van het Surituinproject. Doel van het project is de bevordering van export van Surinaamse groenten. In Nederland is een vraag naar groenten aanwezig die specifiek uit Suriname komen. Belangrijke export groentegewassen zijn Sopropo, Momordica charantia, oker,

  20. Relocations of sea turtle nests of Lepidochelys olivacea, Dermochelys coriacea and Chelonia mydas in the Galibi Nature Reserve, Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, A.D.; Weijerman, M.; Tienen, van L.H.G.; Hoekert, W.E.J.

    1997-01-01

    SCHOUTEN, A.D., WEIJERMAN, M., VAN TIENEN, L.H.G. & W.E.J. HOEKERT, 1997. Relocations of Sea Turtle nests of Lepidochelys olivacea, Dermochelys coriace and Chelonia mydas in the Galibi Nature Reserve, Suriname. Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 73, Amsterdam, 1997: 63-69. Relocation of nests of th

  1. History of malaria research and its contribution to the malaria control success in Suriname: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breeveld Florence JV

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Suriname has cleared malaria from its capital city and coastal areas mainly through the successful use of chloroquine and DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane during the Global Malaria Eradication programme that started in 1955. Nonetheless, malaria transmission rates remained high in the interior of the country for a long time. An impressive decline in malaria cases was achieved in the past few years, from 14,403 registered cases in 2003 to 1,371 in 2009. The introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT in 2004 has further fuelled the decrease in the number of infections with Plasmodium falciparum. The only population group still heavily burdened with malaria is gold mining industry workers. Interestingly, an important part of malaria cases diagnosed and treated in Suriname originate from border regions. Therefore, practical initiatives of combined efforts between neighbouring countries must be scaled up in order to effectively attack these specific areas. Furthermore, it is of vital importance to keep investing into the malaria control programme and public awareness campaigns. Especially the correct use of ACT must be promoted in order to prevent the emergence of resistance. However, effective preventive measures and adequate therapeutic options are on their own not enough to control, let alone eliminate malaria. Changing personal and social behaviour of people is particularly difficult, but crucial in making the current success sustainable. With this in mind, research on successfully implemented interventions, focusing on behavioural modifications and methods of measuring their effectiveness, must be expanded.

  2. Neurological abnormalities in a mercury exposed population among indigenous Wayana in Southeast Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplow, Daniel; Augustine, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The indigenous Wayana community of Puleowime (Apetina) in Suriname is susceptible to the effects of mercury because they consume large amounts of fish compared to mainstream communities. Small-scale and artisanal gold mining activities occur at numerous sites in eastern and southeastern Suriname placing the Wayana at risk from exposure to mercury released into the environment. A previous community-led risk assessment study showed that the Wayana were at a high lifetime risk of adverse effects from exposure to mercury. Subsequent to this earlier study, the residents of Puleowime requested assistance in a community-led follow-up research project to determine for themselves whether there were health impacts associated with exposure to mercury contamination. Neurotoxic effects consistent with methylmercury exposure were documented in an exposed population through a battery of neurological tests. Although the specific motor and cognitive batteries were not exactly the same, similar associations were observed between neurologic impairment and hair mercury concentrations compared to other studies in the Amazonia region where mean hair mercury levels were in the subacute range.

  3. Diploid-triploid mosaicism and tissue ploidy diversity within Platemys platycephala from Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, J W; Hanks, B G

    2009-01-01

    The twist-necked turtle, Platemys platycephala, is 1 of only 2 known species to possess sexual reproduction and diploid-triploid mosaicism. Previous studies have shown that mosaics occur in Suriname and French Guiana but only diploids are known from Bolivia and Brazil. In this paper, the frequency of ploidy mosaicism was studied in a large sample of P. platycephala from Suriname to more fully explore the diversity of ploidy levels within and among individuals. Flow-cytometric analysis of blood revealed a wide diversity of conditions including diploids, diploid-triploid mosaics, triploids, and triploid-tetraploid mosaics. The largest frequency class was 100% diploid, and the second largest was 100% triploid. However, mosaic individuals were observed from the entire spectrum of mixtures ranging from nearly all-diploid to nearly all-triploid and 2 individuals were triploid-tetraploid mosaics. It appears likely that diploids, triploids and mosaics do not represent distinct biotypes, but simply different conditions within a spectrum of possible ploidy mixtures. Studies of multiple tissues from 5 individuals showed blood alone is a good indicator of ploidy, but subtle differences were found among tissues for some individuals, and some individuals that were all-diploid or all-triploid in blood were found to be mosaic in other tissues. Triploidy was statistically associated with males, and we hypothesize that genome size plays a role in sex determination in this species.

  4. History of malaria research and its contribution to the malaria control success in Suriname: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeveld, Florence J V; Vreden, Stephen G S; Grobusch, Martin P

    2012-03-29

    Suriname has cleared malaria from its capital city and coastal areas mainly through the successful use of chloroquine and DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) during the Global Malaria Eradication programme that started in 1955. Nonetheless, malaria transmission rates remained high in the interior of the country for a long time. An impressive decline in malaria cases was achieved in the past few years, from 14,403 registered cases in 2003 to 1,371 in 2009. The introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in 2004 has further fuelled the decrease in the number of infections with Plasmodium falciparum. The only population group still heavily burdened with malaria is gold mining industry workers. Interestingly, an important part of malaria cases diagnosed and treated in Suriname originate from border regions. Therefore, practical initiatives of combined efforts between neighbouring countries must be scaled up in order to effectively attack these specific areas. Furthermore, it is of vital importance to keep investing into the malaria control programme and public awareness campaigns. Especially the correct use of ACT must be promoted in order to prevent the emergence of resistance. However, effective preventive measures and adequate therapeutic options are on their own not enough to control, let alone eliminate malaria. Changing personal and social behaviour of people is particularly difficult, but crucial in making the current success sustainable. With this in mind, research on successfully implemented interventions, focusing on behavioural modifications and methods of measuring their effectiveness, must be expanded.

  5. Drug resistance and genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum parasites from suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Ron; VAN Gool, Tom; Panchoe, Daynand; Greve, Sophie; Bus, Ellen; Resida, Lesley

    2005-11-01

    Plasmodium falciparum in Suriname was studied for the presence of drug resistance and genetic variation in blood samples of 86 patients with symptomatic malaria. Drug resistance was predicted by determining point mutations in the chloroquine resistance marker of the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) gene (codon 76) and the pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine resistance markers in the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) gene (codons 16, 51, 59, 108, and 164) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) gene (codons 436, 437, 540, 581, and 613). Genetic variability was determined by sequence analysis of the polymorphic segments of the merozoite surface protein 2 (msp-2) and glutamate-rich protein (glurp) genes. Mutations in the pfcrt, dhps, and dhfr genes were found in all samples tested, suggesting that resistance to chloroquine and antifolate drugs is present at a high frequency. A low number of alleles was found for the msp-2 and glurp genes. This indicates limited genetic diversity and, based on geographic data, a genetically homogeneous P. falciparum population in Suriname.

  6. Epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Suriname: a study performed in 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meide, Wendy F; Jensema, Annigje J; Akrum, Ralph A E; Sabajo, Leslie O A; Lai A Fat, Rudy F M; Lambregts, Lisa; Schallig, Henk D F H; van der Paardt, Marije; Faber, William R

    2008-08-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a widespread disease in Suriname caused by Leishmania Viannia guyanensis. It is argued that other Leishmania species are also responsible for CL and that the incidence is increasing. This study aimed to identify the species causing the disease and to estimate the annual detection rate of CL in Suriname in 2006. In Paramaribo, 152 patients were registered, of whom 33 were tested in two polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methods. Twenty-seven patients were infected with L. (V.) guyanensis (complex), one with L. (V.) lainsoni, and one with L. (Leishmania) amazonensis. In the hinterland, 162 CL suspected patients were registered by questionnaires; of these, 24 of 27 tested positive by PCR-RFLP (88.9%; 95% CI, 77.1-100%). With extrapolation of collected data, a detection rate was calculated of 5.32 to 6.13 CL patients per 1,000 inhabitants for the hinterland and 0.64 to 0.74 patients per 1,000 inhabitants for the whole country.

  7. Knowledge and beliefs about epilepsy among people with and without epilepsy in urban Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Willem M; Meeuwesse, Eva; Kafiluddin, Erik; Peerdeman, Saskia M; Baaijen, Johannes C; Sander, Josemir W; van Eijsden, Pieter

    2013-10-01

    Reducing the burden of epilepsy in low- and middle-income countries requires understanding of the cultural aspects of epilepsy. This cross-sectional study among individuals attending a clinic in an urban setting in Paramaribo, Suriname aimed to obtain information on the knowledge of and attitudes towards epilepsy and epilepsy treatment, comparing people with epilepsy (PWE) to those without epilepsy. This study also explored the help-seeking behavior and experience of having epilepsy in PWE. While the results of interviews with 49 PWE and 33 controls compared favorably to studies conducted in similar countries, a significant minority of PWE still rely on traditional remedies. Prejudices regarding social roles, schooling, and occupational choices of PWE also remain prevalent. Currently, the major source of information for both groups is the media, but there could be opportunities for the local epilepsy association to play a larger role. These findings, despite some selection bias, could be useful in bringing conventional medical treatment strategies to more PWE in Suriname, as well as empower patient organizations in designing stigma-reducing interventions.

  8. Development of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) Related to the Phenology of Blueberry, Blackberry, Strawberry Guava, and Surinam Cherry Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisognin, M; Nava, D E; Diez-Rodríguez, G I; Valgas, R A; Garcia, M S; Krolow, A C R; Antunes, L E C

    2015-02-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) is the main pest of temperate climate orcharding. The study investigated the development of A. fraterculus related to phenological stage of blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry trees. The phenological stages I (green fruits), II (intermediate ripening stage of fruits), and III (fruits close to harvesting) were determined, and they are from 8th, 10th, and 11th week; 6th, 8th, and 9th week; 8th, 13th, and 16th week; and 5th, 6th, and 7th week after the first flowering of blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry trees, respectively. We collected fruits from orchards to determine the infestation index using the formula: number of pupa/fruit weight. To investigate the development of A. fraterculus, we determined the following biological parameters: egg-to-adult period, weight of pupae, oviposition period, fecundity, number of pupae, and number of infested fruits. The infestation index for the fruits collected in the field was greater in strawberry guava and Surinam cherry fruits. In the laboratory, the development of A. fraterculus occurred in stage III of blueberry. In blackberry, besides stage III, we also observed the development in stage II, however, at lower infestation. In strawberry guava, the development of A. fraterulus occurred in stages II and III, and the development in both stages was similar. For Surinam cherry, the development occurred in the three phenological stages with similar values for biological parameters. Overall, of the four hosts studied, the strawberry guava and Surinam cherry fruits allowed a better biological development of A. fraterculus, corroborating its preference for fruits native to Brazil. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Psychotraumatology in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Olff

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The contribution to psychotrauma literature from Dutch authors has a long tradition. The relatively high lifetime prevalence of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is not unique for the Netherlands and does not fully explain the interest in trauma and its consequences. In this overview of psychotraumatology in the Netherlands, we will discuss some of the key events and processes that contribute to the current interest. We outlined the historical basis and development of the field in the Netherlands, including the impact of World War II, the effects of major man-made or natural disasters, engagement in military conflicts, as well as smaller scale traumatic events like sexual abuse and traffic accidents. The liberal and open culture may have reduced stigma to trauma, while other sociocultural aspects may have contributed to increased prevalence. Finally, we describe Dutch psychotraumatology today and how history and culture have shaped the current scientific basis.

  10. Significant technical advances in broadband seismic stations in the Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglade, A.; Lemarchand, A.; Saurel, J.-M.; Clouard, V.; Bouin, M.-P.; De Chabalier, J.-B.; Tait, S.; Brunet, C.; Nercessian, A.; Beauducel, F.; Robertson, R.; Lynch, L.; Higgins, M.; Latchman, J.

    2015-04-01

    In the last few years, French West Indies observatories from the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP), in collaboration with The UWI Seismic Research Centre (SRC, University of West Indies), have modernized the Lesser Antilles Arc seismic and deformation monitoring network. 15 new, permanent stations have been installed that strengthen and expand its detection capabilities. The global network of the IPGP-SRC consortium is now composed of 20 modernized stations, all equipped with broadband seismometers, strong motion sensors, Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors and satellite communication for real-time data transfer. To enhance the sensitivity and reduce ambient noise, special efforts were made to improve the design of the seismic vault and the original Stuttgart shielding of the broadband seismometers (240 and 120s corner period). Tests were conducted for several months, involving different types of countermeasures, to achieve the highest performance level of the seismometers. GPS data, realtime and validated seismic data (only broadband) are now available from the IPGP data centre (http://centrededonnees.ipgp.fr/index.php?&lang=EN). This upgraded network feeds the Caribbean Tsunami Warning System supported by UNESCO and establishes a monitoring tool that produces high quality data for studying subduction and volcanic processes in the Lesser Antilles arc.

  11. Forearc kinematics in obliquely convergent margins: Examples from Nicaragua and the northern Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Henry L., III

    In this study, I use surface velocities derived from GPS geodesy, elastic half-space dislocation models, and modeled Coulomb stress changes to investigate deformation in the over-riding plate at obliquely convergent margins at the leading and trailing edges of the Caribbean plate. The two principal study areas are western Nicaragua, where the Cocos plate subducts beneath the Caribbean plate, and the northern Lesser Antilles, where the North American plate subducts beneath the Caribbean plate. In Nicaragua, plate convergence is rapid at 84 mm yr1 with a small angle of obliquity of 10° along a slightly concave portion of the Middle America Trench. GPS velocities for the period from 2000 to 2004 from sites located in the Nicaraguan forearc confirmed forearc sliver motion on the order of ˜14 mm yr1 in close agreement with the value predicted by DeMets (2001). These results are presented here in Chapter 3 and were reported in Geophysical Research Letters (Turner et al., 2007). GPS observations made on sites located in the interior and on the eastern coast of Nicaragua during the same time period were combined with new data from eastern Honduras to help better constrain estimates of rigid Caribbean plate motion (DeMets et al., 2007). Slip approaching the plate convergence rate along the Nicaraguan and El Salvadoran sections of the Middle America Trench was quantitatively demonstrated by finite element modeling of this section of the plate interface using GPS velocities from our Nicaraguan network together with velocities from El Salvador and Honduras as model constraints (Correa-Mora, 2009). The MW 6.9 earthquake that ruptured the seismogenic zone offshore Nicaragua on October 9, 2004 resulted in coseismic displacements and post-seismic motion at GPS sites in the central part of the Nicaraguan forearc that currently prevent extension of interseismic time-series in this region. An elastic half-space dislocation model was used to estimate coseismic displacements at these

  12. Measurements of reactive chlorocarbons over the Surinam tropical rain forest: indications for strong biogenic emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Scheeren

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the understanding of the emissions and chemical behavior of halocarbons from anthropogenic sources (e.g. CFCs and HCFCs, the biogeochemistry of naturally emitted halocarbons is still poorly understood. We present measurements of chloromethane (methyl chloride, CH3Cl, trichloromethane (chloroform, CHCl3, dichloromethane (CH2Cl2, and tetrachloroethylene (C2Cl4 from air samples taken over the Surinam rainforest during the 1998 LBA/CLAIRE campaign. The samples were collected in stainless steel canisters on-board a Cessna Citation jet aircraft and analyzed in the laboratory using a gas chromatograph equipped with FID and ECD. The chlorocarbons we studied have atmospheric lifetimes of ~1 year or less, and appear to have significant emissions from natural sources including oceans, soils and vegetations, as well as biomass burning. These sources are primarily concentrated in the tropics (30º N-30º S. We detected an increase as a function of latitude of methyl chloride, chloroform, and tetrachloroethylene mixing ratios, in pristine air masses advected from the Atlantic Ocean toward the central Amazon. In the absence of significant biomass burning sources, we attribute this increase to biogenic emissions from the Surinam rainforest. From our measurements, we deduce fluxes from the Surinam rainforest of 7.6±1.8 μg CH3Cl m−2 h−1, 1.11±0.08g CHCl3 μm−2 h−1, and 0.36±0.07 μg C2Cl4 m−2 h−1. Extrapolated to a global scale, our emission estimates suggest a large potential source of 2 Tg CH3Cl yr−1 from tropical forests, which could account for the net budget discrepancy (underestimation of sources, as indicated previously. In addition, our estimates suggest a potential emission of 57±17,Gg C2C4 yr−1

  13. Spatio-temporal distribution patterns of the epibenthic community in the coastal waters of Suriname

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Tomas; De Backer, Annelies; Wan Tong You, Kenneth; Vincx, Magda; Hostens, Kris

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to characterize the spatio-temporal patterns of the epibenthic community in the coastal waters of Suriname. Data were collected on a (bi)monthly basis in 2012-2013 at 15 locations in the shallow (<40 m) coastal area, revealing three spatially distinct species assemblages, related to clear gradients in some environmental parameters. A species-poor coastal assemblage was discerned within the muddy, turbid-water zone (6-20 m depth), dominated by Atlantic seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Crustacea: Penaeoidea). Near the 30 m isobath, sediments were much coarser (median grain size on average 345±103 μm vs. 128±53 μm in the coastal assemblage) and water transparency was much higher (on average 7.6±3.5 m vs. 2.4±2.1 m in the coastal assemblage). In this zone, a diverse offshore assemblage was found, characterized by brittle stars (mainly Ophioderma brevispina and Ophiolepis elegans) and a variety of crabs, sea stars and hermit crabs. In between both zones, a transition assemblage was noted, with epibenthic species typically found in either the coastal or offshore assemblages, but mainly characterized by the absence of X. kroyeri. Although the epibenthic community was primarily structured in an on-offshore gradient related to depth, sediment grain size and sediment total organic carbon content, a longitudinal (west-east) gradient was apparent as well. The zones in the eastern part of the Suriname coastal shelf seemed to be more widely stretched along the on-offshore gradient. Although clear seasonal differences were noted in the environmental characteristics (e.g. dry vs. rainy season), this was not reflected in the epibenthic community structure. X. kroyeri reached very high densities (up to 1383 ind 1000 m-²) in the shallow coastal waters of Suriname. As X. kroyeri is increasingly exploited throughout its range, the current study provides the ecological context for its presence and abundance, which is crucial for an ecosystem approach and the

  14. Quality of anti-malarials collected in the private and informal sectors in Guyana and Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Lawrence

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a significant reduction in the number of malaria cases in Guyana and Suriname, this disease remains a major problem in the interior of both countries, especially in areas with gold mining and logging operations, where malaria is endemic. National malaria control programmes in these countries provide treatment to patients with medicines that are procured and distributed through regulated processes in the public sector. However, availability to medicines in licensed facilities (private sector and unlicensed facilities (informal sector is common, posing the risk of access to and use of non-recommended treatments and/or poor quality products. Methods To assess the quality of circulating anti-malarial medicines, samples were purchased in the private and informal sectors of Guyana and Suriname in 2009. The sampling sites were selected based on epidemiological data and/or distance from health facilities. Samples were analysed for identity, content, dissolution or disintegration, impurities, and uniformity of dosage units or weight variation according to manufacturer, pharmacopeial, or other validated method. Results Quality issues were observed in 45 of 77 (58% anti-malarial medicines sampled in Guyana of which 30 failed visual & physical inspection and 18 failed quality control tests. The proportion of monotherapy and ACT medicines failing quality control tests was 43% (13/30 and 11% (5/47 respectively. A higher proportion of medicines sampled from the private sector 34% (11/32 failed quality control tests versus 16% (7/45 in the informal sector. In Suriname, 58 medicines were sampled, of which 50 (86% were Artecom®, the fixed-dose combination of piperaquine-dihydroartemisinin-trimethoprim co-blistered with a primaquine phosphate tablet. All Artecom samples were found to lack a label claim for primaquine, thus failing visual and physical inspection. Conclusions The findings of the studies in both countries point to

  15. Morocco and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fritschy, W.; Bos, P. (eds.)

    2006-01-01

    This book on aspects of society, economy and culture in Morocco and the Netherlands contains contributions of 28 Moroccan and Dutch authors on religion, family and marriage law, local government and PJD, Abdelkrim, Morocco and the EU, drug trafficking, migration, youth, Dutch-Moroccan writers, and

  16. Netherlands grass monitoring network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienezen, M.W.J.; Remmelink, G.J.; |Weiden, van der T.; Tjoonk, L.; Nolles, J.E.; Voskamp-Harkema, W.; Pol, van den A.

    2016-01-01

    To support on farm grazing management in the Netheralnds a grass monitoring was established in 2014. The aim of the network is to share and publish data on grass quality, grass growth and soil temperature in different regions of the Netherlands to serve as a benchmark. Grass quality, sward height

  17. Deinstitutionalisation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijl, YJ; Kluiter, H; Wiersma, D

    2001-01-01

    In the Netherlands mental hospitals and psychiatric departments in general hospitals kept the initiative in implementing community-based replacements for inpatient care. The goal of this study is to determine to what extent day treatment, sheltered residences and assertive home treatment were effect

  18. Country report: The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keune, M.; Tros, F.

    2014-01-01

    Young workers have a relatively weak labour market position in the Netherlands, both in terms of high youth unemployment and low quality of employment. For this reason, they could potentially benefit from union representation to improve their wages and working conditions. For the trade unions, young

  19. Country report: The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keune, M.; Tros, F.

    2014-01-01

    Young workers have a relatively weak labour market position in the Netherlands, both in terms of high youth unemployment and low quality of employment. For this reason, they could potentially benefit from union representation to improve their wages and working conditions. For the trade unions, young

  20. Mechatronics in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amerongen, J.; Jongkind, Wim

    1996-01-01

    This article assesses the present situation of mechatronics in the Netherlands. After a short historical survey, it describes the postgraduate ¿mechatronic designer course¿, introduced in 1991. It deals with the principles of this course and how these principles have been implemented. Also, the

  1. Worker participation - the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwantes, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Worker participation relates to the involvement of workers in the management decision-making processes. In this article attention is focused on worker participation related to occupational safety and health in the Netherlands. Worker participation can refer either to direct or indirect participation

  2. Country Report - The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schermers, G.; Wegman, F.; Vliet, P. van; Horst, A.R.A. van der; Boender, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the most significant developments in the area of road (geometric) design practices and standards and related research in the Netherlands in recent years. The paper describes the importance of the Sustainable Road Safety policy in this context. Furthermore, it provi

  3. Mousepox in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); J.S. Teppema; R.M.S. Wirahadiredja; G. van Steenis (Bert)

    1981-01-01

    textabstractTwo independent outbreaks of ectromelia in mice occurred in The Netherlands. In both cases, the causative virus was isolated and identified as ectromelia virus on the basis of serology, demonstration of antigen by indirect immunofluorescence, negative contrast electron microscopy, morpho

  4. Telework in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van het Kaar, R.

    2008-01-01

    Statistics show that the incidence of telework in the Netherlands has been rising since 2000, regardless of the precise definition used. The government has encouraged the use of telework by introducing tax benefits for employers who facilitate such work. This article looks at the extent of telework

  5. Sport in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Koen Breedveld

    2007-01-01

    Sport is a popular pastime in the Netherlands; 10 million people take part in at least one sport. To do this, they can choose from more than 27,000 non-profit sports clubs, or more than 5,000 commercial providers such as fitness centres or riding stables. These clubs and commercial providers make us

  6. New in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mérove Gijsberts; Marcel Lubbers

    2013-01-01

    Original title: Nieuw in Nederland How do Bulgarians and Poles fare in the period just after they have migrated to the Netherlands? This study looks among other things at their position on the labour market, their command of the Dutch language and their social contacts and opinions. Their

  7. Mechatronics in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amerongen, van Job; Jongkind, Wim

    1996-01-01

    This article assesses the present situation of mechatronics in the Netherlands. After a short historical survey, it describes the postgraduate ¿mechatronic designer course¿, introduced in 1991. It deals with the principles of this course and how these principles have been implemented. Also, the acti

  8. Morocco and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fritschy, W.; Bos, P. (eds.)

    2006-01-01

    This book on aspects of society, economy and culture in Morocco and the Netherlands contains contributions of 28 Moroccan and Dutch authors on religion, family and marriage law, local government and PJD, Abdelkrim, Morocco and the EU, drug trafficking, migration, youth, Dutch-Moroccan writers, and a

  9. High rates of suicide and attempted suicide using pesticides in Nickerie, Suriname, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graafsma, T; Kerkhof, A; Gibson, D; Badloe, R; van de Beek, L M

    2006-01-01

    Suicide and attempted suicide are identified as a serious mental health problem in Suriname, especially in the district of Nickerie. An epidemiological study in the Nickerie catchment area revealed high rates of suicide (48 per 100,000) and attempted suicide (207 per 100,000) on average in the years 2000-2004. Particularly remarkable is the high number of attempted suicides among males (49%), and the use of pesticides in both fatal (55%) and nonfatal suicidal behavior (44%). Probably this high incidence of suicidal behavior reflects the very poor economic situation of the district, poverty of most of the population, high levels of alcohol misuse, domestic violence, the rigidity of Hindustani culture regarding family traditions, the accessibility of pesticides, and the lack of future perspectives. Health care alone will not be sufficient to tackle this problem. One of the most urgent measures to prevent suicides is to stow away pesticides in locked cabinets with the key held by the proprietor.

  10. Mercury levels in pristine and gold mining impacted aquatic ecosystems of Suriname, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouboter, Paul E; Landburg, Gwendolyn A; Quik, Jan H M; Mol, Jan H A; van der Lugt, Frank

    2012-12-01

    Mercury levels in sediment and predatory fish were measured for 53 localities in Suriname. The average mercury level in bottom sediment surpassed the Canadian standard for sediment in most localities, except the coastal plains. Of the predatory fish, 41 % had a mercury level above the European Union standard for human consumption of 0.5 μg g(-1). Highest mercury levels were found in fish from the Brokopondo Reservoir and from the Upper Coppename River. High levels of mercury in fish in pristine areas are explained by atmospheric transportation of mercury with the northeastern trade winds followed by wet deposition. Contrary to gold mining areas, where mercury is bound to drifting sediments, in "pristine" areas the mercury is freely available for bio-accumulation and uptake. Impacts on piscivorous reptiles, birds, and mammals are unknown, but likely to be negative.

  11. Sources of atmospheric mercury in the tropics: continuous observations at a coastal site in Suriname

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, D.; Wip, D.; Warneke, T.; Holmes, C. D.; Dastoor, A.; Notholt, J.

    2012-08-01

    Mercury measurements at a coastal site in Nieuw Nickerie (5°56' N, 56°59' W), Suriname, provide the only continuous records of atmospheric mercury in the tropics. Here we evaluate observations of total gaseous mercury (TGM) during 2007. Nieuw Nickerie typically samples marine air from the Atlantic Ocean, with occasional influence from continental South America. Over the year, average concentrations are 1.40 ng m-3. As the intertropical convergence zone passes over Suriname twice each year, the site samples both northern and southern hemispheric air masses. We use back trajectories to classify each measurement by hemisphere, as well as continental or ocean. For air passing over ocean before sampling, TGM concentrations are 10% higher in air coming from the Northern Hemisphere (1.45 ng m-3) than from the Southern Hemisphere (1.32 ng m-3). Air from the South American continent also carries higher TGM (1.43 ng m-3) than air from the South Atlantic Ocean, with most of these trajectories occurring in August and September. Biomass burning in Brazil peaks in the same months and likely contributes significantly to elevated concentrations seen in Nickerie. We also compare the observed seasonal cycle to two atmospheric mercury chemistry and transport models (GRAHM and GEOS-Chem). Both models simulate transition between northern and southern hemispheric air, thus capturing the seasonal cycle; however the models overestimate the TGM concentrations during months when Nickerie samples Northern Hemisphere air. It is difficult to determine whether the models' sources or sinks in the Northern Hemisphere tropics are responsible.

  12. A Proposed Community Network For Monitoring Volcanic Emissions In Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, E. P.; Beckles, D. M.; Robertson, R. E.; Latchman, J. L.; Edwards, S.

    2013-12-01

    Systematic geochemical monitoring of volcanic systems in the English-speaking islands of the Lesser Antilles was initiated by the UWI Seismic Research Centre (SRC) in 2000, as part of its volcanic surveillance programme for the English-speaking islands of the Lesser Antilles. This programme provided the first time-series observations used for the purpose of volcano monitoring in Dominica and Saint Lucia, permitted the characterization of the geothermal fluids associated with them, and established baseline studies for understanding of the hydrothermal systems during periods of quiescence (Joseph et al., 2011; Joseph et al., 2013). As part of efforts to improve and expand the capacity of SRC to provide volcanic surveillance through its geothermal monitoring programme, it is necessary to develop economically sustainable options for the monitoring of volcanic emissions/pollutants. Towards this effort we intend to work in collaboration with local authorities in Saint Lucia, to develop a monitoring network for quantifying the background exposure levels of ambient concentrations of volcanic pollutants, SO2 in air and As in waters (as health significant marker elements in the geothermal emissions) that would serve as a model for the emissions monitoring network for other volcanic islands. This programme would facilitate the building of local capacity and training to monitor the hazardous exposure, through the application and transfer of a regionally available low-cost and low-technology SO2 measurement/detection system in Saint Lucia. Existing monitoring technologies to inform evidence based health practices are too costly for small island Caribbean states, and no government policies or health services measures currently exist to address/mitigate these influences. Gases, aerosols and toxic elements from eruptive and non-eruptive volcanic activity are known to adversely affect human health and the environment (Baxter, 2000; Zhang et al., 2008). Investigations into the

  13. The fish fauna of Brokopondo Reservoir, Suriname, during 40 years of impoundment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Mol

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated long-term changes in the fish fauna of Brokopondo Reservoir, Suriname, the first large reservoir (1560 km² that was created in tropical rainforest. Before closure of the dam in 1964, the fish fauna of Suriname River had 172 species, high diversity and high evenness. The riverine fauna was dominated by small-sized species, but no single species was dominant in numbers. Large catfishes were dominant in biomass. Species were evenly distributed over riverine habitats: rapids, tributaries and main channel. Four years after closure of the dam, only 62 fish species were collected from Brokopondo Reservoir, but the composition of the fish fauna was still changing. The reservoir fauna in 1978 was very similar to the reservoir fauna in 2005, indicating that a stable equilibrium had been reached 14 years after closure of the dam. The reservoir fauna had 41 species, low diversity and low evenness. Most species of Suriname River and its tributaries with strict habitat requirements did not survive in Brokopondo Reservoir. Fish community structure was different among four habitats of Brokopondo Reservoir. The open-water habitat (10 species was dominated by the piscivores Serrasalmus rhombeus, Acestrorhynchus microlepis and Cichla ocellaris and their prey Bryconops melanurus and two Hemiodus species. B. melanurus fed on zooplankton, Culicinae pupae and terrestrial invertebrates. Hemiodus fed on fine flocculent detritus, demonstrating that the detritus-based food chain was still important in late stages of reservoir development. Serrasalmus rhombeus also fed on peccaries that drowned when swimming across the large reservoir in rough weather. The shore community (27 species was dominated by seven cichlids, but early stages and juveniles of the open-water species S. rhombeus and B. melanurus also occurred in the shore habitat. Fish biomass in the shore habitat was 66.5±59.9 kg ha-1. The cichlid Geophagus surinamensis and the characid B. melanurus

  14. Euthanasia in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, G.; Dillmann, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    The practice of euthanasia in the Netherlands is often used as an argument in debates outside the Netherlands--hence a clear description of the Dutch situation is important. This article summarises recent data and discusses conceptual issues and relevant characteristics of the system of health care. Special emphasis is put on regulation, including relevant data on notification and prosecution. Besides the practice of euthanasia the Dutch are confronted with the gaps in reporting of cases to the public prosecutor and the existence of cases of ending a life without an explicit request. Nevertheless, the "Dutch experiment" need not inevitably lead down the slippery slope because of the visibility and openness of this part of medical practice. This will lead to increased awareness, more safeguards, and improvement of medical decisions concerning the end of life. PMID:8019226

  15. Mechatronics in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Amerongen, van, H.; Jongkind, Wim

    1996-01-01

    This article assesses the present situation of mechatronics in the Netherlands. After a short historical survey, it describes the postgraduate ¿mechatronic designer course¿, introduced in 1991. It deals with the principles of this course and how these principles have been implemented. Also, the activities of the Dutch government in cooperation with the industrial mechatronics community to enhance the awareness of mechatronics, especially directed toward small and medium-sized enterprises (SME...

  16. Quantifying potential earthquake and tsunami hazard in the Lesser Antilles subduction zone of the Caribbean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Gavin P.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Seidman, Lily; Roger, Jean

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we quantify the seismic and tsunami hazard in the Lesser Antilles subduction zone, focusing on the plate interface offshore of Guadeloupe. We compare potential strain accumulated via GPS-derived plate motions to strain release due to earthquakes that have occurred over the past 110 yr, and compute the resulting moment deficit. Our results suggest that enough strain is currently stored in the seismogenic zone of the Lesser Antilles subduction arc in the region of Guadeloupe to cause a large and damaging earthquake of magnitude Mw ˜ 8.2 ± 0.4. We model several scenario earthquakes over this magnitude range, using a variety of earthquake magnitudes and rupture areas, and utilizing the USGS ShakeMap and PAGER software packages. Strong ground shaking during the earthquake will likely cause loss of life and damage estimated to be in the range of several tens to several hundreds of fatalities and hundreds of millions to potentially billions of U.S. dollars of damage. In addition, such an event could produce a significant tsunami. Modelled tsunamis resulting from these scenario earthquakes predict meter-scale wave amplitudes even for events at the lower end of our magnitude range (M 7.8), and heights of over 3 m in several locations with our favoured scenario (M 8.0, partially locked interface from 15-45 km depth). In all scenarios, only short lead-times (on the order of tens of minutes) would be possible in the Caribbean before the arrival of damaging waves.

  17. Quantifying potential earthquake and tsunami hazard in the Lesser Antilles subduction zone of the Caribbean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Gavin P.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Seidman, Lily; Roger, Jean

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we quantify the seismic and tsunami hazard in the Lesser Antilles subduction zone, focusing on the plate interface offshore of Guadeloupe. We compare potential strain accumulated via GPS-derived plate motions to strain release due to earthquakes that have occurred over the past 110 yr, and compute the resulting moment deficit. Our results suggest that enough strain is currently stored in the seismogenic zone of the Lesser Antilles subduction arc in the region of Guadeloupe to cause a large and damaging earthquake of magnitude Mw ∼ 8.2 ± 0.4. We model several scenario earthquakes over this magnitude range, using a variety of earthquake magnitudes and rupture areas, and utilizing the USGS ShakeMap and PAGER software packages. Strong ground shaking during the earthquake will likely cause loss of life and damage estimated to be in the range of several tens to several hundreds of fatalities and hundreds of millions to potentially billions of U.S. dollars of damage. In addition, such an event could produce a significant tsunami. Modelled tsunamis resulting from these scenario earthquakes predict meter-scale wave amplitudes even for events at the lower end of our magnitude range (M 7.8), and heights of over 3 m in several locations with our favoured scenario (M 8.0, partially locked interface from 15–45 km depth). In all scenarios, only short lead-times (on the order of tens of minutes) would be possible in the Caribbean before the arrival of damaging waves.

  18. Automatic picking and earthquake relocation for the Antilles subduction zone (1972-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massin, F.; Amorèse, D.; Bengoubou-Valerius, M.; Bernard, M.

    2013-12-01

    Locations for earthquake recorded in the Antilles subduction zone are processed separately by regional observatories and ISC. There is no earthquake location catalog available compiling all available first arrival data. We aim to produce a best complete earthquake catalog by merging all available first arrival data for better constrains on earthquake locations. ISC provides the first arrival data of 29243 earthquakes (magnitude range from 1.4 to 6.4) recorded by PRSN (Porto Rico), SRC (British West Indies), and form FUNVISIS (Venezuela). IPGP provided the first arrival data of 68718 earthquakes (magnitude from 0.1 to 7.5) recorded by OVSG (Guadeloupe, 53226 earthquakes since 1981) and by OVSM (Martinique, 29931 earthquakes since 1972). IPGP also provides the accelerometer waveform data of the GIS-RAP network in the Antilles. The final catalog contains 84979 earthquakes between 1972 and 2013, 24528 of which we compiled additional data. We achieved automatic picking using the Component Energy Correlation Method. The CECM provide high precision phase detection, a realistic estimation of picking error and realistic weights that can be used with manual pick weights. The CECM add an average of 3 P-waves and 2 S-waves arrivals to 3846 earthquakes recoded by the GIS-RAP network since 2002. Cluster analysis, earthquake local tomography and relative locations are to be applied in order to image active faulting and migration of seismicity. This will help to understand seismic coupling in the seismogenic zone as well as triggering mechanisms of intermediate depth seismicity like fluid migration beneath the volcanic arc.

  19. Status and conservation of parrots and parakeets in the Greater Antilles, Bahama Islands, and Cayman Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    In the 1490s a minimum of 28 species of psittacines occurred in the West Indies. Today, only 43% (12) of the species survive. All macaws and most parakeet species have been lost. Although the surviving parrot fauna of the Greater Antilles, Cayman Islands, and Bahama Islands has fared somewhat better than that of the Lesser Antilles, every species has undergone extensive reductions of populations and all but two have undergone extensive reductions in range, mostly as a result of habitat loss, but also from persecution as agricultural pests, conflicts with exotic species, harvesting for pets, and natural disasters. The Cayman Brac Parrot Amazona leucocephala hesterna with its tiny population (less than 150 individuals in the wild) and range, and the Puerto Rican Parrot A. vittata, with about 22-23 birds in the wild and 56 individuals in captivity, must be considered on the verge of extinction and in need of (in the latter's case, continuing) aggressive programmes of research and management. Other populations declining in numbers and range include the Yellow-billed Amazona collaria, and Black-billed A. agilis Parrots of Jamaica, Hispaniolan Parakeet Aratinga chloroptera, Hispaniolan Parrot Amazona ventralis, Cuban Parrot A. leucocephala leucocephala and, most seriously, Cuban Parakeet Aratinga euops. The population of the Grand Cayman Parrot (Amazona leucocephala caymanensis), although numbering only about 1,000 birds, appears stable and the current conservation programme gives hope for the survival of the race. An active conservation and public education programme has begun for the Bahama Parrot A. l. bahamensis, which still occurs in good numbers on Great Inagua Island, but is threatened on Abaco Island. Recommendations for conservation of parrots and parakeets in the region include (1) instituting long-term programmes of research to determine distribution, status, and ecology of each species; (2) developing conservation programmes through education and management

  20. Marriage migration in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Leen Sterckx; Jaco Dagevos; Willem Huijnk; Jantine van Lisdonk

    2014-01-01

    Original title: Huwelijksmigratie in Nederland When a man or woman living in the Netherlands embarks on a relationship with a partner from another country and the couple decide to build a married life together in the Netherlands, we call this marriage migration. The foreign partner who moves to the Netherlands for a lasting relationship is then known as marriage migrant. In this publication we present a statistical picture of marriage migrants, but above all we allow them and their partners t...

  1. The Netherlands: country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    This discussion of the Netherlands covers the country's cities and regions, population growth, households and families, housing, contruction, and spatial planning; ethnicity and religion; education; labor force and income; consumption; and transport and communications. As a small and mineral poor nation with a seafaring tradition, the Netherlands survives on foreign trade. In 1983, total export earnings amounted to nearly 62% of the entire national income. Over 72% of Dutch exports go to other member countries of the European Economic Community (EEC), but imports are more diversified, with 47% originating outside the EEC. Since 1848, the Netherlands has been a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary form of government. As such, it is one of the most stable democracies in the world. The main administrative units are the 11 provinces, of which Noord-Holland and Zuid-Holland are the most populous and economically most important. Amsterdam remains the commercial center of the country, but its role as the principal port city has been taken over by Rotterdam. No community has more than 700,000 inhabitants, but the country as a whole is highly urbanized because of the large numbers of medium-sized cities. In 1983 the population of the Netherlands totaled 14.34 million, compared to 5.10 million at the turn of the century. In 1965, the total fertility rate was 3.0. The death rate has virtually stabilized at 8/1000. The Dutch life expectancy stands at 72.7 years for men and 79.4 for women (1983). Natural increase has already dropped to 0.4% a year. Apart from the slight impact of net immigration, the positive growth rate reflects the large proportion (53%) of the population in its reproductive years. Mean household sizes in the 11 provinces vary from 2.5 in Noord-Holland (in 1981) to nearly 3 in Overijssel and Noord-Brabant, whereas the proportion of 1 person households ranges from 16% in Drenthe and 17% in the somewhat traditionalist southern provinces of Limburg and

  2. 19 CFR 4.93 - Coastwise transportation by certain vessels of empty vans, tanks, and barges, equipment for use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of the Mexico Netherlands Netherlands Antilles Norway Pakistan Philippines Polish People's Republic... Grenadines Saudi Arabia South Africa Spain Sweden Taiwan Union of Soviet Socialist Republics United Arab... Kuwait Liberia Luxembourg Malta Mexico Netherlands Netherlands Antilles Norway Polish People's...

  3. Assessing storm surge hazard and impact of sea level rise in the Lesser Antilles case study of Martinique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Krien

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Lesser Antilles, coastal inundations from hurricane-induced storm surges pose a great threat to lives, properties and ecosystems. Assessing current and future storm surge hazards with sufficient spatial resolution is of primary interest to help coastal planners and decision makers develop mitigation and adaptation measures. Here, we use wave–current numerical models and statistical methods to investigate worst case scenarios and 100-year surge levels for the case study of Martinique under present climate or considering a potential sea level rise. Results confirm that the wave setup plays a major role in the Lesser Antilles, where the narrow island shelf impedes the piling-up of large amounts of wind-driven water on the shoreline during extreme events. The radiation stress gradients thus contribute significantly to the total surge – up to 100 % in some cases. The nonlinear interactions of sea level rise (SLR with bathymetry and topography are generally found to be relatively small in Martinique but can reach several tens of centimeters in low-lying areas where the inundation extent is strongly enhanced compared to present conditions. These findings further emphasize the importance of waves for developing operational storm surge warning systems in the Lesser Antilles and encourage caution when using static methods to assess the impact of sea level rise on storm surge hazard.

  4. Technical Writing in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vet, Dominique M. W.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the technical writing profession in the Netherlands. Bases the discussion on two studies--one directed at technical freelancers and another directed at technical writers working within organizations. Gives a profile of technical writers in the Netherlands; an impression of the problems technical writers in organizations deal with;…

  5. Potato breeding in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de H.

    1953-01-01

    A remarkable feature of potato breeding in the Netherlands is the great number of private breeders who have concentrated their efforts on the improvement of the potato. The author calls attention to some circumstances and measures that have made potato breeding attractive in the Netherlands

  6. Curriculum Research in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardekker, W.L.; Volman, M.L.L.; Terwel, J.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter examines the curriculum research in the Netherlands. The conditions influencing the curriculum field are described, along with the struggle for a common curriculum in the Netherlands. The waves of curriculum theory are presented and illustrated by the case of mathematics. Finally, the r

  7. Muslims in the Netherlands 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mieke Maliepaard; Merove Gijsberts

    2012-01-01

    Original title: Moslim in Nederland 2012. This report looks at the way in which Muslim groups in the Netherlands experience and practise their religion. An important characteristic of Muslims in the Netherlands is that, almost without exception, they have a migration ground. What does becoming part

  8. Gall's visit to The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eling, Paul; Draaisma, Douwe; Conradi, Matthijs

    2011-01-01

    In March 1805, Franz Joseph Gall left Vienna to start what has become known as his cranioscopic tour. He traveled through Germany, Denmark, and The Netherlands. In this article, we will describe his visit to The Netherlands in greater detail, as it has not yet received due attention. Gall was eager

  9. Gall's Visit to The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eling, P.A.T.M.; Draaisma, D.; Conradi, M.

    2011-01-01

    In March 1805, Franz Joseph Gall left Vienna to start what has become known as his cranioscopic tour. He traveled through Germany, Denmark, and The Netherlands. In this article, we will describe his visit to The Netherlands in greater detail, as it has not yet received due attention. Gall was eager

  10. The Chinese in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mérove Gijsberts; Willem Huijnk; Ria Vogels

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Chinese Nederlanders This report presents the first national picture of the position of the Chinese community in the Netherlands. A large-scale survey was conducted among persons of Chinese origin living in the Netherlands, with the aim of answering questions on a wide range of topi

  11. Perceived discrimination in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iris Andriessen; Henk Fernee; Karin Wittebrood

    2014-01-01

    Only available in electronic version There is no systematic structure in the Netherlands for mapping out the discrimination experiences of different groups in different areas of society. As in many other countries, discrimination studies in the Netherlands mostly focus on the experiences

  12. Biomass gasification in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Drift, A. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This reports summarizes the activities, industries, and plants on biomass gasification in the Netherlands. Most of the initiatives somehow relate to waste streams, rather than clean biomass, which may seem logic for a densely populated country as the Netherlands. Furthermore, there is an increasing interest for the production of SNG (Substitute Natural Gas) from biomass, both from governments and industry.

  13. Marriage migration in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leen Sterckx; Jaco Dagevos; Willem Huijnk; Jantine van Lisdonk

    2014-01-01

    Original title: Huwelijksmigratie in Nederland When a man or woman living in the Netherlands embarks on a relationship with a partner from another country and the couple decide to build a married life together in the Netherlands, we call this marriage migration. The foreign partner who moves to the

  14. Halogen content in Lesser Antilles arc volcanic rocks : exploring subduction recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry, Pauline; Villemant, Benoit; Caron, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    Halogens (F, Cl, Br and I) are strongly reactive volatile elements which can be used as tracers of igneous processes, through mantle melting, magma differentiation and degassing or crustal material recycling into mantle at subduction zones. Cl, Br and I are higly incompatible during partial melting or fractional cristallization and strongly depleted in melts by H2O degassing, which means that no Cl-Br-I fractionation is expected through magmatic differenciation [current thesis]. Thus, Cl/Br/I ratios in lavas reflect the halogen content of their mantle sources. Whereas these ratios seemed quite constant (e.g. Cl/Br =300 as seawater), recent works suggest significant variations in arc volcanism [1,2]. In this work we provide high-precision halogen measurements in volcanic rocks from the recent activity of the Lesser Antilles arc (Montserrat, Martinique, Guadeloupe, Dominique). Halogen contents of powdered samples were determined through extraction in solution by pyrohydrolysis and analysed by Ion Chromatography for F and Cl and high performance ICP-MS (Agilent 8800 Tripe Quad) for Cl, Br and I [3,4]. We show that lavas - and mantle sources - display significant vraiations in Cl/Br/I ratios along the Lesser Antilles arc. These variations are compared with Pb, Nd and Sr isotopes and fluid-mobile elements (Ba, U, Sr, Pb etc.) compositions which vary along the arc from a nothern ordinary arc compositions to a southern 'crustal-like' composition [5,6]. These characteristics are attributed to subducted sediments recycling into the mantle wedge, whose contribution vary along the arc from north to south [7,8]. The proportion of added sediments is also related to the distance to the trench as sediment melting and slab dehydration may occur depending on the slab depth [9]. Further Cl-Br-I in situ measurements by LA-ICP-MS in Lesser Antilles arc lavas melt inclusions will be performed, in order to provide better constraints on the deep halogen recycling cycle from crust to

  15. Active faulting induced by the slip partitioning in the Lesser Antilles arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Frédérique; Feuillet, Nathalie

    2010-05-01

    AGUADOMAR marine cruise data acquired 11 years ago allowed us to identified and map two main sets of active faults within the Lesser Antilles arc (Feuillet et al., 2002; 2004). The faults belonging to the first set, such as Morne-Piton in Guadeloupe, bound up to 100km-long and 50km-wide arc-perpendicular graben or half graben that disrupt the fore-arc reef platforms. The faults of the second set form right-stepping en echelon arrays, accommodating left-lateral slip along the inner, volcanic islands. The two fault systems form a sinistral horsetail east of the tip of the left-lateral Puerto Rico fault zone that takes up the trench-parallel component of convergence between the North-American and Caribbean plates west of the Anegada passage. In other words, they together accommodate large-scale slip partitioning along the northeastern arc, consistent with recent GPS measurements (Lopez et al., 2006). These intraplate faults are responsible for a part of the shallow seismicity in the arc and have produce damaging historical earthquakes. Two magnitude 6.3 events occurred in the last 25 years along the inner en echelon faults, the last one on November 21 2004 in Les Saintes in the Guadeloupe archipelago. To better constrain the seismic hazard related to the inner arc faults and image the ruptures and effects on the seafloor of Les Saintes 2004 earthquake, we acquired new marine data between 23 February and 25 March 2009 aboard the French R/V le Suroît during the GWADASEIS cruise. We present here the data (high-resolution 72 channel and very high-resolution chirp 3.5 khz seismic reflection profiles, EM300 multibeam bathymetry, Küllenberg coring and SAR imagery) and the first results. We identified, mapped and characterized in detail several normal to oblique fault systems between Martinique and Saba. They offset the seafloor by several hundred meters and crosscut all active volcanoes, among them Nevis Peak, Soufriere Hills, Soufriere de Guadeloupe and Montagne Pel

  16. Guerra Fria na Região Amazônica: um estudo da Missão Venturini ao Suriname (1983

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    Carlos Federico Domínguez Avila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda a evolução das relações bilaterais entre o Brasil e o Suriname durante a primeira metade da década de 1980, e especificamente o processo de tomada de decisão que culminou com o envio da assim chamada missão Venturini ao Suriname. O texto fundamentase em evidência documental primária resgatada em dois arquivos brasileiros. Conclui-se que os objetivos fundamentais propostos pelo governo brasileiro com relação ao Suriname - então controlado pelo comandante Desiré Delano Bouterse - foram alcançados, particularmente no que diz respeito a evitar a instalação do conflito Leste-Oeste na sensível fronteira norte do país e na região amazônica, em geral.

  17. Observations of hand preference in wild groups of white-faced sakis (Pithecia pithecia) in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H M; Thompson, C L

    2011-07-01

    Hand preference is well observed in humans and some primates. Unlike many other primates, however, humans show a consistent hand preference across a variety of tasks, and a distinct right-handed skew at the population level. Although there are a moderate number of published studies, primate hand preference literature is unbalanced by the large number of studies on only a few species. No previous studies have addressed hand preference in white-faced sakis (WFS; Pithecia pithecia). We followed three habituated groups of wild WFS in Suriname and recorded individual hand preference for six different manual behaviors. There was no consistent hand preference across a range of uni-manual behaviors for any individual. Likewise, there were significantly more ambidextrous individuals in the population than expected (χ(2) (df = 2) = 11.2, P = 0.004) and thus, no population level hand preference. Our findings contribute baseline data to the debate of primate hand lateralization, and support the notion that lateralization of hand function does not characterize all species.

  18. Variability of rainfall in Suriname and the relation with ENSO-SST and TA-SST

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    R. J. Nurmohamed

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial correlations in the annual rainfall anomalies are analyzed using principle component analyses (PCA. Cross correlation analysis and composites are used to measure the influence of sea surface temperatures anomalies (SSTAs in the tropical Atlantic and tropical Pacific Ocean with the seasonal rainfall in Suriname. The spatial and time variability in rainfall is mainly determined by the meridional movement of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ. Rainfall anomalies tend to occur fairly uniformly over the whole country. In December-January (short wet season, there is a lagged correlation with the SSTAs in the Pacific region (clag3Nino1+2=-0.63. The strongest correlation between the March-May rainfall (beginning long wet season and the Pacific SSTAs is found with a correlation coefficient of ckNino1+2=0.59 at lag 1 month. The June-August rainfall (end part of long wet season shows the highest correlation with SSTAs in the TSA region and is about c=-0.52 for lag 0. In the September-November long dry season there is also a lagged correlation with the TSA SSTAs of about clag3=0.66. The different correlations and predictors can be used for seasonal rainfall predictions.

  19. Distribution and abundance of flatfish on the South American continental shelf from Suriname to Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickchand-Heileman, Sherry C.

    This study is based on data collected during four trawl surveys conducted in 1988 on the South American continental shelf from Suriname to Colombia. Members of four flatfish families were caught in depths ranging from 15 to 410 m at 264 of the 1200 stations trawled: Bothidae (13 genera, 30 species), Cynoglossidae (1 genus, 4 species), Soleidae (3 genera, 4 species) and Pleuronectidae (1 genus, 3 species). Flatfish comprised less than 5% of total catch by weight at most stations. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed between 4 and 6 groups of stations in each survey characterized according to depth, temperature and species associations. Cynoglossids, soleids and some bothids characterized shallow-water stations while bothids and pleuronectids characterized intermediate and deep-water stations. Highest catches were taken off northern Venezuela and Colombia during times of increased upwelling and in areas influenced by river runoff. Mean density of flatfish was less than 0.0005 ind·m -2. The major species caught were Paralichthys tropicus, Paralichthys lethostigma, Cyclopsetta chittendeni, Syacium micrurum, Syacium papillosum,, Syacium sp. and Symphurus plagiusa and range extensions were found for six species.

  20. Why urban citizens in developing countries use traditional medicines: the case of suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Tinde; Carvalheiro, Luísa G

    2013-01-01

    The use of traditional medicines (TMs) among urban populations in developing countries and factors underlying people's decision to use TMs are poorly documented. We interviewed 270 adults in Paramaribo, Suriname, using a stratified random household sample, semistructured questionnaires, and multivariate analysis. Respondents mentioned 144 medicinal plant species, most frequently Gossypium barbadense, Phyllanthus amarus, and Quassia amara. 66% had used TMs in the previous year, especially people who suffered from cold, fever, hypertension, headache, uterus, and urinary tract problems. At least 22% combined herbs with prescription medicine. The strongest explanatory variables were health status, (transfer of) plant knowledge, and health status combined with plant knowledge. Other predictive variables included religion, marital status, attitude of medical personnel, religious opinion on TMs, and number of children per household. Age, gender, nationality, rural background, education, employment, income, insurance, and opinion of government or doctors had no influence. People's main motivation to use TMs was their familiarity with herbs. Given the frequent use of self-collected, home-prepared herbal medicine and the fact that illness and traditional knowledge predict plant use rather than poverty or a limited access to modern health care, the potential risks and benefits of TMs should be put prominently on the national public health agenda.

  1. Preliminary Results on Artificial Insemination of Cattle in Suriname. Case Study : Commewijne District

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    Bastiaensen, P.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1990 and with the help of the European Development Fund, a new and completely equipped Al-station was set up in an attempt to improve the genetic basis of the dairy herd in Suriname. Countering the dramatic decrease in local milkproduction being the main consideration. The author reviews the technical results of three years of Al in the eastern district of Commewijne. The Al-service which was directed from the capital in 1992 and 1993, was decentralised towards the regional veterinary service early 1994. The effects of this decentralisation are also discussed. Technical results realised during the first three years, of Al in the Commewijne district are in general disappointing. Only a small number of dairy farmers makes use of Al, while conception rates are low. The results clearly indicate that heat detection is a major problem, leading to long calving intervals. The kind (breed of semen used does not influence conception rates. On the other hand, the technical skills of the inseminators involved do influence conception rates. So does the ethnie origin of the farmers involved, although this parameter is closely linked to the scale of the farms and the management level. At first sight, it would seem that decentralisation had a positive effect on technical results. Due to an increase in the number of inseminations performed, the number of Al-calves born increased substantially. Technical results however were inferior to those prior to decentralisation.

  2. Potamotrygon boesemani (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes: Potamotrygonidae, a new species of Neotropical freshwater stingray from Surinam

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    Ricardo S. Rosa

    Full Text Available Potamotrygon boesemani, new species, is described from the Corantijn river drainage in Surinam. The species has a diagnostic dorsal color pattern formed by deep orange to red ocellated spots of irregular form, encircled by relatively broad black rings. Potamotrygon boesemani is distinguished from other ocellated congeners (P. motoro, P. henlei and P. leopoldi by the more intensely colored ocelli, which are usually yellow in the latter species. From P. motoro it is also distinguished by the darker dorsal background coloration, by the broader black contour of the dorsal ocelli, and by the irregular form of the ocelli as compared to the more rounded shape in the latter species. From P. henlei and P. leopoldi, it is distinguished by the lack of ocelli on tail. From the tentatively identified specimen of P. ocellata, which also has dark orange ocelli, the irregular contour of the ocelli in the new species is also distinctive. The teeth are relatively smaller and in greater number than in P. motoro and P. ocellata, with up to 45 rows in the upper jaw.

  3. Why Urban Citizens in Developing Countries Use Traditional Medicines: The Case of Suriname

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    Tinde van Andel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of traditional medicines (TMs among urban populations in developing countries and factors underlying people’s decision to use TMs are poorly documented. We interviewed 270 adults in Paramaribo, Suriname, using a stratified random household sample, semistructured questionnaires, and multivariate analysis. Respondents mentioned 144 medicinal plant species, most frequently Gossypium barbadense, Phyllanthus amarus, and Quassia amara. 66% had used TMs in the previous year, especially people who suffered from cold, fever, hypertension, headache, uterus, and urinary tract problems. At least 22% combined herbs with prescription medicine. The strongest explanatory variables were health status, (transfer of plant knowledge, and health status combined with plant knowledge. Other predictive variables included religion, marital status, attitude of medical personnel, religious opinion on TMs, and number of children per household. Age, gender, nationality, rural background, education, employment, income, insurance, and opinion of government or doctors had no influence. People’s main motivation to use TMs was their familiarity with herbs. Given the frequent use of self-collected, home-prepared herbal medicine and the fact that illness and traditional knowledge predict plant use rather than poverty or a limited access to modern health care, the potential risks and benefits of TMs should be put prominently on the national public health agenda.

  4. Numerical Tsunami Hazard Assessment of the Only Active Lesser Antilles Arc Submarine Volcano: Kick 'em Jenny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondin, F. J. Y.; Dorville, J. F. M.; Robertson, R. E. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc has potentially been hit by prehistorical regional tsunamis generated by voluminous volcanic landslides (volume > 1 km3) among the 53 events recognized so far. No field evidence of these tsunamis are found in the vincity of the sources. Such a scenario taking place nowadays would trigger hazardous tsunami waves bearing potentially catastrophic consequences for the closest islands and regional offshore oil platforms.Here we applied a complete hazard assessment method on the only active submarine volcano of the arc Kick 'em Jenny (KeJ). KeJ is the southernmost edifice with recognized associated volcanic landslide deposits. From the three identified landslide episodes one is associated with a collapse volume ca. 4.4 km3. Numerical simulations considering a single pulse collapse revealed that this episode would have produced a regional tsunami. An edifice current volume estimate is ca. 1.5 km3.Previous study exists in relationship to assessment of regional tsunami hazard related to shoreline surface elevation (run-up) in the case of a potential flank collapse scenario at KeJ. However this assessment was based on inferred volume of collapse material. We aim to firstly quantify potential initial volumes of collapse material using relative slope instability analysis (RSIA); secondly to assess first order run-ups and maximum inland inundation distance for Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago, i.e. two important economic centers of the Lesser Antilles. In this framework we present for seven geomechanical models tested in the RSIA step maps of critical failure surface associated with factor of stability (Fs) for twelve sectors of 30° each; then we introduce maps of expected potential run-ups (run-up × the probability of failure at a sector) at the shoreline.The RSIA evaluates critical potential failure surface associated with Fs sources characteristics are retrieved from numerical simulation using an hydraulic equations-based code (Volc

  5. Multiscaling properties of tropical rainfall: Analysis of rain gauge datasets in Lesser Antilles island environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Didier C.; Pasquier, Raphaël; Cécé, Raphaël; Dorville, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    Changes in rainfall seem to be the main impact of climate change in the Caribbean area. The last conclusions of IPCC (2013), indicate that the end of this century will be marked by a rise of extreme rainfalls in tropical areas, linked with increase of the mean surface temperature. Moreover, most of the Lesser Antilles islands are characterized by a complex topography which tends to enhance the rainfall from synoptic disturbances by orographic effects. In the past five years, out of hurricanes passage, several extreme rainy events (approx. 16 mm in 6 minutes), including fatal cases, occurred in the Lesser Antilles Arc: in Guadeloupe (January 2011, May 2012 and 2013), in Martinique (May 2009, April 2011 and 2013), in Saint-Lucia (December 2013). These phenomena inducing floods, loss of life and material damages (agriculture sector and public infrastructures), inhibit the development of the islands. At this time, numerical weather prediction models as WRF, which are based on the equations of the atmospheric physics, do not show great results in the focused area (Bernard et al., 2013). Statistical methods may be used to examine explicitly local rainy updrafts, thermally and orographically induced at micro-scale. The main goal of the present insular tropical study is to characterize the multifractal symmetries occurring in the 6-min rainfall time series, registered since 2006 by the French Met. Office network weather stations. The universal multifractal model (Schertzer and Lovejoy, 1991) is used to define the statistical properties of measured rainfalls at meso-scale and micro-scale. This model is parametrized by a fundamental exponents set (H,a,C1,q) which are determined and compared with values found in the literature. The first three parameters characterize the mean pattern and the last parameter q, the extreme pattern. The occurrence ranges of multifractal regime are examined. The suggested links between the internal variability of the tropical rainy events and the

  6. netherland hydrological modeling instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogewoud, J. C.; de Lange, W. J.; Veldhuizen, A.; Prinsen, G.

    2012-04-01

    Netherlands Hydrological Modeling Instrument A decision support system for water basin management. J.C. Hoogewoud , W.J. de Lange ,A. Veldhuizen , G. Prinsen , The Netherlands Hydrological modeling Instrument (NHI) is the center point of a framework of models, to coherently model the hydrological system and the multitude of functions it supports. Dutch hydrological institutes Deltares, Alterra, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, RWS Waterdienst, STOWA and Vewin are cooperating in enhancing the NHI for adequate decision support. The instrument is used by three different ministries involved in national water policy matters, for instance the WFD, drought management, manure policy and climate change issues. The basis of the modeling instrument is a state-of-the-art on-line coupling of the groundwater system (MODFLOW), the unsaturated zone (metaSWAP) and the surface water system (MOZART-DM). It brings together hydro(geo)logical processes from the column to the basin scale, ranging from 250x250m plots to the river Rhine and includes salt water flow. The NHI is validated with an eight year run (1998-2006) with dry and wet periods. For this run different parts of the hydrology have been compared with measurements. For instance, water demands in dry periods (e.g. for irrigation), discharges at outlets, groundwater levels and evaporation. A validation alone is not enough to get support from stakeholders. Involvement from stakeholders in the modeling process is needed. There fore to gain sufficient support and trust in the instrument on different (policy) levels a couple of actions have been taken: 1. a transparent evaluation of modeling-results has been set up 2. an extensive program is running to cooperate with regional waterboards and suppliers of drinking water in improving the NHI 3. sharing (hydrological) data via newly setup Modeling Database for local and national models 4. Enhancing the NHI with "local" information. The NHI is and has been used for many

  7. Characterization of geothermal paleosystem in the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc: structural, petrographic, thermodynamic and petrophysics analysis of Terre-de-Haut (Les Saintes archipelago, Lesser Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, Alexiane; Navelot, Vivien; Verati, Chrystèle; Lardeaux, Jean-Marc; Corsini, Michel; Diraison, Marc; Géraud, Yves; Mercier de Lépinay, Jeanne; Munschy, Marc

    2017-04-01

    This survey takes part in the GEOTREF project (high enthalpy geothermal energy in fractured reservoirs), supported by the French government program "Investments for the future". The program focuses on the exploration of geothermal resource in the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc. An exclusive license has been issued in the Vieux-Habitants area (Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe) to carry on the development of high-temperature geothermal energy in this active volcanic region. The deep geothermal reservoir on the Basse-Terre island could be characterized in exhumed paleosystems. The reference paleosystem in the Guadeloupe archipelago is located in Terre-de-Haut. Four major fault directions have been highlighted N000-N020, N050-N070, N090-N110 and N130-N140. Field observations emphasize three major cleavage directions overlaying the fault systems: N035-N060, N080-N110, N145-N165. Volcanic rocks affected by cleavage display several metamorphic transformation grades. The more transformed calc-alkaline rocks are located at the intersection of several cleavage directions. Mineralogical transformations due to metamorphism and surimposed fractures are also responsible for strong changes of petrophysical properties. In comparison with the reference protolith of andesitic lava flows outcropping in Vieux-Habitants, which have porosity and permeability lower than 5 % and 10-15 m2, andesites of Terre-de-Haut have better reservoir properties with connected porosity and permeability higher than 15 % and 10-14-10-15 m2 respectively. Thermodynamic modelling based on petrography and chemical composition of the most transformed rocks highlights a steady state mineral assemblage between 0.25 - 1.5 kbar and 350 - 450 ˚ C. It corresponds to a geothermal gradient higher than 120 to 150˚ C/km. This is consistent with temperatures measured in Bouillante wells. However, this geothermal gradient is notably higher to a usual volcanic arc conductive gradient estimated to 70-100˚ C/km. It can be explained

  8. A lógica da construção de confiança: relações Brasil-Suriname entre 1975 e 1985

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    João Nackle Urt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1975 e 1985, observa-se a atuação do Brasil para assegurar relações confiáveis com o Suriname, bem como as primeiras manifestações da identidade internacional surinamesa. Destaca-se a missão diplomática brasileira enviada ao Suriname após o golpe de Estado de 1982, o qual indicava a possível "cubanização" desse país.

  9. Finer characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using spoligotyping and 15-loci MIRU-VNTRs reveals phylogeographical specificities of isolates circulating in Guyana and Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Elisabeth; Baboolal, Shirematee; Akpaka, Patrick E; Millet, Julie; Rastogi, Nalin

    2015-03-01

    In this study we used spoligotyping and 15-loci MIRU-VNTRs for a finer characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from patients residing in Guyana (n=74) and Suriname (n=80). The mean age of the patients was 38.5years (36.5 and 40.2years for Guyana vs. Suriname), with a male-to-female sex-ratio of 2.25 for Guyana vs. 4.27 in Suriname. Spoligotyping and 15-loci MIRU-VNTRs led to a total of 41 and 65 different patterns respectively, with an overall clustering rate of 83.8% vs. 68.8%. Combined spoligotyping and VNTR analysis led to the detection of 18 clusters of 2-41 isolates, with an overall clustering of 67.5% and a recent "n-1" transmission rate of 55.8%. Importantly, Guyana was characterized by a significantly higher percentage of clustered isolates than Suriname (79.7% vs. 56.3%; p=0.0019). Three big spoligo/MIRU (SIT/MIT) clusters containing >10 isolates each were shared between the 2 countries, and concerned: T1 sublineage cluster 53/861 (n=41, 37 in Guyana vs. 4 in Suriname); EAI6-BGD1 sublineage cluster 1340/860 (n=16, 3 in Guyana vs. 13 in Suriname); and T1 sublineage cluster 131/146 (n=11, 6 in Guyana vs. 5 in Suriname); as well as 2 smaller clusters of 2 and 3 isolates respectively. However, the relative phylogeographical specificities of strains in circulation as well as a lack of drug-resistance observed among strains from Suriname suggested that trans-border transmission of drug-resistant isolates occurred less frequently than thought. Tracing and interrupting transmission channels of a specific clone (SIT53/15-MIT861) should become a priority in Guyana, not only because it is by far most abundant but also because it accounts for almost half of the drug resistant isolates (n=8/17, 47.1%) in our study, and clustered 5/12 (41.7%) MDR isolates.

  10. Screening of medicinal plants from Suriname for 5-HT(1A) ligands: Bioactive isoquinoline alkaloids from the fruit of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasrat, J A; Pieters, L; De Backer, J P; Vauquelin, G; Vlietinck, A J

    1997-06-01

    Plants from Suriname (South-America) and several Annona species, including A. muricata, A. ckerimolia, A. montana and A. glabra were screened for 5-HT(1A) receptor binding activity by ligand-binding-studies (LBS). Crude extracts of all Annona species and from Hibiscus bifurcatus, Irlbarchia purpurascens and Scoparia dulcis showed high activity. The isoquinoline alkaloids asimilobine (1), nornuciferine (2), and annonaine (3) were isolated as the active principles from the fruit of Annona muricata. These results may partially explain the use of Hibiscus bifurcatus and Annona muricata in traditional medicine in Suriname.

  11. Recent morphodynamics of a chenier beach in the Amazon-influenced mud-bank setting of Suriname, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Edward; Brunier, Guillaume; Hiwat, Micheal; Bilo, Karin

    2017-04-01

    The 350-km long coast of Suriname is part of a unique system in the world characterized by large-scale muddy sedimentation and chenier development. The mud is organized into discrete banks migrating alongshore under the influence of waves and currents, separated by 'inter-bank' zones, where cheniers commonly form. Braamspunt beach is a fine example of an open-coast chenier between the mouths of the Maroni and the Suriname Rivers. The former is the primary sand source for the beach, whereas the latter, near which the presently subsisting remnant of the beach is situated, forms a downdrift sink zone for this chenier. Satellite images between 1987 and 2016 shows that Braamspunt beach has significantly shortened over this period. This process has resulted from much of the sand supply coming from updrift (the Maroni) being integrated into a chenier driven landward by waves over mangroves and becoming overwhelmed by a mud bank migrating between the Maroni and Suriname Rivers. Two ground (hydrodynamics, GPS) and drone-photogrammetry surveys in 2016 show that Braamspunt beach is characterized by clear-cut longshore morphodynamic variations reflecting between the 'source' and the 'sink' zones. This gradient is related to different updrift (approaching mud bank) and downdrift (approaches to the Suriname estuary) contexts. The northern sector comprised two elements: the leading edge of the mud bank where the existing chenier (former open beach) has been isolated from the sea by mud and fossilized inland, and the 'terrestrial' shoreline junction with the leading edge of the mud bank. The latter segment consisted of a narrow 150 m-long sandy chenier migrating landward as mud has gained ground, resulting in shortening of the beach. As the chenier migrated inland over back-beach stands of Avicennia germinans mangroves, it left in its wake a muddy foreshore with subsisting mangroves that were part of the muddy mangrove-colonized muddy plain. The southern sector also comprised two

  12. Isotopic composition of strontium in three basalt-andesite centers along the Lesser Antilles arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedge, C.E.; Lewis, J.F.

    1971-01-01

    Si87/Sr86 ratios have been determined for lavas and py lastic rocks from three basalt-andesite centers along the Lesser Antilles arc-Mt. Misery on the island of St. Kitts, Soufriere on the island of St. Vincent, and Carriacou, an island of The Grenadines. The average Si87/Sr86 content of these rocks is 0.7038 for Mt. Misery, 0.7041 for Soufriere, and 0.7053 for Carriacou. All the Sr87/Sr86 values from each center are the same within analytical uncertainty (??0.0002). The constancy of strontium isotopic data within each center supports the hypothesis that basalts and andesites for each specific center investigated are generated from the same source - in agreement with petrographic and major- and minor-element data. Strontium isotopic compositions and elemental concentrations, particularly of strontium and nickel, indicate that this source was mantle peridotite and that the relationship between the respective basalts and andesites is probably fractional crystallization. ?? 1971 Springer-Verlag.

  13. Numerical modelling of historical landslide-generated tsunamis in the French Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, B.; Pedreros, R.

    2010-06-01

    Two historical landslide-induced tsunamis that reached the coasts of the French Lesser Antilles are studied. First, the Martinique coast was hit by a tsunami down the western flank of Montagne Pelée at the beginning of the big eruption of May 1902. More recently, the northeastern coast of Guadeloupe was affected by a tsunami that had been generated around Montserrat by pyroclastic flows entering the sea, during the July 2003 eruption of the Soufrière Hills volcano. We use a modified version of the GEOWAVE model to compute numerical simulations of both events. Two source hypotheses are considered for each tsunami. The comparison of the simulation results with reported tsunami height data helps to discriminate between the tested source decriptions. In the Martinique case, we obtain a better fit to data when considering three successive lahars entering the sea, as a simplified single source leads to an overstimation of the tsunami wave heights at the coast. In the Montserrat case, the best model uses a unique source which volume corresponds to published data concerning the peak volume flow. These findings emphasize the importance of an accurate description of the relevant volume as well as the timing sequence of the source event in landslide-generated tsunami modelling. They also show that considering far-field effects in addition to near-field effects may significantly improve tsunami modelling.

  14. Genetic Diversity in the Lesser Antilles and Its Implications for the Settlement of the Caribbean Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jada Benn Torres

    Full Text Available Historical discourses about the Caribbean often chronicle West African and European influence to the general neglect of indigenous people's contributions to the contemporary region. Consequently, demographic histories of Caribbean people prior to and after European contact are not well understood. Although archeological evidence suggests that the Lesser Antilles were populated in a series of northward and eastern migratory waves, many questions remain regarding the relationship of the Caribbean migrants to other indigenous people of South and Central America and changes to the demography of indigenous communities post-European contact. To explore these issues, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome diversity in 12 unrelated individuals from the First Peoples Community in Arima, Trinidad, and 43 unrelated Garifuna individuals residing in St. Vincent. In this community-sanctioned research, we detected maternal indigenous ancestry in 42% of the participants, with the remainder having haplotypes indicative of African and South Asian maternal ancestry. Analysis of Y-chromosome variation revealed paternal indigenous American ancestry indicated by the presence of haplogroup Q-M3 in 28% of the male participants from both communities, with the remainder possessing either African or European haplogroups. This finding is the first report of indigenous American paternal ancestry among indigenous populations in this region of the Caribbean. Overall, this study illustrates the role of the region's first peoples in shaping the genetic diversity seen in contemporary Caribbean populations.

  15. Autoantibody standardization in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damoiseaux, J.; Tervaert, J.W.; Derksen, R.; Hamann, D.; Hooijkaas, H.; Klasen, I.S.; Kallenberg, C.; Limburg, P.; Smeenk, R.

    2009-01-01

    Several initiatives have been undertaken, independent of the European Autoantibody Standardization Initiative (EASI), to standardize autoantibodies in The Netherlands. The Dutch EASI team has made an inventory of which initiatives on autoantibody standardization are already available and what future

  16. Organic agriculture in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    Dutch organic agriculture has unique characteristics and peculiarities. It is still a relatively small sector compared to conventional agriculture in the Netherlands. However, its market share is growing and organic agriculture leads the way in terms of sustainability and innovations

  17. Very low archeointensities found for Suriname from 670 to 960 AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, L. V.; Ramcharan, W.; Langereis, C. G.

    2015-12-01

    Geomagnetic field models predict dipole moments higher than today for the past ~3000 years (e.g. Korte et al., 2011). These models are based on data that is geographically biased towards certain regions on the Northern hemisphere; the Southern hemisphere and equatorial regions are currently underrepresented. Here we present archeointensity data obtained from potsherds from the Wageningen-1 mound on the Northwest coast of Suriname (5.8°N 56.7°W); this settlement of the Hertenrits culture was excavated in the 1970s. We obtained potsherds from six levels between 0.75 - 3 meter below the surface, corresponding to 960 and 670 AD respectively (Versteeg, 2003, p. 269-270) based on four radiocarbon datings. The remanent magnetization is carried by small pseudo-single domain grains, is stable, and small overprints are typically removed below 150 °C. Archeointensities were obtained using the IZZI-Thellier protocol; laboratory alteration was monitored by pTRM checks and pTRM Tail checks. All 23 technically acceptable archeointensities (out of 52 samples measured) are very low: between 8.0 and 18.5 μT. A trend is suggested from an average of 10-12 μT at ~700 AD, to ~18 μT at ~950 AD. This corresponds to VADMs from ~28 at ~700 AD to ~47 ZAm2 at ~950 AD. This dramatically contradicts field model predictions that range from 38-39 μT (PFM9K.1b) to 38-46 μT (SHA.DIF.14k) for this location and the same ages. Our results predate the occurrence of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) by 500-1000 years; without a longer record it is difficult to decide whether our reported lows are a different discrete geomagnetic feature, or whether they are a precursor of the South Atlantic Anomaly.

  18. Imported Mayaro virus infection in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassing, Robert-Jan; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Blank, Sybrandus N; Thevarayan, Subashini; Tolou, Hugues; van Doornum, Gerard; van Genderen, Perry J

    2010-10-01

    A Dutch couple, presenting with persisting arthralgias, temporary fever and rash after a stay in Surinam were diagnosed with Mayaro virus infection. Mayaro virus is a relatively unknown South American Alphavirus responsible for dengue-like clinical features and persisting arthralgias. An important, but probably underappreciated cross-reactivity with other Alphaviruses like Chikungunya virus is present, which may become of clinical importance in the event the various Alphaviruses will have overlapping geographical distributions and in seroprevalence studies.

  19. New Ichneumonidae, parasitic upon the rice borer Rupela albinella (Cr.) (Lep. Pyralidae) in Surinam, with a key to the species of Strabotes (Hym., Ichneumonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, K.W.R.

    1973-01-01

    Venturia ovivenans nov. spec, and Strabotes rupelae nov. spec, are described. Both were reared from the rice stem borer Rupela albinella (Cr.) in Surinam (Sth. America). Strabotes abdominalis obscurus nov. subspec. is described from Columbia and a key is given to the known species of the Neotropic g

  20. Recent brachiopoda from the Snellius and Luymes Expeditions to the Surinam-Guyana Shelf, Bonaire-Curacao, and Saba Bank, Caribbean Sea, 1966 and 1969-1972

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logan, A.

    1990-01-01

    Recent brachiopods collected by the Snellius and Luymes expeditions to the Surinam-Guyana shelf, Bonaire-Curaçao region and Saba Bank area in 1966 and between 1969-72 are identified from 32 lots. Species belonging to the genera Glottidia, Cryptopora, Tichosina, Terebratulina, Eucalathis, Notozyga, A

  1. Tropospheric ozone over a tropical Atlantic station in the Northern Hemisphere: Paramaribo, Surinam (6°N, 55°W)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, W.; Krol, M. C.; Fortuin, J. P. F.; Kelder, H. M.; Thompson, A. M.; Becker, C. R.; Lelieveld, J.; Crutzen, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    We present an analysis of 2.5 yr of weekly ozone soundings conducted at a new monitoring station in Paramaribo, Surinam (6°N, 55°W). This is currently one of only three ozone sounding stations in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) tropics, and the only one in the equatorial Atlantic region. Paramaribo is

  2. Invloed van ras, mulch en bemesting op de productie en het saldo van sopropo en kouseband : verslag van een proef te Saramacca, Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putter, de H.; Wongsonadi, H.

    2010-01-01

    In 2010 werd een proef met sopropo (Momordica charanti) en een proef met kouseband (Vigna unguiculata sesquipedalis) uitgevoerd bij een teler in Suriname in de regio Saramacca. Doel was om het effect van variëteit, toepassing van mulch en bemestingstrategie op de productie en op het gewassaldo vast

  3. Notes on the Herpetofauna of surinam : IX. Xenodon Werneri Eiselt, a poorly known snake from Guiana, with notes on Waglerophis Merremii (Wagler) (Reptilia: Serpentes: Colubridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    Xenodon werneri Eiselt is redescribed on the basis of new material from Surinam and French Guiana. Its distribution and the Zoogeographie meaning of it are discussed. A key to the species of Xenodon in Guiana is presented. From the present data it appears that Waglerophis merremii (Wagler) is absent

  4. Evaluation of Methods for Sampling the Malaria Vector Anopheles darlingi (Diptera, Culicidae) in Suriname and the Relation With Its Biting Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiwat-van Laar, H.; Rijk, de M.; Andriessen, R.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Takken, W.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of CO2-baited and human-baited mosquito traps for the sampling of Anopheles darlingi Root was evaluated and compared with human landing collections in Suriname. Biting preferences of this mosquito on a human host were studied and related to trapping data. Traps used were the Center

  5. Collapse of Anopheles darlingi populations in Suriname after introduction of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs); malaria down to near elimination level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiwat, H.; Mitro, S.; Samjhawan, A.; Sardjoe, P.; Soekhoe, T.; Takken, W.

    2012-01-01

    A longitudinal study of malaria vectors was carried out in three villages in Suriname between 2006 and 2010. During 13,392 man hours of collections, 3,180 mosquitoes were collected, of which 33.7% were anophelines. Of these, Anopheles darlingi accounted for 88.1%, and An. nuneztovari accounted for 1

  6. Mechanized farming in the humid tropics with special reference to soil tillage, workability and timeliness of farm operations. A case study for the Zanderij area of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goense, D.

    1987-01-01

    The reported investigations concern aspects of mechanized farming for the production of rainfed crops on the loamy soils of the Zanderij formation in Suriname and in particular, the effect of tillage on crop yield and soil properties, workability of field operations and timeliness of field operation

  7. Curimata punctata, a new uniquely pigmented species of curimatid from the Marowijne river basin of Surinam and French Guiana (Pisces, Characiformes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vari, Richard P.; Nijssen, Han

    1986-01-01

    A new species of curimatid characiform, Curimata punctata, from the Marowijne River basin of Surinam and French Guiana is described and illustrated. The distinctive pattern of three to six dark midlateral spots on the body distinguishes the species from all other members of the family.

  8. Studies on the flora of the Guianas 4. A new species of Apinagia (Podostemonaceae) and a key to the Apinagia species in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, den G.; Berg, C.C.

    1983-01-01

    During a study of the Podostemonaceae for the Flora of Suriname a specimen of Apinagia was found which could not be placed in one of the species recognized by van Royen (1951, 1953, 1954). The specimen forms part of a mixed collection mainly consisting of Mourera fluviatilis Aubl. but also containin

  9. Curimata punctata, a new uniquely pigmented species of curimatid from the Marowijne river basin of Surinam and French Guiana (Pisces, Characiformes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vari, Richard P.; Nijssen, Han

    1986-01-01

    A new species of curimatid characiform, Curimata punctata, from the Marowijne River basin of Surinam and French Guiana is described and illustrated. The distinctive pattern of three to six dark midlateral spots on the body distinguishes the species from all other members of the family.

  10. Invloed van ras, mulch en bemesting op de productie en het saldo van sopropo en kouseband : verslag van een proef te Saramacca, Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putter, de H.; Wongsonadi, H.

    2010-01-01

    In 2010 werd een proef met sopropo (Momordica charanti) en een proef met kouseband (Vigna unguiculata sesquipedalis) uitgevoerd bij een teler in Suriname in de regio Saramacca. Doel was om het effect van variëteit, toepassing van mulch en bemestingstrategie op de productie en op het gewassaldo vast

  11. Invloed van ras, mulch en bemesting op de productie en het saldo van kouseband : verslag van een proef te Saramacca, Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putter, de H.; Wongsonadi, H.

    2009-01-01

    In 2009 werd een kouseband proef uitgevoerd bij een teler in Suriname in de regio Saramacca. Doel was om het effect van rassenkeuze, toepassing van mulch en bemestingsstrategie op productie en opbrengst vast te stellen. Met mulch werd duidelijk een hogere productie gehaald dan wanneer geen mulch wer

  12. Community-led assessment of risk from exposure to mercury by native Amerindian Wayana in Southeast Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplow, Daniel; Augustine, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This study was a collaboration between Western public health researchers and Suriname indigenous communities. The question asked was "how can Western researchers effectively engage traditional indigenous communities in Suriname, South America, in public health research". The approach used a combination of Participatory Action Research methods in which "Western" researchers became participating observers in an indigenous-led research initiative. The Wayana communities of Puleowime (Apetina) and Kawemhakan (Anapayke) defined a single objective: determine for themselves whether they are at risk from exposure to mercury (Hg) contamination. Community members collected hair samples for analysis. Hair samples were analyzed using a portable Hg analyzer. Individual, community and hazard quotient indices were used to quantify risk. Results showed the Wayana were at a high lifetime risk of adverse effects from exposure to Hg. This study showed that the community-led approach is an effective way Westerners can engage indigenous communities and address serious public health threats. While factors that appealed to indigenous communities were identified, obstacles inherent to Western research methodology were also encountered.

  13. Prevalence, determinants and genetic diversity of hepatitis C virus in the multi-ethnic population living in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Donald-Ottevanger, M Sigrid; Vreden, Stephen; van der Helm, Jannie J; van de Laar, Thijs; Molenkamp, Richard; Dams, Els; Roosblad, Jimmy; Codrington, John; Hindori-Mohangoo, Ashna D; Prins, Maria

    2016-12-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of HCV in Suriname, a former Dutch colony in South America. To study the prevalence, determinants and genetic diversity of HCV, a one-month survey was conducted at the only Emergency Department in the capital Paramaribo. Participants (≥18 years) completed an interviewer-led standardized HCV risk-factor questionnaire, were tested for HCV-antibodies, and if positive also for HCV RNA. The overall HCV prevalence was 1.0% (22/2128 participants; 95%CI 0.7-1.5). Male sex (OR=4.11; 95%CI 1.30-13.01), older age (OR=1.06 per year increase; 95%CI 1.04-1.09), Javanese ethnicity (OR=7.84; 95%CI 3.25-18.89) and cosmetic tattooing (OR=31.7; 95%CI 3.25-323.87) were independently associated with HCV-infection. Phylogenetic analysis revealed six distinct HCV subtypes, all HCV-genotype 2 (HCV-2): subtype 2f (also circulating in Indonesia) plus five yet unassigned HCV-2 subtypes exclusively linked to Suriname.

  14. Behavioral heterogeneity of Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) and malaria transmission dynamics along the Maroni River, Suriname, French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwat, H; Issaly, J; Gaborit, P; Somai, A; Samjhawan, A; Sardjoe, P; Soekhoe, T; Girod, R

    2010-03-01

    The border area between Suriname and French Guiana is considered the most affected malaria area in South America. A one-year cooperative malaria vector study was performed by the two countries, between March 2004 and February 2005, in four villages. Anopheles darlingi proved to be the most abundant anopheline species. Human biting rates differed between villages. The differential effect of high rainfall on mosquito densities in the villages suggests variation in breeding sites. Overall parity rates were low, with means varying from 0.31 to 0.56 per study site. Of the 2045 A. darlingi mosquitoes collected, 13 were found to be infected with Plasmodium: ten P. falciparum, two P. malariae and one mixed P. malariae/P. vivax. The overall annual entomological inoculation rates in the villages ranged from 8.7 to 66.4. There was an apparent lack of relationship between number of malaria cases and periods of high mosquito density. The tendency of Anopheles darlingi to bite during sleeping hours provides opportunity for malaria control using impregnated bed nets, a strategy just introduced in Suriname that may also find its way into French Guiana.

  15. Community-Led Assessment of Risk from Exposure to Mercury by Native Amerindian Wayana in Southeast Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Peplow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was a collaboration between Western public health researchers and Suriname indigenous communities. The question asked was “how can Western researchers effectively engage traditional indigenous communities in Suriname, South America, in public health research”. The approach used a combination of Participatory Action Research methods in which “Western” researchers became participating observers in an indigenous-led research initiative. The Wayana communities of Puleowime (Apetina and Kawemhakan (Anapayke defined a single objective: determine for themselves whether they are at risk from exposure to mercury (Hg contamination. Community members collected hair samples for analysis. Hair samples were analyzed using a portable Hg analyzer. Individual, community and hazard quotient indices were used to quantify risk. Results showed the Wayana were at a high lifetime risk of adverse effects from exposure to Hg. This study showed that the community-led approach is an effective way Westerners can engage indigenous communities and address serious public health threats. While factors that appealed to indigenous communities were identified, obstacles inherent to Western research methodology were also encountered.

  16. A unique opportunity to reconstruct the volcanic history of the island of Nevis, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saginor, I.; Gazel, E.

    2012-12-01

    We report twelve new ICP-MS analyses and two 40Ar/39Ar ages for the Caribbean island of Nevis, located in the Lesser Antilles. These data show a very strong fractionation trend, suggesting that along strike variations may be primarily controlled by the interaction of rising magma with the upper plate. If this fractionation trend is shown to correlate with age, it may suggest that underplating of the crust is responsible for variations in the makeup of erupted lava over time, particularly with respect to silica content. We have recently been given permission to sample a series of cores being drilled by a geothermal company with the goal of reconstructing the volcanic history of the island. Drilling is often cost-prohibitive, making this a truly unique opportunity. Nevis has received little recent attention from researchers due to the fact that it has not been active for at least 100,000 years and also because of its proximity to the highly active Montserrat, which boasts its very own volcano observatory. However, there are a number of good reasons that make this region and Nevis in particular an ideal location for further analysis. First, and most importantly, is the access to thousands of meters of drill cores that is being provided by a local geothermal company. Second, a robust earthquake catalog exists (Bengoubou-Valerius et al., 2008), so the dip and depth to the subducting slab is well known. These are fundamental parameters that influence the mechanics of a subduction zone, therefore it would be difficult to proceed if they were poorly constrained. Third, prior sampling of Nevis has been limited since Hutton and Nockolds (1978) published the only extensive petrologic study ever performed on the island. This paper contained only 43 geochemical analyses and 6 K-Ar ages, which are less reliable than more modern Ar-Ar ages. Subsequent studies tended to focus on water geochemistry (GeothermEx, 2005), geothermal potential (Geotermica Italiana, 1992; Huttrer, 1998

  17. Breaking of storm waves on sand and reef zone in the Lesser Antilles Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorville, Jean-François; Berthelot, Hugues; Zahibo, Narcisse

    2010-05-01

    The most part of the exposed coastal zone of the Lesser Antilles Arc are composed by sand and coral reef. The high frequencies of passage of cyclones near these islands and anticyclone's swell subject them to waves of large amplitude. These waves are 4 to 5 times lager to the normal conditions. The weak slopes observed on these zones are particularly sensitive to this type of waves and cause the process of surfing. The mode of dissipation of these waves influenced the run-up and the floods on the coast. The surf zones are situated in 5 in 20 meters of the line of coast. A displacement of sea water towards the coast line is provoked by the breaking of the waves. These quantities of water are held by the particularly bathymetry of these islands and provoke a raised of the sea level. The propagation of the waves are allowed by the sea elevation in the surf zone In the evaluation of the marine risk in the Lesser Antilles Arc, a model of sea state forecast are developed in the Laboratory of Geosciences and Energy (LaRGE) in the French West Indies and French Guiana University (Guadeloupe , FWI). This forecast model is based on the coupling of several numerical models. WaveWatch III and SWAN are used for the wave propagation on large and small sectors. An ocean circulation model based on POM is used to evaluate the sea current and the sea level. To improve the forecasts on the exposed coast, in the zone included between the surf and swash, the sea elevation induced by the large amplitude wave are particularly studies. The numerical model of wave propagation near the coast SWAN is used to determine the sea state before the surf zone. The dissipation and the breaking of the large amplitude waves are studied with the spectral values give by SWAN and the local conditions (bathymetry, sea level, slope, bottom friction). During the months of November and December 2009, several large amplitude waves, coming from the North Atlantic Ocean, impact the west coast of Guadeloupe. The

  18. Isotopic evidence for quick freshening of magmatic chlorine in the Lesser Antilles arc volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Jendrzejewski, N.; Aubaud, C. P.; Bonifacie, M.; Crispi, O.; Dessert, C.; Agrinier, P.

    2012-12-01

    Despite numerous geophysical and geochemical monitoring techniques developed over the last 50 years to detect magma activities in volcanoes, it is still challenging to evaluate the state of magmatic activity during its decreasing phase (transitory quiet stage and/or final stage of the magma intrusion which may last for decades) for those infrequent, slow developing, and dangerous explosive eruptive arc volcanoes, attributed to the interaction between the magma and hydrothermal cells at shallow depths to produce complex phreato-magmatic events. Recent studies have implied that chloride in intrusion-induced thermal springs could be a potential sensitive indicator of shallow magma degassing. However, possible contamination from surface chlorine reservoirs, such as seawater, may overprint the magmatic signature and complicate the interpretation of field observation. Here, based on chlorine isotope examination of various water samples from two recently erupted volcanoes in the Lesser Antilles arc (Soufrière in Guadeloupe: phreatic eruption in1976-1977; Montagne Pelée in Martinique: pelean eruption in 1929-1932), we show that magmatic chlorine is isotopically distinct from surface chlorine (seawater, meteoric water, and ground water). A chlorine isotopic survey on thermal springs in Guadeloupe and Martinique indicate that the magmatic chlorine signature is still present in some of the thermal springs in Guadeloupe but completely disappeared in Martinique. This suggests that magmatic chlorine be rapidly flushed from hydrothermal system within < 30 to 80 years after the magmatic eruption. This enables chlorine isotopes to be a sensitive proxy to monitor shallow magmatic activities, particularly practicable at centennial scale.

  19. Combining Geological and Geophysical Data in Volcanic Hazard Estimation for Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, O.; Latchman, J. L.; Connor, C.; Malservisi, R.; Connor, L.

    2014-12-01

    Risk posed by volcanic eruptions are generally quantified in a few ways; in the short term geophysical data such as seismic activity or ground deformation are used to assess the state of volcanic unrest while statistical approaches such as spatial density estimates are used for long term hazard assessment. Spatial density estimates have been used in a number of monogenetic volcanic fields for hazard map generation and utilize the age, location and volumes of previous eruptions to calculate the probability of a new event occurring at a given location within this field. In a previously unpublished study, spatial density estimates of the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc showed the island of Dominica to have the highest likelihood of future vent formation. In this current study, this technique was used in combination with relocated seismic events occurring beneath Dominica within the last ~ 20 years as well as InSAR images of ground deformation to generate a hazard map which not only takes into consideration the past events but also the current state of unrest. Here, geophysical data serve as a weighting factor in the estimates with those centers showing more vigorous activity receiving stronger favorability in the assessment for future activity. In addition to this weighting, the bandwidth utilized in the 2D-radially symmetric kernel density function was optimized using the SAMSE method so as to find the value which best minimizes the error in the estimate. The end results of this study are dynamic volcanic hazards maps which will be readily updatable as changes in volcanic unrest occurs within the system.

  20. New additions to the shallow-water hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) of the French Lesser Antilles: Martinique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    The present report provides the first general account of the shallow-water hydroids (excluding Eudendriidae) of Martinique, French Lesser Antilles. Of a total of 92 species recorded, 10 athecates and 31 thecates are discussed here, with the remaining species having been the subject of earlier accounts. Six hydroids, namely Halecium discoidum, H. xanthellatum, Sertularella calderi, Antennellapeculiaris, A. similis, and A. tubitheca, are new. Previously unreported data on the nematocyst complement of Heterocoryne caribbensis Wedler & Larson, 1986, Ectopleura mayeri Petersen, 1990, Ralpharia gorgoniae Petersen, 1990, and seven hebellid species are provided.'The gonotheca and the gonophore of Hebellopsis communis Calder, 1991 are described for the first time, allowing a genus transfer to Anthohebella Boero et al., 1997. Thyroscyphus longicaulis Splettstbsser, 1929, a species whose gonosome remained unknown until now, is redescribed based on new, fertile material of both sexes. The occurrence of Antennella quadriaurita Ritchie, 1909 in the Caribbean is questioned upon comparison of its cnidome with that of specimens from Tristan da Cunha, the type locality of this species. An unexpectedly wide morphological variation is noted for Aglaophenia rhynchocarpa Allman, 1877. Specimens corresponding to the Caribbean Gymnangium longicaudum (Nutting, 1900), are shown to be indistinguishable morphologically from a taxon described earlier from Brazil, Gymnangium allmani (Marktanner-Turneretscher, 1890), the latter having priority. Thorough descriptions are provided for the new, lesser known or unidentifiable species, while the common taxa are accompanied by brief remarks and/or distributional data. Illustrations are provided for each species discussed in order to justify their identification, and to facilitate identification by others. A checklist at the end of this work incorporates records of 101 species of hydroids reported from Martinique, both occurring in the present

  1. Relocalizing a historical earthquake using recent methods: The 10 November 1935 Earthquake near Montserrat, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemz, P.; Amorèse, D.

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the hypothesis of Feuillet et al. (2011) that the hypocenter of the seismic event on November 10, 1935 near Montserrat, Lesser Antilles (MS 6 1/4) (Gutenberg and Richter, 1954) was mislocated by other authors and is actually located in the Montserrat-Havers fault zone. While this proposal was based both on a Ground Motion Prediction Equation and on the assumption that earthquakes in this region are bound to prominent fault systems, our study relies on earthquake localization methods using arrival times of the International Seismological Summary (ISS). Results of our methodology suggest that the hypocenter was really located at 16.90° N, 62.53° W. This solution is about 25 km north-west of the location proposed by Feuillet et al. (2011) within the Redonda fault system, northward of the Montserrat-Havers fault zone. As depth phases that contribute valuable insights to the focal depth are not included in the ISS data set and the reassociation of these phases is difficult, the error in depth is high. Taking into account tectonic constraints and the vertical extend of NonLinLoc's uncertainty area of the preferred solution we assume that the focus is most probably in the lower crust between 20 km and the Moho. Our approach shows that the information of the ISS can lead to a reliable solution even without an exhaustive search for seismograms and station bulletins. This is encouraging for a better assessment of seismic and tsunami hazard in the Caribbean, Mexico, South and Central America, where many moderate to large earthquakes occurred in the first half of the 20th century. The limitations during this early phase of seismology which complicate such relocations are described in detail in this study.

  2. Thermochronology and tectonics of the Leeward Antilles: Evolution of the southern Caribbean Plate boundary zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lelij, Roelant; Spikings, Richard A.; Kerr, Andrew C.; Kounov, Alexandre; Cosca, Michael; Chew, David; Villagomez, Diego

    2010-01-01

    Tectonic reconstructions of the Caribbean Plate are severely hampered by a paucity of geochronologic and exhumation constraints from anastomosed basement blocks along its southern margin. New U/Pb, 40Ar/39Ar, apatite fission track, and apatite (U-Th)/He data constrain quantitative thermal and exhumation histories, which have been used to propose a model for the tectonic evolution of the emergent parts of the Bonaire Block and the southern Caribbean Plate boundary zone. An east facing arc system intruded through an oceanic plateau during ~90 to ~87 Ma and crops out on Aruba. Subsequent structural displacements resulted in >80°C of cooling on Aruba during 70–60 Ma. In contrast, exhumation of the island arc sequence exposed on Bonaire occurred at 85–80 Ma and 55–45 Ma. Santonian exhumation on Bonaire occurred immediately subsequent to burial metamorphism and may have been driven by the collision of a west facing island arc with the Caribbean Plate. Island arc rocks intruded oceanic plateau rocks on Gran Roque at ~65 Ma and exhumed rapidly at 55–45 Ma. We attribute Maastrichtian-Danian exhumation on Aruba and early Eocene exhumation on Bonaire and Gran Roque to sequential diachronous accretion of their basement units to the South American Plate. Widespread unconformities indicate late Eocene subaerial exposure. Late Oligocene–early Miocene dextral transtension within the Bonaire Block drove subsidence and burial of crystalline basement rocks of the Leeward Antilles to ≤1 km. Late Miocene–recent transpression caused inversion and ≤1 km of exhumation, possibly as a result of the northward escape of the Maracaibo Block.

  3. Inter-annual rainfall variability in the eastern Antilles and coupling with the regional and intra-seasonal circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jury, Mark R.

    2016-11-01

    Climate variability in the eastern Antilles island chain is analyzed via principal component analysis of high-resolution monthly rainfall in the period 1981-2013. The second mode reflecting higher rainfall in July-October season between Martinique and Grenada is the focus of this study. Higher rainfall corresponds with a weakened trade wind and boundary current along the southern edge of the Caribbean. This quells the coastal upwelling off Venezuela and builds the freshwater plume east of Trinidad. There is corresponding upper easterly wind flow that intensifies passing tropical waves. During a storm event over the Antilles on 4-5 October 2010, there was inflow from east of Guyana where low salinity and high sea temperatures enable surplus latent heat fluxes. A N-S convective rain band forms ˜500 km east of the cyclonic vortex. Many features at the weather timescale reflect the seasonal correlation and composite difference maps and El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) modulation of oceanic inter-basin transfers.

  4. Parthenogenetic reproduction demonstrated in the diploid Spasalus puncticollis (Le Peletier & Serville 1825), n. stat., from the Antilles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea, Passalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Stéphane; Dutrillaux, Anne-Marie; Dutrillaux, Bernard

    2015-11-01

    Only females were observed in Spasalus crenatus (Mac Leay 1819) in the Antilles, from Puerto Rico to Saint-Vincent, whereas both sexes are in Trinidad and on the continent. No difference in endo- and ectodermic female genitalia could be noticed between the two populations. Chromosomes of specimens from Guadeloupe reveal a 26,XX karyotype, as in females of various sexual species of Passalini, which demonstrates its diploidy. Breedings were developed with isolated immature stages. After nine years, descendants from a single female are demonstrating their parthenogenetic reproduction. This is the first recorded parthenogenesis in Passalidae and a rare telytoky in diploid insects. Relationships between parthenogenesis, diploidy and insularity are discussed in the scheme of geographical parthenogenesis. No discriminant morphological character on adults could be found between the two populations, except the total length. The modes of reproduction distinguishing the two geographically separated populations suggest the presence of two taxa: S. crenatus on the continent and Trinidad; the parthenote S. puncticollis (Le Peletier & Serville 1825), n. stat., on the Arc of the Antilles.

  5. Enchytraeidae of the Netherlands (Annelida; Oligochaeta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunst, de J.H.

    1965-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary check list of 46 species of Enchytraeidae hitherto found in the Netherlands. With the exception of Enchytraeus albidus and Hemifridericia parva, these species are recorded from the Netherlands for the first time.

  6. Structure and multiphased evolution of the Demerara plateau (offshore Suriname, French Guiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier de Lépinay, Marion; Basile, Christophe; Loncke, Lies; Maillard, Agnès; Grall, Céline; Roest, Walter R.; de Clarens, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Offshore Suriname and French Guiana, the Demerara plateau is a continental indentation at the intersection of two oceanic domains : the Jurassic Central Atlantic and the Early Cretaceous Equatorial Atlantic. Its three borders are passive margins. The northern one is a transform margin, the two others are rifted margins, thinned during Trias/Jurassic (westward), and a second time during Early Cretaceous (eastward). The main stratigraphic feature of the Demerara plateau is the major upper Albian angular erosive unconformity, synchronous to the Equatorial Atlantic break-up. We here focus on the sedimentary records observed below the upper Albian discordance, where seismic data show more than 13 km of layered units. The aim of this study is to give new insights about the evolution of the Demerara plateau during Mesozoic times, in order to constrain vertical displacements especially in relation with the transform margin. We use mostly structural interpretation of industrial and academic seismic lines (GUYAPLAC, 2003 and IGUANES, 2013), calibrated by industrial wells down to Berriasian times. It allows us to propose structural maps and regional interpretative cross-sections of the plateau and its three borders. On seismic lines, undated prominent seismic units are characterized by important thickness variations, and weak continuity of intern reflectors. They thicken westward (toward the Central Atlantic ocean). One possible interpretation is to relate these units to trias/jurassic syn-rift sediments deposition associated to a continentward dipping fault. But the complex is formed by a repetition of several layer fans. Hence one alternative interpretation would be that these units were seaward dipping reflectors stacked during Trias/Jurassic rifting, suggesting that the role of magmatism should have been predominant during the first phase of the plateau formation. All the sediments of the plateau, including Aptian sediments, are deformed with numerous structures (strike

  7. Diabetes MILES--The Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nefs, Giesje; Bot, Mariska; Browne, Jessica L

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As the number of people with diabetes is increasing rapidly worldwide, a more thorough understanding of the psychosocial aspects of living with this condition has become an important health care priority. While our knowledge has grown substantially over the past two decades with respect...... to the physical, emotional and social difficulties that people with diabetes may encounter, many important issues remain to be elucidated. Under the umbrella of the Diabetes MILES (Management and Impact for Long-term Empowerment and Success) Study International Collaborative, Diabetes MILES--The Netherlands aims...... to examine how Dutch adults with diabetes manage their condition and how it affects their lives. Topics of special interest in Diabetes MILES--The Netherlands include subtypes of depression, Type D personality, mindfulness, sleep and sexual functioning. METHODS/DESIGN: Diabetes MILES--The Netherlands...

  8. Novel strategies lead to pre-elimination of malaria in previously high-risk areas in Suriname, South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiwat Hélène

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suriname was a high malaria risk country before the introduction of a new five-year malaria control program in 2005, the Medical Mission Malaria Programme (MM-MP. Malaria was endemic in the forested interior, where especially the stabile village communities were affected. Case description The interventions of the MM-MP included new strategies for prevention, vector control, case management, behavioral change communication (BCC/information, education and communication (IEC, and strengthening of the health system (surveillance, monitoring and evaluation and epidemic detection system. After a slow first year with non-satisfying scores for the performance indicators, the MM-MP truly engaged in its intervention activities in 2006 and kept its performance up until the end of 2009. A total of 69,994 long-lasting insecticide-treated nets were distributed and more than 15,000 nets re-impregnated. In high-risk areas, this was complemented with residual spraying of insecticides. Over 10,000 people were screened with active case detection in outbreak and high-risk areas. Additional notification points were established and the national health system was strengthened. Discussion and evaluation In the current paper, the MM-MP is evaluated both on account of the targets established within the programme and on account of its impact on the malaria situation in Suriname. Malaria vector populations, monitored in sentinel sites, collapsed after 2006 and concurrently the number of national malaria cases decreased from 8,618 in 2005 to 1,509 in 2009. Malaria transmission risk shifted from the stabile village communities to the mobile gold mining communities, especially those along the French Guiana border. Conclusions The novel strategies for malaria control introduced in Suriname within the MM-MP have led to a significant decrease in the national malaria burden. The challenge is to further reduce malaria using the available strategies as

  9. Suriname – Seeking a Lonely, Lesbian Friend for Correspondence’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shield, Andrew DJ

    2014-01-01

    of the categories ‘homosexual’ and ‘immigrant’ as mutually exclusive by reconsidering the histories of homo-emancipation and immigration in the Netherlands in the late 1960s and 1970s. Linking these two ostensibly distinct histories complicates current political discussions about a supposed clash between immigrant...... and ‘native’ European cultures with regard to sexual tolerance. As the Dutch homo-emancipation movement radicalized in the 1960s, many men and some women placed contact advertisements (seeking romance, correspondence, housing, employment) in popular Dutch activist periodicals. An analysis of 500...

  10. Earthquake precise locations catalog for the Lesser Antilles subduction zone (1972-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massin, Frederick; Amorese, Daniel; Beauducel, Francois; Bengoubou-Valérius, Mendy; Bernard, Marie-Lise; Bertil, Didier

    2014-05-01

    Locations for earthquake recorded in the Lesser Antilles subduction zone are processed separately by regional observatories, NEIC and ISC. There is no earthquake location catalog available compiling all available phase arrival data. We propose a new best complete earthquake catalog by merging all available phase arrival data for better constrains on earthquake locations. ISC provides the phase arrival data of 29243 earthquakes (magnitude range from 1.4 to 6.4) recorded by PRSN (Porto Rico), SRC (British West Indies), and from FUNVISIS (Venezuela). We add phases data from IPGP observatories for 68718 earthquakes from magnitudes 0.1 to 7.5 (OVSG, Guadeloupe, recorded 53226 earthquakes since 1981, and OVSM, Martinique, recorded 29931 earthquakes since 1972). IPGP also provides the accelerometer waveform data of the GIS-RAP network. We achieved automatic picking on the GIS-RAP data using the Component Energy Correlation Method. The CECM provides high precision phase detection, a realistic estimation of picking error and realistic weights that can be used with manual pick weights. The CECM add an average of 3 P-waves and 2 S-waves arrivals to 3846 earthquakes recorded by the GIS-RAP network since 2002. The final catalog contains 84979 earthquakes between 1972 and 2013, 24528 of which we compiled additional data. We achieve earthquake location using NonLinLoc, regional P and S waves data and a set of one dimensional velocity models. We produce improved locations for 22974 earthquakes (better residuals, on equal or larger arrival dataset) and improved duration magnitudes for 6258 earthquakes (using duration data and improved locations). A subset of best constrained 15626 hypocenters (with more than 8 phases and an average RMS of 0.48±0.77s) could be used for structural analysis and earthquake local tomography. Relative locations are to be applied in order to image active faulting. We aim to understand coupling in the seismogenic zone as well as triggering mechanisms of

  11. Gas and water geochemistry of geothermal systems in Dominica, Lesser Antilles island arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Erouscilla P.; Fournier, Nicolas; Lindsay, Jan M.; Fischer, Tobias P.

    2011-09-01

    Four of the nine potentially active volcanoes on the island of Dominica in the Lesser Antilles volcanic island arc have associated active volcanic-hydrothermal systems. Between 2000 and 2006 the gas and thermal waters from these systems were investigated to geochemically characterise the fluids, gain insight into the temperature and equilibrium state of the underlying reservoirs, and evaluate the feasibility of monitoring geothermal features as a volcano surveillance tool in Dominica. The geothermal gases are typical of those found in arc-type settings, with N 2 excess and low amounts of He and Ar. The dry gas is dominated by CO 2 (ranging from 492 to 993 mmol/mol), and has a hydrothermal signature with hydrogen sulphide as the main sulphurous gas. The waters are predominantly acid-sulphate (SO 4 = 100-4200 mg/L, pH ≤ 4), and likely formed as a result of dilution of acidic gases in near surface oxygenated groundwater. Enrichment in both δ 18O and δD with respect to the global meteoric water line (GMWL) confirms that the waters are of primarily meteoric origin, but have been affected by evaporation processes. Quartz geothermometers gave equilibrium temperatures of 83 °C-203 °C. These temperatures contrast with the higher equilibrium temperature ranges (170 °C-350 °C) obtained for the gases using the H 2/Ar*-CH 4/CO 2 gas ratios plot, suggesting that the quartz geothermometers are affected by non-attainment of equilibrium. This may be a result of precipitation of the dissolved silica and/or dilution by relatively cold shallow aquifers of the thermal fluids. Generally, no significant variations in fluid gas chemistry of the hydrothermal systems were observed during the study period, and we propose that there were no changes in the state of volcanic activity in this period. One exception to this occurred in a feature known as the Boiling Lake, which underwent a month-long period of significant compositional, temperature and water level fluctuations ascribed to

  12. Magnetic mapping for structural geology and geothermal exploration in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier de Lépinay, jeanne; munschy, marc; geraud, yves; diraison, marc; navelot, vivien; verati, christelle; corsini, michel; lardeaux, jean marc; favier, alexiane

    2017-04-01

    This work is implemented through the GEOTREF program which benefits from the support of both the ADEME and the French public funds "Investments for the future". The program focuses on the exploration for geothermal resources in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles, where a geothermal power plant is in production since 1986 (Bouillante, Basse Terre). In Les Saintes archipelago, in the south of Guadeloupe, the outcrop analysis of Terre-de-Haut Island allows to point out an exhumed geothermal paleo-system that is thought to be an analogue of the Bouillante active geothermal system. We show that a detailed marine magnetic survey with a quantitative interpretation can bring information about the offshore structures around Les Saintes archipelago in order to extend the geological limits and structural elements. A similar survey and workflow is also conducted offshore Basse-Terre where more geophysical data is already available. In order to correctly link the offshore and onshore structures, the magnetic survey must be close enough to the shoreline and sufficiently detailed to correctly outline the tectonic structures. An appropriate solution for such a survey is to use a three component magnetometer aboard a speedboat. Such a boat allows more navigation flexibility than a classic oceanic vessel towing a magnetometer; it can sail at higher speed on calm seas and closer to the shoreline. This kind of magnetic acquisition is only viable because the magnetic effect of the ship can be compensated using the same algorithms than those used for airborne magnetometry. The use of potential field transforms allows a large variety of structures to be highlighted, providing insights to build a general understanding of the nature and distribution of the magnetic sources. In particular, we use the tilt angle operator to better identify the magnetic lineaments offshore in order to compare them to the faults identified onshore during the outcrop analysis. All the major faults and fractures

  13. Recovery of the long-spined sea urchin Diadema Antillarum in Curacao (Netherlands Antilles) linked to lagoonal and wave sheltered shallow rocky habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Nagelkerken, I.

    2006-01-01

    Mangroves are an important fish habitat, but little is known of their nursery function and connectivity to other habitats such as coral reefs. Here, the present status of knowledge on connectivity between non-estuarine mangroves and coral reefs by post-larval coral reef fishes is reviewed. Only sinc

  14. Bonaire 2008: Exploring Coral Reef Sustainability with New Technologies on Fetch1 AUV and Gavia AUV's in Netherlands, Antilles between 20080107 and 20080130

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the Bonaire 2008 expedition is to survey this unique environment over a greater depth range than can be reached with compressed air scuba, using three...

  15. Surgical Training in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borel Rinkes, I.H.M.; Gouma, D.J.; Hamming, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Surgical training in the Netherlands has traditionally been characterized by learning on the job under the classic master-trainee doctrine. Over the past decades, it has become regionally organized with intensive structural training courses, and a peer-based quality control system. Recently, the nat

  16. Work life in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossche, S. van den; Dhondt, S.; Genabeek, J. van; Goudswaard, A.; Hooftman, W.; Houtman, I.; Klein Hesselink, J.; Korte, E. de; Kraan, K.; Oeij, P.; Pot, F.; Smulders, P.G.W.; Vaas, F.; Wevers, C.; Willems, D.

    2012-01-01

    The nature of work is changing, not only in the Netherlands but throughout Europe. There is a growing demand for different types of products and services. These demands are influenced by technological developments and innovations, but also by globalization, which indicates the integration of nationa

  17. Patient education in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bensing, J.; Visser, Adriaan; Saan, Hans

    2001-01-01

    This article presents the development of patient education (PE) in The Netherlands from a historical perspective. A description is given of the first pioneering years from the 70s till the late 80s, in which early topics like the organization of PE, the orchestration of PE between different

  18. Coeliac disease in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweizer, JJ; Blomberg - van der Flier, von B.M.E.; Mesquita, HB Bueno-de; Mearin, ML

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of adult coeliac disease in The Netherlands was studied in the Dutch Coeliac Disease Society and in blood donors but not in the general population. We therefore studied the prevalence of recognized and unrecognized coeliac disease in a large cohort, representative of the

  19. Luminescence dating of Netherland's sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, J.; Davids, F.; Dijkmans, J.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decades luminescence dating techniques have been developed that allow earth scientists to determine the time of deposition of sediments. In this contribution we revity: 1) the development of the methodology, 2) tests of the reliability of luminescence dating on Netherlands' sediments;

  20. Work life in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossche, S. van den; Dhondt, S.; Genabeek, J. van; Goudswaard, A.; Hooftman, W.; Houtman, I.; Klein Hesselink, J.; Korte, E. de; Kraan, K.; Oeij, P.; Pot, F.; Smulders, P.G.W.; Vaas, F.; Wevers, C.; Willems, D.

    2012-01-01

    The nature of work is changing, not only in the Netherlands but throughout Europe. There is a growing demand for different types of products and services. These demands are influenced by technological developments and innovations, but also by globalization, which indicates the integration of

  1. Informal learning in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caniëls, Marjolein; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Caniëls, M. C., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Informal learning in the Netherlands. In S. Halley, C. Birch, D. Tempelaar, M. McCuddy, N. Hérnandez Nanclares, S. Reeb Grube, W. Gijselaers, B. Rienties, & N. Nelissen (Eds), Proceedings of the 17th EDINEB Conference: Crossing Borders in Education and Work

  2. Central Planning in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1947-01-01

    textabstractImmediately after the Liberation the Netherlands were faced with a severe shortage of all essential goods, particularly in the Western part of the country, where the period of famine had led to a complete exhaustion of all stocks, and where the Germans had deliberately destroyed the rail

  3. Organisational innovations in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, F. den; Verbruggen, V.

    2000-01-01

    The Netherlands have shown some major technological and economical changes in the field of new production forms and organisation and labour-related innovations. As in other European countries, some autonomous developments like economic developments partly determine the work organisation and the type

  4. Coastal maintenance in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    The government of The Netherlands has decided in the summer of 1990 to maintai.n the coastline at the position of 1990. This will be done mainly by artificial beach nourishment. The costs will be paid by the national government. The purpose of this coastal maintenance is to maintain a sufficient lev

  5. Aggregate resources in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, M.J. van der; Gessel, S.F. van; Veldkamp, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    We have built a 3D lithological model of the Netherlands, for the purpose of mapping on-land aggregate resources down to 50 m below the surface. The model consists of voxel cells (1000 · 1000 · 1 m), with lithological composition and aggregate content estimates as primary attributes. These attribute

  6. Sustainable safety in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1996-01-01

    The recent stagnation in further reduction of road accidents, insufficient results of existing policies to improve road safety and its rather curative nature of these policies induced the wish to renew and to improve road safety policy in the Netherlands. This new approach is called : a sustainable

  7. Robotics Activities in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg- de Lange, D.J.B.A.

    2010-01-01

    Since April 2010, in The Netherlands robotics activities are coordinated by RoboNED. This Dutch Robotics Platform, chaired by Prof. Stefano Stramigioli, aims to stimulate the synergy between the robotics fields and to formulate a focus. The goal of RoboNED is three fold: 1) RoboNED aims to bring the

  8. Media History in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vree, Frank van

    2014-01-01

    abstractArticle published in 1993 in GBG-nieuws related to a seminar on Media History in the Netherlands. Republished in 2014 in Tijdschrift voor mediageschiedenis in the context of a seminar held in september 2014 at Sound and Vision on the past 25 years of Media History and its future.

  9. Elder abuse in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inger Plaisier; Mirjam de Klerk

    2015-01-01

    Original title: Ouderenmishandeling in Nederland It is twenty years since the last study was carried out on the number of older persons in the Netherlands who are deliberate or accidental victims of abuse in the form of verbal, physical or sexual violence, financial abuse and/or neglect by those o

  10. Netherlands: archives, libraries and museums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Ketelaar; F. Huysmans; P. van Mensch

    2010-01-01

    This entry provides an overview of the development and current state of archives, libraries, and museums as institutions, and the related professions and disciplines within the Netherlands. The entry describes social and political issues affecting information institutions from the early nineteenth c

  11. Adaptation strategies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Klostermann, J.E.M.; Bergsma, E.; Jong, P.; Albrecht, E.; Schmidt, M.; Mißler-Behr, M.; Spyra, S.P.N.

    2014-01-01

    Although climate change has been prominently featured on the global scientific and political agendas since the World Climate Conference in 1979 (WCC 1979), the specific importance of adaptation to climate change has only been underlined about 20 years later. The Netherlands, because it lies largely

  12. Getting practical in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, Hendrik Jan; Sonneveld, Wim; Fatih Taşar, M.

    2012-01-01

    Practical work is essential in secondary school science education. Although there is no doubt about that statement, for example in the Netherlands, there is a discussion going on about the efficiency of practical work: what do students learn when they work on practicals, and is this the most efficie

  13. Sport in the Netherlands 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Koen Breedveld

    2009-01-01

    Sport is a popular pastime in the Netherlands; More than 10 million people take part in at least one sport. To do this, they can choose from more than 27,000 non-profit sports clubs, or more than 7,200 commercial providers such as fitness centres or riding stables. Among the most popular sports are

  14. Settling in in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mérove Gijsberts; Marcel Lubbers

    2015-01-01

    Original title: Langer in Nederland What happens to the position of Poles and Bulgarians in the Netherlands in the first years following migration? This publication is based on information from a panel survey which tracks Polish and Bulgarian migrants in the first years after their entry in

  15. Ostroumovia inkermanica in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saraber, J.G.A.M.

    1962-01-01

    During an examination of the Hydromedusae from the Netherlands and adjacent waters present in the collections of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden, the Zoological Museum at Amsterdam, and the Zoological Station at Den Helder, some specimens of a medusa were found that proved to belo

  16. Refugee groups in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edith Dourleijn; Jaco Dagevos

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Vluchtelingengroepen in Nederland This report describes for the first time the socioeconomic and sociocultural position of the four largest refugee groups in the Netherlands, originating from Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran and Somalia. Virtually nothing is known about these migrants, espec

  17. Plutonic xenoliths from Martinique, Lesser Antilles: evidence for open system processes and reactive melt flow in island arc crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George F.; Davidson, Jon P.; Blundy, Jon D.

    2016-10-01

    The Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc is remarkable for the abundance and variety of erupted plutonic xenoliths. These samples provide a window into the deeper crust and record a more protracted crystallisation history than is observed from lavas alone. We present a detailed petrological and in situ geochemical study of xenoliths from Martinique in order to establish their petrogenesis, pre-eruptive storage conditions and their contribution to construction of the sub-volcanic arc crust. The lavas from Martinique are controlled by crystal-liquid differentiation. Amphibole is rarely present in the erupted lavas, but it is a very common component in plutonic xenoliths, allowing us to directly test the involvement of amphibole in the petrogenesis of arc magmas. The plutonic xenoliths provide both textural and geochemical evidence of open system processes and crystal `cargos'. All xenoliths are plagioclase-bearing, with variable proportions of olivine, spinel, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene and amphibole, commonly with interstitial melt. In Martinique, the sequence of crystallisation varies in sample type and differs from other islands of the Lesser Antilles arc. The compositional offset between plagioclase (~An90) and olivine (~Fo75), suggests crystallisation under high water contents and low pressures from an already fractionated liquid. Texturally, amphibole is either equant (crystallising early in the sequence) or interstitial (crystallising late). Interstitial amphibole is enriched in Ba and LREE compared with early crystallised amphibole and does not follow typical fractionation trends. Modelling of melt compositions indicates that a water-rich, plagioclase-undersaturated reactive melt or fluid percolated through a crystal mush, accompanied by the breakdown of clinopyroxene, and the crystallisation of amphibole. Geothermobarometry estimates and comparisons with experimental studies imply the majority of xenoliths formed in the mid-crust. Martinique cumulate xenoliths are

  18. Fall armyworm migration across the Lesser Antilles and the potential for genetic exchanges between North and South American populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoshi, Rodney N.; Hay-Roe, Mirian; Khan, Ayub; Murúa, M. Gabriela; Silvie, Pierre; Vergara, Clorinda; Westbrook, John

    2017-01-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important agricultural pest of the Western Hemisphere noted for its broad host range, long distance flight capabilities, and a propensity to develop resistance to pesticides that includes a subset of those used in genetically modified corn varieties. These characteristics exacerbate the threat fall armyworm poses to agriculture, with the potential that a resistance trait arising in one geographical location could rapidly disseminate throughout the hemisphere. A region of particular concern is the Caribbean, where a line of islands that extends from Florida to Venezuela provides a potential migratory pathway between populations from North and South America that could allow for consistent and substantial genetic interactions. In this study, surveys of populations from Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Trinidad & Tobago expand on previous work in South America that indicates a generally homogeneous population with respect to haplotype markers. This population differs from that found in most of the Lesser Antilles where a combination of genetic and meteorological observations is described that indicate fall armyworm migration from Puerto Rico to as far south as Barbados, but does not support significant incursion into Trinidad & Tobago and South America. Air transport projections demonstrate that the wind patterns in the Caribbean region are not conducive to consistent flight along the north-south orientation of the Lesser Antilles, supporting the conclusion that such migration is minor and sporadic, providing few opportunities for genetic exchanges. The implications of these findings on the dissemination of deleterious traits between the two Western Hemisphere continents are discussed. PMID:28166292

  19. Variation in Plasmodium falciparum Histidine-Rich Protein 2 (Pfhrp2) and Plasmodium falciparum Histidine-Rich Protein 3 (Pfhrp3) Gene Deletions in Guyana and Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyi Okoth, Sheila; Abdallah, Joseph F; Ceron, Nicolas; Adhin, Malti R; Chandrabose, Javin; Krishnalall, Karanchand; Huber, Curtis S; Goldman, Ira F; Macedo de Oliveira, Alexandre; Barnwell, John W; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2015-01-01

    Guyana and Suriname have made important progress in reducing the burden of malaria. While both countries use microscopy as the primary tool for clinical diagnosis, malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are useful in remote areas of the interior where laboratory support may be limited or unavailable. Recent reports indicate that histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2)-based diagnostic tests specific for detection of P. falciparum may provide false negative results in some parts of South America due to the emergence of P. falciparum parasites that lack the pfhrp2 gene, and thus produce no PfHRP2 antigen. Pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes were amplified in parasite isolates collected from Guyana and Suriname to determine if there were circulating isolates with deletions in these genes. Pfhrp3 deletions were monitored because some monoclonal antibodies utilized in PfHRP2-based RDTs cross-react with the PfHRP3 protein. We found that all 97 isolates from Guyana that met the inclusion criteria were both pfhrp2- and pfhrp3-positive. In Suriname (N = 78), 14% of the samples tested were pfhrp2-negative while 4% were pfhrp3-negative. Furthermore, analysis of the genomic region proximal to pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 revealed that genomic deletions extended to the flanking genes. We also investigated the population substructure of the isolates collected to determine if the parasites that had deletions of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 belonged to any genetic subtypes. Cluster analysis revealed that there was no predominant P. falciparum population substructure among the isolates from either country, an indication of genetic admixture among the parasite populations. Furthermore, the pfhrp2-deleted parasites from Suriname did not appear to share a single, unique genetic background.

  20. From Tonic-cups to Bitter-cups: Kwasi bita beker from Suriname Determination, past and present use of an ancient galenic artefact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odonne, G; Bourdy, G; Beauchêne, J; Houël, E; Stien, D; Chevolot, L; Deharo, E

    2007-03-21

    In the main markets of Paramaribo (Suriname), many stands offer what is locally called "Bitter-cups", or "Kwasi bita beker", small footed-cups, roughly carved from a whitish wood. The use of these cups is strictly medicinal and it seems to be restricted to Suriname, as they are not found in neighbouring countries (Guyana, French Guiana). The aim of this study was to identify the botanical origin of Bitter-cups still in use in the Saramaka traditional medicine (as information from field people was controversial), and document the ethnopharmacology of this original galenical artefact. Microscopic and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses were carried out on Bitter-cup, and anatomical criteria (marginal parenchyma band, size of intervessel and vessel-ray pits, rays width and rays composition, vessels clustering, frequency and size of parenchyma pits) together with HPLC profiles of the macerates showed that the wood cup was similar to Quassia amara L. (Simaroubaceae) wood. Ethnopharmacological investigation indicates that the use of these cups is simply due to the pharmacological properties attributed to "bitters", and is strongly linked to tradition and cultural attitudes. This study also emphasizes the long lasting use of these cups, now restricted to Suriname only, with almost no variation over one century.

  1. Experimental Evidence for Polybaric Intracrustal Differentiation of Primitive Arc Basalt beneath St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundy, Jon; Melekhova, Lena; Robertson, Richard

    2014-05-01

    We present experimental phase equilibria for a primitive, high-Mg basalt from St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles. Experimental details were presented in Melekhova et al (Nature Geosci, 2013); the objective here is to compare experimental phase compositions to those of erupted lavas and cumulates from St. Vincent. Starting material with 4.5 wt% H2O is multiply-saturated with a lherzolite assemblage at 1.3 GPa and 1180 ° C, consistent with mantle wedge derivation. Experimental glasses from our study, in addition to those of Pichavant et al (GCA, 2002) and Pichavant & Macdonald (CMP 2007) on a similar high-Mg basalt, encompass a compositional range from high-magnesian basalt to dacite, with a systematic dependence on H2O content, temperature and pressure. We are able to match the glasses from individual experiments to different lava types, so as to constrain the differentiation depths at which these magmas could be generated from a high-Mg parent, as follows: Composition wt% H2OP (GPa) T (° C) High-Mg basalt 3.9-4.8 1.45-1.751180-1200 Low-Mg basalt 2.3-4.5 1.0-1.3 1065-1150 High alumina basalt 3.0-4.5 0.4 1050-1080 Basaltic andesite 0.6-4.5 0.7-1.0 1050-1130 Andesite 0.6 1.0 1060-1080 The fact that St. Vincent andesites (and some basaltic andesites) appear to derive from a low-H2O (0.6 wt%) parent suggest that they are products of partial melting of older, high-Mg gabbroic rocks, as 0.6 wt% H2O is approximately the amount that can be stored in amphibole-bearing gabbros. The higher H2O contents of parents for the other lava compositions is consistent with derivation by crystallization of basalts with H2O contents that accord with those of olivine-hosted melt inclusions from St. Vincent (Bouvier et al, J Petrol, 2008). The generation of evolved melts both by basalt crystallization and gabbro melting is consistent with the hot zone concept of Annen et al (J Petrol, 2006) wherein repeated intrusion of mantle-derived basalt simultaneously crystallize by cooling and melt

  2. Genetic evidence of hybridization between the endangered native species Iguana delicatissima and the invasive Iguana iguana (Reptilia, Iguanidae) in the Lesser Antilles: management Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Vuillaume; Victorien Valette; Olivier Lepais; Frédéric Grandjean; Michel Breuil

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide increase of hybridization in different groups is thought to have become more important with the loss of isolating barriers and the introduction of invasive species. This phenomenon could result in the extinction of endemic species. This study aims at investigating the hybridization dynamics between the endemic and threatened Lesser Antillean iguana (Iguana delicatissima) and the invasive common green iguana (Iguana iguana) in the Lesser Antilles, as well as assessing the impact ...

  3. Record of Plio-Pleistocene extreme event in the Lesser Antilles fore-arc basin. Example of Grande-Terre (Guadeloupe, French West Indies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanlèn, L.; Philippon, M. M.; Randrianasolo, A.; Jean-Frederic, L.; Cornée, J. J.; Münch, P.

    2015-12-01

    Guadeloupe archipelago is part of the Lesser Antilles active volcanic arc and is therefore subjected to both enhanced seismic and volcanic activity related to the Lesser Antilles subduction zone, along which the Atlantic plate is subducted westward bellow the Caribbean plate. The volcanic arc is composed of several immerged volcanic islands (St Kitts, Nevis Montserrat, Basse Terre, Dominica, Martinique, St Lucia, Grenada) and submerged volcanoes (Kick em'Jenny). These volcanoes are known to be explosives and when they are entering in an eruptive cycle, debris flow could potentially initiate a tsunami and generate peculiar deposits within the sedimentary record recognized as tsunami deposits (or tsunamite). Subduction- related earthquakes might also initiate slope instabilities and trigger debris flow. Another controlling factor of slope (in-)-stabilities and debris flow is massive rainfalls. During cyclonic season (June to December), massive rainfalls are recorded in the area, which moreover is located on the trajectory of Atlantic Hurricanes that are responsible for numerous landslides. As a consequence, tsunami deposit are described and well studied in the Lesser Antilles arc as the islands shoreline and coastal plain are perpetually re-shaped by hurricanes responsible for tempestite deposits. However, the report of these deposit concern recent to actual events, for example present-day deposits consisting of large (metric) boulders, more or less aligned, located in the supralittoral fringe can be observed along Guadeloupe shore. In this study, we investigate the Plio-pleistocene sedimentary sequence of Grande Terre carbonate platform (Guadeloupe), and track the presence of such extreme-event related deposits and discuss our findings in the frame of the Lesser Antilles geological context.

  4. 75 FR 30431 - Carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... COMMISSION Carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY: United States... on carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden. SUMMARY: The Commission... carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden would be likely to lead to continuation...

  5. Propagação da pitangueira através da enxertia de garfagem Surinam cherry propagation through grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Cezar Franzon

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A pitangueira é uma frutífera nativa com potencial para exploração comercial. Entretanto, os métodos de propagação mais comuns não são satisfatórios para a multiplicação desta espécie em larga escala. O objetivo do trabalho foi o de avaliar o uso do método de enxertia de garfagem no topo, em fenda cheia e dupla fenda, bem como a melhor época para a realização desta prática (julho, agosto e setembro, nas condições do Sul do Brasil. O experimento foi conduzido no ano de 2005, na Embrapa Clima Temperado, Pelotas-RS. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 3 (tipo de garfagem x época de enxertia, com 5 repetições. Conclui-se que a enxertia de garfagem no topo, em fenda cheia e/ou em dupla fenda, pode ser utilizada para a propagação vegetativa da pitangueira durante o inverno, sendo que a enxertia de garfagem em fenda cheia proporcionou melhores percentuais de pegamento dos enxertos (60,0% do que a garfagem em dupla fenda (44,2%. Quanto à época, os melhores percentuais foram obtidos no mês de setembro, com 67,5% de pegamento dos enxertos, seguido pelo mês de agosto e julho, com 51,3% e 37,5%, respectivamente.The Surinam cherry is a native fruit from Brazil with a great potential for commercial production. However, the common clonal propagation methods have not given a high percentage of success. The present work had the aim to test the use of two types of grafting: cleft graft and wedge graft as well as the best time to use this technique (July, August and September, under Southern Brazil conditions. The experiment was carried out at EMBRAPA Clima Temperado, in Pelotas, RS, in the year of 2005. The experimental design was completely randomized arranged as a 2x3 factorial plan (type of grafting x time, with 5 replications . It was concluded that both types of grafting could be used, during the winter time, for asexual propagation of Surinam cherry. Cleft grafting had the highest percentage of

  6. The Poor Side of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cok Vrooman; Stella Hoff

    2004-01-01

    Poverty is a theme that has attracted a great deal of attention in the Netherlands over the last decade, both in government policy and in academic research and statistics. Since 1997 the Social and Cultural Planning Office (SCP) and Statistics Netherlands (CBS) have published a regular Poverty

  7. The Upper Permian in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, W.A.

    1955-01-01

    The Upper Permian in the Netherlands, as known from borehole data, is deposited in a mainly evaporitic facies north of the Brabant and Rhenish Massifs. In the extreme south (Belgian Campine, de Peel) a near-shore facies of reef dolomites and elastics occurs. In the western and central Netherlands th

  8. Agricultural marketing in Belgium and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Viaene, J.

    1993-01-01

    Agriculture in Belgium and the Netherlands has a strong export tradition and has been market oriented for a long time. In this article agricultural markeling in Belgium and the Netherlands is analyzed on the basis of the concepts structure, conduct and performance. In our review of market structure

  9. Rise in maternal mortality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Schutte; E.A.P. Steegers; N.W.E. Schuitemaker; J.G. Santema; K. de Boer; M. Pel; G. Vermeulen; W. Visser; J. van Roosmalen

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess causes, trends and substandard care factors in maternal mortality in the Netherlands. Design Confidential enquiry into the causes of maternal mortality. Setting Nationwide in the Netherlands. Population 2,557,208 live births. Methods Data analysis of all maternal deaths in the pe

  10. Serious road injuries in The Netherlands dissected.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, W.A.M. Bos, N.M. & Stipdonk, H.L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the characteristics and injury patterns of serious road injuries (MAIS2+ inpatients) in the Netherlands. Methods: In the Netherlands, the actual number of serious injuries is estimated by linking police data to hospital data. The distribution of serious road injuries over 1)

  11. Human hantavirus infections in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sane, Jussi; Reimerink, Johan; Harms, Margriet; Bakker, Jacinta; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Schimmer, Barbara; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2014-12-01

    We report the recent epidemiology and estimated seroprevalence of human hantavirus infections in the Netherlands. Sixty-two cases were reported during December 2008-December 2013. The estimated seroprevalence in the screened municipalities in 2006-2007 was 1.7% (95% CI 1.3%-2.3%). Findings suggest that hantavirus infections are underdiagnosed in the Netherlands.

  12. The Poor Side of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cok Vrooman; Stella Hoff

    2004-01-01

    Poverty is a theme that has attracted a great deal of attention in the Netherlands over the last decade, both in government policy and in academic research and statistics. Since 1997 the Social and Cultural Planning Office (SCP) and Statistics Netherlands (CBS) have published a regular Poverty Monit

  13. The Upper Permian in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, W.A.

    1955-01-01

    The Upper Permian in the Netherlands, as known from borehole data, is deposited in a mainly evaporitic facies north of the Brabant and Rhenish Massifs. In the extreme south (Belgian Campine, de Peel) a near-shore facies of reef dolomites and elastics occurs. In the western and central Netherlands

  14. Independent Local Political Parties in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, G.; Boogers, M.

    2010-01-01

    In the last 15 years, the Netherlands has witnessed the enormous growth of independent local parties and of their electoral support. In order to assess the success of independent locals in the Netherlands, this paper explores how independent local parties distinguish themselves ideologically, organi

  15. Brigas de família e a dinâmica do parentesco entre judeus do Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Niemeyer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo a seguir trata, do ponto de vista etnográfico, das "brigas" (familievete/vechten entre famílias judaicas em Paramaribo, capital do Suriname. A "briga" é entendida, no contexto etnográfico em questão, como momento não apenas de ruptura, mas de surgimento de novas alianças através da "tomada de lados" (partij kiezen /deel te nemen. Parentelas não atualizadas são acionadas, e pessoas se tornam "parentes" (relatief, da mesma forma que certas relações arrefecem, distanciando os sujeitos e mudando a forma de se referir a estes. As "brigas", além disso, trazem à tona a distinção nativa entre o dado e o construído: alguns, por se omitirem nessas contendas ou tomarem outro "lado", tornam-se parentes apenas de "sangue" (bloed ou "nome" (naam. Buscar-se-á, dessa forma, explorar a dimensão positiva dessas "brigas", entendendo-as não apenas como provocadoras do que chamaríamos "rompimento", mas produtoras de novas alianças e obrigações.

  16. Co-located ground-based remote sensing and in situ measurements at the tropical atmospheric observatory in Suriname

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, T.; Petersen, K.; Gerbig, C.; Macatangay, R.; Koerner, S.; Jordan, A.; Rothe, M.; Notholt, J.; Schrems, O.

    2009-04-01

    The first ground-based remote sensing measurements of the column averaged volume mixing ratio of CO2 (XCO2) for the inner tropics have been obtained at Paramaribo, Suriname (5.8°N, 55.2°W). Due to the migration of the ITCZ over the measurement location the probed air masses belong to the northern or southern hemisphere depending on the time of the year. The XCO2 shows an average annual increase in the Southern Hemisphere of 2.2 ppm for the time period 2004 to 2007, which agrees within the error with model simulations. Co-located in-situ measurements are strongly influenced by a local source. From the isotopic composition of the air samples the local source component is suggested to be the terrestrial biosphere. Using d13C from the NOAA/ESRL stations Ascension Is. (ASC) and Ragged Point (RPB) the data has been corrected for the local source component. The corrected mixing ratios for the surface as well as the XCO2 qualitatively agree with model simulations.

  17. Rainfall variability in suriname and its relationship with the tropical Pacific ENSO SST anomalies and the Atlantic SST anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmohamed, Riad; Naipal, Sieuwnath; Becker, Cor

    2007-02-01

    Spatial correlations in the annual rainfall anomalies are analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). Cross correlation analysis and composites are used to measure the influence of sea-surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) in the tropical Atlantic (TA) and the tropical Pacific Ocean on the seasonal rainfall in Suriname. It is shown that the spatial and time variability in rainfall is mainly determined by the meridional movement of the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ). The rainfall anomalies are fairly uniform over the whole country. The strongest correlation in the December-January rainfall (short wet season) at station Cultuurtuin is found to occur with the SSTAs in the Pacific region and is about ckNino1 + 2 = 0.59 at lag 1 month. In the March-May rainfall (beginning of the long wet season), there is a lagged correlation with the SSTAs in the Pacific region (clag3Nino1 + 2 = 0.59). The June-August rainfall (end of the long wet season) shows the highest correlation with SSTAs in the TSA region and is about c = -0.52 for lag 0. In the September-November long dry season there is also a lagged correlation with the TSA SSTAs of about clag3 = 0.66. These different correlations and predictors can be used for seasonal rainfall predictions.

  18. Strategies for navigating large areas: a GIS spatial ecology analysis of the bearded saki monkey, Chiropotes sagulatus, in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Tremaine; Mullett, Amanda; Norconk, Marilyn A

    2014-06-01

    Animals with long day paths and large home ranges expend a considerable amount of energy on travel. Studies have shown that in the interest of reducing energy expenditure, animals selectively navigate the landscape using a variety of strategies. However, these studies have generally focused on terrestrial animals. Here we present data on an exceedingly mobile arboreal animal, bearded saki monkeys, in a topographically variable landscape in Suriname. Using ArcMap and Google Earth, we explore two potential navigation strategies: the nonrandom use of travel areas and the use of ridges in slope navigation. Over a year of data collection, bearded sakis were found to use relatively long travel paths daily, use some areas more intensely than others for travel, and when travel paths were converted to strings of points, 40.3% and 63.9% of the points were located on (50 m from the main ridgeline) or near (100 m from the main ridgeline) ridge tops, respectively. Thus in a habitat of high relief we found support for intensive use of ridge tops or slopes close to ridge tops by bearded sakis. Selective habitat use may be related to surveying tree crowns for fruit by large, fast moving groups of bearded sakis or monitoring the presence of potential predators.

  19. Venezuela, Surinam, Jamaica y Uruguay: relevancia de los partidos políticos para la democracia, ayer y hoy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascha Adama

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El postulado de que los sistemas bipartidistas son más estables es negado por las crisis políticas habidas en Uruguay y Jamaica en las décadas de 1960 y 1970. Los sistemas multipartidistas de Venezuela y Uruguay, en cierto momento histórico, acomodaron la realización de pactos y alianzas políticas aparentemente improbables, que en tiempos de crisis llevaron a la fragmentación del panorama político y a profundas crisis de liderazgo que continúan determinando la sociedad de hoy. Este artículo sostiene la hipótesis de que los sistemas bipartidistas tienen mayor propensión a la estabilidad política debido a que la agregación de demandas se concentra entre dos contendientes principales y a que las posibilidades de pactos políticos se ven limitadas. La hipótesis mencionada será explorada mediante el examen de: 1 la relevancia de los sistemas de partidos para la democratización, en general y en los casos de Jamaica, Uruguay, Surinam y Venezuela; 2 el papel de los partidos en los países mencionados durante y después de las crisis políticas, y su capacidad para re-equilibrarse y ajustarse ante las presiones del cambio social.

  20. Thermal regime along the Antilles subduction zone: Influence of the oceanic lithosphere materials subducted in the oceanic crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biari, Youssef; Marcaillou, Boris; Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Francis, Lucazeau; Fréderique, Rolandone; Arnauld, Heuret; Thibaud, Pichot; Hélène, Bouquerel

    2017-04-01

    Heat-flow measurements acquired during the Antithesis Cruise in the Northern Lesser Antilles reveal an atypical heat-flow trend, from the trench to the margin forearc, where the subducting crust consists of exhumed and serpentinized mantle rocks (see Marcaillou et al. same session). We investigate the thermal structure of the Lesser Antilles subduction zone along two transects perpendicular to the margin located off Antigua and Martinique Islands. We perform 2-D steady-state finite elements thermal modelling constrained by newly-recorded and existing data: heat flow measurements, deep multichannel reflection and wide angle seismic data as well as earthquake hypocenters location at depth. Along the Martinique profile, the heat-flow decreases from the trench (45 mW.m-2) to minimum in the outer fore-arc (30 mW.m-2) and increases to a plateau (50 mW.m-2) toward the back-arc area. These trend and values are typical for the subduction of a steep 80-MYr old oceanic plate beneath an oceanic margin. As a result, the 150°-350°C temperature range along the interplate contact, commonly associated to the thermally-defined seismogenic zone, is estimated to be located between 200 - 350km from the trench. In contrast, along the Antigua profile, the heat-flow shows an atypical "flat" trend at 40 ± 15 mW.m-2 from the trench to the inner forearc. Purely conductive thermal models fail at fitting both the measured values and the flat trend. We propose that the subducting crust made of serpentinized exhumed mantle rock strongly affecting the heat-flow at the surface and the margin thermal structure. The geothermal gradient in the 5-km-thick serpentinized layer is expected to be low compared to "normal" oceanic crust because of cold water percolation and peridotite alteration. Moreover, from 50km depth, serpentine dehydration reactions provide significant amounts of hot water expelled toward the upper plate, generated heat beneath the forearc. As a result, in our preferred model: 1/ A

  1. Geothermal activity related to transtensional context evidenced by petrological and structural data in the St Kitts Island (Lesser Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diraison, Marc; Corsini, Michel; Haffen, Sébastien; Géraud, Yves; Navelot, Vivien

    2017-04-01

    Volcanic area may be the main target for high enthalpy geothermal production. Several islands in Lesser Antilles want to develop this energy to produce electricity; St Kitts is one of them. Field analysis allows to propose a geodynamic framework for the dynamic of hydrothermal reservoir in the vicinity of an active volcano. St. Kitts Island is located in the northern part of the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc. Volcanic activity initiated at around 3 Ma in the southern part of the island and migrated progressively north-westward until its current position at the active Mt. Liamuiga volcano. Andesites are the large majority of magmatic rocks in the form of lava, dome, sills and dikes intrusive into pyroclastic deposits. Several evidences of active hydrothermal system such as fumaroles, boiling water are present in the St Kitts Island. All of these activities are structurally controlled. Satellite images and Digital Topographic Map analyses at regional scale and systematic measurement of fractures at outcrop scale highlight four main structural lineaments with NE-SW, NW-SE, N-S, and E-W trends respectively. Furthermore detailed field observations allow us to precise the geometry and kinematics of major faults. The main NW-SE steeply dipping left-lateral strike-slip faults and associated NE-SW normal faults with a NW dip correspond to a trans-tensional context. The southern oldest part of the island exposes greenschist facies rocks, which contrast with the non-metamorphic northern younger rocks. This huge jump of metamorphism could reflect exhumation related to normal faulting. In the Frigate Bay area, on the trace of main normal fault, the rocks present an intensive structural and petrological transformations related to hydrothermal fluid circulations. Located at the intersection of the main fault system, this site is interpreted as a hydrothermal paleosystem and is considered as an analogue of the deep northern part of the island under a current hydrothermal activity

  2. Transactional sex among men who have sex with men in the French Antilles and French Guiana: frequency and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelschmidt, Justine; Parriault, Marie-Claire; Van Melle, Astrid; Basurko, Célia; Gontier, Barbara; Cabié, André; Hoen, Bruno; Sow, Marie-Thérèse; Nacher, Mathieu

    2017-06-01

    The French Antilles (Martinique, Saint Martin and Guadeloupe) and French Guiana are the French territories most affected by the HIV epidemic. Some population groups such as men who have sex with men (MSM), especially those involved in transactional sex, are thought to be particularly vulnerable to HIV but few data exist to help characterize their health-related needs and thus implement relevant prevention interventions. To fill this knowledge gap, we used data collected from an HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviours and Practices survey conducted in 2012 among MSM living in the French Antilles and French Guiana and recruited through snowball sampling. Our objectives were to compare social and demographic characteristics and sexual behaviours between MSM engaging in transactional sex and MSM not engaging in transactional sex and to identify factors associated with transactional sex involvement using a logistic regression model. A total of 733 MSM were interviewed, 21% of whom reported to undergo transactional sex. Their behaviour and social and demographic characteristics were different from other MSMs' and they were more exposed to factors that are recognized to potentiate HIV vulnerability, at the individual, community, network and structural levels. The variables positively associated with sex trade involvement were having ever consumed drug (OR = 2.84 [1.23-6.52]; p = .002), having a greater number of sex partners than the median (OR = 8.31 [4.84-14.30]; p < .001), having experienced intimate partner violence (OR = 1.72 [0.99-3.00]; p = .053) and having undergone physical aggression because of sexual orientation (OR = 2.84 [1.23-6.52]; p = .014). Variables negatively associated with sex trade involvement were being older (OR = 0.93 [0.90-0.97] per year; p = .001), having a stable administrative situation (OR = 0.10 [0.06-0.19]; p < .001), having a stable housing (OR = 0.29 [0.15-0.55]; p < .001) and

  3. Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesemann, P.

    2002-01-01

    A great deal of effort is still needed to improve road safety in Europe. Criteria were formulated which can be used to determine whether there is sufficient need for government intervention in traffic and road safety. Evaluation tools were developed to determine the optimum size of the total

  4. Preparedness actions towards seismic risk mitigation for the general public in Martinique, French Lesser Antilles: a mid-term appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Audru

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Martinique is a French island in the Lesser Antilles, with a high seismic hazard. In 2006, Martinican stakeholders involved in seismic safety formed the "Réplik" working group ("Aftershock" in French, the first of its kind in this region. This paper addresses a mid-term appraisal of the first seismic awareness campaign organised by Réplik from 2006 to 2011, and how it has modified, or not, local earthquake and tsunami preparedness. Despite efforts from Réplik to assess its efficiency through surveys, a growing gap is noted between the observed awareness and the actual preparedness of the public. As usual, gender, age, educational level, then boredom and saturation contribute to this discrepancy; strong cultural items may also influence the perception of actions. To remain efficient and respond to the public's expectations, Réplik must redirect its actions towards a cultural congruence of information: consideration of religion and local beliefs, comprehensive messages on TV and radio, use of the Creole language, participatory experiences and drills, and a little science. With this, the Réplik stakeholders can hope to increase Martinicans' involvement into the preparedness process, to cope quickly with a strong earthquake and this know-how can be shared with other seismically active islands in the Caribbean.

  5. Invertebrate distribution patterns and river typology for the implementation of the water framework directive in Martinique, French Lesser Antilles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadet C.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, Europe’s Water Framework Directive provided compelling reasons for developing tools for the biological assessment of freshwater ecosystem health in member States. Yet, the lack of published study for Europe’s overseas regions reflects minimal knowledge of the distribution patterns of aquatic species in Community’s outermost areas. Benthic invertebrates (84 taxa and land-cover, physical habitat and water chemistry descriptors (26 variables were recorded at fifty-one stations in Martinique, French Lesser Antilles. Canonical Correspondence Analysis and Ward’s algorithm were used to bring out patterns in community structure in relation to environmental conditions, and variation partitioning was used to specify the influence of geomorphology and anthropogenic disturbance on invertebrate communities. Species richness decreased from headwater to lowland streams, and species composition changed from northern to southern areas. The proportion of variation explained by geomorphological variables was globally higher than that explained by anthropogenic variables. Geomorphology and land cover played key roles in delineating ecological sub-regions for the freshwater biota. Despite this and the small surface area of Martinique (1080 km2, invertebrate communities showed a clear spatial turnover in composition and biological traits (e.g., insects, crustaceans and molluscs in relation to natural conditions.

  6. Remote sensing observations of the coherent and non-coherent ring structures in the vicinity of Lesser Antilles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Cruz Gómez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The North Brazil Current Rings (NBCR penetration into the Caribbean Sea is being investigated by employing a merged altimeter-derived sea height anomaly (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 and ERS-1, 2, the ocean surface color data (SeaWiFS and Global Drifter Program information. Four strategies are being applied to process the data: (1 calculations of the Okubo-Weiss parameter for NBCR identification, (2 longitude-time plots (also known as Hovmöller diagrams, (3 two-dimensional Radon transforms and (4 two-dimensional Fourier transforms.

    A twofold NBCR structure has been detected in the region under investigation. The results have shown that NBC rings mainly propagate into the Caribbean Sea along two principal pathways (near 12° N and 17° N in the ring translation corridor. Thus, rings following the southern pathway in the fall-winter period can enter through very shallow southern straits as non-coherent structures. A different behavior is observed near the northern pathway (~17° N, where NBC rings are thought to have a coherent structure during their squeezing into the eastern Caribbean, i.e. conserving the principal characteristics of the incident rings. We attribute this difference in the rings' behavior to the vertical scales of the rings and to the bottom topography features in the vicinity of the Lesser Antilles.

  7. Origin and transport of tropical cirrus clouds observed over Paramaribo, Suriname (5.8°N, 55.2°W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuin, J. P. F.; Becker, C. R.; Fujiwara, M.; Immler, F.; Kelder, H. M.; Scheele, M. P.; Schrems, O.; Verver, G. H. L.

    2007-05-01

    The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) passes twice a year over tropical Suriname, bringing two wet and two dry seasons. During a pilot study campaign in Suriname, cirrus clouds were observed with a mobile aerosol Raman lidar (MARL) and with balloon sondes containing a frost point hygrometer called Snow White, over the period October-November 2004. These observations are used to study the origin of cirrus clouds and the dynamical processes that determine their transport, using European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational analyses. The height of cirrus occurrence is in phase with the height of the cold point tropopause, with maximum heights occurring during Northern Hemisphere winter that are about 2 km above the minimum values in summertime. The occurrence of cirrus often corresponds with a northerly meridional wind flow (in a layer underneath the tropopause), also when the ITCZ lies to the south in the period January-May. ECMWF analyses point out that inertial instability flow, in the form of vertically stacked meridional circulation cells in the upper troposphere (UT), can explain the transport of these cirrus events. Also evident is that radiative cooling of a moist layer transported in the UT leads to a thermal wind in the form of an easterly/westerly jet associated with the southward/northward transport of moist air. An interactive play between the inertial instability and thermal wind mechanisms explains many of the observed features of cirrus occurrence over Suriname. The observed cirrus mostly originates from the ITCZ or from deep convective centers to the south that form during the early summer monsoon.

  8. Randomized single-blinded non-inferiority trial of 7 mg/kg pentamidine isethionate versus 4 mg/kg pentamidine isethionate for cutaneous leishmaniaisis in Suriname.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo V P F Hu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Standard treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Suriname entails three injections of pentamidine isethionate (PI 4 mg/kg per injection in 7 days (7 day regimen. Compliance to treatment is low and may contribute to increasing therapy failure. A 3 day regimen, including 2 injections of 7 mg/kg in 3 days may increase compliance.In a randomized, single-blinded non-inferiority trial conducted in Suriname, 84 CL patients received the 7 day regimen and 79 CL patients received the 3 day regimen. Primary objective was the proportion of patients clinically cured at 6 weeks follow-up. Secondary objectives were clinical cure at 12 weeks follow-up; parasitological cure at 6 and 12 weeks; adverse and drug related toxicity events recorded one week after the end of treatment and health related quality of life. The non-inferiority margin was set at 15%, 1 sided test, α = 0.1.At 6 weeks follow-up 31 (39% patients in the 3 day regimen and 41 (49% patients in the 7 day regimen were clinically cured. Intention to treat (ITT analyses showed that the difference in proportion clinically cured was -9.6% (90% Confidence Interval (CI: -22.3% to 3.2%. Per protocol (PP analysis showed that the difference in proportion clinically cured was 0.2% (90% CI: -14.6% to 15.2%. ITT analysis showed that the difference in proportion parasitological cured at 6 weeks was -15.2% (90% CI:-28.0% to -2.5%. PP analyses showed similar results. Non-inferiority could not be concluded for all adverse and toxicological events.We cannot conclude that the 3 day regimen is non-inferior to the 7 day regimen regarding proportion clinically and parasitological cured. Therefore there is no evidence to change the current standard practice of the 7 day regimen for the treatment of CL in Suriname.

  9. Netherlands Subsidy State; Nederland Subsidiestaat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhoudt, J.R.; Heemeijer, P.

    2004-09-01

    For each ministry in the Netherlands ten of the largest subsidies were analyzed by means of four criteria. Based on the results of the analysis recommendations are formulated to abolish a large number of subsidies. [Dutch] Deze brochure biedt een analyse van de tien grootste subsidies per ministerie. De ministeries van Binnenlandse Zaken, Financien en Defensie zijn, om praktische redenen, samengevoegd. Gezamenlijk beslaan de tien grootste subsidieregelingen van alle ministeries ruim 19 miljard euro. De in totaal 100 subsidieregelingen zijn getoetst aan vier criteria, en op basis van deze toetsing zijn aanbevelingen gedaan. De Edmund Burke Stichting stelt voor om bijna viervijfde (78 procent) van de ruim 19 miljard euro aan onderzochte subsidies af te schaffen. Deze besparing komt jaarlijks neer op ruim 15 miljard euro. De afschaffing van de huursubsidie en de studiefinanciering, als ook de afschaffing van subsidies aan bedrijven, dragen bij tot deze grote besparing.

  10. Surgical training in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel-Rinkes, Inne H M; Gouma, Dirk J; Hamming, Jaap F

    2008-10-01

    Surgical training in the Netherlands has traditionally been characterized by learning on the job under the classic master-trainee doctrine. Over the past decades, it has become regionally organized with intensive structural training courses, and a peer-based quality control system. Recently, the nationwide programme has been modernized further and now involves a systematic, competency-based education with structural training courses, formalized assessment and room for reflection by residents under the supervision of surgical teaching groups. To this end, a uniform web-based digital portfolio is being introduced to facilitate monitoring of the individual resident's progress. Though requiring inspirational leadership, commitment, and determination, this modernization has sparked enthusiasm among trainees and teachers.

  11. Train suicides in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houwelingen, Cornelis A J; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Beersma, Domien G M

    2010-12-01

    Little is known about train suicide and factors influencing its prevalence. This study tests the hypotheses that railway density, railway transportation volume, familiarity with railway transportation and population density contribute to train suicide. It also tests the relationship between train suicide and general population suicide and examines the prevalence and the characteristics of high-risk locations and their contribution to the grand total of train suicides. Trends in train suicides were compared with trends in railway track length, train kilometres, passenger kilometres and national suicide figures over the period 1950-2007. The geographical distribution over the national network over the period 1980-2007 was studied. Data were obtained from The Netherlands Railways, Prorail and Statistics Netherlands. 1. The incidence of train suicides is unrelated to railway parameters. 2. Being familiar with railway transportation as a passenger is not a contributory factor. 3. Train suicide rates are unrelated to regional population density. 4. The incidence of train suicides parallels that of general population suicides. 5. Half of the train suicides took place at a limited number of locations, the most important of which were situated within a village or town and were close to a psychiatric hospital. Most conclusions are based on correlational relationships between variables. 1. Train suicide trends reflect trends in general population suicides. 2. Increased train transportation does not lead to more train suicides. 3. The prevention of train suicide at high-risk locations (HRLs) in built-up areas and near psychiatric hospitals deserves first priority. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Tropospheric ozone over a tropical Atlantic station in the Northern Hemisphere: Paramaribo, Surinam (6 deg N, 55 deg W)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, W.; Krol, M.C. [Inst. for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht (Netherlands); Fortuin, J.P.F.; Kelder, H.M. [Koninklijke Nederlandse Meteorologische Dienst, De Bilt (Netherlands); Thompson, A.M. [Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Becker, C.R. [Meteorologische Dienst Suriname, Paramaribo (Suriname); Lelieveld, J.; Crutzen, P.J. [Max Planck Inst. fuer Chemie, Mainz (Germany)

    2004-02-01

    We present an analysis of 2.5 yr of weekly ozone soundings conducted at a new monitoring station in Paramaribo, Surinam (6 deg N, 55 deg W). This is currently one of only three ozone sounding stations in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) tropics, and the only one in the equatorial Atlantic region. Paramaribo is part of the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozone Sounding program (SHADOZ). Owing to its position close to the equator, the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) passes over Paramaribo twice per year, which results in a semi-annual seasonality of many parameters including relative humidity and ozone. The dataset from Paramaribo is used to: (1) evaluate the ozone variability relative to precipitation, atmospheric circulation patterns and biomass burning; (2) contrast ozone at the NH equatorial Atlantic with that at nearby Southern Hemisphere (SH) stations Natal (6 deg S, 35 deg W) and Ascension (8 deg S, 14 deg W); (3) compare the seasonality of tropospheric ozone with a satellite-derived ozone product: tropical tropospheric ozone columns from the modified residual method (MR-TTOC). We find that Paramaribo is a distinctly Atlantic station. Despite its position north of the equator, it resembles nearby SH stations during most of the year. Transport patterns in the lower and middle troposphere during February and March differ from SH stations, which leads to a seasonality of ozone with two maxima. MR-TTOC over Paramaribo does not match the observed seasonality of ozone due to the use of a SH ozone sonde climatology in the MR method. The Paramaribo ozone record is used to suggest an improvement for Northern Hemisphere MR-TTOC retrievals. We conclude that station Paramaribo shows unique features in the region, and clearly adds new information to the existing SHADOZ record.

  13. Trophic ecology of Atlantic seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri: Intertidal benthic microalgae support the subtidal food web off Suriname

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Tomas; De Backer, Annelies; Kerkhove, Thomas; Dakriet, Nyasha Nanseerà; De Troch, Marleen; Vincx, Magda; Hostens, Kris

    2016-12-01

    A combination of stomach content analyses and dual stable isotope analyses was used to reveal the trophic ecology of Atlantic seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri off the coast of Suriname. This coastal penaeid shrimp species has a rather omnivorous diet, feeding opportunistically on both animal prey and primary food sources. The species is a predator of hyperbenthic crustaceans, including copepods, amphipods and the luciferid shrimp Lucifer faxoni, which are mainly preyed upon during daytime, when these prey typically reside near the seabed. Benthic microalgae (BM) from intertidal mudflats and offshore sedimentary organic matter (SOM) were important primary food sources. Due to their depleted 13C values, coastal sedimentary and suspended organic matter, and carbon from riverine and mangrove-derived detritus were not incorporated by X. kroyeri. An ontogenetic diet shift was observed from postlavae to juveniles and adults. Adult X. kroyeri were located higher in the food chain, mainly preying on larger benthic organisms. Intertidal BM were an important food source for all life stages of X. kroyeri, contributing up to 64% to the overall diet based on a Bayesian mixing model. Because X. kroyeri is the main epibenthic organism found at high densities in nearshore waters up to 30 m depth, the species plays a crucial role in transferring energy from low trophic level prey and primary food sources up to higher levels in the food chain. Our results indicate that primary production on intertidal mudflats, through BM, forms an important energy source for the subtidal turbid-water food web in muddy tropical coasts. Conservation of intertidal areas and their associated mangrove systems will therefore likely benefit coastal shrimp production and fisheries in tropical ecosystems.

  14. Salinization processes in paleowaters in coastal sediments of Suriname: evidence from δ37Cl analysis and diffusion modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, J.; Velstra, J.; Meesters, A. G. C. A.

    2000-06-01

    In the coastal plain of Suriname a stagnant body of fresh (<250 mg/l Cl) and moderately brackish (250-1000 mg/l Cl) groundwater of meteoric origin is found in permeable Tertiary formations. This groundwater body, formed during the last Wisconsin regression, extends offshore into deposits on the continental shelf. The authors found that this paleowater is slowly being salinized by downward solute transport from overlying Holocene marine clays and upward transport from saline Cretaceous sediments. The downward transport has been studied at two sites by relating analyses of chloride contents and 37Cl/ 35Cl isotope ratios in pore water with computer simulations of diffusive transport. Optimization of process parameters yielded an effective diffusion coefficient of 7×10 -10 m 2/s and a fractionation factor of 1.0027, which agrees well with earlier studies. With the computer model the following periods of marine influence were found: 6000-4,100 yr BP and 10,000-500 yr BP at the sites located 20 and 3 km from the coastline, respectively. According to the diffusion model the downward flux of salts has not penetrated deeper than 100 m. Salts below this depth are thought to originate from the Cretaceous sediments. However, groundwater chloride concentration and chlorine isotope data are scarce below this depth, while uncertainty regarding the various regressions and transgressions precludes solute transport modelling. Clay layers at the base of the Tertiary appear to inhibit the upward transport by lateral dispersive mixing at the Tertiary/Cretaceous boundary. Oil reservoirs are also related to these clay seals. The presence of the seal, and perhaps the oil below, can therefore be predicted by the chloride profile in the upper 250 m.

  15. Impact of the slab dip change onto the deformation partitioning in the northern Lesser Antilles oblique subduction zone (Antigua-Virgin Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurencin, Muriel; Marcaillou, Boris; Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Graindorge, David; Lebrun, Jean-Frédéric; Laigle, Mireille; Lallemand, Serge

    2017-04-01

    Marine geophysical cruises Antithesis (2013-2016) investigate the impact of the variations in interplate geometry onto margin tectonic deformation along the strongly oblique Lesser Antilles subduction zone. A striking features of this margin is the drastic increase in earthquake number from the quiet Barbuda-St Martin segment to the Virgin Islands platform. Wide-angle seismic data highlight a northward shallowing of the downgoing plate: in a 150 km distance from the deformation front, the slab dipping angle in the convergence direction decreases from 12° offshore of Antigua Island to 7° offshore of Virgin Islands. North-South wide-angle seismic line substantiates a drastic slab-dip change that likely causes this northward shallowing. This dip change is located beneath the southern tip of the Virgin Islands platform where the Anegada Passage entails the upper plate. Based on deep seismic lines and bathymetric data, the Anegada Passage is a 450 km long W-E trending set of pull-apart basins and strike-slip faults that extends from the Lesser Antilles accretionary prism to Puerto Rico. The newly observed sedimentary architecture within pull-apart Sombrero and Malliwana basins indicates a polyphased tectonic history. A past prominent NW-SE extensive to transtensive phase, possibly related to the Bahamas Bank collision, opened the Anegada Passage as previously published. Transpressive tectonic evidences indicate that these structures have been recently reactivated in an en-echelon sinistral strike-slip system. The interpreted strain ellipsoid is consistent with deformation partitioning. We propose that the slab northward shallowing increases the interplate coupling and the seismic activity beneath the Virgin Islands platform comparatively to the quiet Barbuda-St Martin segment. It is noteworthy that the major tectonic partitioning structure in the Lesser Antilles forearc is located above the slab dip change where the interplate seismic coupling increases.

  16. Clinical immunology - Autoimmunity in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical immunology is in the Netherlands a separate clinical specialty within internal medicine and pediatrics. Clinical immunologists work closely together with nephrologists, rheumatologists and many other medical specialists. Apart from research and teaching, clinical immunologists are taking ca

  17. Clinical immunology - Autoimmunity in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical immunology is in the Netherlands a separate clinical specialty within internal medicine and pediatrics. Clinical immunologists work closely together with nephrologists, rheumatologists and many other medical specialists. Apart from research and teaching, clinical immunologists are taking

  18. De la production fruitière intégrée à la gestion écologique des vergers aux Antilles

    OpenAIRE

    Lavigne, Claire; Lesueur-Jannoyer, M.; Lacroix, S.; Chauvet, G.; Lavigne, A.; Dufeal, D.

    2011-01-01

    La forte anthropisation aux Antilles françaises, la pression des monocultures de banane et de canne à sucre, et l’usage immodéré de pesticides, ont abouti à la pollution persistante d’une partie importante des sols de la SAU ainsi que des eaux de rivière et des nappes phréatiques. Si, dans les dix dernières années, la recherche de moyens de lutte biologique contre les insectes a été prioritaire, la lutte contre les adventices continue d’être un problème central pour les arboriculteurs qui ne ...

  19. INLAND DUNE VEGETATION OF THE NETHERLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. HAVEMAN

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Drifting sands in the Netherlands are the result of human over-exploitation (sod-cutting, over-grazing of woodlands and heathlands. The most important association of inland sand dune areas is the Spergulo-Corynephoretum (Corynephorion canescentis, which is poor in vascular plants, but in it older stager rich in mosses and especially lichens. In the Netherlands, the area of drifting sand is reduced dramatically in the last 70 years. mainly by afforestation and spontaneous succession.

  20. Serious road injuries in The Netherlands dissected.

    OpenAIRE

    Weijermars, W.A.M. Bos, N.M. & Stipdonk, H.L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the characteristics and injury patterns of serious road injuries (MAIS2+ inpatients) in the Netherlands. Methods: In the Netherlands, the actual number of serious injuries is estimated by linking police data to hospital data. The distribution of serious road injuries over 1) travel mode and gender and 2) crash type and age are compared for the years 2000 and 2011. Moreover, the distribution of the injuries over the body regions is illustrated using coloured injury body pr...

  1. Agricultural marketing in Belgium and The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    M.T.G. Meulenberg; Viaene, J.

    1993-01-01

    Agriculture in Belgium and the Netherlands has a strong export tradition and has been market oriented for a long time. In this article agricultural markeling in Belgium and the Netherlands is analyzed on the basis of the concepts structure, conduct and performance. In our review of market structure attention is paid to the structure of agriculture, the food consumer, food retailing, government policies, competition and marketing channels. Afterwards market conduct with respect to product, pri...

  2. Acceptance of homosexuality in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Lisette Kuyper; Floor Bakker

    2006-01-01

    Original title: De houding ten opzichte van homoseksualiteit. To date, relatively little systematic research has been carried out on public attitudes to homosexual men and women in the Netherlands - far less than in the United States, for example. SCP has recently carried out a large-scale survey of the attitudes of the Dutch public to homosexuality; this was published earlier this year under the title Just doing what comes naturally. Acceptance of homosexuality in the Netherlands (Gewoon doe...

  3. High seroprevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 in blood donors in Guyana and molecular and phylogenetic analysis of new strains in the Guyana shelf (Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliquen, Jean-François; Hardy, Lynette; Lavergne, Anne; Kafiludine, Eric; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2004-05-01

    The prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 in blood donors in Guyana has never been estimated. We evaluated the prevalence of these viruses in blood donors by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting and showed a prevalence of HTLV-1 of 1.3%; no HTLV-2 was detected. Female donors had a much higher HTLV-1 seroprevalence (3.6%) than male donors (0.7%). HTLV-1-seropositive donors tended to be slightly older than the average age for the total pool of donors. We also investigated the phylogenetic and molecular characteristics of HTLV-1 strains in Guyana and compared them with those identified in Suriname and French Guiana. Analysis of portions of the env and long terminal repeat nucleotide sequences showed that all the strains in Guyana and Suriname, like those in French Guiana, belonged to the transcontinental group of cosmopolitan subtype A. The similarities were greater between strains from Suriname and Guyana than between strains from Suriname and Guyana and those from French Guiana. Nevertheless, our results confirm that the HTLV-1 strains in all three countries have a common African origin.

  4. Fatal intoxication due to ackee (Blighia sapida) in Suriname and French Guyana. GC-MS detection and quantification of hypoglycin-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Yvan; Carlier, Jérémie; Berscht, Marc; Mazoyer, Cédric; Bevalot, Fabien; Guitton, Jérôme; Fanton, Laurent

    2011-03-20

    Between 1998 and 2001 the deaths of 16 Surinamese children were recorded along the Maroni River, which forms the border between Suriname and French Guyana. After a metabolic origin was eliminated, ethnobotanical research in the field led to a hypothesis of intoxication through the ingestion of ackee. Ackee (Blighia sapida) is a large green leafy tree of West African origin. Its unripe fruit contains large quantities of two toxic molecules: hypoglycin-A and hypoglycin-B, the former being the more toxic. We have developed a GC-MS procedure allowing us to demonstrate the presence of hypoglycin-A in the gastric fluid of one of the deceased children, and to compare the content of hypoglycin-A in fruit collected on the road to Paramaribo in Suriname (5.1mg/g) with samples from Burkina Faso (8.1mg/g) and Jamaica (9.2mg/g). Field research showed the misuse of this little-known plant by Maroon witch doctors. The Bushinengue witch doctors were informed about the dangers of ackee, and no new cases have been reported to date.

  5. Evidence of an increased incidence of day 3 parasitaemia in Suriname: an indicator of the emerging resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to artemether

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen GS Vreden

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The emerging resistance to artemisinin derivatives that has been reported in South-East Asia led us to assess the efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine as the first line therapy for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infections in Suriname. This drug assessment was performed according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization in 2011. The decreasing number of malaria cases in Suriname, which are currently limited to migrating populations and gold miners, precludes any conclusions on artemether efficacy because adequate numbers of patients with 28-day follow-up data are difficult to obtain. Therefore, a comparison of day 3 parasitaemia in a 2011 study and in a 2005/2006 study was used to detect the emergence of resistance to artemether. The prevalence of day 3 parasitaemia was assessed in a study in 2011 and was compared to that in a study in 2005/2006. The same protocol was used in both studies and artemether-lumefantrine was the study drug. Of 48 evaluable patients in 2011, 15 (31% still had parasitaemia on day 3 compared to one (2% out of 45 evaluable patients in 2005/2006. Overall, 11 evaluable patients in the 2011 study who were followed up until day 28 had negative slides and similar findings were obtained in all 38 evaluable patients in the 2005/2006 study. The significantly increased incidence of parasite persistence on day 3 may be an indication of emerging resistance to artemether.

  6. Evidence of an increased incidence of day 3 parasitaemia in Suriname: an indicator of the emerging resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to artemether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreden, Stephen G S; Jitan, Jeetendra K; Bansie, Rakesh D; Adhin, Malti R

    2013-12-01

    The emerging resistance to artemisinin derivatives that has been reported in South-East Asia led us to assess the efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine as the first line therapy for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infections in Suriname. This drug assessment was performed according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization in 2011. The decreasing number of malaria cases in Suriname, which are currently limited to migrating populations and gold miners, precludes any conclusions on artemether efficacy because adequate numbers of patients with 28-day follow-up data are difficult to obtain. Therefore, a comparison of day 3 parasitaemia in a 2011 study and in a 2005/2006 study was used to detect the emergence of resistance to artemether. The prevalence of day 3 parasitaemia was assessed in a study in 2011 and was compared to that in a study in 2005/2006. The same protocol was used in both studies and artemether-lumefantrine was the study drug. Of 48 evaluable patients in 2011, 15 (31%) still had parasitaemia on day 3 compared to one (2%) out of 45 evaluable patients in 2005/2006. Overall, 11 evaluable patients in the 2011 study who were followed up until day 28 had negative slides and similar findings were obtained in all 38 evaluable patients in the 2005/2006 study. The significantly increased incidence of parasite persistence on day 3 may be an indication of emerging resistance to artemether.

  7. Intergenerational family solidarity: value differences between immigrant groups and generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Eva-Maria; Ozeke-Kocabas, Ezgi; Oort, Frans J; Schuengel, Carlo

    2009-06-01

    Although immigrants may be more dependent on their immediate family for support, they may also experience a wider generation-gap in values regarding intergenerational solidarity, because of processes of acculturation. Based on large scale survey data (N = 2,028), differences between first and second generation immigrants in values regarding intergenerational solidarity were examined among family members in the Netherlands with an immigration background from Turkey, Morocco, Suriname, and The Dutch Antilles. Using a multilevel analytic approach, effects of family and individual characteristics on values regarding intergenerational solidarity were tested, considering the perspectives of two generations. It was found that immigrants with Moroccan and Turkish backgrounds scored higher on values with respect to intergenerational family solidarity than immigrants stemming from Suriname and The Antilles. First generation immigrants placed higher values on family solidarity compared to second generation immigrants. Additionally, religious denomination was a significant predictor of higher values with respect to intergenerational family solidarity. Immigration and acculturation may create great strains in migrant families. Policies to support the fabric of intergenerational solidarity should consider ethnic and religious background and immigration history.

  8. Observed and estimated economic losses in Guadeloupe (French Antilles) after Les Saintes Earthquake (2004). Application to risk comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfort, Daniel; Reveillère, Arnaud; Lecacheux, Sophie; Muller, Héloise; Grisanti, Ludovic; Baills, Audrey; Bertil, Didier; Sedan, Olivier; Tinard, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    The main objective of this work is to compare the potential direct economic losses between two different hazards in Guadeloupe (French Antilles), earthquakes and storm surges, for different return periods. In order to validate some hypotheses which are done concerning building typologies and their insured values a comparison between real economic loss data and estimated ones is done using a real event. In 2004 there was an earthquake in Guadeloupe, Mw 6.3, in a little archipelago in the south of Guadeloupe called Les Saintes. The heaviest intensities were VIII in the municipalities of Les Saintes and decreases from VII to IV in the other municipalities of Guadeloupe. The CCR, French Reinsurance Organism, has provided data about the total insured economic losses estimated per municipality (in a situation in 2011) and the insurance penetration ratio, it means, the ratio of insured exposed elements per municipality. Some other information about observed damaged structures is quite irregular all over the archipelago, being the only reliable one the observed macroseismic intensity per municipality (field survey done by BCSF). These data at Guadeloupe's scale has been compared with results coming from a retro damage scenario for this earthquake done with the vulnerability data from current buildings and their mean economic value of each building type and taking into account the local amplification effects on the earthquake propagation. In general the results are quite similar but with some significant differences. The results coming from scenario are quite correlated with the spatial attenuation from the earthquake intensity; the heaviest economic losses are concentrated within the municipalities exposed to a considerable and damageable intensity (VII to VIII). On the other side, CCR data show that heavy economic damages are not only located in the most impacted cities but also in the most important municipalities of the archipelago in terms of economic activity

  9. Forearc structure in the Lesser Antilles inferred from depth to the Curie temperature and thermo-mechanical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailler, Lydie; Arcay, Diane; Münch, Philippe; Martelet, Guillaume; Thinon, Isabelle; Lebrun, Jean-Frédéric

    2017-06-01

    Imaging deep active volcanic areas remains a challenge in our understanding of their activity and evolution, especially in subduction zones. Study of magnetic anomalies is appropriate to access such dynamics in depth. The magnetic anomaly pattern of the Lesser Antilles Arc (LAA) subduction is studied through Curie Point Depth (CPD), interpreted as the depth of the 580 °C isotherm, and developed to better assess the deep thermal structure of the arc. The depth of the estimated CPD exhibits a complex topography. Keeping in mind the overall uncertainty associated with this method, a main doming is evidenced below the Guadeloupe archipelago. Its apex is shifted towards the ancient arc, suggesting a very hot state of the fore-arc/arc domain. To better understand the LAA thermal state, we perform 2D thermo-mechanical simulations of the subduction zone. Recalling that magnetite is a serpentinization by-product, we simulate water transfer triggered by slab dehydration to test the assumption of fore-arc serpentinization suggested by the positive magnetic anomaly in the vicinity of the Guadeloupe archipelago. In this area, the subduction-induced arc lithosphere hydration and related weakening trigger a fast heating of the upper plate by basal convective removal. This process of fast arc lithosphere thinning may apply where simultaneously the volcanic arc is split in two and normal convergence is high enough. As serpentinization strongly decreases P-wave velocity, we propose a new interpretation of a published seismic profile below Guadeloupe. The seismic layer previously interpreted as the arc lower crust may rather be a layer of serpentinized mantle, as supported by spatial correlations between gravimetric and magnetic anomalies. Consequently, at the scale of Guadeloupe Island, the fore-arc Moho would be shallower than initially assumed, with a dome shape more consistent with both the extensive deformation active since the Oligocene in the inner fore-arc and the CPD doming.

  10. Large-scale flank collapse events during the activity of Montagne Pelée, Martinique, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Friant, Anne; Boudon, Georges; Deplus, Christine; Villemant, Benoã®T.

    2003-01-01

    A horseshoe-shaped structure already identified on the southwestern flank of Montagne Pelée (Martinique, Lesser Antilles arc) was previously interpreted as resulting of a flank collapse event, but no debris avalanche deposits were observed at the time. New offshore high-resolution bathymetry and geophysical data (Aguadomar cruise; December 1998 to January 1999; R/V L'Atalante) lead us to identify three debris avalanche deposits on the submarine western flank of Montagne Pelée extending down to the Grenada Basin. They display morphological fronts and hummocky morphology on bathymetric data, speckled pattern on backscatter data and hyperbolic facies on 3.5 kHz and seismic profiles. New on-land geological studies lead us to identify two other horseshoe-shaped structures on the same flank of the volcano. The three submarine deposits have been traced back to the structures identified on land, which confirms the occurrence of repeated flank collapse events during the evolution of Montagne Pelée. The ages of the last two events are estimated at ˜9 ka and ˜25 ka on the basis of 14C and 238U/230Th dates. Every flank collapse produced debris avalanches which flowed down to the Caribbean Sea. We propose that the repeated instabilities are due to the large asymmetry of the island with western aerial and submarine slopes steeper than the eastern slopes. The asymmetry results from progressive loading by accumulation of volcanic products on the western slopes of the volcano and development of long-term gravitational instabilities. Meteoric and hydrothermal fluid circulation on the floor of the second flank collapse structure also creates a weakened hydrothermalized area, which favors the recurrence of flank collapses.

  11. Role of large flank-collapse events on magma evolution of volcanoes. Insights from the Lesser Antilles Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudon, Georges; Villemant, Benoît; Friant, Anne Le; Paterne, Martine; Cortijo, Elsa

    2013-08-01

    Flank-collapse events are now recognized as common processes of destruction of volcanoes. They may occur several times on a volcanic edifice pulling out varying volumes of material from km3 to thousands of km3. In the Lesser Antilles Arc, a large number of flank-collapse events were identified. Here, we show that some of the largest events are correlated to significant variations in erupted magma compositions and eruptive styles. On Montagne Pelée (Martinique), magma production rate has been sustained during several thousand years following a 32 ka old flank-collapse event. Basic and dense magmas were emitted through open-vent eruptions that generated abundant scoria flows while significantly more acidic magmas were produced before the flank collapse. The rapid building of a new cone increased the load on magma bodies at depth and the density threshold. Magma production rate decreased and composition of the erupted products changed to more acidic compared to the preceding period of activity. These low density magma generated plinian and dome-forming eruptions up to the Present. In contrast at Soufrière Volcanic Centre of St. Lucia and at Pitons du Carbet in Martinique, the flank-collapses have an opposite effect: in both cases, the acidic magmas erupted immediately after the flank-collapses. These magmas are highly porphyritic (up to 60% phenocrysts) and much more viscous than the magmas erupted before the flank-collapses. They have been generally emplaced as voluminous and uptight lava domes (called “the Pitons”). Such magmas could not ascent without a significant decrease of the threshold effect produced by the volcanic edifice loading before the flank-collapse.

  12. Application of the probabilistic model BET_UNREST during a volcanic unrest simulation exercise in Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Robert; Robertson, Richard; Lindsay, Jan M.; Tonini, Roberto; Sandri, Laura; Rouwet, Dmitri; Smith, Patrick; Stewart, Roderick

    2016-11-01

    We report on the first "real-time" application of the BET_UNREST (Bayesian Event Tree for Volcanic Unrest) probabilistic model, during a VUELCO Simulation Exercise carried out on the island of Dominica, Lesser Antilles, in May 2015. Dominica has a concentration of nine potentially active volcanic centers and frequent volcanic earthquake swarms at shallow depths, intense geothermal activity, and recent phreatic explosions (1997) indicate the region is still active. The exercise scenario was developed in secret by a team of scientists from The University of the West Indies (Trinidad and Tobago) and University of Auckland (New Zealand). The simulated unrest activity was provided to the exercise's Scientific Team in three "phases" through exercise injects comprising processed monitoring data. We applied the newly created BET_UNREST model through its software implementation PyBetUnrest, to estimate the probabilities of having (i) unrest of (ii) magmatic, hydrothermal or tectonic origin, which may or may not lead to (iii) an eruption. The probabilities obtained for each simulated phase raised controversy and intense deliberations among the members of the Scientific Team. The results were often considered to be "too high" and were not included in any of the reports presented to ODM (Office for Disaster Management) revealing interesting crisis communication challenges. We concluded that the PyBetUnrest application itself was successful and brought the tool one step closer to a full implementation. However, as with any newly proposed method, it needs more testing, and in order to be able to use it in the future, we make a series of recommendations for future applications.

  13. 2003-2004 Campaign GPS Geodetic Monitoring of Surface Deformation Proximal to Volcanic Centers, Commonwealth of Dominica, Lesser Antilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, R. T.; Turner, H. L.; Blessing, B. C.; Parra, J.; Fitzgibbon, K.; Jansma, P.; Mattioli, G.

    2004-12-01

    The Commonwealth of Dominica, located midway along the Lesser Antilles island arc, is home to several (at least eight) potentially active volcanic centers. Spurred by recent seismic crises on the island - in the south from 1998-2000 and in the north in 2003 - twelve GPS monuments were installed in two field campaigns in 2001 and 2003. All twelve sites, along with five of six newly installed sites, were occupied continuously for ~2.5 or more UTC days in 2004 using Ashtech Z-12 dual-frequency, code-phase receivers and choke ring antenna to assess the highly complex and possibly interconnected volcanic systems of Dominica. We examine data from the 2003-2004 epochs because of the highly variable, shallow seismicity preceding this period. This way one can potentially isolate the changes that occurred without the data from previous observations influencing the results. Although only two epochs have been included, data quality and reliability can be established from sites distant from volcanic centers, as such sites show consistent velocities from all three epochs of observation over the 2001-2004 period. Between 2003 and 2004, multiple sites show velocities that are inconsistent with a simple tectonic interpretation of elastic strain accumulation along the plate interface. Sites located in the vicinity of the volcanic centers in the south central part of the island are moving faster than the 3 epoch 2001-2004 average of the velocities, which is approximately 7mm/year. The four sites at which greater movement has been noted have velocities ranging from approximately 10 to 27 mm/year. We note that the largest surface deformation signal is seen in the south during the same period when the shallow seismicity was at a maximum in the north of the island. While the spatial distribution of sites remains sparse and the velocities relatively imprecise, the preliminary results may indicate shallow magmatic emplacement, geothermal fluctuations, or structural instability in that part

  14. The recent Plinian explosive activity of Mt. Pelée volcano (Lesser Antilles): The P1 AD 1300 eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carazzo, Guillaume; Tait, Steve; Kaminski, Edouard; Gardner, James E.

    2012-11-01

    Plinian explosive eruptions represent a major volcanic hazard in the Lesser Antilles Arc that must be carefully assessed based on reconstructions of past activity. The present study focusses on a detailed time evolution of the P1 eruption (AD 1300) at Mt Pelée volcano (Martinique). After an initial dome-forming stage, a Plinian phase commenced. The P1 Plinian-style sequence is mostly a pumice fall deposit with an inversely graded base, interbedded with a surge deposit, and overlain by final flow/surge deposit. Field data on deposit dispersal, thickness, and grain-size distribution are used together with physical models to reconstruct the dynamical evolution of this eruption. We find that the mass eruption rate increased from 2×107 to 9×107 kg s - 1, producing a 19-22-km-high Plinian plume, initially stable but which ultimately collapsed to form a ~1.3-km-high fountain. Empirical models of deposit thinning suggest that the minimum volume of pyroclastic deposits is 0.15 km3, about 25 % that previously estimated. Published data on magmatic water contents in glass inclusions are used together with mass discharge rates to elucidate the mechanisms leading to column collapse. Conditions at the base of the column were close to the plume/fountain transition soon after the Pelean/Plinian-style transition due to the competing effects of increase in both gas content and mass discharge rate. After a short stage of partial collapse, the column underwent a total collapse due to an increasing discharge rate.

  15. Plasma medicine in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroesen, Gerrit

    2012-10-01

    Eindhoven, the Netherlands was one of the locations were Plasma Medicine originated: Eva Stoffels was one of the founders of the field. Since then, the attention for the field steadily increased. Nowadays, strong collaborations exist between the Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) and the Red Cross Burn Wound Hospital in Beverwijk, the Amsterdam Medical Center, the Maxima Medical Center in Eindhoven, the Radboud University in Nijmegen, the Free University in Amsterdam, and also companies, both large industries (Philips) and SME's (Vabrema, Lavoisier, Plastech). At TU/e we focus on the plasma itself: developing real time non-invasive diagnostics like TALIF, LIF, IF absorption, Thomson, Rayleigh and Raman scattering, mass spectroscopy, etc, while at the same time developing numerical models on the MD2D platform. For the biology, microbiology and medical aspects we rely on our colleagues who have specialized in those areas. Lesions that are studied are burn wounds, permanent inflammations, diabetic feet, skin infections, and internal diseases like Crohn's disease.

  16. Hydroxyl radicals in the tropical troposphere over the Suriname rainforest: comparison of measurements with the box model MECCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubistin, D.; Harder, H.; Martinez, M.; Rudolf, M.; Sander, R.; Bozem, H.; Eerdekens, G.; Fischer, H.; Gurk, C.; Klüpfel, T.; Königstedt, R.; Parchatka, U.; Schiller, C. L.; Stickler, A.; Taraborrelli, D.; Williams, J.; Lelieveld, J.

    2010-10-01

    As a major source region of the hydroxyl radical OH, the Tropics largely control the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere on a global scale. However, emissions of hydrocarbons from the tropical rainforest that react rapidly with OH can potentially deplete the amount of OH and thereby reduce the oxidation capacity. The airborne GABRIEL field campaign in equatorial South America (Suriname) in October 2005 investigated the influence of the tropical rainforest on the HOx budget (HOx = OH + HO2). The first observations of OH and HO2 over a tropical rainforest are compared to steady state concentrations calculated with the atmospheric chemistry box model MECCA. The important precursors and sinks for HOx chemistry, measured during the campaign, are used as constraining parameters for the simulation of OH and HO2. Significant underestimations of HOx are found by the model over land during the afternoon, with mean ratios of observation to model of 12.2 ± 3.5 and 4.1 ± 1.4 for OH and HO2, respectively. The discrepancy between measurements and simulation results is correlated to the abundance of isoprene. While for low isoprene mixing ratios (above ocean or at altitudes >3 km), observation and simulation agree fairly well, for mixing ratios >200 pptV (<3 km over the rainforest) the model tends to underestimate the HOx observations as a function of isoprene. Box model simulations have been performed with the condensed chemical mechanism of MECCA and with the detailed isoprene reaction scheme of MCM, resulting in similar results for HOx concentrations. Simulations with constrained HO2 concentrations show that the conversion from HO2 to OH in the model is too low. However, by neglecting the isoprene chemistry in the model, observations and simulations agree much better. An OH source similar to the strength of the OH sink via isoprene chemistry is needed in the model to resolve the discrepancy. A possible explanation is that the oxidation of isoprene by OH not only dominates

  17. Omgang met lepra in ‘de West’ in de negentiende eeuw. Tegendraadse maar betekenisvolle geluiden vanuit Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk Menke

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aan de hand van de ontwikkeling en invloed van een zogenaamd ‘West-Indisch lepra-conta- gionisme’ zullen wij in dit artikel laten zien dat de vertaalslag van medisch-wetenschappelijke noties en concepten naar beleid en voorschriften (mede bepaald wordt door andere dan medisch inhoudelijke factoren. Volgens de Amerikaanse historicus Baldwin bestaat er een correlatie tussen profylactische strategieën, politiek en ideologie. Maar hij laat ook zien dat het niet om de tegenstelling tussen een conservatieve en/of autoritaire neiging tot interventie en een liberale neiging tot laissez-faire gaat. Sterker nog: onder de vlag van het hygiënisme pro- pageerden liberalen juist publieke gezondheidsmaatregelen waartegen conservatieven vaak in het geweer kwamen. Het draait bij de ontwikkeling en keuze voor interventies veel meer om verschillende soorten van afwegingen tussen individuele en collectieve belangen, ver- antwoordelijkheden en rechten in diverse landen. Het is de vraag of het West-Indische leprabestrijdingsysteem gefaciliteerd werd door de politieke en ideologische bestuursstructuur van de slavensamenleving aldaar. De koloniën in de West hadden een autoritaire bestuursstructuur, die zich weinig gelegen liet aan de rechten van met name de niet-blanke bewoners. Maar was dit een voldoende voorwaarde voor het gevolgde traject van een profy- lactische strategie? En bestaat er een relatie tussen de aanscherping van het bestrijdingsbeleid en een verharding van de medische opvattingen over lepra als besmettelijke ziekte in West- Indië? In dit artikel zullen we de historische ontwikkeling van de wetgeving betreffende de bestrijding van besmettelijke ziekten, in het bijzonder lepra, koppelen aan de ontwikkeling van een medisch-wetenschappelijk West-Indisch lepracontagionisme. We zullen laten zien hoe bepaalde kennis en beleid betreffende lepra gedijden binnen een specifieke lokale context – Suriname met zijn quarantainebeleid – zonder invloed te

  18. Euthanasia in Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Each of the Benelux countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands) has enacted legislation that partially decriminalises euthanasia, defined as an act that intentionally terminates someone's life at their request. In the Netherlands and Luxembourg, but not in Belgium, the legislation partially decriminalised assisted suicide at the same time. In all three countries, euthanasia can only be performed by a doctor, in response to the patient's voluntary and well-considered request, and for patients who have an incurable disease that causes unbearable suffering, without any prospect of relief. In the Netherlands, minors can request euthanasia as of the age of 12 years. In 2011, reported euthanasia accounted for about 1% of deaths in Belgium and 3% in the Netherlands. In 75% of cases, cancer was the disease leading to a request for euthanasia. In the Netherlands, the number of cases of euthanasia reported by doctors in surveys matches the number that is officially declared. In Belgium, it is thought that there are as many unreported as reported cases of euthanasia. Since the enactment of euthanasia legislation, fewer deaths involve the intentional administration of lethal drugs without an explicit request from the patient.

  19. Long term (since the late palaeogene) tectono-sedimentary evolution of the Lesser Antilles fore-arc at Marie-Galante Basin: a clue for geodynamical behavior at the subduction interfac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Frederic, L.; DeMin, L.; Garrigou, J.; Münch, P.; Léticée, J. L.; Cornée, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Oblique subduction of late cretaceous lithosphere of the Atlantic ocean beneath the thick (25km) crust of the Caribbean plate results in widespread deformation and vertical motions in the Lesser Antilles fore-arc. The present-day deformation includes a major transtensive left lateral fault system along the arc and several forearc transverse basins accommodating lengthening of the fore-arc northward. These deformations result from plate motion partitioning under increasing subduction obliquity from the Marie-Galante Basin (MGB) latitude (central Lesser Antilles) northward. Vertical motions in the fore-arc at a regional scale were interpreted as resulting from the effect of subducting ridges and reliefs. The present day uplift of the fore-arc islands acting since the late(?) Pleistocene is believed to attest for long wavelength bending of the plate under strongly coupled plate interface. Recent GPS data suggests a mostly uncoupled plate interface. To decipher between the models and to understand the long-term evolution of the Lesser Antilles forearc since the Late Palaeogene, we interpret high-resolution bathymetric and seismic data from the MGB, together with the onland geology of shallow water carbonate platforms. The tectonic pattern reveals both inherited and late Neogene structures (re)activated under multidirectional extensive tectonic. The sismo-stratigraphic interpretation of sedimentary deposit displays long-term drowning and flexing of the upper plate similar to that occurring under intensive tectonic erosion at the subduction interface. Several short term period of second order uplift can correlate with sweeping of subducting ridges or transient events at the plate interface. The evolution of the Lesser Antilles fore-arc since the Late Palaeogene is interpreted within the regional geodynamical evolution of the plate boundary following its last major reorganization: collision of the Bahamas Bank and inception of the Greater Antilles strike-slip fault zone.

  20. Erosive effects of the storms HELENA (1963) and HUGO (1989) on Basse-Terre island (Guadeloupe - Lesser Antilles Arc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bivic, Rejanne; Allemand, Pascal; Delacourt, Christophe; Quiquerez, Amélie

    2014-05-01

    Basse-Terre is a volcanic island which belongs to the archipelago of Guadeloupe located in the Lesser Antilles Arc (Caribbean Sea). As a mountainous region in the tropical belt, Basse-Terre is affected by intense sediment transport due to extreme meteorological events. During the last fifty years, eight major tropical storms and hurricanes with intense rainfalls induced landslides and scars in the weathered layers. The purpose of this study is to compare two major meteorological events within a period of 26 years (HELENA in 10/1963 and HUGO in 09/1989) in order to qualify the parameters responsible of the spatial distribution of landslides and scars. The storm HELENA affected Basse-Terre between the 23rd and the 25th of October, 1963. The maximal daily rainfall reached 300 mm in Baillif which is located on the leeward coast at the altitude of 650 m while the maximum wind velocity reached 50 km/h. A similar exceptional event happened when the hurricane HUGO slammed the island in September 17, 1989. The maximum daily rainfall recorded in Sainte-Rose (on the northern coast) was 250 mm while it reached 208 mm in Petit-Bourg and the maximum wind speed was 60 km/h. Aerial images were acquired by the IGN (French Geographical Institute) before and a few weeks after the extreme events: less than three months after the event HELENA and less than a month after the event HUGO. Those images have been orthorectified at a metric resolution and combined in a GIS with a 10 m resolution DEM. Scars and landslides were digitalized and their surface area and mean slope were measured for both HELENA and HUGO. This work confirms several results proposed by a previous study related to the HELENA event: (1) the landslides occurred mainly in the center of the island and (2) the slope is the main parameter for the initiation of landslides, since all of them occurred with a slope superior to 30°. Furthermore, the resiliency of the surface affected by the landslides induced by HELENA was

  1. Cumulate xenoliths from St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles Island Arc: a window into upper crustal differentiation of mantle-derived basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollan, P. M. E.; Bindeman, I.; Blundy, J. D.

    2012-02-01

    In order to shed light on upper crustal differentiation of mantle-derived basaltic magmas in a subduction zone setting, we have determined the mineral chemistry and oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of individual cumulus minerals in plutonic blocks from St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles. Plutonic rock types display great variation in mineralogy, from olivine-gabbros to troctolites and hornblendites, with a corresponding variety of cumulate textures. Mineral compositions differ from those in erupted basaltic lavas from St. Vincent and in published high-pressure (4-10 kb) experimental run products of a St. Vincent high-Mg basalt in having higher An plagioclase coexisting with lower Fo olivine. The oxygen isotope compositions (δ18O) of cumulus olivine (4.89-5.18‰), plagioclase (5.84-6.28‰), clinopyroxene (5.17-5.47‰) and hornblende (5.48-5.61‰) and hydrogen isotope composition of hornblende (δD = -35.5 to -49.9‰) are all consistent with closed system magmatic differentiation of a mantle-derived basaltic melt. We employed a number of modelling exercises to constrain the origin of the chemical and isotopic compositions reported. δ18OOlivine is up to 0.2‰ higher than modelled values for closed system fractional crystallisation of a primary melt. We attribute this to isotopic disequilibria between cumulus minerals crystallising at different temperatures, with equilibration retarded by slow oxygen diffusion in olivine during prolonged crustal storage. We used melt inclusion and plagioclase compositions to determine parental magmatic water contents (water saturated, 4.6 ± 0.5 wt% H2O) and crystallisation pressures (173 ± 50 MPa). Applying these values to previously reported basaltic and basaltic andesite lava compositions, we can reproduce the cumulus plagioclase and olivine compositions and their associated trend. We conclude that differentiation of primitive hydrous basalts on St. Vincent involves crystallisation of olivine and Cr-rich spinel at depth

  2. Flank instability assessment at Kick-'em-Jenny submarine volcano (Grenada, Lesser Antilles): a multidisciplinary approach using experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondin, F. J.-Y.; Heap, M. J.; Robertson, R. E. A.; Dorville, J.-F. M.; Carey, S.

    2017-01-01

    Kick-'em-Jenny (KeJ)—located ca. 8 km north of the island of Grenada—is the only active submarine volcano of the Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc. Previous investigations of KeJ revealed that it lies within a collapse scar inherited from a past flank instability episode. To assess the likelihood of future collapse, we employ here a combined laboratory and modeling approach. Lavas collected using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) provided samples to perform the first rock physical property measurements for the materials comprising the KeJ edifice. Uniaxial and triaxial deformation experiments showed that the dominant failure mode within the edifice host rock is brittle. Edifice fractures (such as those at Champagne Vent) will therefore assist the outgassing of the nearby magma-filled conduit, favoring effusive behavior. These laboratory data were then used as input parameters in models of slope stability. First, relative slope stability analysis revealed that the SW to N sector of the volcano displays a deficit of mass/volume with respect to a volcanoid (ideal 3D surface). Slope stability analysis using a limit equilibrium method (LEM) showed that KeJ is currently stable, since all values of stability factor or factor of safety (Fs) are greater than unity. The lowest values of Fs were found for the SW-NW sector of the volcano (the sector displaying a mass/volume deficit). Although currently stable, KeJ may become unstable in the future. Instability (severe reductions in Fs) could result, for example, from overpressurization due to the growth of a cryptodome. Our modeling has shown that instability-induced flank collapse will most likely initiate from the SW-NW sector of KeJ, therefore mobilizing a volume of at least ca. 0.7 km3. The mobilization of ca. 0.7 km3 of material is certainly capable of generating a tsunami that poses a significant hazard to the southern islands of the West Indies.

  3. Strategic Plan for Astronomy in the Netherlands 2011-2020

    OpenAIRE

    Groot, P. J. (Paul J.); Kuijken, K.; Stark, R.

    2012-01-01

    Strategic Plan for Astronomy in the Netherlands 2011 - 2020, written by the Netherlands Committee for Astronomy (NCA), on behalf of the excellence research school in astronomy NOVA, (combining the university astronomy institutes of the universities of Amsterdam, Groningen, Leiden and Nijmegen), the NWO division of Physical Sciences, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy ASTRON and the Netherlands Institute for Space Research SRON. The Strategic plan outlines the scientific priorities ...

  4. Cultural differences in family, marital, and gender-role values among immigrants and majority members in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends-Tóth, Judit; van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2009-06-01

    This study examined the size of differences in self-reported family, marital, and gender-role values in five cultural groups in the Netherlands (6338 Dutch mainstreamers and 422 Turkish, 369 Moroccan, 429 Surinamese, and 394 Antillean first- and second-generation immigrants). It was found that the three value scales were neither completely independent, nor could they be merged into a single value scale. The factor structures of all scales were identical for the five cultural groups, implying that the concepts can be compared. Age, sex, and notably education accounted for a substantial part of the cultural differences in all values. Cultural differences were larger for marital and family values than for gender-role values. Family and marital values yielded the same rank order of mean scores in the five cultural groups: Turks and Moroccans scored the lowest (having the most traditional values), followed by Surinamers, Antilleans, and Dutch mainstreamers. This rank order corresponds with the ethnic hierarchy of cultural groups that is based on the evaluation of ethnic groups by mainstreamers according to their liking of and likeness to ethnic groups. Generational differences were not found for family and gender-role values but first-generation immigrants in all groups had more traditional marital values than had second-generation immigrants. It was concluded that the theoretical framework based on a combination of three Hofstede dimensions (individualism-collectivism, power-distance, and femininity-masculinity), a model of the hierarchy of the ethnic groups in the Dutch society, and acculturation theory provided an adequate way to address family, marital, and gender-role value differences in the five cultural groups.

  5. ESTIMATE MEDICAL SERVICES IN THE NETHERLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norina-Consuela FORNA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the many great things about living in the Netherlands is the excellent standard of Dutch healthcare, rated as the best in Europe. The Netherlands tops the list of 34 nations in the 2012 Euro Health Consumer Index (the ‘industry standard’ of modern healthcare and spends 11.9 percent of GDP on health, being the second only after the United States. Plus, almost all the doctors speak excellent English, making healthcare in the Netherlands very accessible to expats. The purpose of the research is to investigate the health sector in the Netherlands and to connect it to the European systems and global requirements. Methods. Conducted research was focused on analysis, comparison, deduction or induction methods. Medicine in the Netherlands is taught differently than in Europe, both in terms of the approach to the subject and timeline to qualification. A visitor to the Netherlands faces no special health risks, as the overall health conditions are excellent. No special inoculations are required. Any necessary immunization is available locally. Although Dutch law is strict about commercial processing, cooking, handling, and serving of foods, consumers are advised to show caution when using eggs and preparing poultry, as salmonella bacteria has been found in these products. Tap water is of excellent quality and safe to drink. Dutch medical care is of high quality and is comparable to the medical care one finds throughout Western Europe. Diagnostic laboratories and specialists in all fields of medicine are available. Hospitals are well-equipped, and maternity hospitals and many clinics are available. Most doctors and dentists speak English. Most medicines are available locally. They may not, however, be the same brand names as those used in the United States and prices are generally higher. Tourists should bring a supply of the medicine that they know they will need whilst abroad and provide proper documentation.

  6. Ageing aircraft research in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejonge, J. B.; Bartelds, G.

    1992-01-01

    The problems of aging aircraft are worldwide. Hence, international cooperative actions to overcome or prevent problems should be taken. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Netherlands Civil Aviation Department (RLD) signed a Memorandum of Cooperation in the area of structural integrity, with specific reference to research on problems in the area of aging aircraft. Here, an overview is given of aging research that is going on in the Netherlands. The work described is done largely at the National Aerospace Laboratory; much of the research is part of the forementioned cooperative agreement.

  7. The ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Brazil, French Guiana, Surinam and Uruguay. Amblyomma rotundatum Koch. Although there have been no published reports of this reptile and amphibian ...Nicaragua, Surinam and the islands of the Greater and Lesser Antilles. Both species have been found in Colombia, Panama and Venezuela. IXODIDAE Murray...Guiana, Surinam and Uruguay (Guglielmone et al., 2003c). Amblyomma auricularium (Conil). Massi Pallarés and Benı́tez Usher (1982) reported this tick from

  8. Parotocinclus halbothi, a new species of small armored catfish (Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae, from the Trombetas and Marowijne River basins, in Brazil and Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pablo Lehmann

    Full Text Available Parotocinclus halbothiis described as a new species from the Trombetas and Marowijne river basins, in Brazil and Suriname. The new species is distinguished from its congeners in the Guianas, Orinoco, and Amazon basins by details of color pattern, form and arrangement of bony plates, body shape, and morphometric features. It is distinguished from all other species of Parotocinclusby the elongation of the canal cheek plate on the ventral surface of head posteriorly to contact the cleithrum. The new species is differentiated from Parotocinclus collinsae, the most similar species in terms of color pattern, by the small, circular, median abdominal plates, the poorly developed preanal shield with two or three plates, and by having the adipose fin rudimentary. This new species is one of the smallest loricariid catfishes known to date.

  9. Repetibilidade de caracteres de fruto em araçazeiro e pitangueira Repeatability traits of strawberry guava and surinam cherry fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeses Andrigo Danner

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a repetibilidade de carateres de fruto em araçazeiro e pitangueira. Foram avaliados, em quatro ciclos produtivos, os caracteres peso, diâmetro, sólidos solúveis totais e produção de frutos em 10 seleções de araçazeiro e peso, diâmetro e sólidos solúveis totais em nove seleções de pitangueira, do Banco de Germoplasma da Embrapa Clima Temperado, em Pelotas-RS. O coeficiente de repetibilidade, o número de medições necessárias e o coeficiente de determinação foram estimados pelos métodos de análise de variância, componentes principais e análise estrutural. O coeficiente de repetibilidade foi mais eficientemente estimado pelo método dos componentes principais, com base na matriz de covariâncias. O caractere peso de fruto é mais adequado para ser utilizado na seleção fenotípica em araçazeiro e pitangueira. É necessária apenas uma medição para predizer o valor de peso de fruto de genótipos de araçazeiro, com 90% de acurácia. Com quatro anos de avaliação, é possível inferir o valor real com confiabilidade acima de 80% para todos os caracteres. Isso facilita a seleção fenotípica para esses caracteres em programas de melhoramento de araçazeiro e pitangueira.The aim of this research was to estimate the repeatability traits of strawberry guava and surinam cherry fruits. It was evaluated in four productive cycles, the traits weight, diameter, total soluble solids and fruit production in ten selection of strawberry guava and weight, diameter and total soluble solids in nine selection of surinam cherry from the Germplasm Bank of the Embrapa Clima Temperado, in Pelotas-RS, Brazil. The repeatability coefficient, minimum observations number and determination coefficient were estimated by analysis of variance, principal components analysis and structural analysis. The repeatability coefficient was better estimated by the method of principal components analysis, based on covariance

  10. Nutrient Availability and Changes on Chemical Attributes of a Paleudult Soil Amended with Liquid Sewage Sludge and Cropped with Surinam Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Ceolato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The liquid sewage sludge (LSS was applied on a field experiment during four years at successive applications to evaluate the changes in soil attributes and on Surinam grass (Brachiaria decumbens uptake of nutrients. A randomized blocks experimental design, with two treatments (with and without LSS and three repetitions, was used. Land application of LSS did not alter soil organic matter and exchangeable K until 40 cm depth. However, it increased soil pH, base saturation, labile P, and available Zn and did not change the concentrations of available B (hot water and Cu, Fe, and Mn (DTPA at 0–20 cm and 20–40 cm depths and LSS was a source of N, K, P, Ca, Mg, and Zn for the grass, but decreased leaf Mn concentration.

  11. Bimodal volcanism in northeast Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Greater Antilles Island Arc): Genetic links with Cretaceous subduction of the mid-Atlantic ridge Caribbean spur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Wayne T.; Lidiak, Edward G.; Dickin, Alan P.

    2008-07-01

    Bimodal extrusive volcanic rocks in the northeast Greater Antilles Arc consist of two interlayered suites, including (1) a predominantly basaltic suite, dominated by island arc basalts with small proportions of andesite, and (2) a silicic suite, similar in composition to small volume intrusive veins of oceanic plagiogranite commonly recognized in oceanic crustal sequences. The basaltic suite is geochemically characterized by variable enrichment in the more incompatible elements and negative chondrite-normalized HFSE anomalies. Trace element melting and mixing models indicate the magnitude of the subducted sediment component in Antilles arc basalts is highly variable and decreases dramatically from east to west along the arc. In the Virgin Islands, the sediment component ranges betweenCampanian strata. In comparison, sediment proportions in central Puerto Rico range between 0.5 to 1.5% in the Albian to 2 to > 4% during the Cenomanian-Campanian interval. The silicic suite, consisting predominantly of rhyolites, is characterized by depleted Al 2O 3 (average arc-like Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope signatures, and by the presence of plagioclase. All of these features are consistent with an anatexic origin in gabbroic sources, of both oceanic and arc-related origin, within the sub-arc basement. The abundance of silicic lavas varies widely along the length of the arc platform. In the Virgin Islands on the east, rhyolites comprise up to 80% of Lower Albian strata (112 to 105 Ma), and about 20% in post-Albian strata (105 to 100 Ma). Farther west, in Puerto Rico, more limited proportions (Campanian times. Within this hypothetical setting the centrally positioned Virgin Islands terrain remained approximately fixed above the subducting ridge as the Antilles arc platform swept northeastward into the slot between the Americas. Accordingly, heat flow in the Virgin Islands was elevated throughout the Cretaceous, giving rise to widespread crustal melting, whereas the subducted sediment

  12. Risk assessment of pesticide usage by farmers in Commewijne, Suriname, South America: a pilot study for the Alkmaar and Tamanredjo regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabali, Shirley; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2015-03-01

    Limited scientific work is available on pesticide use and exposure in Suriname. Therefore, research was conducted to assess the application, safety practices (use of personal protective equipment (PPEs)), and potential risk of pesticide use by means of a face-to-face questionnaire and determination of the international estimated short-term intake (IESTI)). The amount of pesticide used was compared with the label and the in the European Union (EU) authorized dose. The majority of the farmers was male between 41 and 60 years and followed a primary education only. Less than 5 % of farmers used non-authorized pesticides. Results showed that most farmers (58 up to 100 %) apply a dose, which is within 0-100 % of the regulated dose (label and EU). Good results were obtained for the use of most PPEs. Statistical analysis did not reveal a significant difference between the different age classes, the different levels of education, and the use of PPEs. Pesticide residue analysis of four major crops showed that 22 % of the samples contained pesticides (13 % imidacloprid and 9 % chlorothalonil). The results for imidacloprid were higher than their respective maximum residue levels (MRLs) and were used for calculation of the IESTI. The highest observed IESTI value was 74.5 % of the EU acute reference dose (ARfD), giving rise to concern about pesticide usage. In Suriname, educational programs, good agricultural practices (GAP) training, sustainable agricultural practices, food monitoring studies, and legislative control mechanisms are urgently needed to protect farmer's health and the environment and to ensure food safety.

  13. Saharan dust in Brazil and Suriname during the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) - Cooperative LBA Regional Experiment (CLAIRE) in March 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formenti, P.; Andreae, M. O.; Lange, L.; Roberts, G.; Cafmeyer, J.; Rajta, I.; Maenhaut, W.; Holben, B. N.; Artaxo, P.; Lelieveld, J.

    2001-07-01

    Advection of Saharan dust was observed via chemical and optical measurements during March 1998 in Brazil and Suriname during the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA)-Cooperative LBA Airborne Regional Experiment (CLAIRE)-98 experiment. In Brazil the dust outbreak produced an increase of a factor of 3 in the daily mean mass concentration (up to 26±7 μg m-3) of particles smaller than 10 μm equivalent aerodynamic diameter (EAD), and in the daily mean aerosol particle scattering coefficient σs (up to 26±8 Mm-1 STP, ambient humidity). Background levels of aerosol scattering (ambient) were σs ˜ 10 Mm-1. The effect of dust advection was evident for all major crustal elements (Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Mn, and Fe), as well as the sea-salt elements (Na, Cl, and S), as the dust layer was transported at low altitude (below 800 hPa). Coarse P and organic carbon (OC) concentrations were not influenced by the occurrence of dust, and were mainly emitted by the rain forest. The dry scattering mass efficiency of dust (particles smaller than 10 μm EAD) was estimated to be between 0.65 (±0.06) and 0.89 (±0.08) m2 g-1. Airborne profiles of aerosol scattering showed two distinct types of vertical structure in the dust layer over Suriname, either vertically uniform (15, 26 March), or plume-like (25 March). Dust layers extended generally up to 700 hPa, while scattering layers occasionally encountered at higher altitudes resulted from smoke emitted by biomass burning in Venezuela and Colombia. Observations in South America were supported by measurements in Israel and Tenerife (Canary Islands), where the dust outbreaks were also detected.

  14. Consequences of the trans-Atlantic slave trade on medicinal plant selection: plant use for cultural bound syndromes affecting children in Suriname and Western Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossen, Tessa; Towns, Alexandra; Ruysschaert, Sofie; Quiroz, Diana; van Andel, Tinde

    2014-01-01

    Folk perceptions of health and illness include cultural bound syndromes (CBS), ailments generally confined to certain cultural groups or geographic regions and often treated with medicinal plants. Our aim was to compare definitions and plant use for CBS regarding child health in the context of the largest migration in recent human history: the trans-Atlantic slave trade. We compared definitions of four CBS (walk early, evil eye, atita and fontanels) and associated plant use among three Afro-Surinamese populations and their African ancestor groups in Ghana, Bénin and Gabon. We expected plant use to be similar on species level, and assumed the majority to be weedy or domesticated species, as these occur on both continents and were probably recognized by enslaved Africans. Data were obtained by identifying plants mentioned during interviews with local women from the six different populations. To analyse differences and similarities in plant use we used Detrended Component Analysis (DCA) and a Wald Chi-square test. Definitions of the four cultural bound syndromes were roughly the same on both continents. In total, 324 plant species were used. There was little overlap between Suriname and Africa: 15 species were used on two continents, of which seven species were used for the same CBS. Correspondence on family level was much higher. Surinamese populations used significantly more weedy species than Africans, but equal percentages of domesticated plants. Our data indicate that Afro-Surinamers have searched for similar plants to treat their CBS as they remembered from Africa. In some cases, they have found the same species, but they had to reinvent the largest part of their herbal pharmacopeia to treat their CBS using known plant families or trying out new species. Ideas on health and illness appear to be more resilient than the use of plants to treat them.

  15. Consequences of the trans-Atlantic slave trade on medicinal plant selection: plant use for cultural bound syndromes affecting children in Suriname and Western Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Vossen

    Full Text Available Folk perceptions of health and illness include cultural bound syndromes (CBS, ailments generally confined to certain cultural groups or geographic regions and often treated with medicinal plants. Our aim was to compare definitions and plant use for CBS regarding child health in the context of the largest migration in recent human history: the trans-Atlantic slave trade. We compared definitions of four CBS (walk early, evil eye, atita and fontanels and associated plant use among three Afro-Surinamese populations and their African ancestor groups in Ghana, Bénin and Gabon. We expected plant use to be similar on species level, and assumed the majority to be weedy or domesticated species, as these occur on both continents and were probably recognized by enslaved Africans. Data were obtained by identifying plants mentioned during interviews with local women from the six different populations. To analyse differences and similarities in plant use we used Detrended Component Analysis (DCA and a Wald Chi-square test. Definitions of the four cultural bound syndromes were roughly the same on both continents. In total, 324 plant species were used. There was little overlap between Suriname and Africa: 15 species were used on two continents, of which seven species were used for the same CBS. Correspondence on family level was much higher. Surinamese populations used significantly more weedy species than Africans, but equal percentages of domesticated plants. Our data indicate that Afro-Surinamers have searched for similar plants to treat their CBS as they remembered from Africa. In some cases, they have found the same species, but they had to reinvent the largest part of their herbal pharmacopeia to treat their CBS using known plant families or trying out new species. Ideas on health and illness appear to be more resilient than the use of plants to treat them.

  16. Simulating the Aging of the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Henk A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a project that simulated the impact of three scenarios on health care patterns and the health situation of elderly people in the Netherlands. The discussion covers the utilization of outcomes by policymakers and future applications of simulations by scenario projects. (41 notes with references) (CLB)

  17. Chronic Q fever in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampschreur, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    From 2007-2010, during the recent Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands, over 4000 cases of acute Q fever were registered, which is an underestimation of the total amount of Coxiella burnetii infections due to a high amount of asymptomatic primary infections. In the literature it is stated that 1-5% o

  18. Restructuring Environmental Legislation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In 2002, the newly elected Cabinet in the Netherlands decided to act upon a growing number of complaints from businesses that government legis-lation is the cause of heavy administrative burdens for companies. According to businesses, this has a negative impact on the economy. The Cabinet promised t

  19. Euthanasia in the Netherlands: a slippery slope?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    2017-01-01

    The Dutch euthanasia legislation has been lauded as well as criticized by legal scholars and physicians in the Netherlands and abroad. The legal framework so established is renowned for setting a number of valuable due-care criteria for the physician to follow when performing euthanasia on a

  20. Occupational blood exposure accidents in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, P.T.L. van; Schneeberger, P.M.; Heimeriks, K.; Boland, G.J.; Karagiannis, I.; Geraedts, J.; Ruijs, W.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To make proper evaluation of prevention policies possible, data on the incidence and associated medical costs of occupational blood exposure accidents in the Netherlands are needed. METHODS: Descriptive analysis of blood exposure accidents and risk estimates for occupational groups. Cost