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Sample records for surinam

  1. Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    A summary description of Suriname's population, geography, history, government, economy, and foreign relations is provided. Suriname, a tropical country, situated on the northern coast of South America, consists of a coastal zone, a central forested region, and a sparsely populated southern savanna zone. Most of the country's approximately 400,000 inhabitants live in the coastal zone, which contains most of the country's agricultural land. The population is ethnically diverse and is 37% Hindustani, 31% Creole, 15.3% Javanese, 10.3% Bush Negro, 2.7% Amerindian, 2.7% Chinese, and 1% European. European settlement began in 1651. Between 1667-1815 the country was rule alternately by the Netherlands and Great Britian. In 1975 Suriname obtained independence from the Netherlands and was governed as a parliamentary democracy between 1975-80. In 1980 the government was overthrown by a military coup, and the constitution was suspended. Although there have been several changes in government structure and leadership since 1980, the country continues to be ruled by military decree. In 1984 a Supreme Council, composed of representives of the military, labor federations, and business organizations and chaired by the army commander, Desire D. Bouterse, was established. Although ultimate authority resides in the commander and in the military, there is also a Council of Ministers, composed of labor and business leaders and headed by the Minister-President, L.F. Ramdat-Misier. The government exerts considerable control over the news media. During the colonial era, a plantation economy, based on the production of cocoa, coffee, sugar, and cotton, was established. The system was supported first by African slave labor, and then by Asian contract agricultural laborers. Suriname's current economy is based largely on the mining, processing and exporting of bauxite. The bauxite industry is dominated by the Suriname Aluminum Company, a subsidiary of the Aluminum Company of America, and by the

  2. 23. Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman, R.

    1931-01-01

    In the following a survey is given of what is known at present about the geology and petrology of Surinam. It must be understood that this outline cannot but be incomplete; in the first place because quantitatively our knowledge of Surinam is highly inadequate, and secondly because the same may be

  3. Goudafzettingen in Suriname (Gold deposits in Surinam)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinck, J.W.

    1956-01-01

    THE GOLD DEPOSITS IN SURINAM AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF CONCESSIONS THROUGH THE COUNTRY The fieldwork on the occurrence of primary and secondary gold deposits in Surinam on which this thesis is based was carried out by order of the Welfare Fund Surinam (Welvaarts Fonds Suriname) during the periods

  4. The Mammals of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    The knowledge of the fauna of Suriname is of essential importance in the study of the neotropical Mammalia. The first publications containing information on mammals of Suriname appeared very early in the history of European exploration of South America. Such publications were relatively numerous in

  5. The bats of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, A.M.

    1962-01-01

    CONTENTS I. Introduction.................. 3 A. Scope of the present paper............. 3 B. Measurements................ 7 C. Nomenclature................ 8 D. Acknowledgements............... 9 II. General Part.................. 10 A. History of the study of Suriname bats.......... 10 B. Remarks on

  6. Health literacy in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diemer, Frederieke S.; Haan, Yentl C.; Nannan Panday, Rani V.; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Oehlers, Glenn P.; Brewster, Lizzy M.

    2017-01-01

    Low health literacy is an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality. However, data on health literacy in low- and middle-income countries are scarce. Therefore, we assessed the level of health literacy in Suriname, a middle-income country with a high cardiovascular mortality. We estimated

  7. The Trichoptera of Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flint, Oliver S.

    1974-01-01

    Surinam (or Dutch Guiana) lies on the northeastern coast of South America between French Guiana on the east, Guyana on the west, and Brazil on the south. It is roughly rectangular in shape, about 350 kilometers (210 miles) wide by under 400 kilometers (240 miles) from north to south. Most of the

  8. Hepatiques du Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jovet-Ast, S.

    1957-01-01

    Il n’existe pas, actuellement, de catalogue des Hépatiques du Surinam. Les Hépatiques de ce pays restent très peu connues. Cependant, certaines ont attiré l’attention des Bryologues et ont été citées dans quelques ouvrages anciens ou récents. Je ne ferai pas ici une révision complète de ces

  9. Sea turtles nesting in Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    PREFACE The first manuscript for this book originated in 1970 in the form of a revised translation of 'Zeeschildpadden in Suriname,, a mimeographed report written primarily for internal use. This English version was of the same hybrid nature as the Dutch booklet, which was meant to be a

  10. Caries prevalence in Suriname schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert-Schriks, M.C.M.; van Amerongen, W.E.; ten Cate, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to establish the oral health status of children living throughout the Interior of Suriname in order to define needs for dental care in line with WHO goals and guidelines. Basic research design: In this cross sectional study, dental caries was recorded according

  11. The changing shoreline of Suriname (South America)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustinus, P.G.E.F.

    1978-01-01

    The Surinam coast forms part of the extensive tropical mud coast between the Amazon River (Brazil) and the Orinoco River (Venezuela). It is classified as a low to medium energy coast. A substantially longshore supply of mud originates from the Amazon River. The fine grained sediment (pelite) is

  12. Slavery, religion, and abolition in Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Postma

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] "Om werk van jullie te hebben": Plantageleven in Suriname, 1730-1750. RUDI OTTO BEELDSNIJDER. Utrecht: Vakgroep Culturele Antropologie - Bronnen voor de Studie van Afro-Surinaamse Samenlevingen, 1994. xii + 351 pp. (Paper NLG 35.00 Surinaams contrast: Roofbouw en overleven in een Caraibische plantagekolonie 1750-1863. ALEX VAN STIPRIAAN. Leiden: KITLV Press, 1995. xiii + 494 pp. (Paper NLG 60.00 Strijders voor het Lam: Leven en werk van Herrnhutter broeders en zusters in Suriname, 1735-1900. MARIA LENDERS. Leiden: KITLV Press, 1996. xii + 451 pp. (Paper NLG 65.00 Fifty Years Later: Antislavery, Capitalism and Modernity in the Dutch Orbit. GERT OOSTINDIE (ed.. Leiden: KITLV Press, 1995; Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1996. viii + 272 pp. (Paper NLG 45.00, US$ 22.50, Cloth US$ 45.00 The publication of the books under review is evidence of a growing scholarly interest in the history of Dutch activities in the Atlantic. Three of them are doctoral dissertations on Suriname history; the fourth contains the published proceedings of a conference held in 1993 that focused on the abolition of slavery in the Dutch colonies. Three were published by the Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology (KITLV, which exhibits an increasing interest in publishing scholarly books about Dutch overseas history.

  13. Two new Bird-records from Surinam (Dutch Guyana)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voous Jr., K.H.

    1945-01-01

    Falco peregrinus anatum Bonaparte Adult (evidently ♀), Surinam. Wing 363, tail 170, tarsus 53, culmen from cere 24 mm. Together with other Surinam bird-skins, the specimen was sent to Harlem (Holland) in 1899 for exhibition at the "Koloniale Westindische Tentoonstelling". It is now in the collection

  14. Preliminary survey of the vegetation types of northern Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeman, J.C.; Moolenaar, S.P.

    1959-01-01

    Desde el punto de vista geológico el norte de Surinam se divide en 4 zonas distintas, a saber: I°. la parte del sur que pertenece, como también el resto de Surinam, a la capa precambriana de Guyana, que, a su vez, consiste principalmente en granitos, granitodioritas y esquistos, y que, por la mayor

  15. De aanvoer van arbeiders voor den landbouw in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snellen, E.

    1933-01-01

    Not long after its discovery in the sixteenth century Surinam developed a plantation economy, needing many slaves from Africa. After the abolition of slavery in 1863, agricultural labour became very scarce. The thesis emphasizes the period 1863-1933, when the government of Surinam actively

  16. Bauxite deposits in Suriname : Geological context and resource development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsels, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    Bauxite, the raw material of aluminum, has been one of the economically vital natural resources for Suriname. Mining operations started about a century ago, and subsequent development of a refinery industry and hydro-electric power made Suriname one of the foremost bauxite and alumina producers

  17. Zeeschildpadden in Suriname: de lederschildpad als ‘flagship species’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilterman, M.; Goverse, E.

    2004-01-01

    Vijf van de zeven soorten zeeschildpadden komen voor in Suriname en buurlanden Guyana en Frans Guyana. De lederschildpad (Dermochelys coriacea), soepschildpad (Chelonia mydas), olijfkleurige dwergsch lidpad (Lepidochelys olivacea) en karetschilpad (Eretmochelys imbricata) leggen er hun eieren, de

  18. First Cases of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi Infection in Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Thiel, Pieter-Paul A. M.; van Gool, Tom; Kager, Piet A.; Bart, Aldert

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Surinam is generally caused by infection by Leishmania guyanensis. We report three cases of infection with Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi, a Leishmania species not described from Surinam before. Treatment with pentamidine proved to be effective

  19. The genus Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803, and its Surinam representatives (Siluriformes, Loricariidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeseman, M.

    1968-01-01

    CONTENTS Introduction................... 3 The generic name................. 4 The type species of Hypostomus Lacépède.......... 6 The identity of Acipenser plecostomus Linnaeus........ 9 The distribution and habitats of the Surinam species........ 12 The relationship of the Surinam

  20. Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Infections among Ethnic Groups in Paramaribo, Suriname; Determinants and Ethnic Sexual Mixing Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, Jannie J.; Bom, Reinier J. M.; Grünberg, Antoon W.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Sabajo, Leslie O. A.; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection (chlamydia) in Suriname. Suriname is a society composed of many ethnic groups, such as Creoles, Maroons, Hindustani, Javanese, Chinese, Caucasians, and indigenous Amerindians. We estimated determinants for

  1. Gold mining areas in Suriname: reservoirs of malaria resistance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhin MR

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Malti R Adhin,1 Mergiory Labadie-Bracho,2 Stephen Vreden31Faculty of Medical Sciences, Department of Biochemistry, Anton de Kom Universiteit van Suriname, 2Prof Dr Paul C Flu Institute for Biomedical Sciences, 3Academic Hospital Paramaribo, Paramaribo, SurinameBackground: At present, malaria cases in Suriname occur predominantly in migrants and people living and/or working in areas with gold mining operations. A molecular survey was performed in Plasmodium falciparum isolates originating from persons from gold mining areas to assess the extent and role of mining areas as reservoirs of malaria resistance in Suriname.Methods: The status of 14 putative resistance-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms in the pfdhfr, pfcrt, pfmdr1, and pfATP6 genes was assessed for 28 samples from gold miners diagnosed with P. falciparum malaria using polymerase chain reaction amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and the results were compared with earlier data from nonmining villagers.Results: Isolates from miners showed a high degree of homogeneity, with a fixed pfdhfr Ile51/Asn108, pfmdr1 Phe184/Asp1042/Tyr1246, and pfcrt Thr76 mutant genotype, while an exclusively wild-type genotype was observed for pfmdr1 Asn86 and pfdhfr Ala16, Cys59, and Ile164, and for the pfATP6 positions Leu263/Ala623/Ser769. Small variations were observed for pfmdr1 S1034C. No statistically significant difference could be detected in allele frequencies between mining and nonmining villagers.Conclusion: Despite the increased risk of malaria infection in individuals working/living in gold mining areas, we did not detect an increase in mutation frequency at the 14 analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms. Therefore, mining areas in Suriname cannot yet be considered as reservoirs for malaria resistance.Keywords: Plasmodium falciparum, gold mining, mutation frequency, Suriname

  2. Maroons in Suriname and Guyane: how many and where

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Price

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] While conducting research with Sally Price for a book (R. & S. Price 2002 about Maroons in Guyane (French Guiana - all of whom have recent or ancestral roots in Suriname - 1 have come to realize that the Maroon population figures routinely used in the scholarly and popular literature are considerably out of date, for both Suriname and Guyane, as well as for the Maroon diaspora in the Netherlands.1 This brief essay is intended to provide new estimates, some of which have startling implications.

  3. Bauxite formation on Tertiary sediments and Proterozoic bedrock in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsels, D.A.

    2018-01-01

    The lateritic bauxite deposits in Suriname are traditionally distinguished into Coastal plain bauxites and Plateau bauxites, a subdivision that is primarily based on their topographic and geographic position. The first group is located in the lowlands of the coastal plain, while the second group is

  4. Ecological studies on rain forest in Northern Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, J.P.

    1960-01-01

    During the years 1955-1957 ecological data were collected in various types of mesophytic forest occurring in the northern half of central Suriname (fig. 1). Physiognomically as well as floristically these forests correspond with the type of vegetation which in the other parts of tropical America

  5. An ecological and phytogeographic study of northern Surinam savannas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donselaar, van J.

    1965-01-01

    Geology and soils in general Surinam is situated at the northern edge of the very old and stable Guiana shield. Six-sevenths of the country’s surface are occupied by formations belonging to the shield and designated together as the basal complex. However, the Roraima formation does not belong to the

  6. Microeconomic determinants of skilled migration: The case of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.W. Dulam (Tina); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Suriname witnesses a brain drain, in particular to the Netherlands. We study the determinants of this brain drain for skilled individuals, where we rely on an adaptation of the survey proposed in Gibson and McKenzie (2011). We managed to interview a unique set of 286

  7. Het Saramacca project : een plan van joodse kolonisatie in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heldring, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Van 1946 tot 1948 onderhandelde een Amerikaans-Joodse organisatie, de Freeland League, met de Nederlandse en Surinaamse regeringen over de vestiging in Suriname van 30.000 joodse ontheemden uit Europa. Na een aanvankelijk positieve opstelling zetten beide regeringen de onderhandelingen stop: de

  8. Kwalitatieve ondervoeding door onjuiste bijvoeding bij boslandcreoolse kinderen in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Crabben, S. N.; Heymans, H. S.; van Kempen, A. A.; Holman, R.; Sauerwein, H. P.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the increase in the percentage of stunted growth in Bush Negro infants in the interior of Surinam is related to an absolute food (i.e. energy) shortage or to a shortage of protein. DESIGN: Descriptive. METHOD: In the villages of Dan and Botopasi, children aged 2-5

  9. Soils, water and nutrients in a forest ecosystem in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poels, R.L.H.

    1987-01-01

    Water and nutrient flows were measured in catchments on strongly weathered loamy sediments of the Zanderij formation in Suriname under undisturbed forest and forest silviculturally treated whereby 40 % of the biomass was killed. The topography of the two catchment areas studied (each of

  10. Trends and variation in monthly rainfall and temperature in Suriname

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raid, Nurmohamed

    2004-01-01

    As Surinam lies within the equatorial trough zone, climate is mainly influenced by the movement and intensity of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone and the El Nino Southern Oscillation. Scientist predict that global climate change will directly effect the hydrological cycle such as rainfall and temperature, and extreme events such as a El Nino and La Nina. The aim of this study is to analyze historical changes in monthly rainfall and temperature and to predict future changes, with respect to climate change (doubling of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) by 2100) and variability. Linear extrapolation and five Global Circulations Models (GCMS) (HadCM2, ECHAM4, GFDL-TR, CSIRO2-EQ, CCSR-NIES) will be used. Results of GCMs have showed that under global climate change by 2100, the monthly rainfall is predicted to change with -82 to 66 mm during January and August, and -36 to 47 mm during September and November. The monthly temperature is predicted to increase with 1.3 to 4.3 C by 2100. El Nino events have showed that along the coastal zone and in the center of Surinam, most months (>50%) during the year are drier than normal (88 to 316 mm), while in the west part of Surinam, most months (>50%) are wetter than normal (110 to 220 mm). La Nina events have showed that over entire Surinam, most of the months are wetter than normal (19 to 122 mm), with respect to the minimum rainfall. It can be concluded that the changes in rainfall due to El Nino and La Nina events may have significant impacts on the design, planning and management of water resources systems in Surinam and should therefore be incorporated in future water resources planning. (Author)

  11. Notes on the herpetofauna of Surinam : III. A new species of Dendrobates (Amphibia salientia, Dendrobatidae) from Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1969-01-01

    INTRODUCTION During a recent collecting trip, financed by grant W 956-2 from WOTRO (Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research), I spent 47 days (22 August-7 October 1968) on the Sipaliwini savannah in southern Surinam. The Sipaliwini savannah is part of an extensive savannah

  12. Presence of pesticide residues on produce cultivated in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoel Wahid, F; Wickliffe, J; Wilson, M; Van Sauers, A; Bond, N; Hawkins, W; Mans, D; Lichtveld, M

    2017-06-01

    Agricultural pesticides are widely used in Suriname, an upper middle-income Caribbean country located in South America. Suriname imported 1.8 million kg of agricultural pesticides in 2015. So far, however, national monitoring of pesticides in crops is absent. Reports from the Netherlands on imported Surinamese produce from 2010 to 2015 consistently showed that samples exceeded plant-specific pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) of the European Union (EU). Consumption of produce containing unsafe levels of pesticide residues can cause neurological disorders, and particularly, pregnant women and children may be vulnerable. This pilot study assessed the presence of pesticide residues in commonly consumed produce items cultivated in Suriname. Thirty-two insecticides (organophosphates, organochlorines, carbamates, and pyrethroids) and 12 fungicides were evaluated for their levels in nine types of produce. Pesticide residue levels exceeding MRLs in this study regarded cypermethrin (0.32 μg/g) in tomatoes (USA MRL 0.20 μg/g), lambda-cyhalothrin (1.08 μg/g) in Chinese cabbage (USA MRL 0.40 μg/g), endosulfan (0.07 μg/g) in tannia (EU MRL 0.05 μg/g), and lindane (0.02 and 0.03 μg/g, respectively) in tannia (EU MRL 0.01 μg/g). While only a few pesticide residues were detected in this small pilot study, these residues included two widely banned pesticides (endosulfan and lindane). There is a need to address environmental policy gaps. A more comprehensive sampling and analysis of produce from Suriname is warranted to better understand the scope of the problem. Preliminary assessments, using intake rate, hazard quotient, and level of concern showed that it is unlikely that daily consumption of tannia leads to adverse health effects.

  13. Re-democratization in Guyana and Suriname: Critical Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitram Singh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Guyana and Suriname both re-assumed the path to  democracy in the early 1990s. Guyana had from  1968 to 1992 experienced an authoritarian regime  with the People’s National Congress (PNC, led by  Forbes Burnham, maintaining power by rigged  elections and the support of the security forces. In  Suriname, on the other hand, the elected government of Prime Minister Henck Arron was overthrown by a military coup in 1980. This article traces  the establishment of authoritarianism in these two  countries and examines the factors which propelled  each country towards the restoration of democracy.  The central argument is that authoritarianism in  Guyana resulted from the success of Forbes Burnham in subordinating the military to party rule  while the military take-over in Suriname resulted  from the mismanagement of civil-military relations  by the government of Henck Arron. However,  maintaining an authoritarian regime proved costly  in both cases. The need for external aid rendered  the regimes susceptible to foreign pressure for a  return to free and fair elections. All of this occurred  in a new hemispheric context shaped by the end of  the Cold War, the stated goal of the United States  to have the area become a zone of democracy, and  impending foreign military intervention to restore  the ousted Aristide government to power in Haiti. Resumen: Redemocratización en Guyana y Suriname: Comparaciones CríticasTanto Guyana como Suriname retomaron el  camino hacia la democracia a comienzos de la  década de los noventa. Desde 1968 hasta 1992,  Guyana tuvo un régimen autoritario con el Congreso Nacional del Pueblo (People’s National  Congress o PNC, liderado por Forbes Burnham,  que se mantuvo en el poder gracias a la manipulación de las elecciones y al apoyo de las fuerzas  de seguridad. En Suriname, por otro lado, el  gobierno electo del primer ministro Henck Arron  fue derrocado por un golpe de estado militar en

  14. Notes on Wyeomyia Mosquitoes of Suriname, with a Description of Wyeomyia surinamensis sp.n.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijning, C.F.A.

    1959-01-01

    Most of the material recorded in this paper was collected by the author during his stay in Suriname from 1949 to 1955. By courtesy of Mrs. J. BONNE-WEPSTER, the author was enabled to study the Wyeomyia specimens which were collected by BONNE and BONNE-WEPSTER in Suriname and are at present in the

  15. A record from Surinam of the bat Chiroderma trinitatum Goodwin, 1958 (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, W.

    1979-01-01

    Re-examination of a collection of bats from Surinam in the Zoölogisch Museum, Amsterdam, uncovered a specimen representing the Phyllostomatid bat Chiroderma trinitatum Goodwin, 1958. This species does not appear in the monograph of the Chiroptera of Surinam by Husson (1962), nor in his more recent

  16. Health-related fitness of urban children in Suriname : an ethnic variety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhain, Fenna; Declerck, Marlies; de Vries, J; Veeger, H.E.J.; Ledebt, A.

    Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the health-related fitness (HRF) of 11-year-old children living in an urban area in Suriname, taking into account the difference between the five main ethnicities from Suriname. Design and Method: Cross-sectionally, performance on the HRF

  17. HIV Transmission Patterns Among The Netherlands, Suriname, and The Netherlands Antilles: A Molecular Epidemiological Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, Merlijn A.; Cornelissen, Marion; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Prins, Maria; Coutinho, Roel A.; van Sighem, Ard I.; Sabajo, Lesley; Duits, Ashley J.; Winkel, Cai N.; Prins, Jan M.; van der Ende, Marchina E.; Kauffmann, Robert H.; Op de Coul, Eline L.

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to study patterns of HIV transmission among Suriname, The Netherlands Antilles, and The Netherlands. Fragments of env, gag, and pol genes of 55 HIV-infected Surinamese, Antillean, and Dutch heterosexuals living in The Netherlands and 72 HIV-infected heterosexuals living in Suriname and the

  18. Pénicillates du Surinam et du Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Condé, B.; Terver, D.

    1964-01-01

    Les Pénicillates de la famille des Lophoproctidés ont été signalés de plusieurs Antilles, de Trinidad et de la côte vénézuélienne. Abondants à la Jamaïque (matériaux inédits de P. F. BELLINGER, ils sont seuls représentés dans les récoltes faites au Surinam par le Dr. J. VAN DER DRIFT et nous en

  19. TIME REDUCTION FOR SURINAM GRASS SEED GERMINATION TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Aquino Tomaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe period for the germination test of Surinam grass seeds established by the Rules for Seeds Testing is 28 days, considered too lengthy by producers, venders, and seed analysis laboratories. So, the objective of this research was to evaluate the possibility of reducing the time for the germination test of Surinam grass seeds and to establish a method for dormancy breaking and the ideal temperature. Ten seed lots were submitted to the following treatments to overcome seed dormancy: control; substrate moistening with 0.2% KNO3; and scarification with sulfuric acid (98% 36 N for 15 minutes. After the treatments, the lots were submitted to seed water content, germination and tetrazolium tests. During the germination test, conducted with four replicates of 100 seeds per treatment for 28 days, two conditions of alternating temperatures (20-35 °C and 15-35 °C with 8 hours of light were tested. Attempting to determine the test end date, daily counts of the number of normal seedlings were made and for each lot, treatment, and temperature, a growth curve for the evaluation of germination was adjusted. The segmented regression model parameter estimations were calculated for each treatment. The germination test of Braquiaria decumbensseeds may be evaluated in 12 days after sowing using alternating temperatures of 20-35 °C and without any treatment to overcome dormancy.

  20. Yellow fever in a traveller returning from Suriname to the Netherlands, March 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Marjan; Knoester, Marjolein; van den Berg, Aad P; GeurtsvanKessel, Corine H; Koopmans, Marion Pg; Van Leer-Buter, Coretta; Oude Velthuis, Bob; Pas, Suzan D; Ruijs, Wilhelmina Lm; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Vreden, Stephen Gs; van der Werf, Tjip S; Reusken, Chantal Bem; Bierman, Wouter Fw

    2017-03-16

    A Dutch traveller returning from Suriname in early March 2017, presented with fever and severe acute liver injury. Yellow fever was diagnosed by (q)RT-PCR and sequencing. During hospital stay, the patient's condition deteriorated and she developed hepatic encephalopathy requiring transfer to the intensive care. Although yellow fever has not been reported in the last four decades in Suriname, vaccination is recommended by the World Health Organization for visitors to this country. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  1. Mercury Levels in Women and Children from Interior Villages in Suriname, South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Ouboter

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural sources of mercury, historical gold mining, and contemporary artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM activities have led to mercury contamination in Suriname. Our primary objective was to evaluate mercury levels in hair of women and children from interior villages in Suriname where mercury levels in fish are elevated. We also estimated blood levels of mercury using an established mathematical conversion to facilitate comparison with other biomonitoring programs in the United States. Estimated levels of mercury in the blood of participants from Suriname were significantly higher than those in women from a heavy marine fish-consuming population in southeast Louisiana and estimates of the US national average. This includes women from Surinamese villages well upstream of ASGM activities. Since residents in these areas rely heavily on local fish, this is likely the source of their exposure to mercury. The levels in hair are similar to those seen in women from longitudinal studies finding neurological impairments in children exposed pre- and postnatally. Additional biomonitoring and neurodevelopmental assessments are warranted in these areas, as well as other areas of the Suriname. Mercury levels in hair (Suriname and blood (southeast LA USA were determined using cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CVAAS.

  2. Mercury Levels in Women and Children from Interior Villages in Suriname, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouboter, Paul E; Landburg, Gwendolyn; Satnarain, Gaitrie U; Starke, Sheryl Y; Nanden, Indra; Simon-Friedt, Bridget; Hawkins, William B; Taylor, Robert; Lichtveld, Maureen Y; Harville, Emily; Wickliffe, Jeffrey K

    2018-05-17

    Natural sources of mercury, historical gold mining, and contemporary artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) activities have led to mercury contamination in Suriname. Our primary objective was to evaluate mercury levels in hair of women and children from interior villages in Suriname where mercury levels in fish are elevated. We also estimated blood levels of mercury using an established mathematical conversion to facilitate comparison with other biomonitoring programs in the United States. Estimated levels of mercury in the blood of participants from Suriname were significantly higher than those in women from a heavy marine fish-consuming population in southeast Louisiana and estimates of the US national average. This includes women from Surinamese villages well upstream of ASGM activities. Since residents in these areas rely heavily on local fish, this is likely the source of their exposure to mercury. The levels in hair are similar to those seen in women from longitudinal studies finding neurological impairments in children exposed pre- and postnatally. Additional biomonitoring and neurodevelopmental assessments are warranted in these areas, as well as other areas of the Suriname. Mercury levels in hair (Suriname) and blood (southeast LA USA) were determined using cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CVAAS).

  3. Strengths and virtues and the development of resilience : A qualitative study in Suriname during a time of economic crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Tom; Graafsma, Tobi; Hassankhan, Aabidien; Bohlmeijer, Ernst; de Jong, Joop

    2018-01-01

    Background: Resilience can be described as the capacity to deal with adversity and traumatic events. The current economic situation in Suriname and its social economic consequences may demand a great amount of resilience for people living in Suriname. In this explorative study, we examined the

  4. The Role of Surinamese Migrants in the Transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis between Paramaribo, Suriname and Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bom, Reinier J. M.; van der Helm, Jannie J.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; Grünberg, Antoon W.; Sabajo, Leslie O. A.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2013-01-01

    The large Surinamese migrant population in the Netherlands is a major risk group for urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Suriname, a former Dutch colony, also has a high prevalence of C. trachomatis. Surinamese migrants travel extensively between the Netherlands and Suriname. Our objective

  5. On six species of marine Mollusca from suriname, four of which are new

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren, van C.O.

    1971-01-01

    Four new species are here described in order to have their descriptions published before "Seashells of Wia Wia" by D. J. Green & R. H. Hill and the second part of my paper on the Holocene and Recent marine Mollusca of Suriname will appear. Notes are added on two species for which names are used

  6. Using Intervention Mapping for a Needs Assessment on Preconception Care in Suriname: The Perisur Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, M.E.; Korfker, D.G.; Detmar, S.B.; Hindori, M.P.; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; Vondeling, H.; Hindori-Mohangoo, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Every year approximately 10,000 babies are born in Suriname of which an estimated 400 die in the perinatal period. The main purpose of the Perisur project is to improve perinatal outcomes and improve under-five and maternal health. This study focused on introducing preconception care in

  7. De bodemgesteldheid van het ritsenlandschap en van de oude kustvlakte in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorde, van der P.K.J.

    1957-01-01

    Agriculture developed remarkably in the old and especially in the young coastal plain of Surinam in the 17th, 18th and 19th century and produced such crops as sugar, cotton, tobacco, cocoa and coffee. In the second half of the 19th century activity decreased severely. With the modern sciences

  8. Implementation and Evaluation of a Parenting Program to Prevent Child Maltreatment in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooij, Inger W.; Bipat, Shandra; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.; Graafsma, Tobi L. G.

    2017-01-01

    The prevention of child maltreatment has become a global health concern because child maltreatment is a violation of children's rights. Across the world, a variety of parenting programs have been developed to address this problem. However, no such parenting program currently exists in Suriname. This

  9. A new genus and a new species of the Carventinae from Surinam (Hemiptera, Aradidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kormilev, N.A.; Doesburg, van P.H.

    1977-01-01

    The junior author has collected in Surinam at night on a dead log, a few specimens of a very interesting new aradid species representing a new genus in the subfamily Carventinae, which we propose to name Apterocoris surinamensis. All measurements were taken with a micrometer eyepiece, 25 units = 1

  10. Yellow fever in a traveller returning from Suriname to the Netherlands, March 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouthuyzen-Bakker, M.; Knoester, M.; Berg, A.P. van den; GeurtsvanKessel, C.H.; Koopmans, M.P.; Leer-Buter, C. Van; Velthuis, B.; Pas, S.D.; Ruijs, W.L.M.; Schmidt-Chanasit, J.; Vreden, S.G.; Werf, T.S. van der; Reusken, C.B.; Bierman, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    A Dutch traveller returning from Suriname in early March 2017, presented with fever and severe acute liver injury. Yellow fever was diagnosed by (q)RT-PCR and sequencing. During hospital stay, the patient's condition deteriorated and she developed hepatic encephalopathy requiring transfer to the

  11. Yellow fever in a traveller returning from Suriname to the Netherlands, March 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouthuyzen-Bakker, M.; Knoester, M.; van den Berg, A. P.; GeurtsvanKessel, C. H.; Koopmans, M. P.; Van Leer-Buter, C.; Velthuis, B. Oude; Pas, S. D.; Ruijs, W. L.; Schmidt-Chanasit, J.; Vreden, S. G.; van der Werf, T. S.; Reusken, C. B.; Bierman, W. F.

    2017-01-01

    A Dutch traveller returning from Suriname in early March 2017, presented with fever and severe acute liver injury. Yellow fever was diagnosed by (q) RT-PCR and sequencing. During hospital stay, the patient's condition deteriorated and she developed hepatic encephalopathy requiring transfer to the

  12. Yellow fever in a traveller returning from Suriname to the Netherlands, March 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Wouthuyzen-Bakker (Marjan); M. Knoester; A.P. van den Berg; C.H. Geurts van Kessel (Corine); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); C. Van Leer-Buter (Coretta); B. Oude Velthuis; S.D. Pas (Suzan); W.L.M. Ruijs (Wilhelmina L.M.); J. Schmidt-Chanasit (Jonas); S.G. Vreden; T.S. van der Werf; C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); W.F.W. Bierman (Wouter)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractA Dutch traveller returning from Suriname in early March 2017, presented with fever and severe acute liver injury. Yellow fever was diagnosed by (q)RT-PCR and sequencing. During hospital stay, the patient’s condition deteriorated and she developed hepatic encephalopathy requiring

  13. Marine and anthropogenic controls on the estuary of the Suriname River over the past 50 years.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gersie, K.; Augustinus, P.G.E.F.; van Balen, R.T.

    2016-01-01

    Humans have played an important role in fluvial systems because of the impact of their land-use activities, frequently leading to degradation of environmental conditions. Rivers, which are the primary agents in sediment transport, have thus been subject to changes in sediment fluxes. The Suriname

  14. Dreams and transitions. The royal road to Surinam and Australian indigenous society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohkamsing-den Boer, E.P.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis offers a fresh interpretation on the way dreams function among two small-scale societies with a living oral tradition, viz. the Aborigines of Australia and the Amerindian communities of Suriname. It is based on pertinent literature on both communities, but supplemented by fresh fieldwork

  15. Is the dog a possible reservoir for cutaneous leishmaniasis in suriname?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kent, Alida; Ramkalup, Prakash; Mans, Dennis; Schallig, Henk

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an emerging disease in Suriname, with at least 200 cases per year. Little is known about the biology of CL in the country. The most important parasite species is Leishmania Viannia guyanensis, but possible vectors and reservoirs are hardly incriminated. In the present

  16. Intervention in Lower-class Surinam-Dutch Families : Effects on Mothers and Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; Meij, Johannes Th; Hubbard, Frans O.; Zevalkink, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-seven Surinam-Dutch lower-class families with a one-year-old child participated in "Instapje", a parent-focused home-based intervention programme. The intervention was devised to improve quality of parental support to the child on four behavioural dimensions: supportive presence, respect for

  17. Situation Reports--Barbados, Canada, Papua and New Guinea, St. Vincent, Surinam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in six countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Barbados, Canada, Papua and New Guinea, St. Vincent, and Surinam. Information is provided in the following areas where appropriate and if it is available: (1) statistics on population, birth and death rates, G. N. P.,…

  18. Impulsive but fatal self-poisoning with pesticides among South Asians in Nickerie, Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, v.B.A.J.; Graafsma, T.; Dullaart, H.I.A.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Intentional self-poisoning with pesticides is a serious problem in many developing countries. It is a commonly used method among South Asians all over the world. Aims: To describe the circumstances and characteristics of suicides in Nickerie, Suriname, in order to gain insight into why

  19. Human papillomavirus testing as a cytology gold standard : comparing Surinam with the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wachtel, MS; Boon, ME; Korporaal, H; Kok, LP

    Polymerase chain reaction to detect high- risk human papillomavirus has been suggested as a gold standard for cytology. The Netherlands and Surinam were prospectively compared in regard to the proportions of Negative, Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance, and Squamous Intraepithelial

  20. Drug resistance and genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum parasites from Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peek, Ron; van Gool, Tom; Panchoe, Daynand; Greve, Sophie; Bus, Ellen; Resida, Lesley

    2005-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum in Suriname was studied for the presence of drug resistance and genetic variation in blood samples of 86 patients with symptomatic malaria. Drug resistance was predicted by determining point mutations in the chloroquine resistance marker of the P. falciparum chloroquine

  1. Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome in three patients from Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Langerak (Thomas); Yang, H. (Harvey); Baptista, M. (Mark); Doornekamp, L. (Laura); Kerkman, T. (Tessa); Codrington, J. (John); Roosblad, J. (Jimmy); Vreden, S.G.S. (Stephen G.S.); E.I. de Bruin (Esther); R. Mögling (Ramona); B.C. Jacobs (Bart); S.D. Pas (Suzan); C.H. Geurts van Kessel (Corine); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); E.C.M. van Gorp (Eric); Alberga, H. (Henk)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe present three patients from Suriname who were diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) during the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in this country. One patient had a positive ZIKV urine real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) result. The other two patients had a negative ZIKV urine qRT-PCR but a

  2. Studies on the epidemiology of spear rot in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lande, van de H.L.

    1993-01-01

    The epidemiology of spear rot, an infectious disease of unknown etiology, was studied over 10 years at three government-owned oil palm plantations in Suriname. As with other and similar diseases, amarelecimento fatal in Brazil and pudrición del cogollo in Latin America, which too show rot

  3. Some preliminary notes on Surinam Sting Rays, including the description of a new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeseman, M.

    1948-01-01

    In Dr. D. C. Geijskes' collection of Surinam fishes, mentioned in my previous paper on this subject (Boeseman, 1948), I found six specimens belonging to the so-called "sting rays" (Dasyatidae), representing three different species, and all very interesting in some respects. I. Dasyatis schmardae

  4. Overleven in een grensgebied. Veranderingsprocessen bij de Wayana in Suriname en Frans-Guayana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Wayana, who belong to the group of Caribbean speaking peoples, live dispersed over three countries: Brazil, French Guyana and Suriname. ‘Wayana’ is in fact a generic name for several ethnic groups which, probably in order to increase their chances of survival, have joined forces under one

  5. The “world’s largest toad” and other herpetological specimens from southern Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reed, Charles A.; Borowsky, Richard

    1970-01-01

    In this short paper we list the herpetological specimens collected in southern Surinam (Dutch Guiana) by Mr. and Mrs. Rudolf Freund in November and December, 1961, and include ecological notes made by the Freunds at the time. This area is one from which collections are rare, so that distributional

  6. History of malaria research and its contribution to the malaria control success in Suriname: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeveld, Florence J. V.; Vreden, Stephen G. S.; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2012-01-01

    Suriname has cleared malaria from its capital city and coastal areas mainly through the successful use of chloroquine and DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) during the Global Malaria Eradication programme that started in 1955. Nonetheless, malaria transmission rates remained high in the

  7. Patterns in medicinal plant knowledge and use in a Maroon village in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, van 't Charlotte; Andel, van Tinde; Reis, Ria

    2016-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Traditional medicine plays an important role in the primary health care practices of Maroons living in the interior of Suriname. Large numbers of medicinal plants are employed to maintain general health and cure illnesses. Little is known, however, on how knowledge

  8. Competition between crops and weeds in the Zanderij area of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    A weed flora rapidly built up with the cultivation of annual crops on two experimental farms in the Zanderij area of Suriname, despite the fact that the farms were newly established in forested areas. Studies indicated that without adequate weed control, significant yield losses occurred in

  9. Structure, root systems and periodicity of savanna plants and vegetations in Northern Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donselaar-ten Bokkel Huinink, van W.A.E.

    1966-01-01

    From July 1958 to May 1959 an investigation was carried out of the relation between physiognomic characteristics of the vegetation and the habitat on some savannas in the vicinity of Zanderij, Surinam. Root systems, structure, periodicity and characteristics of the leaves were considered, both of

  10. Irrigatie uit een moeras : een hydrologische studie van de Nannizwamp in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevenhuijsen, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Tropical Swamp areas are sometimes suitable for agricultural expansion. In Suriname reclamation of relatively small parts of the coastal swamp has been carried out for centuries. Many of these polders are abandoned or have been made suitable for (wet) rice cultivation. For further development of

  11. The "Comb-toothed" Loricariinae of Surinam, with reflections on the phylogenetic tendencies within the family Loricariidae (Siluriformes, Siluroidei)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeseman, M.

    1971-01-01

    CONTENTS Introduction................... 3 The nominal genera and their evaluation........... 4 The phylogeny of the higher Loricariidae........... 12 Measurements and methods............... 18 Collecting localities................. 19 Miscellaneous remarks................ 23 The Surinam species

  12. Sensibilidade jurídica e embate colonial: análise do caso Saramaka Vs. Suriname / Legal sensibility and colonial struggle: an analysis on the Saramaka vs. Suriname case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assis da Costa Oliveira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available  Resumo O presente artigo analisa o caso povo Saramaka Vs. Estado do Suriname, julgado e monitorado pela Corte Interamericana de Direitos Humanos, com a seguinte estrutura: (1 apresentação do contexto histórico-cultural do caso; (2 reflexão sobre o papel do ativismo político-jurídico da Corte; (3 elaboração do resumo do caso Saramaka Vs. Suriname; (4 discussão das possíveis entradas da Antropologia no campo jurídico-judicial; (5 leitura do caso Saramaka Vs. Suriname pelo “olhar antropológico”. Palavras-Chave: Sensibilidade Jurídica; Direitos Indígenas; Antropologia do Direito; Direitos Humanos. Abstract This article analyze the case Saramaka People Vs. State of Suriname, judged and monitored by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, with the following structure: (1 presentation of historical and cultural context of the case, (2 reflection on the political and legal activism of the Court, (3 preparation of the summary of the case Saramaka Vs. Suriname, (4 discussion of possible entries of Anthropology in the field legal-judicial, (5 reading of the case Saramaka Vs. Surinam with the " anthropological view”. Key-words: Legal Sensibility, Indigenous Rights, Anthropology of Law, Human Rights.  

  13. A Multifaceted Analysis of the Electoral System of the Republic of Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imma Curiel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The electoral system of Suriname has been analyzed. Suriname has a unicameral parliament, the National Assembly. The 51 seats of the National Assembly are distributed among 10 districts. There are large discrepancies between the numbers of voters represented by a seat in the various districts. Apportionment methods leading to different seat distributions are explored and compared with each other and with the current one. The comparison is done with respect to the number of voters represented by a seat, the mean majority deficit and the probability that a majority deficit will occur, the influence of a voter in a particular district using the Banzhaf power index, and the influence of a political party relative to the percentage of the popular vote that the party obtained. The method of equal proportions turns out to yield the best results in general. (original abstract

  14. Is the Dog a Possible Reservoir for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Suriname?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alida Kent

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is an emerging disease in Suriname, with at least 200 cases per year. Little is known about the biology of CL in the country. The most important parasite species is Leishmania Viannia guyanensis, but possible vectors and reservoirs are hardly incriminated. In the present study, it was investigated whether the dog could possibly be a zoonotic reservoir for the disease in Suriname. Forty-seven dogs were examined for overt clinical signs of leishmaniasis, and blood samples were collected on filter paper for serology (direct agglutination test and molecular biology (by polymerase chain reaction. Three dogs had clinical signs that could be compatible with canine cutaneous leishmaniosis: dermatitis (two or nasal lesion (one. Two dogs were seropositive with DAT (titre > 1 : 1600, and three animals had a borderline titre (1 : 800. All other animals (n=42 were DAT negative. PCR analysis found Leishmania DNA equivalent to 1 parasite per mL in only one dog at a first round of analysis, but this animal was negative after retesting. The clinical, serological, and molecular data show some preliminary lines of evidence that canine leishmaniosis is present in Suriname, but further studies are needed to incriminate the reservoir, including a possible sylvatic cycle.

  15. Problems related to the foreign exchange earnings of Surinam's shrimp industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pottier, D.

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The shrimp grounds of Surinam are actually fully exploited by some 136 trawlers of the Florida type, ranging from 100 to 130 GRT. Through export and import levies and fishing licence fees the country was able to obtain a small piece of the foreign currency cake. The Republic of Surinam has been looking for means to increase the benefits from its shrimp business. The alleged huge profits made by foreign vessels inspired the country to invest in a national shrimp fleet and man it with national crew (SUGAM. For reasons explained in the text Sugam has difficultes to operate with a gain. This paper will review Sugam's attempt to earn hard currency. An analysis is made of the foreign exchange earnings of Sugam and is compared with the results of a Korean company. The main conclusions are as follows : shrimp exploitation in a fully exploited Exclusive Economic Zone can only be brought to success by fishermen of proven ability. Each vessel should make trips lasting from 45 to 60 days and be some 280 days at sea per year. Surinam should also reconsider its present policy of shrimp purchasing.

  16. HIV transmission patterns among The Netherlands, Suriname, and The Netherlands Antilles: a molecular epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Merlijn A; Cornelissen, Marion; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Prins, Maria; Coutinho, Roel A; van Sighem, Ard I; Sabajo, Lesley; Duits, Ashley J; Winkel, Cai N; Prins, Jan M; van der Ende, Marchina E; Kauffmann, Robert H; Op de Coul, Eline L

    2011-02-01

    We aimed to study patterns of HIV transmission among Suriname, The Netherlands Antilles, and The Netherlands. Fragments of env, gag, and pol genes of 55 HIV-infected Surinamese, Antillean, and Dutch heterosexuals living in The Netherlands and 72 HIV-infected heterosexuals living in Suriname and the Antilles were amplified and sequenced. We included 145 pol sequences of HIV-infected Surinamese, Antillean, and Dutch heterosexuals living in The Netherlands from an observational cohort. All sequences were phylogenetically analyzed by neighbor-joining. Additionally, HIV-1 mobility among ethnic groups was estimated. A phylogenetic tree of all pol sequences showed two Surinamese and three Antillean clusters of related strains, but no clustering between ethnic groups. Clusters included sequences of individuals living in Suriname and the Antilles as well as those who have migrated to The Netherlands. Similar clustering patterns were observed in env and gag. Analysis of HIV mobility among ethnic groups showed significantly lower migration between groups than expected under the hypothesis of panmixis, apart from higher HIV migration between Antilleans in The Netherlands and all other groups. Our study shows that HIV transmission mainly occurs within the ethnic group. This suggests that cultural factors could have a larger impact on HIV mobility than geographic distance.

  17. Additional new species of Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803, from Surinam; with remarks on the apparent „gymnorhynchus-complex” (Siluriformes, Loricariidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeseman, M.

    1969-01-01

    Two new Surinam species of Hypostomus Lacépède are described, and their relationship is discussed; a group of three forms from eastern Surinam and (French) Guyane (gymnorhynchus-complex) is reconsidered; the species H. plecostomus (Linnaeus) is reported to hitherto survive in the lacustrine

  18. The role of Surinamese migrants in the transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis between Paramaribo, Suriname and Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bom, Reinier J M; van der Helm, Jannie J; Bruisten, Sylvia M; Grünberg, Antoon W; Sabajo, Leslie O A; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; de Vries, Henry J C

    2013-01-01

    The large Surinamese migrant population in the Netherlands is a major risk group for urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Suriname, a former Dutch colony, also has a high prevalence of C. trachomatis. Surinamese migrants travel extensively between the Netherlands and Suriname. Our objective was to assess whether the Surinamese migrants in the Netherlands form a bridge population facilitating transmission of C. trachomatis between Suriname and the Netherlands. If so, joint prevention campaigns involving both countries might be required. Between March 2008 and July 2010, participants were recruited at clinics in Paramaribo, Suriname and in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants were grouped as native Surinamese, native Dutch, Surinamese migrant, Dutch migrant, or Other, based on country of residence and country of birth of the participant and of their parents. Risk behavior, such as sexual mixing between ethnic groups, was recorded and C. trachomatis positive samples were typed through multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A minimum spanning tree of samples from 426 participants showed four MLST clusters. The MLST strain distribution of Surinamese migrants differed significantly from both the native Surinamese and Dutch populations, but was not an intermediate state between these two populations. Sexual mixing between the Surinamese migrants and the Dutch and Surinamese natives occurred frequently. Yet, the MLST cluster distribution did not differ significantly between participants who mixed and those who did not. Sexual mixing occurred between Surinamese migrants in Amsterdam and the native populations of Suriname and the Netherlands. These migrants, however, did not seem to form an effective bridge population for C. trachomatis transmission between the native populations. Although our data do not seem to justify the need for joint campaigns to reduce the transmission of C. trachomatis strains between both countries, intensified preventive campaigns to

  19. Cruel disease, cruel medicine: self-treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis with harmful chemical substances in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdas, Sahienshadebie

    2012-09-01

    Why are potentially harmful, non-biomedical chemical substances, such as battery acid, chlorine, herbicides, and insecticides, used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL)? What drives people to use these products as medicine? This article is about perceptions of CL, and the quest for a cure, in Suriname, South America. It highlights the associative style of reasoning behind health seeking and discusses the use of harmful chemical substances as medicines. Cutaneous leishmaniasis, a parasitic disease, affects 1 to 1.5 million people globally. It has a spectrum of clinical manifestations, but the most prominent and disfiguring elements are extensive dermatological ulceration and scar formation from lesions. The data upon which this article is based are derived from anthropological research carried out in different parts of Suriname between September 2009 and December 2010. Data was collected through mainly qualitative methods, including interviewing 205 CL patients using structured questionnaires at the Dermatological Service in the capital Paramaribo. Almost all people with CL said they tried self-treatment, varying from the use of ethno-botanical products to non-biomedical chemical solutions. This article presents and interprets the views and practices of CL patients who sought treatment using harsh chemicals. It argues that a confluence of contextual factors - environmental, occupational, infrastructural, geographical, socio-cultural, economic, socio-psychological - leads to the use of harmful chemical substances to treat CL sores. This study is the first in Suriname - and one of the few done globally - focusing on social and cultural aspects related to CL health seeking. It aims to encourage health policy makers and health professionals to carefully initiate, provide, and evaluate CL treatment and prevention programs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Spatio-temporal distribution patterns of the epibenthic community in the coastal waters of Suriname

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Tomas; De Backer, Annelies; Wan Tong You, Kenneth; Vincx, Magda; Hostens, Kris

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to characterize the spatio-temporal patterns of the epibenthic community in the coastal waters of Suriname. Data were collected on a (bi)monthly basis in 2012-2013 at 15 locations in the shallow (turbid-water zone (6-20 m depth), dominated by Atlantic seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Crustacea: Penaeoidea). Near the 30 m isobath, sediments were much coarser (median grain size on average 345±103 μm vs. 128±53 μm in the coastal assemblage) and water transparency was much higher (on average 7.6±3.5 m vs. 2.4±2.1 m in the coastal assemblage). In this zone, a diverse offshore assemblage was found, characterized by brittle stars (mainly Ophioderma brevispina and Ophiolepis elegans) and a variety of crabs, sea stars and hermit crabs. In between both zones, a transition assemblage was noted, with epibenthic species typically found in either the coastal or offshore assemblages, but mainly characterized by the absence of X. kroyeri. Although the epibenthic community was primarily structured in an on-offshore gradient related to depth, sediment grain size and sediment total organic carbon content, a longitudinal (west-east) gradient was apparent as well. The zones in the eastern part of the Suriname coastal shelf seemed to be more widely stretched along the on-offshore gradient. Although clear seasonal differences were noted in the environmental characteristics (e.g. dry vs. rainy season), this was not reflected in the epibenthic community structure. X. kroyeri reached very high densities (up to 1383 ind 1000 m-²) in the shallow coastal waters of Suriname. As X. kroyeri is increasingly exploited throughout its range, the current study provides the ecological context for its presence and abundance, which is crucial for an ecosystem approach and the sustainable management of this commercially important species and its habitat.

  1. Status of potential PfATP6 molecular markers for artemisinin resistance in Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhin Malti R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphisms within the PfATP6 gene have been indicated as potential molecular markers for artemisinin efficacy. Since 2004, the use of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT was introduced as first-line treatment of the uncomplicated malaria cases in Suriname. The aim of this research was to determine changes in Suriname in the status of the polymorphic markers in the PfATP6 gene before and after the adoption of the ACT-regimen, particularly of the S769N mutation, which was reported to be associated with in vitro Artemether resistance in the neighboring country French Guiana. Methods The PfATP6 gene from Plasmodium falciparum parasites in Suriname was investigated in 28 samples using PCR amplification and restriction enzyme analysis, to assess and determine the prevalence of potentially interesting single nucleotide polymorphisms. The polymorphisms [L263E; A623E; S769N], which may be associated with the artemisinin resistant phenotype were characterized in parasites from three endemic regions before and after the adoption of the ACT-regimen. In addition, the status of these molecular markers was compared in paired P. falciparum isolates from patients with recurring malaria after controlled ACT. Results All the investigated samples exhibit the wild-type genotype at all three positions; L263, A623, S769. Conclusion All investigated isolates before and after the adoption of the ACT-regimen and independent of endemic region harbored the wild-type genotype for the three investigated polymorphisms. The study revealed that decreased artemisinin susceptibility could occur independent from PfATP6 mutations, challenging the assumption that artemisinin resistance is associated with these mutations in the PfATP6 gene.

  2. The influence of sea-level changes on tropical coastal lowlands; the Pleistocene Coropina Formation, Suriname

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Th. E.; de Kramer, R.; de Boer, P. L.; Langereis, C.; Sew-A-Tjon, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Pleistocene Coropina Formation largely constitutes the Old Coastal Plain of Suriname. It is exposed fully only in open-pit bauxite mines in the central coastal plain as part of the unconsolidated overburden of Paleocene-Eocene bauxites. This study deals with the stratigraphy, sedimentology and chronology of this formation, and is based on a study in the recently closed Lelydorp-III bauxite mine operated by N.V. BHP Billiton Maatschappij Suriname. The Coropina Formation consists of the Para and Lelydorp Members. We present a detailed lithological subdivision of these members. In the Para Member, four units are discerned which are grouped in two transgressive cycles, both ranging upward from terrestrial towards chenier and coastal mudflat deposits reflecting glacio-eustatic sea-level changes. The sandy sediments represent fluviatile and beach-bar (chenier) deposits, and were supplied by rivers from the Precambrian basement and to a lesser extent by westward longshore coastal drift. Clays, largely derived from the Amazon River and transported alongshore over the shelf, were deposited in extensive coastal mudflats. The Lelydorp Member, also comprising four units, represents a depositional system that is closely comparable to the recent Suriname coastal setting, i.e., a lateral and vertical alternation of mudflat and chenier deposits formed over a period characterised by more or less constant sea level. Palaeomagnetic data indicate a dominantly reversed magnetic polarity in the Para Member, whereas the Lelydorp Member shows a normal magnetic polarity with a minor reversed polarity overprint. The reversed polarities of the Para Member exclude a Brunhes Chron (0.78-0.0 Ma) age, and thus assign it to the Matuyama Chron (2.58-0.78 Ma). This implies that the Coropina Formation is much older than hitherto assumed, and that one or more (long-term) hiatuses are not recognizable in the lithological succession.

  3. FOR THE RIGHT TO BE HEARD: REFLECTIONS FROM THE CASE SARAMAKA VERSUS SURINAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanahê Fendeler Höelz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study’s objective is to analyze how the ethno-cultural dissent can be administered in the perspective of dialogue and the recognition of the rights and culture of the "other". For this, we will analyze the case of Saramaka versus Suriname and the decision of the Inter- American Court of Human Rights on this conflict. In this scenario, the proposal is to reflect if the consultation and the principle of free, prior and informed consent can be instruments to ensure cultural diversity and the rights of affected people. The methodology consists in the literature that dialogues with the Law and the Anthropology.

  4. The lived experiences of flemish midwifery students undertaking an internship in Suriname: A phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilde, Curinckx; Marion, Welsh; Marianne, Nieuwenhuijze

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the lived experience of Flemish midwifery students undertaking an internship in Suriname. Hermeneutic phenomenological method as described by van Manen. Seven midwifery students from one University College were selected purposefully for an in-depth interview during their internship abroad within the period October-November 2014. All interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. The study revealed five overarching themes: (1) A time to reconsider the time, (2) a time of connection and disconnection, (3) spatiality for thought and rethinking, (4) a body to undergo or a body to respond and (5) the other(s) among the others. The experience of an internship in Suriname presents itself in each individual as: 'A process of awareness from the self with a main focus on the professional'. Meaning that it was a process of 'disconnection' from their own culture towards 'connection' with another culture. Both, the 'rethinking' of their role as a midwife, as well as, balancing between guarding one's own authenticity by 'responding' or being the friendly stranger through 'undergoing', was noticeably striking. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Zika virus infection in 18 travellers returning from Surinam and the Dominican Republic, The Netherlands, November 2015-March 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, Janneke W.; Goorhuis, Abraham; van Genderen, Perry J. J.; Visser, Leo G.; Koopmans, Marion P.; Reimerink, Johan H.; Grobusch, Martin P.; van der Eijk, Annemiek A.; van den Kerkhof, Johannes H. C. T.; Reusken, Chantal B.; Hahné, Susan J. M.

    2016-01-01

    We report 18 cases of confirmed Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in travellers returning to the Netherlands from Surinam (South America, bordering northern Brazil) and the Dominican Republic. In a multi-centre study, we collected epidemiological, virological and clinical characteristics, as well as data

  6. New records of whale shark (Rhincodon typus), giant manta ray (Manta birostris) and Chilean devil ray (Mobula tarapacana) for Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, De M.N.; Saulino, J.T.; Lewis, T.P.; Notarbartolo-Di-Sciara, G.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about elasmobranchs along the northern coast of South America. During five boat surveys in Suriname offshore waters we visually documented the presence and behaviour of the free-ranging whale shark Rhincodon typus and two mobulid rays: the giant manta ray Manta birostris and the

  7. A Comparative Study of the Soil Fauna in forests and cultivated land on sandy soils in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drift, van der J.

    1963-01-01

    1. In the coastal area of Suriname the soil and surface fauna were studied in various types of agricultural land, and compared with the fauna in the adjacent forests. 2. In primeval forest the soil macroarthropods are less numerous than in secondary forest (Formicidae excluded). They range generally

  8. Assessing the feasibility of the Healthy Life in Suriname Study: using advanced hemodynamics to evaluate cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aartman, Jet Q.; Diemer, Frederieke S.; Karamat, Fares A.; Bohte, Evelien; Baldew, Sergio M.; Jarbandhan, Ameerani V.; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Oehlers, Glenn P.; Brewster, Lizzy M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the feasibility of assessing population cardiovascular risk with advanced hemodynamics in the Healthy Life in Suriname (HELISUR) study. Methods. This was a preliminary study conducted in May - June 2012 using the Technical-Economic-Legal-Operational-Scheduling (TELOS) method

  9. Novel strategies lead to pre-elimination of malaria in previously high-risk areas in Suriname, South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiwat, H.; Hardjopawiro, L.S.; Takken, W.; Villegas, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Suriname was a high malaria risk country before the introduction of a new five-year malaria control program in 2005, the Medical Mission Malaria Programme (MM-MP). Malaria was endemic in the forested interior, where especially the stabile village communities were affected. Case

  10. Impulsive but fatal self-poisoning with pesticides among south asians in Nickerie, Suriname. An exploratory autopsy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spijker, B.A.J.; Graafsma, T.; Dullaart, H.I.A.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Intentional self-poisoning with pesticides is a serious problem in many developing countries. It is a commonly used method among South Asians all over the world. Aims: To describe the circumstances and characteristics of suicides in Nickerie, Suriname, in order to gain insight into why

  11. Habitat preferences, diet, feeding strategy and social organization of the black spider monkey (Ateles paniscus paniscus Linnaeus 1758) in Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosmalen, van M.G.M.

    1980-01-01

    This study describes habitat choice of the Surinam black spider monkey ( Atelespaniscuspaniscus ) and clarifies complex temporal and spatial effects of food sources on the behaviour of a group of spider monkeys in a 350 ha study area in

  12. Charnockites and UHT metamorphism in the Bakhuis Granulite Belt, western Suriname : Evidence for two separate UHT events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, Martijn; de Roever, Emond W F; Nanne, Josefine A M; Mason, Paul R D; Davies, Gareth R.

    The Bakhuis Granulite Belt in western Suriname is an ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metamorphic terrain in the centre of the Paleoproterozoic (Transamazonian) Guiana Shield. Next to the UHT granulites, the belt contains a 30 by 30km body of orthopyroxene-bearing granitoids: the Kabalebo charnockites.

  13. A new species of the Anostomid genus Leporinus Spix from Suriname, with redescriptions of two related species (Pisces, Characiformes, Anostomidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garavello, Julio Cesar

    1990-01-01

    Leporinus nijsseni, an anostomid fish species new to science, is described from Suriname. New diagnoses and descriptions are provided for Leporinus granti Eigenmann, 1912 and Leporinus gomesi Garavello & Santos, 1981 from the Aripuanã river basin, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The three species are

  14. High acetone concentrations throughout the 0-12 km altitude range over the tropical rainforest in Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poschl, U; Williams, J; Hoor, P; Fischer, H; Crutzen, PJ; Warneke, C; Holzinger, R; Hansel, A; Jordan, A; Lindinger, W; Scheeren, HA; Peters, W; Lelieveld, J

    Airborne measurements of acetone were performed over the tropical rainforest in Surinam (2 degrees -7 degrees N, 54 degrees -58 degrees W, 0-12 km altitude) during the LBA-CLAIRE campaign in March 1998, using a novel proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) that enables the on-line

  15. Insecticide gebruik in Oker, Sopropo en Kouseband in Suriname : Resultaten van een enquête onder 23 telers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putter, de H.; Sauers-Muller, van A.

    2007-01-01

    Dit onderzoek vindt plaats in het kader van het Surituinproject. Doel van het project is de bevordering van export van Surinaamse groenten. In Nederland is een vraag naar groenten aanwezig die specifiek uit Suriname komen. Belangrijke export groentegewassen zijn Sopropo, Momordica charantia, oker,

  16. The rare rhinoceros beetle, Ceratophileurus lemoulti Ohaus, 1911, in French Guiana and Suriname (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae, Phileurini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad Gillett

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The rare dynastine, Ceratophileurus lemoulti Ohaus, 1911, previously known only from French Guiana, is here reported for the first time from Suriname. All biological, distributional and temporal data available for the species in both territories are presented and discussed.

  17. Cleansing the world of the germ of laziness; Hygiene, sanitation, and the Javanese population in Suriname, South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofte, R.M.A.L.

    2014-01-01

    In 1915 the Rockefeller Foundation took its hookworm eradication campaign to Suriname, but was soon disappointed because of opposition from its main target group: the Javanese. Moreover, authorities and planters objected to the construction of latrines because of the costs and their belief that the

  18. Development of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) Related to the Phenology of Blueberry, Blackberry, Strawberry Guava, and Surinam Cherry Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisognin, M; Nava, D E; Diez-Rodríguez, G I; Valgas, R A; Garcia, M S; Krolow, A C R; Antunes, L E C

    2015-02-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) is the main pest of temperate climate orcharding. The study investigated the development of A. fraterculus related to phenological stage of blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry trees. The phenological stages I (green fruits), II (intermediate ripening stage of fruits), and III (fruits close to harvesting) were determined, and they are from 8th, 10th, and 11th week; 6th, 8th, and 9th week; 8th, 13th, and 16th week; and 5th, 6th, and 7th week after the first flowering of blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry trees, respectively. We collected fruits from orchards to determine the infestation index using the formula: number of pupa/fruit weight. To investigate the development of A. fraterculus, we determined the following biological parameters: egg-to-adult period, weight of pupae, oviposition period, fecundity, number of pupae, and number of infested fruits. The infestation index for the fruits collected in the field was greater in strawberry guava and Surinam cherry fruits. In the laboratory, the development of A. fraterculus occurred in stage III of blueberry. In blackberry, besides stage III, we also observed the development in stage II, however, at lower infestation. In strawberry guava, the development of A. fraterulus occurred in stages II and III, and the development in both stages was similar. For Surinam cherry, the development occurred in the three phenological stages with similar values for biological parameters. Overall, of the four hosts studied, the strawberry guava and Surinam cherry fruits allowed a better biological development of A. fraterculus, corroborating its preference for fruits native to Brazil. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. A National Surveillance Survey on Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factors: Suriname Health Study Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Christel CF; Jaddoe, Vincent WV; Hofman, Albert; Toelsie, Jerry R

    2015-01-01

    Background Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death in low- and middle-income countries. Therefore, the surveillance of risk factors has become an issue of major importance for planning and implementation of preventive measures. Unfortunately, in these countries data on NCDs and their risk factors are limited. This also prevails in Suriname, a middle-income country of the Caribbean, with a multiethnic/multicultural population living in diverse residential areas. For these reasons, “The Suriname Health Study” was designed. Objective The main objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of NCD risk factors, including metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and diabetes in Suriname. Differences between specific age groups, sexes, ethnic groups, and geographical areas will be emphasized. In addition, risk groups will be identified and targeted actions will be designed and evaluated. Methods In this study, several methodologies were combined. A stratified multistage cluster sample was used to select the participants of 6 ethnic groups (Hindustani, Creole, Javanese, Maroon, Chinese, Amerindians, and mixed) divided into 5 age groups (between 15 and 65 years) who live in urban/rural areas or the hinterland. A standardized World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance questionnaire was adapted and used to obtain information about demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and risk factors. Physical examinations were performed to measure blood pressure, height, weight, and waist circumference. Biochemical analysis of collected blood samples evaluated the levels of glucose, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Statistical analysis will be used to identify the burden of modifiable and unmodifiable risk factors in the aforementioned subgroups. Subsequently, tailor-made interventions will be prepared and their effects will be evaluated. Results The data as collected allow for national inference and

  20. Quality of anti-malarials collected in the private and informal sectors in Guyana and Suriname

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    Evans Lawrence

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a significant reduction in the number of malaria cases in Guyana and Suriname, this disease remains a major problem in the interior of both countries, especially in areas with gold mining and logging operations, where malaria is endemic. National malaria control programmes in these countries provide treatment to patients with medicines that are procured and distributed through regulated processes in the public sector. However, availability to medicines in licensed facilities (private sector and unlicensed facilities (informal sector is common, posing the risk of access to and use of non-recommended treatments and/or poor quality products. Methods To assess the quality of circulating anti-malarial medicines, samples were purchased in the private and informal sectors of Guyana and Suriname in 2009. The sampling sites were selected based on epidemiological data and/or distance from health facilities. Samples were analysed for identity, content, dissolution or disintegration, impurities, and uniformity of dosage units or weight variation according to manufacturer, pharmacopeial, or other validated method. Results Quality issues were observed in 45 of 77 (58% anti-malarial medicines sampled in Guyana of which 30 failed visual & physical inspection and 18 failed quality control tests. The proportion of monotherapy and ACT medicines failing quality control tests was 43% (13/30 and 11% (5/47 respectively. A higher proportion of medicines sampled from the private sector 34% (11/32 failed quality control tests versus 16% (7/45 in the informal sector. In Suriname, 58 medicines were sampled, of which 50 (86% were Artecom®, the fixed-dose combination of piperaquine-dihydroartemisinin-trimethoprim co-blistered with a primaquine phosphate tablet. All Artecom samples were found to lack a label claim for primaquine, thus failing visual and physical inspection. Conclusions The findings of the studies in both countries point to

  1. Quality of anti-malarials collected in the private and informal sectors in Guyana and Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Lawrence; Coignez, Veerle; Barojas, Adrian; Bempong, Daniel; Bradby, Sanford; Dijiba, Yanga; James, Makeida; Bretas, Gustavo; Adhin, Malti; Ceron, Nicolas; Hinds-Semple, Alison; Chibwe, Kennedy; Lukulay, Patrick; Pribluda, Victor

    2012-06-15

    Despite a significant reduction in the number of malaria cases in Guyana and Suriname, this disease remains a major problem in the interior of both countries, especially in areas with gold mining and logging operations, where malaria is endemic. National malaria control programmes in these countries provide treatment to patients with medicines that are procured and distributed through regulated processes in the public sector. However, availability to medicines in licensed facilities (private sector) and unlicensed facilities (informal sector) is common, posing the risk of access to and use of non-recommended treatments and/or poor quality products. To assess the quality of circulating anti-malarial medicines, samples were purchased in the private and informal sectors of Guyana and Suriname in 2009. The sampling sites were selected based on epidemiological data and/or distance from health facilities. Samples were analysed for identity, content, dissolution or disintegration, impurities, and uniformity of dosage units or weight variation according to manufacturer, pharmacopeial, or other validated method. Quality issues were observed in 45 of 77 (58%) anti-malarial medicines sampled in Guyana of which 30 failed visual & physical inspection and 18 failed quality control tests. The proportion of monotherapy and ACT medicines failing quality control tests was 43% (13/30) and 11% (5/47) respectively. A higher proportion of medicines sampled from the private sector 34% (11/32) failed quality control tests versus 16% (7/45) in the informal sector. In Suriname, 58 medicines were sampled, of which 50 (86%) were Artecom®, the fixed-dose combination of piperaquine-dihydroartemisinin-trimethoprim co-blistered with a primaquine phosphate tablet. All Artecom samples were found to lack a label claim for primaquine, thus failing visual and physical inspection. The findings of the studies in both countries point to significant problems with the quality of anti-malarial medicines

  2. Ethnic differences in prediabetes and diabetes in the Suriname Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnadath, Ingrid S K; Nahar-van Venrooij, Lenny M; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Toelsie, Jerry R

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is increasing worldwide, and information on risk factors to develop targeted interventions is limited. Therefore, we analyzed data of the Suriname Health Study to estimate the prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes. We also explored whether ethnic differences in prediabetes or diabetes risk could be explained by biological, demographic, lifestyle, anthropometric, and metabolic risk factors. The study was designed according to the WHO Steps guidelines. Fasting blood glucose levels were measured in 3393 respondents, aged 15-65 years, from an Amerindian, Creole, Hindustani, Javanese, Maroon or Mixed ethnic background. Prediabetes was defined by fasting blood glucose levels between 6.1 and 7.0 mmol/L and diabetes by fasting blood glucose levels ≥7.0 mmol/L or 'self-reported diabetes medication use.' For all ethnicities, we analyzed sex, age, marital status, educational level, income status, employment, smoking status, residence, physical activity, body mass index, waist circumference, hypertension, and the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. The prevalence of prediabetes was 7.4%, while that of diabetes was 13 0%. From these diabetes cases, 39.6% were not diagnosed previously. No ethnic differences were observed in the prevalence of prediabetes. For diabetes, Hindustanis (23.3%) had twice the prevalence compared to other ethnic groups (4.7-14.2%). The associations of the risk factors with prediabetes or diabetes varied among the ethnic groups. The differences in the associations of ethnic groups with prediabetes or diabetes were partly explained by these risk factors. The prevalence of diabetes in Suriname is high and most elevated in Hindustanis. The observed variations in risk factors among ethnic groups might explain the ethnic differences between these groups, but follow-up studies are needed to explore this in more depth.

  3. Assessing the feasibility of the Healthy Life in Suriname Study: using advanced hemodynamics to evaluate cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jet Q. Aartman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives To determine the feasibility of assessing population cardiovascular risk with advanced hemodynamics in the Healthy Life in Suriname (HELISUR study. Methods This was a preliminary study conducted in May – June 2012 using the Technical-Economic-Legal-Operational-Scheduling (TELOS method to assess the feasibility of the HELISUR—a large-scale, cross-sectional population study of cardiovascular risk factors and disease in Suriname. Suriname, a middle-income country in South America with a population of mostly African and Asian ethnicity, has a high risk of cardiovascular disease. A total of 135 volunteers 18 – 70 years of age participated. A health questionnaire was tested in a primary health care center, and non-invasive cardiovascular evaluations were performed in an academic health center. The cardiovascular evaluation included sitting, supine, and standing blood pressure, and intermediate endpoints, such as cardiac output, peripheral vascular resistance, pulse wave velocity, and augmentation index. Results The TELOS testing found that communicating by cellular phone was most effective for appointment adherence, and that completion of the questionnaire often required assistance from a trained interviewer; modifications to improve the clarity of the questions are recommended. Regarding the extended cardiovascular assessments of peripheral and central hemodynamics, the findings showed these to be technically and operationally feasible and well tolerated by participants, in terms of burden and duration. Conclusions Findings of this feasibility assessment indicate that large-scale, detailed evaluations of cardiovascular risk, including a questionnaire and advanced central and peripheral hemodynamics, are feasible in a high-risk population in a middle-income setting.

  4. Estimating the risk of dengue transmission from Dutch blood donors travelling to Suriname and the Dutch Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, W; Lieshout-Krikke, R W; Kretzschmar, M E; Zaaijer, H L; Coutinho, R A; Eersel, M; Jubithana, B; Halabi, Y; Gerstenbluth, I; Maduro, E; Tromp, M; Janssen, M P

    2016-05-01

    The risk of dengue transmitted by travellers is known. Methods to estimate the transmission by transfusion (TT) risk from blood donors travelling to risk areas are available, for instance, the European Up-Front Risk Assessment Tool (EUFRAT). This study aimed to validate the estimated risk from travelling donors obtained from EUFRAT. Surveillance data on notified dengue cases in Suriname and the Dutch Caribbean islands (Aruba, Curaçao, St. Maarten, Bonaire, St. Eustatius and Saba) in 2001-2011 was used to calculate local incidence rates. Information on travel and donation behaviour of Dutch donors was collected. With the EUFRAT model, the TT risks from Dutch travelling donors were calculated. Model estimates were compared with the number of infections in Dutch travellers found by laboratory tests in the Netherlands. The expected cumulative number of donors becoming infected during travels to Suriname and the Dutch Caribbean from 2001 to 2011 was estimated at 5 (95% CI, 2-11) and 86 (45-179), respectively. The infection risk inferred from the laboratory-based study was 19 (9-61) and 28 (14-92). Given the independence of the data sources, these estimates are remarkably close. The model estimated that 0·02 (0·001-0·06) and 0·40 (0·01-1·4) recipients would have been infected by these travelling donors. The EUFRAT model provided an estimate close to actual observed number of dengue infections. The dengue TT risk among Dutch travelling donors can be estimated using basic transmission, travel and donation information. The TT risk from Dutch donors travelling to Suriname and the Dutch Caribbean is small. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  5. Attaining higher coverage: obstacles to overcome. English-speaking Caribbean and Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    In 1983, 8 (42%) of the 19 English-speaking Caribbean countries (including Suriname) achieved at least 50% coverage with 3 doses of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) vaccine among children under 1 year of age and 6 countries (32%) had at least 50% coverage with 3 doses of trivalent oral polio vaccine (TOPV). In addition, 10 countries (53%) achieved over 75% DPT coverage and 11 (58%) achieved over 75% TOPV coverage. Despite this record of progress, several factors continue to impede further gains in immunization coverage. Of particular concern is the high dropout rate. As many as 25% of infants receive their 1st dose of DPT and TOPV but do not return to complete their course of immunization. There is also a need for each health center to estimate its annual target population for immunization every year through analysis of the total live births from the previous year in the health center's catchment area (minus infant mortality). Monthly target figures can thus be computed and coverage monitored. A further problem has been a reluctance on the part of some health workers to administer vaccines simultaneously. This does not reduce effectiveness or increase the risk of complications, and reduces the number of visits needed to complete the immunization schedule. An unresolved question is whether to immunize ill or malnourished children. Decisions on this matter should take into account the availability and accessibility of health care services, the ability to follow-up children who are not immunized, and the likelihood that children will return for subsequent immunizations. Finally, a number of immunizations performed by private practitioners and institutions are not reported. Both public and private health care providers should agree on a standardized reporting format to allow better estimation of coverage.

  6. Observations on the distribution of anophelines in Suriname with particular reference to the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi

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    J. A. Rozendaal

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was made on the distribution of anophelines in Suriname with special emphasis on the principal malaria vector Anopheles darlingi and on the occurrence of other possible vector species. Peridomestic human bait collections of adult mosquitoes and collections of larvae were made in many localities with a recent history of malaria transmission. Stable population of An. darlingi were only found in the interior, south of the limit of tidal influence, due to year-round availability of breeding habitats in quietly sunlit places in flooded forest areas and along river banks. In the area with tidal movement of the rivers, breeding is limited to flooded areas in the west season. Anopheles darlingi was only incidentally collected in low densities. In the interior, malaria transmission occurred in all places where An. darlingi was found. The absence of malaria transmission along the Upper Suriname River could be explained by the absence of An. darlingi. In the malaria endemic areas, An darlingi was the most numerous mosquito biting on man. In the tidal region, malaria outbreak are infrequent and might be explained by the temporary availability of favourable beeding habitats for An. darlingi. However, evidence is insufficient to incriminate an. darlingi as the vector of malaria in this region and the possible vectorial role of other anophelines is discussed.

  7. Community-Led Assessment of Risk from Exposure to Mercury by Native Amerindian Wayana in Southeast Suriname

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peplow, D.; Augustine, S.; Peplow, D.

    2012-01-01

    This study was a collaboration between Western public health researchers and Suriname indigenous communities. The question asked was how can Western researchers effectively engage traditional indigenous communities in Suriname, South America, in public health research. The approach used a combination of Participatory Action Research methods in which Western researchers became participating observers in an indigenous-led research initiative. The Wayana communities of Puleowime (Apetina) and Kawemhakan (Anapayke) defined a single objective: determine for themselves whether they are at risk from exposure to mercury (Hg) contamination. Community members collected hair samples for analysis. Hair samples were analyzed using a portable Hg analyzer. Individual, community and hazard quotient indices were used to quantify risk. Results showed the Wayana were at a high lifetime risk of adverse effects from exposure to Hg. This study showed that the community-led approach is an effective way Westerners can engage indigenous communities and address serious public health threats. While factors that appealed to indigenous communities were identified, obstacles inherent to Western research methodology were also encountered

  8. Zika virus infection in 18 travellers returning from Surinam and the Dominican Republic, The Netherlands, November 2015–March 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Duijster (Janneke W.); A. Goorhuis (Abraham); P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry); L.G. Visser (Leo); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); J.H.J. Reimerink (Johan); M.P. Grobusch (Martin P.); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); J.H.C.T. van Den Kerkhof (Johannes H. C. T.); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); S.J. Hahné (Susan); The Dutch Zikv Study Team

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: We report 18 cases of confirmed Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in travellers returning to the Netherlands from Surinam (South America, bordering northern Brazil) and the Dominican Republic. Methods: In a multi-centre study, we collected epidemiological, virological and clinical

  9. Evaluation of Methods for Sampling the Malaria Vector Anopheles darlingi (Diptera, Culicidae) in Suriname and the Relation With Its Biting Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiwat-van Laar, H.; Rijk, de M.; Andriessen, R.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Takken, W.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of CO2-baited and human-baited mosquito traps for the sampling of Anopheles darlingi Root was evaluated and compared with human landing collections in Suriname. Biting preferences of this mosquito on a human host were studied and related to trapping data. Traps used were the

  10. Puddling against dry plowing for lowland rice culture in Surinam : effect on soil and plant, and interactions with irrigation and nitrogen dressing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltema, W.

    1974-01-01

    The influence of tillage on rice grown on heavy Surinam clay soils was investigated in pot and field trials. Included were interactions with seed rate, nitrogen dressing and distribution, water management, and variety. Four procedures for tilled layer and seedbed preparation were studied

  11. Curimata punctata, a new uniquely pigmented species of curimatid from the Marowijne river basin of Surinam and French Guiana (Pisces, Characiformes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vari, Richard P.; Nijssen, Han

    1986-01-01

    A new species of curimatid characiform, Curimata punctata, from the Marowijne River basin of Surinam and French Guiana is described and illustrated. The distinctive pattern of three to six dark midlateral spots on the body distinguishes the species from all other members of the family.

  12. Tropospheric ozone over a tropical Atlantic station in the Northern Hemisphere: Paramaribo, Surinam (6°N, 55°W)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, W.; Krol, M. C.; Fortuin, J. P. F.; Kelder, H. M.; Thompson, A. M.; Becker, C. R.; Lelieveld, J.; Crutzen, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    We present an analysis of 2.5 yr of weekly ozone soundings conducted at a new monitoring station in Paramaribo, Surinam (6°N, 55°W). This is currently one of only three ozone sounding stations in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) tropics, and the only one in the equatorial Atlantic region. Paramaribo is

  13. Mechanized farming in the humid tropics with special reference to soil tillage, workability and timeliness of farm operations : a case study for the Zanderij area of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goense, D.

    1987-01-01

    The reported investigations concern aspects of mechanized farming for the production of rainfed crops on the loamy soils of the Zanderij formation in Suriname and in particular, the effect of tillage on crop yield and soil properties, workability of field operations and timeliness of field

  14. Studies on the sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in high-transmission areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Republic of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kent, Alida D.; Dos Santos, Thiago V.; Gangadin, Anielkoemar; Samjhawan, Ashok; Mans, Dennis R. A.; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.

    2013-01-01

    Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are the vectors of Leishmania parasites, the causative agents of leishmaniasis. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an increasing public health problem in the Republic of Suriname and is mainly caused by Leishmania (Vianna) guyanensis, but L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (L.)

  15. Invloed van ras, mulch en bemesting op de productie en het saldo van sopropo en kouseband : verslag van een proef te Saramacca, Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putter, de H.; Wongsonadi, H.

    2010-01-01

    In 2010 werd een proef met sopropo (Momordica charanti) en een proef met kouseband (Vigna unguiculata sesquipedalis) uitgevoerd bij een teler in Suriname in de regio Saramacca. Doel was om het effect van variëteit, toepassing van mulch en bemestingstrategie op de productie en op het gewassaldo vast

  16. Herbal bathing: an analysis of variation in plant use among Saramaccan and Aucan Maroons in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Klooster, Charlotte I E A; Haabo, Vinije; Ruysschaert, Sofie; Vossen, Tessa; van Andel, Tinde R

    2018-03-15

    Herbal baths play an important role in the traditional health care of Maroons living in the interior of Suriname. However, little is known on the differences in plant ingredients used among and within the Maroon groups. We compared plant use in herbal baths documented for Saramaccan and Aucan Maroons, to see whether similarity in species was related to bath type, ethnic group, or geographical location. We hypothesized that because of their dissimilar cultural background, they used different species for the same type of bath. We assumed, however, that plants used in genital baths were more similar, as certain plant ingredients (e.g., essential oils), are preferred in these baths. We compiled a database from published and unpublished sources on herbal bath ingredients and constructed a presence/absence matrix per bath type and study site. To assess similarity in plant use among and within Saramaccan and Aucan communities, we performed three Detrended Correspondence Analyses on species level and the Jaccard Similarity Index to quantify similarity in bath ingredients. We recorded 349 plants used in six commonly used bath types: baby strength, adult strength, skin diseases, respiratory ailments, genital steam baths, and spiritual issues. Our results showed a large variation in plant ingredients among the Saramaccan and Aucans and little similarity between Saramaccans and Aucans, even for the same type of baths. Plant ingredients for baby baths and genital baths shared more species than the others. Even within the Saramaccan community, plant ingredients were stronger associated with location than with bath type. Plant use in bathing was strongly influenced by study site and then by ethnicity, but less by bath type. As Maroons escaped from different plantations and developed their ethnomedicinal practices in isolation, there has been little exchange in ethnobotanical knowledge after the seventeenth century between ethnic groups. Care should be taken in extrapolating plant

  17. Patterns in medicinal plant knowledge and use in a Maroon village in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van't Klooster, Charlotte; van Andel, Tinde; Reis, Ria

    2016-08-02

    Traditional medicine plays an important role in the primary health care practices of Maroons living in the interior of Suriname. Large numbers of medicinal plants are employed to maintain general health and cure illnesses. Little is known, however, on how knowledge of herbal medicine varies within the community and whether plant use remains important when modern health care becomes available. To document the diversity in medicinal plant knowledge and use in a remote Saramaccan Maroon community and to assess the importance of medicinal plants vis a vis locally available modern healthcare. We hypothesized that ailments which could be treated by the village health center would be less salient in herbal medicine reports. During three months fieldwork in the Saramaccan village of Pikin Slee, ethnobotanical data were collected by means of participant observations, voucher collections and 27 semi-structured interviews and informal discussions with 20 respondents. To test whether knowledge of medicinal plant species was kept within families, we performed a Detrended Correspondence Analysis. In total, 110 medicinal plant species were recorded, with 302 health use reports and 72 uses, mostly related to general health concerns (42%), diseases of the digestive system (10%), musculoskeletal system and fever (each 7%). Bathing was the most important mode of application. Most health use reports related to cure (58%) and health promotion (39%), while disease prevention played a minor role. Traditional medicine not only treated cultural illnesses, but also health concerns that could be treated with locally available modern medicines. Knowledge of medicinal plant species is not strictly kept within families, but also shared with friends. Certain recipes and applications, however, may be specific family knowledge. Medicinal plants play a very important role in the daily lives of the Pikin Slee villagers. Plant use reflects actual health concerns, but as modern medicines are available

  18. Novel strategies lead to pre-elimination of malaria in previously high-risk areas in Suriname, South America

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    Hiwat Hélène

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suriname was a high malaria risk country before the introduction of a new five-year malaria control program in 2005, the Medical Mission Malaria Programme (MM-MP. Malaria was endemic in the forested interior, where especially the stabile village communities were affected. Case description The interventions of the MM-MP included new strategies for prevention, vector control, case management, behavioral change communication (BCC/information, education and communication (IEC, and strengthening of the health system (surveillance, monitoring and evaluation and epidemic detection system. After a slow first year with non-satisfying scores for the performance indicators, the MM-MP truly engaged in its intervention activities in 2006 and kept its performance up until the end of 2009. A total of 69,994 long-lasting insecticide-treated nets were distributed and more than 15,000 nets re-impregnated. In high-risk areas, this was complemented with residual spraying of insecticides. Over 10,000 people were screened with active case detection in outbreak and high-risk areas. Additional notification points were established and the national health system was strengthened. Discussion and evaluation In the current paper, the MM-MP is evaluated both on account of the targets established within the programme and on account of its impact on the malaria situation in Suriname. Malaria vector populations, monitored in sentinel sites, collapsed after 2006 and concurrently the number of national malaria cases decreased from 8,618 in 2005 to 1,509 in 2009. Malaria transmission risk shifted from the stabile village communities to the mobile gold mining communities, especially those along the French Guiana border. Conclusions The novel strategies for malaria control introduced in Suriname within the MM-MP have led to a significant decrease in the national malaria burden. The challenge is to further reduce malaria using the available strategies as

  19. Novel strategies lead to pre-elimination of malaria in previously high-risk areas in Suriname, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwat, Hélène; Hardjopawiro, Loretta S; Takken, Willem; Villegas, Leopoldo

    2012-01-09

    Suriname was a high malaria risk country before the introduction of a new five-year malaria control program in 2005, the Medical Mission Malaria Programme (MM-MP). Malaria was endemic in the forested interior, where especially the stabile village communities were affected. The interventions of the MM-MP included new strategies for prevention, vector control, case management, behavioral change communication (BCC)/information, education and communication (IEC), and strengthening of the health system (surveillance, monitoring and evaluation and epidemic detection system). After a slow first year with non-satisfying scores for the performance indicators, the MM-MP truly engaged in its intervention activities in 2006 and kept its performance up until the end of 2009. A total of 69,994 long-lasting insecticide-treated nets were distributed and more than 15,000 nets re-impregnated. In high-risk areas, this was complemented with residual spraying of insecticides. Over 10,000 people were screened with active case detection in outbreak and high-risk areas. Additional notification points were established and the national health system was strengthened. In the current paper, the MM-MP is evaluated both on account of the targets established within the programme and on account of its impact on the malaria situation in Suriname. Malaria vector populations, monitored in sentinel sites, collapsed after 2006 and concurrently the number of national malaria cases decreased from 8,618 in 2005 to 1,509 in 2009. Malaria transmission risk shifted from the stabile village communities to the mobile gold mining communities, especially those along the French Guiana border. The novel strategies for malaria control introduced in Suriname within the MM-MP have led to a significant decrease in the national malaria burden. The challenge is to further reduce malaria using the available strategies as appropriate in the affected areas and populations. Elimination of malaria in the country will

  20. Diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in people aged 50 years and older in the Republic of Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minderhoud, Janna; Pawiroredjo, Jerrel C; Bueno de Mesquita-Voigt, Anne-Marie T; Themen, Herman Ci; Siban, Michael R; Forster-Pawiroredjo, Cindy M; Limburg, Hans; van Nispen, Ruth Ma; Mans, Dennis Ra; Moll, Annette C

    2016-06-01

    Population-based surveys on diabetes and diabetic retinopathy (DR) are necessary to increase awareness and develop screening and therapeutic programmes. The aim was to estimate the prevalence of DR in older adults of different ethnic backgrounds in Suriname. Fifty clusters of 60 people aged ≥50 years were randomly selected with a probability proportional to the size of the population unit. Eligible people were randomly selected through compact segment sampling and examined using the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness plus Diabetic Retinopathy (RAAB + DR) protocol. Participants were classified as having diabetes if they: were previously diagnosed with diabetes; were receiving treatment for glucose control; had a random blood glucose level >200 mg/dL. These participants were dilated for funduscopy, assessed for DR following the Scottish DR grading protocol and evaluated for ethnicity and DR ophthalmic screening frequencies. A total of 2806 individuals was examined (response 93.6%). The prevalence of diabetes was 24.6%. In these patients any type of DR and/or maculopathy occurred in 21.6% and sight-threatening DR in 8.0%. Of the known diabetics, 34.2% never had an eye examination for DR and in 13.0% the last examination was >24 months ago. The prevalence of diabetes was significantly higher in Hindustani people compared with other major ethnic groups. The prevalence of diabetes and diabetics without regular DR control in people aged ≥50 years in Suriname was higher than expected. The uptake for special services for DR has to be expanded to decrease patient delay and DR-induced blindness. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Studies on the sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in high-transmission areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Republic of Suriname

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are the vectors of Leishmania parasites, the causative agents of leishmaniasis. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an increasing public health problem in the Republic of Suriname and is mainly caused by Leishmania (Vianna) guyanensis, but L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (L.) amazonensis, and L. (V.) naiffi also infect humans. Transmission occurs predominantly in the forested hinterland of the country. Information regarding the potential vectors of leishmaniasis in Suriname is limited. This study aims to broaden the knowledge about vectors involved in the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Suriname. For this purpose, sand flies were characterized in various foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the country, the districts of Para, Brokopondo, and Sipaliwini. Methods Sand flies were collected in areas around mining plots and villages using CDC light traps in the period between February 2011 and March 2013. They were categorized by examination of the spermathecea (females) and the external genitalia (males). Results A total of 2,743 sand fly specimens belonging to 34 different species were captured, including four species (Lutzomyia aragaoi, Lu. ayrozai, Lu. damascenoi, and Lu. sordellii) that had never before been described for Suriname. Five percent of the catch comprised Lu. squamiventris sensu lato, one female of which was positive with L. (V.) braziliensis and was captured in a gold mining area in Brokopondo. Other sand fly species found positive for Leishmania parasites were Lu. trichopyga, Lu. ininii, and Lu. umbratilis, comprising 32, 8, and 4%, respectively, of the catch. These were captured at gold mining areas in Brokopondo and Sipaliwini, but the Leishmania parasites they had ingested could not be identified due to insufficient amounts of DNA. Conclusions The sand fly fauna in Suriname is highly diverse and comprises Lutzomyia species capable of transmitting Leishmania parasites. Four new Lutzomyia species have been found

  2. Propagação da pitangueira através da enxertia de garfagem Surinam cherry propagation through grafting

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    Rodrigo Cezar Franzon

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A pitangueira é uma frutífera nativa com potencial para exploração comercial. Entretanto, os métodos de propagação mais comuns não são satisfatórios para a multiplicação desta espécie em larga escala. O objetivo do trabalho foi o de avaliar o uso do método de enxertia de garfagem no topo, em fenda cheia e dupla fenda, bem como a melhor época para a realização desta prática (julho, agosto e setembro, nas condições do Sul do Brasil. O experimento foi conduzido no ano de 2005, na Embrapa Clima Temperado, Pelotas-RS. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 3 (tipo de garfagem x época de enxertia, com 5 repetições. Conclui-se que a enxertia de garfagem no topo, em fenda cheia e/ou em dupla fenda, pode ser utilizada para a propagação vegetativa da pitangueira durante o inverno, sendo que a enxertia de garfagem em fenda cheia proporcionou melhores percentuais de pegamento dos enxertos (60,0% do que a garfagem em dupla fenda (44,2%. Quanto à época, os melhores percentuais foram obtidos no mês de setembro, com 67,5% de pegamento dos enxertos, seguido pelo mês de agosto e julho, com 51,3% e 37,5%, respectivamente.The Surinam cherry is a native fruit from Brazil with a great potential for commercial production. However, the common clonal propagation methods have not given a high percentage of success. The present work had the aim to test the use of two types of grafting: cleft graft and wedge graft as well as the best time to use this technique (July, August and September, under Southern Brazil conditions. The experiment was carried out at EMBRAPA Clima Temperado, in Pelotas, RS, in the year of 2005. The experimental design was completely randomized arranged as a 2x3 factorial plan (type of grafting x time, with 5 replications . It was concluded that both types of grafting could be used, during the winter time, for asexual propagation of Surinam cherry. Cleft grafting had the highest percentage of

  3. God dekoloniseert niet. Een kritiek op de Nederlandse geschiedschrijving over de neergang van Nederlands-Indië en Nederlands Suriname

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    J. de Beus

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available God has nothing to do with decolonization: A criticism of Dutch historiography on the demise of the Dutch East Indies and Dutch SurinamInevitably, there is a moral side to decolonisation. In the Netherlands, the focus on this aspect has been encouraged by the culture of gospel preaching: that curious constant which permeates the history of the Netherlands. More specifically, however, we have identified an important trend stemming from the 1960s whereby many politicians and influential people placed pressure on historians to bear witness to this aspect. This fitted in with the general pattern of moralizing history, alongside tracing the history of morality. This jarred with the professional self-image of historians who, during the 1960s, had in fact shaken off the roles of moralist, educator of the common man and keeper of souls. Yet, generally speaking, the historiography of the colonies still has a touch of national self-purging about it: various authors still write about decolonization in a judgmental tone.Despite the unmistakable scientific merits of this wave of Dutch East Indian studies and Surinam studies, the effect of this moralising is rather futile: it has not resulted in any great consensus of opinion, nor to any visible demonstration of being able to cope with the past or public reconciliation (as far as historical moralism is actually capable of achieving this. Thisis all the more reason for us to ask ourselves to explain why the art of moralising continues. The reasons for can be attributed to a variety of factors, partly of a professional nature and partly social. With respect to the former, this demonstrates a contrived battle between different schools of thought, a fixation on everything that is Dutch and a lack of interesting historiography from the Indonesian and Caribbean side. As far as the latter is concerned, this centres around afear of losing momentum in a society that is not retrospective, coupled with the post

  4. Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, Cobalt, Arsenic and Selenium in the Blood of Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla from Suriname, South America: Age-related Differences in Wintering Site and Comparisons with a Stopover Site in New Jersey, USA

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    Joanna Burger

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to understand contaminant exposure and to compare levels of contaminants in organisms at different ages to determine if there is bioaccumulation, and to compare levels encountered in different geographical areas. In this paper, we report levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, cobalt, arsenic and selenium in the blood of semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla wintering in Suriname as a function of age, and compare them to blood levels in northbound migrants at a stopover in Delaware Bay, New Jersey. We found (1 young birds had higher levels of cadmium, cobalt, and lead than adults (after second year birds; (2 there were no age-related differences for arsenic, mercury and selenium; (3 only four of the possible 16 inter-metal correlations were significant, at the 0.05 level; (4 the highest correlation was between cadmium and lead (Kendall tau = 0.37; and (5 the adult sandpipers had significantly higher levels of cadmium, mercury and selenium in Suriname than in New Jersey, while the New Jersey birds had significantly higher levels of arsenic. Suriname samples were obtained in April, after both age classes had spent the winter in Suriname, which suggests that sandpipers are accumulating higher levels of trace elements in Suriname than in Delaware Bay. The levels of selenium may be within a range of concern for adverse effects, but little is known about adverse effect levels of trace elements in the blood of wild birds.

  5. Bathe the baby to make it strong and healthy: plant use and child care among Saramaccan Maroons in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruysschaert, Sofie; van Andel, Tinde; Van de Putte, Kobeke; Van Damme, Patrick

    2009-01-12

    Young children are vulnerable to a range of illnesses and evil forces. Ethnobotanical folk remedies often play a major role in combating these afflictions. Here we show that plant use is highly valued and practiced within the Saramaccan Maroon Society in Suriname to maintain the general health and well-being of children. To assess the plant use importance in child care, we (1) quantified diversity and current status of herbal pharmacopoeia used in child care and (2) elucidated the reasons why care takers (mostly mothers) use these plants. We collected botanical vouchers of plants used in child care, carried out an ethnobotanical household survey with 105 women and interviewed 19 key informants. A total of 178 plant species were used in child care for different purposes. Preventive practices were preferred over curing remedies and plants were most frequently used to keep young children strong and healthy. Child care had a strong magical connotation. Bathing proved to be the most important type of application, often combined with drinking small amounts of the bath water. Plants play an important role in child care, but more research is needed on how Maroon plant use reflects actual health problems in young children in the Surinamese interior.

  6. Illness perceptions of leprosy-cured individuals in Surinam with residual disfigurements - "I am cured, but still I am ill".

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haaren, Mark Ac; Reyme, Melinda; Lawrence, Maggie; Menke, Jack; Kaptein, Ad A

    2017-06-01

    Objective Leprosy has rarely been the subject of health psychology research despite its substantial impact. Our aim was to explore illness perceptions in patients and their health care providers in Surinam. The Common Sense Model (CSM) was the guiding theoretical model. Design Patients with biomedically cured leprosy and their health care providers completed the B-IPQ and took part in semi-structured interviews. The literature on illness perceptions in patients with leprosy was reviewed. Main outcome measures Patients' B-IPQ scores were compared with samples of patients with other (chronic) illnesses, and with health care providers completing the questionnaire as if they were visibly disfigured patients. Quotations from the semi-structured interviews were used to contextualise the illness perceptions. Results Patients' B-IPQ scores reflected the chronic nature of leprosy and were comparable with those with other chronic illnesses. Health care providers perceived leprosy to have a greater negative impact than did the patients. Perceived understanding of causes differed considerably between patients and health care providers. Conclusion Leprosy continues to be experienced as an illness with major psychological and social consequences such as stigmatisation, even after biomedical cure. Interventions that target patients, health care providers, and society at large may help reduce perceived shame and stigma. The CSM is a helpful theoretical model in studying this population.

  7. Small scale gold mining in Brazil and Suriname: the troubles of cultural rules, legal regulations and politics of access : In the ENV - Panel Artisanal and small scale mining in Latin America: challenges for reshaping extractive governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Theije, Marjo

    2017-01-01

    Suriname and Brazil have very different politics in relation to small scale gold mining. Nevertheless, at the same time we observe a number of similarities in the gold mining practices of both Amazonian countries. In this paper we will identify a number of reasons contributing to the commonalities

  8. Community-directed risk assessment of mercury exposure from gold mining in Suriname Evaluación dirigida por la comunidad del riesgo de exposición al mercurio de las minas de oro en Suriname

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    Daniel Peplow

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The overarching objective of this project was to support the indigenous people in Kwakoegron, Suriname, in self-diagnosis of public and environmental health problems. The specific objectives, defined by the people of Kwakoegron were: (1 to determine for themselves if they are at risk of exposure to mercury (Hg contamination, (2 to measure the extent of the Hg contamination problem, and (3 to initiate an intervention plan. METHODS: Field work was conducted from June 2005 to April 2006. Community members were trained to collect hair samples for analysis using methods designed to maximize sample quality and consistency and minimize cross-contamination. Each hair sample, of approximately 20 mg, was weighed, added to the sample boat, and analyzed immediately without preservation or storage. Technicians educated in analytical chemistry and trained in the operation of the portable Lumex Zeeman Hg analyzer measured the total Hg (THg for each hair sample. Confidential meetings were held with each person sampled and any questions were answered. Afterwards, a community meeting was held to reflect on the process, outcome, and future needs. RESULTS: Hair samples from 16 of the 22 participants had Hg levels of 2.2-20.2 µg/g THg, exceeding normal THg levels for hair (2 µg/g THg. During the confidential, individual meetings and the followup community meeting, information was shared regarding the Hg levels found, what the numbers meant scientifically, what the potential health effects could be, and how exposure levels might be brought down. At the conclusion of the followup meeting, the Kwakoegron community proposed an intervention plan that had three principle parts: (1 routine analysis of Hg exposure to monitor trends and track the effects of exposure-reduction efforts; (2 routine health assessments to determine the effects of Hg exposure, particularly in children less than 5 years of age; and (3 fish advisories based on fish biology and trophic

  9. Nutrient Availability and Changes on Chemical Attributes of a Paleudult Soil Amended with Liquid Sewage Sludge and Cropped with Surinam Grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceolato, L.C.; Berton, R.S.; Coscione, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    The liquid sewage sludge (LSS) was applied on a field experiment during four years at successive applications to evaluate the changes in soil attributes and on Surinam grass (Brachiaria decumbens) uptake of nutrients. A randomized blocks experimental design, with two treatments (with and without LSS) and three repetitions, was used. Land application of LSS did not alter soil organic matter and exchangeable K until 40 cm depth. However, it increased soil ph, base saturation, labile P, and available Zn and did not change the concentrations of available B (hot water) and Cu, Fe, and Mn (DTPA) at 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm depths and LSS was a source of N, K, P, Ca, Mg, and Zn for the grass, but decreased leaf Mn concentration.

  10. Nutrient Availability and Changes on Chemical Attributes of a Paleudult Soil Amended with Liquid Sewage Sludge and Cropped with Surinam Grass

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    Luiz Carlos Ceolato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The liquid sewage sludge (LSS was applied on a field experiment during four years at successive applications to evaluate the changes in soil attributes and on Surinam grass (Brachiaria decumbens uptake of nutrients. A randomized blocks experimental design, with two treatments (with and without LSS and three repetitions, was used. Land application of LSS did not alter soil organic matter and exchangeable K until 40 cm depth. However, it increased soil pH, base saturation, labile P, and available Zn and did not change the concentrations of available B (hot water and Cu, Fe, and Mn (DTPA at 0–20 cm and 20–40 cm depths and LSS was a source of N, K, P, Ca, Mg, and Zn for the grass, but decreased leaf Mn concentration.

  11. Primaquine double dose for 7 days is inferior to single-dose treatment for 14 days in preventing Plasmodium vivax recurrent episodes in Suriname

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    Mac Donald-Ottevanger MS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available M Sigrid Mac Donald-Ottevanger,1 Malti R Adhin,2 Jeetendra Kumar Jitan,3 Gustavo Bretas,4 Stephen GS Vreden1 1Foundation for Scientific Research Suriname (SWOS, 2Department of Biochemistry, Anton de Kom University of Suriname, 3Department of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Paramaribo, Suriname; 4Independent consultant, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Background: Recurrent episodes of Plasmodium vivax are caused by dormant liver stages of the parasite, which are not eradicated by choloroquine. Therefore, effective treatment also includes the use of primaquine (PQ. However, this secondary preventive therapy is often not effective, mostly due to poor adherence to the relatively long treatment course, justifying a comparative study of the efficacy of different durations of PQ treatment. Materials and methods: We included patients presenting with an acute and documented P. vivax infection from January 2006 to February 2008. All patients received chloroquine 25 mg/kg over a 3-day period. Subsequently, patients in group 7D received PQ 30 mg/day for 7 days, and patients in group 14D received standard PQ 15 mg/day for 14 days. All doses were given under supervision and patients were followed up for at least 6 months. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to estimate cumulative probability of recurrence up to 12 months after treatment initiation stratified by treatment group. Cox regression was used to assess possible determinants for recurrent parasitemia. Results: Forty-seven of the 79 included patients (59.5% were allocated to group 7D and 32 patients (40.5% were allocated to group 14D. Recurrent parasitemia was detected in 31.9% of the cases in group 7D compared to 12.5% of the cases in group 14D (hazard ratio [HR] =3.36, 95% CI 1.11–10.16. Cumulative probability for recurrent parasitemia at 3, 6, and 12 months was 0.201 (95% CI 0.106–0.362, 0.312 (95% CI 0.190–0.485, and 0.424 (95% CI 0.274– 0.615 for group 7D and 0.100 (95% CI 0.033–0.279, 0

  12. Consequences of the trans-Atlantic slave trade on medicinal plant selection: plant use for cultural bound syndromes affecting children in Suriname and Western Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Vossen

    Full Text Available Folk perceptions of health and illness include cultural bound syndromes (CBS, ailments generally confined to certain cultural groups or geographic regions and often treated with medicinal plants. Our aim was to compare definitions and plant use for CBS regarding child health in the context of the largest migration in recent human history: the trans-Atlantic slave trade. We compared definitions of four CBS (walk early, evil eye, atita and fontanels and associated plant use among three Afro-Surinamese populations and their African ancestor groups in Ghana, Bénin and Gabon. We expected plant use to be similar on species level, and assumed the majority to be weedy or domesticated species, as these occur on both continents and were probably recognized by enslaved Africans. Data were obtained by identifying plants mentioned during interviews with local women from the six different populations. To analyse differences and similarities in plant use we used Detrended Component Analysis (DCA and a Wald Chi-square test. Definitions of the four cultural bound syndromes were roughly the same on both continents. In total, 324 plant species were used. There was little overlap between Suriname and Africa: 15 species were used on two continents, of which seven species were used for the same CBS. Correspondence on family level was much higher. Surinamese populations used significantly more weedy species than Africans, but equal percentages of domesticated plants. Our data indicate that Afro-Surinamers have searched for similar plants to treat their CBS as they remembered from Africa. In some cases, they have found the same species, but they had to reinvent the largest part of their herbal pharmacopeia to treat their CBS using known plant families or trying out new species. Ideas on health and illness appear to be more resilient than the use of plants to treat them.

  13. Consequences of the trans-Atlantic slave trade on medicinal plant selection: plant use for cultural bound syndromes affecting children in Suriname and Western Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossen, Tessa; Towns, Alexandra; Ruysschaert, Sofie; Quiroz, Diana; van Andel, Tinde

    2014-01-01

    Folk perceptions of health and illness include cultural bound syndromes (CBS), ailments generally confined to certain cultural groups or geographic regions and often treated with medicinal plants. Our aim was to compare definitions and plant use for CBS regarding child health in the context of the largest migration in recent human history: the trans-Atlantic slave trade. We compared definitions of four CBS (walk early, evil eye, atita and fontanels) and associated plant use among three Afro-Surinamese populations and their African ancestor groups in Ghana, Bénin and Gabon. We expected plant use to be similar on species level, and assumed the majority to be weedy or domesticated species, as these occur on both continents and were probably recognized by enslaved Africans. Data were obtained by identifying plants mentioned during interviews with local women from the six different populations. To analyse differences and similarities in plant use we used Detrended Component Analysis (DCA) and a Wald Chi-square test. Definitions of the four cultural bound syndromes were roughly the same on both continents. In total, 324 plant species were used. There was little overlap between Suriname and Africa: 15 species were used on two continents, of which seven species were used for the same CBS. Correspondence on family level was much higher. Surinamese populations used significantly more weedy species than Africans, but equal percentages of domesticated plants. Our data indicate that Afro-Surinamers have searched for similar plants to treat their CBS as they remembered from Africa. In some cases, they have found the same species, but they had to reinvent the largest part of their herbal pharmacopeia to treat their CBS using known plant families or trying out new species. Ideas on health and illness appear to be more resilient than the use of plants to treat them.

  14. Ouro e Deus: sobre a relação entre prosperidade, moralidade e religião nos campos de ouro do Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjo de Theije

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Religião e ouro articulam-se de forma significativa nas narrativas fundadoras da comunidade brasileira de garimpeiros de Benzdorp, no interior do Suriname. Numa área de exploração de ouro em pequena escala, perto do Rio Lawa, um bordel (cabaré marcou a primeira ocupação da área. Alguns anos depois, esse mesmo bordel virou uma igreja e esse fato inusitado acrescenta mais um elemento da economia moral da cultura do garimpo: a prostituição. Este texto explora a relação entre prosperidade e moralidade (marital e sexual nos campos de ouro, e o papel das instituições, práticas e idéias religiosas no imaginário do bem-estar, sorte, riqueza súbita e a experiência de ser capturado por círculos viciosos de trabalho duro e consumo conspícuo.Religion and gold articulate in a significant way in the founding story of the Brazilian garimpeiro community Benzdorp, in the inlands of Suriname. In an area of small-scale gold mining near the Lawa River, a brothel marked the first settlement. Few years later, the same brothel became a church, and this remarkable fact adds yet another element to the moral economy of garimpo culture: prostitution. This paper explores the relation between prosperity and (marital and sexual morality in the gold fields, and the role of religious institutions, practices and ideas in the imagery of wellbeing, luck, striking rich and being caught up in vicious circles of working hard and conspicuous consumption.

  15. African Journals Online: Suriname

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Faeroe Islands, Falkland Islands (Malvinas), Fiji, Finland, France, France, MEtropolitan, French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern Territories, Gabon, Gambia, The, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Gibraltar, Greece, Greenland, Grenada, Guam, Guatemala ...

  16. Activity of in vitro forms of dentifrices containing the hydroalcoholic extract of the ripe fruit of Eugenia uniflora L. (Surinam cherry) on cariogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovito, Vanessa C; Freires, Irlan A; Almeida, Leopoldina F D; Moura, Douglas; Castro, Ricardo D; Paulo, Marçal Q; Leite-Cavalcanti, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of dentifrices containing the hydroalcoholic extract of the ripe fruit of Eugenia uniflora L. (Surinam cherry) on Streptococcus oralis (ATCC 10557) and Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 7469). Five dentifrices were used: D1: containing hydroalcoholic extract of Eugenia uniflora L.; D2: containing fluoride and hydroalcoholic extract of Eugenia uniflora L.; D3: containing triclosan and hydroalcoholic extract of Eugenia uniflora L; D4: containing triclosan, fluoride and hydroalcoholic extract of Eugenia uniflora L.; D5: positive control (Colgate Total 12). To determine the antibacterial activity, the technique used was the minimum inhibitory concentration by the diffusion method in solid culture medium. At the concentration 0.05 g/mL, the best results were achieved with D1 (18 mm) and D4 (24 mm) on L.casei, and with D3 (19 mm) on S. oralis. The dentifrices D3 and D4 were found to have greater activity on the Streptococcus oralis, while D4 and D1 were found to have greater activity on Lactobaccilus casei. It is concluded that dentifrices with Eugenia uniflora L. have antimicrobial activity, suggesting that clinical trials should be conducted.

  17. Phenotypic plasticity in fish life-history traits in two neotropical reservoirs: Petit-Saut Reservoir in French Guiana and Brokopondo Reservoir in Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard de Mérona

    Full Text Available Fish species are known for their large phenotypic plasticity in life-history traits in relation to environmental characteristics. Plasticity allows species to increase their fitness in a given environment. Here we examined the life-history response of fish species after an abrupt change in their environment caused by the damming of rivers. Two reservoirs of different age, both situated on the Guiana Shield, were investigated: the young Petit-Saut Reservoir in French Guiana (14 years and the much older Brokopondo Reservoir in Suriname (44 years. Six life-history traits in 14 fish species were studied and compared to their value in the Sinnamary River prior to the completion of Petit-Saut Reservoir. The traits analyzed were maximum length, absolute and relative length at first maturation, proportion of mature oocytes in ripe gonad, batch fecundity and mean size of mature oocytes. The results revealed a general increase of reproductive effort. All species showed a decrease in maximum length. Compared to the values observed before the dam constructions, eight species had larger oocytes and three species showed an increased batch fecundity. These observed changes suggest a trend towards a pioneer strategy. The changes observed in Petit-Saut Reservoir also seemed to apply to the 30 years older Brokopondo Reservoir suggesting that these reservoirs remain in a state of immaturity for a long time.

  18. Biologia da mosca‑das‑frutas sul‑americana em frutos de mirtilo, amoreira‑preta, araçazeiro e pitangueira Biology of South American fruit fly in blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maicon Bisognin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a biologia de Anastrepha fraterculus em frutos de mirtilo (Vaccinium ashei, amoreira‑preta (Rubus spp., araçazeiro (Psidium cattleyanum e pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora. O experimento foi realizado em laboratório, em condições controladas de temperatura (25±2ºC, umidade relativa (70±10% e fotófase (12 horas, para determinação dos parâmetros biológicos do inseto nos estágios de desenvolvimento imaturos e adultos. Anastrepha fraterculus completa o ciclo biológico em todos hospedeiros estudados, embora os frutos nativos (pitanga e araçá ofereçam melhores condições para seu desenvolvimento. Os parâmetros biológicos determinados para as fases imaturas foram semelhantes nos quatro hospedeiros. Insetos criados em pitanga e araçá apresentam, na fase adulta, maior período de oviposição, fecundidade e longevidade de fêmeas, em comparação aos criados em mirtilo e amora‑preta. O ritmo diário de oviposição é mais prolongado e uniforme nos insetos criados em araçá e pitanga, o que mostra que A. fraterculus está mais bem adaptada a estas frutas, nativas da região Sul.The objective of this work was to describe the biology of Anastrepha fraterculus in blueberry (Vaccinium ashei, blackberry (Rubus spp., strawberry guava (Psidium cattleyanum and Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora fruits. The experiment was carried out in laboratory under controlled conditions of temperature (25±2ºC, relative humidity (70±10%, and photophase (12 hours to determine insect biological parameters in immature and adult development stages. Anastrepha fraterculus finishes its biological cycle in all studied hosts; however, the Brazilian native fruits (strawberry guava and Surinam cherry provide better conditions for development of the insect. Biological parameters determined for immature development stadium were similar in the four hosts. Insects reared in Surinam cherry and strawberry guava showed, in the

  19. The Text of the Agreement between Suriname and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    The text of the Agreement of 2 February 1979 and of the Protocol thereto between Suriname and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 2 February 1979. The Protocol entered into force on the same day, pursuant to Article III thereof.

  20. Repetibilidade da produção, número e peso de frutos de seleções de pitanga roxa Repeatability of the production, number and weight of fruits of selections purple surinam cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Severino de Lira Júnior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar a produção, número de frutos e peso do fruto de seleções de pitanga roxa (Eugenia uniflora L. estimar por diferentes métodos seus coefificientes de repetibilidade e o número mínimo de avaliações necessárias para selecioná-las com maior confiabilidade, sob as condições edafoclimáticas da Zona da Mata Norte de Pernambuco. O método de componentes principais mostra-se eficiente para estimar coeficientes de repetibilidade da produção, número de frutos e peso da pitanga. A cultivar Tropicana (fruto vermelho apresenta a maior produção média anual, quando comparada com as pitangas de coloração roxa. Entre as cinco seleções de pitanga roxa, a IPA-15.1 apresenta a maior produção média anual. Para peso do fruto, o melhor resultado foi obtido pela seleção IPA-41.1. Os coeficientes estimados para produção número de frutos e peso da pitanga indicam que a variância ambiental pouco influencia essas características fenotípicas de uma safra para outra. Para produção, número de frutos e peso do fruto são necessárias 2, 2 e 5 safras, respectivamente, para selecionar genótipos superiores de pitanga com 90% de confiabilidade dos resultados.This study aimed to evaluate the production, number of fruits and weight of the fruit of selections of pitanga purple, different methods for estimating their coefficients of repeatability and the minimum number of evaluations required to select them with greater reliability, under edaphoclimatic conditions of the Forest Zone of North Pernambuco State, Brazil. The method of principal components was more efficient to estimate the repeatability coefficients of production, number of fruits and weight of surinam cherry fruit. The ‘Tropicana’ cultivar (red fruit presents the highest average annual production when compared with the surinam cherry staining purple. Among the five purple surinam cherry of selections, the IPA-15.1 presents the highest

  1. Ethnic disparities in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its risk factors in the Suriname Health Study: a cross-sectional population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnadath, Ingrid S K; Toelsie, Jerry R; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2016-12-07

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) indicates increased risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. We estimated the overall and ethnic-specific prevalence of MetS and explored the associations of risk factors with MetS among Amerindian, Creole, Hindustani, Javanese, Maroon and Mixed ethnic groups. We used the 2009 Joint Interim Statement (JIS) to define MetS in a subgroup of 2946 participants of the Suriname Health Study, a national survey designed according to the WHO Steps guidelines. The prevalences of MetS and its components were determined for all ethnicities. Hierarchical logistic regressions were used to determine the associations of ethnicity, sex, age, marital status, educational level, income status, employment, smoking status, residence, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake with MetS. The overall estimated prevalence of MetS was 39.2%. From MetS components, central obesity and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) had the highest prevalences. The prevalence of MetS was highest for the Hindustanis (52.7%) and lowest for Maroons (24.2%). The analyses showed that in the overall population sex (women: OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.2 to 1.6), age (OR 5.5 CI 4.3 to 7.2), education (OR 0.7 CI 0.6 to 0.9), living area (OR 0.6 CI 0.5 to 0.8), income (OR 0.7 CI 0.5 to 0.9) and marital status (OR 1.3 CI 1.1 to 1.6) were associated with MetS. Variations observed in the associations of the risk factors with MetS in the ethnic groups did not materially influence the associations of ethnicities with MetS. The prevalence of MetS was high and varied widely among ethnicities. Overall, central obesity and low HDL-C contributed most to MetS. Further studies are needed to assess the prospective associations of risk factors with MetS in different ethnic groups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Armazenamento de pitangas sob atmosfera modificada e refrigeração: II - qualidade e conservação pós-colheita Storage of Suriname cherry under modified atmosphere and refrigeration: quality and postharvest conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ferreira dos Santos

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de atmosfera modificada (AM na conservação pós-colheita de pitangas colhidas nos estádios de maturação e início da pigmentação (IP, vermelho-alaranjado (VA e vermelho predominante (VP e armazenadas a 10 e a 14 ºC (90 ± 1%UR e condições ambientes (23± 2 ºC e 85 ± 2%UR. O uso de AM associada à refrigeração resultou em menores perdas de massa, incidência de fungo e enrugamento. A AM também permitiu um aumento de quatro dias na vida útil pós-colheita, mantendo a qualidade acima do limite de aceitação durante oito dias, para pitangas do estádio VA mantidas sob refrigeração. Em conjunto, pitangas colhidas no estádio de maturação vermelho-alaranjado apresentaram melhor potencial de armazenamento, quando mantidas sob atmosfera modificada a 10 ºC.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of modified atmosphere (MA on postharvest conservation of Suriname cherry harvested in the maturity stages: pigment initiation (PI, red-orangish (RO and predominant red (PR, and stored at 10, 14 ºC (90 ± 1% RH, and room temperature (23± 2 ºC and 85 ± 2% RH. The use of MA associated with refrigeration resulted in lower mass loss, fungi incidence, and fruit shrinkage. The MA also allowed a four-day increase in postharvest life, maintaining the general quality above acceptance limit during eight days, for Suriname cherries of RO maturity stage, kept under refrigeration. Collectively, Suriname cherries harvested at the maturity stage red-orangish presented the best storage potential, when kept under modified atmosphere at 10 ºC.

  3. Propagação vegetativa de genótipos de pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora L. do Sul do Brasil por enxertia de garfagem Vegetative propagation of surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora L. genotypes from Southern Brazil, through cleft graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Cezar Franzon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o uso da enxertia de garfagem em fenda cheia na propagação vegetativa de diferentes genótipos de pitangueira. Foram utilizados sete genótipos do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de fruteiras nativas do Sul do Brasil, mantidos na Embrapa Clima Temperado, em Pelotas-RS, dos quais foram coletados garfos (estacas semilenhosas, com aproximadamente 5 cm de comprimento. Utilizou-se como porta-enxertos de plantas de pitangueira oriundas de sementes. O diâmetro médio no ponto de enxertia foi de 2,5 mm. A enxertia foi realizada em setembro de 2006. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, sendo a unidade experimental constituída por 10 plantas. Foram avaliadas as percentagens de brotação e de pegamento dos enxertos. Os percentuais de estacas brotadas variaram entre 45,0% e 95,0%, enquanto o pegamento dos enxertos variou entre 40,0% e 87,5%. Percentuais acima de 65,0% foram obtidos para as seleções "Pit 75", "Pit 61" e "Pit 137", para ambos os parâmetros avaliados, brotação e pegamento dos enxertos. Existe diferença entre genótipos desta espécie quanto à capacidade de pegamento na enxertia por garfagem no topo em fenda cheia. Este tipo de enxertia é apropriado para a propagação vegetativa da pitangueira.This work had the objective of testing cleft grafting as a way to asexually propagate different genotypes of Surinam cherry. Bud wood of around 5 cm length were collected from seven genotypes of the Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Clima Temperado, Pelotas, RS. Seedling plants of Surinam cherry seedlings were used as rootstocks. The average diameter at the grafting point was 2.5 mm. Grafting was done on September, 2006. The experiment was carried out as a completely randomized design with four replications and 10 plants per plot. Evaluations were based on percentage of obtained plants in relation to the total number of grafts and percentage of grafts with leaf burst

  4. Study of the magmatism related to the rifting of the central and southern Atlantic: 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and geochemistry of Jurassic intrusives of Guinea and French Guyana/Surinam, and Cretaceous intrusives of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckart, K.

    1996-01-01

    The initial stage of continental rifting in the Central and South Atlantic has been accompanied by tholeiitic magmatism, which is mainly represented by sills, dykes, layered intrusions and lava flows. During the rifting progression, the syn-rift stage in the South Atlantic has been accompanied by abundant alkaline magmatism. A geochronological and geochemical study has been performed on these formations with the aim to contribute to the understanding of the early continental rifting processes and their evolution. 40 Ar/ 39 Ar analyses have been done on tholeiitic intrusives of Guinea and French Guyana/Surinam, tholeiitic dykes, associated with the Parana volcanism (Brazil), and alkaline dykes in the region of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). The geochemical and isotopic study has been focused on the tholeiitic intrusions from Guinea and French Guyana/Surinam. These three arms may represent the three branches of a triple junction which was active between 134 to 129 Ma, and which was at the origin of at least the northern Parana traps. Even if the principal magmatic activity can be related to the thermal anomaly due to the Tristan da Cunha hotspot, which favours an active rifting, the tectonic system of the triple junction is not compatible in time and space with this hotspot and therefore with this geodynamic model. It is possible that the Parana traps (133-130 Ma) are only partly contemporaneous and therefore, they might be not related to the same mode of geodynamic initiation. Biotites from the alkaline magmatics of the dyke swarm (NE-SW) near Rio de Janeiro display plateau ages between 82 and 70 Ma; this intense alkaline magmatism was related to vertical movements characterising the syn-rift stage not only in SE-Brazil but also in equatorial Africa. (author)

  5. Primaquine double dose for 7 days is inferior to single-dose treatment for 14 days in preventing Plasmodium vivax recurrent episodes in Suriname

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Donald-Ottevanger, M Sigrid; Adhin, Malti R; Jitan, Jeetendra Kumar; Bretas, Gustavo; Vreden, Stephen GS

    2018-01-01

    standard dose of 15 mg/day PQ for 14 days is more efficacious than 30 mg for 7 days in preventing P. vivax recurrent episodes. Furthermore, we suggest that P. vivax treatment in Suriname should be changed to PQ 30 mg/day for 14 days, as per Center for Disease Control and Prevention recommendation, in light of a recurrence rate of over 10%, even in group 14D. PMID:29317838

  6. The Naididae (Oligochaeta) of Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harman, W.J.

    1974-01-01

    CONTENTS Introduction................... 3 List of localities................. 4 Systematics................... 5 Chaetogaster.................. 5 Allonais................... 7 Slavina................... 8 Haemonais .................. 9 Stephensoniana.................. 11 Nais.................... 12

  7. A new Protium from Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, J.J.

    1950-01-01

    Protium Pullei Swart n.sp. Arbor circ. 12 m alta. Ramuli robusti 4 mm diam. teretes glabri fusci lenticellis oblongis ferrugineis muniti. Folia trifoliolata 17 (16—21) cm longa glabra, petiolis robustis semiteretibus 4.5 cm longis basi incrassatis demum transverse rimosis, petiolulis semiteretibus

  8. The genus Rhizophora in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, F.P.

    1959-01-01

    The peculiar distribution of the species of Rhizophora (Rhizophoraceae) is wellknown. Floras and manuals usually mention one western species — R. mangle L. — that occurs both in the coastal regions of tropical and subtropical America and in the corresponding habitats of west tropical Africa, and an

  9. Armazenamento de pitanga sob atmosfera modificada e refrigeração: I-transformações químicas em pós-colheita Storage of Suriname cherry under modified atmosphere and refrigeration: I - postharvest chemical changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ferreira dos Santos

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar as transformações pós-colheita em pitangas colhidas nos estádios de maturação vermelho-alaranjado (VA e vermelho predominante (VP e mantidas sob atmosfera modificada (AM por filme de cloreto de polivinila (PVC, a 10 ± 0,5 ºC, 14 ± 0,5ºC e (90 ± 1%UR e a temperatura ambiente (23 ± 2°C e 85 ± 2%UR. O uso de AM associada à refrigeração permitiu manutenção dos sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável, dos açúcares solúveis totais e vitamina C, e também resultou em menor taxa de aumento nos carotenóides totais para frutos do estádio de maturação VA mantido a 10 e 14ºC. Em conjunto, pitangas colhidas no estádio vermelho-alaranjado foram as que apresentaram melhor manutenção das características intrínsecas durante oito dias de armazenamento sob atmosfera modificada a 10ºC.The aim of this experiment was to evaluate postharvest changes in Suriname Cherry harvested in the maturity stages red-orangish (RO and predominant red (PR, kept under modified atmosphere (MA by polyvinyl chloride film (PVC, at 10± 0.5 ºC, 14± 0.5 ºC, 90 ± 1% RH and room temperature (23 ± 2°C. The use of MA associated with refrigeration allowed the maintenance of total soluble solids, titratable acidity, soluble sugars, and vitamin C, and also resulted in lower increase rate in total carotenoids for fruits in the RO maturity stages kept at 10 e 14ºC. All together, Suriname Cherries harvested in red-orangish skin color were those that presented better maintenance of the intrinsic characteristics during 8 days storage under modified atmosphere at 10ºC.

  10. Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de pitangueira submetidas a diferentes procedimentos de secagem e substratos - Parte 1 Physiological quality of surinam cherry seeds submitted to different procedures of drying and substrates - Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia H. de M. Sena

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Propôs-se, no presente trabalho, determinar o procedimento de secagem e substratos ideais para avaliar a viabilidade e o vigor de sementes de pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora L.. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 2 x 4 (2 procedimentos de secagem: à sombra e ao sol; 4 substratos: Areia, vermiculita, pó-de-coco e papel toalha com quatro repetições de 25 sementes cada uma. Caracterizou-se a curva de absorção de água pela semente e se avaliaram os seguintes parâmetros: germinação (%, primeira contagem de germinação (%, índice de velocidade de germinação e sementes mortas (%. O experimento foi conduzido em germinador do tipo BOD, regulado a temperatura constante de 25 ºC e regime de luz contínua. Nas condições em que o trabalho foi realizado, a secagem à sombra e o substrato vermiculita podem ser recomendados para avaliar a qualidade fisiológica, porque proporcionaram maior germinação e desenvolvimento inicial das plântulas de pitangueira.The present work had as its objective to determine the ideal procedure of drying and the substrate to evaluate the viability and vigour of surinam cherry seeds (Eugenia uniflora L.. The experiment was developed in a completely randomized design in factorial scheme 2 x 4 (2 procedures of drying: shade and sun; 4 substrates: sand, vermiculite, coconut fiber and paper towels with four replications of 25 seeds each. The water absortion curve was characterized and the following parameters were analyzed: germination percentage, first germination count (%, germination speed index and dead seeds (%. The experiment was conducted in a BOD germinator regulated at constant temperature of 25 ºC and regime of continuous light. In the conditions where the work was carried out, the drying under shade and vermiculite may be recommended to evaluate the vigour because they provided the best germination and initial development of surinam cherry seedlings.

  11. The impact of tree age on biomass growth and carbon accumulation capacity: A retrospective analysis using tree ring data of three tropical tree species grown in natural forests of Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhl, Michael; Neupane, Prem R; Lotfiomran, Neda

    2017-01-01

    The world's forests play a pivotal role in the mitigation of global climate change. By photosynthesis they remove CO2 from the atmosphere and store carbon in their biomass. While old trees are generally acknowledged for a long carbon residence time, there is no consensus on their contribution to carbon accumulation due to a lack of long-term individual tree data. Tree ring analyses, which use anatomical differences in the annual formation of wood for dating growth zones, are a retrospective approach that provides growth patterns of individual trees over their entire lifetime. We developed time series of diameter growth and related annual carbon accumulation for 61 trees of the species Cedrela odorata L. (Meliacea), Hymenaea courbaril L. (Fabacea) and Goupia glabra Aubl. (Goupiacea). The trees grew in unmanaged tropical wet-forests of Suriname and reached ages from 84 to 255 years. Most of the trees show positive trends of diameter growth and carbon accumulation over time. For some trees we observed fluctuating growth-periods of lower growth alternate with periods of increased growth. In the last quarter of their lifetime trees accumulate on average between 39 percent (C. odorata) and 50 percent (G. glabra) of their final carbon stock. This suggests that old-growth trees in tropical forests do not only contribute to carbon stocks by long carbon resistance times, but maintain high rates of carbon accumulation at later stages of their life time.

  12. Efeito da luz e da temperatura de congelamento sobre a estabilidade das antocianinas da pitanga roxa The effects of light and freezing temperature upon the stability of purple surinam cherry's anthocyanins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Arroxelas G. de Lima

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available As antocianinas são corantes naturais que podem ser utilizadas como alternativa em substituição aos corantes sintéticos. Entretanto, a baixa estabilidade destes compostos é o principal fator que dificulta sua aplicação como corante em alimentos. Frente à escassez de estudo sobre o pigmentos antociânicos da pitanga roxa, este trabalho teve como propósito avaliar a sua estabilidade à luz e ao congelamento. Utilizando a leitura de absorbância do extrato antociânico submetido às condições experimentais foi evidenciado que a luz reduziu o seu tempo de meia-vida, enquanto que a temperatura de congelamento exerceu pequeno efeito na degradação dos pigmentos.Anthocyanins are natural colorants that can be used as alternative to synthetic dyes. However, the low stability of these compounds is the main drawback in their application as food colorants. Since the information on anthocyanin pigments in Surinam cherry is scarce, the purpose of this investigation was to assess their stability to light and freezing storage. The anthocyanin extract absorbance, under the experimental conditions, showed that light incidence reduced the half-life of anthocyanin extract; meanwhile the freezing storage had little effect on these pigments degradation.

  13. The Text of the Agreement of 5 April 1973 between The Netherlands and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards with respect to Surinam in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and Additional Protocol I to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-01-12

    The text of the Agreement of 5 April 1973, and of the two Protocols thereto, between The Netherlands and the Agency for the application of safeguards with respect to Surinam in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and with Additional Protocol I to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.The Agreement and the two Protocols thereto entered into force on 5 June 1975, pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement and to Article II of each of the Protocols.

  14. The Text of the Agreement of 5 April 1973 between The Netherlands and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards with respect to Surinam in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and Additional Protocol I to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The text of the Agreement of 5 April 1973, and of the two Protocols thereto, between The Netherlands and the Agency for the application of safeguards with respect to Surinam in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and with Additional Protocol I to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.The Agreement and the two Protocols thereto entered into force on 5 June 1975, pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement and to Article II of each of the Protocols.

  15. Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de pitangueira submetidas a diferentes procedimentos de secagem e substratos - Parte 2 Physiological quality of surinam cherry seeds submitted to different procedures of drying and substrates - Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia H. de M. Sena

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de determinar o procedimento de secagem e substratos ideais para avaliar a visibilidade e o vigor das sementes e crescimento inicial das plântulas de pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora L.. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4 (2 procedimentos de secagem: à sombra e ao sol; 4 substratos: Areia, vermiculita, pó-de-coco e papel toalha, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes cada uma e se avaliaram os seguintes parâmetros: tempo médio de germinação, comprimento da raiz e do epicótilo e massa seca da plântula. O experimento foi conduzido em germinador tipo BOD, regulado a temperatura constante de 25 ºC e regime de luz contínua. O procedimento de secagem à sombra e o substrato vermiculita podem ser recomendados para testar o vigor dessa espécie.This study had as its objective the determination of ideal procedure of drying and the substrate to evaluate the vigour and the initial growth of surinam cherry seedlings (Eugenia uniflora L.. The used design was entirely randomized in factorial scheme 2 x 4 (2 procedures of drying: shade and sun; 4 substrates: sand, vermiculite, coconut fiber and paper towels with four replications of 25 seeds each. The following parameters were also analyzed: average time of germination, length of primary root and epicotyl and dry weight of the seedling. The experiment was conducted in BOD regulated at constant temperature of 25 ºC and regime of continuous light. The shade method of drying and the vermiculite substrate can be recommended to test the vigour of this specie.

  16. ¿Alegoría de la Nueva Holanda? Imágenes y prácticas de la economía de plantación en Surinam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespo Solana, Ana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article gives a description of the formation process of a literary image of Surinam’s colonial plantation economy and its evolution since the first years of the European colonization. This image was developed in parallel with the constitution of a society with economic and socio-ethnic features determined by the system of exploitation to which it was subjected and which altered the idea of colonization that was projected on the region at the beginning of the colonization. Later a rhetorical image also arose that reflected on the propaganda literature, in the information that circulated among the colonists as well as in the columnists’ works or the memoranda from travellers and statesmen. Such literature merged with other writings describing the actual society, based on ethnic pillars, which had emerged from slavery.

    El objetivo de este artículo es describir el proceso de formación de una imagen literaria del sistema colonial de plantación en Surinam y su evolución desde los primeros años de la colonización europea. Dicha imagen se desarrolló de forma paralela a la constitución de una sociedad con características socio-étnicas y económicas determinadas por el sistema de explotación al que fue sometida y que alteró la idea de colonización que originariamente se proyectó sobre la región. Más tarde surgió también una imagen retórica reflejada en la literatura de propaganda, en la información que circulaba entre los colonos, obras de cronistas o memoriales de viajeros y estadistas de la época, las cuales se fusionaron con una literatura que describía la verdadera sociedad, de pilares étnicos, que emergió a partir de la esclavitud.

  17. Comportamento da pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora L sob irrigação na região do vale do Rio Moxotó, Pernambuco Performance of surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora L. under irrigation in the Moxotó Valley, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Emmanoel Fernandes Bezerra

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo da pitangueira no Nordeste vem crescendo rapidamente devido à utilização do seu fruto pelas indústrias de polpas e sucos; no entanto, a ausência de cultivares adaptadas às condições irrigadas constitui atualmente um dos principais problemas da cultura. O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de estudar o comportamento de dez dentre os 85 acessos da Coleção de Germoplasma de Pitangueira do IPA, sob irrigação, em Ibimirim, na região semi-árida de Pernambuco. Foram avaliadas características de crescimento, rendimento e qualidade do fruto de plantas oriundas de "pé-franco" e enxertadas. A pitangueira conduzida sob irrigação mostrou boa adaptação às condições do Vale do Rio Moxotó, tanto para as características de crescimento como de produção e qualidade do fruto. Os acessos mostraram grande variabilidade em relação às características físicas e químicas do fruto. Foram identificados dois acessos promissores ¯ IPA-13.2 e IPA-1.1E ¯, os quais reuniram as melhores características de produção e de qualidade do fruto.Surinam cherry crop is growing fastly in the Northeast region of Brazil due to its fruit uses by the industry in processing juice and pulp. However, one of the main problems of this crop is the lack of an apropriated cultivar adapted to such climate environments and irrigated conditions. This work was carried out aiming to study the performance of ten among 85 Surinam cherry accesses of IPA's germplasm collection cultivated under drip irrigation at the semi-arid region of Pernambuco State. The following characteristics were evaluated: growth, yield and fruit quality of plants originated from seedlings as well as from grafting. Surinam cherry trees have shown good adaptability to such environmental conditions, both in respect to plant growth characteristics as well as to yield and fruit quality. Accesses have shown great variability in relation to physical-chemical characteristics of

  18. Additional notes on the Rubiaceae of Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremekamp, C.E.B.

    1936-01-01

    Since the appearance of my „Notes on the Rubiaceae of Surinam” (in Rec. d. Trav. bot. néerl. XXXI, 1934, 248; also in Meded. Bot. Mus. Herb. Utrecht no. 11, 1934) a number of species and varieties new to the flora of that country have come to light. The majority have been collected by Mr. Rombouts

  19. Pré-tratamento com água e doses de ácido indolbutírico para estaquia herbácea de pitangueiras Pre-treatments with water and indole butyric acid dosis for herbaceous cuttings of Surinam cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Silva Lattuada

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a maioria dos pomares de pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora é formada por mudas do tipo pé-franco, o que torna os plantios com baixa uniformidade genética. A propagação vegetativa via estaquia é uma alternativa viável para propagação de diversas espécies frutíferas, podendo ser utilizada também com as espécies nativas, proporcionando a formação de pomares homogêneos, com a produção de mudas com alta sanidade, além de antecipar a produção. Nesse contexto, conduziu-se um estudo visando à multiplicação vegetativa da pitangueira, em que se testou a estaquia herbácea a partir de estacas coletadas de plantas matrizes jovens e adultas, submetidas a três períodos de imersão em água (0, 24 ou 48 horas, além da aplicação de doses de ácido indolbutírico (0, 2000, 4000 e 6000mg L-1. Foram avaliadas a sobrevivência (%, a retenção e a emissão foliar (n° folhas/ estaca, a calogênese (% e enraizamento das estacas (%. Ao final do experimento, avaliou-se massa fresca e seca de parte aérea e raiz, número de folhas e área foliar. O delineamento experimental foi o completamente casualizado, com três repetições de dez plantas por tratamento para os parâmetros não destrutivos e três repetições de cinco plantas por tratamento para os parâmetros destrutivos. A estaquia herbácea foi eficiente para produzir mudas de pitangueira, especialmente quando utilizadas estacas oriundas de plantas jovens sem necessidade de pré-lavagem nem adição de auxinas exógenas.In Brazil, most of the Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora orchards is formed by ungrafted plants, which makes the plantations have low genetic uniformity. The vegetative minicutting propagation is a viable alternative for the propagation of several fruit species, and can also be used with native species providing the formation of orchards with homogeneous populations of plants, with production of seedlings with high health and accelerated propagation process

  20. Variabilidade genética em populações de pitangueira oriundas de autopolinização e polinização livre, acessada por AFLP Genetic variability in surinam cherry populations originated from self-pollination and cross pollination, estimated by AFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Cezar Franzon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados marcadores AFLP para a avaliação de populações de plantas de pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora oriundas de autopolinização e de polinização livre, com o objetivo de verificar a variabilidade existente entre e dentro dessas populações, visando a fornecer mais informações que ajudem no entendimento do modo de reprodução dessa espécie. O material vegetal utilizado foi oriundo de duas seleções de pitangueira ("Pit 15" e "Pit 52", mantidas na Embrapa Clima Temperado. De cada seleção, foram obtidas duas populações F1, por meio de autopolinização e de polinização livre, totalizando quatro populações. Foram analisados 18 indivíduos de cada população e as duas plantas-mãe, totalizando 74 indivíduos. Foram utilizadas três combinações de primers AFLP e calculada a similaridade genética entre plantas pelo coeficiente de Jaccard. Uma estimativa da variabilidade genética entre e dentro das populações foi estimada pela AMOVA. As três combinações de primers AFLP utilizadas amplificaram um total de 178 locos AFLP, dos quais 114 (64,0% foram polimórficos entre todos os indivíduos. Não houve separação clara entre populações descendentes da mesma planta-mãe. Foi observado maior polimorfismo de marcadores AFLP em populações de polinização livre. A proporção da variabilidade genética total entre populações foi significativa, embora tenha sido menor do que aquela observada dentro das populações. A reprodução da pitangueira é decorrente tanto da autofertilização quanto da polinização cruzada, sendo necessário, no entanto, novos estudos para determinar qual a estratégia de reprodução mais eficiente.AFLP molecular markers were used aiming to study the genetic variability within and between Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora populations, originated from self-pollination and open pollination of two selections (Pit 15 and Pit 52 of the Embrapa Clima Temperado collection. The objective was to

  1. Research and breeding for mechanical culture of rice in Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, ten H.

    1967-01-01

    Ten Have described the results of research on cultural practices and breeding work, on the very heavy clay soils of the Prince Bernhard Polder and the Wageningen Project during the years 1952 to 1965. The chapters are: Introduction, Surface and underground drainage, Tillage and seedbed preparation,

  2. Brain drain or brain gain : The case of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.W. Dulam (Tina)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Brain drain refers to the emigration of highly skilled individuals mostly from a less developed (home) to a developed country (destination) thereby reducing the capacity of the home country to generate welfare for its population. In the literature there is much written

  3. Public health programs as surrogates for social action in Suriname, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplow, Daniel; Augustine, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the merits of public health activism that advocates for social change in which health is the outcome of interest. We acknowledge that while efforts at the individual level are important, social network models consider the underlying mechanisms that lie outside the public health sector. This paper considers the inequitable health of Indigenous people who bear a disproportionate share of the negative health consequences due to economic development programs that follow an assimilation model. This paper discusses a combination of theoretical constructs to understand and solve the problems at hand. It concludes that while the attention paid to technological and behavioral solutions at the individual level yields important health outcomes, attention should also be paid to structural causes that address social, political and economic barriers to prevent disease, disability and premature death. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Suriname – Seeking a Lonely, Lesbian Friend for Correspondence’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shield, Andrew DJ

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands has exemplified the politics of ‘homonationalism’ since the late 1990s, particularly with regard to political rhetoric that ties gay and lesbian rights to policies against immigration. Drawing from queer-of-colour and queer-migrant critiques, this essay challenges the construction...

  5. Essays on an Emerging Financial Market : A case study of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.S. Bodeutsch (Denice)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Stock markets in emerging economies are often viewed as a source of financial development and ultimately economic growth. Well-operating or efficient stock markets may contribute to the development of a country’s financial sector through increase in savings, efficient

  6. Perceptions of Corporal Punishment among Creole and Maroon Professionals and Community Members in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooij, Inger W.; Nieuwendam, Josta; Moerman, Gerben; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramon J. L.; Roopnarine, Jaipaul L.; Graafsma, Tobi L. G.

    2017-01-01

    Child discipline is a vital part of child-rearing in all cultures. The need for child discipline is generally recognised, but considerable debate exists regarding the best methods. Corporal punishment (CP) is a dominant practice in Caribbean cultures. This qualitative study investigated community

  7. Glucose kinetics during fasting in young children with severe and non-severe malaria in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlmans, Wilco; van Kempen, Anne; Ackermans, Mariëtte; de Metz, Jesse; Kager, Piet; Sauerwein, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Fasting could be an important factor in the induction of hypoglycemia in children with malaria because fasting results in a decrease in endogenous glucose production. The influence of extended fasting on plasma glucose concentration, glucose production, and gluconeogenesis were measured using

  8. Nuancing stigma through ethnography: the case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramdas, Sahienshadebie; van der Geest, Sjaak; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.

    2016-01-01

    Health-related stigma and its dramatic consequences for those stigmatized have long been a crucial concern for public health authorities globally. However, before concluding that stigma spoils the lives of people with a particular disease or disability and is a major obstacle to obtaining/providing

  9. Hydroxyl radicals in the tropical troposphere over the Suriname rainforest: airborne measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martinez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct measurements of OH and HO2 over a tropical rainforest were made for the first time during the GABRIEL campaign in October 2005, deploying the custom-built HORUS instrument (HydrOxyl Radical measurement Unit based on fluorescence Spectroscopy, adapted to fly in a Learjet wingpod. Biogenic hydrocarbon emissions were expected to strongly reduce the OH and HO2 mixing ratios as the air is transported from the ocean over the forest. However, surprisingly high mixing ratios of both OH and HO2 were encountered in the boundary layer over the rainforest.

    The HORUS instrumentation and calibration methods are described in detail and the measurement results obtained are discussed. The extensive dataset collected during GABRIEL, including measurements of many other trace gases and photolysis frequencies, has been used to quantify the main sources and sinks of OH. Comparison of these measurement-derived formation and loss rates of OH indicates strong previously overlooked recycling of OH in the boundary layer over the tropical rainforest, occurring in chorus with isoprene emission.

  10. A new Peperomia, collected by the Suriname expedition 1948/1949

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuncker, T.G.

    1957-01-01

    Herba parva delicata subcaespitosa repens, caule pergracili sat conferte piloso, pilis erectis; foliis alternis vel supremis oppositis elliptico-obovatis, apice rotundatis, basi acutis vel subobtusis, supra crispo-pubescentibus subtus glabris vel dissite pubescentibus ciliolatis palmatim

  11. A new species of Gynothemis and its larva (Odonata, Libellulidae) notes on Odonata of Surinam XII

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geijskes, D.C.

    1972-01-01

    The genus Gynothemis was introduced by Calvert (1909), when describing an aberrant member of the Macrothemini from Brazil. The following characteristics were used for this genus: anal area in hind wing with irregularly arranged cells; one row of cells in Rspl, M2 not undulate; triangle in fore wing

  12. Assessment of the impacts of gold mining on soil and vegetation in Brownsberg Nature Park, Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arets, E.J.M.M.; Meer, van der P.J.; Brink, van den N.W.; Tjon, K.; Atmopawiro, V.P.; Ouboter, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the assessment of the impacts of small scale gold-mining on soil and vegetation in Brownsberg Nature Park. In the past 10 years small-scale gold mining with heavy machinery has been illegally practiced within Brownsberg Nature Park (BNP). During this process the vegetation and

  13. Damage-controlled logging in managed tropical rain forest in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrison, J.

    1990-01-01

    Concern about worldwide deforestation and exploitation of the tropical rain forests has led to friction between national governments, wood industries and timber trade on the one hand, and scientists and environmental organizations on the other. One way to safeguard the tropical rain forests

  14. Damage-controlled logging in managed tropical rain forest in Suriname

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrison, J.

    1990-01-01

    Concern about worldwide deforestation and exploitation of the tropical rain forests has led to friction between national governments, wood industries and timber trade on the one hand, and scientists and environmental organizations on the other. One way to safeguard the tropical rain forests is to avoid human interference and to use forests only as nature reserves and as buffer zones of environmental protection. Some vulnerable tropical rain forests and those with unique flora and fau...

  15. 75 FR 17198 - Trade Policy Staff Committee: Public Comments Regarding Granting Suriname Eligibility for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... become a party to and implement the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption; and (7) the extent to... associated with this docket. Find a reference to this notice by selecting ``Notice'' under ``Document Type... an attached document. If a document is attached, it is sufficient to type ``See attached'' in the...

  16. Hydrobiological observations in Surinam with special reference to the man-made Brokopondo Lake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leentvaar, P.

    1975-01-01

    The construction of large reservoirs such as the man-made Brokopondo lake, is certainly not the result of proposals and conclusions of biological studies, but rather of political, technological and economical decisions without serious consideration of the biological implications. The biologist is

  17. Participatory mapping to identify indigenous community use zones : Implications for conservation planning in southern Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramirez-Gomez, Sara O I; Brown, Greg; Verweij, Pita A.; Boot, René

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale development projects often overlap forest areas that support the livelihoods of indigenous peoples, threatening in situ conservation strategies for the protection of biological and cultural diversity. To address this problem, there is a need to integrate spatially-explicit information on

  18. Socio-technical study of small-scale gold mining in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seccatore, J; de Theije, M.E.M.

    2017-01-01

    Small-scale gold mining is Suriname’s main economic sector, producing about two thirds of the nation’s gold. Despite this, the sector is only very loosely regulated and most small-scale mining activities are informal. Surinamese miners are only a minority: the majority are Brazilian migrants, who

  19. Een ongekende elite : De opkomst van een gekleurde elite in koloniaal Suriname 1800-1863

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neslo, Ellen Brigitte Aurelia

    2016-01-01

    During the slavery period in the nineteenth century in Paramaribo there was a colored elite. Their social economic status was better than generally assumed. To a great extent this was due to the many craftsmen such as carpenters, tailors and midwives. Most of them learned these skills during their

  20. Adoption of Falsified Medical Products in a Low-Income Country : Empirical Evidence for Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); M.M. Lede (Madesta)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractBased on detailed shipping figures for Suriname’s main harbour in Paramaribo, we estimate the total shipments (in kilograms) of original and falsified medical products for 1996–2008 across five product categories. Using various time series techniques and diffusion models, we document

  1. Studies in South American Malpighiaceae, Lauraceae and Hernandiaceae, especially of Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostermans, A.J.G.H.

    1936-01-01

    The present investigation has been carried out in the “Botanisch Museum en Herbarium” of the University of Utrecht. I wish to render to Dr. A. Pulle, the Director of the Institute, my most sincere thanks for the facilities afforded to me and for the interest in the progress of this work. I am also

  2. Further notes on the Penard oölogical collection from Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellebrekers, W.Ph.J.

    1945-01-01

    In a previous paper (Hellebrekers, 1942) I stated my intention to give some more details on imperfectly known eggs, based on material of the collection of the Penard's. The description of these hitherto imperfectly known or incorrectly described eggs will be strongly aided by the coloured plate

  3. Vegetation structure, logging damage and silviculture in a tropical rain forest in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, W.B.J.

    1987-01-01

    In the first publication in this series, a polycyclic forest management system was formulated, in which three silvicultural treatments (refinements) were scheduled in a cutting cycle of twenty years. This system, which is referred to as the Celos Silvicultural System, is developed further

  4. 'Building on our own abilities' : Suriname's State Oil Company as a development agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Hout (Wil)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyses the conditions under which the Surinamese State Oil Company (Staatsolie) has been consolidated, not only as a firm oriented at the production of oil, but also as a development agent. Staatsolis chances to success seemed rather slim at its creation in the beginning of

  5. The 'Botanical Gardens of the Dispossessed' revisited: richness and significance of Old World crops grown by Suriname Maroons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van Tinde; Velden, van der Amber; Reijers, Minke

    2016-01-01

    Old World crops entered the Americas as provision on slave ships and were planted by enslaved Africans in their home gardens, known as the ‘Botanical Gardens of the Dispossessed’. Escaped slaves who settled in Maroon communities in Suriname’s forested interior practiced shifting cultivation for

  6. Carbon dioxide baited trap catches do not correlate with human landing collections of Anopheles aquasalis in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiwat-van Laar, H.; Andriessen, R.; Rijk, de M.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Takken, W.

    2011-01-01

    Three types of carbon dioxide-baited traps, i.e., the Centers for Disease Control Miniature Light Trap without light, the BioGents (BG) Sentinel Mosquito Trap (BG-Sentinel) and the Mosquito Magnet® Liberty Plus were compared with human landing collections in their efficiency in collecting Anopheles

  7. Malaria in Suriname: a new era : impact of modified intervention strategies on Anopheles darlingi populations and malaria incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiwat-van Laar, H.

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by Plasmodiumblood parasites which live inside the human host and are spread by Anopheles mosquitoes.Every year an estimated 225 million new cases and near 800.000 malaria deaths are reported. Control of the disease is a formidable task involving all three

  8. Carbon dioxide baited trap catches do not correlate with human landing collections of Anopheles aquasalis in Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Hiwat

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Three types of carbon dioxide-baited traps, i.e., the Centers for Disease Control Miniature Light Trap without light, the BioGents (BG Sentinel Mosquito Trap (BG-Sentinel and the Mosquito Magnet® Liberty Plus were compared with human landing collections in their efficiency in collecting Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus aquasalis mosquitoes. Of 13,549 total mosquitoes collected, 1,019 (7.52% were An. aquasalis. Large numbers of Culex spp were also collected, in particular with the (BG-Sentinel. The majority of An. aquasalis (83.8% were collected by the human landing collection (HLC. None of the trap catches correlated with HLC in the number of An. aquasalis captured over time. The high efficiency of the HLC method indicates that this malaria vector was anthropophilic at this site, especially as carbon dioxide was insufficiently attractive as stand-alone bait. Traps using carbon dioxide in combination with human odorants may provide better results.

  9. Genome-wide Ancestry and Demographic History of African-Descendant Maroon Communities from French Guiana and Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes-Lima, Cesar; Gessain, Antoine; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Migot-Nabias, Florence; Bellis, Gil; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Restrepo, Berta Nelly; Rojas, Winston; Avendaño-Tamayo, Efren; Bedoya, Gabriel; Orlando, Ludovic; Salas, Antonio; Helgason, Agnar; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Sikora, Martin; Schroeder, Hannes; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel

    2017-11-02

    The transatlantic slave trade was the largest forced migration in world history. However, the origins of the enslaved Africans and their admixture dynamics remain unclear. To investigate the demographic history of African-descendant Marron populations, we generated genome-wide data (4.3 million markers) from 107 individuals from three African-descendant populations in South America, as well as 124 individuals from six west African populations. Throughout the Americas, thousands of enslaved Africans managed to escape captivity and establish lasting communities, such as the Noir Marron. We find that this population has the highest proportion of African ancestry (∼98%) of any African-descendant population analyzed to date, presumably because of centuries of genetic isolation. By contrast, African-descendant populations in Brazil and Colombia harbor substantially more European and Native American ancestry as a result of their complex admixture histories. Using ancestry tract-length analysis, we detect different dates for the European admixture events in the African-Colombian (1749 CE; confidence interval [CI]: 1737-1764) and African-Brazilian (1796 CE; CI: 1789-1804) populations in our dataset, consistent with the historically attested earlier influx of Africans into Colombia. Furthermore, we find evidence for sex-specific admixture patterns, resulting from predominantly European paternal gene flow. Finally, we detect strong genetic links between the African-descendant populations and specific source populations in Africa on the basis of haplotype sharing patterns. Although the Noir Marron and African-Colombians show stronger affinities with African populations from the Bight of Benin and the Gold Coast, the African-Brazilian population from Rio de Janeiro has greater genetic affinity with Bantu-speaking populations from the Bight of Biafra and west central Africa. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Het Lelydorpplan in Suriname : Inleiding tot het vraagstuk van de landontwikkeling op arme gronden in een tropisch gebied

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, J.A.H.

    1956-01-01

    In 1950 the Welvaartsfonds (The Prosperity Fund) established the Lelydorp Project; a pilot scheme to develop sound fulltime family farms in the Old Coastal Plain. The area was 450,000 ha of sparsely populated rolling sandy ridges covered with tropical rain-forest.

    Land development

  11. Performance and economic analysis of a 27 kW grid-connected photovoltaic system in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghoebarsing, Amrita; Kalpoe, Anand

    2017-01-01

    The performance of a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system, under the Surinamese weather conditions, is monitored and reported. A measurement and data-logging system provides inputs for the calculation of selected standard key performance indicators (KPI). Calculated KPI's are compared to expected

  12. Parasitic mites of Surinam : XXVII. Demodex marsupiali sp. nov. from Didelphis marsupialis: adaptation to glandular habitat 1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nutting, W.B.; Lukoschus, F.S.; Desch, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    Demodex marsupiali sp. nov. is described from the pilocerumen-gland complex within the external auditory meatus of Didelphis marsupialis Linné, 1758. Pathogenesis is limited to epithelial cell destruction, minor orifice occlusion, and some keratinization. Mites occasionally penetrate into the

  13. Ethnic disparities in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its risk factors in the Suriname Health Study: A cross-sectional population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.S.K. Krishnadath (Ingrid S.K.); J.R. Toelsie (Jerry R.); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground The metabolic syndrome (MetS) indicates increased risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. We estimated the overall and ethnic-specific prevalence of MetS and explored the associations of risk factors with MetS among Amerindian, Creole, Hindustani, Javanese, Maroon

  14. Big Data for better urban life?: An exploratory study of critical urban issues in two Caribbean cities: Paramaribo (Suriname) and Port of Spain (Trinidad and Tobago)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfeffer, K.; Verrest, H.; Poorthuis, A.

    2015-01-01

    Big Data is increasingly seen as important in studying the city. This pertains to both its methodological capacity and the societal implications it may have. In this article we draw on contemporary literature to discuss the potentials and challenges of Big Data for addressing pressing urban issues.

  15. Consequences of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade on medicinal plant selection: plant use for cultural boud syndromes affecting children in Suriname and Western Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, T.; Towns, A.M.; Ruysschaert, S.; Quiroz Villarreal, D.K.; Andel, van T.

    2014-01-01

    Folk perceptions of health and illness include cultural bound syndromes (CBS), ailments generally confined to certain cultural groups or geographic regions and often treated with medicinal plants. Our aim was to compare definitions and plant use for CBS regarding child health in the context of the

  16. Phenotypic plasticity in fish life-history traits in two neotropical reservoirs : Petit-Saut Reservoir in French Guiana and Brokopondo Reservoir in Suriname

    OpenAIRE

    Merona de, Bernard; Mol, J.; Vigouroux, R.; Chaves, P. D.

    2009-01-01

    Fish species are known for their large phenotypic plasticity in life-history traits in relation to environmental characteristics. Plasticity allows species to increase their fitness in a given environment. Here we examined the life-history response of fish species after an abrupt change in their environment caused by the damming of rivers. Two reservoirs of different age, both situated on the Guiana Shield, were investigated: the young Petit-Saut Reservoir in French Guiana (14 years) and the ...

  17. New records of olpiid pseudoscorpions (Pseudoscorpiones: Olpiidae) from the Caribbean area and Surinam, with descriptions of four new species of the genera Pachyolpium Beier, Tricholpium gen. nov. and Heterohorus gen. nov.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tooren, van den D.

    2011-01-01

    A large number of new localities for Aphelolpium scitulum, A. brachytarsus, A. thibaudi, P. arubense arubense, P. a. variabile, P. confusum and P. granulatum are reported. Two new identification keys are given: an adapted and extended key to the Caribbean genera of the pseudoscorpion family Olpiidae

  18. Ischaemic heart disease in Turkish migrants with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Netherlands: wait for the next generation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, S.; Klok, M.; van Hoogenhuyze, D.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Berghout, A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of ischaemic heart disease in Turkish and Surinam-Asian migrants with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Netherlands as compared with Europeans. Methods: In a consecutive case-control study, 59 Turkish and 62 Surinam-Asian patients were compared with 185 Europeans

  19. Hypertensie in Nederlandse en Engelse etnische minderheidsgroepen. Bloeddruk in Engelse groepen beter onder controle dan in Nederlandse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, Charles; Kunst, Anton E.; Bhopal, Raj; Zaninotto, Paola; Unwin, Nigel; Nazroo, James; Nicolaou, Mary; Redekop, William K.; Stronks, Karien

    2011-01-01

    To compare blood pressure and the prevalence of hypertension in white Dutch and Dutch of Suriname-hindustani and Suriname-creole ethnic derivation with corresponding ethnic minority groups in England and to assess the quality of hypertension treatment in these groups. Retrospective; comparison of

  20. Dimensies van onafhankelijkheid: de Surinaamse ervaring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Meel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available J. Trommelen, Dwars door Suriname. Drie Guyana's in een tegendraads portret H. Breeveld, Jopie Pengel 1916-1970. Leven en werk van een Surinaamse politicus J. Jansen van Galen, J.A. Jansen, Hetenachtsdroom. Suriname, erfenis van de slavernij J. Jansen van Galen, Het Suriname-syndroom. De PvdA tussen Den Haag en Paramaribo M. van Kessel, H. van der Vlist, Tussen twee huizen. Het leven van de Surinaamse Nederlander Jan Veldema G. Oostindie, I. Klinkers, Knellende koninkrijksbanden. Het Nederlandse dekolonisatiebeleid in de Caraïben, 1940-2000, I, 1940-1954, II, 1954-1975, III, 1975-2000 R. Tjin, C. Buma, J. Reichert, Suriname onafhankelijk. 25 November 1975. Srefidensi sranan = Suriname free. 25 November 1975

  1. Odegaard's selection hypothesis revisited : Schizophrenia in Surinamese immigrants to the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selten, JP; Cantor-Graae, E; Slaets, J; Kahn, RS

    Objective. The incidence of schizophrenia among Surinamese immigrants to the Netherlands is high. The authors tested Odegaard's hypothesis that this phenomenon is explained by selective migration. Method: The authors imagined that migration from Surinam to the Netherlands subsumed the entire

  2. Examination of the Open Market Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    Africa Peru Switzerland Romania The Gambia Swaziland Suriname Serbia- Montenegro Ghana Tanzania Uruguay Slovakia...support contingency requirements for its unique mission parameters to handle oversized and overweight airlift cargo requirements but lacking in

  3. Chagas Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... countries such as: Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay or Venezuela ■ Have seen the bug, ...

  4. 'WARA' A WEST AFRICAN SOFT CHEESE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Babalobi

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... Cymbopogon citratus (Amazon Herbs, Wonglaan, 10, Paramaribo, Suriname). The .... provided an ideal environment for the microorganisms. ... reduce the risk of microbial spoilage of food and possibility of food poisoning.

  5. Travelers' Health: Yellow Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paraguay Peru 2 Suriname Trinidad and Tobago 2 Venezuela 2 1 Countries or areas where “a risk ... Vision Using this Site Legal Link to Us Policies FOIA Accessibility Privacy No FEAR Act Inspector General ...

  6. Electricity in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breeze, Paul

    1998-12-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: The Political and Economic Environment; Natural Resources; The Financial Situation; Argentina; Belize; Bolivia; Brazil; Chile; Columbia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; El Salvador; French Guyana; Guatemala; Guyana; Honduras; Nicaragua; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Surinam; Uruguay; Venezuela. (Author)

  7. Zika Travel Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colombia , Ecuador , French Guiana , Guyana , Paraguay , Peru , Suriname , Venezuela Areas with Interrupted Transmission Zika was previously found ... Vision Using this Site Legal Link to Us Policies FOIA Accessibility Privacy No FEAR Act Inspector General ...

  8. 9 CFR 93.405 - Health certificate for ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Sierra Leone, Singapore, South Africa, Spratly Islands, Sri Lanka, Surinam, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania... nearest city, or an equivalent method, approved by the Administrator, of identifying the location of the...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-21 - Okra from certain countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Okra from certain countries. Okra from Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Mexico, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, and the West Indies may be imported into the United States in accordance with this section and...

  10. The Growth Form of Croton pullei (Euphorbiaceae) - Functional Morphology and Biomechanics of a Neotropical Liana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallenmüller, F.; Müller, U.; Rowe, N.; Speck, T.

    2001-01-01

    Croton pullei (Euphorbiaceae) is a woody climber of the lowland rainforest in French Guyana and Surinam. During ontogeny, a shift from a juvenile free-standing growth phase to an older supported growth phase is observed. The following biomechanical parameters were studied: structural Young's

  11. How do psychosocial determinants in migrant women in the Netherlands differ from these among their counterparts in their country of origin? A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nierkens, V.; van der Ploeg, M.V.; van Eer, M.Y.; Stronks, K.

    2011-01-01

    Migration of non-Western women into Western countries often results in an increase in smoking prevalence among migrant women. To gain more insight into how to prevent this increase, we compared psychosocial determinants of smoking between Surinamese women in Suriname and those in the Netherlands.

  12. First case of Echinococcus vogeli infection imported to the Netherlands, January 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stijnis, C.; Bart, A.; Brosens, L.; van Gool, T.; Grobusch, M.; van Gulik, T.; Roelfsema, J.; van Thiel, P.

    2013-01-01

    In January 2013 in the Netherlands, a man in his 50s from Suriname underwent hemihepatectomy because of a cystic liver mass, assumed to be a cystadenoma. Pathology revealed an echinococcal infection. PCR analysis of cyst material identified Echinococcus vogeli, causing polycystic hydatid disease.

  13. 76 FR 47133 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding and 12-Month Determination on a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ..., and specific soil types. Our implementing regulations at 50 CFR 424.02 define ``special management...; Panam[aacute]; Colombia; Trinidad and Tobago; Guyana; Suriname; French Guiana; and southern Brazil (M... `reproduction [site]' which includes the sandy beaches and open access to the ocean that constitute the `soil...

  14. International workshop: Planning for climate change through integrated coastal management. Volume 2: Country and regional reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This workshop included reports from the following countries: Argentina; Bulgaria; Egypt; Estonia; Fiji; Indonesia; Mozambique; Nigeria; Oman; The Philippines; Senegal; Sri Lanka; Surinam; Thailand; and Tuvalu; Regional reports were included on the following: Small Island Developing States of the Pacific; South Pacific Regional Environment Program; and Sea Level Rise Impacts on Central America

  15. Country Reports on Terrorism 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    by stronger government responses. Ecuador and Panama have responded with a mix of containment and non-confrontation with Colombian narco-terrorist...Spanish government officials, security and military forces, politicians, and judicial figures, but the group also targeted journalists and tourist areas...Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Suriname Trinidad and

  16. The Caribbean and the Wild Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Goslinga

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Suriname: a bibliography, 1980-1989. Jo DERKX & IRENE ROLFES. Leiden, the Netherlands: Department of Caribbean Studies, KITLV/Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology, 1990. x + 297 pp. (Paper NLG 25.00 La Caraïbe politique et internationale: bibliographie politologique avec références économiques et socio-culturelles. MICHEL L. MARTIN. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1990. xvii + 287 pp. Suriname. ROSEMARIJN HOEFTE. Oxford and Santa Barbara CA: Clio Press, 1990. xxx + 229 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00 Although in North American academie circles interest in Suriname (or the Wild Coast, as the area was originally called has always been marginal, the same cannot be said for the Dutch, for whom the former colony continues to hold an enduring fascination. Not only have the Dutch studied the country's historical beginnings assiduously, but Suriname's controversial relationship with the former mother country assures it a definite place in contemporary social and political thought.

  17. Hb Oegstgeest [alpha104(G11)Cys-->Ser (alpha1)]. A new hemoglobin variant associated with a mild alpha-thalassemia phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harteveld, Cornelis L.; Rozendaal, Lieke; Blom, Nico A.; Lo-A-Njoe, Shirley; Akkerman, Nicole; Arkestijn, Sandra; van Delft, Peter; Giordano, Piero C.

    2005-01-01

    A microcytic hypochromic anemic state was observed in an 8-year old Black female of Surinam origin during pre-operative Hb S [beta6(A3)Glu-->Val] screening. Her high zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) level suggested a chronic iron depletion but, in contrast, the high red blood cell (RBC) count (5.85 x

  18. A new species of the genus Xanthomicrogaster Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) from Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penteado-Dias, A.M.; Shimabukuro, P.H.F.; Achterberg, van C.

    2002-01-01

    One new Xanthomicrogaster species from Brazil is described, and X. fortipes Cameron, 1911, is redescribed and reported from Brazil and Suriname for the first time. A key to the species is presented as well as data about the geographical distribution in Brazil.

  19. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Dutch military

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Thiel, P.P.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is een tropische ziekte veroorzaakt door een parasiet die wordt overgebracht door de zandvlieg. Pieter-Paul van Thiel beschrijft de besmetting van militairen tijdens drie missies in Afghanistan, en jungletrainingen in Suriname en Belize. Bij een missie in Noord-Afghanistan in 2005

  20. Over Vlaams-Nederlandse woordenboeken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prędota Stanisław

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary Dutch language belongs to European multi-centered languages and has three variations: Dutch of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Dutch in Northern Belgium, and Dutch in Surinam. There are differences among the above variations which mainly regard the pronunciation and lexicon. The Flemish and Surinam variations pose a great challenge, especially for the translators of the Flemish and Surinam literature. Similarly, they pose also a significant theoretical and practical problem for the authors of one and two-language dictionaries of the Dutch language. The contemporary lexicography attempts to register the differences which one can find between the standard of the Dutch language and: its Northern Belgium variation, as well as its Surinam variation. It needs to be noted that lexicographers so far have been paying much attention to lexical differences between Dutch of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Dutch of the Northern Belgium. In this very paper there are described four printed Flemish-Dutch dictionaries and one online dictionary, we also characterize the Prisma Handwoordenboek Nederlands met onderscheid tussen het Belgisch-Nederlands en Nederlands-Nederlands met medewerking van W. Martin en W. Smedts.

  1. Journal of Special Operations Medicine, Volume 4, Edition 2, Spring 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    in Trinidad, Suriname, Brazil, Bolivia, French Guiana, and Peru .4,6,7,9,10,11 The virus was first isolated in 1954, and the first epidemics described... anemia ), low white blood cell count, and low platelet count. Some patients develop post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis is

  2. Spontaneous cure of American cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania naiffi in two Dutch infantry soldiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Snoek, E. M.; Lammers, A. M.; Kortbeek, L. M.; Roelfsema, J. H.; Bart, A.; Jaspers, C. A. J. J.

    2009-01-01

    We report two Dutch infantry soldiers who acquired American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) during military jungle training in Surinam. The lesions had existed for 3 and 5 months, respectively, before the soldiers presented for treatment. The lesions occurred on the head and right thigh, and were

  3. Bouw oeververdedigingswerken voor de rechteroever van de Surinamerivier & de linkeroever van de Commewijnerivier. Morfologische aspecten en natuurlijke oeverbescherming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustinus, P.G.E.F.

    2004-01-01

    Aanleiding tot de studie is de sedert de jaren tachtig van de vorige eeuw zichtbare erosie van de rechteroever van de Suriname rivier (met name op het traject Suzannasdaal-Voorburg) en de linkeroever van de Commewijne rivier (met name op het traject Mon Trésor-Zorgvliet). Gelet op de bedreigende

  4. 21 CFR 1310.08 - Excluded transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded transactions. 1310.08 Section 1310.08 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECORDS AND REPORTS OF LISTED...) Colombia (6) Ecuador (7) French Guiana (8) Guyana (9) Panama (10) Paraguay (11) Peru (12) Suriname (13...

  5. U. S. Multinational Corporations and National Security Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    tfol/o) action between them. A random .Ci • t° def^ne the areas of inter- Acers A ä^^^-ä z^r***- were no references to foreign or mil^Lf, as1...the rubber of Malaysia ,and the bauxite of Jamaica, Surinam and Australia. The essential characteristics of these natural resource regions have

  6. On Filaria-specimens from the right ventricle of the heart of Felis onca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R.

    1889-01-01

    Some time ago Mr. J. H. Spitzly kindly forwarded to our Museum a few bottles with parasitic worms, collected by him in Surinam. Among them there was a bottle, containing some Nematodes found in the heart of a young female Jaguar, that was killed by a hunter. In reference to these parasites Mr.

  7. Veerkracht in Flora : Een onderzoek naar pro-sociaal gedrag van kwetsbare kinderen uit een Surinaamse volkswijk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalring, R.N.

    2009-01-01

    This study regards the development of children growing up in a predominantly creole (black) disadvantaged neighborhood in Paramaribo, Suriname. Some of these children appear to harbor sufficient strength to become socially well-adjusted citizens. Apparently, they are resilient. This study presents

  8. The Educational Attainment of Second Generation Immigrants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Veenman, J.M.C.

    2001-01-01

    Since the mid-1960's the Netherlands has had an immigration surplus, mainly because of manpower recruitment from Turkey and Morocco and immigration from the former Dutch colony of Surinam.Immigrants have a weak labor market position, which is related to their educational level and language

  9. Snakes of the Guianan region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The study of snaks from the Guianan region got an early start in 1705 when several species were pictured by Merian. As relatively large proportion of the snakes described by Linnaeus originated from Surinam. Interest for and knowledge of this group of animals steadily increased in the 18th and 19th

  10. Histoplasma-associated inflammatory pseudotumour of the kidney mimicking renal carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. den Bakker (Michael); N.N.T. Goemaere (Natascha); J.A. Severin (Juliëtte); J.L. Nouwen (Jan); P.C.M.S. Verhagen (Paul)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractA 56-year-old female, originally from Suriname, with an otherwise unremarkable previous medical history was found to have a renal mass highly suspicious for renal cancer for which a nephrectomy was performed. Within the kidney, a tumourous mass was found which, on histological

  11. Participatory 3D modelling as a socially engaging and user-useful approach in ecosystem service assessments among marginalized communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramirez-Gomez, Sara O I; Verweij, Pita; Best, Lisa; van Kanten, Rudi; Rambaldi, Giacomo; Zagt, Roderick

    2017-01-01

    Land use decision making in the Upper Suriname River area knows a history of disempowerment and marginalization of the Saamaka communities inhabiting the area. Non-recognition of land rights is at the origin of this problem. This is aggravated by the increasing over-exploitation of timber resources

  12. The influence of dental caries on body growth in prepubertal children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert-Schriks, M.C.M.; van Amerongen, E.W.; Aartman, I.H.A.; Wennink, J.M.B.; ten Cate, J.M.; de Soet, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Dental decay and dental treatment are suggested to be related to body growth in children. The aim of this study was first to assess the relation between dental caries and body proportions cross-sectionally in a Suriname caries child population and secondly to investigate whether dental treatment had

  13. State-of-the-Art in the Development of the Lokono Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybka, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Lokono is a critically endangered Northern Arawakan language spoken in the pericoastal areas of the Guianas (Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana). Today, in every Lokono village there remains only a small number of elderly native speakers. However, in spite of the ongoing language loss, across the three Guianas as well as in the Netherlands, where a…

  14. Novitates Taxonomicae II. ex Herbario Academiae Rheno-Traiectinae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulle, A.

    1937-01-01

    A new species of Paullinia, viz. P. Bernhardi Uitt. was described on p. 774 of the last volume of this periodical. I have to add here another new species to this formerly monotypic section Cryptoptilon. The three species now known are all collected uncompletly. The flowers of the two Suriname ones

  15. Novitates Taxonomicae III. ex. Herbario Academiae Rheno-Traiectinae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulle, A.

    1942-01-01

    In my revision of the Turneraceae for PULLE’s Flora of Suriname, I have accepted the genera Piriqueta and Turnera in the delimitation given to them by URBAN. The distinction rests on the presence in Piriqueta of a “corona” at the insertion of the petals. This corona, however, is often so weakly

  16. State-of-the-art in the development of the Lokono language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rybka, K.

    2015-01-01

    Lokono is a critically endangered Northern Arawakan language spoken in the peri- coastal areas of the Guianas (Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana). Today, in every Lokono village there remains only a small number of elderly native speakers. However, in spite of the ongoing language loss, across the

  17. Partnerships between Dutch municipalities and municipalities in countries of migration to the Netherlands; knowledge exchange and mutuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, E.; Baud, I.S.A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years a growing number of Dutch municipalities have established relations with local governments in the countries of migration to the Netherlands (e.g. Turkey, Suriname and Morocco). In addition to strengthening local governance and improving service delivery in the partner municipalities,

  18. Jonkheer Drs. Willem Cornelis van Heurn (1887-1972)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, L.B.; Husson, A.M.

    1973-01-01

    INHOUD Ι. Inleiding .................. 3 2. Nederland (1887-1911)............... 4 3. Verzameltocht naar Suriname (12 mei-10 november 1911)..... 6 4. Nederland (1911-1912)............... 11 5. Reis naar Simaloer en West-Sumatra (1912-1914)........ 12 6. Nederland (1914-1918)............... 17 7.

  19. Living Guianas Report 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, A.T.N.; Verweij, P.A.; Plouvier, D.; Gomes, L.

    2012-01-01

    The Guianas are the three countries Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana, in the north east corner of mainland South America. They are included in the larger Guiana Shield and the Amazon biome. As such they are part of the largest tract of continuous tropical forest in an almost pristine state in the

  20. Herbal bathing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, van 't Charlotte I.E.A.; Haabo, Vinije; Ruysschaert, Sofie; Vossen, Tessa; Andel, van Tinde R.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Herbal baths play an important role in the traditional health care of Maroons living in the interior of Suriname. However, little is known on the differences in plant ingredients used among and within the Maroon groups. We compared plant use in herbal baths documented for Saramaccan and

  1. Reexamination of the holotype of Pseuderythrinus rosapinnis Hoedeman, 1950, a synonym of Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus Agassiz, 1829 (Pisces, Characiformes, Erythrinidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongh, de Bas O.

    1991-01-01

    The holotype and only known specimen of Pseuderythrinus rosapinnis Hoedeman, 1950 from Surinam is reexamined for the dentition of its palatal arch. Its morphometric and meristic data are compared with four species of erythrinids from the Guianas. Pseuderythrinus rosapinnis turns out to be a synonym

  2. Leven met de overstromingen 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Ent, R.; De Brauw, H.; Nelissen, J.; Van den Berg van Saparoea, F.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction In May 2006 many rivers and creeks in the interior of Suriname caused flooding and a lot of inhabitants were surprised by the water. Over 22,000 people were struck in a way that their houses were (temporarily) uninhabitable. In the most places the duration of the flooding was limited to

  3. New species and notes on genera of the Celastraceae (incl. Hippocrateaceae). III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennega, A.M.W.

    1983-01-01

    A description is given of two new species in the genus Pristimera, P. dariense from Panama and P. caudata from Suriname. P. dariense differs by its flattened disk from the other New World species of the genus, but would fit in the subgenus Trochantha N. Hallé known from Africa. Cuervea crenulata sp.

  4. Maria Sibylla Merian (1647–1717)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    tropical heat, which impacted her health, Merian carried on with determination, recording ... number of insects new to science, she also illustrated a number of important ... Surinam set a bad example for other women of her kind.The many racist ...

  5. Wood anatomy of the neotropical Sapotaceae : XIV. Elaeoluma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohumil Francis Kukachka

    1980-01-01

    The genus Elaeoluma consists of three species distributed in the Amazon Basin, Surinam, Guyana, and Venezuela. The description presented here is based on E. glabrescens of the Amazon Basin. The wood is easily differentiated from all other neotropical Sapotaceae by its pale brown color, reticulate parenchyma, which is hardly discernable with a hand lens, and a low...

  6. Widened coronary arteries in a feverish child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, H. Rogier; Lo-A-Njoe, Shirley M.; Ottenkamp, Jaap; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2006-01-01

    A 3-year-old girl with fever of unknown origin after a visit to Surinam was seen at our hospital. Signs and symptoms were indicative of either Kawasaki syndrome or an acute viral or (atypical) bacterial illness. No cardiac abnormalities were noted at echocardiography. She was treated with

  7. Larvicidal efficacy of Jatropha curca L. ( Euphorbiaceae ) leaf and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this context, the purpose of the present search was to explore the larvicidal properties of Jatropha curcas L. leaf and seed extracts against Culex pipiens L. The larvicidal activity was evaluated in eight different provenances recently introduced in Tunisia (Tanzania (ARU), Mozambique (MOZ), Surinam (SUR) and Brazil ...

  8. Multiple Introductions of Zika Virus into the United States Revealed Through Genomic Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-02

    Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the US Army, the...Central Americas (Guatemala, Mexico, Suriname, and Venezuela ), the Caribbean (Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Martinique, and Puerto Rico), and

  9. 77 FR 40221 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Scarlet Macaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ...: FWS-R9-ES-2012-0039; Division of Policy and Directives Management; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service..., habitat selection and trends, diet, and population abundance and trends (Venezuela, northwest Columbia and..., Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, Suriname, Guyana, French Guiana, and Bolivia and Brazil as far south as Santa...

  10. 75 FR 25174 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Listing for the Largetooth Sawfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ...) Policy for Evaluating Conservation Efforts When Making Listing Decisions (PECE policy; 68 FR 15100; March... Costa Rica, 7 from Colombia, 6 from Venezuela, 1 from Guyana, 5 from Suriname, 1 from French Guiana, and... been abundant in some areas of Venezuela (Cervignon, 1966a; 1966b), the last of the four confirmed...

  11. Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    cooperated to protect aluminum ore supply from the bauxite mines in Surinam. 1941 Iceland. Iceland was taken under the protection of the United States...through the Gulf. President Reagan reported that U.S. Navy ships had been fired upon or struck mines or taken other military action on September 23

  12. Moengo on strike: the politics of labour in Suriname’s Bauxite industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, A.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines one crucial period of contestation in colonial Suriname, the years 1941 and 1942, when sustained labour unrest in the bauxite town of Moengo led to the establishment of the first mining unions. It argues that these strikes laid the groundwork for future relations between

  13. Transport of biomass burning smoke to the upper troposphere by deep convection in the equatorial region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.; Fischer, H.; Freitas, S. R.; Grégoire, J.-M.; Hansel, A.; Hoor, P.; Kormann, R.; Krejci, R.; Lange, L.; Lelieveld, J.; Lindinger, W.; Longo, K.; Peters, W.; de Reus, M.; Scheeren, B.; Silva Dias, M. A. F.; Ström, J.; van Velthoven, P. F. J.; Williams, J.

    2001-01-01

    During LBA-CLAIRE-98, we found atmospheric layers with aged biomass smoke at altitudes >10 km over Suriname. CO, CO2, acetonitrile, methyl chloride, hydrocarbons, NO, O3, and aerosols were strongly enhanced in these layers. We estimate that 80-95% of accumulation mode aerosols had been removed

  14. Case note: EHRM (rolnr. 12738/10: Jeunesse tegen Nederland: Recht op gezinsleven, Uitzetting, Illegaal verblijf, Belang van het kind, Grote Kamer)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Klaagster is in Paramaribo geboren en had aanvankelijk de Nederlandse nationaliteit, maar toen Suriname in 1975 onafhankelijk werd heeft zij de Surinaamse nationaliteit gekregen. In 1987 begon zij een relatie met W., eveneens met de Surinaamse nationaliteit. W. reisde in 1991 naar Nederland en kreeg

  15. Obituaries and biographical notes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1985-01-01

    AMSHOFF, Ms. Dr. Gerda Jane Hillegonda (5 January 1913 — 10 February 1985) Ms. Amshoff studied biology at the State University of Utrecht. Her Ph.D. thesis was on the Leguminosae of Surinam. In later years she was attached to the Agricultural College of Wageningen and worked as a staffmember of WAG,

  16. On a new variety of Ampullaria crassa Swainson from French Guyana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernhout, J.H.

    1914-01-01

    The Gonini-Expedition, that explored in 1903 and 1904 some of the rivers, giving origin to the Marowijne or Maroni, as it is called by the French (see sketch of Surinam on p. 2 of this volume), made also a little excursion on French territory, and explored a part of Mount Cottica on the right bank

  17. Catechistic Teaching, National Canons, and the Regimentation of Students' Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Sjaak

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on key incident analysis of classroom transcripts from Bashkortostan, France, North Korea, and Suriname, this article discusses the relationship between an increasingly canonical content of education and the discursive organization of teaching processes at the expense of both teachers' and students' voice. It argues that canonical…

  18. On Hypopygus lepturus, a little known dwarf gymnotid fish from South America (Pisces, Cypriniformes, Gymnotoidei)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, H.; Isbrücker, I.J.H.

    1972-01-01

    Hypopygus lepturus Hoedeman, 1062, was hitherto known from the holotype and one paratype only, both imported aquarium specimens. In this paper the type locality of the species is restricted. Additional distributional data from Surinam are given, together with records on the occurrence of H. lepturus

  19. Revision of the Neotropical diving beetle genus Hydrodessus J. Balfour-Browne, 1953 (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae, Bidessini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kelly B

    2016-01-01

    The Neotropical diving beetle genus Hydrodessus J. Balfour-Browne, 1953 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae: Bidessini) is revised. Thirty species are recognized. The following new species are described: Hydrodessus bimaculatus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus brevis sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus concolorans sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus continuus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus disjunctus sp. n. (Suriname), Hydrodessus fasciatus sp. n. (Brazil), Hydrodessus imparilis sp. n. (Ecuador), Hydrodessus keithi sp. n. (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador), Hydrodessus kurti sp. n. (Suriname), Hydrodessus kylei sp. n. (Suriname, Venezuela), Hydrodessus laetus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus latotibialis sp. n. (Peru), Hydrodessus maculatus sp. n. (Guyana, Venezuela), Hydrodessus morsus sp. n. (Venezuela), Hydrodessus palus sp. n. (Venezuela), and Hydrodessus tenuatus sp. n. (Suriname). The following new synonyms are established: Hydrodessus fragrans Spangler, 1985 = Hydrodessus biguttatus (Guignot, 1957) syn. n. and Hydrodessus robinae Spangler, 1985 = Hydrodessus octospilus (Guignot, 1957), syn. n. One species is transferred from Hydrodessus to Amarodytes Régimbart, Amarodytes soekhnandanae (Makhan, 1994), comb. n. Habitus photographs (dorsal and lateral) and photos of the ventral surfaces are provided for most species. Line drawings of male and female genitalia and other diagnostic features are also provided along with distribution maps.

  20. Effects of herbivory by Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) larvae on four woody ornamental plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cliff G; Mannion, Catharine; Schaffer, Bruce

    2009-06-01

    The hypothesis that herbivory by Diaprepes root weevil larvae reduces leaf gas exchange and biomass was tested on buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus L.), Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.), mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni Jacq.), and pond apple (Annona glabra L). For Surinam cherry, net CO2 assimilation, transpiration, and stomatal conductance, but not internal CO2 concentration (collectively referred to as leaf gas exchange values), were 7-32% higher in noninfested than infested plants. For buttonwood, all four gas exchange values were 10-54% higher for noninfested than infested plants 3 h after infestation with large, seventh-instar larvae. However, by 4 wk after this infestation, net CO2 assimilation, transpiration, and stomatal conductance, but not internal CO2 concentration, were 11-37% higher for infested than for noninfested plants. For mahogany and pond apple, there were few or no significant differences in leaf gas exchange values between infested and noninfested plants. For all species, mean shoot and root fresh and dry weights were higher for noninfested than infested plants, with the differences most significant for buttonwood (37-85% higher), followed by Surinam cherry (37-143% higher), mahogany (49-84% higher), and pond apple (24-46% higher), which had no significant differences. There were significant differences among plant species in mean head capsule widths, thus larval instars, of larvae recovered from soil with the largest larvae from Surinam cherry (2.59 +/- 0.19 mm) and the smallest from mahogany (2.29 +/- 0.06 mm). Based on differences in leaf gas exchange and plant biomass between infested and noninfested plants of the four species tested, buttonwood and Surinam cherry are the most vulnerable to feeding by Diaprepes larvae followed by mahogany then pond apple.

  1. A Swiss Village in the Dutch Tropics: The Limitations of Empire-Centred Approaches to the Early Modern Atlantic World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karwan Fatah-Black

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers what the migration circuits to and from Suriname can tell us about Dutch early modern colonisation in the Atlantic world. Did the Dutch have an Atlantic empire that can be studied by treating it as an integrated space, as suggested by New Imperial Historians, or did colonisation rely on circuits outside Dutch control, stretching beyond its imperial space? An empire-centred approach has dominated the study of Suriname’s history and has largely glossed over the routes taken by European migrants to and from the colony. When the empirecentred perspective is transcended it becomes possible to see that colonists arrived in Suriname from a range of different places around the Atlantic and the European hinterland. The article takes an Atlantic or global perspective to demonstrate the choices available to colonists and the networks through which they moved.

  2. A new species of Miroculis (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae from NE Argentina Una nueva especie de Miroculis (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae del NE de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Domínguez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Miroculis Edmunds has species described from Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela and Suriname, with additional records from other countries in northern South America. In this paper, Miroculis (Ommaethus misionensis sp. nov. is described from male and female imagos from Misiones Province, NE Argentina. This constitutes the Southernmost record for the genus.El género Miroculis Edmunds tiene especies registradas en Brasil, Colombia, Perú, Venezuela y Surinam, con registros adicionales de otros países en el norte de América del Sur. En este trabajo se describe la especie Miroculis (Ommaethus misionensis sp. nov. de machos y hembras imago, de la provincia de Misiones, en el Noreste de Argentina, lo que constituye el registro más austral para el género.

  3. Good prospects overcome domestic politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses the South American gas and oil industries. Opening ever wider to private investment, the continent is attracting a flood of foreign and local firms, pushing drilling and production rates still higher. This is despite a rash of political problems in many countries, including guerrillas, environmentalists, crooked officials and border disputes. Separate evaluations are given for Venezuela, Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Chile, and briefly for Falkland Islands, Paraguay, Suriname, and Barbados

  4. Identification of 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (bufotenine) in takini (Brosimum acutifolium Huber subsp acutifolium CC Berg, Moraceae), a shamanic potion used in the Guiana Plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Moretti, Christian; Gaillard, Y.; Grenand, Pierre; Bevalot, F.; Prevosto, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is the first thorough analysis of takini, a hallucinogen used by the shamans of several peoples in Suriname, French Guiana, and the region east of the Para in Brazil. The drug is contained in the latex of the Brosimum acutifolium tree, and until now, its psychotropic properties appeared inconsistent with the more general medicinal uses of the tree in the surrounding region. Our chemical and botanical studies reveal that the active ingredient of takini is bufotenine; and that this c...

  5. Book Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Michiel Otto; Bernhard Dahm; Niels Mulder; Michael Young; J. Kommers; Annette Claben; Marijke J. Klokke; Frederick Errington; Paul van der Grijp; H.U.E. Thoden van Velzen; Silvia W. de Groot; R. de Ridder; James J. Fox; Selwyn H.H. Carrington; P.C. Emmer

    1991-01-01

    - Martin A. van Bakel, C.B. Wilpert, Südsee Inseln, Völker und Kulturen. Hamburg: Christians, 1987. - Leonard Blussé, Leo Suryadinata, The ethnic Chinese in the Asean states: Bibliographical essays, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian studies, 1989. 271 pages. - G. Bos, Cees Koelewijn, Oral literature of the Trio Indians of Surinam, Dordrecht-Providence: Foris, 1987. [Koniniklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, Leiden, Caribbean series 6.] 312 pp., Peter Riviere (eds...

  6. DoD Global Emerging Infections System Annual Report, Fiscal Year 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Singapore Brunei Kenya South Korea Bolivia Laos Suriname Cambodia Malaysia Syria Canada Mexico Trinidad and Tobago Djibouti Myanmar Thailand Ecuador Nepal...34 Varicella Susceptibility And Vaccine Use In Young Adults Enlisting In The U.S. Navy." Shah KV, Daniel RW, Tennant MK, Shah N, McKee KT, Jr, Gaydos...Symposium, 17-20 April 2001, San Antonio, TX. Ryan MAK, Smith TC, Honner WK, Gray GC. " Varicella Susceptibility And Vaccine Use In Young Adults

  7. Evaluation of Military Field-Water Quality. Volume 6. Infectious Organisms of Military Concern Associated with Nonconsumptive Exposure: An Assessment of Health Risks and Recommendations for Establishing Related Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    muscular aches, vomiting, and conjunctivitis. Less often there is meningeal irritation, jaundice, renal insufficiency, hemolytic anemia , skin and mucous...workers 12 Columbia 20 Abattoir workers 12 Peru 27 Lima, market 12 Surinam 279 Jungle area 12 Guatemala 34 Agricultural workers 12 Haiti 33 Not reported...Cattle 12 Brazil 23.6 Cattle 12 Colombia 14.7 Cattle 12 Chile 59-69 Cattle 12 Ecuador 12 Cattle 12 Peru 10 Cattle 12 Uruguay 39 Cattle 12 Mexico 22-39

  8. Peter A. Florschutz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleef Antoine M.

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available El 25 de mayo de 1976 falleció inesperadamente, a la edad de53 años, Peter Arnold Florschütz, eminente briólogo y profesor deBotánica Sistemática en Utrecht (Holanda. Era bien conocido porsus estudios de los musgos de Surinam. Fue coautor del "Index Muscorum", miembro de la comisión de la Flora Neotrópica y tesorero del IAPT.

  9. How Governmental Policies Regarding Strategic and Critical Materials Affect the Acquisition of Major Weapon Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    FRANCE (111 TANTALUM So THAILAND 1311. CANADA (131, MALAYSIA (III. BRAZIL (41 BAUXITE & ALUMINA 93 JAMAICA (331. AUSTRALIA f37). GUINEA (IS). SURINAM...TIn SI........ MALAYSIA (SS). THAILAND (16I, INDONESIA (11)1. BOLIVIA (6) NICKEL 77 CANADA (114). NORWAY (9). NIW CALEDONIA (8). DOMIN. PEP. (61 CADMIUM...Agency (EPA) and Occupational Safety and Health Administra- tion ( OSHA ) requirements. [25:15] Another area restrictive and counterproductive to the

  10. NUEVOS REGISTROS Y AMPLIACIÓN DE DATOS DE DISTRIBUCIÓN GEOGRÁFICA DE ESPECIES DE GERRIDAE (HEMIPTERA PARA COLOMBIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Tatiana Morales Castaño

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se revisaron cinco colecciones entomológicas de Colombia y se registra por primera vez para el país Brachymetra shawi Hungerford & Matsuda 1938, especie que había sido reportada para Guyana, Guyana Francesa, Surinam, Brasil y Bolivia y Potamobates variabilis Hungerford 1957, registrada solamente para el Perú; asimismo se amplía la distribución departamental para 14 especies de la familia Gerridae.

  11. Anemia in young children living in the Surinamese interior: the influence of age, nutritional status and ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijlmans CWR

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available CWR Zijlmans,1 A Stuursma,2 AJ Roelofs,2 BC Jubitana,3 MS MacDonald-Ottevanger1 1Department of Mother & Child Health Care, Scientific Research Center Suriname, Academic Hospital Paramaribo, Paramaribo, Suriname; 2Faculty of Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; 3Department of Monitoring Evaluation Surveillance & Research, Medical Mission PHCS, Paramaribo, Suriname Purpose: This study investigates the prevalence of anemia in young children living in the interior of Suriname and the influence of the associated factors age, nutritional status and ethnicity. Patients and methods: In this cross-sectional observational study, 606 children aged 1–5 years from three different regions of Suriname’s interior were included, and hemoglobin levels and anthropometric measurements were collected. Logistic regression models were computed to examine independent associations between anemic and nonanemic groups and to measure the influence of age, nutritional status and ethnicity. Results: A total of 606 children were included, of whom 330 (55% were aged 1–3 years and 276 were aged 4–5 years. The overall prevalence of anemia was 63%. Younger age was associated with anemia (odds ratio [OR]=1.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.27–2.51. Anemia was less prevalent in Amerindian than in Maroon children (OR=0.51; 95% CI: 0.34–0.76. Hemoglobin level was not influenced by nutritional status nor by sex. Conclusion: The prevalence of anemia in children aged 1–5 years living in Suriname’s interior is high (63% compared to that in similar aged children in Latin America and the Caribbean (4–45%. Children aged 1–3 years were more affected than those aged 4–5 years as were Maroon children compared to Amerindian children. Nutritional status and sex were not of influence. Keywords: Maroon, Amerindian, hemoglobin, malnutrition, stunting, younger age

  12. Víra jako sociální opora

    OpenAIRE

    Holečková, Žaneta

    2016-01-01

    Name and Suriname of the autor: Žaneta Holečková Institution: Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Králové, Department of Social Medicine, Department of Nursing Title: Faith es social support Supervisor: Mgr. Michaela Votroubková Number of pages: 59 Number of attachments: 6 Year of defense: 2016 Keywords: faith, social support, Christianity, religion, nursing, disease, patient Summary: This bachelor's thesis represents Christian faith in terms of social support. It is s...

  13. Knowledge of free voluntary HIV testing centres and willingness to do a test among migrants in Cayenne, French Guiana

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In Cayenne, French Guiana, 80% of HIV+ patients followed at the hospital are migrants. Behavioral information is crucial for optimizing HIV testing for this vulnerable group. Predictors of ignorance of the existence of free VCT centre and willingness to get tested were investigated in 2006 among 398 migrants from Haiti, Guyana, Suriname, and Brazil using a structured questionnaire. Only 27 % of migrants knew simultaneously about the existence of free VCT, its localisation ...

  14. How do psychosocial determinants in migrant women in the Netherlands differ from these among their counterparts in their country of origin? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierkens, Vera; van der Ploeg, Maya V; van Eer, Marja Y; Stronks, Karien

    2011-05-26

    Migration of non-Western women into Western countries often results in an increase in smoking prevalence among migrant women. To gain more insight into how to prevent this increase, we compared psychosocial determinants of smoking between Surinamese women in Suriname and those in the Netherlands. Data were obtained between 2000 and 2004 from two cross-sectional studies, the CVRFO study in Suriname (n = 702) and the SUNSET study in the Netherlands (n = 674). For analyses of determinants, we collected additional data in CVRFO study population (n = 85). Differences between the two groups were analysed by chi-square analyses and logistic regression analyses. As was found in other studies among migrant women, more Surinamese migrant women in the Netherlands smoked (31%) than women in Suriname (16%). More Surinamese women in the Netherlands than in Suriname had a positive affective and cognitive attitude towards smoking (OR = 2.6 (95%CI 1.05;6.39) and OR = 3.3 (95%CI 1.31;8.41)). They perceived a positive norm within their partners and friends regarding smoking more frequently (OR = 6.5 (95%CI 2.7;15.6) and OR = 3.3 (95%CI 1.50;7.25)). Migrant women are more positive towards smoking and perceived a more positive norm towards smoking when compared with women in the country of origin. Interventions targeted at the psychosocial determinants regarding smoking for newly migrated women, in particular the consequences of smoking and the norm towards smoking might help to prevent an increase in smoking in those populations.

  15. Insecta, Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae, Trachyderini: New state and country records from South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintino, H. Y. S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the revision of the collections of the Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro andthe National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, the current work provides new localities for 32 speciesand two subspecies of Trachyderini from South America. Thirteen new country records from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia,Ecuador, Peru, Surinam and Venezuela and 35 new state records from Brazil are registered.

  16. Estimating the reproductive number, total outbreak size, and reporting rates for Zika epidemics in South and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah P. Shutt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As South and Central American countries prepare for increased birth defects from Zika virus outbreaks and plan for mitigation strategies to minimize ongoing and future outbreaks, understanding important characteristics of Zika outbreaks and how they vary across regions is a challenging and important problem. We developed a mathematical model for the 2015/2016 Zika virus outbreak dynamics in Colombia, El Salvador, and Suriname. We fit the model to publicly available data provided by the Pan American Health Organization, using Approximate Bayesian Computation to estimate parameter distributions and provide uncertainty quantification. The model indicated that a country-level analysis was not appropriate for Colombia. We then estimated the basic reproduction number to range between 4 and 6 for El Salvador and Suriname with a median of 4.3 and 5.3, respectively. We estimated the reporting rate to be around 16% in El Salvador and 18% in Suriname with estimated total outbreak sizes of 73,395 and 21,647 people, respectively. The uncertainty in parameter estimates highlights a need for research and data collection that will better constrain parameter ranges.

  17. ZONEAMENTO AGROCLIMÁTICO DA PITANGUEIRA PARA TRÊS CENÁRIOS DISTINTOS DE PRECIPITAÇÃO PLUVIAL EM PERNAMBUCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXSANDRO OLIVEIRA DA SILVA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work had as objective to carry through the agroclimatic zoning of the culture of surinam cherry in the state of Pernambuco. They had been used given average annual of minimum and maximum pluvial precipitation and pertaining temperatures of air the 201 climatologic station located in the main representative cities of the regions of the State for the elaboration of the water balance and the attainment of the thermal and water limits. The function density of probability of the distribution gamma was used to classify the dry, regular and rainy years. The maps of dry, regular and rainy years had been produced using interpolation for kriging. The results had presented 19 cities with full aptitude for dry years, 50 cities for regular years and 66 cities for rainy years apt to the culture of surinam cherry. The cities of Cortês, Gameleira and Palmares had revealed with better aptitudes agroclimatic for the culture of the surinam cherry in Pernambuco.

  18. KERAGAMAN VEGETASI GULMA DI BAWAH TEGAKAN POHON KARET ( Hevea brasiliensis PADA UMUR DAN ARAH LERENG YANG BERBEDA DI PTPN IX BANYUMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskara Anggarda Gathot Subroto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in PTPN IX Afdeling Krumput Banyumas in July 2016, with observational survey method is by field orientation, exploration, and analysis of vegetation. The data collection is done by means of interviews and direct observation. Preliminary surveys conducted to seek information from relevant agencies, environmental conditions around the rubber planting. The main survey is done to take samples of weeds in every age group, every group performed 5 times the sampling is considered to represent the age group. The variables measured were type of weed, SDR, and the coefficient Communities (C.The results showed that the weed dominant in the younger age group (1-5 years: Cyperus Kyllingia, Axonopus compressus, Clibadium Surinames, adolescent age group (6-10 years: Cyperus Kyllingia, Paspalum conjugatum Berg, Calopogonium mucuinoides Desv., Group age youth (11-15 years: Cyperus Kyllingia, Paspalum conjugatum Berg, Chromolaena odorata., adult group (16-20 years: Eleusine indica, Paspalum conjugatum Berg, Chromolaena odorata, then the dominant weeds on the slopes of the West-East direction (BT is Calopogonium mucuinoides Desv., Clibadium Surinames, Paspalum conjugatum Berg, and the dominant weed species in the North-South direction of the slope (US is Calopogonium mucuinoides Desv., Paspalum conjugatum Berg., and Axonopus compressus. Weeds dominant age group and Directions Slope is Cyperus killingia and Eleusine indica (L, Paspalum conjugatum Berg, Axonopus compressus, Clibadium Surinames and Calopogonium mucuinoides Desv.Keywords : weeds, rubber tree, group age, slopes, SDR

  19. Estimating the reproductive number, total outbreak size, and reporting rates for Zika epidemics in South and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutt, Deborah P; Manore, Carrie A; Pankavich, Stephen; Porter, Aaron T; Del Valle, Sara Y

    2017-12-01

    As South and Central American countries prepare for increased birth defects from Zika virus outbreaks and plan for mitigation strategies to minimize ongoing and future outbreaks, understanding important characteristics of Zika outbreaks and how they vary across regions is a challenging and important problem. We developed a mathematical model for the 2015/2016 Zika virus outbreak dynamics in Colombia, El Salvador, and Suriname. We fit the model to publicly available data provided by the Pan American Health Organization, using Approximate Bayesian Computation to estimate parameter distributions and provide uncertainty quantification. The model indicated that a country-level analysis was not appropriate for Colombia. We then estimated the basic reproduction number to range between 4 and 6 for El Salvador and Suriname with a median of 4.3 and 5.3, respectively. We estimated the reporting rate to be around 16% in El Salvador and 18% in Suriname with estimated total outbreak sizes of 73,395 and 21,647 people, respectively. The uncertainty in parameter estimates highlights a need for research and data collection that will better constrain parameter ranges. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Moengo on strike: The Politics of Labour in Suriname’s Bauxite Industry

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    Anouk de Koning

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines one crucial moment of contestation in colonial Suriname, the years 1941- 42, when sustained labour unrest in bauxite town Moengo led to the founding of the first mining unions. It argues that these strikes laid the groundwork for future relations between labour, company and the state and explores the kinds of socio-political alliances that were forged between labour and nationalist politicians on the one hand, and government and transnational company on the other, thereby situating this particular contestation in a larger struggle over a colonial system that aligned itself with metropolitan economic interests.Resumen: Moengo en huelga: Políticas Laborales en la Industria de la Bauxita en SurinameEn este artículo se aborda un momento crucial de la impugnación en el Suriname colonial entre los años 1941-42, cuando un persistente malestar entre los trabajadores del pueblo de la bauxita de Moengo condujo a la fundación de los primeros sindicatos mineros. Se sostiene que esas huelgas sentaron las bases de las futuras relaciones entre el trabajo, las compañías y el estado y se exploran los tipos de alianzas socio-políticas que se forjaron entre políticos laboristas y nacionalistas por un lado, y el gobierno y compañías transnacionales por el otro, situando por ello esta particular impugnación en una lucha de mayor alcance contra un sistema colonial que se identificaba a sí mismo con los intereses económicos metropolitanos.

  1. Estudo fitoqu?mico e biol?gico de guatteria citriodora ducke

    OpenAIRE

    Rabelo, Diego de Moura

    2008-01-01

    A Guatteria citriodora Ducke ? uma esp?cie amaz?nica da fam?lia Annonaceae, conhecida popularmente como envira-amarela ou laranjinha, a qual ocorre em floresta pluvial de terra firme com distribui??o nos estados do Amazonas e Par?, bem como nas Guianas, Suriname, Bol?via, Equador, Col?mbia, Peru e Venezuela. O estudo fitoqu?mico da casca do caule dessa planta resultou no isolamento de tr?s alcal?ides oxoaporf?nicos, O-metilmoshatolina, liriodenina e oxoputerina, essas subst?ncias foram previa...

  2. Policing and Transgressing Borders: Soldiers, Slave Rebels, and the Early Modern Atlantic

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    Marjoleine Kars

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1763, a regiment of mercenary soldiers stationed on the border of Suriname and Berbice in South America, rebelled. The men had been sent to help subdue a large slave rebellion. Instead, they mutinied and joined the rebelling slaves. This paper reconstructs the mutiny from Dutch records and uses it to look at the role of soldiers as border crosser in the Atlantic world. Colonial historians have usually studied soldiers in their capacity of border enforcers, men who maintained the cultural and legal divisions that supported colonial authority. However, as I show, soldiers with great regularity crossed those same borders, threatening the very foundations of colonialism.

  3. Leucocyte esterase dip-stick test as a point-of-care diagnostic for urogenital chlamydia in male patients: A multi-center evaluation in two STI outpatient clinics in Paramaribo and Amsterdam

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    Menne Bartelsman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Point-of-care (POC tests are an important strategy to address the epidemic of sexually transmitted infections (STIs. The leucocyte esterase test (LET can be used as a POC test for chlamydia. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the LET to detect urogenital chlamydia among men at STI clinics in Paramaribo, Suriname and Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Methods Recruitment of patients took place in 2008–2010 in Suriname and in 2009–2010 in the Netherlands. Urine of patients was examined with the LET. The reference test was a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT. Results We included 412 patients in Suriname and 645 in the Netherlands. Prevalence of chlamydia in Suriname and the Netherlands was respectively 22.8 and 13.6 %. The sensitivity of the LET was 92.6 % (95 % CI = 85.3–97.0 and 77.3 % (95 % CI = 67.1–85.5 respectively, the specificity was 38.1 % (95 % CI = 32.7–43.6 % and 58.1 % (95 % CI = 53.9–62.3 respectively. The positive predictive value was 30.6 % (95 % CI = 27.3–36.4 and 22.6 % (95 % CI = 18.0–27.7 respectively and the negative predictive value was 94.5 % (95 % CI = 89.1–97.8 and 94.2 % (95 % CI = 91.1–96.4 respectively. The kappa was respectively 0.179 and 0.176. Conclusions To diagnose urogenital chlamydia in men the LET performs poorly. It has a high negative but low positive predictive value. If the LET result is negative, chlamydia is accurately excluded, yet a positive result has a low predictive value. Whether the advantages of direct management based on LET outweigh the disadvantages of overtreatment is a subject for further studies.

  4. Identification of 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (bufotenine) in takini (Brosimumacutifolium Huber subsp. acutifolium C.C. Berg, Moraceae), a shamanic potion used in the Guiana Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Christian; Gaillard, Yvan; Grenand, Pierre; Bévalot, Fabien; Prévosto, Jean-Michel

    2006-06-30

    This paper is the first thorough analysis of takini, a hallucinogen used by the shamans of several peoples in Suriname, French Guiana, and the region east of the Para in Brazil. The drug is contained in the latex of the Brosimum acutifolium tree, and until now, its psychotropic properties appeared inconsistent with the more general medicinal uses of the tree in the surrounding region. Our chemical and botanical studies reveal that the active ingredient of takini is bufotenine; and that this compound is only contained in the subspecies Brosimum acutifolium Huber subsp. acutifolium C.C. Berg that is found in the same area of the eastern Guianas.

  5. Temporal patterns and geographic heterogeneity of Zika virus (ZIKV outbreaks in French Polynesia and Central America

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    Ying-Hen Hsieh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Zika virus (ZIKV transmission has been reported in 67 countries/territories in the Oceania region and the Americas since 2015, prompting the World Health Organization (WHO to declare ZIKV as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in February 2016, due to its strong association with medical complications such as microcephaly and Guillain–Barré Syndrome (GBS. However, a substantial gap in knowledge still exists regarding differing temporal pattern and potential of transmission of ZIKV in different regions of the world. Methods We use a phenomenological model to ascertain the temporal patterns and transmission potential of ZIKV in various countries/territories, by fitting the model to Zika case data from Yap Island and French Polynesia in the Oceania region and 11 countries/territories with confirmed case data, namely, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Puerto Rico, Saint Martin, and Suriname, to pinpoint the waves of infections in each country/territory and to estimate the respective basic reproduction number R0. Results Six of these time series datasets resulted in statistically significant model fit of at least one wave of reported cases, namely that of French Polynesia, Colombia, Puerto Rico, Guatemala, Suriname and Saint Martin. However, only Colombia and Guatemala exhibited two waves of cases while the others had only one wave. Temporal patterns of the second wave in Colombia and the single wave in Suriname are very similar, with the respective turning points separated by merely a week. Moreover, the mean estimates of R0 for Colombia, Guatemala and Suriname, all land-based populations, range between 1.05 and 1.75, while the corresponding mean estimates for R0 of island populations in French Polynesia, Puerto Rico and Saint Martin are significantly lower with a range of 5.70–6.89. We also fit the Richards model to Zika case data from six main archipelagos in French

  6. Changes of the radiological image of tuberculose of bones and joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teerstra, H.J.; Taconis, W.K.

    1986-01-01

    Tuberculosis of bones and joints still occurs in the Netherlands, although with a low incidence. Most patients in this country are natives of Mediterranean countries and of Surinam. The classical radiological image appears to be changing in that multiple lesions occur more often, lesions occur in localizations rare for tuberculosis in patients of Dutch origin, very large abscesses are formed and in case of vertebral tuberculosis, extensive sclerosis develops with early osseous bridging and complete or partial preservation of disc spaces. The findings in 12 personal patients are described. (Auth.)

  7. New records of Omalonyx matheroni (Pontiez & Michaud, 1835 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Succineidae for the São Paulo and Paraná States.

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    Maria Cristina Dreher Mansur

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Omalonyx matheroni is a succineid gastropod that lives on aquatic macrophytes and on emergent vegetation in the wetlands of inner deltas, lakes and dikes. Occurrences of this species were recorded in the municipalities of Ibitinga (SP and Paranaguá (PR, broadening its distribution southwards in South America. Until now this species had been recorded in Demerara (Guiana, Zanderij and Belwaarde (Suriname, Guiana Francesa, Peru, Limoncocha (Equador, Amazonas, Pará, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais (Brazil, as well as on the islands of Guadalupe and Trinidade.

  8. Enxertia herbácea em Myrtaceae nativas do Rio Grande do Sul Herbaceans grafiting in native Myrtaceae on Rio Grande do Sul

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    Daiane Silva Lattuada

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar a viabilidade da técnica de enxertia herbácea em frutíferas nativas da família Myrtaceae. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Horticultura e Silvicultura/ UFRGS, em Porto Alegre. Duas espécies de Myrtaceae nativas foram usadas, tanto como porta-enxerto quanto como enxerto, Eugenia uniflora (Pitangueira e E. involucrata (Cerejeira-do-rio-grande ou Cerejeira-do-mato, totalizando quatro combinações. O método de enxertia adotado foi por garfagem em fenda cheia, em ramos herbáceos, com diâmetro médio do porta-enxerto de 0,1cm, enquanto os ramos dos enxertos apresentavam diâmetro médio entre 0,08 a 0,1cm, para as duas espécies. As análises foram quinzenais e, após 70 dias, foram analisadas estatisticamente a pega e a altura média das brotações emitidas. O delineamento experimental foi o completamente casualizado, com quatro repetições, sendo cada unidade experimental composta de cinco enxertos. Os resultados indicaram pega de 60% na combinação Pitangueira-Pitangueira (porta enxerto - enxerto. As demais combinações mostraram-se ineficientes.The objective of this study was to test the viability of the technique of green grafting in natives Myrtaceae. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse conditions of the Departamento de Horticultura e Silvicultura / UFRGS, in Porto Alegre. Two species of Myrtaceae were used, as well as rootstock and as graft, Eugenia uniflora (Surinam cherry and E. involucrata (Rio-grande-cherry or Cherry of the woods, totaling four combinations. The adopted grafting method consisted to cleft the graft on herbaceous branches, with an average diameter of the rootstock of 0.1 cm, while the branches of the grafts had an average diameter between 0.08 to 0.1 cm for both species. The observations were carried out every two weeks, and after 70 days were statiscally analyzed. The experimental design was completely randomized with four

  9. L’AMAZONIE BRESILIENNE, NOUVELLE INTERFACE MIGRATOIRE ENTRE LES CARAÏBES ET L’AMERIQUE DU SUD ?

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    Stéphane Granger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Haitian migrations in French Guiana, which usually transit by Suriname, yet seem to transit by the Brazilian Amazonia. This country became the entrance of an important flow of Haitian immigrants, which indeed are going to the metropolis of São Paulo, new Eldorado for wretched Caribbean populations. Now joined by other flows arriving from Africa and even Asia, these migrations are showing the new combination of the traditional organization of the world, as well as the new importance of Brazil as a regional power in the American world. Amazonia is yet becoming a new crossroad facilitating a better integration of the Americas, including by the migrations.

  10. Gene flow and genetic structure of Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera, Tephritidae) among geographical differences and sister species, B. dorsalis, inferred from microsatellite DNA data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Isasawin, Siriwan; Sojikul, Punchapat; Thanaphum, Sujinda

    2015-01-01

    The Carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, is an invasive pest in Southeast Asia. It has been introduced into areas in South America such as Suriname and Brazil. Bactrocera carambolae belongs to the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex, and seems to be separated from Bactrocera dorsalis based on morphological and multilocus phylogenetic studies. Even though the Carambola fruit fly is an important quarantine species and has an impact on international trade, knowledge of the molecular ecology of Bactrocera carambolae, concerning species status and pest management aspects, is lacking. Seven populations sampled from the known geographical areas of Bactrocera carambolae including Southeast Asia (i.e., Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand) and South America (i.e., Suriname), were genotyped using eight microsatellite DNA markers. Genetic variation, genetic structure, and genetic network among populations illustrated that the Suriname samples were genetically differentiated from Southeast Asian populations. The genetic network revealed that samples from West Sumatra (Pekanbaru, PK) and Java (Jakarta, JK) were presumably the source populations of Bactrocera carambolae in Suriname, which was congruent with human migration records between the two continents. Additionally, three populations of Bactrocera dorsalis were included to better understand the species boundary. The genetic structure between the two species was significantly separated and approximately 11% of total individuals were detected as admixed (0.100 ≤ Q ≤ 0.900). The genetic network showed connections between Bactrocera carambolae and Bactrocera dorsalis groups throughout Depok (DP), JK, and Nakhon Sri Thammarat (NT) populations. These data supported the hypothesis that the reproductive isolation between the two species may be leaky. Although the morphology and monophyly of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences in previous studies showed discrete entities, the hypothesis of semipermeable boundaries may not

  11. Best practices in intercultural health: five case studies in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignone, Javier; Bartlett, Judith; O'Neil, John; Orchard, Treena

    2007-01-01

    The practice of integrating western and traditional indigenous medicine is fast becoming an accepted and more widely used approach in health care systems throughout the world. However, debates about intercultural health approaches have raised significant concerns. This paper reports findings of five case studies on intercultural health in Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, and Suriname. It presents summary information on each case study, comparatively analyzes the initiatives following four main analytical themes, and examines the case studies against a series of the best practice criteria. PMID:17803820

  12. Insecta, Coleoptera, Elmidae, Amazon region

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    Passos, M. I. S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A list of Elmidae species from Amazon is presented. The list was prepared based on a literature surveyand examination of the entomological collection of Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA. The listincludes 102 species, with ten new occurrences recorded, being one for the Amazon (which includes areas ofBrazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Guyana, French Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela three for the Amazonas state,and six for other localities in Brazil. Reports about species bibliography contents were also included, as well asavailable species municipalities distributional data.

  13. Eradication of cervical cancer in Latin America

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    F Xavier Bosch

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer remains within the three most common cancer in women worldwide and is still the commonest female cancer in 41 of 184 countries. Within Latin America, cervical ranks as the most common cancer among women in Bolivia and Peru and the second most frequent in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, The Guyanas, Surinam and Venezuela. Due to its relatively early age at onset, it ranks among the three most frequent cancers in women aged below 45 years in 82% of all countries in the world irrespective of their screening practices.   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21149/spm.v58i2.7777

  14. Intergenerational family solidarity: value differences between immigrant groups and generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Eva-Maria; Ozeke-Kocabas, Ezgi; Oort, Frans J; Schuengel, Carlo

    2009-06-01

    Although immigrants may be more dependent on their immediate family for support, they may also experience a wider generation-gap in values regarding intergenerational solidarity, because of processes of acculturation. Based on large scale survey data (N = 2,028), differences between first and second generation immigrants in values regarding intergenerational solidarity were examined among family members in the Netherlands with an immigration background from Turkey, Morocco, Suriname, and The Dutch Antilles. Using a multilevel analytic approach, effects of family and individual characteristics on values regarding intergenerational solidarity were tested, considering the perspectives of two generations. It was found that immigrants with Moroccan and Turkish backgrounds scored higher on values with respect to intergenerational family solidarity than immigrants stemming from Suriname and The Antilles. First generation immigrants placed higher values on family solidarity compared to second generation immigrants. Additionally, religious denomination was a significant predictor of higher values with respect to intergenerational family solidarity. Immigration and acculturation may create great strains in migrant families. Policies to support the fabric of intergenerational solidarity should consider ethnic and religious background and immigration history. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Bithoracochaeta Stein: descriptions and first records from Colombia (Diptera, Muscidae, Coenosiinae

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    Marcia S. Couri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bithoracochaeta Stein is a Neotropical genus of Muscidae, Coenosiinae, known from ten species recorded from Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guyana, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Surinam, Uruguay and Venezuela. The genus is recorded for the first time from Colombia, with the occurrence of the following species: B. annulata Stein, 1911; B. calopus (Bigot, 1885; B. flavicoxa Malloch, 1934; B. leucoprocta (Wiedemann, 1830; B. maricaensis Couri & Motta, 1995 and B. varicornis (Coquilett, 1900. B. nigricoxa, spec. nov. is described from Mexico and Brazil. A brief diagnosis of the known species and a complete description of the new species are given.Bithoracochaeta Stein é um gênero Neotropical de Muscidae, Coenosiinae, com 10 espécies descritas da Argentina, Brasil, Costa Rica, Cuba, Equador, Guiana, Jamaica, México, Panamá, Paraguai, Peru, Porto Rico, Suriname, Uruguai e Venezuela. O gênero é registrado pela primeira vez na Colômbia, com a ocorrência das seguintes espécies: B. annulata Stein, 1911; B. calopus (Bigot, 1885; B. flavicoxa Malloch, 1934; B. leucoprocta (Wiedemann, 1830; B. maricaensis Couri & Motta, 1995 e B. varicornis (Coquilett, 1900. B. nigricoxa spec. nov. é descrita do México e do Brasil. Uma breve diagnose das espécies conhecidas e a descrição completa da nova espécie são apresentadas.

  16. Monitoring the response of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis to treatment with pentamidine isethionate by quantitative real-time PCR, and identification of Leishmania parasites not responding to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, D R A; Kent, A D; Hu, R V; Lai A Fat, E J; Schoone, G J; Adams, E R; Rood, E J; Alba, S; Sabajo, L O A; Lai A Fat, R F; de Vries, H J C; Schallig, H D F H

    2016-08-01

    Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis is believed to be the principal cause of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Suriname. This disease is treated with pentamidine isethionate (PI), but treatment failure has increasingly been reported. To evaluate PI for its clinical efficacy, to compare parasite load, and to assess the possibility of treatment failure due to other infecting Leishmania species. Parasite load of patients with CL was determined in skin biopsies using real-time quantitative PCR before treatment and 6 and 12 weeks after treatment. Clinical responses were evaluated at week 12 and compared with parasite load. In parallel, molecular species differentiation was performed. L. (V.) guyanensis was the main infecting species in 129 of 143 patients (about 90%). PI treatment led to a significant decrease (P Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and L. (V.) guyanensis (1/92, 1/92 and 22/92 evaluable cases, respectively). There was substantial agreement beyond chance between the parasite load at week 6 and the clinical outcome at week 12, as indicated by the κ value of 0.61. L. (V.) guyanensis is the main infecting species of CL in Suriname, followed by L. (V.) braziliensis and L. (L.) amazonensis. Furthermore, patient response to PI can be better anticipated based on the parasite load 6 weeks after the treatment rather than on parasite load before treatment. © 2015 The Authors Clinical and Experimental Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Association of Dermatologists, North American Clinical Dermatologic Society and St Johns Dermatological Society.

  17. Sphaerionini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae: novos taxons, sinonímia, chaves e nova combinação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R Martins

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available New taxa described: Neomallocera, gen. n., type-species, Mallocera opulenta Newman, 1841; Protomallocera, gen. n., type-species, Mallocera hilairei Gounelle, 1908; Championa chemsaki, sp. n. (Mexico: Chiapas; Parasphaerion, gen. n., type-species, P. granulosum, sp. n. (Suriname; Mephritus quadrimaculatus, sp. n. (Bolivia: Cochabamba. M. castaneus, sp. n. (Peru: Pasco; M. fraterculus, sp. n. (Peru: Cajamarca; Nesostizocera suturalis. sp. n. (Peru and Ecuador; Morphaneflus, gen. n., type-species, M. prolixus, sp. n. (Argentina: Salta, Jujuy; Amethysphaerion eximium, sp. n. (Ecuador; A. jocosum, sp. n. (Brazil: Espírito Santo; A. submetallicum, sp. n. (Brazil: Minas Gerais; A. guarani, sp. n. (Paraguay; Aposphaerion punctulatum, sp. n. (Brazil: Amazonas; Pilisphaerion, gen. n., type-species, P. exoticum, sp. n. (Brazil: Pará; Adiposphaerion, gen n., type-species. A. rubrum, sp. n. (Brazil: Amazonas; Minipsyrassa guanabarina, sp. n. (Brazil: Rio de Janeiro; Sphaerioeme, gen. n., type-species, S. rubristerna, sp. n. (Suriname, Brazil: Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Paraná; Apoclausirion. gen. n., type-species, A. nigricorne (Brazil: Mato Grosso. Mallocera pickeli Melzer, 1931 is considered a synonym of M. simplex White, 1853. Psyrassa trinidadensis Gilmour, 1963 is transferred to the genus Amethysphaerion. Keys to the genera related with Mallocera and to the species of Amethysphaerion are added.

  18. [Malaria in Guiana. II. The characteristics of different foci and antimalarial control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchet, J; Nadire-Galliot, M; Gay, F; Poman, J P; Lepelletier, L; Claustre, J; Bellony, S

    1989-01-01

    In French Guiana, the distribution of malaria in foci inhabited by quite different ethnic groups calls for specific studies. Along the Oyapock on the Brasilian border and along the Litani on the Surinam border, incidence among American Indians and Creoles ranges from 300 and 900 per thousand; Plasmodium falciparum accounts for 65% and P. vivax for 35%. Along the middle and lower Maroni on the Surinam border, the Boni and Ndjukas Negroes move freely through the frontier and since the civil strife Surinamese used to attend health centres of Guiana. Therefore it is difficult to find the sources of contamination and the incidence among French citizens; P. falciparum is the only parasite recorded in this focus. In 1987 a small outbreak mainly due to P. vivax, occurred in a Lao refugees village in the hinterland. The coastal foci harbour large communities of Haitian and Brazilian migrants. The vector is Anopheles darlingi and up to now there is no evidence that other species could be involved. The rise of malaria despite of control measures involves several factors: the house spraying is no more accepted by a large percentage of house holders and the alternative larviciding has only a limited efficacy; the houses of American Indians have no walls to be sprayed; there is a continuous introduction of parasites by migrants. It has been said that vectors have change their behaviour toward exophily but such a statement has not yet been supported by evidence. All these factors should be taken in account to improve malaria control.

  19. Global Incorporation and Cultural Survival: The Surinamese Maroons at the Margins of the World-System

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    Aonghas St.-Hilaire

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Maroons of Suriname enter the twenty-? rst century as the only surviving, culturally and politically autonomous Maroon communities in the Americas. The paper adopts a world-systems approach to explain the evolution of the Surinamese Maroon nations vis-à-vis the ever expanding Surinamese state and global political economy, with particular attention paid to the cultural survival of the Maroon nations. Prior to emancipation, limited colonial integration and mutual fear between the Maroons and Surinamese coastal society facilitated the development of the Maroon communities as relatively independent nations. Despite the best efforts of colonial authorities after emancipation, the weak economy and infrastructure of the Surinamese colony as well as continued mutual fear and distrust enabled the Maroons to guard their autonomy. However, after the Second World War, a period of global economic expansion, the rapid development of the Suriname as an integrated political, economic and cultural unit, and the depletion of and strain on natural resources in traditional Maroon territory dealt serious blows to Maroon autonomy. Maroon cultural survival depends on the ability of the Maroon nations to navigate the rapid changes currently affecting Maroon society, guarding political autonomy and cultivating the most treasured aspects of their cultural heritage, while participating, albeit peripherally, in modern global capitalism.

  20. Regional programme for the eradication of the Carambola fruit fly in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malavasi, Aldo; Sauers-Muller, Alies van; Midgarden, David; Kellman, Victorine; Didelot, Dominique; Caplong, Phillippe; Ribeiro, Odilson

    2000-01-01

    Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock, the Carambola fruit fly (CFF), was probably introduced into Suriname from Indonesia in the 1960s or 1970s. The most likely mechanism of introduction was people arriving at Suriname from Indonesia by air, through Amsterdam. Any other method of transport would be too lengthy. Air travel was not commonly available to the general Surinamese population before the 1960s. About one-fifth of the Surinamese population is of Indonesian origin, and many strong ties remained between the countries. These ties are loosening with the increasing number of generations after immigration, which occurred in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The first recorded Bactrocera found in Suriname was in 1975, when flies were reared from a market fruit and preserved unidentified in the Ministry of Agriculture's insect collection. Bactrocera were not recorded again until 1986, when infested fruits were brought to the attention of the Ministry by a homeowner. These specimens were sent to the United States for identification and were identified as Dacus dorsalis. B. carambolae was formally described in 1994 as a species belonging to the B. dorsalis complex (Drew and Hancock 1994). At that time, in 1986, little importance was given to the finding in the United States, perhaps because the identifier was unaware that Suriname is in South America rather than Asia. The international community would only become aware of the establishment of a Dacus/Bactrocera species in the Americas four years later. The population of flies in the Guyanas has now been identified as B. carambolae, and its establishment in South America is a threat to the production and marketing of fruits throughout the tropical and subtropical Americas and the Caribbean (Hancock 1989). It might be expected that the newly established B. carambolae would move rapidly into the tropical forests where there are many species of the native Anastrepha fruit flies and, presumably, many

  1. Spatial distribution of insecticide resistance in Caribbean populations of Aedes aegypti and its significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawlins Samuel C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available To monitor resistance to insecticides, bioassays were performed on 102 strains of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (L. from 16 countries ranging from Suriname in South America and through the chain of Caribbean Islands to the Bahamas, where the larvicide temephos and the adulticide malathion have been in use for 15 to 30 years. There was wide variation in the sensitivity to the larvicide in mosquito populations within and among countries. Mosquito strains in some countries such as Antigua, St. Lucia, and Tortola had consistently high resistance ratios (RR to temephos, ranging from 5.3 to 17.7. In another group of countries-e.g., Anguilla and Curaçao-mosquitoes had mixed levels of resistance to temephos (RR = 2.5-10.6, and in a third group of countries, including St. Kitts, Barbados, Jamaica, and Suriname, mosquitoes had consistently low levels of resistance to temephos (RR = 1- 4.6 (P < 0.05. On occasion significantly different levels of resistance were recorded from neighboring A. aegypti communities, which suggests there is little genetic exchange among populations. The impact of larval resistance expressed itself as reduced efficacy of temephos to kill mosquitoes when strains were treated in the laboratory or in the field in large container environments with recommended dosages. Although a sensitive strain continued to be completely controlled for up to 7 weeks, the most resistant strains had 24% survival after the first week. By week 6, 60% to 75% of all resistant strains of larvae were surviving the larval period. Responses to malathion in adult A. aegypti varied from a sensitive population in Suriname (RR = 1.3 to resistant strains in St. Vincent (RR = 4.4, Dominica (RR = 4.2, and Trinidad (RR = 4.0; however, resistance was generally not on the scale of that observed to temephos in the larval stages and had increased only slightly when compared to the levels that existed 3 to 4 years ago. Suggestions are made for a pesticide usage policy

  2. A systematic revision of Tatia (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae: Centromochlinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Maria Sarmento-Soares

    Full Text Available The auchenipterid catfish genus Tatia is revised. Twelve species are recognized including three described as new. Tatia is diagnosed by the hyomandibula elongated anterodorsally, the anal-fin base of adult males reduced in length, and the caudal peduncle laterally compressed and deep with a middorsal keel. Tatia aulopygia occurs in the Madeira river drainage and is distinguished by the reduced cranial fontanel in adults and male modified anal fin with middle rays reduced in length. Tatia boemia, known from the upper Uruguay river drainage, is distinguished by its unique color pattern with dark chromatophores on the sides of body. Tatia brunnea from river basins in Suriname and French Guiana and the Negro river drainage, Amazon basin, is recognized by its wide head and mouth and by the male modified anal fin with sharply pointed tip. Tatia dunni, from the upper Amazon basin, is recognized by its narrow head, long postcleithral process in some specimens, and body coloration with irregular blotches or stripes. Tatia galaxias, endemic to the Orinoco river basin, is distinguished by its large eye and short snout. Tatia gyrina, distributed in the upper and central Amazon basin and in northern Suriname, has a uniquely reduced mesethmoid, slightly protruding lower jaw, second nuchal plate with slightly concave lateral borders, third nuchal plate reduced, small prevomer, low number of ribs, low number of vertebrae and sexual dimorphism regarding intumescent male genital papilla. Tatia intermedia, recorded from central and lower Amazon basin, Tocantins river, and coastal drainages in Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, and eastern Pará State, Brazil, is distinguished by the short postcleithral process, small eye and long snout. Tatia neivai, from the upper Paraná river , Paraguay river and upper Paraíba do Sul river basin, is distinguished by its unique vertebral count and caudal-fin coloration consisting of transverse dark bars. Tatia strigata, from

  3. A new species of broad-nosed bat Platyrrhinus Saussure, 1860 (Chiroptera:   Phyllostomidae) from the Guianan Shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazco, Paúl M; Lim, Burton K

    2014-05-16

    A new species of broad-nosed bat Platyrrhinus Saussure, 1860 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: Stenodermatinae) from the Guianan Shield is described based on molecular and morphological data. Previously confused with P. helleri and P. recifinus, the new taxon is currently known from only Guyana and Suriname and is most closely related to P. recifinus from eastern Brazil and not to the two sympatric species (P. fusciventris and P. incarum) also recently recognized as distinct from P. helleri. Morphometrically the new taxon overlaps with the smaller species of the genus (P. angustirostris, P. brachycephalus, P. fusciventris, P. helleri, P. incarum, and P. matapalensis), but forms a different cluster from the larger P. recifinus. Morphologically the new taxon is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of external and craniodental characteristics. Platyrrhinus now includes 21 species making it the most speciose genus in the Neotropical family Phyllostomidae.

  4. UNE NOUVELLE ESPÈCE DE TOMETES (TELEOSTEI : CHARACIDAE : SERRASALMINAE DU BOUCLIER GUYANAIS, TOMETES LEBAILI N. SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÉGU M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Tometes lebaili n. sp. diffère de Tometes trilobatus Valenciennes, 1850, par la position de la bouche, oblique et dirigée vers le haut. T. lebaili présente 7 à 8 dents à la série labiale du dentaire contre 5 chez T. trilobatus. T. trilobatus, citée des rapides de l’Araguari (Amapá, Brésil à l’Oyapock (Guyane française, est remplacée plus à l’ouest par T. lebaili n. sp., décrite de la Mana (Guyane fr. au Commewine (Surinam et peut-être présente dans le Sinnamary. La taille maximale observée pour T. lebaili est de 512 mm LS.

  5. Solución de controversias en los tratados bilaterales de inversión: mapa de situación en América del Sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Bas Vilizzio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza las características particulares del sistema legal internacional de solución de controversias inversor-Estado, con especial foco en los tratados bilaterales de inversión (TBI en vigor en América del Sur, salvo excepciones. En este marco, aplicando la teoría de los regímenes internacionales (Krasner, 1983, se examinan las tres posiciones de los Estados de la región en torno al tema: 1 no ratificar TBI ni ser miembro del Centro Internacional de Arreglo de Diferencias relativas a Inversiones (CIADI (Brasil; 2 denunciar los TBI en vigor y abandonar el CIADI (Bolivia, Ecuador y Venezuela; 3 mantener los TBI en vigor y permanecer en los foros de solución de controversias actuales (Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Guyana, Paraguay, Perú, Surinam y Uruguay.

  6. Maps showing geology, oil and gas fields, and geological provinces of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, C. J.; Viger, R.J.; Anderson, C.P.

    1999-01-01

    This digitally compiled map includes geology, geologic provinces, and oil and gas fields of South America. The map is part of a worldwide series on CD-ROM by World Energy Project released of the U.S. Geological Survey . The goal of the project is to assess the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources of the world and report these results by the year 2000. For data management purposes the world is divided into eight energy regions corresponding approximately to the economic regions of the world as defined by the U.S. Department of State. South America (Region 6) includes Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Falkland Islands, French Guiana, Guyuna, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

  7. Treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America (Treaty of Tlatelolco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Treaty of Tlatelolco enhances the security of the countries of the region by reducing the risk of a nuclear-arms race among them, with all the danger and cost that it would entail, and, as a contribution to the world-wide nuclear non-proliferation regime, it constitutes an important confidence-building measure by ensuring, through its control and verification system, that parties to the Treaty do not posses and will not acquire nuclear weapons. List of parties to the Treaty of Tlatelolco as of 31 July 1989: Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil (not full party), Chile (not full party), Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela. (Argentina and Dominica have signed the Treaty)

  8. [Tobacco advertisement exposure and tobacco consumption among youths in South America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plamondon, Geneviève; Guindon, G Emmanuel; Paraje, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    To assesses the statistical association between exposure to tobacco marketing and tobacco consumption among adolescents in South America, by using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), the exposure to tobacco marketing at the school level was studied from advertising in TV, radio, massive public events and street advertisement. Tobacco behaviour was considered. The total pooled sample used was 134 073 youths from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Brazil, Uruguay, Suriname, Colombia, Guyana, Ecuador, Paraguay and Venezuela. The exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to the probability of youths experimenting with tobacco (at least once in their lifetime). For regular smokers, exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to smoking intensity. These results call for the implementation of strong restrictions on tobacco advertisement of various types in South American countries.

  9. Early meteorological records from Latin-America and the Caribbean during the 18th and 19th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Castro, Fernando; Vaquero, José Manuel; Gallego, María Cruz; Farrona, Ana María Marín; Antuña-Marrero, Juan Carlos; Cevallos, Erika Elizabeth; Herrera, Ricardo García; de la Guía, Cristina; Mejía, Raúl David; Naranjo, José Manuel; Del Rosario Prieto, María; Ramos Guadalupe, Luis Enrique; Seiner, Lizardo; Trigo, Ricardo Machado; Villacís, Marcos

    2017-11-14

    This paper provides early instrumental data recovered for 20 countries of Latin-America and the Caribbean (Argentina, Bahamas, Belize, Brazil, British Guiana, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, France (Martinique and Guadalupe), Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador and Suriname) during the 18th and 19th centuries. The main meteorological variables retrieved were air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and precipitation, but other variables, such as humidity, wind direction, and state of the sky were retrieved when possible. In total, more than 300,000 early instrumental data were rescued (96% with daily resolution). Especial effort was made to document all the available metadata in order to allow further post-processing. The compilation is far from being exhaustive, but the dataset will contribute to a better understanding of climate variability in the region, and to enlarging the period of overlap between instrumental data and natural/documentary proxies.

  10. Percepção química e visual de Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae em laboratório Chemical and visual perception of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia L. F. Gregorio

    2010-06-01

    females to the ethanolic extracts of the fruits of the peach tree - Prunus persica, cultivar Chimarrita (Rosaceae, Surinam cherry tree - Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae, Guabirobeira tree - Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Myrtaceae and Brazilian guava tree - Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae were considered. Also recorded was the influence of the color (yellow, green and red and the composition of the substratum of oviposition (pulps of Brazilian guava, Guabiroba, Surinam cherry and peaches in the fecundity. Electroantennographic responses of the females were distinct to the extracts of the unripe and ripe Guabiroba, ripe Brazilian guava and unripe Surinam cherry. In antennae of the males, the greatest depolarization average was registered in the responses to the extracts of ripe and unripe Guabiroba, ripe and unripe Brazilian guava and unripe Surinam cherry. Electrophysiologic responses did not differ statistically between the sexes for all the treatments. The colors of the substratum of oviposition did not affect the fecundity. The females ovipositioned more on the substratum containing pulp of peaches and of Guabiroba, when compared to the respective controls.

  11. Tobacco advertisement exposure and tobacco consumption among youths in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviéve Plamondon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assesses the statistical association between exposure to tobacco marketing and tobacco consumption among adolescents in South America, by using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Materials and methods. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS, the exposure to tobacco marketing at the school level was studied from advertising in TV, radio, massive public events and street advertisement. Tobacco behaviour was considered. The total pooled sample used was 134 073 youths from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Brazil, Uruguay, Suriname, Colombia, Guyana, Ecuador, Paraguay and Venezuela. Results. The exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to the probability of youths experimenting with tobacco (at least once in their lifetime. For regular smokers, exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to smoking intensity. Conclusions. These results call for the implementation of strong restrictions on tobacco advertisement of various types in South American countries.

  12. Early meteorological records from Latin-America and the Caribbean during the 18th and 19th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Castro, Fernando; Vaquero, José Manuel; Gallego, María Cruz; Farrona, Ana María Marín; Antuña-Marrero, Juan Carlos; Cevallos, Erika Elizabeth; Herrera, Ricardo García; de La Guía, Cristina; Mejía, Raúl David; Naranjo, José Manuel; Del Rosario Prieto, María; Ramos Guadalupe, Luis Enrique; Seiner, Lizardo; Trigo, Ricardo Machado; Villacís, Marcos

    2017-11-01

    This paper provides early instrumental data recovered for 20 countries of Latin-America and the Caribbean (Argentina, Bahamas, Belize, Brazil, British Guiana, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, France (Martinique and Guadalupe), Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador and Suriname) during the 18th and 19th centuries. The main meteorological variables retrieved were air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and precipitation, but other variables, such as humidity, wind direction, and state of the sky were retrieved when possible. In total, more than 300,000 early instrumental data were rescued (96% with daily resolution). Especial effort was made to document all the available metadata in order to allow further post-processing. The compilation is far from being exhaustive, but the dataset will contribute to a better understanding of climate variability in the region, and to enlarging the period of overlap between instrumental data and natural/documentary proxies.

  13. Challenges with minimising mercury pollution in the small-scale gold mining sector: experiences from the Guianas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilson, Gavin; Vieira, Rickford

    2007-12-01

    This paper examines the barriers to mitigating mercury pollution at small-scale gold mines in the Guianas (Guyana, French Guiana and Suriname), and prescribes recommendations for overcoming these obstacles. Whilst considerable attention has been paid to analysing the environmental impacts of operations in the region, minimal research has been undertaken to identify appropriate policy and educational initiatives for addressing the mounting mercury problem. Findings from recent fieldwork and selected interviews with operators from Guyanese and Surinamese gold mining regions reveal that legislative incapacity, the region's varied industry policy stances, various technological problems, and low environmental awareness on the part of communities are impeding efforts to facilitate improved mercury management at small-scale gold mines in the Guianas. Marked improvements can be achieved, however, if legislation, particularly that pertaining to mercury, is harmonised in the region; educational seminars continue to be held in important mining districts; and additional outlets for disseminating environmental equipment and mercury-free technologies are provided.

  14. Trends in mortality due to violent causes in the overall population and among adolescents and young people in the americas

    OpenAIRE

    Yunes, João; Rajs, Danuta

    1994-01-01

    Se analiza la tendencia de la mortalidad por causas externas y grupo de causas en 15 países, durante el período de 1979 a 1990. Se demuestra que en nueve países (Argentina, Canadá, Costa Rica, Chile, EE.UU. de Norteamérica, México, Suriname, Trinidad & Tobago y Venezuela) la tendencia de la mortalidad es descendiente en todos los grupos de edad estudiados y que en tres más, sea para la población general (Uruguay), sea para el grupo de 10 a 24 años (Panamá y Puerto Rico), se observa tambien un...

  15. Tendencia de la mortalidad por causas violentas en la población general y entre los adolescentes y jóvenes de la región de las américas

    OpenAIRE

    Yunes,João; Rajs,Danuta

    1994-01-01

    Se analiza la tendencia de la mortalidad por causas externas y grupo de causas en 15 países, durante el período de 1979 a 1990. Se demuestra que en nueve países (Argentina, Canadá, Costa Rica, Chile, EE.UU. de Norteamérica, México, Suriname, Trinidad & Tobago y Venezuela) la tendencia de la mortalidad es descendiente en todos los grupos de edad estudiados y que en tres más, sea para la población general (Uruguay), sea para el grupo de 10 a 24 años (Panamá y Puerto Rico), se observa tambie...

  16. Novos registros de Omalonyx matheroni (Pontiez & Michaud, 1835 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Succineidae para os Estados de São Paulo e Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Oliveira Arruda

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n2p187 Omalonyx matheroni é um gastrópode sucineídeo que ocorre nas macrófitas aquáticas e vegetações adjacentes de planície de inundação de rios, em lagos e açudes. Registra-se a ocorrência dessa espécie para os municípios de Ibitinga (SP e Paranaguá (PR, estendendo sua distribuição mais ao sul da América do Sul. Até o presente momento, a espécie tinha sido registrada para Demerara (Guiana, Zanderij e Belwaarde (Suriname, Guiana Francesa, Peru, Limoncocha (Equador, Amazonas, Pará, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro e Minas Gerais (Brasil, além das ilhas de Guadalupe e Trinidade.

  17. New species of Bidessonotus Régimbart, 1895 with a review of the South American species (Coleoptera, Adephaga, Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae, Bidessini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Miller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The South American species of the New World genus Bidessonotus Régimbart, 1895 are reviewed with descriptions of seven new species. This brings the total number of valid Bidessonotus species to 37, making it the largest Bidessini genus in the New World. The new species are B. annae sp. n. (Venezuela, B. josiahi sp. n. (Venezuela, B. palecephalus sp. n. (Venezuela, B. reductus sp. n. (Venezuela, B. septimus sp. n. (Venezuela, B. spinosus sp. n. (Venezuela, and B. valdezi sp. n. (Guyana, Suriname. New distribution records are provided for many other South American Bidessonotus species. The main diagnostic features of Bidessonotus species are in the male genitalia, and these are illustrated for all South American species. Diagnostic features, distributions (including distribution maps, and additional comments are provided for all South American species.

  18. First Human Cases of Leishmania (Viannia) lainsoni Infection and a Search for the Vector Sand Flies in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirotomo; Bone, Abdon E; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Hashiguchi, Kazue; Shiguango, Gonzalo F; Gonzales, Silvio V; Velez, Lenin N; Guevara, Angel G; Gomez, Eduardo A; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2016-05-01

    An epidemiological study of leishmaniasis was performed in Amazonian areas of Ecuador since little information on the prevalent Leishmania and sand fly species responsible for the transmission is available. Of 33 clinical specimens from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), causative parasites were identified in 25 samples based on cytochrome b gene analysis. As reported previously, Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis were among the causative agents identified. In addition, L. (V.) lainsoni, for which infection is reported in Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Suriname, and French Guiana, was identified in patients with CL from geographically separate areas in the Ecuadorian Amazon, corroborating the notion that L. (V.) lainsoni is widely distributed in South America. Sand flies were surveyed around the area where a patient with L. (V.) lainsoni was suspected to have been infected. However, natural infection of sand flies by L. (V.) lainsoni was not detected. Further extensive vector searches are necessary to define the transmission cycle of L. (V.) lainsoni in Ecuador.

  19. Snakebites in French Guiana: Conclusions of an international symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallel, Hatem; Hommel, Didier; Mehdaoui, Hossein; Megarbane, Bruno; Resiere, Dabor

    2018-05-01

    A workshop on epidemiology and management of snakebites in French Guiana was performed at Cayenne, French Guiana from September 15 to September 16, 2017, under the auspices of the French Regional Health Agency (ARS) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). The activity was attended by experts from France (Angers, Martinique, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Paris), Costa Rica, Brazil, Saint Lucia, and Surinam. The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, clinical grading and the management of snakebite in French Guiana were discussed. The conclusions of this symposium illustrated the urgent need to ensure accessibility of effective and safe polyvalent viperid antivenom in French Guiana. Finally, the results of this symposium have forged ties based on mutual goals and objectives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. GEOGRAPHIC BODY SIZE AND SHAPE VARIATION IN A MAINLAND Anolis (SQUAMATA: DACTYLOIDAE FROM NORTHWESTERN SOUTH AMERICA (COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lucia Calderón- Espinosa

    2014-05-01

    Anolis auratus se distribuye desde Costa Rica en Centro América, el norte de Sur América, incluyendo Colombia, Venezuela, norte de Brasil, Surinam y las Guyanas. En Colombia, su amplia distribución en distintas zonas de vida sugiere que estos lagartos ocupan distintos ambientes, y por tanto, posiblemente exhiben variación geográfica en el uso de microhabitat. Por otra parte, algunas observaciones sugieren que estos lagartos prefieren zonas abiertas, seleccionando pastizales y por tanto, una hipótesis alternativa es que usan el mismo microhabitat en toda su distribución. En Anolis, las variables corporales

  1. Checklist of helminths from lizards and amphisbaenians (Reptilia, Squamata of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RW Ávila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive and up to date summary of the literature on the helminth parasites of lizards and amphisbaenians from South America is herein presented. One-hundred eighteen lizard species from twelve countries were reported in the literature harboring a total of 155 helminth species, being none acanthocephalans, 15 cestodes, 20 trematodes and 111 nematodes. Of these, one record was from Chile and French Guiana, three from Colombia, three from Uruguay, eight from Bolivia, nine from Surinam, 13 from Paraguay, 12 from Venezuela, 27 from Ecuador, 17 from Argentina, 39 from Peru and 103 from Brazil. The present list provides host, geographical distribution (with the respective biome, when possible, site of infection and references from the parasites. A systematic parasite-host list is also provided.

  2. Systematics of the Platyrrhinus helleri species complex (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), with descriptions of two new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazco, Paúl M.; Gardner, Alfred L.; Patterson, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    Platyrrhinus is a diverse genus of small to large phyllostomid bats characterized by a comparatively narrow uropatagium thickly fringed with hair, a white dorsal stripe, comparatively large inner upper incisors that are convergent at the tips, and three upper and three lower molars. Eighteen species are currently recognized, the majority occurring in the Andes. Molecular, morphological, and morphometric analyses of specimens formerly identified as Platyrrhinus helleri support recognition of Platyrrhinus incarum as a separate species and reveal the presence of two species from western and northern South America that we describe herein as new (Platyrrhinus angustirostris sp. nov. from eastern Colombia and Ecuador, north-eastern Peru, and Venezuela and Platyrrhinus fusciventris sp. nov. from Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Trinidad and Tobago, northern Brazil, eastern Ecuador, and southern Venezuela). These two new species are sister taxa and, in turn, sister to Platyrrhinus incarum.

  3. O Brasil e o Grão Caribe: fundamentos para uma nova agenda de trabalho Brazil and the Great Caribbean basin: the making of a new agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Federico Domínguez Avila

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda as relações econômicas, políticas e de segurança internacional vigentes entre o Brasil e os 25 países da bacia do Caribe - México, América Central, Antilhas, Colômbia, Venezuela, Guiana e Suriname, além de uma dezena de territórios coloniais administrados por potências extra-regionais. Constata-se que as relações econômicas são muito intensas, especialmente em termos comerciais e de investimentos produtivos. O diálogo político entre as partes é construtivo, relevante e cada vez mais significativo. No que diz respeito às questões de segurança, vale destacar suas convergências, bem como certas divergências de natureza geopolítica derivadas do projeto brasileiro para a América do Sul. No final do artigo, propõem-se três cenários plausíveis para o futuro das relações entre Brasil e Caribe.The paper explores the economic, political and security relations between Brazil and the 25 Caribbean countries - Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean islands, Colombia, Venezuela, Guiana and Suriname, inasmuch the colonial territories. The text suggest that the economic relations are very intensive. The political dialogue is constructive. In the security field, there are some convergences and divergences derived from the brazilian=s South American project. At the end, the paper consider three reasonable scenarios for the Brazilian-Caribbean relations.

  4. Advocacy in the Western Hemisphere Region: some FPA success stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D J

    1996-01-01

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation's Vision 2000 Strategic Plan has emphasized advocacy and the training of family planning associations (FPAs) in the Western Hemisphere region. During the summer of 1995 training programs in advocacy leadership management were sponsored for six FPAs in the Bahamas, Suriname, Belize, Colombia, Honduras, and Brazil. At the Western Hemisphere Regional Council Meeting in September 1995 awards were presented to FPAs for media outstanding projects. These FPAs used outreach to the community to promote the goals of Vision 2000. The Bahamas FPA won the Rosa Cisneros Award for articles published in a magazine that is distributed in primary and secondary schools and deals with the activities, achievements, and opinions of students. Issues include: love, relationships, responsibility, and teen pregnancy. A weekly television talk show also addresses the issues facing youth including education, music, community work, sexuality, pregnancy, and the relationship between teenagers and adults. The Family Planning Association of Honduras was also nominated for the award for a radio show on the health of mothers and children, the problems of adolescents, and FP. The newspaper Tiempo received the award for feature articles on social issues and FP. In 1994 the Association distributed thousands of booklets on contraceptives as well as fliers on vasectomy, female sterilization, oral contraceptives, IUDs, condoms, responsible parenthood, high-risk pregnancy, vaginal cytology, and cervical cancer. Similar posters were placed in hospitals and health centers, in 1997 FP posts, and 400 commercial outlets. The Family Planning Association of Suriname also carried out an impressive advocacy program during the period of 1968-93 with the goals of establishing a balance between population growth and the available resources to achieve well-being with regard to education, health care, nutrition, and housing.

  5. [Incidence of cervical cancer in women in North-Holland by country of birth from 1988-1998].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, O; Busquet, E H; van Leeuwen, F E; Aaronson, N K; Ory, F G

    2003-01-11

    To describe the incidence of cervical cancer in women in North-Holland by country of birth. Descriptive epidemiological study based on data from cancer registries. The number of cases of cervical cancer in North-Holland for the period 1988-1998 was determined using data from the regional cancer registry of the Comprehensive Cancer Centre, Amsterdam. Based on data from the Netherlands Cancer Registry, a comparison was made between the observed (O) and the expected (E) number of cases by area of residence (i.e., Amsterdam versus the rest of North-Holland) and by the woman's country of birth. In the period 1988-1998, the incidence of cervical cancer among women living in North-Holland was significantly higher than that of the nation as a whole (O/E-ratio: 1.2; 95% CI: 1.1-1.2). In particular, the incidence of cervical cancer for women living in Amsterdam (O/E-ratio: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.4-1.6), and for women born in Morocco (O/E-ratio: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.4-3.1) or Surinam (O/E-ratio: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.0) was much higher. The country of birth was unknown in 10% of the women. The percentage of patients with extension of the disease outside the uterus (TNM-stages II-IV) did not differ between women born in the Netherlands and those born abroad. The incidence of cervical cancer during the period 1988-1998 was significantly higher for women living in Amsterdam and for women born in Morocco or Surinam than that for the Netherlands as a whole. No significant difference in stage of disease at diagnosis was observed between women born in the Netherlands versus those born abroad.

  6. Use of phytoproductivity data in the choice of native plant species to restore a degraded coal mining site amended with a stabilized industrial organic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiochetta, Claudete G; Toumi, Hela; Böhm, Renata F S; Engel, Fernanda; Poyer-Radetski, Gabriel; Rörig, Leonardo R; Adani, Fabrizio; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2017-11-01

    Coal mining-related activities result in a degraded landscape and sites associated with large amounts of dumped waste material. The arid soil resulting from acid mine drainage affects terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and thus, site remediation programs must be implemented to mitigate this sequential deleterious processes. A low-cost alternative material to counterbalance the affected physico-chemical-microbiological aspects of the degraded soil is the amendment with low contaminated and stabilized industrial organic sludge. The content of nutrients P and N, together with stabilized organic matter, makes this material an excellent fertilizer and soil conditioner, fostering biota colonization and succession in the degraded site. However, choice of native plant species to restore a degraded site must be guided by some minimal criteria, such as plant survival/adaptation and plant biomass productivity. Thus, in this 3-month study under environmental conditions, phytoproductivity tests with five native plant species (Surinam cherry Eugenia uniflora L., C. myrianthum-Citharexylum myrianthum, Inga-Inga spp., Brazilian peppertree Schinus terebinthifolius, and Sour cherry Prunus cerasus) were performed to assess these criteria, and additional biochemical parameters were measured in plant tissues (i.e., protein content and peroxidase activity) exposed to different soil/sludge mixture proportions. The results show that three native plants were more adequate to restore vegetation on degraded sites: Surinam cherry, C. myrianthum, and Brazilian peppertree. Thus, this study demonstrates that phytoproductivity tests associated with biochemical endpoint measurements can help in the choice of native plant species, as well as aiding in the choice of the most appropriate soil/stabilized sludge proportion in order to optimize biomass production.

  7. Molecular characterization of a human G20P[28] rotavirus a strain with multiple genes related to bat rotaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esona, Mathew D; Roy, Sunando; Rungsrisuriyachai, Kunchala; Gautam, Rashi; Hermelijn, Sandra; Rey-Benito, Gloria; Bowen, Michael D

    2018-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses are the major cause of severe gastroenteritis in the young of mammals and birds. This report describes characterization of an unusual G20P[28] rotavirus strain detected in a 24month old child from Suriname. Genomic sequence analyses revealed that the genotype constellation of the Suriname strain RVA/Human-wt/SUR/2014735512/2013/G20P[28] was G20-P[28]-I13-R13-C13-M12-A23-N13-T15-E20-H15. Genes VP1, VP2, VP3, NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4 and NSP5 were recently assigned novel genotypes by the Rotavirus Classification Working Group (RCWG). Three of the 11 gene segments (VP7, VP4, VP6) were similar to cognate gene sequences of bat-like human rotavirus strain Ecu534 from Ecuador and the VP7, NSP3 and NSP5 gene segments of strain RVA/Human-wt/SUR/2014735512/2013/G20P[28] were found to be closely related to gene sequences of bat rotavirus strain 3081/BRA detected in Brazil. Although distantly related, the VP1 gene of the study strain and bat strain BatLi09 detected in Cameroon in 2014 are monophyletic. The NSP1 gene was found to be most closely related to human strain QUI-35-F5 from Brazil. These findings suggest that strain RVA/Human-wt/SUR/2014735512/2013/G20P[28] represents a zoonotic infection from a bat host. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Sarcoma de Ewing en paciente masculino Ewing's sarcoma in a male patient

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    Eddy Millán Escalona

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El sarcoma de Ewing es un tumor óseo maligno de células redondas pequeñas. Es el segundo tumor óseo maligno más frecuente en la infancia, y se puede presentar en cualquier momento durante la niñez y comienzos de la edad adulta. El tumor puede originarse en cualquier parte del cuerpo, generalmente en los huesos largos de las extremidades, la pelvis o el tórax, al igual que en el cráneo o en los huesos planos del tronco. Se trata de un paciente masculino, mestizo, de 38 años de edad, que acude a consulta externa en el hospital de Nickerie, Suriname, por presentar aumento de volumen en la región lateral derecha del abdomen. Refiere que ha presentado pérdida de peso, decaimiento marcado y anorexia. Estos síntomas se iniciaron 3 meses antes, y se han incrementado paulatina y progresivamente. Tiene también dificultad para deambular y dolor en la pierna derecha.The Ewing's sarcoma is a malignant bone tumor of round cells. The second malignant bone tumor more frequent in childhood and may to appear in any moment during this life stage and at onset of adulthood. Tumor may to originate in any place of body, generally in limbs long bones, pelvis or thorax as well as in skull or in trunk flat bones. This case is a black male patient aged 38 seen in external consultation in the hospital of Nickerie, Surinam presenting with a volume increase in the right lateral region of abdomen. He refers a weight loss, a marked weakness and anorexia. These symptoms appeared three months before increasing in a gradual and progressively way. He has difficulty to walk and pain in the right leg.

  9. Tendencia de la mortalidad por causas violentas en la población general y entre los adolescentes y jóvenes de la región de las américas Trends in mortality due to violent causes in the overall population and among adolescents and young people in the americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Yunes

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la tendencia de la mortalidad por causas externas y grupo de causas en 15 países, durante el período de 1979 a 1990. Se demuestra que en nueve países (Argentina, Canadá, Costa Rica, Chile, EE.UU. de Norteamérica, México, Suriname, Trinidad & Tobago y Venezuela la tendencia de la mortalidad es descendiente en todos los grupos de edad estudiados y que en tres más, sea para la población general (Uruguay, sea para el grupo de 10 a 24 años (Panamá y Puerto Rico, se observa tambien una tendencia decreciente. Solo tres países (Brasil, Colombia y Cuba muestran tendencias francamente crecientes de su mortalidad en todos los grupos de edad, mientras en otros dos (Panamá y Puerto Rico, tales movimientos se aprecian en la población en general y en uno (Uruguay, afectan solo al grupo de 10 a 24 años de edad. La mortalidad por causas externas segun grupo de edad se concentra frecuentemente en el grupo de los adolescentes y jóvenes y las tendencias de la mortalidad por sexo, aunque predomine en el sexo masculino, las diferencias tienden a disminuir. Segun la magnitud de la mortalidad por causas externas se configuran tres grupos de países, de acuerdo a las tasas alcanzadas por este indicador: países de elevada mortalidad (Colombia, Cuba, Chile, México y Suriname; países de nivel intermedio (Brasil, Canadá, EE.UU. de Norteamérica, Puerto Rico y Venezuela; y países de moderada mortalidad (Argentina, Costa Rica, Panamá, Trinidad & Tobago y Uruguay. En relación a los grupos de causas externas resulta evidente que, a pesar de sus tendencias decrecientes, la mortalidad por accidentes de tráfico continúa siendo un grave problema en Brasil, Canadá, EE.UU. y Venezuela. La mortalidad por suicidio sigue siendo motivo de preocupación en Canadá, EE.UU., Suriname, Trinidad & Tobago, Argentina y Uruguay. En relación a la mortalidad por homicidio, ésta es particularmente alarmante en Brasil, Colombia, México, Panamá, Puerto Rico y

  10. Biologia experimental em Pitangueira: uma revisão de cinco décadas de publicações científicas / Experimental biology in pitangueira: a review of five decades of scientific publications

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    Durinézio José de Almeida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumoA pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora L. é uma espécie arbórea, nativa do Bioma Mata Atlântica que, recentemente, tem sido explorada pelas indústrias alimentícias, cosméticas e medicinais. Para uma espécie nativa ser explorada comercialmente, é necessário conhecimentos básicos de ecologia e genética a fim de embasar estratégias de manejo e exploração sustentável. Esta revisão traz uma compilação dos trabalhos realizados com pitangueira no período de 1960 a 2010. Os primeiros trabalhos realizados com a espécie foram focados na caracterização taxonômica, buscando descritores específicos da espécie que permitissem diferenciá-las das outras espécies do Gênero. Os estudos ecológicos elucidaram a distribuição e os mecanismos reprodutivos. A identificação de compostos ativos de interesse para saúde e cosmética e também, para a qualidade dos frutos para a indústria alimentícia, levou à exploração comercial. A fim de aperfeiçoar a produção, estudos relacionados a aspectos agronômicos tornaram-se essências, entre estes foram realizados estudos para identificação de genótipos superiores e desenvolvimento de técnicas de plantio e manejo. Os trabalhos na área de genética são recentes, da ultima década, e trazem informações de diversidade genética das populações naturais de pitangueira do Brasil. A compilação desses dados possibilitou observar que há um forte interesse econômico na espécie. No entanto, os estudos realizados até o momento, são insuficientes para o entendimento da ecologia da espécie. A exploração econômica, sem o conhecimento básico, pode comprometer o futuro da mesma. Isso poderá ser evitado com a intensificação de estudos na área de genética, ecologia e manejo sustentável de E. uniflora.AbstractThe Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora L. is an arboreal species, native to the Atlantic Forest biome, which has recently been exploited by food and cosmetic industries and to

  11. Influência do substrato, tamanho de sementes e maturação de frutos na formação de mudas de pitangueira Influence of the substrate, seed size and fruit maturation in the formation of cherry tree seedlings

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    Luis Eduardo Corrêa Antunes

    2012-12-01

    design, using four replicates with 12 seeds each (Experiment 1 and three replicates of 18 seeds each (Experiment 2. The treatments of experiment 1 were the seed size (medium and small and substrate (Plantimax®, vermiculite, coconut fiber. In the second experiment the treatments were the selections of Surinam cherry (67 and 172 and fruit ripening (partially and fully mature. The parameters were evaluated: emergency percentage, shoot length and the longest root (cm, number of leaves per plant, dry mass of root and shoot (g, brocade seeds, dormant and not emerged. The seeds of medium size were higher than little seeds in all variables. The substrate Plantimax® provided greater total dry matter than the coconut fiber, but no difference from the vermiculite. The selection 172 had a higher percentage of emergency and lower dormancy than 67. Seeds from fully ripe fruits showed higher dormancy and fewer leaves than partially ripe fruit seeds. It is concluded that the use of medium size seed and the substrate Plantimax® improve seedling development of Surinam cherry. The degree of ripeness of the fruit affects the process of seeds dormancy and initial seedling of Surinam cherry.

  12. Tendencia de la mortalidad por causas violentas en la población general y entre los adolescentes y jóvenes de la región de las américas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunes João

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la tendencia de la mortalidad por causas externas y grupo de causas en 15 países, durante el período de 1979 a 1990. Se demuestra que en nueve países (Argentina, Canadá, Costa Rica, Chile, EE.UU. de Norteamérica, México, Suriname, Trinidad & Tobago y Venezuela la tendencia de la mortalidad es descendiente en todos los grupos de edad estudiados y que en tres más, sea para la población general (Uruguay, sea para el grupo de 10 a 24 años (Panamá y Puerto Rico, se observa tambien una tendencia decreciente. Solo tres países (Brasil, Colombia y Cuba muestran tendencias francamente crecientes de su mortalidad en todos los grupos de edad, mientras en otros dos (Panamá y Puerto Rico, tales movimientos se aprecian en la población en general y en uno (Uruguay, afectan solo al grupo de 10 a 24 años de edad. La mortalidad por causas externas segun grupo de edad se concentra frecuentemente en el grupo de los adolescentes y jóvenes y las tendencias de la mortalidad por sexo, aunque predomine en el sexo masculino, las diferencias tienden a disminuir. Segun la magnitud de la mortalidad por causas externas se configuran tres grupos de países, de acuerdo a las tasas alcanzadas por este indicador: países de elevada mortalidad (Colombia, Cuba, Chile, México y Suriname; países de nivel intermedio (Brasil, Canadá, EE.UU. de Norteamérica, Puerto Rico y Venezuela; y países de moderada mortalidad (Argentina, Costa Rica, Panamá, Trinidad & Tobago y Uruguay. En relación a los grupos de causas externas resulta evidente que, a pesar de sus tendencias decrecientes, la mortalidad por accidentes de tráfico continúa siendo un grave problema en Brasil, Canadá, EE.UU. y Venezuela. La mortalidad por suicidio sigue siendo motivo de preocupación en Canadá, EE.UU., Suriname, Trinidad & Tobago, Argentina y Uruguay. En relación a la mortalidad por homicidio, ésta es particularmente alarmante en Brasil, Colombia, México, Panamá, Puerto Rico y

  13. Commercial Eldorado?

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    Rosemarijn Hoefte

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] De eerste Adam & De rots der struikeling. BOELI VAN LEEUWEN. Amsterdam: Ooievaar, 1996. 237 pp. (Paper NLG 25.00 Gedane zaken: De beste verhalen. HUGO Pos. Amsterdam: Ooievaar, 1996. 230 pp. (Paper NLG 15.00 Maar ik blijf. ASTRID H. ROEMER. Amsterdam: Ooievaar, 1996. 763 pp. (Paper NLG 25.00 De allermooiste romans van de Antillen en Suriname. Amsterdam: De Bezige Bij, 1996. 605 pp. (Paper NLG 39.90 Zingende eilanden. WIM RUTGERS (ed.. Amsterdam: De Bezige Bij, 1996. 317 pp. (Paper NLG 25.00 De eeuwige belofte van Eldorado: Verhalen over Latijns-Amerika en het Caribisch gebied. Nieuwegein: Aspekt, 1996. 188 pp. (Paper NLG 34.50 Echo van eldorado. ROSEMARIJN HOEFTE & GERT OOSTINDIE (comps. Leiden: KITLV Uitgeverij, 1996. 150 pp. (Paper NLG 15.00 Achter het eeuwig El Dorado: Fictie en realiteit in Latijnsamerikaanse literatuur. GEERT A. BANCK et al. Amsterdam: Thela, 1996. 140 pp. (Paper NLG 19.90 Eldorado: Werkelijkheid en droom. ROBERT LEMM. Amsterdam: Arbeiderspers, 1996. 160 pp. (Paper NLG 29.90 302 New West Indian Guide/Nieuwe West-Indische Gids vol. 70 rw. 3 & 4 Surinaamse recepten van A tot Z. MURIEL SAM-SIN-HEWITT. Schoorl: Conserve, 1996. 243 pp. (Paper NLG 29.95 De Bonistraat. AMBER NAHAR. Amsterdam: Piramide, 1996. 71 pp. (Cloth NLG 19.90 Beneden en boven de wind: Literatuur van de Nederlandse Antillen en Aruba. WIM RUTGERS. Amsterdam: De Bezige Bij, 1996. 468 pp. (Paper NLG 54.90 Elisabeth Samson: Een vrije, zwarte vrouw in het 18e-eeuwse Suriname. CYNTHIA MC LEOD. Schoorl: Conserve, 1996. 177 pp. (Paper NLG 29.90 De beroepsherinneraar en andere verhalen. ANIL RAMDAS. Amsterdam: De Bezige Bij, 1996. 280 pp. (Paper NLG 34.90 Geef mij maareen Surinamer. RONALD SNIJDERS. Amsterdam: Prometheus, 1996. 88 pp. (Paper NLG 19.90 De vrolijke dood van David Caprino. HENRY MENCKEBERG. Amsterdam: Meulenhoff. 291 pp. (Paper NLG 39.90 Caribische winter. ANNA BRIDIÉ. Amsterdam: Contact, 1996. 222 pp. (Cloth NLG 39

  14. Tendencia de la mortalidad por causas violentas en la población general y entre los adolescentes y jóvenes de la región de las américas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Yunes

    Full Text Available Se analiza la tendencia de la mortalidad por causas externas y grupo de causas en 15 países, durante el período de 1979 a 1990. Se demuestra que en nueve países (Argentina, Canadá, Costa Rica, Chile, EE.UU. de Norteamérica, México, Suriname, Trinidad & Tobago y Venezuela la tendencia de la mortalidad es descendiente en todos los grupos de edad estudiados y que en tres más, sea para la población general (Uruguay, sea para el grupo de 10 a 24 años (Panamá y Puerto Rico, se observa tambien una tendencia decreciente. Solo tres países (Brasil, Colombia y Cuba muestran tendencias francamente crecientes de su mortalidad en todos los grupos de edad, mientras en otros dos (Panamá y Puerto Rico, tales movimientos se aprecian en la población en general y en uno (Uruguay, afectan solo al grupo de 10 a 24 años de edad. La mortalidad por causas externas segun grupo de edad se concentra frecuentemente en el grupo de los adolescentes y jóvenes y las tendencias de la mortalidad por sexo, aunque predomine en el sexo masculino, las diferencias tienden a disminuir. Segun la magnitud de la mortalidad por causas externas se configuran tres grupos de países, de acuerdo a las tasas alcanzadas por este indicador: países de elevada mortalidad (Colombia, Cuba, Chile, México y Suriname; países de nivel intermedio (Brasil, Canadá, EE.UU. de Norteamérica, Puerto Rico y Venezuela; y países de moderada mortalidad (Argentina, Costa Rica, Panamá, Trinidad & Tobago y Uruguay. En relación a los grupos de causas externas resulta evidente que, a pesar de sus tendencias decrecientes, la mortalidad por accidentes de tráfico continúa siendo un grave problema en Brasil, Canadá, EE.UU. y Venezuela. La mortalidad por suicidio sigue siendo motivo de preocupación en Canadá, EE.UU., Suriname, Trinidad & Tobago, Argentina y Uruguay. En relación a la mortalidad por homicidio, ésta es particularmente alarmante en Brasil, Colombia, México, Panamá, Puerto Rico y

  15. Economics of Waterleaf (Talinumtriangulare Production in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

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    Anselm A. Enete

    2010-03-01

    . La main d’œuvre représente le pourcentage le plus élevé (58 % du coût total de production, ce qui indique que la production de grassé exige une main d’œuvre abondante dans la région. Le revenu net moyen par hectare et par cycle de production de grassé est de 322 413 nairas tandis que le coût total moyen est de 89 307,18 nairas. Le coût de la main d'œuvre constitue le pourcentage le plus élevé des frais directs totaux. L’indice de rentabilité (0,78, le taux de retour sur investissement (361 %, le taux de retour sur frais directs (482 % et le coefficient d’exploitation (0,21 semblent indiquer que, dans la région étudiée, la production de grassé a été rentable. Les principaux facteurs d'amélioration de la production de grassé qui ont été identifiés sont les suivants : utilisation de poulaitte, foyer plus grand (main d’œuvre bon marché, niveau d’éducation du cultivateur et niveau de capital. Ces observations soulignent la nécessité d’offrir aux cultivateurs des facilités de crédit et un programme de formation, afin de garantir d’une part qu’ils injecteront la bonne quantité de moyens (engrais, main d’œuvre et capital dans leur processus de production et d’autre part qu’ils amélioreront leur capital humain.Este estudio analizó el nivel de rentabilidad de la producción de espinaca de surinam en tres zonas agrícolas seleccionadas del Estado de Akwa Ibom, Nigeria. El estudio se basó en datos primarios obtenidos de una muestra aleatoria de 60 granjeros de espinaca de surinam y analizados utilizando la estadística descriptiva, índices de rentabilidad y análisis de regresiones. El resultado de los análisis mostró que la mayoría (90% de los granjeros tenían algún nivel de formación académica. La mano de obra obtuvo el porcentaje más alto (58% del coste total de producción, sugiriendo que la producción de espinaca de surinam era un trabajo intensivo en el área. Los ingresos netos medios por hect

  16. Use of insecticide-impregnated mosquito nets and other impregnated materials for malaria control in the Americas Uso de mosquiteros y otros materiales impregnados para el control de la malaria en las Américas

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    R. H. Zimmerman

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the current status of the use of insecticide-impregnated mosquito nets and other impregnated materials in the Americas. Studies from Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela are examined. It is concluded that most studies have suffered from experimental design errors, short duration problems, and/or inadequate measurement of health indicators. The review brings out the great difficulty of conducting scientific studies that attempt to measure the impact of insecticide-treated materials on malaria incidence. In particular, the low incidence of malaria in the Americas, the high prevalences of P. vivax and relapsing cases, and the relationship between human activity patterns and the crepuscular biting patterns of certain malaria vectors stand in the way of easy experimental design and execution. The utilization of impregnated mosquito nets or other impregnated materials as a major component of an integrated malaria control program would be premature at this time. However, it is recommended that well-conceived large-scale trials and interventions be considered when they are based on a thorough understanding of the dynamics of malaria transmission in the area of study.En este artículo se revisa el uso actual en las Américas de mosquiteros y otros materiales impregnados con insecticida. Se examinan diversos estudios efectuados en el Brasil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Perú, Suriname y Venezuela y se llega a la conclusión de que en su mayor parte estos estudios adolecen de graves deficiencias de diseño, problemas de excesiva brevedad, o de una medición inadecuada de los indicadores de salud. La revisión resalta la gran dificultad de llevar a cabo estudios que buscan medir el impacto de los materiales tratados con insecticidas sobre la incidencia de malaria. En particular, la baja incidencia de malaria en las Américas, las altas prevalencias de Plasmodium vivax y de casos recurrentes y la relaci

  17. Using features of a Creole language to reconstruct population history and cultural evolution: tracing the English origins of Sranan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriah, André C; Devonish, Hubert; Thomas, Ewart A C; Creanza, Nicole

    2018-04-05

    Creole languages are formed in conditions where speakers from distinct languages are brought together without a shared first language, typically under the domination of speakers from one of the languages and particularly in the context of the transatlantic slave trade and European colonialism. One such Creole in Suriname, Sranan, developed around the mid-seventeenth century, primarily out of contact between varieties of English from England, spoken by the dominant group, and multiple West African languages. The vast majority of the basic words in Sranan come from the language of the dominant group, English. Here, we compare linguistic features of modern-day Sranan with those of English as spoken in 313 localities across England. By way of testing proposed hypotheses for the origin of English words in Sranan, we find that 80% of the studied features of Sranan can be explained by similarity to regional dialect features at two distinct input locations within England, a cluster of locations near the port of Bristol and another cluster near Essex in eastern England. Our new hypothesis is supported by the geographical distribution of specific regional dialect features, such as post-vocalic rhoticity and word-initial 'h', and by phylogenetic analysis of these features, which shows evidence favouring input from at least two English dialects in the formation of Sranan. In addition to explicating the dialect features most prominent in the linguistic evolution of Sranan, our historical analyses also provide supporting evidence for two distinct hypotheses about the likely geographical origins of the English speakers whose language was an input to Sranan. The emergence as a likely input to Sranan of the speech forms of a cluster near Bristol is consistent with historical records, indicating that most of the indentured servants going to the Americas between 1654 and 1666 were from Bristol and nearby counties, and that of the cluster near Essex is consistent with documents

  18. Lacaziose (doença de Jorge Lobo: revisão e atualização Lacaziosis (Jorge Lobo’s disease: review and update

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    Arival Cardoso de Brito

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Lacaziose ou doença de Jorge Lobo é micose crônica, granulomatosa, causada por implantação traumática do fungo Lacazia loboi - patógeno não cultivável até o presente - nos tecidos cutâneo e subcutâneo, manifestando-se clinicamente por lesões nodulares queloidianas predominantes, envolvendo sobretudo pavilhões auriculares, face, membros superiores e inferiores, e não comprometendo as mucosas. A maioria dos casos humanos está registrada em países da América do Sul. Entretanto, a enfermidade apresenta aspectos epidemiológicos destacados, como o aparecimento em tribo Caiabi, no Brasil Central e em mamíferos não humanos, golfinhos de duas espécies (Tursiops truncatus e Sotalia guianensis capturados na costa da Flórida (EUA, na foz do rio Suriname, na costa de Santa Catarina (Brasil, no golfo de Gasconha (baía de Biscaia-Europa, com manifestações cutâneas e achados histopatológicos muito similares às encontradas no homem. O artigo objetiva abordar características do fungo e sua taxonomia, e aspectos históricos, ecoepidemiológicos, clínicos, imuno-histoquímicos, histopatológicos, ultra-estruturais e terapêuticos.Lacaziosis, also known as Jorge Lobo’s disease, lobomycosis and keloidal blastomycosis, is a chronic cutaneous and subcutaneous fungal granulomatous disease, caused by Lacazia loboi - an uncultivated fungal pathogen - characterized by the development of nodular keloidal lesions, particularly on the pinnae, face, upper and lower limbs, and with no involvement of mucous membranes. Most cases in humans were reported in South America, including the Caiabi Indians, in Central Brazil. The disease was described in non-human mammals, such as two species of dolphins (Tursiops truncatus and Sotalia guianensis inhabiting the coasts of Florida (USA, South America (Suriname River estuary, Santa Catarina-Brazil coast and Gulf of Gascony (Biscaya Bay, in Europe. The histopathological findings in dolphins were very similar

  19. Phanerozoic burial, uplift and denudation of the Equatorial Atlantic margin of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japsen, Peter; Bonow, Johan M.; Green, Paul F.; dall'Asta, Massimo; Roig, Jean-Yves; Theveniaut, Hervé

    2017-04-01

    We have initiated a study aimed at understanding the history of burial, uplift and denudation of the South American Equatorial Atlantic Margin (SAEAM Uplift) including the Guiana Shield to provide a framework for investigating the hydrocarbon prospectivity of the offshore region. We report first results including observations from fieldwork at the northern and southern flank of the Guiana Shield. The study combines apatite fission-track analysis (AFTA) and vitrinite reflectance data from samples of outcrops and drillcores, sonic velocity data from drill holes and stratigraphic landscape analysis (mapping of peneplains) - all constrained by geological evidence, following the methods of Green et al. (2013). The study will thus combine the thermal history from AFTA data with the denudation history from stratigraphic landscape analysis to provide magnitudes and timing of vertical movements (Japsen et al. 2012, 2016). Along the Atlantic margin of Suriname and French Guiana, tilted and truncated Lower Cretaceous strata rest on Precambrian basement (Sapin et al. 2016). Our AFTA data show that the basement underwent Mesozoic exhumation prior to deposition of the Lower Cretaceous cover. Sub-horizontal peneplains define the landscape of the Guiana Shield at elevations up to 500 m a.s.l. As these sub-horizontal peneplains truncate the tilted, sub-Cretaceous surface along the Atlantic margin, these peneplains were therefore formed and uplifted in post-Cretaceous time. This interpretation is in good agreement with our AFTA data that define Paleogene exhumation along the margin and with the results of Theveniaut and Freyssinet (2002) who used palaeomagnetic data to conclude that bauxitic surfaces across basement at up to 400 m a.s.l. on the Guiana Shield formed during the Palaeogene. Integration of the results from AFTA with stratigraphic landscape analysis (currently in progress) and geological evidence will provide a robust reconstruction of the tectonic development of the

  20. Zika threatens to become a huge worldwide pandemic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alcides Troncoso

    2016-01-01

    The Aedes aegypti mosquito which transmits Zika virus (as well as dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever) represents a high risk for global transmission. This virus comes from Africa, the Zika forest in Uganda, where it was discovered in 1947 in a rhesus monkey. In May 2015, the first local cases were recorded in Brazil, surpassing 1.5 million cases in December of the same year. By March 2016, local transmission of Zika was recognized in 34 countries. Its clinical condition is similar to dengue febrile illness, although milder. The final geographical distribution area is constantly expanding. Recently, it has been associated with cases of Guillain-Barr ´e syndrome in Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, Venezuela and Suriname. Microcephaly was documented in Brazil. This article discusses some factors that contributed to the spread of Zika virus in South America. Climate change associated with the events of the phenomenon of“El Niño”is also analyzed. The biggest concern is how quickly Zika is spreading around the world and that it could be far more dangerous than previously thought. Zika virus infection, by its explosive potential, has every chance of becoming a global pandemic.

  1. Zika threatens to become a huge worldwide pandemic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alcides Troncoso

    2016-01-01

    The Aedes aegypti mosquito which transmits Zika virus(as well as dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever) represents a high risk for global transmission. This virus comes from Africa, the Zika forest in Uganda, where it was discovered in 1947 in a rhesus monkey. In May 2015, the first local cases were recorded in Brazil, surpassing 1.5 million cases in December of the same year. By March 2016, local transmission of Zika was recognized in 34 countries. Its clinical condition is similar to dengue febrile illness, although milder.The final geographical distribution area is constantly expanding. Recently, it has been associated with cases of Guillain-Barre′ syndrome in Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador,Venezuela and Suriname. Microcephaly was documented in Brazil. This article discusses some factors that contributed to the spread of Zika virus in South America. Climate change associated with the events of the phenomenon of "El Ni?o" is also analyzed. The biggest concern is how quickly Zika is spreading around the world and that it could be far more dangerous than previously thought. Zika virus infection, by its explosive potential,has every chance of becoming a global pandemic.

  2. A new species of Neosilba (Diptera, Lonchaeidae from Brazil Uma nova espécie de Neosilba (Diptera, Lonchaeidae do Brasil

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    Pedro C. Strikis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Neosilba McAlpine, 1962, N. pradoi sp. nov., is described and illustrated. This new species was found in the south of Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, in the southeast (State of São Paulo and center west (State of Mato Grosso do Sul. It has been reared from fruits of guava (Psidium guajava, Myrtaceae, "araçá" (Psidium cattleyanum, Myrtaceae, "guabiroba" (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Myrtaceae, Surinam cherry (Malpighia emarginata, Malpighiaceae, cherry (Prunus avium, Rosaceae, orange (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae, "ingá" (Inga laurina, Fabaceae, "esporão-de-galo" (Celtis iguanae, Ulmaceae and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, Passifloraceae.Uma nova espécie de Neosilba McAlpine, 1962, N. pradoi sp. nov., é descrita e ilustrada. Esta nova espécie foi encontrada no sul do Brasil (Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina, no sudeste (Estado de São Paulo e na região centro-oeste (Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul. Foi obtida de frutos de goiaba (Psidium guajava, Myrtaceae, araçá (Psidium cattleyanum, Myrtaceae, guabiroba (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Myrtaceae, acerola (Malpighia emarginata, Malpighiaceae, cereja (Prunus avium, Rosaceae, laranja (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae, ingá (Inga laurina, Fabaceae, esporão-de-galo (Celtis iguanae, Ulmaceae e maracujá (Passiflora edulis, Passifloraceae.

  3. Analysis of antidiarrhoeic effect of plants used in popular medicine

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    Cybele E. Almeida

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available People customarily use the extracts of plants known to have antidiarrhoeal effects without any scientific base to explain the action of the extract. For this reason, an investigation was undertaken with a view to determining the efficacy of the effects of the brute aqueous extract (BAE of the leaves of Psidium guajava (guava, Stachytarpheta cayenensis (bastard vervain, Polygonum punctatum (water. smartweed, Eugenia uniflora (Brazil or Surinam cherry and Aster squamatus (zé-da-silva on the intestinal transport of water in rats and on the gastrointestinal propulsion in mice. With the exception of the BAE of S. cayenensis, all other BAE's have increased the absorption of water in one or more intestinal portion in relation to the control group. All tested BAE, except that of P. punctatum, reduced the gastrointestinal propulsion in relation to that of the control group. The results indicate that the BAE of the leaves of P. guajava, S. cayenensis, P. punctatum, E. uniflora and A. squamatus have a potential antidiarrhoeic effect to be confirmed by additional investigations in animals infected with enteropathogenic agents.

  4. Analysis of antidiarrhoeic effect of plants used in popular medicine

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    Almeida Cybele E.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available People customarily use the extracts of plants known to have antidiarrhoeal effects without any scientific base to explain the action of the extract. For this reason, an investigation was undertaken with a view to determining the efficacy of the effects of the brute aqueous extract (BAE of the leaves of Psidium guajava (guava, Stachytarpheta cayenensis (bastard vervain, Polygonum punctatum (water. smartweed, Eugenia uniflora (Brazil or Surinam cherry and Aster squamatus (zé-da-silva on the intestinal transport of water in rats and on the gastrointestinal propulsion in mice. With the exception of the BAE of S. cayenensis, all other BAE's have increased the absorption of water in one or more intestinal portion in relation to the control group. All tested BAE, except that of P. punctatum, reduced the gastrointestinal propulsion in relation to that of the control group. The results indicate that the BAE of the leaves of P. guajava, S. cayenensis, P. punctatum, E. uniflora and A. squamatus have a potential antidiarrhoeic effect to be confirmed by additional investigations in animals infected with enteropathogenic agents.

  5. Do Humans Really Prefer Semi-open Natural Landscapes? A Cross-Cultural Reappraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägerhäll, Caroline M.; Ode Sang, Åsa; Englund, Jan-Eric; Ahlner, Felix; Rybka, Konrad; Huber, Juliette; Burenhult, Niclas

    2018-01-01

    There is an assumption in current landscape preference theory of universal consensus in human preferences for moderate to high openness in a natural landscape. This premise is largely based on empirical studies of urban Western populations. Here we examine for the first time landscape preference across a number of geographically, ecologically and culturally diverse indigenous populations. Included in the study were two urban Western samples of university students (from southern Sweden) and five non-Western, indigenous and primarily rural communities: Jahai (Malay Peninsula), Lokono (Suriname), Makalero (Timor), Makasae (Timor), and Wayuu (Colombia). Preference judgements were obtained using pairwise forced choice assessments of digital visualizations of a natural landscape varied systematically on three different levels of topography and vegetation density. The results show differences between the Western and non-Western samples, with interaction effects between topography and vegetation being present for the two Swedish student samples but not for the other five samples. The theoretical claim of human preferences for half-open landscapes was only significantly confirmed for the student sample comprising landscape architects. The five non Western indigenous groups all preferred the highest level of vegetation density. Results show there are internal similarities between the two Western samples on the one hand, and between the five non-Western samples on the other. To some extent this supports the idea of consensus in preference, not universally but within those categories respectively.

  6. Does epigenetic polymorphism contribute to phenotypic variances in Jatropha curcas L.?

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    Bui Ha TN

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing interest in Jatropha curcas L. (jatropha as a biodiesel feedstock plant. Variations in its morphology and seed productivity have been well documented. However, there is the lack of systematic comparative evaluation of distinct collections under same climate and agronomic practices. With the several reports on low genetic diversity in jatropha collections, there is uncertainty on genetic contribution to jatropha morphology. Result In this study, five populations of jatropha plants collected from China (CN, Indonesia (MD, Suriname (SU, Tanzania (AF and India (TN were planted in one farm under the same agronomic practices. Their agronomic traits (branching pattern, height, diameter of canopy, time to first flowering, dormancy, accumulated seed yield and oil content were observed and tracked for two years. Significant variations were found for all the agronomic traits studied. Genetic diversity and epigenetic diversity were evaluated using florescence Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (fAFLP and methylation sensitive florescence AFLP (MfAFLP methods. Very low level of genetic diversity was detected (polymorphic band Conclusion Our study confirmed climate and practice independent differences in agronomic performance among jatropha collections. Such agronomic trait variations, however, were matched by very low genetic diversity and medium level but significant epigenetic diversity. Significant difference in inner cytosine and double cytosine methylation at CCGG sites was also found among populations. Most epigenetic differential markers can be inherited as epialleles following Mendelian segregation. These results suggest possible involvement of epigenetics in jatropha development.

  7. ‘British Capital, Industry and Perseverance’ versus Dutch ‘Old School’?: The Dutch Atlantic and the Takeover of Berbice, Demerara and Essequibo, 1750-1815

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    Gert Oostindie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent historiography has reconsidered the idea that the Dutch role in the early modern Atlantic was of little significance, particularly in comparison to the accomplishments of the Dutch East India Company (voc in Asia. Revisionist studies have emphasised that in spite of the limited and fragmented nature of the Dutch Atlantic ‘empire’, the Atlantic contribution to the Dutch economy was significant and possibly even greater than the voc’s share. Moreover, this scholarship stresses the vital role of Dutch Atlantic colonies (Curaçao and St Eustatius, (partly Jewish networks and individuals in connecting the various subempires of the Atlantic. While Oostindie subscribes to many of these conclusions, he argues against excessive revisionism. His analysis of the development of the lesser Dutch Guianas, adjacent to Suriname, is used as a counter-weight to this revisionist impulse. He demonstrates that the spectacular economic and demographic development of these colonies was due mainly to British and (British American involvement culminating in the eventual British takeover of ‘Guiana’.

  8. A Simple PCR Method for Rapid Genotype Analysis of Mycobacterium ulcerans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinear, Timothy; Davies, John K.; Jenkin, Grant A.; Portaels, Françoise; Ross, Bruce C.; OppEdIsano, Frances; Purcell, Maria; Hayman, John A.; Johnson, Paul D. R.

    2000-01-01

    Two high-copy-number insertion sequences, IS2404 and IS2606, were recently identified in Mycobacterium ulcerans and were shown by Southern hybridization to possess restriction fragment length polymorphism between strains from different geographic origins. We have designed a simple genotyping method that captures these differences by PCR amplification of the region between adjacent copies of IS2404 and IS2606. We have called this system 2426 PCR. The method is rapid, reproducible, sensitive, and specific for M. ulcerans, and it has confirmed previous studies suggesting a clonal population structure of M. ulcerans within a geographic region. M. ulcerans isolates from Australia, Papua New Guinea, Malaysia, Surinam, Mexico, Japan, China, and several countries in Africa were easily differentiated based on an array of 4 to 14 PCR products ranging in size from 200 to 900 bp. Numerical analysis of the banding patterns suggested a close evolutionary link between M. ulcerans isolates from Africa and southeast Asia. The application of 2426 PCR to total DNA, extracted directly from M. ulcerans-infected tissue specimens without culture, demonstrated the sensitivity and specificity of this method and confirmed for the first time that both animal and human isolates from areas of endemicity in southeast Australia have the same genotype. PMID:10747130

  9. G6PD deficiency in Latin America: systematic review on prevalence and variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Wuelton M; Val, Fernando FA; Siqueira, André M; Franca, Gabriel P; Sampaio, Vanderson S; Melo, Gisely C; Almeida, Anne CG; Brito, Marcelo AM; Peixoto, Henry M; Fuller, Douglas; Bassat, Quique; Romero, Gustavo AS; Maria Regina F, Oliveira; Marcus Vinícius G, Lacerda

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax radical cure requires the use of primaquine (PQ), a drug that induces haemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient (G6PDd) individuals, which further hampers malaria control efforts. The aim of this work was to study the G6PDd prevalence and variants in Latin America (LA) and the Caribbean region. A systematic search of the published literature was undertaken in August 2013. Bibliographies of manuscripts were also searched and additional references were identified. Low prevalence rates of G6PDd were documented in Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay, but studies from Curaçao, Ecuador, Jamaica, Saint Lucia, Suriname and Trinidad, as well as some surveys carried out in areas of Brazil, Colombia and Cuba, have shown a high prevalence (> 10%) of G6PDd. The G6PD A-202A mutation was the variant most broadly distributed across LA and was identified in 81.1% of the deficient individuals surveyed. G6PDd is a frequent phenomenon in LA, although certain Amerindian populations may not be affected, suggesting that PQ could be safely used in these specific populations. Population-wide use of PQ as part of malaria elimination strategies in LA cannot be supported unless a rapid, accurate and field-deployable G6PDd diagnostic test is made available. PMID:25141282

  10. Notas sobre palmas colombianas y una del Brasil

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    Dugand Armando

    1941-11-01

    Full Text Available Por mucho tiempo se ha creído que la palma de moriche de los Llanos orientales, en la región del Meta, era la Mauritia flexuosa L. f., especie típica del genero y originaria de Surinam. Al menos todas las obras botánicas publicadas por autores colombianos sobre la flora de nuestro país coinciden en la identificación anotada, incluso mi reciente trabajo sobre las Palmas de Colombia (Caldasia: 1: 22 y 32. 1940. Sin embargo, en este último trabajo, -que no es más que una nómina preliminar de las palmas descritas o señaladas en Colombia mientras adelanto su estudio sistemático en detalle, -identifiqué como Mauritia minor Burret unos frutos procedentes del Meta y sólo incluía la M. flexuosa ateniéndome a los autores que había consultado, suponiendo que ellos estarían en lo cierto respecto a la existencia de esta especie en Colombia, ya que no contaba yo con material autentico colombiano de la misma. Creía pues que realmente existieran ambas especies, M. flexuosa L.f.. y M. minor Burret, en nuestros Llanos, pero circunstancias recientes han venido a rectificar mi criterio.

  11. Financing of health care in four Caribbean territories: a comparison with reforms in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, F; Lapré, R; Antonius, R; Dokoui, S; Haqq, E; Roberts, R; Mills, A

    2002-10-01

    This paper considers health care finance in four Caribbean territories and plans for reform in comparison with developments in European countries, to which these territories are historically linked. European health care reforms are aimed at making resource allocation in health care more efficient and more responsive to consumers' demands and preferences. These reforms in Europe have been continuing without appearing to have influenced the developments in the Caribbean very much, except in Martinique. In Trinidad and Tobago current reform entails delegation of responsibility for providing services to four regional health authorities and no purchaser/provider split at the regional or facility level as in the UK has been implemented. In the Bahamas, managed care arrangements are likely to emerge given the proximity of the United States. Recent universal coverage reform in Martinique was aimed at harmonisation of finance by bringing social security and social aid functions together under one management structure and may provide more opportunities for contracting and other initiatives towards greater efficiency. The first priority in Suriname is to restore proper functioning of the current system. Reforms in the four Caribbean territories have a largely administrative character and affect the organisation of the third party role in health care rather than fundamentally changing the relationship between this third party and the various other parties in health care.

  12. Green turtle (Chelonia mydas genetic diversity at Paranaguá Estuarine Complex feeding grounds in Brazil

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    Juliana Costa Jordão

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea turtles are marine reptiles that undertake long migrations through their life, with limited information regarding juvenile stages. Feeding grounds (FGs, where they spend most of their lives, are composed by individuals from different natal origins, known as mixed stock populations. The aim of this study was to assess genetic composition, natal origins and demographic history of juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas at the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC, Brazil, considered a Natural World Heritage site. Tissue samples of stranded animals were collected (n = 60, and 700 bp mitochondrial DNA sequences were generated and compared to shorter sequences from previously published studies. Global exact tests of differentiation revealed significant differences among PEC and the other FGs, except those at the South Atlantic Ocean. Green turtles at PEC present genetic signatures similar to those of nesting females from Ascension Island, Guinea Bissau and Aves Island/Surinam. Population expansion was evidenced to have occurred 20–25 kYA, reinforcing the hypothesis of recovery from Southern Atlantic refugia after the last Glacial Maximum. These results contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics of green turtle populations at a protected area by providing knowledge on the dispersion patterns and reinforcing the importance of the interconnectivity between nesting and foraging populations.

  13. Zircon U-Pb ages of Guyana greenstone-gneiss terrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, A.K. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA)); Olszewski, W.J. Jr. (New Hampshire Univ., Durham (USA))

    1982-04-01

    Isotopic U-Pb studies of zircons collected from weathered metagreywackes of the Barama-Mazaruni Supergroup of northern Guyana, South America, demonstrate an age of origin of ca. 2250 Ma. This is the best estimate for the age of the associated metavolcanic rocks. Zircons from weathered gneiss of the Bartica complex, adjacent to the volcanic-sedimentary belts, yield a similar age. The contiguous greenstone-gneiss terrane of eastern Venezuela is also of similar age and comparable greenstone-gneiss terranes of eastern Suriname and French Guiana are probably also of this age. Continental crust formation of a style closely comparable to that of the Canadian Archean occurred on a very widespread scale in the Lower Proterozoic of the Guiana shield. The lead losses from the weathered zircons are comparable to those from zircons from fresh rock from the adjacent terrane of Venezuela, and the advantages of field concentration from numerous saprolite exposures warrant use of such material in future geochronological studies of the region.

  14. Control of foot and mouth disease: the experience of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa Melo, E; López, A

    2002-12-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) was first recognised in South America in 1870, almost simultaneously in the province of Buenos Aires (Argentina), in the central region of Chile, in Uruguay, in southern Brazil and coincidentally, on the northeastern coast of the United States of America. The epidemiology of the disease was unknown and no government action was taken following the initial outbreaks. This resulted in the disease spreading to other areas of Chile, as well as to Peru, Bolivia and Paraguay, reaching Venezuela and Colombia in the 1950s, and Ecuador in 1961. The entire continent was affected in the 1960s when national FMD control programmes were initiated, with the exception of Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana and Patagonia. In the 1970s, steps were taken to implement a regional control and eradication strategy in view of the impact of production and trade on the persistence of the virus. The Plan Hemisférico de Erradicación de la Fiebre Aftosa (PHEFA: Hemispheric FMD Eradication Plan), public- and private-sector policies, new diagnostic tools, the oil-adjuvanted FMD vaccine and regional strategies played a part in improving the epidemiological situation during the 1990s. A setback was encountered in 2000 and 2001, with outbreaks due to virus types A and 0 recorded in Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil.

  15. Transfer of trace elements in the Amazon basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraz, E.S.B.; Tuon, R.L.; Fernandes, E.A.N.

    1991-01-01

    The Amazon basin is the world's largest system both in terms of drainage area, 7x10 6 km 2 , and sediment discharge, about 1.3x10 9 tons of solid suspended material each year. It is located at northern South America in the equatorial zone, extending through nine countries, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Surinam, French Guyana, and Brazil, where is the majority (70%) of the total area. The Amazon basin is geologically limited in the west by the Andes Cordillera, in the south by the Brazilian altiplain, in the north by the Guyana mountains and in the east by the Atlantic Ocean. It is the most fabulous natural ecosystem of the world, remaining in a perfect state of equilibrium, not yet deeply studied. The development of mathematic models describing its dynamics is very important for its comprehension and preservation. Trace elements, in special the rare earth elements, can be useful to elaborate such models. Several processes in rivers and estuaries have been investigated through the use of REEs as tracers, addressing the riverine input of elements to the oceans from continents. Trace elements were also used to elaborate a model for chemical exchange from the water to the sediments and the subsequent release from the sediments into the water. (5 refs., 6 figs.)

  16. Disease concepts and treatment by tribal healers of an Amazonian forest culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Christopher N; Uiterloo, Melvin; Uremaru, Amasina; Plotkin, Mark J; Emanuels-Smith, Gwendolyn; Jitan, Jeetendra

    2009-10-12

    The extensive medicinal plant knowledge of Amazonian tribal peoples is widely recognized in the scientific literature and celebrated in popular lore. Despite this broad interest, the ethnomedical systems and knowledge of disease which guide indigenous utilization of botanical diversity for healing remain poorly characterized and understood. No study, to our knowledge, has attempted to directly examine patterns of actual disease recognition and treatment by healers of an Amazonian indigenous culture. The establishment of traditional medicine clinics, operated and directed by elder tribal shamans in two remote Trio villages of the Suriname rainforest, presented a unique investigational opportunity. Quantitative analysis of clinic records from both villages permitted examination of diseases treated over a continuous period of four years. Cross-cultural comparative translations were articulated of recorded disease conditions through ethnographic interviews of elder Trio shamans and a comprehensive atlas of indigenous anatomical nomenclature was developed. 20,337 patient visits within the period 2000 to 2004 were analyzed. 75 disease conditions and 127 anatomical terms are presented. Trio concepts of disease and medical practices are broadly examined within the present and historical state of their culture. The findings of this investigation support the presence of a comprehensive and highly formalized ethnomedical institution within Trio culture with attendant health policy and conservation implications.

  17. DINHEIRO, TECIDOS, RUM E A ESTÉTICA DO ECLIPSAMENTO EM SAAMAKA

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    Rogério Brittes W. Pires

    Full Text Available Resumo O artigo trata dos businenge (maroons, quilombolas saamaka do Alto Suriname. Parto de um tema clássico da antropologia - a separação nem sempre clara entre dádivas e mercadorias - e um aspecto particular da vida econômica nesta localidade - a rejeição do uso de dinheiro em determinadas esferas de circulação de objetos, serviços e palavras - como problemas. A ideia é compreender os motivos pelos quais, mesmo num contexto econômico crescentemente monetizado e integrado à economia capitalista global, há certos tipos de trocas nas quais o papel-moeda não deve circular de forma explícita, e nas quais fazem o papel de “moeda” objetos cuja fabricação é estrangeira. Busco compreender como é traçada, em Saamaka, a exterioridade e a interioridade, e de que forma o dinheiro é marcado como externa, enquanto certas “dádivas”, como rum e tecido, são feitas internas.

  18. Cryptic, Sympatric Diversity in Tegu Lizards of the Tupinambis teguixin Group (Squamata, Sauria, Teiidae and the Description of Three New Species.

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    John C Murphy

    Full Text Available Tegus of the genera Tupinambis and Salvator are the largest Neotropical lizards and the most exploited clade of Neotropical reptiles. For three decades more than 34 million tegu skins were in trade, about 1.02 million per year. The genus Tupinambis is distributed in South America east of the Andes, and currently contains four recognized species, three of which are found only in Brazil. However, the type species of the genus, T. teguixin, is known from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guyana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela (including the Isla de Margarita. Here we present molecular and morphological evidence that this species is genetically divergent across its range and identify four distinct clades some of which are sympatric. The occurrence of cryptic sympatric species undoubtedly exacerbated the nomenclatural problems of the past. We discuss the species supported by molecular and morphological evidence and increase the number of species in the genus Tupinambis to seven. The four members of the T. teguixin group continue to be confused with Salvator merianae, despite having a distinctly different morphology and reproductive mode. All members of the genus Tupinambis are CITES Appendix II. Yet, they continue to be heavily exploited, under studied, and confused in the minds of the public, conservationists, and scientists.

  19. Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus types I and II (HTLV-I/II in French Guiana: clinical and molecular epidemiology

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    Kazanji Mirdad

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We review here the epidemiological studies performed by our group on human retrovirus HTLV-I and HTLV-II infections and the associated diseases in French Guiana since 1984. French Guiana is an overseas French administrative district located between Brazil and Surinam. Its population is characterized by a large variety of ethnic groups, including several populations of African origin and various populations of Amerindian origin. Several epidemiological studies of large samples of pregnant women and in remote villages showed that HTLV-I is highly endemic in this area but is restricted to groups of African origin, especially the Noir-Marrons. In this endemic population, the results of segregation analysis in a genetic epidemiological study were consistent with the presence of a dominant major gene predisposing to HTLV-I infection, especially in children. In contrast, HTLV-II infection appears to be rare in French Guiana, having been found in only a few individuals of Brazilian origin. From a molecular point of view, the HTLV-I strains present in the Noir-Marrons, Creoles and Amerindians appear to originate from Africa, as they belong to the large cosmopolitan molecular subtype A.

  20. The Concepts and Activities of Integration within the Caribbean Basin: Is there an Agenda for the 21st Century

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    Gordon Anthony Layne

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Participation in regional integration projects is a feasible way for developing countries to simultaneously survive social, political, and economic challenges, and handle internal, regional and global dynamics. This grandiose venture has increasingly been the topic of scholarly discourse. After having briefly observed the countries in the British West Indies and their quest to establish a Single Market (SM, Charlatans and students of international political economy may question the viability of the initial project. Occasionally, even integrationists do question the validity of this enterprise among underdeveloped countries. There was good reason for scepticism in the inception. Apart from Guyana and Suriname located on the South American continent and Belize in Central America, all the other territories are 'insular'. Considering the state of affairs in logistics in the 1960s, one would not have necessarily expected many successful moves towards regional integration among developing countries that possessed this 'characteristic feature'; mainly due to them not having any outstanding comparative advantages, unavoidable high costs to set up transport facilities along with high freight rates, and the anticipated intra-regional competition for foreign investment and trade that frequently undermines such endeavours. A similar degree of scepticism may prevail, when one considers the numerous hindrances that have plagued this grouping over the last four decades.

  1. Population-based study on the seroprevalence of hepatitis A, B, and C virus infection in Amsterdam, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaten, G G G; Sonder, G J B; Dukers, N H T M; Coutinho, R A; Van den Hoek, J A R

    2007-12-01

    In order to enhance screening and preventive strategies, this study investigated the seroprevalence of hepatitis A, B, and C in the general adult urban population and in subgroups. In 2004, sera from 1,364 adult residents of Amsterdam were tested for viral markers. Sociodemographic characteristics were collected using a standardized questionnaire. For hepatitis A, 57.0% was immune. Of first-generation immigrants from Turkey and Morocco, 100% was immune. Of all Western persons and second-generation non-Western immigrants, approximately half was still susceptible. For hepatitis B, 9.9% had antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and 0.4% had hepatitis B surface antigen. Anti-HBc seroprevalences were highest among first-generation immigrants from Surinam, Morocco, and Turkey, and correlated with age at the time of immigration, and among men with a sexual preference for men. Seroprevalence among second-generation immigrants was comparable to Western persons. The seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies was 0.6%. In conclusion, a country with overall low endemicity for viral hepatitis can show higher endemicity in urban regions, indicating the need for differentiated regional studies and prevention strategies. More prevention efforts in cities like Amsterdam are warranted, particularly for hepatitis A and B among second-generation immigrants, for hepatitis B among men with a sexual preference for men, and for hepatitis C. Active case finding strategies are needed for both hepatitis B and C. (c) Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. The United Mexican States: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R; Aguirre, E J

    1988-09-01

    Although the popular North American opinion of Mexico is one that paints a picture of a poor, disadvantaged country, South America sees Mexico has a richer more prosperous nation. It is observed that only in the Latin American countries of Venezuela, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago do consumers have higher incomes than Mexican consumers. Moreover, while millions of Mexicans migrate to the United States to seek a better standard of living, several thousand Central American refugees illegally migrate to Mexico in search of a better life. This better life includes an increased age of lie expectancy from 51 years in the 1950s to 64 years in the late 1970s. There have also been improvements in health care and school enrollments and in the low cost availability of education. Tourism and the prospect of the manufacturing of energy are significant, positive factors working in favor of an improved Mexican economy and a higher overall quality of life. However, Mexico faces serious problems such as a mounting foreign debt. Also rising is Mexico's population which has doubled since 1964 and which continues to grow at a rate of 1.9%. Economic programs and reforms and family development planning have been instituted in response to the countries' current recession and population growth and have begun to show positive results.

  3. Zika threatens to become a huge worldwide pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Troncoso

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Aedes aegypti mosquito which transmits Zika virus (as well as dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever represents a high risk for global transmission. This virus comes from Africa, the Zika forest in Uganda, where it was discovered in 1947 in a rhesus monkey. In May 2015, the first local cases were recorded in Brazil, surpassing 1.5 million cases in December of the same year. By March 2016, local transmission of Zika was recognized in 34 countries. Its clinical condition is similar to dengue febrile illness, although milder. The final geographical distribution area is constantly expanding. Recently, it has been associated with cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome in Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, Venezuela and Suriname. Microcephaly was documented in Brazil. This article discusses some factors that contributed to the spread of Zika virus in South America. Climate change associated with the events of the phenomenon of “El Niño” is also analyzed. The biggest concern is how quickly Zika is spreading around the world and that it could be far more dangerous than previously thought. Zika virus infection, by its explosive potential, has every chance of becoming a global pandemic.

  4. Effect of extracts of plants with insecticidal activity on the control of Microtheca ochroloma Stal (Col: Chrysomelidae in the laboratory

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    Cíntia Grendene Lima

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of plants with insecticidal activity were tested on the control of Microtheca ochroloma (Col.: Chrysomelidae, an important insect-pest of Brassicaceae, in the larval and adult phases. Two 3-day-old larvae, kept under laboratory conditions (25ºC temperature, 70% relative humidity and 14 hours of photophase, were placed in a glass tube with a leaf of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis previously treated with aqueous extracts (10% p/v of chinaberry leaf (Melia azedarach, chinaberry branch, and tobacco powder (Nicotiana tabacum. The same procedure was repeated in two assays with adult insects. In the first assay, all the previously-mentioned extracts were used, in addition to DalNeem (commercial product of Azadirachta indica. In the second, the insects were exposed to extracts of tabasco pepper fruits (Capsicum frutescens, Surinam cherry (Eugenia unifl ora, jambolan (Syzygium cuminii and eucalyptus leaves (Eucalyptus sp.. All the tests consisted of 10 insects per treatment, with five repetitions in the first test using adult insects and six repetitions in the others. Observations were made daily up to the fifth day, aiming to evaluate the mortality of the insects. All the tested extracts resulted in an effective control of the larvae of M. ochroloma. In relation to the adult insects, only the extracts of tobacco powder and DalNeem showed effective control.

  5. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Teeuw

    1959-10-01

    Full Text Available - Jaap Kunst, A.M. Jones, Studies in African Music. Londen, Oxford University Press, New York Toronto Capetown, 1959; vol. I xii + 290 p.; 12 ill.; drawings; musical examples; vol. II viii + 238 p. scores. - B.J. Hoff, Ursy M. Lichtveld, Suriname: Spiegel der vaderlandse kooplieden, Een historicsh leesboek. Zwolse drukken en herdrukken voor de Maatschappij der Nederlandse letterkunde te Leiden. Nr. 22. W.E.J. Tjeenk Willink, Zwolle, 1958., Jan Voorhoeve (eds. - A. Teeuw, Hans Kähler, Die Sichule-Sprache auf der Insel Simalur an der Westküste von Sumatra. Afrika und Übersee Beiheft 27, Berlin 1955; 75 pp. - A. Teeuw, Hans Kähler, Vergleichendes Wörter-Verzeichnis der Sichule-Sprache auf der Insel Simalur an der Westküste von Sumatra. Veröffentlichungen des Seminars für Indonesische und Südseesprachen der Universität Hamburg. Band 1, Berlin 1959; III en 90 pp.

  6. Are country reputations for good and bad leadership on AIDS deserved? An exploratory quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattrass, Nicoli

    2008-12-01

    Some countries (e.g. Brazil) have good reputations on AIDS policy, whereas others, (notably South Africa) have been criticized for inadequate leadership. Cross-country regression analysis reveals that these 'poster children' for AIDS leadership have indeed performed better or worse than expected given their economic and institutional constraints and the demographic and health challenges facing them. Regressions were run on HAART coverage (number on highly active antiretroviral therapy as percentage of total need) and MTCTP coverage (pregnant HIV+ women accessing mother-to-child-transmission prevention services as percentage of total need). Brazil, Cambodia, Thailand and Uganda (all of whom have established reputations for good leadership on AIDS performed consistently better than expected-as did Burkina-Faso, Suriname, Paraguay Costa Rica, Mali and Namibia. South Africa, which has the worst reputation for AIDS leadership, performed significantly below expectations-as did Uruguay and Trinidad and Tobago. The paper thus confirms much of the conventional wisdom on AIDS leadership at country level and suggests new areas for research.

  7. Tectonic evolution of the continental crust of South America and its importance in the characterization of uraniferous provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordani, U.G.

    1981-01-01

    The tectonic evolution of the South American Continent and its relationship with uranium mineralization is discussed. During the Phanerozoic at least three phases are identified as related to the Andean chain, namely, in the lower Palaeozoic, in the upper Palaeozoic and in the Meso-Cenozoic. Recent systematic age dating of the Precambrian indicates the period of 450-700 million years (m.y.) (Brazilian Cycle) as one of the most important tectonic events in South America. Another age-dating cluster corresponds to the 1700-2100 m.y. interval (Transamazonic Cycle). An even older event within the Archean is identified with datings older than 2600 m.y. in Venezuela (Estado Bolivar), Surinam and Brazil (Bahia, Santa Catarina, Goias). All the Brazilian uranium deposits related to the Brazilian platform, such as Amorinopolis, are located on the eastern border of the platform where the Brazilian tectonic cycle is dominant. The uranium source rocks are of alkaline granitic nature. Other deposits (Itataia, Campos Belos) are associated with polycyclic rocks belonging to the basement of the Brazilian Cycle but were affected by the 450-700 m.y. tectonic event; these amphibolitic facies rocks show alkaline metamorphism and magmatization processes which indicate large geochemical mobility during which important uranium mobilization has taken place. Finally, the Pocos de Caldas deposit is excellent evidence of the important relationship of tectonic reactivations and uranium enrichments within the Brazilian platform. (author)

  8. A review of the Paectes arcigera species complex (Guenée (Lepidoptera, Euteliidae

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    Michael Pogue

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Five new species of Paectes Hübner [1818] related to Paectes arcigera (Guenée (Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, British Virgin Islands, Guadeloupe, Dominica, St. Lucia, Trinidad and P. longiformis Pogue (Brazil are described: P. asper sp. n. (Florida, Bahamas, Cuba, Cayman Islands, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, British Virgin Islands, U.S. Virgin Islands, Dominica, Colombia, P. medialba sp. n. (Argentina, P. similis sp. n. (Brazil, P. sinuosa sp. n. (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and P. tumida sp. n. (Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana. Adults and genitalia are illustrated for all species. Taxonomic changes include the rev. stat. of P. nana (Walker (Florida, Greater Antilles, Mexico, Guatemala, Galapagos as a valid species and revised synonyms P. indefatigabilis Schaus and P. isabel Schaus as junior synonyms of P. nana instead of P. arcigera. New host records for P. sinuosa and P. nana reared on Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae are presented. The holotype and female genitalia of P. obrotunda (Guenée are illustrated.

  9. G6PD deficiency in Latin America: systematic review on prevalence and variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuelton M Monteiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax radical cure requires the use of primaquine (PQ, a drug that induces haemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient (G6PDd individuals, which further hampers malaria control efforts. The aim of this work was to study the G6PDd prevalence and variants in Latin America (LA and the Caribbean region. A systematic search of the published literature was undertaken in August 2013. Bibliographies of manuscripts were also searched and additional references were identified. Low prevalence rates of G6PDd were documented in Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay, but studies from Curaçao, Ecuador, Jamaica, Saint Lucia, Suriname and Trinidad, as well as some surveys carried out in areas of Brazil, Colombia and Cuba, have shown a high prevalence (> 10% of G6PDd. The G6PD A-202A mutation was the variant most broadly distributed across LA and was identified in 81.1% of the deficient individuals surveyed. G6PDd is a frequent phenomenon in LA, although certain Amerindian populations may not be affected, suggesting that PQ could be safely used in these specific populations. Population-wide use of PQ as part of malaria elimination strategies in LA cannot be supported unless a rapid, accurate and field-deployable G6PDd diagnostic test is made available.

  10. First Human Cases of Leishmania (Viannia) lainsoni Infection and a Search for the Vector Sand Flies in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirotomo; Bone, Abdon E.; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Hashiguchi, Kazue; Shiguango, Gonzalo F.; Gonzales, Silvio V.; Velez, Lenin N.; Guevara, Angel G.; Gomez, Eduardo A.; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    An epidemiological study of leishmaniasis was performed in Amazonian areas of Ecuador since little information on the prevalent Leishmania and sand fly species responsible for the transmission is available. Of 33 clinical specimens from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), causative parasites were identified in 25 samples based on cytochrome b gene analysis. As reported previously, Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis were among the causative agents identified. In addition, L. (V.) lainsoni, for which infection is reported in Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Suriname, and French Guiana, was identified in patients with CL from geographically separate areas in the Ecuadorian Amazon, corroborating the notion that L. (V.) lainsoni is widely distributed in South America. Sand flies were surveyed around the area where a patient with L. (V.) lainsoni was suspected to have been infected. However, natural infection of sand flies by L. (V.) lainsoni was not detected. Further extensive vector searches are necessary to define the transmission cycle of L. (V.) lainsoni in Ecuador. PMID:27191391

  11. Geographic body size and shape variation in a mainland anolis (Squamata: Dactyloidae) from northwestern South America (Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon Espinosa, Martha L; Barragan Contreras, Leidy Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    Anolis auratus is a widely distributed species, from Costa Rica in Central America, through northern South America, including Colombia, Venezuela, northern Brazil, Surinam and the Guyanas. In Colombia, its widespread distribution across different life zones suggests that these lizards occupy different environments and exhibit different microhabitat use in different geographic areas. On the other hand, some observations suggest that this species prefers open areas, selecting grasslands over brushy areas, and thus, an alternative hypothesis is that microhabitat use is similar among different populations. In Anolis, body variables related to locomotion (body size and shape) defines structural microhabitat use, so two distinct patterns could be expected in this species: Conservative or highly variable body size and shape throughout the species distribution. To test these predictions, we characterized geographic variation in morphometric traits of this species in Colombia. Females and males were similar in body size, but exhibited differences in some variables related to body shape. These characteristics also varied among males and females from different regions, suggesting heterogeneous use of structural microhabitat, between sexes and among populations. As an alternative, phylogenetic divergence among populations could also account for the observed differences. Absence of ecological and phylogenetic data limits our ability to identify the underlying causes of this pattern. However, we provide a general framework to explore hypotheses about evolution of body size and shape in this species.

  12. Zika virus: a new arboviral public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Tulin; Kilic, Selcuk

    2016-11-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a single-stranded RNA virus in the Flaviviridae family and transmitted to human through infected mosquitos (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus). Virus is closely related with other flaviviruses; dengue virus, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, and Japanese encephalitis virus phylogenetically. Due to the possible relationship between virus and clinical features including microcephaly, ventricule, and eye deformities, Guillain-Barre syndrome increases the interest on this virus gradually. Along with the vector-borne transmission, exposure via blood transfusion and sexual contact are further concerns. Since December 2015, CDC reported 440.000-1.300.000 possible cases in Brazil and as of 19 January 2016, El Salvador, Venezuela, Colombia, Brazil, Surinam, French Guana, Honduras, Mexico, and Panama are the countries with active epidemic. CDC recommends ZIKV screening for all pregnants including asymptomatic cases those living in the active epidemic areas. Recently, virus is detected in the USA and most European countries including UK, Netherlands, Denmark, Switzerland, and Italy as a travel-associated infection. Owing to the changing world with increased capabilities for transportation globally, this vector-borne infection represents a valuable marker for the ability of spreading of any infection from its original area that it was first seen. In this review, we summarized the up-to-date data and reports in terms of the importance of the ZIKV infection in the public health.

  13. Evaluacion de los recursos potenciales del petroleo y gas, en Centro y Suramerica [Evaluation of potential petroleum and gas resources in Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, C.S.

    2001-01-01

    El Servicio Geológico de los Estados Unidos (USGS, por sus siglas en inglés) completó recientemente un estudio evaluativo de recursos potenciales de petróleo y gas en 130 provincias de petróleo seleccionadas en diferentes partes del mundo (USGS, 2000). De estas 130 provincias, 23 se encuentran en Suramérica, Centroamérica, y la región del Caribe (fig. 1). El estudio comprendió desde las provincias de petróleo establecidas con un largo historial de producción, como la Cuenca de Maracaibo, hasta las provincias fronterizas de poca o ninguna producción, como la Cuenca de Guyana-Suriname. No todas las provincias con historial de producción o con potencial de producción fueron evaluadas en el Estudio Evaluativo USGS 2000. Al presente, el USGS está evaluando muchas de las provincias restantes de petróleo y gas, en Centro y Suramérica. En cada provincia hemos (1) definido geológicamente el total de los sistemas de petróleo, (2) definido las unidades evaluadas que forman parte de todos los sistemas de petróleo, y (3) evaluado el volumen potencial de petróleo y gas convencional en cada unidad evaluada. Definimos un total de 26 sistemas de petróleo y 55 unidades evaluadas en las 23 provincias

  14. Reevaluation of the type species and redescription of five species of Edessa (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Edessinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Valeria Juliete DA; Rider, David A; Fernandes, Jose Antonio Marin

    2017-11-13

    In accordance with the rules in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, the type species for the genus Edessa Fabricius, 1803 is now recognized to be Cimex antilope Fabricius, 1798 rather than the previously recognized Cimex cervus Fabricius, 1787. Edessa antilope is redescribed, as well as the following four species that have in the past been related or compared to E. antilope: E. arabs (Linnaeus, 1758) from French Guiana, Costa Rica and Panama (new record), E. helix Erichson, 1848 from Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela, Suriname (new record), Guyana, Brazil (new record), Bolivia (new record) and Argentina (new record), E. ibex Breddin, 1903 from Costa Rica, Panama (new record), Ecuador, Brazil (new record), Peru and Bolivia (new record), and E. taurina Stål, 1862 from Mexico, Guatemala, Belize (new record), Honduras (new record). The distribution of Edessa antilope is expanded to Venezuela. The female of E. antilope and the male of E. taurina are described for the first time. Edessa antilope is removed from the synonymy of E. arabs and reinstated as valid species; additionally, E. costalis Stål, 1872 is removed from the synonym of E. helix and is placed as a junior synonym of E. antilope. Edessa saiga Breddin, 1903 is considered a junior synonym of E. ibex. Lectotypes are designated for all species. A key is provided for the identification of the species.

  15. Pre-travel care for immunocompromised and chronically ill travellers: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aalst, Mariëlle; Verhoeven, Roos; Omar, Freshta; Stijnis, Cornelis; van Vugt, Michèle; de Bree, Godelieve J; Goorhuis, Abraham; Grobusch, Martin P

    2017-09-01

    Immunocompromised and chronically ill travellers (ICCITs) are susceptible to travel related diseases. In ICCITs, pre-travel care regarding vaccinations and prophylactics is complex. We evaluated the protection level by preventive measures in ICCITs by analysing rates of vaccination protection, antibody titres, and the prescription of standby antibiotics. We analysed, and reported according to STROBE guidelines, pre-travel care data for ICCITs visiting the medical pre-travel clinic at the Academic Medical Centre, The Netherlands from 2011 to 2016. We analysed 2104 visits of 1826 ICCITs. Mean age was 46.6 years and mean travel duration 34.5 days. ICCITs on immunosuppressive treatment (29.7%), HIV (17.2%) or diabetes mellitus (10.2%) comprised the largest groups. Most frequently visited countries were Suriname, Indonesia, and Ghana. Most vaccination rates were >90%. Of travellers in high need of hepatitis A and B protection, 56.6 and 75.7%, underwent titre assessments, respectively. Of ICCITs with a respective indication, 50.6% received a prescription for standby antibiotics. Vaccination rates in our study population were overall comparable to those of healthy travellers studied previously in our centre. However, regarding antibody titre assessments and prescription of standby antibiotics, this study demonstrates that uniform pre-travel guidelines for ICCITs are highly needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A review of the Paectes arcigera species complex (Guenée) (Lepidoptera, Euteliidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogue, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Five new species of Paectes Hübner [1818] related to Paectes arcigera (Guenée) (Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, British Virgin Islands, Guadeloupe, Dominica, St. Lucia, Trinidad) and Paectes longiformis Pogue (Brazil) are described: Paectes asper sp. n. (Florida, Bahamas, Cuba, Cayman Islands, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, British Virgin Islands, U.S. Virgin Islands, Dominica, Colombia), Paectes medialba sp. n. (Argentina), Paectes similis sp. n. (Brazil), Paectes sinuosa sp. n. (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay), and Paectes tumida sp. n. (Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana). Adults and genitalia are illustrated for all species. Taxonomic changes include the rev. stat. of Paectes nana (Walker) (Florida, Greater Antilles, Mexico, Guatemala, Galapagos) as a valid species and revised synonyms Paectes indefatigabilis Schaus and Paectes isabel Schaus as junior synonyms of Paectes nana instead of Paectes arcigera. New host records for Paectes sinuosa and Paectes nana reared on Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae) are presented. The holotype and female genitalia of Paectes obrotunda (Guenée) are illustrated. PMID:23730180

  17. Morphological study of the muscles of the forearm of the short-eared dog (Atelocynus microtis and crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Guedes Riehl Vaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Atelocynus microtis and Cerdocyon thous are mammals in the Canidae with different habits and geographical distributions. The fi rst species is found in the Amazon Basin in Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, and probably lives a nocturnal and solitary life. The second species occurs in Colombia, Venezuela, Suriname, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, Brazil and northern Argentina, is also nocturnal, but forms couples that tend to stay together for a long time. There is a lot of interest in understanding more about these animals, which have a wide distribution in Brazil, and morphological studies are an important contribution towards their preservation and protection because reports of short-eared dogs in captivity are rare, whereas those of the crab-eating fox are more common. In this study we used an individual of each species from Paragominas (PA, under the authorization permits SEMA-PA No. 455/2009 and 522/2009, which were donated to UFRA after the animals died of natural causes. The animals were fixed in 10% formalin and dissected to make morphological descriptions of the flexor and extensor muscles. This study found the same muscle groups that occur in other carnivores previously described, and contributes to understanding the morphology, as well as an approach for possible orthopedic surgical procedures, of these species.

  18. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Nagata

    1986-04-01

    : Stichting Internationaal Instituut voor sociale geschiedenis, 1985, xxviii + 210 pp., Margreet Schrevel (eds. - Jan van der Putten, Slamet Modiwirjo, Panglipur Ati (ed. Johan Sarmo & Hein Vruggink, Uitgegeven door de afdeling cultuurstudies van het Ministerie van Volksmobilisatie en cultuur (Suriname, 1983. - Jan van der Putten, Saleman Siswowitono, Dongèng Kancil; Het verhaal van kantjil (ed. J.J. Sarmo & H.D. Vruggink, Een uitgave van de afdeling cultuur studies van het Ministerie van cultuur, Jeugd en Sport (Suriname, 1983. - Jan van der Putten, Pamin Asmawidjaja, Djoko miskin; De arme jongeling (ed. J.J. Sarmo & H.D. Vruggink, Een uitgave van de afdeling cultuur studies van het Ministerie van cultuur, jeugd en sport (Suriname, 1983. - Jan van der Putten, Johan J. Sarmo, Cikal; Kalawarti Jawa-Suriname, Wonny Karijopawiro (redactie, Nummers 1 tot en met 4 (1: 1982; 2: mei 1983; 3: oktober 1983; 4: maart 1984., Sari Kasanpawiro, Hein Vruggink (eds. - S.C. van Randwijck, Th. van den End, De Gereformeerde Zendingsbond (1901-1961 Nederland-Tanah Toraja, een bronnenpublicatie, bewerkt door Dr. Th. van den End, 782 pp., 1985. - R. Roolvink, Judith Nagata, The reflowering of Malaysian Islam - Modern religious radicals and their roots, University of Columbia Press, Vancouver, 1984, xxv + 267 pp., 2 appendixes, index. - Roger Tol, Soenjono Dardjowidjojo, Vocabulary building in Indonesian: an advanced reader. Ohio University, Monographs in international studies, Southeast Asia series No. 64, 1984. XVII, 647 pp. - R.S. Wassing, Annegret Haake, Javanische Batik. Methode, Symbolik, Geschichte (Javanese Batik. Method, symbolism, history, Hannover: Verlag M. + H. Schaper (Textilkunst-Fach-schrifte, 1984. Bound, 128 pp., 24 colour ills., black and white ills., drawings. - R.S. Wassing, Inger McCabe Elliott, Batik. Fabled cloth of Java, New York: Clarkson N. Potter Inc., 1984. Bound, 240 pp., 128 colour ills., black and white ills., drawings. - R.S. Wassing, Alit Veldhuisen

  19. Checklist of the flower flies of Ecuador (Diptera, Syrphidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Armijos, Diego; Quezada-Ríos, Noelia; Soto-Armijos, Carolina; Mengual, Ximo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Syrphidae is one of the most speciose families of true flies, with more than 6,100 described species and worldwide distribution. They are important for humans acting as crucial pollinators, biological control agents, decomposers, and bioindicators. One third of its diversity is found in the Neotropical Region, but the taxonomic knowledge for this region is incomplete. Thus, taxonomic revisions and species checklists of Syrphidae in the Neotropics are the highest priority for biodiversity studies. Therefore, we present the first checklist of Syrphidae for Ecuador based on literature records, and provide as well the original reference for the first time species citations for the country. A total of 201 species were recorded for Ecuador, with more than 600 records from 24 provinces and 237 localities. Tungurahua, Pastaza, and Galápagos were the best sampled provinces. Although the reported Ecuadorian syrphid fauna only comprises 11.2 % of the described Neotropical species, Ecuador has the third highest flower fly diversity density after Costa Rica and Suriname. These data indicate the high species diversity for this country in such small geographic area. PMID:29200924

  20. Checklist of the flower flies of Ecuador (Diptera, Syrphidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Marín-Armijos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Syrphidae is one of the most speciose families of true flies, with more than 6,100 described species and worldwide distribution. They are important for humans acting as crucial pollinators, biological control agents, decomposers, and bioindicators. One third of its diversity is found in the Neotropical Region, but the taxonomic knowledge for this region is incomplete. Thus, taxonomic revisions and species checklists of Syrphidae in the Neotropics are the highest priority for biodiversity studies. Therefore, we present the first checklist of Syrphidae for Ecuador based on literature records, and provide as well the original reference for the first time species citations for the country. A total of 201 species were recorded for Ecuador, with more than 600 records from 24 provinces and 237 localities. Tungurahua, Pastaza, and Galápagos were the best sampled provinces. Although the reported Ecuadorian syrphid fauna only comprises 11.2 % of the described Neotropical species, Ecuador has the third highest flower fly diversity density after Costa Rica and Suriname. These data indicate the high species diversity for this country in such small geographic area.

  1. Differences in ADHD medication usage patterns in children and adolescents from different cultural backgrounds in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ban, Els F; Souverein, Patrick C; van Engeland, Herman; Swaab, Hanna; Egberts, Toine C G; Heerdink, Eibert R

    2015-07-01

    Differences in incidence and prevalence of ADHD medication use between ethnic groups have been reported. Goal of this study was to determine whether there are also differences in usage patterns of ADHD medication among native Dutch children and adolescents and those with a Moroccan, Turkish and Surinam cultural background in the Netherlands between 1999 and 2010. In a cohort of ADHD patients cultural background never used ADHD medication compared to Dutch natives (21 %). One-fifth of native Dutch and Turkish patients already used ADHD medication before the ADHD diagnosis date. Discontinuation of ADHD medication within 5 years was significantly higher in Moroccan [HR 2.4 (95 % CI 1.8-3.1)] and Turkish [HR 1.7 (95 % CI 1.1-2.6)] patients. A sensitivity analysis with a zip code-matched comparison between Dutch natives and non-natives showed similar results, suggesting this effect is probably not explained by socio-economic status (SES). Differences are found in prescribing and use of ADHD medication between patients with a different cultural background. Native Dutch and Turkish patients start more frequently with ADHD medication before the ADHD diagnose date, which can be an indication of differences in either referral patterns and/or access to care. A higher percentage of patients with a Moroccan and Turkish cultural background never start using ADHD medication at all and discontinuation rate is higher compared to Dutch natives and Surinamese.

  2. Influence of corona discharge on the ozone budget in the tropical free troposphere: a case study of deep convection during GABRIEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozem, H.; Fischer, H.; Gurk, C.; Schiller, C. L.; Parchatka, U.; Koenigstedt, R.; Stickler, A.; Martinez, M.; Harder, H.; Kubistin, D.; Williams, J.; Eerdekens, G.; Lelieveld, J.

    2014-09-01

    Convective redistribution of ozone and its precursors between the boundary layer (BL) and the free troposphere (FT) influences photochemistry, in particular in the middle and upper troposphere (UT). We present a case study of convective transport during the GABRIEL campaign over the tropical rain forest in Suriname in October 2005. During one measurement flight the inflow and outflow regions of a cumulonimbus cloud (Cb) have been characterized. We identified a distinct layer between 9 and 11 km altitude with enhanced mixing ratios of CO, O3, HOx, acetone and acetonitrile. The elevated O3 contradicts the expectation that convective transport brings low-ozone air from the boundary layer to the outflow region. Entrainment of ozone-rich air is estimated to account for 62% (range: 33-91%) of the observed O3. Ozone is enhanced by only 5-6% by photochemical production in the outflow due to enhanced NO from lightning, based on model calculations using observations including the first reported HOx measurements over the tropical rainforest. The "excess" ozone in the outflow is most probably due to direct production by corona discharge associated with lightning. We deduce a production rate of 5.12 × 1028 molecules O3 flash-1 (range: 9.89 × 1026-9.82 × 1028 molecules O3 flash-1), which is at the upper limit of the range reported previously.

  3. Soil Erosion from Agriculture and Mining: A Threat to Tropical Stream Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Mol

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In tropical countries soil erosion is often increased due to high erodibility of geologically old and weathered soils; intensive rainfall; inappropriate soil management; removal of forest vegetation cover; and mining activities. Stream ecosystems draining agricultural or mining areas are often severely impacted by the high loads of eroded material entering the stream channel; increasing turbidity; covering instream habitat and affecting the riparian zone; and thereby modifying habitat and food web structures. The biodiversity is severely threatened by these negative effects as the aquatic and riparian fauna and flora are not adapted to cope with excessive rates of erosion and sedimentation. Eroded material may also be polluted by pesticides or heavy metals that have an aggravating effect on functions and ecosystem services. Loss of superficial material and deepening of erosion gullies impoverish the nutrient and carbon contents of the soils; and lower the water tables; causing a “lose-lose” situation for agricultural productivity and environmental integrity. Several examples show how to interrupt this vicious cycle by integrated catchment management and by combining “green” and “hard” engineering for habitat restoration. In this review; we summarize current findings on this issue from tropical countries with a focus on case studies from Suriname and Brazil.

  4. Cryptic, Sympatric Diversity in Tegu Lizards of the Tupinambis teguixin Group (Squamata, Sauria, Teiidae) and the Description of Three New Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John C; Jowers, Michael J; Lehtinen, Richard M; Charles, Stevland P; Colli, Guarino R; Peres, Ayrton K; Hendry, Catriona R; Pyron, R Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Tegus of the genera Tupinambis and Salvator are the largest Neotropical lizards and the most exploited clade of Neotropical reptiles. For three decades more than 34 million tegu skins were in trade, about 1.02 million per year. The genus Tupinambis is distributed in South America east of the Andes, and currently contains four recognized species, three of which are found only in Brazil. However, the type species of the genus, T. teguixin, is known from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guyana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela (including the Isla de Margarita). Here we present molecular and morphological evidence that this species is genetically divergent across its range and identify four distinct clades some of which are sympatric. The occurrence of cryptic sympatric species undoubtedly exacerbated the nomenclatural problems of the past. We discuss the species supported by molecular and morphological evidence and increase the number of species in the genus Tupinambis to seven. The four members of the T. teguixin group continue to be confused with Salvator merianae, despite having a distinctly different morphology and reproductive mode. All members of the genus Tupinambis are CITES Appendix II. Yet, they continue to be heavily exploited, under studied, and confused in the minds of the public, conservationists, and scientists.

  5. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available -Gesa Mackenthun, Stephen Greenblatt, Marvelous Possessions: The wonder of the New World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991. ix + 202 pp. -Peter Redfield, Peter Hulme ,Wild majesty: Encounters with Caribs from Columbus to the present day. An Anthology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. x + 369 pp., Neil L. Whitehead (eds -Michel R. Doortmont, Philip D. Curtin, The rise and fall of the plantation complex: Essays in Atlantic history. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990. xi + 222 pp. -Roderick A. McDonald, Hilary McD.Beckles, A history of Barbados: From Amerindian settlement to nation-state. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. xv + 224 pp. -Gertrude J. Fraser, Hilary McD.Beckles, Natural rebels; A social history of enslaved black women in Barbados. New Brunswick NJ and London: Rutgers University Press and Zed Books, 1990 and 1989. ix + 197 pp. -Bridget Brereton, Thomas C. Holt, The problem of freedom: Race, labor, and politics in Jamaica and Britain, 1832-1938. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1991. xxxi + 517 pp. -Peter C. Emmer, A. Meredith John, The plantation slaves of Trinidad, 1783-1816: A mathematical and demographic inquiry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988. xvi + 259 pp. -Richard Price, Robert Cohen, Jews in another environment: Surinam in the second half of the eighteenth century. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1991. xv + 350 pp. -Russell R. Menard, Nigel Tattersfield, The forgotten trade: comprising the log of the Daniel and Henry of 1700 and accounts of the slave trade from the minor ports of England, 1698-1725. London: Jonathan Cape, 1991. ixx + 460 pp. -John D. Garrigus, James E. McClellan III, Colonialism and science: Saint Domingue in the old regime. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1992. xviii + 393 pp. -Lowell Gudmundson, Richard H. Collin, Theodore Roosevelt's Caribbean: The Panama canal, the Monroe doctrine, and the Latin American context. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University

  6. Braga nasuta (Cymothoidae: an ectoparasite of the Giant Amazonian fish Arapaima gigas (Osteoglossidae fingerlings cultured in the Amazon region in Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elson Cardoso de Jesus

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Isopods Cymothoidae are organisms that parasitize several fish species, both marine and freshwater, provoking important physiological alterations and secondary infections. The genus Braga was proposed to harbor three species of parasitic isopods in freshwater fish from South America: B. brasiliensis, B. cichlae and B. nasuta. Posteriorly, other four species were included: B. patagonica, B. amapaensis, B. fluviatilis and B. bachmanni. Regarding the geographical distribution of the genus, there are registers in Brazil, Argentina, Suriname and Paraguay. In this study, 3,625 fingerlings of pirarucu Arapaima gigas were examined from a commercial fish farm in the Amazon region, Pará State, to observe and identify possible parasites. A total of eleven ectoparasitic isopods were carefully removed from the body surface of the hosts and fixed in alcohol 70%. They were processed and identified as Braga nasuta. Parasitological indexes were prevalence of 0.303%, mean intensity of 1.000±0.000 and mean abundance of 0.003±0.055. This is the first report of B. nasuta in pirarucu fingerlings.

  7. First Human Cases of Leishmania (Viannia lainsoni Infection and a Search for the Vector Sand Flies in Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotomo Kato

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological study of leishmaniasis was performed in Amazonian areas of Ecuador since little information on the prevalent Leishmania and sand fly species responsible for the transmission is available. Of 33 clinical specimens from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL, causative parasites were identified in 25 samples based on cytochrome b gene analysis. As reported previously, Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis and L. (V. braziliensis were among the causative agents identified. In addition, L. (V. lainsoni, for which infection is reported in Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Suriname, and French Guiana, was identified in patients with CL from geographically separate areas in the Ecuadorian Amazon, corroborating the notion that L. (V. lainsoni is widely distributed in South America. Sand flies were surveyed around the area where a patient with L. (V. lainsoni was suspected to have been infected. However, natural infection of sand flies by L. (V. lainsoni was not detected. Further extensive vector searches are necessary to define the transmission cycle of L. (V. lainsoni in Ecuador.

  8. Serum aluminium levels of workers in the bauxite mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kom, J F; Dissels, H M; van der Voet, G B; de Wolff, F A

    1997-01-01

    Aluminium is produced from the mineral bauxite. Occupational exposure is reported during the industrial processing of aluminium and is associated with pulmonary and neurotoxicity. However, data on exposure and toxicity of workers in the open bauxite mining industry do not exist. Therefore, a study was performed to explore aluminium exposure in employees involved in this bauxite mining process in a Surinam mine. A group of workers occupationally exposed to aluminium in an open bauxite mine were compared with a group of nonexposed wood processors. Serum aluminium was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry Data from the clinical chemistry of the blood and a questionnaire were used to explore determinants for aluminium exposure. No significant difference between serum aluminium in the exposed (4.4 +/- 2.0 micrograms/L, n = 27) and control group (5.1 +/- 1.5 micrograms/L, n = 27) was detected. For the serum concentration of the clinical chemical variables (calcium, citrate, and creatinine), a statistically significant difference was computed (p < or = 0.02) between the exposed and control group. All levels were slightly higher in the exposed group; no statistically significant correlations with serum aluminium were found. In this study, serum aluminium values were in the normal range, no significant difference between the groups could be detected despite long-term occupational exposure.

  9. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia W. de Groot

    1971-07-01

    Full Text Available - P.J. Worsley, Ktut Ginarsa, Prasasti Baru Ragajaya 6 April 1155. Direktorat Bahasa dan Kesusastraan, Direktorat Djendral Kebudajaan, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudajaan, Tjabang Singaradja, 1968. XVI, 54 p., 3 maps. - Th. J. Gerold-Scheepers, M.A. Jaspan, Traditional medical theory in Southeast Asia. An inaugural lecture, University of Hull, Hull 1969. 36 pag. - Renato Rosaldo, Don V. Hart, Bisayan Filipino and Malayan Humoral Pathologies: Folk medicine and ethnohistory in Southeast Asia. Ithaca, New York; Department of Asian Studies, Cornell University. Data Paper: No. 76. 96 p. - Pierre J. Simon, W.E. Willmott, The political structure of the Chinese community in Cambodia. L.S.E. Monographs nr. 42. The Athlone Press, London 1970. 211 p. - Vivien van Geen, Owen M. Lynch, The politics of untouchability (Social mobility and social change in a city of India. Columbia University Press, New York and London, 1969. XIV-251 pp. - W.F.L. Buschkens, Silvia W. de Groot, Djuka society and social change: History of an attempt to develop a bush negro community in Surinam 1917-1926. Van Gorcum & Comp. N.V. - Doctor H.J. Prakke & H.M.G. Prakke, Assen 1969. XVI + 256 p., met twee kaarten, 12 fotografieën en een bibliografie van Willem Frederik van Lier. - W.F.L. Buschkens, A. Polak-Eltz, Afro-Amerikaanse godsdiensten en culten. J.J. Romen & Zonen, Roermond 1970. 221 blz., 30 ills.

  10. G6PD deficiency in Latin America: systematic review on prevalence and variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Wuelton M; Val, Fernando F A; Siqueira, André M; Franca, Gabriel P; Sampaio, Vanderson S; Melo, Gisely C; Almeida, Anne C G; Brito, Marcelo A M; Peixoto, Henry M; Fuller, Douglas; Bassat, Quique; Romero, Gustavo A S; Maria Regina F, Oliveira; Marcus Vinícius G, Lacerda

    2014-08-01

    Plasmodium vivax radical cure requires the use of primaquine (PQ), a drug that induces haemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient (G6PDd) individuals, which further hampers malaria control efforts. The aim of this work was to study the G6PDd prevalence and variants in Latin America (LA) and the Caribbean region. A systematic search of the published literature was undertaken in August 2013. Bibliographies of manuscripts were also searched and additional references were identified. Low prevalence rates of G6PDd were documented in Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay, but studies from Curaçao, Ecuador, Jamaica, Saint Lucia, Suriname and Trinidad, as well as some surveys carried out in areas of Brazil, Colombia and Cuba, have shown a high prevalence (> 10%) of G6PDd. The G6PD A-202A mutation was the variant most broadly distributed across LA and was identified in 81.1% of the deficient individuals surveyed. G6PDd is a frequent phenomenon in LA, although certain Amerindian populations may not be affected, suggesting that PQ could be safely used in these specific populations. Population-wide use of PQ as part of malaria elimination strategies in LA cannot be supported unless a rapid, accurate and field-deployable G6PDd diagnostic test is made available.

  11. Oral Hygiene and Handwashing Practices among Middle School Students in 15 Latin American and Caribbean Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKittrick, T R; Jacobsen, K H

    2015-06-01

    To examine the relationship between infrequent toothbrushing and infrequent handwashing among middle school students from 15 Latin American and Caribbean countries (Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Costa Rica, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Peru, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Uruguay). A secondary analysis was done of nationally-representative data from 33 174 middle school students who participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2006 and 2011. In all 15 countries, the association between rarely brushing or cleaning teeth and rarely handwashing after using the toilet was significant for both boys and girls. The pooled odds ratio for this association was 6.7 (5.8, 7.7). Healthcare providers who notice signs of poor dental hygiene or infrequent bathing in adolescents should consider providing comprehensive hygiene education to their patients, since infrequent oral and body hygiene behaviours tend to co-exist and both are threats to health.

  12. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Anceaux

    1967-10-01

    Full Text Available - L. Sluimers, M.E. Osborne, Strategic hamlets in South Viet-nam. A survey and a comparison. Southeast Asia Program, Department of Asian Studies, Data Paper no. 55. Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1965. XII, 66 blz., X, krt. - L. Sluimers, F.B. Weinstein, Vietnam’s unheld elections: The failure to carry out the 1956 reunification elections and the effect on Hanoi’s present outlook. Data Paper: No. 60, Southeast Asia Program. Department of Asian Studies. Cornell University. Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1966. VII, 65 blz., XIII. - L. Sluimers, D.E. Weatherbee, Ideology in Indonesia: Sukarno’s Indonesian revolution. Monograph Series No. 8. Southeast Asia Studies, Yale University, 1966. X, 135 blz., VII. - J.H.A. Logemann, Donald E. Weatherbee, Ideology in Indonesia: Soekarno’s Indonesian Revolution. Southeast Asia Studies Monograph Series no. 8. Yale University, 1967. 135 pp., Charts, glossary. - H.J. de Graaf, A.B. Ward, Rajah’s servant. With a preface by Robert M. Pringle and Otto C. Doering III. Data Paper: No. 61. South East Asia Program. Department of Asian Studies. Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. Nov. 1966. - J.C. Anceaux, Viktor Krupa, Morpheme and word in Maori. (Janua Linguarum, Series Practica. XLVI. Mouton & Co., The Hague 1966. 83 pp. - G.D. van Wengen, Surinam. Grammofoonplaat, uitgave Philips. Serie: “Song and sound the World Around”. Stereo 831 231 PY (ook als mono speelbaar, 33 1/3 t.

  13. Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus types I and II (HTLV-I/II in French Guiana: clinical and molecular epidemiology Os Vírus T-Linfotrópicos Humanos tipo I (HTLV-I e tipo II (HTLV-II na Guiana Francesa: epidemiologia clínica e molecular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirdad Kazanji

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available We review here the epidemiological studies performed by our group on human retrovirus HTLV-I and HTLV-II infections and the associated diseases in French Guiana since 1984. French Guiana is an overseas French administrative district located between Brazil and Surinam. Its population is characterized by a large variety of ethnic groups, including several populations of African origin and various populations of Amerindian origin. Several epidemiological studies of large samples of pregnant women and in remote villages showed that HTLV-I is highly endemic in this area but is restricted to groups of African origin, especially the Noir-Marrons. In this endemic population, the results of segregation analysis in a genetic epidemiological study were consistent with the presence of a dominant major gene predisposing to HTLV-I infection, especially in children. In contrast, HTLV-II infection appears to be rare in French Guiana, having been found in only a few individuals of Brazilian origin. From a molecular point of view, the HTLV-I strains present in the Noir-Marrons, Creoles and Amerindians appear to originate from Africa, as they belong to the large cosmopolitan molecular subtype A.Os autores apresentam uma revisão dos estudos epidemiológicos realizados pelo seu grupo de pesquisa sobre a infecção pelos vírus T-linfotrópicos humanos tipo I (HTLV-I e tipo II (HTLV-II e doenças associadas na Guiana Francesa, desde 1984. A Guiana Francesa é um Departamento de Ultramar da França, situado entre o Brasil e o Suriname. A população é caracterizada por uma grande variedade de grupos étnicos, incluindo diversas comunidades de origem africana e outras de origem indígena. Diversos inquéritos epidemiológicos sobre gestantes e em aldeias remotas mostraram que o HTLV-I é altamente endêmico nessas áreas, mas que o vírus é restrito a grupos de origem africana, particularmente os Noir-Marrons. Nessa população endêmica, os resultados de uma an

  14. Uso de mosquiteros y otros materiales impregnados con insecticida para el control de la malaria en las Américas Use of insecticide-impregnated mosquito nets and other impregnated materials for malaria control in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Zimmerman

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se analiza el uso actual de mosquiteros y de otros materiales impregnados con insecticida en las Américas. Se examinan diversos estudios efectuados en Brasil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Perú, Suriname y Venezuela y se llega a la conclusión de que, en su mayor parte, estos estudios adolecen de graves deficiencias de diseño experimental, problemas de excesiva brevedad, y medición inadecuada de indicadores de salud. En el análisis se resalta la gran dificultad de llevar a cabo estudios científicos que buscan determinar el efecto de los materiales tratados con insecticida en la incidencia de malaria. En particular, la baja incidencia de malaria en las Américas, la elevada prevalencia de Plasmodium vivax y de casos recurrentes, y la relación existente entre los patrones de actividad del ser humano y los hábitos de picadura crepusculares de ciertos vectores de la malaria impiden hacer experimentos de fácil diseño y ejecución. Por ahora sería prematuro usar mosquiteros u otros materiales impregnados con insecticida como componentes principales de un programa integral para el control de la malaria. No obstante, se recomienda que se considere la posibilidad de realizar ensayos e intervenciones bien diseñados a gran escala, siempre que se basen en un conocimiento profundo de la dinámica de la transmisión de la malaria en la zona en estudio.This article reviews the current status of insecticide-impregnated mosquito nets and other impregnated materials in the Americas. Studies from Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela are examined. It is concluded that most studies have suffered from experimental design errors, short duration problems, and/or inadequate measurement of health indicators. The review brings out the great difficulty of conducting scientific studies that attempt to measure the impact of insecticide-treated materials on malaria incidence. In particular, the low incidence

  15. Relações filogenéticas e diversidade de isolados de Guignardia spp oriundos de diferentes hospedeiros nas regiões ITS1-5,8S-ITS2 Phylogenetic relationships and diversity of Guignardia spp isolated from different hosts on ITS1-5,8S-ITS2 region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Wickert

    2009-06-01

    spots in different fruit species and also in other cultures. This work has the objective of isolate, identify and characterize the genetic diversity present among Guignardia isolates obtained from citrus, mango, guava, eucalyptus, Brazilian grape tree and Surinam cherry by analysis of DNA sequence from cístron ITS1-5,8SITS2. It was verified that the obtained isolates belong to G. mangiferae and G. citricarpa species. Two different Guignardia types, that were found in mango, could not be identified in species, and do not belong to none of the species deposited in GenBank. So, this work found that mango, guava, eucalyptus, Brazilian grape tree and Surinam cherry host only G. mangiferae, whereas citrus hosts G. mangiferae and G. citricarpa species. Mango hosts three different Guignardia, G. mangiferae and two others types that remain without identification of the species level. It was also verified that isolates of Guignardia obtained from guava fruit rot symptoms were identified as G. mangiferae.

  16. A synopsis of the tribe Lachnophorini, with a new genus of Neotropical distribution and a revision of the Neotropical genus Asklepia Liebke, 1938 (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Terry L.; Zamorano, Laura S.

    2014-01-01

    , Paraguay, Asklepia biolat Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., BIOLAT Biological Station, Pakitza, Perú, Asklepia bracheia Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., circa Explornapo Camp, Río Napo, Cocha Shimagai, Perú, Asklepia cuiabaensis Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Cuiabá, Brazil, Asklepia ecuadoriana Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Limoncocha, Ecuador, Asklepia kathleenae Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Belém, Brazil, Asklepia macrops Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Concordia, Río Uruguay, Argentina, Asklepia marchantaria Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Ilha de Marchantaria, Lago Camaleão, Brazil, Asklepia marituba Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., Marituba, Ananindeua, Brazil, Asklepia paraguayensis Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., San Lorenzo, Rio Paraguay, Paraguay, Asklepia pakitza Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., BIOLAT Biological Station, Pakitza, Perú, Asklepia pulchripennis (Bates, 1871), comb. n, Santarém, Rio Tapajós, Brazil, Asklepia samiriaensis Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., Boca del Río Samiria, Perú, Asklepia stalametlitos Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., Guayamer, Río Mamoré, Bolivia, Asklepia strandi Liebke, 1938, Guyana, Asklepia surinamensis Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., l’Hermitage, Surinam River, Surinam, Asklepia vigilante Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Boca del Río Samiria, Perú. Images of adults of all 18 genera are provided. PMID:25152663

  17. Revisão das espécies de Melipona do grupo fuliginosa (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Apidae, Meliponini Revision of the species of Melipona of the fuliginosa group (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Apidae, Meliponini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M. F. Camargo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Três espécies são reconhecidas: Melipona (Michmelia fuliginosa Lepeletier, 1836, de larga distribuição, do Suriname e Guiana Francesa até o sudeste do Brasil e noroeste da Argentina, M. (Michmelia titania Gribodo, 1893 (revalidado, endêmica do oeste da Amazônia, e M. (Michmelia fallax sp. nov., do noroeste do Equador até a América Central. Melipona fuliginosa distingue-se pela pilosidade dos tergos metassomáticos II-V, tanto do macho como da operária, densa e plumosa, e pelo primeiro tarsômero da perna III do macho mais largo que longo. Em M. titania e M. fallax sp. nov., a pilosidade dos tergos II-V é escassa e simples, não-plumosa, e o primeiro tarsômero tão longo quanto largo ou mais longo que largo. Operárias de Melipona titania e M. fallax sp. nov. separam-se pela forma do penicilo, que é fortemente sinuoso em M. titania, e nos machos de M. fallax sp. nov. as órbitas internas dos olhos são paralelas, enquanto em M. titania as órbitas são convergentes embaixo. Novos registros geográficos, dados bionômicos e uma chave para identificação das espécies são apresentados. Adicionalmente, são feitos comentários sobre o padrão biogeográfico e sobre as glândulas tergais das rainhas.Three species are recognized: Melipona (Michmelia fuliginosa Lepeletier, 1836, widely distributed, from Suriname and French Guiana to southeastern Brazil and northwestern Argentina, M. (Michmelia titania Gribodo, 1893 (revalidated, endemic to western Amazon and M. (Michmelia fallax sp. nov., from northwestern Ecuador to Central America. Melipona fuliginosa differs from the other species by the pilosity of metasomal terga II-V, dense and plumose, in both male and workers, and the first tarsomere of leg III of the male wider than long. In M. titania and M. fallax sp. nov., the pilosity of terga II-V is scarce and simple, non-plumose, and the first tarsomere of leg III of the male is as long as wide or longer. Workers of Melipona titania and

  18. A synopsis of the tribe Lachnophorini, with a new genus of Neotropical distribution and a revision of the Neotropical genus Asklepia Liebke, 1938 (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Terry L; Zamorano, Laura S

    2014-01-01

    , Asklepia biolat Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., BIOLAT Biological Station, Pakitza, Perú, Asklepia bracheia Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., circa Explornapo Camp, Río Napo, Cocha Shimagai, Perú, Asklepia cuiabaensis Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Cuiabá, Brazil, Asklepia ecuadoriana Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Limoncocha, Ecuador, Asklepia kathleenae Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Belém, Brazil, Asklepia macrops Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Concordia, Río Uruguay, Argentina, Asklepia marchantaria Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Ilha de Marchantaria, Lago Camaleão, Brazil, Asklepia marituba Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., Marituba, Ananindeua, Brazil, Asklepia paraguayensis Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., San Lorenzo, Rio Paraguay, Paraguay, Asklepia pakitza Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., BIOLAT Biological Station, Pakitza, Perú, Asklepia pulchripennis (Bates, 1871), comb. n, Santarém, Rio Tapajós, Brazil, Asklepia samiriaensis Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., Boca del Río Samiria, Perú, Asklepia stalametlitos Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., Guayamer, Río Mamoré, Bolivia, Asklepia strandi Liebke, 1938, Guyana, Asklepia surinamensis Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., l'Hermitage, Surinam River, Surinam, Asklepia vigilante Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Boca del Río Samiria, Perú. Images of adults of all 18 genera are provided.

  19. Cardiovascular disease mortality in the Americas: current trends and disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fatima Marinho de Souza, Maria; Gawryszewski, Vilma Pinheiro; Orduñez, Pedro; Sanhueza, Antonio; Espinal, Marcos A

    2012-08-01

    To describe the current situation and trends in mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Americas and explore their association with economic indicators. This time series study analysed mortality data from 21 countries in the region of the Americas from 2000 to the latest available year. Age-adjusted death rates, annual variation in death rates. Regression analysis was used to estimate the annual variation and the association between age-adjusted rates and country income. Currently, CVD comprised 33.7% of all deaths in the Americas. Rates were higher in Guyana (292/100 000), Trinidad and Tobago (289/100 000) and Venezuela (246/100 000), and lower in Canada (108/100 000), Puerto Rico (121/100 000) and Chile (125/100 000). Male rates were higher than female rates in all countries. The trend analysis showed that CVD death rates in the Americas declined -19% overall (-20% among women and -18% among men). Most countries had a significant annual decline, except Guatemala, Guyana, Suriname, Paraguay and Panama. The largest annual declines were observed in Canada (-4.8%), the USA (-3.9%) and Puerto Rico (-3.6%). Minor declines were in Mexico (-0.8%) and Cuba (-1.1%). Compared with high-income countries the difference between the median of death rates in lower middle-income countries was 56.7% higher and between upper middle-income countries was 20.6% higher. CVD death rates have been decreasing in most countries in the Americas. Considerable disparities still remain in the current rates and trends.

  20. Review of mammalogical research in the Guianas of northern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Burton K

    2016-03-01

    Research on mammals in the Guianas of northern South America has had a checkered history. In this review, I summarize the notable contributions to mammalogical study in Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana. These studies began in the mid-18th century with the binomial nomenclature system of scientific classification created by the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus, who described 23 species new to science based on holotype specimens from the Guianas. Notwithstanding popular accounts by amateur naturalists visiting this region, over the next 7 decades there was only sporadic taxonomic work done on Guianan mammals primarily by researchers at European museums. The first comprehensive biological exploration took place in the 1840s during a geographic survey of the boundaries of British Guiana. However, it was not until almost half a century later that scientific publications began to regularly document the increasing species diversity in the region, including the prodigious work of Oldfield Thomas at the British Museum of Natural History in London. Another lull in the study of mammals occurred in the mid-1910s to the early 1960s after which foreign researchers began to rediscover the Guianas and their pristine habitats. This biological renaissance is still ongoing and I give a prospectus on the direction of future research in one of the last frontiers of tropical rainforest. An initiative that would be greatly beneficial is the establishment of a university network in the Guianas with graduate-based research to develop a cadre of professional experts on biodiversity and evolution as seen in other countries of South America. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Leading Causes of Cancer Mortality - Caribbean Region, 2003-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghi, Hilda; Quesnel-Crooks, Sarah; Sherman, Recinda; Joseph, Rachael; Kohler, Betsy; Andall-Brereton, Glennis; Ivey, Marsha A; Edwards, Brenda K; Mery, Les; Gawryszewski, Vilma; Saraiya, Mona

    2016-12-16

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide (1); in 2012, an estimated 65% of all cancer deaths occurred in the less developed regions of the world (2). In the Caribbean region, cancer is the second leading cause of mortality, with an estimated 87,430 cancer-related deaths reported in 2012 (3). The Pan American Health Organization defines the Caribbean region as a group of 27 countries that vary in size, geography, resources, and surveillance systems.* CDC calculated site- and sex-specific proportions of cancer deaths and age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for 21 English- and Dutch-speaking Caribbean countries, the United States, and two U.S. territories (Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands [USVI]), using the most recent 5 years of mortality data available from each jurisdiction during 2003-2013. The selection of years varied by availability of the data from the countries and territories in 2015. ASMR for all cancers combined ranged from 46.1 to 139.3 per 100,000. Among males, prostate cancers were the leading cause of cancer deaths, followed by lung cancers; the percentage of cancer deaths attributable to prostate cancer ranged from 18.4% in Suriname to 47.4% in Dominica, and the percentage of cancer deaths attributable to lung cancer ranged from 5.6% in Barbados to 24.4% in Bermuda. Among females, breast cancer was the most common cause of cancer deaths, ranging from 14.0% of cancer deaths in Belize to 29.7% in the Cayman Islands, followed by cervical cancer. Several of the leading causes of cancer deaths in the Caribbean can be reduced through primary and secondary preventions, including prevention of exposure to risk factors, screening, early detection, and timely and effective treatment.

  2. Uso de mosquiteros y otros materiales impregnados con insecticida para el control de la malaria en las Américas

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    R. H. Zimmerman

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se analiza el uso actual de mosquiteros y de otros materiales impregnados con insecticida en las Américas. Se examinan diversos estudios efectuados en Brasil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Perú, Suriname y Venezuela y se llega a la conclusión de que, en su mayor parte, estos estudios adolecen de graves deficiencias de diseño experimental, problemas de excesiva brevedad, y medición inadecuada de indicadores de salud. En el análisis se resalta la gran dificultad de llevar a cabo estudios científicos que buscan determinar el efecto de los materiales tratados con insecticida en la incidencia de malaria. En particular, la baja incidencia de malaria en las Américas, la elevada prevalencia de Plasmodium vivax y de casos recurrentes, y la relación existente entre los patrones de actividad del ser humano y los hábitos de picadura crepusculares de ciertos vectores de la malaria impiden hacer experimentos de fácil diseño y ejecución. Por ahora sería prematuro usar mosquiteros u otros materiales impregnados con insecticida como componentes principales de un programa integral para el control de la malaria. No obstante, se recomienda que se considere la posibilidad de realizar ensayos e intervenciones bien diseñados a gran escala, siempre que se basen en un conocimiento profundo de la dinámica de la transmisión de la malaria en la zona en estudio.

  3. [Resistance to first-line drugs and major genotypic lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the 3 French Department of the Americas: Profiles, evolution, and trends (1995-2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, J; Berchel, M; Prudenté, F; Streit, E; Bomer, A-G; Schuster, F; Vanhomwegen, J; Paasch, D; Galbert, I; Valery, E; Aga, R; Rastogi, N

    2014-05-01

    This is the first overview on resistant and multidrug resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis circulating in the French Department of the Americas (Guadeloupe, Martinique, and French Guiana) over 17 years (January 1995-December 2011). A total of 1,239 cases were studied: 1,199 new cases (primary and multidrug resistance of 11.8 and 1.6% respectively), and 40 persistent (defined as cases with a previous history of positive culture over 6 months interval and whose spoligotypes remain unchanged), in which significantly higher proportions of resistance to at least isoniazid (22.5%, P = 0.002), rifampicin (20.0%, P < 0.001), and multidrug resistance (17.5%, P < 0.001) were observed as compared to new cases. The 281 spoligotypes obtained showed the presence of five major lineages, T (29.9%), LAM (23.9%), Haarlem (22.1%), EAI (7.1%), and X (6.7%). Two of these lineages, X and LAM, predominate among resistant and multidrug resistant isolates respectively (X: 10.5% of resistant isolates, P = 0.04; LAM: 42.3% of multidrug resistant isolates, P = 0.02). Four of the 19 major spoligo-profiles, corresponding to SIT 20, 64, 45, and 46, were significantly associated with drug resistance. Among them, genotype SIT 20, associated with monoresistance to isoniazid and multidrug resistance, would be actively and persistently in circulation, since 1999, in French Guiana, department in which one may also observe the presence of strains of M. tuberculosis phylogeographically associated to Guiana and Suriname (SIT 131 and SIT 1340).

  4. Influence of corona discharge on the ozone budget in the tropical free troposphere: a case study of deep convection during GABRIEL

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    Bozem, H.; Fischer, H.; Gurk, C.; Schiller, C. L.; Parchatka, U.; Koenigstedt, R.; Stickler, A.; Martinez, M.; Harder, H.; Kubistin, D.; Williams, J.; Eerdekens, G.; Lelieveld, J.

    2014-02-01

    Convective redistribution of ozone and its precursors between the boundary layer (BL) and the free troposphere (FT) influences photochemistry, in particular that of the middle and upper troposphere (UT). We present a case study of convective transport during the GABRIEL campaign over the tropical rain forest in Suriname in October 2005. During a measurement flight on 12 October the inflow and outflow regions of a cumulonimbus cloud (Cb) have been characterized, providing evidence of convective transport. We identified a distinct layer between 9 and 11 km altitude with enhanced mixing ratios of CO, O3, HOx, acetone and acetonitrile. The elevated O3 contradicts the expectation that convective transport brings low ozone air from the boundary layer to the outflow region. The enhanced mixing ratio of ozone in the outflow was mainly of dynamical origin. Entrainment of ozone rich air at the outflow level into the convective outflow accounts for 62% (range: 33-91%) of the observed O3. Ozone is enhanced by only 5-6% by photochemical production in the outflow due to enhanced NO from lightning, based on steady state model calculations, using in-situ observations including the first reported HOx measurements over the tropical rainforest. The "excess" ozone in the outflow is most probably due to direct production by corona discharge associated with lightning. We deduce a production rate of 5.12 × 1028 molecules O3 flash-1 (range: 9.89 × 1026-9.82 × 1028 molecules O3 flash-1), which is at the upper limit of the range of the values reported previously.

  5. Dispersal and Diving Adjustments of the Green Turtle Chelonia mydas in Response to Dynamic Environmental Conditions during Post-Nesting Migration.

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    Philippine Chambault

    Full Text Available In response to seasonality and spatial segregation of resources, sea turtles undertake long journeys between their nesting sites and foraging grounds. While satellite tracking has made it possible to outline their migration routes, we still have little knowledge of how they select their foraging grounds and adapt their migration to dynamic environmental conditions. Here, we analyzed the trajectories and diving behavior of 19 adult green turtles (Chelonia mydas during their post-nesting migration from French Guiana and Suriname to their foraging grounds off the coast of Brazil. First Passage Time analysis was used to identify foraging areas located off Ceará state of Brazil, where the associated habitat corresponds to favorable conditions for seagrass growth, i.e. clear and shallow waters. The dispersal and diving patterns of the turtles revealed several behavioral adaptations to the strong hydrodynamic processes induced by both the North Brazil current and the Amazon River plume. All green turtles migrated south-eastward after the nesting season, confirming that they coped with the strong counter North Brazil current by using a tight corridor close to the shore. The time spent within the Amazon plume also altered the location of their feeding habitats as the longer individuals stayed within the plume, the sooner they initiated foraging. The green turtles performed deeper and shorter dives while crossing the mouth of the Amazon, a strategy which would help turtles avoid the most turbulent upper surface layers of the plume. These adjustments reveal the remarkable plasticity of this green turtle population when reducing energy costs induced by migration.

  6. Diversification and reproductive isolation: cryptic species in the only New World high-duty cycle bat, Pteronotus parnellii

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    Clare Elizabeth L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular techniques are increasingly employed to recognize the presence of cryptic species, even among commonly observed taxa. Previous studies have demonstrated that bats using high-duty cycle echolocation may be more likely to speciate quickly. Pteronotus parnellii is a widespread Neotropical bat and the only New World species to use high-duty cycle echolocation, a trait otherwise restricted to Old World taxa. Here we analyze morphological and acoustic variation and genetic divergence at the mitochondrial COI gene, the 7th intron region of the y-linked Dby gene and the nuclear recombination-activating gene 2, and provide extensive evidence that P. parnellii is actually a cryptic species complex. Results Central American populations form a single species while three additional species exist in northern South America: one in Venezuela, Trinidad and western Guyana and two occupying sympatric ranges in Guyana and Suriname. Reproductive isolation appears nearly complete (only one potential hybrid individual found. The complex likely arose within the last ~6 million years with all taxa diverging quickly within the last ~1-2 million years, following a pattern consistent with the geological history of Central and northern South America. Significant variation in cranial measures and forearm length exists between three of the four groups, although no individual morphological character can discriminate these in the field. Acoustic analysis reveals small differences (5–10 kHz in echolocation calls between allopatric cryptic taxa that are unlikely to provide access to different prey resources but are consistent with divergence by drift in allopatric species or through selection for social recognition. Conclusions This unique approach, considering morphological, acoustic and multi-locus genetic information inherited maternally, paternally and bi-parentally, provides strong support to conclusions about the cessation of gene flow and

  7. War and hunting poisons of the New World. Part 1. Notes on the early history of curare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisset, N G

    1992-02-01

    The history to about 1850 of the muscle-relaxant poison curare is discussed, especially the developments leading to the botanical identification of the plants that yield the alkaloidal active principles: Loganiaceae (Strychnos species) and Menispermaceae (Abuta, Chondrodendron, and Curarea species). One of the earliest encounters with the poison appears to have been during the exploration of the Lake Maracaibo region in Colombia by Alonso Pérez de Tolosa in 1548. It is pointed out (yet again) that Sir Walter Ralegh did not bring back the poison to Europe in 1595 and that it was Keymis who first came across the word ourari when exploring the lower reaches of the Orinoco in 1596. Gumilla, La Condamine, Ulloa, Veigl, and others gave much additional information about the poison during the 18th century. Scientific studies began in the latter part of the century when Schreber listed the botanical identities of four of the plant components entering into the curare prepared by the Akawai Indians of Surinam. As far as is known, none of these people actually saw curare being made. Thereafter, progress was rapid. Humboldt and Bonpland were the first trained scientists to witness the preparation of the poison, at the very beginning of the 19th century. Subsequent exploration by Martius and Spix, Poeppig, Youd, the Schomburgk brothers, De Castelnau and Deville, Spruce, and others, up to the middle of the century, extended and deepened botanical and ethnological knowledge of curare. Study of its physiology started at about that time with the classical experiments of Rudolf von Koelliker and Claude Bernard.

  8. Treerunners, cryptic lizards of the Plica plica group (Squamata, Sauria, Tropiduridae) of northern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John C.; Jowers, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The arboreal, Neotropical lizard Plica plica (Linnaeus, 1758) has been long considered a widespread species with a distribution east of the Andes. A preliminary examination of 101 specimens from about 28 locations mostly north of the Amazon suggests that Plica plica is a cryptic species complex with taxa that can be distinguished on the basis of the number of scale rows at mid-body; the arrangement, shape and ornamentation of scales on the snout; the number of lamellae on the fourth toe; the number of subocular plates; as well as other commonly used external morphological traits. The allopatric species discussed here are concordant with northern South American geography. Plica plica (Linnaeus, 1758) is associated with the Guiana Shield (Suriname, Guyana and Venezuela). A second species, P. caribeana sp. n. is associated with the Caribbean Coastal Range of Venezuela including Trinidad and Tobago. A third, distinctive species, P. rayi sp. n. is associated with the middle Orinoco at the eastern edge of the Guiana Shield. Two other species, P. kathleenae sp. n. and P. medemi sp. n., each based upon a single specimen, one from the Sierra Acarai Mountains of Guyana, and the other from southern Meta, Colombia are described. In addition to morphological analyses, we sequenced 12S and 16S rDNA gene fragments from one Plica plica from Trinidad to assess its relationship and taxonomy to other mainland Plica cf. plica. The results suggest Plica caribeana sp. n. likely diverged prior to the separation of Trinidad from northern Venezuela. Isolation in the Caribbean Coastal Range during its rapid uplift in the late Miocene, combined with a marine incursion into northern Venezuela may have contributed to their genetic divergence from other populations. PMID:24363569

  9. Returning ex-patriot Chinese to Guangdong, China, increase the risk for local transmission of Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiufeng; Wu, De; Zhong, Haojie; Guan, Dawei; Zhang, Huan; Tan, Qiqi; Zhou, Huiqiong; Zhang, Meng; Ning, Dan; Zhang, Baohuan; Ke, Changwen; Song, Tie; Lin, Jinyan; Zhang, Yonghui; Koopmans, Marion; Gao, George F

    2017-10-01

    Fast expansion and linkage to microcephaly and Guillain Barre syndrome have made Zika virus (ZIKV) track attention of global health authority concerns. The epidemiology, virological characteristics and genetic evolution of introduced ZIKV to Guangdong, China, were investigated. Analyses of the epidemiological characteristics and genetic diversity of ZIKV isolates were performed. A total of twenty-eight confirmed ZIKV infection cases were imported into China in 2016, of which 19 were imported into Guangdong, China from Venezuela (16), the Samoa Islands (1), Suriname (1) and Guatemala (1). Serial sampling studies of the cases indicated longer shedding times of ZIKV particles from urine and saliva samples than from serum and conjunctiva swab samples. Seven ZIKV strains were successfully isolated from serum, urine and conjunctiva swab samples using cell culture and neonatal mouse injection methods. Genomic analysis indicated that all viruses belonged to the Asian lineage but had different evolutionary transmission routes with different geographic origins. The molecular clock phylogenetic analysis of the ZIKV genomes indicated independent local transmission that appeared to have been previously established in Venezuela and Samoa. Additionally, we found 7 unique non-synonymous mutations in the genomes of ZIKV that were imported to China. The mutations may indicate that ZIKV has undergone independent evolutionary history not caused by sudden adaptation to Chinese hosts. The increasing number of ex-patriot Chinese returning from ZIKV hyper-endemic areas to Guangdong combined with the presence of a variety of Aedes species indicate the potential for autochthonous transmission of ZIKV in Guangdong. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Progress in reducing inequalities in reproductive, maternal, newborn,' and child health in Latin America and the Caribbean: an unfinished agenda

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    María Clara Restrepo-Méndez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To expand the "Countdown to 2015" analyses of health inequalities beyond the 75 countries being monitored worldwide to include all countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC that have adequate data available. METHODS: Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys were used to monitor progress in health intervention coverage and inequalities in 13 LAC countries, five of which are included in the Countdown (Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala, Haiti, and Peru and eight that are not (Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Guyana, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Suriname. The outcomes included neonatal and under-5 year mortality rates, child stunting prevalence, and the composite coverage index-a weighted average of eight indicators of coverage in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health. The slope index of inequality and concentration index were used to assess absolute and relative inequalities. RESULTS: The composite coverage index showed monotonic patterns over wealth quintiles, with lowest levels in the poorest quintile. Under-5 and neonatal mortality as well as stunting prevalence were highest among the poor. In most countries, intervention coverage increased, while under-5 mortality and stunting prevalence fell most rapidly among the poor, so that inequalities were reduced over time. However, Bolivia, Guatemala, Haiti, Nicaragua, and Peru still show marked inequalities. Brazil has practically eliminated inequalities in stunting. CONCLUSIONS: LAC countries presented substantial progress in terms of reducing inequalities in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health interventions, child mortality, and nutrition. However, the poorest 20% of the population in most countries is still lagging behind, and renewed actions are needed to improve equity.

  11. Slave trading and slavery in the Dutch colonial empire: A global comparison

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    Rik van Welie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Compares slave trading and slavery in the Dutch colonial empire, specifically between the former trading and territorial domains of the West India Company (WIC, the Americas and West Africa, and of the East India Company (VOC, South East Asia, the Indian Ocean region, and South and East Africa. Author presents the latest quantitative assessments concerning the Dutch transatlantic as well as Indian Ocean World slave trade, placing the volume, direction, and characteristics of the forced migration in a historical context. He describes how overall the Dutch were a second-rate player in Atlantic slavery, though in certain periods more important, with according to recent estimates a total of about 554.300 slaves being transported by the Dutch to the Americas. He indicates that while transatlantic slave trade and slavery received much scholarly attention resulting in detailed knowledge, the slave trade and slavery in the Indian Ocean World by the Dutch is comparatively underresearched. Based on demand-side estimates throughout Dutch colonies of the Indonesian archipelago and elsewhere, he deduces that probably close to 500.000 slaves were transported by the Dutch in the Indian Ocean World. In addition, the author points at important differences between the nature and contexts of slavery, as in the VOC domains slavery was mostly of an urban and domestic character, contrary to its production base in the Americas. Slavery further did in the VOC areas not have a rigid racial identification like in WIC areas, with continuing, postslavery effects, and allowed for more flexibility, while unlike the plantation colonies in the Caribbean, as Suriname, not imported slaves but indigenous peoples formed the majority. He also points at relative exceptions, e.g. imported slaves for production use in some VOC territories, as the Banda islands and the Cape colony, and a certain domestic and urban focus of slavery in Curaçao.

  12. BIOLOGIA E CONTROLE DE Pycnoscelus Surinamensis L. POR EXTRATOS VEGETAIS E FUNGOS ENTOMOPATÓGÊNICOS COMERCIAIS

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    BRUNO MARCUS FREIRE VIEIRA LIMA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the susceptibility of Coackroach Suriname (Pycnoscelus surinamensis to entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, and vegetable products. The first phase of the research aimed to study the biological cycle of the insect. The second step was using bioassays in the laboratory using eight commercial products at different doses and each with three replicates being made three applications at weekly intervals. 10 cockroaches were placed in each container and kept in this chamber at 25 °C and U.R. of 70%. The treatments were: Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill (Boveril® B102, B. bassiana (Bovenat®, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok (Metarril® M102; M. anisopliae (Metanat®, all doses of 1, 2, 3 and 5 kg ha-1; azadirachtin (Natuneem®, neem oil + pepper extract (Nim-I-Go®, neem + timbó + citronella + fedegoso + geranium + organic acids (Compostonat®, rotenone (Rotenat®, all at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 5.0%, and control (distilled water. The Compostonat® at a dose of 5% was 100% effective in controlling the 1st application and also excelled on the lowest dose applied, reaching 83.33% efficiency in the 3rd application at a dose of 0.5%. We observed five instars: the first lasts an average of 18 days, the second 22, third 36, fourth and fifth in 45 days 63 days on average. Reproduce between 45 and 60 days after adult average of 25 nymphs per ootheca and average adult length of 24 mm.

  13. Eugenia uniflora Dentifrice for Treating Gingivitis in Children: Antibacterial Assay and Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovito, Vanessa de Carvalho; Freires, Irlan Almeida; Ferreira, Danilo Augusto de Holanda; Paulo, Marçal de Queiroz; Castro, Ricardo Dias de

    2016-01-01

    School-age children are frequently at high risk for the onset of biofilm-dependent conditions, including dental caries and periodontal diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of a dentifrice containing Eugenia uniflora Linn. (Surinam cherry) extract versus a triclosan-based comparator in treating gingivitis in children aged 10-12 years. The in vitro antibacterial potential of the dentifrice was tested against oral pathogens (Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis and Lactobacillus casei). Then a phase-II clinical trial was conducted with 50 subjects aged 10-12 years, with clinical signs of gingivitis. The subjects were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n=25) and control group (n=25), in which participants used the experimental dentifrice and a triclosan-based fluoridated dentifrice (Colgate Total 12(r)), respectively. Clinical examinations assessed the presence of gingivitis (primary outcome) and biofilm accumulation (secondary outcome) using the Gingival-Bleeding Index (GBI) and Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S), respectively, at baseline and after seven days of tooth brushing 3x/day. The data were analyzed using paired and unpaired t-test (GBI) and Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney (OHI-S), with p≤0.05. The experimental dentifrice showed efficient antibacterial activity in vitro. In the clinical trial, a significant reduction in gingival bleeding was observed in both experimental and control groups (puniflora dentifrice showed anti-gingivitis properties in children aged 10-12 years. Thus, it may be a potentially efficient and safe product to be used alternatively in preventive dental practice.

  14. Ethnic background and differences in health care use: a national cross-sectional study of native Dutch and immigrant elderly in the Netherlands

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    Foets Marleen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigrant elderly are a rapidly growing group in Dutch society; little is known about their health care use. This study assesses whether ethnic disparities in health care use exist and how they can be explained. Applying an established health care access model as explanatory factors, we tested health and socio-economic status, and in view of our research population we added an acculturation variable, elaborated into several sub-domains. Methods Cross-sectional study using data from the "Social Position, Health and Well-being of Elderly Immigrants" survey, conducted in 2003 in the Netherlands. The study population consisted of first generation immigrants aged 55 years and older from the four major immigrant populations in the Netherlands and a native Dutch reference group. The average response rate to the survey was 46% (1503/3284; country of origin: Turkey n = 307, Morocco n = 284, Surinam n = 308, the Netherlands Antilles n = 300, the Netherlands n = 304. Results High ethnic disparities exist in health and health care utilisation. Immigrant elderly show a higher use of GP services and lower use of physical therapy and home care. Both self-reported health status (need factor and language competence (part of acculturation have high explanatory power for all types of health services utilisation; the additional impact of socio-economic status and education is low. Conclusion For all health services, health disparities among all four major immigrant groups in the Netherlands translate into utilisation disparities, aggravated by lack of language competence. The resulting pattern of systematic lower health services utilisation of elderly immigrants is a challenge for health care providers and policy makers.

  15. Estimativas de possiveis recursos de petroleo e gas na America Central e na America do Sul [Estimates of possible petroleum and gas resources in Central American and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, C.S.

    2001-01-01

    O U.S. Geological Survey recentemente completou estimativas de possíveis recursos de petróleo e gás em 130 áreas petrolíferas pré-determinadas no mundo (USGS, 2000). Vinte e três destas áreas ficam na América do Sul, na América Central, e no Caribe (fig. 1). Os resultados estão apresentados na tabela 1. Nas 23 áreas, estimamos um total de 105 BBO e um total de 487 TCFG. A região composta de América Central mais América do Sul ficou em terceiro lugar no mundo em termos de possíveis recursos de petróleo e gás. No primeiro lugar ficou o Oriente Médio e no segundo lugar ficou a antiga União Soviética (USGS, 2000). As áreas com maiores probabilidades de encontrar depósitos gigantes de petróleo e gás se localizam nas áreas do Oceano Atlântico começando com a Bacia de Santos no sul até a Bacia Guyana-Suriname no norte. As possibilidades de existirem depósitos gigantes são maiores nas áreas submersas do mar até profundidades de 3,600 m. Diversos depósitos gigantes de petróleo foram descobertos no mar na Bacia de Campos e ainda podem serem encontrados depósitos similares na Bacia de Campos e suas imediações.

  16. Timing and magnitude of the Caribbean mid-Holocene highstand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashe, E.; Khan, N.; Horton, B.; Brocard, G. Y.; Dutton, A.; Engelhart, S. E.; Kopp, R. E.; Hill, D. F.; Peltier, W. R.; Scatena, F. N.

    2015-12-01

    We present a database of published and new relative sea-level (RSL) data for the past 13 ka, which constrains the Holocene sea-level histories of the Caribbean coast of Central and South America (Florida Keys, USA to Guyana) and the Bahamas and Greater and Lesser Antilles islands. Our evaluation of mangrove peat and Acropora palmata sea-level indicators from geological investigations provides 503 sea-level index points and 242 limiting dates. We subdivide the database into 21 regions based on the availability of data, tectonic setting, and distance from the former Laurentide ice sheet. Most index points (75%) and limiting dates (90%) are <8 ka, although there is an unusual temporal distribution with the greatest amount of the data (~28%) occurring between 6-8 ka. We reassess and screen radiocarbon and U/Th ages of mangrove peat and coral data. We use the stratigraphic position (overburden thickness) of index points account for sediment compaction, and use the paleotidal model of Hill et al. (2011) to account for Holocene changes in paleotidal range. A noisy-input Gaussian process regression model calculates that the rates of RSL change were highest during the early Holocene (3-8 mm/yr) and have decreased over time (< 2 mm/yr), which is related to the reduction of ice equivalent meltwater input and collapse of the proglacial forebulge during the Holocene. The sea-level reconstructions demonstrate that RSL did not exceed the present height (0 m) during the Holocene in the majority of locations, with the exception of a small highstand (<2 m) on the northern coast of South America along the Orinoco Delta and Suriname/Guyana located furthest away from the former Laurentide Ice Sheet. The different sea-level histories are an ongoing isostatic response to deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and suggest subsidence resulting from collapse of the proglacial forebulge reaches further south than previously considered.

  17. Cancer incidence and mortality of Surinamese migrants in the Netherlands: in-between Surinamese and Dutch levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Graciëlle; Mans, Dennis R A; Garssen, Joop; Visser, Otto; Kramer, Daniëlle; Kunst, Anton E

    2013-07-01

    It has been suggested that the cancer risk of migrants from low-income to high-income countries will converge toward the levels of their host country. However, comparisons with country of origin are mostly lacking. We compared cancer incidence and mortality rates of Surinamese migrants in the Netherlands to both native Dutch and Surinamese levels. Data covering the period 1995-2008 were obtained from Surinamese and Dutch national cancer registries and national cause-of-death registries. Cancer incidence was studied for 21 types of cancer and cancer mortality for nine types. We calculated age-standardized incidence/mortality ratios (SIR/SMR) for the Surinamese migrants and for Suriname, using the native Dutch population as reference. Significantly lower overall cancer incidence (SIR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.69-0.84) and mortality rates (SMR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.55-0.72) were found for Surinamese migrants compared to native Dutch. Generally, cancer risk was lower for most cancers (e.g., cancer of the breast, colon and rectum, lung), but higher for other cancers (e.g., cancer of the uterine cervix, liver). For most cancers, cancer risk of the Surinamese migrants was in-between Surinamese and native Dutch levels. Importantly, for many cancers, migrants' incidence and mortality rates had not closely approached native Dutch rates. For skin cancer, incidence levels for Surinamese migrants were lower than both Surinamese and native Dutch levels. The results suggest that cancer incidence and mortality rates of Surinamese migrants generally converge from Surinamese toward Dutch levels, though not for all cancer types. Overall, Surinamese migrants still had a much more favorable cancer profile than the native Dutch population.

  18. Learning from one another: evaluating the impact of horizontal knowledge exchange for environmental management and governance

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    Céline Tschirhart

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing advocacy for inclusive community-based approaches to environmental management, and growing evidence that involving communities improves the sustainability of social-ecological systems. Most community-based approaches rely on partnerships and knowledge exchange between communities, civil society organizations, and professionals such as practitioners and/or scientists. However, few models have actively integrated more horizontal knowledge exchange from community to community. We reflect on the transferability of community owned solutions between indigenous communities by exploring challenges and achievements of community peer-to-peer knowledge exchange as a way of empowering communities to face up to local environmental and social challenges. Using participatory visual methods, indigenous communities of the North Rupununi (Guyana identified and documented their community owned solutions through films and photostories. Indigenous researchers from this community then shared their solutions with six other communities that faced similar challenges within Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela, Colombia, French Guiana, and Brazil. They were supported by in-country civil society organizations and academics. We analyzed the impact of the knowledge exchange through interviews, field reports, and observations. Our results show that indigenous community members were significantly more receptive to solutions emerging from, and communicated by, other indigenous peoples, and that this approach was a significant motivating force for galvanizing communities to make changes in their community. We identified a range of enabling factors, such as building capacity for a shared conceptual and technical understanding, that strengthens the exchange between communities and contributes to a lasting impact. With national and international policy-makers mobilizing significant financial resources for biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation, we argue

  19. Reported cases of selected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The number of reported cases of measles, poliomyelitis, tetanus, diphtheria, and whooping cough for the period of January 1, 1994 to the date of the last report is presented in tabular form by country with a comparison for the same epidemiological period in 1993. The countries included are Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, Brazil, Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Mexico, Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Antigua and Barbuda, the Bahamas, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent, Saint Lucia, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Canada, and the US. The figures for measles are given as reported and as confirmed. In some countries, the reported number of cases of measles decreased from 1993 figures (Venezuela 5275 vs. 6060, Paraguay 26 vs. 958, Brazil 272 vs. 958, Canada 30 vs. 38), but, in others, the figure increased from 1993 (Mexico 47 vs. 21, the US 155 vs. 86). There were no reported cases of poliomyelitis for either year in any country. The figures for tetanus are divided into nonneonatal and neonatal. In Brazil the number of nonneonatal cases decreased to 360 from 371 in 1993, and the number of neonatal cases decreased to 28 from 65. In Mexico, nonneonatal cases decreased to 28 from 45, but neonatal cases increased to 23 from 20 in 1993. The number of cases of diphtheria cases in Brazil decreased to 28 from 65 in the same period of 1993. The number of cases of whooping cough decreased to 431 from 1651 in Brazil and to 51 from 70 in Mexico. However, the number of cases in Canada increased to 1047 from 784.

  20. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    Brazil occupies an area of about 8.5 million square kilometers -- almost half of the South American continent. The dominant geographic feature is the Amazon basin. The Amazon River and its more than 200 tributaries drain about 60 percent of the country. The basin is a vast tropical rain forest, whereas the remainder of Brazil is made up predominantly of highlands. The Central Highlands, which extends into the Amazon basin, occupies nearly all of southern Brazil and includes major mountain chains such as the Serra do Mar, Serra da Mantiqueira, and Serra do Espinhago. The Guiana Highlands fringe the northern Amazon basin and extend into Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, and French Guiana. Lowland areas other than the Amazon basin are found in western Mato Grosso, and along the Atlantic coast from French Guiana to Uruguay. The geology of Brazil is dominated structurally and areally by three major shields composed of crystalline rocks of Archean and Proterozoic age. Collectively they comprise the Brazilian complex which is probably the largest Precambrian outcrop in the world. The complex is made up of gneisses, granites, mica schists, quartzites, dolomites, skarns, diorites, itabirites and gabbros, many of which are deeply metamorphosed. Faults, quartz veins, and dikes are common. Recurrent granitization has occurred from the Precambrian to Late Tertiary. The area of Brazil is large and its geology is favorable, in places, for every known type of uranium deposit. This is not reflected in the amount of 'known' and 'inferred' reserves -- slightly more than 21,000 tons. Rather, it is an indication of the small amount of exploration done, taking into account the large area to be covered. The speculative potential can only be guessed. It is guessed to be 500,000 tons

  1. Spatiotemporal dynamics of DENV-2 Asian-American genotype lineages in the Americas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiana Mir

    Full Text Available The Asian/American (AS/AM genotype of dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2 has been evolving in the Americas over the last 30 years, leading to several waves of dengue epidemics and to the emergence of different viral lineages in the region. In this study, we investigate the spatiotemporal dissemination pattern of the DENV-2 lineages at a regional level. We applied phylogenetic and phylogeographic analytical methods to a comprehensive data set of 582 DENV-2 E gene sequences of the AS/AM genotype isolated from 29 different American countries over a period of 30 years (1983 to 2012. Our study reveals that genetic diversity of DENV-2 AS/AM genotype circulating in the Americas mainly resulted from one single founder event and can be organized in at least four major lineages (I to IV, which emerged in the Caribbean region at the early 1980s and then spread and die out with different dynamics. Lineages I and II dominate the epidemics in the Caribbean region during the 1980s and early 1990 s, lineage III becomes the prevalent DENV-2 one in the Caribbean and South America during the 1990 s, whereas lineage IV dominates the epidemics in South and Central America during the 2000s. Suriname and Guyana seem to represent important entry points for DENV-2 from the Lesser Antilles to South America, whereas Venezuela, Brazil and Nicaragua were pointed as the main secondary hubs of dissemination to other mainland countries. Our study also indicates that DENV-2 AS/AM genotype was disseminated within South America following two main routes. The first route hits Venezuela and the western side of the Andes, while the second route mainly hits Brazil and the eastern side of the Andes. The phenomenon of DENV-2 lineage replacement across successive epidemic outbreaks was a common characteristic in all American countries, although the timing of lineage replacements greatly vary across locations.

  2. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Esther Captain en Guno Jones, Oorlogserfgoed overzee: De erfenis van de Tweede Wereldoorlog in Aruba, Curaçao, Indonesië en Suriname (Fridus StijlenCynthia Chou, The Orang Suku Laut of Riau, Indonesia: The inalienable gift of territory (Timothy P. BarnardMarshall Clark, Maskulinitas: Culture, gender and politics inIndonesia (Will DerksMatthew Isaac Cohen, Performing otherness: Java and Bali on international stages, 1905-1952 (SuryadiMarleen Dieleman, Juliette Koning and Peter Post (eds, Chinese Indonesians and regime change (Dewi AnggraeniWim van den Doel, Zo ver de wereld strekt: De geschiedenis van Nederland overzee vanaf 1800 (Hans HägerdalMichael Feener and Terenjit Sevea (eds, Islamicconnections: Muslim societies in South and Southeast Asia (Michael LaffanR. Michael Feener, Muslim legal thought in Modern Indonesia (Stijn Cornelis van HuisZane Goebel, Language, migration, and identity: Neighbourhood talk in Indonesia (Sheri Lynn GibbingsLizzy van Leeuwen, Lost in mall: An ethnography of middle-class Jakarta in the 1990s (Andy FullerAlfred W. McCoy, Policing America’s empire: The United States, the Philippines, and the rise of the surveillance state (Florentino RodaoFrans H. Peters, Vervlogen verwachtingen: De teloorgang van Nieuw-Guinea in 1961-1962 (Jaap TimmerChristina Schwenkel, The American war in contemporary Vietnam: Transnational remembrance and representation (Hans HägerdalYeoh Seng Guan, Loh Wei Leng, Khoo Salma Nasution and Neil Khor, Penang and its region: The story of an Asian entrepôt (David Kloos

  3. Implementation of viscoelastic mud-induced energy attenuation in the third-generation wave model, SWAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyramzade, Mostafa; Siadatmousavi, Seyed Mostafa

    2018-01-01

    The interaction of waves with fluid mud can dissipate the wave energy significantly over few wavelengths. In this study, the third-generation wave model, SWAN, was advanced to include attenuation of wave energy due to interaction with a viscoelastic fluid mud layer. The performances of implemented viscoelastic models were verified against an analytical solution and viscous formulations for simple one-dimensional propagation cases. Stationary and non-stationary test cases in the Surinam coast and the Atchafalaya Shelf showed that the inclusion of the mud-wave interaction term in the third-generation wave model enhances the model performance in real applications. A high value of mud viscosity (of the order of 0.1 m2/s) was required in both field cases to remedy model overestimation at high frequency ranges of the wave spectrum. The use of frequency-dependent mud viscosity value improved the performance of model, especially in the frequency range of 0.2-0.35 Hz in the wave spectrum. In addition, the mud-wave interaction might affect the high frequency part of the spectrum, and this part of the wave spectrum is also affected by energy transfer from wind to waves, even for the fetch lengths of the order of 10 km. It is shown that exclusion of the wind input term in such cases might result in different values for parameters of mud layer when inverse modeling procedure was employed. Unlike viscous models for wave-mud interaction, the inverse modeling results to a set of mud parameters with the same performance when the viscoelastic model is used. It provides an opportunity to select realistic mud parameters which are in more agreement with in situ measurements.

  4. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and established risk factors among populations of sub-Saharan African descent in Europe: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Graft Aikins Ama

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most European countries are ethnically and culturally diverse. Globally, cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death. The major risk factors for CVD have been well established. This picture holds true for all regions of the world and in different ethnic groups. However, the prevalence of CVD and related risk factors vary among ethnic groups. Methods This article provides a review of current understanding of the epidemiology of vascular disease, principally coronary heart disease (CHD, stroke and related risk factors among populations of Sub-Sahara African descent (henceforth, African descent in comparison with the European populations in Europe. Results Compared with European populations, populations of African descent have an increased risk of stroke, whereas CHD is less common. They also have higher rates of hypertension and diabetes than European populations. Obesity is highly prevalent, but smoking rate is lower among African descent women. Older people of African descent have more favourable lipid profile and dietary habits than their European counterparts. Alcohol consumption is less common among populations of African descent. The rate of physical activity differs between European countries. Dutch African-Suriname men and women are less physically active than the White-Dutch whereas British African women are more physically active than women in the general population. Literature on psychosocial stress shows inconsistent results. Conclusion Hypertension and diabetes are highly prevalent among African populations, which may explain their high rate of stroke in Europe. The relatively low rate of CHD may be explained by the low rates of other risk factors including a more favourable lipid profile and the low prevalence of smoking. The risk factors are changing, and on the whole, getting worse especially among African women. Cohort studies and clinical trials are therefore needed among these groups to

  5. [Leptospirosis in French Guiana and the Guiana shield: Current knowledge in 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelboin, L; Bourhy, P; Le Turnier, P; Schaub, R; Mosnier, E; Berlioz-Arthaud, A; Reynaud, Y; Nacher, M; De Thoisy, B; Carles, G; Richard-Hansen, C; Demar, M; Picardeau, M; Djossou, F

    2017-08-01

    Leptospirosis is a cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. Whether the distribution is worldwide, the hot and humid climate of the tropics is particularly conducive to its expansion. In most French overseas departments and territories, leptospirosis is considered as a public health problem. In French Guiana, a French department located in the northeastern part of the Amazon rainforest, it is supposed to be rare. The objective of this review was to make an inventory of the knowledge on human and animal leptospirosis in French Guiana and neighboring countries. A comprehensive search was conducted through the indexed and informal medical literature in English, French, Spanish and Portuguese. Thus, respectively ten and four publications were identified on human and animal leptospirosis in French Guiana, published between 1940 and 1995 in the form of case reports or case series. The publications concerning this disease in the other countries of the Guiana Shield, eastern Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and Brazilian state of Amapá, also scarce or nonexistent. However recent data from the French National Centre of leptospirosis showed a recent and sudden increase in the number of cases in the department, probably partly due to the development of diagnostic tools such as Elisa IgM serology. It is likely that leptospirosis is a neglected disease in the region, due to the lack of diagnostic tools readily available, the lack of knowledge of the local clinicians on this disease and the existence of many other pathogens with similar clinical presentation such as malaria, arboviruses and Q fever and Amazonian toxoplasmosis. The establishment of more large-scale studies on animal and human leptospirosis is necessary and urgent to know the true burden of this disease in our region.

  6. Cultural differences in family, marital, and gender-role values among immigrants and majority members in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends-Tóth, Judit; van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2009-06-01

    This study examined the size of differences in self-reported family, marital, and gender-role values in five cultural groups in the Netherlands (6338 Dutch mainstreamers and 422 Turkish, 369 Moroccan, 429 Surinamese, and 394 Antillean first- and second-generation immigrants). It was found that the three value scales were neither completely independent, nor could they be merged into a single value scale. The factor structures of all scales were identical for the five cultural groups, implying that the concepts can be compared. Age, sex, and notably education accounted for a substantial part of the cultural differences in all values. Cultural differences were larger for marital and family values than for gender-role values. Family and marital values yielded the same rank order of mean scores in the five cultural groups: Turks and Moroccans scored the lowest (having the most traditional values), followed by Surinamers, Antilleans, and Dutch mainstreamers. This rank order corresponds with the ethnic hierarchy of cultural groups that is based on the evaluation of ethnic groups by mainstreamers according to their liking of and likeness to ethnic groups. Generational differences were not found for family and gender-role values but first-generation immigrants in all groups had more traditional marital values than had second-generation immigrants. It was concluded that the theoretical framework based on a combination of three Hofstede dimensions (individualism-collectivism, power-distance, and femininity-masculinity), a model of the hierarchy of the ethnic groups in the Dutch society, and acculturation theory provided an adequate way to address family, marital, and gender-role value differences in the five cultural groups.

  7. Is channel segmentation necessary to reach a multiethnic population with weight-related health promotion? An analysis of use and perception of communication channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Marieke A; Nierkens, Vera; Cremer, Stephan W; Verhoeff, Arnoud; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    To explore similarities and differences in the use and perception of communication channels to access weight-related health promotion among women in three ethnic minority groups. The ultimate aim was to determine whether similar channels might reach ethnic minority women in general or whether segmentation to ethnic groups would be required. Eight ethnically homogeneous focus groups were conducted among 48 women of Ghanaian, Antillean/Aruban, or Afro-Surinamese background living in Amsterdam. Our questions concerned which communication channels they usually used to access weight-related health advice or information about programs and whose information they most valued. The content analysis of data was performed. The participants mentioned four channels - regular and traditional health care, general or ethnically specific media, multiethnic and ethnic gatherings, and interpersonal communication with peers in the Netherlands and with people in the home country. Ghanaian women emphasized ethnically specific channels (e.g., traditional health care, Ghanaian churches). They were comfortable with these channels and trusted them. They mentioned fewer general channels - mainly limited to health care - and if discussed, negative perceptions were expressed. Antillean women mentioned the use of ethnically specific channels (e.g., communication with Antilleans in the home country) on balance with general audience-oriented channels (e.g., regular health care). Perceptions were mixed. Surinamese participants discussed, in a positive manner, the use of general audience-oriented channels, while they said they did not use traditional health care or advice from Surinam. Local language proficiency, time resided in the Netherlands, and approaches and messages received seemed to explain channel use and perception. The predominant differences in channel use and perception among the ethnic groups indicate a need for channel segmentation to reach a multiethnic target group with weight

  8. Pathogenicity for onion and genetic diversity of isolates of the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Phyllachoraceae) from the State of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nova, M X Vila; Borges, L R; de Sousa, A C B; Brasileiro, B T R V; Lima, E A L A; da Costa, A F; de Oliveira, N T

    2011-02-22

    Onion anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is one of the main diseases of onions in the State of Pernambuco. We examined the pathogenicity of 15 C. gloeosporioides strains and analyzed their genetic variability using RAPDs and internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of the rDNA region. Ten of the strains were obtained from substrates and hosts other than onion, including chayote (Sechium edule), guava (Psidium guajava), pomegranate (Punica granatum), water from the Capibaribe River, maracock (Passiflora sp), coconut (Cocus nucifera), surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora), and marine soil; five isolates came from onions collected from four different regions of the State of Pernambuco and one region of the State of Amazonas. Pathogenicity tests were carried out using onion leaves and bulbs. All strains were capable of causing disease in leaves, causing a variable degree of lesions on the leaves; four strains caused the most severe damage. In the onion bulb tests, only three of the above strains caused lesions. Seven primers of arbitrary sequences were used in the RAPD analysis, generating polymorphic bands that allowed the separation of the strains into three distinct groups. The amplification products generated with the primers ITS1 and ITS4 also showed polymorphism when digested with three restriction enzymes, DraI, HaeIII and MspI. Only the latter two demonstrated genetic variations among the strains. These two types of molecular markers were able to differentiate the strain from the State of Amazonas from those of the State of Pernambuco. However, there was no relationship between groups of strains, based on molecular markers, and degree of pathogenicity for onion leaves and bulbs.

  9. [Importance of a regional observatory of malarial chemoresistance, an emerging public health problem in the Guyanas region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterre, P; Volney, B; Meynard, J-B; Legrand, E

    2009-08-01

    A regular implementation of prophylactic and therapeutic decision trees was organized on a consensus basis in Cayenne, French Guiana in 1990, 1995 and 2002. The updated recommendations were based on the knowledge of the in vitro chemosensitivity profiles of the local isolates, mainly coming from big rivers (Maroni and Oyapock, frontiers with Suriname and Brazil, respectively; and more recently Approuague). Most of the patients infected by Plasmodium falciparum were followed by the medical staff of the main hospitals (Cayenne and Saint-Laurent) and of the peripheral health centers in remote areas. Consequently the epidemiological situation and evolution of chemoresistance have been widely observed on a long-term (since 1994) basis in the Maroni region. Yet, we have only partial information coming from the Oyapock valley, even though an important (most of the time) illegal immigration has been developing since the 90s' leading to a notable modification of the epidemiological status of malaria in this eastern region, including a regular increase of P. vivax infections. Presently very little P. vivax chloroquine (and mefloquine) resistance has been identified but this result could lead to a real public health problem in a near future. As such, the National Reference Center on Plasmodium Chemoresistance in the French West Indies and Guiana (CNRCP-AG in French) is a unique observatory of malaria chemoresistance in the Guyanese shield which works with research laboratories of the Institut Pasteur, Paris. This network strategy offers a very attractive perspective for applications of modern tools, including the validation of chemoresistance molecular markers, for malaria control at both medical and public health levels. Some examples related to chloroquine and artemether resistance are given.

  10. Progress in reducing inequalities in reproductive, maternal, newborn,' and child health in Latin America and the Caribbean: an unfinished agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Méndez, María Clara; Barros, Aluísio J D; Requejo, Jennifer; Durán, Pablo; Serpa, Luis Andrés de Francisco; França, Giovanny V A; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2015-07-01

    To expand the "Countdown to 2015" analyses of health inequalities beyond the 75 countries being monitored worldwide to include all countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) that have adequate data available. Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys were used to monitor progress in health intervention coverage and inequalities in 13 LAC countries, five of which are included in the Countdown (Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala, Haiti, and Peru) and eight that are not (Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Guyana, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Suriname). The outcomes included neonatal and under-5 year mortality rates, child stunting prevalence, and the composite coverage index-a weighted average of eight indicators of coverage in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health. The slope index of inequality and concentration index were used to assess absolute and relative inequalities. The composite coverage index showed monotonic patterns over wealth quintiles, with lowest levels in the poorest quintile. Under-5 and neonatal mortality as well as stunting prevalence were highest among the poor. In most countries, intervention coverage increased, while under-5 mortality and stunting prevalence fell most rapidly among the poor, so that inequalities were reduced over time. However, Bolivia, Guatemala, Haiti, Nicaragua, and Peru still show marked inequalities. Brazil has practically eliminated inequalities in stunting. LAC countries presented substantial progress in terms of reducing inequalities in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health interventions, child mortality, and nutrition. However, the poorest 20% of the population in most countries is still lagging behind, and renewed actions are needed to improve equity.

  11. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2004-07-01

    , and modernity in Dominican history. Stanford CA: Stanford University Press, 2003. x + 384 pp. -Eric Paul Roorda, Bernardo Vega, Almoina, Galíndez y otros crímenes de Trujillo en el extranjero. Santo Domingo: Fundación Cultural Dominicana, 2001. 147 pp.''Diario de una misión en Washington. Santo Domingo: Fundación Cultural Dominicana, 2002. 526 pp. -Gerben Nooteboom, Aspha Bijnaar, Kasmoni: Een spaartraditie in Suriname en Nederland. Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Bert Bakker, 2002. 378 pp. -Dirk H.A. Kolff, Chan E.S. Choenni ,Hindostanen: Van Brits-Indische emigranten via Suriname tot burgers van Nederland. The Hague: Communicatiebureau Sampreshan, 2003. 224 pp., Kanta Sh. Adhin (eds -Dirk H.A. Kolff, Sandew Hira, Het dagboek van Munshi Rahman Khan. The Hague: Amrit/Paramaribo: NSHI, 2003. x + 370 pp. -William H. Fisher, Neil L. Whitehead, Dark Shamans: Kanaimà and the poetics of violent death. Durham NC: Duke University Press, 2002. 309 pp. -David Scott, A.J. Simoes da Silva, The luxury of nationalist despair: George Lamming's fiction as decolonizing project. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2000. 217 pp. -Lyn Innes, Maria Cristina Fumagalli, The flight of the vernacular. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2001. xvi + 303 pp. -Maria Cristina Fumagalli, Tobias Döring, Caribbean-English passages: Intertextuality in a postcolonial tradition. London: Routledge, 2002. xii + 236 pp. -A. James Arnold, Celia Britton, Race and the unconscious: Freudianism in French Caribbean thought. Oxford: Legenda, 2002. 115 pp. -Nicole Roberts, Dorothy E. Mosby, Place, language, and identity in Afro-Costa Rican literature. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2003. xiii + 248 pp. -Stephen Steumpfle, Philip W. Scher, Carnival and the formation of a Caribbean transnation. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003. xvi + 215 pp. -Peter Manuel, Frances R. Aparicho ,Musical migrations: transnationalism and cultural hybridity in Latin/o America, Volume 1. With Maria Elena Cepeda. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. 216

  12. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1996-01-01

    linguistics in honor of Frederic G. Cassidy. New York: Garland, 1992. xxxiii + 460 pp., Nick Doane, Dick Ringler (eds -Peter Bakker, Francis Byrne ,Atlantic meets Pacific: A global view of Pidginization and Creolization. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1993. ix + 465 pp., John Holm (eds -Jacques Arends, George L. Huttar ,Ndyuka. London: Routledge, 1994. 631 pp., Mary L. Huttar (eds -P.C. Emmer, Henk den Heyer, De geschiedenis van de WIC. Zutphen, Netherlands: De Walburg Pers, 1994. 208 pp. -Wim Hoogbergen, A.F. Paula, 'Vrije' slaven: Een sociaal-historische studie over de dualistische slavenemancipatie op Nederlands Sint Maarten, 1816-1863. Zutphen, Netherlands: De Walburg Pers, 1993. 191 pp. -Wim Hoogbergen, Bea Brommer, Ik ben eigendom van ...: Slavenhandel en plantageleven. Wijk en Aalburg, Netherlands: Pictures Publishers, 1993. 144 pp. -Gert Oostindie, Ben Scholtens, Bosnegers en overheid in Suriname: De ontwikkeling van de politieke verhouding 1651-1992. Paramaribo: Afdeling Cultuurstudies/Minov, 1994. 237 pp. -Edward M. Dew, Marten Schalkwijk, Suriname: Het steentje in de Nederlandse schoen: Van onafhankelijkheid tot raamverdrag. Paramaribo: Firgos Suriname, 1994. 356 pp.

  13. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1992-07-01

    Hoogbergen, The Boni Maroon wars in Suriname. Leiden, the Netherlands: E.J. Brill, 1990. xvii + 254 pp. -Rafael Duharte Jiménez, Carlos Esteban Dieve, Los guerrilleros negros: esclavos fugitivos y cimarrones en Santo Domingo. Santo Domingo: Fundación Cultural Dominicana, 1989. 307 pp. -Rosemarijn Hoefte, Hans Ramsoedh, Suriname 1933-1944: koloniale politiek en beleid onder Gouverneur Kielstra. Delft, the Netherlands: Eburon, 1990. 255 pp. -Gert Oostindie, Kees Lagerberg, Onvoltooid verleden: de dekolonisatie van Suriname en de Nederlandse Antillen. Tilburg, the Netherlands: Instituut voor Ontwikkelingsvraagstukken, Katholieke Universiteit Brabant, 1989. ii + 265 pp. -Aisha Khan, Anthony de Verteuil, Eight East Indian immigrants. Port of Spain: Paria, 1989. xiv + 318 pp. -John Stiles, Willie L. Baber, The economizing strategy: an application and critique. New York: Peter Lang, 1988. xiii + 232 pp. -Faye V. Harrison, M.G. Smith, Poverty in Jamaica. Kingston: Institute of social and economic research, 1989. xxii + 167 pp. -Sidney W. Mintz, Dorian Powell ,Street foods of Kingston. Mona, Jamaica: Institute of social and economic research, 1990. xii + 125 pp., Erna Brodber, Eleanor Wint (eds -Yona Jérome, Michel S. Laguerre, Urban poverty in the Caribbean: French Martinique as a social laboratory. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1990. xiv + 181 pp.

  14. Gender differences in health and health care utilisation in various ethnic groups in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devillé Walter L

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine gender differences in health and health care utilisation within and between various ethnic groups in the Netherlands. Methods Data from the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (2000–2002 were used. A total of 7,789 persons from the indigenous population and 1,512 persons from the four largest migrant groups in the Netherlands – Morocco, Netherlands Antilles, Turkey and Surinam – aged 18 years and older were interviewed. Self-reported health outcomes studied were general health status and the presence of acute (past 14 days and chronic conditions (past 12 months. And self-reported utilisation of the following health care services was analysed: having contacted a general practitioner (past 2 months, a medical specialist, physiotherapist or ambulatory mental health service (past 12 months, hospitalisation (past 12 months and use of medication (past 14 days. Gender differences in these outcomes were examined within and between the ethnic groups, using logistic regression analyses. Results In general, women showed poorer health than men; the largest differences were found for the Turkish respondents, followed by Moroccans, and Surinamese. Furthermore, women from Morocco and the Netherlands Antilles more often contacted a general practitioner than men from these countries. Women from Turkey were more hospitalised than Turkish men. Women from Morocco more often contacted ambulatory mental health care than men from this country, and women with an indigenous background more often used over the counter medication than men with an indigenous background. Conclusion In general the self-reported health of women is worse compared to that of men, although the size of the gender differences may vary according to the particular health outcome and among the ethnic groups. This information might be helpful to develop policy to improve the health status of specific groups according to gender and ethnicity. In

  15. Analysis of antidiarrhoeic effect of plants used in popular medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cybele E. Almeida

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available People customarily use the extracts of plants known to have antidiarrhoeal effects without any scientific base to explain the action of the extract. For this reason, an investigation was undertaken with a view to determining the efficacy of the effects of the brute aqueous extract (BAE of the leaves of Psidium guajava (guava, Stachytarpheta cayenensis (bastard vervain, Polygonum punctatum (water. smartweed, Eugenia uniflora (Brazil or Surinam cherry and Aster squamatus (zé-da-silva on the intestinal transport of water in rats and on the gastrointestinal propulsion in mice. With the exception of the BAE of S. cayenensis, all other BAE's have increased the absorption of water in one or more intestinal portion in relation to the control group. All tested BAE, except that of P. punctatum, reduced the gastrointestinal propulsion in relation to that of the control group. The results indicate that the BAE of the leaves of P. guajava, S. cayenensis, P. punctatum, E. uniflora and A. squamatus have a potential antidiarrhoeic effect to be confirmed by additional investigations in animals infected with enteropathogenic agents.Para combater a diarréia muitas vezes as pessoas utilizam extratos de plantas conhecidas popularmente como anti-diarréicas, mesmo sem base científica. Em razão disto, verificou-se o efeito do extrato aquoso bruto (EAB das folhas da Psidium guajava (goiabeira, Stachytarpheta cayenensis (gervão, Polygonum punctatum (polígono ou pimenta d'água, Eugenia uniflora (pitangueira e Aster squamatus (zé-da-silva no transporte intestinal de água em ratos e na propulsão gastrointestinal em camundongos. Com exceção do EAB de S. cayenensis, os demais aumentaram a absorção de água em uma ou mais porções do intestino em relação ao grupo-controle. Todos os EAB testados, com exceção do P. punctatum, reduziram o trânsito intestinal em relação ao grupo-controle. Com base nos resultados obtidos conclui-se que os EAB das folhas de P

  16. MARGATS cruise: investigation of the deep internal structure and the heterogeneous margins of the Demerara plateau reveals a polyphased volcanic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graindorge, D.; Museur, T.; Roest, W. R.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Loncke, L.; Basile, C.; Poetisi, E.; Deverchere, J.; Heuret, A.; Jean-Frederic, L.; Perrot, J.

    2017-12-01

    The MARGATS scientific cruise was carried out from October 20th to November 16th 2016 on board the R/V L'Atalante, offshore Suriname and French Guiana. This cruise is part of a program dedicated to the geological investigation of the continental margin, including the Demerara plateau, following the GUYAPLAC (2003), IGUANES (2013) and DRADEM (2016) cruises. The aim of MARGATS was to image the internal structure of the Demerara plateau and its different margins using coincident deep penetrating wide angle refraction and multi channel reflection seismic (MCS) methods. During the MARGATS experiment 171 OBS deployments were distributed along 4 wide-angle lines. Along each wide-angle line we also recorded coincident MCS data using a 3 km long 480 channel streamer. The dataset was completed by three MCS lines along the eastern part of the Demerara plateau. MCS MAR007 line which is coincident with line OBS MAR-3 was extended on land by 13 land stations deployed along the Maroni River. This line, together with MCS MAR001 and the coincident OBS MAR-1 line reveal the highly homogeneous deep structure of the internal part of the plateau. MCS MAR005 line, which is coincident with OBS MAR-2, MCS MAR006 line coincident with OBS MAR-4, MCS MAR002, MCS MAR003 and MCS MAR004 helps to elucidate the structural complexity of the northern transform margin and the eastern divergent margin of the plateau. These new datasets are highly complementary to the DRADEM dredge results which provide evidence for mid Jurassic volcanic rocks along the plateau and significant vertical displacements along the transform margin. These results allow to interpret the plateau as the remains of a huge jurassic volcanic divergent margin along the Central Atlantic ocean to the west, possibly remobilized during the cretaceous opening of the Equatorial Atlantic ocean as an highly oblique margin to the north and a divergent margin to the east in persistent presence of volcanism. This AGU session will be a great

  17. Halogenated organic species over the tropical South American rainforest

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    S. Gebhardt

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Airborne measurements of the halogenated trace gases methyl chloride, methyl bromide and chloroform were conducted over the Atlantic Ocean and about 1000 km of pristine tropical rainforest in Suriname and French Guyana (3–6° N, 51–59° W in October 2005. In the boundary layer (0–1.4 km, maritime air masses, advected over the forest by southeasterly trade winds, were measured at various distances from the coast. Since the organohalogens presented here have relatively long atmospheric lifetimes (0.4–1.0 years in comparison to the advection times from the coast (1–2 days, emissions will accumulate in air traversing the rainforest. The distributions of methyl chloride, methyl bromide and chloroform were analyzed as a function of time the air spent over land and the respective relationship used to determine net fluxes from the rainforest for one week within the long dry season.

    Net fluxes from the rainforest ecosystem have been calculated for methyl chloride and chloroform as 9.5 (±3.8 2σ and 0.35 (±0.15 2σμg m-2 h−1, respectively. No significant flux was observed for methyl bromide within the limits of these measurements.

    The global budget of methyl chloride contains large uncertainties, in particular with regard to a possible source from tropical vegetation. Our measurements are used in a large-scale approach to determine the net flux from a tropical ecosystem to the planetary boundary layer. The obtained global net flux of 1.5 (±0.6 2σ Tg yr-1 for methyl chloride is at the lower end of current estimates for tropical vegetation sources, which helps to constrain the range of tropical sources and sinks (0.82 to 8.2 Tg yr-1 from tropical plants, 0.03 to 2.5 Tg yr-1 from senescent/dead leaves and a sink of 0.1 to 1.6 Tg yr-1 by soil uptake. Nevertheless, these results show that the contribution of the rainforest ecosystem is the major source in the

  18. Regional Impacts of Climate Change on the Amazon Rainforest: 2080-2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, K. H.; Vizy, E. K.

    2006-12-01

    A regional climate model with resolution of 60 km is coupled with a potential vegetation model to simulate future climate over South America. The following steps are taken to effectively communicate the results across disciplines and to make them useful to the policy and impacts communities: the simulation is aimed at a particular time period (2081-2100), the climate change results are translated into changes in vegetation distribution, and the results are reported on regional space scales relative to political boundaries. In addition, the model validation in clearly presented to provide perspective on uncertainty for the prognosis. The model reproduces today's climate and vegetation over tropical and subtropical South America accurately. In simulations of the future, the model is forced by the IPCC's A2 scenario of future emissions, which assumes that CO2 emissions continue to grow at essentially today's rate throughout the 21st century, reaching 757 ppmv averaged over 2081-2100. The model is constrained on its lateral boundaries by atmospheric conditions simulated by a global climate model, applied as anomalies to present day conditions, and predicted changes in sea surface temperatures. The extent of the Amazon rainforest is reduced by about 70 per cent in the simulation, and the shrubland (caatinga) vegetation of Brazil's Nordeste region spreads westward and southward well into the continental interior. Bolivia, Paraguay, and Argentina lose all of their rainforest vegetation, and Brazil and Peru lose most of it. The surviving rain forest is concentrated near the equator. Columbia's rainforest survives largely intact and, along the northern coast, Venezuela and French Guiana suffer relatively small reductions. The loss in Guyana and Surinam is 30-50 per cent. Much of the rainforest in the central Amazon north of about 15S is replaced by savanna vegetation, but in southern Bolivia, northern Paraguay, and southern Brazil, grasslands take the place of the

  19. Malakit: an innovative pilot project to self-diagnose and self-treat malaria among illegal gold miners in the Guiana Shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douine, Maylis; Sanna, Alice; Galindo, Muriel; Musset, Lise; Pommier de Santi, Vincent; Marchesini, Paola; Magalhaes, Edgard Dias; Suarez-Mutis, Martha; Hiwat, Helene; Nacher, Mathieu; Vreden, Stephen; Garancher, Laure

    2018-04-10

    Illegal gold miners in French Guiana, a French overseas territory ('département') located in Amazonia, often carry malaria parasites (up to 46.8%). While the Guiana Shield Region aims at malaria elimination, the high prevalence of Plasmodium in this hard-to-reach population in conjunction with frequent incorrect use of artemisinin-based anti-malarials could favour the emergence of resistant parasites. Due to geographical and regulatory issues in French Guiana, usual malaria control strategies cannot be implemented in this particular context. Therefore, new strategies targeting this specific population in the forest are required. Numerous discussions among health institutions and scientific partners from French Guiana, Brazil and Suriname have led to an innovative project based on the distribution of kits for self-diagnosis and self-treatment of Plasmodium infections. The kit-distribution will be implemented at "resting sites", which are areas across the border of French Guiana regularly frequented by gold miners. The main objective is to increase the appropriate use and complete malaria treatment after a positive malaria diagnosis with a rapid test, which will be evaluated with before-and-after cross-sectional studies. Monitoring indicators will be collected from health mediators at the time of kit distribution and during subsequent visits, and from illegal gold miners themselves, through a smartphone application. The project funding is multisource, including Ministries of Health of the three countries, WHO/PAHO, and the European Union. This project will start in April 2018 as a 18 month pilot study led by the Clinical Investigation Centre of Cayenne. Results should be available at the end of 2019. This innovative approach may have several limitations which should be taken into account, as potential side effects, kit misuse or resale, declarative main criteria, or no Plasmodium vivax curative treatment. Close monitoring is thus needed. This project may be the

  20. Estudo morfológico dos músculos do antebraço de cachorro-do-mato-de-orelhas-curtas (Atelocynus microtis e cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous

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    Mônica Guedes Riehl Vaz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n4p121 Atelocynus microtis e o Cerdocyon thous, são mamíferos da família Canidae com distribuição geográfica e hábitos diferenciados. O primeiro animal é uma espécie encontrada em grande parte da Bacia Amazônica no Brasil, Peru, Colômbia, Equador e provavelmente Venezuela, sendo animal de hábitos noturnos e de vida solitária, já o cachorro-do-mato apresenta distribuição na Colômbia, Venezuela, Suriname, Bolívia, Paraguai, Uruguai, Brasil e Norte da Argentina, com hábitos noturnos e os casais formados tendem a ficar juntos por um longo período. Trata-se de espécies com notório interesse de estudo, com ampla distribuição no Brasil, assim, estudos morfológicos representam um fator importante para a preservação e proteção já que relatos do cachorro-do-mato-de-orelhas-curtas são raros como sua presença em cativeiros, já o cachorro-do-mato é mais encontrado em cativeiros. Neste estudo utilizamos um animal de cada espécie, proveniente de Paragominas-PA, sob autorização SEMA-PA Nº 455/2009 e 522/2009, doados à UFRA após óbito por causas naturais. Os animais foram fixados em solução formol a 10%, dissecados para descrição morfológica dos músculos flexores e extensores, resultando nos mesmos grupos musculares encontrados em outros carnívoros descritos anteriormente, contribuindo  desta forma, com o estudo da morfologia, favorecendo o tipo de abordagem para possíveis procedimentos cirúrgicos ortopédicos nesta espécie.

  1. Gaps and opportunities for the World Heritage Convention to contribute to global wilderness conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, James R; Kormos, Cyril; Jaeger, Tilman; Venter, Oscar; Bertzky, Bastian; Shi, Yichuan; Mackey, Brendan; van Merm, Remco; Osipova, Elena; Watson, James E M

    2018-02-01

    Wilderness areas are ecologically intact landscapes predominantly free of human uses, especially industrial-scale activities that result in substantial biophysical disturbance. This definition does not exclude land and resource use by local communities who depend on such areas for subsistence and bio-cultural connections. Wilderness areas are important for biodiversity conservation and sustain key ecological processes and ecosystem services that underpin planetary life-support systems. Despite these widely recognized benefits and values of wilderness, they are insufficiently protected and are consequently being rapidly eroded. There are increasing calls for multilateral environmental agreements to make a greater and more systematic contribution to wilderness conservation before it is too late. We created a global map of remaining terrestrial wilderness following the established last-of-the-wild method, which identifies the 10% of areas with the lowest human pressure within each of Earth's 62 biogeographic realms and identifies the 10 largest contiguous areas and all contiguous areas >10,000 km 2 . We used our map to assess wilderness coverage by the World Heritage Convention and to identify gaps in coverage. We then identified large nationally designated protected areas with good wilderness coverage within these gaps. One-quarter of natural and mixed (i.e., sites of both natural and cultural value) World Heritage Sites (WHS) contained wilderness (total of 545,307 km 2 ), which is approximately 1.8% of the world's wilderness extent. Many WHS had excellent wilderness coverage, for example, the Okavango Delta in Botswana (11,914 km 2 ) and the Central Suriname Nature Reserve (16,029 km 2 ). However, 22 (35%) of the world's terrestrial biorealms had no wilderness representation within WHS. We identified 840 protected areas of >500 km 2 that were predominantly wilderness (>50% of their area) and represented 18 of the 22 missing biorealms. These areas offer a starting

  2. Carbon uptake by mature Amazon forests has mitigated Amazon nations' carbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Oliver L; Brienen, Roel J W

    2017-12-01

    Several independent lines of evidence suggest that Amazon forests have provided a significant carbon sink service, and also that the Amazon carbon sink in intact, mature forests may now be threatened as a result of different processes. There has however been no work done to quantify non-land-use-change forest carbon fluxes on a national basis within Amazonia, or to place these national fluxes and their possible changes in the context of the major anthropogenic carbon fluxes in the region. Here we present a first attempt to interpret results from ground-based monitoring of mature forest carbon fluxes in a biogeographically, politically, and temporally differentiated way. Specifically, using results from a large long-term network of forest plots, we estimate the Amazon biomass carbon balance over the last three decades for the different regions and nine nations of Amazonia, and evaluate the magnitude and trajectory of these differentiated balances in relation to major national anthropogenic carbon emissions. The sink of carbon into mature forests has been remarkably geographically ubiquitous across Amazonia, being substantial and persistent in each of the five biogeographic regions within Amazonia. Between 1980 and 2010, it has more than mitigated the fossil fuel emissions of every single national economy, except that of Venezuela. For most nations (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname) the sink has probably additionally mitigated all anthropogenic carbon emissions due to Amazon deforestation and other land use change. While the sink has weakened in some regions since 2000, our analysis suggests that Amazon nations which are able to conserve large areas of natural and semi-natural landscape still contribute globally-significant carbon sequestration. Mature forests across all of Amazonia have contributed significantly to mitigating climate change for decades. Yet Amazon nations have not directly benefited from providing this global scale

  3. Tectonic History and Deep Structure of the Demerara Plateau from Combined Wide-Angle and Reflection Seismic Data and Plate Kinematic Reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhoefer, F.; Museur, T.; Roest, W. R.; Graindorge, D.; Chauvet, F.; Loncke, L.; Basile, C.; Poetisi, E.; Deverchere, J.; Lebrun, J. F.; Perrot, J.; Heuret, A.

    2017-12-01

    Many transform margins have associated intermediate depth marginal plateaus, which are commonly located between two oceanic basins. The Demerara plateau is located offshore Surinam and French Guiana. Plate kinematic reconstructions show that the plateau is located between the central and equatorial Atlantic in a position conjugate to the Guinean Plateau. In the fall of 2016, the MARGATS cruise acquired geophysical data along the 400 km wide Demerara plateau. The main objective of the cruise was to image the deep structure of the Demerara plateau and to study its tectonic history. A set of 4 combined wide-angle and reflection seismic profiles was acquired along the plateau, using 80 ocean-bottom seismometers, a 3 km long seismic streamer and a 8000 cu inch tuned airgun array. Forward modelling of the wide-angle seismic data on a profile, located in the eastern part of the plateau and oriented in a NE-SW direction, images the crustal structure of the plateau, the transition zone and the neighbouring crust of oceanic origin, up to a depth of 40 km. The plateau itself is characterised by a crust of 30 km thickness, subdivided into three distinct layers. However, the velocities and velocity gradients do not fit typical continental crust, with a lower crustal layer showing untypically high velocities and an upper layer having a steep velocity gradient. From this model we propose that the lowermost layer is probably formed from volcanic underplated material and that the upper crustal layer likely consists of the corresponding extrusive volcanic material, forming thick seaward-dipping reflector sequences on the plateau. A basement high is imaged at the foot of the slope and forms the ocean-continent transition zone. Further oceanward, a 5-6 km thick crust is imaged with velocities and velocity gradients corresponding to a thin oceanic crust. A compilation of magnetic data from the MARGATS and 3 previous cruises shows a high amplitude magnetic anomaly along the northern

  4. UNE LECTURE DE LA MONDANITÉ DE DEUIL D’IMMIGRANTS

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    Rosa Martins Costa Pereira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet étude s’agit du deuil des mondanités des immigrants forcés, les gens pour qui, en conditions normales dans votre pays d’origine, probablement, quitter la patrie ne serait pas la première option. Basé sur Métreaux (2011, nous avons analysé mondanités du deuil des mineurs immigrants et les travailleurs du sexe brésiliennes en Guyane et au Suriname, étudiés par Oliveira (2012, les expériences d’immigrants brésiliennes à Rome, analysée par Della Pasqua et Dal Molin ( 2009 et le Projet Nouveaux Brésiliens, une expérience du Brésil comme deuxième pays d’asile, rapporté par Fiametti (2005. L’analyse a été guidé par l’approche phénoménologique herméneutique de Heidegger dont les bases ont contribués pour le géographes humanistes faire des nouvelles interprétation de la notion de lieu et de monde. A partir de la notion de mondanité, chez Heidegger (2010, 2012, on a identifié des façons de deuil vécus par les immigrants, réfugiés et sans patrie: deuil du rêve inaccompli, privacité, liberté, références, la perte de la relation précédente, la reconnaissance, le développement professionnel et le respect de la dignité humaine, l’alimentation, l’absence du connu et du aimé, la santé, l’orientation et la direction, l’estime de soi, l’interaction sociale et le deuil empêché ou refusé. Avec cette étude préliminaire, nous avons l’intention de contribuer à élargir les possibilités d’accès à la lecture existentielle de la dimension géographique des flux migratoires.

  5. Detection of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia spp. in Ticks Associated with Exotic Reptiles and Amphibians Imported into Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, Masako; Sakata, Akiko; Takano, Ai; Kawabata, Hiroki; Fujita, Hiromi; Une, Yumi; Goka, Koichi; Kishimoto, Toshio; Ando, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    One of the major routes of transmission of rickettsial and ehrlichial diseases is via ticks that infest numerous host species, including humans. Besides mammals, reptiles and amphibians also carry ticks that may harbor Rickettsia and Ehrlichia strains that are pathogenic to humans. Furthermore, reptiles and amphibians are exempt from quarantine in Japan, thus facilitating the entry of parasites and pathogens to the country through import. Accordingly, in the current study, we examined the presence of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia spp. genes in ticks associated with reptiles and amphibians originating from outside Japan. Ninety-three ticks representing nine tick species (genera Amblyomma and Hyalomma) were isolated from at least 28 animals spanning 10 species and originating from 12 countries (Ghana, Jordan, Madagascar, Panama, Russia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Togo, Uzbekistan, and Zambia). None of the nine tick species are indigenous in Japan. The genes encoding the common rickettsial 17-kDa antigen, citrate synthase (gltA), and outer membrane protein A (ompA) were positively detected in 45.2% (42/93), 40.9% (38/93), and 23.7% (22/93) of the ticks, respectively, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genes encoding ehrlichial heat shock protein (groEL) and major outer membrane protein (omp-1) were PCR-positive in 7.5% (7/93) and 2.2% (2/93) of the ticks, respectively. The p44 gene, which encodes the Anaplasma outer membrane protein, was not detected. Phylogenetic analysis showed that several of the rickettsial and ehrlichial sequences isolated in this study were highly similar to human pathogen genes, including agents not previously detected in Japan. These data demonstrate the global transportation of pathogenic Rickettsia and Ehrlichia through reptile- and amphibian-associated ticks. These imported animals have potential to transfer pathogens into human life. These results highlight the need to control the international transportation of known and

  6. Curzerene, trans-β-elemenone, and γ-elemene as effective larvicides against Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus: toxicity on non-target aquatic predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Senthilmurugan, Sengamalai; Vijayan, Periasamy; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Khaled, Jamal M; Benelli, Giovanni

    2018-04-01

    A wide number of studies dealing with mosquito control focus on toxicity screenings of whole plant essential oils, while limited efforts shed light on main molecules responsible of toxicity, as well as their mechanisms of action on non-target organisms. In this study, GC-MS shed light on main essential oil components extracted from leaves of the Suriname cherry Eugenia uniflora, i.e., curzerene (35.7%), trans-β-elemenone (11.5%), and γ-elemene (13.6%), testing them on Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus larvae. Non-target toxicity experiments were carried out on four species of aquatic larvivorous organisms, including fishes, backswimmers, and waterbugs. The essential oil from E. uniflora leaves tested on An. subpictus, Ae. Albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus showed LC 50 of 31.08, 33.50, and 36.35 μg/ml, respectively. Curzerene, trans-β-elemenone, and γ-elemene were extremely toxic to An. subpictus (LC 50  = 4.14, 6.13, and 10.53 μg/ml), Ae. albopictus (LC 50  = 4.57, 6.74, and 11.29 μg/ml), and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC 50  = 5.01, 7.32, and 12.18 μg/ml). The essential oil from E. uniflora leaves, curzerene, trans-β-elemenone, and γ-elemene showed low toxicity to larvivorous fishes, backswimmers, and waterbugs, with LC 50 ranging from 303.77 to 6765.56 μg/ml. Predator safety factor (PSF) ranged from 55.72 to 273.45. Overall, we believe that curzerene isolated from the essential oil from E. uniflora leaves can represent an ideal molecule to formulate novel mosquito larvicides, due to its extremely low LC 50 on all tested mosquito vectors (4.14-5.01 μg/ml), which far encompasses most of the botanical pesticides tested till now. Notably, the above-mentioned LC 50 did not damage the four aquatic predators tested in this study.

  7. Holocene Sea-Level Database For The Caribbean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N. S.; Horton, B.; Engelhart, S. E.; Peltier, W. R.; Scatena, F. N.; Vane, C. H.; Liu, S.

    2013-12-01

    Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) records from far-field locations are important for understanding the driving mechanisms controlling the nature and timing of the mid-late Holocene reduction in global meltwaters and providing background rates of late Holocene RSL change with which to compare the magnitude of 20th century RSL rise. The Caribbean region has traditionally been considered far-field (i.e., with negligible glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA) influence), although recent investigations indicate otherwise. Here, we consider the spatial variability in glacio-isostatic, tectonic and local contributions on RSL records from the circum-Caribbean region to infer a Holocene eustatic sea-level signal. We have constructed a database of quality-controlled, spatially comprehensive, Holocene RSL observations for the circum-Caribbean region. The database contains over 500 index points, which locate the position of RSL in time and space. The database incorporates sea-level observations from a latitudinal range of 5°N to 25°N and longitudinal range of 55°W to 90°W. We include sea-level observations from 11 ka BP to present, although the majority of the index points in the database are younger than 8 ka BP. The database is sub-divided into 13 regions based on the distance from the former Laurentide Ice Sheet and regional tectonic setting. The index points were primarily derived from mangrove peat deposits, which in the Caribbean form in the upper half of the tidal range, and corals (predominantly Acropora palmata), the growth of which is constrained to the upper 5 m of water depth. The index points are classified on the basis of their susceptibility to compaction (e.g., intercalated, basal). The influence of temporal changes in tidal range on index points is also considered. The sea-level reconstructions demonstrate that RSL did not exceed the present height (0 m) during the Holocene in the majority of locations, except at sites in Suriname/Guayana and possibly Trinidad

  8. Aspects of medical migration with particular reference to the United Kingdom and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfs, Paul G P

    2014-10-14

    In most countries of the European Economic Area (EEA), there is no large-scale migration of medical graduates with diplomas obtained outside the EEA, which are international medical graduates (IMGs). In the United Kingdom however, health care is in part dependent on the influx of IMGs. In 2005, of all the doctors practising in the UK, 31% were educated outside the country. In most EEA-countries, health care is not dependent on the influx of IMGs.The aim of this study is to present data relating to the changes in IMG migration in the UK since the extension of the European Union in May 2004. In addition, data are presented on IMG migration in the Netherlands. These migration flows show that migration patterns differ strongly within these two EU-countries. This study makes use of registration data on migrating doctors from the General Medical Council (GMC) in the UK and from the Dutch Department of Health. Moreover, data on the ratio of medical doctors in relation to a country's population were extracted from the World Health Organization (WHO). The influx of IMGs in the UK has changed in recent years due to the extension of the European Union in 2004, the expansion of UK medical schools and changes in the policy towards non-EEA doctors.The influx of IMGs in the Netherlands is described in detail. In the Netherlands, many IMGs come from Afghanistan, Iraq and Surinam. There are clear differences between IMG immigration in the UK and in the Netherlands. In the UK, the National Health Service continues to be very reliant on immigration to fill shortage posts, whereas the number of immigrant doctors working in the Netherlands is much smaller. Both the UK and the Netherlands' regulatory bodies have shared great concerns about the linguistic and communication skills of both EEA and non-EEA doctors seeking to work in these countries. IMG migration is a global and intricate problem. The source countries, not only those where English is the first or second language, experience

  9. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2008-12-01

    -Marc Terrine; La ronde des derniers maîtres de bèlè (Julian Gerstin Alexander Alland, Jr.; Race in Mind: Race, IQ, and Other Racisms (Autumn Barrett Livio Sansone; Blackness Without Ethnicity: Constructing Race in Brazil (Autumn Barrett H.U.E. Thoden van Velzen, W. van Wetering; In the Shadow of the Oracle: Religion as Politics in a Suriname Maroon Society (George L. Huttar, Mary L. Huttar In: New West Indian Guide / Nieuwe West-Indische Gids (NWIG, 80 (2006, no. 1 & 2

  10. Detection of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia spp. in Ticks Associated with Exotic Reptiles and Amphibians Imported into Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Andoh

    Full Text Available One of the major routes of transmission of rickettsial and ehrlichial diseases is via ticks that infest numerous host species, including humans. Besides mammals, reptiles and amphibians also carry ticks that may harbor Rickettsia and Ehrlichia strains that are pathogenic to humans. Furthermore, reptiles and amphibians are exempt from quarantine in Japan, thus facilitating the entry of parasites and pathogens to the country through import. Accordingly, in the current study, we examined the presence of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia spp. genes in ticks associated with reptiles and amphibians originating from outside Japan. Ninety-three ticks representing nine tick species (genera Amblyomma and Hyalomma were isolated from at least 28 animals spanning 10 species and originating from 12 countries (Ghana, Jordan, Madagascar, Panama, Russia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Togo, Uzbekistan, and Zambia. None of the nine tick species are indigenous in Japan. The genes encoding the common rickettsial 17-kDa antigen, citrate synthase (gltA, and outer membrane protein A (ompA were positively detected in 45.2% (42/93, 40.9% (38/93, and 23.7% (22/93 of the ticks, respectively, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The genes encoding ehrlichial heat shock protein (groEL and major outer membrane protein (omp-1 were PCR-positive in 7.5% (7/93 and 2.2% (2/93 of the ticks, respectively. The p44 gene, which encodes the Anaplasma outer membrane protein, was not detected. Phylogenetic analysis showed that several of the rickettsial and ehrlichial sequences isolated in this study were highly similar to human pathogen genes, including agents not previously detected in Japan. These data demonstrate the global transportation of pathogenic Rickettsia and Ehrlichia through reptile- and amphibian-associated ticks. These imported animals have potential to transfer pathogens into human life. These results highlight the need to control the international transportation of known

  11. Rickettsioses in Latin America, Caribbean, Spain and Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo B. Labruna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Data on genus and infectious by Rickettsia were retrospectively compiled from the critical review literature regarding all countries in Latin America, Caribbean islands, Portugal and Spain. We considered all Rickettsia records reported for human and/or animal hosts, and/or invertebrate hosts considered being the vector. In a few cases, when no direct detection of a given Rickettsia group or species was available for a given country, the serologic method was considered. A total of 13 Rickettsia species have been recorded in Latin America and the Caribbean. The species with the largest number of country confirmed records were Rickettsia felis (9 countries, R. prowazekii (7 countries, R. typhi (6 countries, R. rickettsii (6 countries, R. amblyommii (5 countries, and R. parkeri (4 countries. The rickettsial records for the Caribbean islands (West Indies were grouped in only one geographical area. Both R. bellii, R. akari, and Candidatus ‘R. andeane’ have been recorded in only 2 countries each, whereas R. massiliae, R. rhipicephali, R.monteiroi, and R. africae have each been recorded in a single country (in this case, R. africae has been recorded in nine Caribbean Islands. For El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, no specific Rickettsia has been reported so far, but there have been serological evidence of human or/and animal infection. The following countries remain without any rickettsial records: Belize, Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, and Paraguay. In addition, except for a few islands, many Caribbean islands remain without records. A total of 12 Rickettsia species have been reported in Spain and Portugal: R. conorii, R. helvetica, R. monacensis, R. felis, R. slovaca, R. raoultii, R. sibirica, R. aeschlimannii, R. rioja, R. massiliae, R. typhi, and R. prowazekii. Amongst these Rickettsia species reported in Spain and Portugal, only R. prowazekii, R. typhi, R. felis, and R. massiliae have also been reported in Latin America. This study summarizes

  12. Cooperación Sur-Sur para el fortalecimiento de los laboratorios de control de medicamentos de la Comunidad del Caribe (CARICOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Parisi

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Objetivo Describir los beneficios obtenidos a través de la cooperación Sur-Sur y Triangular, como una potencial herramienta para el fortalecimiento en el control de la calidad de los medicamentos en los Laboratorios Oficiales de Control de Medicamentos (LOCM de la Región de las Américas. Métodos Estudio descriptivo del proyecto para el fortalecimiento en el control de la calidad de los medicamentos en los LOCM de la Comunidad del Caribe (CARICOM. Resultados La capacitación fue desarrollada por profesionales de la Administración Nacional de Medicamentos, Alimentos y Tecnología Médica (ANMAT de Argentina, a profesionales de Guyana, Jamaica, Surinam y Trinidad y Tobago. El proyecto contó con financiamiento del Fondo Argentino de Cooperación Sur-Sur y Triangular (FO.AR y coordinación de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS. Se revisaron los documentos de Buenas Prácticas de Laboratorio (BPL de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS y de la Red Panamericana para la Armonización de la Reglamentación Farmacéutica (Red-PARF y se fortaleció el área de controles físicos químicos, principalmente en relación a medicamentos para el tratamiento de la tuberculosis, la malaria y el VIH/sida, todos de importancia estratégica para esos países. Conclusión Este tipo de colaboraciones permiten transferir experiencia, optimizar los recursos, armonizar procedimientos y regulaciones y reforzar capacidades en término de recursos humanos, y constituyen una herramienta valiosa en la reducción de las asimetrías que pudieron establecerse en diferentes áreas entre diferentes países de nuestra región.

  13. Illegal gold miners in French Guiana: a neglected population with poor health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douine, Maylis; Mosnier, Emilie; Le Hingrat, Quentin; Charpentier, Charlotte; Corlin, Florine; Hureau, Louise; Adenis, Antoine; Lazrek, Yassamine; Niemetsky, Florence; Aucouturier, Anne-Laure; Demar, Magalie; Musset, Lise; Nacher, Mathieu

    2017-07-17

    In French Guiana, a French overseas territory in South America, 6 to 10 thousands undocumented persons work illegally in gold mining sites in the Amazonian forest. Precarious life conditions lead to poor health but few data exist on the health status of illegal gold miners in French Guiana. The objective of this article was to describe the sociodemographic and health status of this vulnerable population. A prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2015 on gold mine supply sites at the border between French Guiana and Suriname. Health status was assessed through medical examination, past medical history, haemoglobin concentration, and HIV and malaria testing. A questionnaire was used to collect data about the migration itinerary and life conditions on mining sites. Among the 421 adults included in the study, 93.8% (395/421) were Brazilian, mainly from Maranhão (55.7%, 220/395), the poorest Brazilian state. The sex ratio was 2.4. Overall, 48% of persons never went to school or beyond the primary level. The median time spent in gold mining was quite long (10 years), with a high turn-over. One third of the surveyed population (37.1%, 156/421) had high blood pressure, and only two had a medical follow-up. Most persons had experienced malaria (89.3%, 376/421). They declared frequent arboviroses and digestive disorders. Active leishmaniasis was observed in 8.3% of gold miners. Among women, 28.5% were anemic. Concerning HIV, 36.6% (154/421) of persons, mainly men, never got tested before and 6 were tested positive, which represented an HIV prevalence of 1.43% (95%CI =0.29-2.5). These findings support the hypothesis that mining in remote areas is linked to several specific illnesses. Theoretically, gold miners would be presumed to start their economical migration to French Guiana as a healthy group. However, their strenuous working and living conditions there lead to poor health caused by infectious and non infectious diseases. This description of their health

  14. Development of a genetic sexing strain in Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae) by introgression of sex sorting components from B. dorsalis, Salaya1 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isasawin, Siriwan; Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Lertsiri, Sittiwat; Thanaphum, Sujinda

    2014-01-01

    The carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock is a high profile key pest that is widely distributed in the southwestern ASEAN region. In addition, it has trans-continentally invaded Suriname, where it has been expanding east and southward since 1975. This fruit fly belongs to Bactrocera dorsalis species complex. The development and application of a genetic sexing strain (Salaya1) of B. dorsalis sensu stricto (s.s.) (Hendel) for the sterile insect technique (SIT) has improved the fruit fly control. However, matings between B. dorsalis s.s. and B. carambolae are incompatible, which hinder the application of the Salaya1 strain to control the carambola fruit fly. To solve this problem, we introduced genetic sexing components from the Salaya1 strain into the B. carambolae genome by interspecific hybridization. Morphological characteristics, mating competitiveness, male pheromone profiles, and genetic relationships revealed consistencies that helped to distinguish Salaya1 and B. carambolae strains. A Y-autosome translocation linking the dominant wild-type allele of white pupae gene and a free autosome carrying a recessive white pupae homologue from the Salaya1 strain were introgressed into the gene pool of B. carambolae. A panel of Y-pseudo-linked microsatellite loci of the Salaya1 strain served as markers for the introgression experiments. This resulted in a newly derived genetic sexing strain called Salaya5, with morphological characteristics corresponding to B. carambolae. The rectal gland pheromone profile of Salaya5 males also contained a distinctive component of B. carambolae. Microsatellite DNA analyses confirmed the close genetic relationships between the Salaya5 strain and wild B. carambolae populations. Further experiments showed that the sterile males of Salaya5 can compete with wild males for mating with wild females in field cage conditions. Introgression of sex sorting components from the Salaya1 strain to a closely related B. carambolae

  15. Uncertainty in projected point precipitation extremes for hydrological impact analysis of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Uytven, Els; Willems, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Current trends in the hydro-meteorological variables indicate the potential impact of climate change on hydrological extremes. Therefore, they trigger an increased importance climate adaptation strategies in water management. The impact of climate change on hydro-meteorological and hydrological extremes is, however, highly uncertain. This is due to uncertainties introduced by the climate models, the internal variability inherent to the climate system, the greenhouse gas scenarios and the statistical downscaling methods. In view of the need to define sustainable climate adaptation strategies, there is a need to assess these uncertainties. This is commonly done by means of ensemble approaches. Because more and more climate models and statistical downscaling methods become available, there is a need to facilitate the climate impact and uncertainty analysis. A Climate Perturbation Tool has been developed for that purpose, which combines a set of statistical downscaling methods including weather typing, weather generator, transfer function and advanced perturbation based approaches. By use of an interactive interface, climate impact modelers can apply these statistical downscaling methods in a semi-automatic way to an ensemble of climate model runs. The tool is applicable to any region, but has been demonstrated so far to cases in Belgium, Suriname, Vietnam and Bangladesh. Time series representing future local-scale precipitation, temperature and potential evapotranspiration (PET) conditions were obtained, starting from time series of historical observations. Uncertainties on the future meteorological conditions are represented in two different ways: through an ensemble of time series, and a reduced set of synthetic scenarios. The both aim to span the full uncertainty range as assessed from the ensemble of climate model runs and downscaling methods. For Belgium, for instance, use was made of 100-year time series of 10-minutes precipitation observations and daily

  16. Schistosomiasis Prevalence and Intensity of Infection in Latin America and the Caribbean Countries, 1942-2014: A Systematic Review in the Context of a Regional Elimination Goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoni, Ana Clara; Catalá, Laura; Ault, Steven K

    2016-03-01

    In 2012 the World Health Assembly adopted resolution WHA65.21 on elimination of schistosomiasis, calling for increased investment in schistosomiasis control and support for countries to initiate elimination programs. This study aims to analyze prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma mansoni infection in children in Latin America and the Caribbean countries and territories (LAC), at the second administrative level or lower. A systematic review of schistosomiasis prevalence and intensity of infection was conducted by searching at PubMed, LILACS and EMBASE. Experts on the topic were informally consulted and institutional web pages were reviewed (PAHO/WHO, Ministries of Health). Only SCH infection among children was registered because it can be a 'proxi-indicator' of recent transmission by the time the study is conducted. One hundred thirty two full-text articles met the inclusion criteria and provided 1,242 prevalence and 199 intensity of infection data points. Most of them were from Brazil (69.7%). Only Brazil published studies after 2001, showing several 'hot spots' with high prevalence. Brazil, Venezuela, Suriname and Saint Lucia need to update the epidemiological status of schistosomiasis to re-design their national programs and target the elimination of Schistosoma mansoni transmission by 2020. In Antigua and Barbuda, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Montserrat and Puerto Rico schistosomiasis transmission may be interrupted. However the compilation of an elimination dossier and follow-up surveys, per WHO recommendations, are needed to verify that status. Hence, the burden of subtle SCH chronic infection may be still present and even high in countries that may have eliminated transmission. Heterogeneity in the methodologies used for monitoring and evaluating the progress of the schistosomiasis programs was found, making cross-national and chronological comparisons difficult. There is a need for updating the schistosomiasis status in the historically

  17. Schistosomiasis Prevalence and Intensity of Infection in Latin America and the Caribbean Countries, 1942-2014: A Systematic Review in the Context of a Regional Elimination Goal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara Zoni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2012 the World Health Assembly adopted resolution WHA65.21 on elimination of schistosomiasis, calling for increased investment in schistosomiasis control and support for countries to initiate elimination programs. This study aims to analyze prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma mansoni infection in children in Latin America and the Caribbean countries and territories (LAC, at the second administrative level or lower.A systematic review of schistosomiasis prevalence and intensity of infection was conducted by searching at PubMed, LILACS and EMBASE. Experts on the topic were informally consulted and institutional web pages were reviewed (PAHO/WHO, Ministries of Health. Only SCH infection among children was registered because it can be a 'proxi-indicator' of recent transmission by the time the study is conducted.One hundred thirty two full-text articles met the inclusion criteria and provided 1,242 prevalence and 199 intensity of infection data points. Most of them were from Brazil (69.7%. Only Brazil published studies after 2001, showing several 'hot spots' with high prevalence. Brazil, Venezuela, Suriname and Saint Lucia need to update the epidemiological status of schistosomiasis to re-design their national programs and target the elimination of Schistosoma mansoni transmission by 2020. In Antigua and Barbuda, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Montserrat and Puerto Rico schistosomiasis transmission may be interrupted. However the compilation of an elimination dossier and follow-up surveys, per WHO recommendations, are needed to verify that status. Hence, the burden of subtle SCH chronic infection may be still present and even high in countries that may have eliminated transmission. Heterogeneity in the methodologies used for monitoring and evaluating the progress of the schistosomiasis programs was found, making cross-national and chronological comparisons difficult.There is a need for updating the schistosomiasis status in the

  18. Moscas frugívoras e seus parasitoides nos municípios de Pelotas e Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Frugivorous flies and their parasitoids in the cities of Pelotas and Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrise Medeiros Nunes

    2012-01-01

    pelleranoi (Brèthes, 1924 (20,0%. Doryctobracon areolatus foi o parasitoide mais frequente na maioria das frutíferas amostradas, com exceção da pitangueira e cerejeira-do-mato em que predominou O. bellus, e em pessegueiro com predomínio de A. pelleranoi.Frugivorous flies (Tephritoidea are the main pests in temperate-zone fruit crop in Brazil. The objective of this research is to evaluate the infestation of these flies and the incidence of their parasitoids in fruit trees from 2007/08 and 2008/9 crops in Pelotas and in Capão do Leão, located in the south of Rio Grande do Sul. Fruits were collected from yellow guava and red guava (Psidium cattleianum Sabine, 1821, pindo palm [Butia capitata (Mart. Becc., 1916], persimmon (Diospyros kaki Linnaeus, 1753, wild cherry (Eugenia involucrata DC., 1828, guava [Psidium guajava (Linnaeus, 1753], feijoa tree [Acca sellowiana (Berg. Burret, 1941], medlar [Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb. Lindley, 1822], peach [Prunus persicae (L. Batsch, 1801], surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora Linnaeus,1753 and (Eugenia pyriformis Cambessèdes, 1832. The fruit was collected and transported to the laboratory, where the following parameters were individually determined: fly infestation rate, parasitism rate, and its frequency per parasitoid specie. It was found two species of Tephritidae, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 (90.5% and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 (9.5% and two of Lonchaeidae, Neosilba zadolicha McAlpine & Steyskal, 1982 (87.8% and a species not yet described, called Neosilba n. sp. 3 (12.2%. Anastrepha fraterculus is the most abundant species in the two cities and it was detected in most fruit crops collected. The persimmon and the guava were the hosts that showed the highest index of C. capitata infestation. Regarding to the species of Neosilba, the highest infestation occurred in fruits of feijoa tree. From the emerged parasitoids, it was identified three species two of Braconidae, Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911

  19. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1993-01-01

    -Smith, Haiti: The Breached Citadel. Boulder CO: Westview Press, 1990. xxi + 217 pp. -O. Nigel Bolland, Howard Johnson, The Bahamas in slavery and freedom. Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle; London: James Currey, 1991. viii + 184 pp. -Keith F. Otterbein, Charles C. Foster, Conchtown USA: Bahamian fisherfolk in Riviera beach, Florida. (with folk songs and tales collected by Veronica Huss. Boca Raton: Florida Atlantic University Press, 1991. x + 176 pp. -Peter van Baarle, John P. Bennett ,Kabethechino: A correspondence on Arawak. Edited by Janette Forte. Georgetown: Demerara Publishers, 1991. vi + 271 pp., Richard Hart (eds -Fabiola Jara, Joop Vernooij, Indianen en kerken in Suriname: identiteit en autonomie in het binnenland. Paramaribo: Stichting Wetenschappelijke Informatie (SWI, 1989. 178 pp. -Jay Edwards, C.L. Temminck Groll ,Curacao: Willemstad, city of monuments. R.G. Gill. The Hague: Gary Schwartz/SDU Publishers, 1990. 123 pp., W. van Alphen, R. Apell (eds -Mineke Schipper, Maritza Coomans-Eustatia ,Drie Curacaose schrijvers in veelvoud. Zutphen: De Walburg Pers, 1991. 544 pp., H.E. Coomans, Wim Rutgers (eds -Arie Boomert, P. Wagenaar Hummelinck, De rotstekeningen van Aruba/The prehistoric rock drawings of Aruba. Utrecht: Uitgeverij Presse-Papier, 1991. 228 pp. -J.K. Brandsma, Ruben S. Gowricharn, Economische transformatie en de staat: over agrarische modernisering en economische ontwikkeling in Suriname, 1930-1960. Den Haag: Uitgeverij Ruward, 1990. 208 pp. -Henk N. Hoogendonk, M. van Schaaijk, Een macro-model van een micro-economie. Den Haag: STUSECO, 1991. 359 pp. -Bim G. Mungra, Corstiaan van der Burg ,Hindostanen in Nederland. Leuven (Belgium/ Apeldoorn (the Netherlands: Garant Publishers, 1990. 223 pp., Theo Damsteegt, Krishna Autar (eds -Adrienne Bruyn, J. van Donselaar, Woordenboek van het Surinaams-Nederlands. Muiderberg: Dick Coutinho, 1989. 482 pp. -Wim S. Hoogbergen, Michiel Baud ,'Cultuur in beweging': creolisering en Afro-Caraïbische cultuur. Rotterdam: Bureau

  20. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Metcalf

    1990-10-01

    age in motion; Popular radicalism in Java, 1912-1926, Ithaca/London: Cornell University Press, 1990. xxiv + 365 pp. - Rob de Ridder, Willem F.H. Adelaar, Het boek van Huarochirí. Mythen en riten van het Oude Peru, Amsterdam: Meulenhoff, 1988, 150 pp., - Marie-Odette Scalliet, Peter Carey, A.A.J. Payen: Journal de mon voyage à Jogja Karta en 1825. The outbreak of the Java War (1825-30 as seen by a painter, Cahier d’Archipel 17, Paris 1988. XIV + 183 pp., 17 ill., 3 maps. - Matthew Schoffeleers, Marion Melk-Koch, Auf der Suche nach der menschlichen Gesellschaft: Richard Thurnwald, Berlin: Dietrich Reimer, 1989. 352 pp., maps, photographs and Thurnwald bibliography. - Matthew Schoffeleers, Peter Metcalf, Where are you / Spirits? Style and theme in Berawan prayer, Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1989, 345 pp. - J.W. Schoorl, J.F.L.M. Cornelissen, Pater en Papoea; Ontmoeting van de Missionarissen van het Heileg Hart met de cultuur der Papoea’s van Nederlands Zuid-Nieuw-Guinea (1905-1963, Kampen: Kok, 1988, XIV + 256 pp. - Alex van Stipriaan, Jo Derkx, Suriname; A bibliography, 1980-1989, Leiden: KITLV (Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology, Department of Caribbean studies, 1990, 297 pp., Irene Rolfes (eds. - A.A. Trouwborst, Th. Schweizer (Hg, Netzwerkanalyse; Ethnologische perspektiven, Berlin: Dietrich Reimerverlag, 1989, VIII, 229 pp. - Hans Vermeulen, Brian Juan O’Neill, Social inequality in a Portugese hamlet; Land, late marriage and bastardy, 1870-1978, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 431 pp. 1987. - C.W. Watson, Hendrick M.J. Maier, In the center of authority. The Malay Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa, Ithaca: Southeast Asia program, Studies on Southeast Asia , 1988. 210 pp. - Neil Lancelot Whitehead, Edmundo Magaña, Orión y la mujer Pléyades. Simbolismo astronómico de los indios kaliña de Surinam, Dordrecht/Providence: Foris, 1988. [CEDLA Latin American studies series 44.] 373 pp. - J.J. de Wolf, Meyer Fortes, Religion

  1. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J.M. Claessen

    1990-04-01

    Full Text Available - J. van Baal, Gert Oostindie, Roosenburg en Mon Bijou: Twee Surinaamse plantages, 1720-1870. Caribbean series II, Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde; Dordrecht: Foris, 1989. xii + 548 pp. - C. Baks, Marine Carrin-Bouez, La fleur et l’os; Symbolisme et rituel chez les Santal, Cahier de l’Homme, Nouvelle Serie XXVI, Paris: Éditions de l’École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, 1986. 193 pp., figures et tableaux, photos, carte. - C. Baks, Serge Bouez, Réciprocité et hiérarchie; l’Alliance chez les Ho et les Santal de l’Inde, Recherches sur la Haute Asie 7, Paris: Société d’Ethnographie, 1985. 232 pp., annexes, figures et tableaux, photos, carte. - René van den Berg, Bambang Kaswanti Purwo, Towards a description of contemporary Indonesian: Preliminary studies, Part III. Jakarta: Badan Penyelenggara Seri NUSA/Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya [=Nusa, Linguistic studies of Indonesian and other languages in Indonesia. Volume 30]. 1988. ix + 94 pp. - Martin van Bruinessen, Elly Touwen-Bouwsma, Staat, Islam en lokale leiders in West Madura, Indonesië. Een historisch-antropologische studie. Kampen: Uitgeverij Mondiss, 1988 [dissertatie Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 1988]. xx, 276 pp. - J.G. de Casparis, John Miksic, Small finds: Ancient Javanese gold, Singapore: National Museum, 1988. VIII + 88 pp. 20 Plates, 56 Figures. - B.F. Drewes, Asian women doing theology, vol. XVI-47 of Exchange, Bulletin of Third World Christian Literature and Ecumenical Research, September 1987, ii + 78 pp. - Ch. van Fraassen, Femme Gaastra, Bewind en beleid bij de VOC 1672-1702, De Walburg Pers, 1989. 343 pp., ill. - B.F. Galjart, James C. Scott, Weapons of the weak. Everyday forms of peasant resistance. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1985. - R. Giel, R. van Lier, Tropische Tribaden: Een verhandeling over homoseksualiteit en homoseksuele vrouwen in Suriname, Dordrecht: Foris, 1986. 84 pp. - Paul van der Grijp

  2. Reactive hydro- end chlorocarbons in the troposphere and lower stratosphere : sources, distributions, and chemical impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeren, H. A.

    2003-09-01

    The work presented in this thesis focuses on measurements of chemical reactive C2 C7 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and C1 C2 chlorocarbons with atmospheric lifetimes of a few hours up to about a year. The group of reactive chlorocarbons includes the most abundant atmospheric species with large natural sources, which are chloromethane (CH3Cl), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), and trichloromethane (CHCl3), and tetrachloroethylene (C2Cl4) with mainly anthropogenic sources. The NMHC and chlorocarbons are present at relatively low quantities in our atmosphere (10-12 10-9 mol mol-1 of air). Nevertheless, they play a key role in atmospheric photochemistry. For example, the oxidation of NMHC plays a dominant role in the formation of ozone in the troposphere, while the photolysis of chlorocarbons contributes to enhanced ozone depletion in the stratosphere. In spite of their important role, however, their global source and sinks budgets are still poorly understood. Hence, this study aims at improving our understanding of the sources, distribution, and chemical role of reactive NMHC and chlorocarbons in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. To meet this aim, a comprehensive data set of selected C2 C7 NMHC and chlorocarbons has been analyzed, derived from six aircraft measurement campaigns with two different jet aircrafts (the Dutch TUD/NLR Cessna Citation PH-LAB, and the German DLR Falcon) conducted between 1995 and 2001 (STREAM 1995 and 1997 and 1998, LBA-CLAIRE 1998, INDOEX 1999, MINOS 2001). The NMHC and chlorocarbons have been detected by gas-chromatography (GC-FID/ECD) in pre-concentrated whole air samples collected in stainless steel canister on-board the measurement aircrafts. The measurement locations include tropical (Maldives/Indian Ocean and Surinam), midlatitude (Western Europe and Canada) and polar regions (Lapland/northern Sweden) between the equator to about 70ºN, covering different seasons and pollution levels in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Of

  3. 中国大陆24例输入性寨卡病毒病病例的流行病学分析%Epidemiological analysis of 24 imported Zika virus disease cases in mainland China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勃; 吴海磊; 贺晨; 韩辉; 张倩玉

    2017-01-01

    目的 了解中国大陆输入性寨卡病毒病病例的流行病学特点和发现特点,为寨卡病毒病的防控提供参考依据.方法 收集2016年2-9月发现的输入性寨卡病毒病病例的公开信息,分析其三间分布和发现方式.结果 共发现24例输入性寨卡病毒病病例,男性15例,女性9例;病例中来自委内瑞拉16例、玻利维亚1例、苏里南2例、萨摩亚3例、危地马拉2例;50.0%为口岸卫生检疫发现,16.7%为疾控部门健康随访发现,33.3%为医疗机构诊察发现.结论 口岸卫生检疫、地方疾控部门健康随访、医疗机构诊察构成我国输入性寨卡病毒病防控的“三道防线”,加强联防联控是输入性寨卡病毒病防控的核心策略之一.%Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics and identification of imported Zika virus disease cases in mainland China,and to provide reference for the prevention and control of Zika virus disease.Methods The public information of the imported Zika virus disease cases from February to September in 2016 was collected.The population,time and spatial distribution,methods of identification were analyzed.Results There were 24 imported Zika virus disease cases were found,among them 15 were male and 9 were female.The cases were from Venezuela (16 cases),Bolivia(1 case),Surinam(2 cases),Samoa(3 cases) and Guatemala (2 cases).50.0% cases were identified by health quarantine departments,16.7% were found by local Center for Diseases Prevention and Control (CDC),33.3% were found by clinicians.Conclusion Health quarantine,CDC health follow-up,hospital diagnosis constituted the three lines of preventing the imported Zika virus disease in mainland China.To strengthen the joint prevention measures was one of the key strategies to prevent the imported Zika virus disease.

  4. Rapid shoreline erosion induced by human impacts in a tropical muddy coast context, an example from western French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunier, Guillaume; Anthony, Edward; Gardel, Antoine

    2015-04-01

    The Guyanas coast (French Guiana, Surinam and Guiana) is the longest muddy coast in the world (1500 km). It is under the influence of mud banks in transit from the Amazon delta in Brazil to the Orinoco delta in Venezuela. This westward mud bank migration induces a strong geomorphic control on the shoreline which can be summarized in terms of "bank" (shoreline advance and wave energy dissipation) and "inter-bank" phases (erosion of shoreline by waves). Our study site, rice polders close to Mana city (western French Guiana), is a fine example of the exacerbation, by human activities, of the erosional dynamics on this muddy coast during an "inter-bank" phase. The polders cover 50,000 ha, in 200 x 600 m compartments flanked by earth dikes and canals. They were built in the muddy Holocene coastal plain in the 1980s and are rapidly eroding. Waves (mean significant height = 1.5 m height) comprise Atlantic swell and local trade wind-waves, and the tidal context is semi-diurnal and meso-tidal. We determined historical shoreline evolution from satellite (Landsat & SPOT) and orthophotography images, and conducted four field campaigns between October 2013 and October 2014, comprising topographic (RTK-DGPS) and hydrodynamic (pressure sensors) measurements. The results show intense erosion of 150 m/year affecting the polders since 2001, and lesser retreat (30 to 100 m/year) of the adjacent sectors colonized by mangrove forests. The erosive shoreface shows the same structure in each polder compartment: a chenier beach which freely retreats backwards under the influence of wave overwash. The chenier retreat rate is 100 m/year and it appears to be more intense (net retreat of 45 m) during the high wave-energy season (December to March), which generates more overwashing. In front of the chenier, we observed a large (50 m) inter-tidal mud bed showing different levels of induration and bioturbation by mangrove roots. The mud shorefaces exhibit an erosion rate of 100 m/year on average

  5. Climate change, allergy and asthma, and the role of tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Vitale, Carolina; Rosario, Nelson; Neto, Herberto Josè Chong; Chong-Silva, Deborah Carla; Mendonça, Francisco; Perini, Josè; Landgraf, Loraine; Solé, Dirceu; Sánchez-Borges, Mario; Ansotegui, Ignacio; D'Amato, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Tropical forests cover less than 10 per cent of all land area (1.8 × 107 km 2 ) and over half of the tropical-forest area (1.1 × 107 Km 2 ) is represented by humid tropical forests (also called tropical rainforests). The Amazon basin contains the largest rainforest on Earth, almost 5.8 million km 2 , and occupies about 40% of South America; more than 60% of the basin is located in Brazil and the rest in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela. Over the past decade the positive role of tropical rainforests in capturing large amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) has been demonstrated. In response to the increase in atmospheric CO 2 concentration, tropical forests act as a global carbon sink. Accumulation of carbon in the tropical terrestrial biosphere strongly contributes to slowing the rate of increase of CO 2 into the atmosphere, thus resulting in the reduction of greenhouse gas effect. Tropical rainforests have been estimated to account for 32-36% of terrestrial Net Primary Productivity (NPP) that is the difference between total forest photosynthesis and plant respiration. Tropical rainforests have been acting as a strong carbon sink in this way for decades. However, over the past years, increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, and especially CO 2 , in the atmosphere have significantly affected the net carbon balance of tropical rainforests, and have warmed the planet substantially driving climate changes through more severe and prolonged heat waves, variability in temperature, increased air pollution, forest fires, droughts, and floods. The role of tropical forests in mitigating climate change is therefore critical. Over the past 30 years almost 600,000 km 2 have been deforested in Brazil alone due to the rapid development of Amazonia, this is the reason why currently the region is one of the 'hotspots' of global environmental change on the planet. Deforestation represents the second largest

  6. Medicinal chemistry of antischistosomal drugs: Praziquantel and oxamniquine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Vinícius Barros Ribeiro; Campos, Bruna Rafaella Koresch Leiva; de Oliveira, Jamerson Ferreira; Decout, Jean-Luc; do Carmo Alves de Lima, Maria

    2017-07-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a group of diseases that, besides prevailing in poverty conditions, contribute to the maintenance of social inequality, being a strong barrier to a country development. Schistosomiasis, a NTD, is a tropical and subtropical disease caused by the trematode Schistosoma mansoni (Africa, Middle East, Caribbean, Brazil, Venezuela, Suriname), japonicum (China, Indonesia, the Philippines), mekongi (several districts of Cambodia and the Lao People's Democratic Republic), intercalatum and guianensis (areas of tropical rainforests in Central Africa) and hematobium (Middle East Africa, Corsica, France) whose adult forms inhabit the mesenteric vessels of the host, while the intermediate forms are found in the aquatic gastropod snails of the genus Biomphalaria. Currently, praziquantel (PZQ) is the first line drug chosen for the treatment of schistosomiasis according to the World Health Organization (WHO) Model List of Essential Medicines, 2015. PZQ chemotherapy is considered to be the most important development for decades in the treatment of schistosomiasis. Beside the PZQ, oxamniquine (OXA) has been first described in 1969 and launched in Brazil by Pfizer under the name of Mansil® for oral administration. It has a lower cost when compared to PZQ, being active in the intestinal and hepatosplenic infections caused exclusively by S. mansoni, single species in Brazil. Both PZQ and OXA have limitations, as low efficacy in the treatment of acute schistosomiasis, low activity against S. mansoni in immature stages and resistance or tolerance, which is the reason why further research are still necessary for the development of a second generation of antischistosomal drugs. For the development of new PZQ analogs, three main strategies can be adopted: (a) synthesis and evaluation of PZQ analogues; (b) rational design of new pharmacophores; (c) discovery of new active compounds from screening programs on a large scale. Such (b) approach is difficult

  7. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1998-07-01

    Nicaragua. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994. xii + 261 pp. -Winthrop R. Wright, Jay Kinsbruner, Not of pure blood: The free people of color and racial prejudice in nineteenth-century Puerto Rico. Durham NC: Duke University Press, 1996. xiv + 176 pp. -Gage Averill, Deborah Pacini Hernandez, Bachata: A social history of a Dominican popular music. Philadelphia PA: Temple University Press, 1995. xxiii + 267 pp. -Vera M. Kutzinski, Lorna Valerie Williams, The representation of slavery in Cuban fiction. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1994. viii + 220 pp. -Peter Mason, Elmer Kolfin, Van de slavenzweep en de muze: Twee eeuwen verbeelding van slavernij in Suriname. Leiden: Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, 1997. 184 pp. -J. Michael Dash, Jean-Pol Madou, Édouard Glissant: De mémoire d'arbes. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1996. 114 pp. -Ransford W. Palmer, Jay R. Mandle, Persistent underdevelopment: Change and economic modernization in the West Indies. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach, 1996. xii + 190 pp. -Ramón Grossfoguel, Juan E. Hernández Cruz, Corrientes migratorias en Puerto Rico/Migratory trends in Puerto Rico. Edición Bilingüe/Bilingual Edition. San Germán: Caribbean Institute and Study Center for Latin America, Universidad Interamericana de Puerto Rico, 1994. 195 pp. -Gert Oostindie, René V. Rosalia, Tambú: De legale en kerkelijke repressie van Afro-Curacaose volksuitingen. Zutphen: Walburg Pers, 1997. 338 pp. -John M. Lipski, Armin J. Schwegler, 'Chi ma nkongo': Lengua y rito ancestrales en El Palenque de San Basilio (Colombia. Frankfurt: Vervuert, 1996. 2 vols., xxiv + 823 pp. -Umberto Ansaldo, Geneviève Escure, Creole and dialect continua: Standard acquisition processes in Belize and China (PRC. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1997. ix + 307 pp.

  8. The role of fluvial sediment supply and river-mouth hydrology in the dynamics of the muddy, Amazon-dominated Amapá-Guianas coast, South America: A three-point research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Edward J.; Gardel, Antoine; Proisy, Christophe; Fromard, François; Gensac, Erwan; Peron, Christina; Walcker, Romain; Lesourd, Sandric

    2013-07-01

    probably lessened muddy deposition. The third theme concerns sand supply by the Guiana Shield rivers. The rare sand deposits are important in providing sites for human settlements and routes and for nesting by marine turtles. The limited presence of sand bodies on this coast may reflect 'mud blanketing', a hypothesis that requires verification through high-resolution seismic analyses of shelf deposits and coring operations. The large Guiana Shield rivers, especially in Surinam and Guyana, have supplied sand for the construction of significant bands of cheniers, probably enhanced by the afore-mentioned downdrift hydraulic-groyne effect on hindered mud deposition. In all the three themes of this future research agenda, two central elements are the sediment input of the rivers of the Amazon basin, starting with the massive mud supply from the Amazon catchment itself, followed by sand inputs by the Guiana Shield rivers and their river-mouth effects on mud banks.

  9. Antibacterial activity of vegetal extracts against serovars of Salmonella Atividade antibacteriana de extratos vegetais sobre sorovares de Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Voss-Rech

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available in vitro antibacterial activity of 21 hydroethanolic vegetal extracts was assessed against 20 serovars of Salmonella. Regarding the tested extracts, 85.7% of them presented antibacterial activity. The six active extracts which showed activity on the largest number of serovars and the extract of Eucalyptus sp. were submitted to the determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC. Of these, six extracts showed bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity with MIC and MBC for Punica granatum (pomegranate from 20 and 60mg mL-1, for Eugenia jambolana (rose apple from 40 and 240mg mL-1, Eugenia uniflora (surinam cherry from 80 and 240mg mL-1, Caryophyllus aromaticus (clove from 10 and 60mg mL-1, Psidium araca from 30 and 320mg mL-1 and Eucalyptus sp. from 40 and 160mg mL-1. Achyrocline satureioides (macela presented only bacteriostatic potential and MIC from 160mg mL-1. Caryophyllus aromaticus, Eucalyptus sp., and Psidium araca presented the best results for bactericidal activity, inhibiting, respectively, 84.2%, 42.1%, and 17.6% of Salmonella's serovars. The activity of each extract varied for different serovars; S. London presented resistance to the six extracts in MBC, while S. Pullorum was the most susceptible serovar.A atividade antibacteriana de 21 extratos hidroetanólicos vegetais foi avaliada in vitro frente a 20 sorovares de Salmonella. Dos extratos testados, 85,7% apresentaram atividade antibacteriana. Os seis extratos que evidenciaram atividade sobre o maior número de sorovares e Eucalyptus sp. foram submetidos à determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM e Concentração Bactericida Mínima (CBM. Destes, seis extratos apresentaram atividade bacteriostática e bactericida com MIC para Punica granatum (romã a partir de 20 e 60mg mL-1, Eugenia jambolana (jambolão de 40 e 240mg mL-1, Eugenia uniflora (pitanga de 80 e 240mg mL-1, Caryophyllus aromaticus (cravo de 10 e 60mg mL-1

  10. Visibilidad de los estudios en análisis de redes sociales en América del Sur: su evolución y métricas de 1990-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Luiz Pinto

    Full Text Available El estudio visa analizar la productividad científica de los países de América del Sur sobre el tema de los Análisis de Redes Sociales, según la representación de los países, instituciones, investigadores y referencias teóricas (las citas utilizadas en estas producciones. Estudio temporal de 1990 hasta 2013 (31/5/2013; descriptivo bibliográfico por averiguar el estado de las Análisis de Redes Sociales en contenidos de la literatura blanca; cuantitativo por aplicar volúmenes de datos de frecuencia de publicación y de citas utilizando técnicas de la Bibliometría y Cientometría; la coleta de datos fue total en la base de datos Web of Science, refinando los datos para los países seleccionados Argentina n=166, Brasil n=775, Bolivia n=28, Chile n=179, Colombia n=78, Ecuador n=19, Paraguay n=8, Perú n=33, Uruguay n=21, Venezuela n=48. Los países Guyana Francesa, Islas Malvinas, Suriname no publicaran ningún artículo recuperando n=922 artículos científicos; el tratamiento de los datos fue en Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, CiteSpace y DetDraw. Como datos relevantes, las principales relaciones por países fueron en especial con los Estados Unidos de América, cooperados con Brasil, Argentina, Chile, Venezuela y Perú. Entre los países de América del Sur la centralidad de la red se hace por Brasil, Argentina y Chile. Entre las universidades, las con más destaques son: Universidade de São Paulo, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile y Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, donde todas estas instituciones concentran un universo de colaboraciones y hacen con que los estudios de análisis de redes sociales se desarrollen, teniendo como principales representantes Herrmann HJ Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule - Switzerland, Carrasco JA Universidad de Concepción - Chile, Bastos FI Fundação Oswaldo Cruz - Brasil, Costa LD Universidade de São Paulo - Brasil, Moll

  11. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2008-12-01

    Caribbean, 1624-1783 (Bonham C. Richardson Michaeline A. Crichlow; Negotiating Caribbean Freedom: Peasants and the State in Development (Christine Chivallon Peta Gay Jensen; The Last Colonials: The Story of Two European Families in Jamaica (Karl Watson Marc Tardieu; Les Antillais à Paris: D’hier à aujourd’hui (David Beriss Rhonda D. Frederick; “Colón Man a Come”: Mythographies of Panamá Canal Migration (Michael L. Conniff James Robertson; Gone is the Ancient Glory: Spanish Town, Jamaica, 1534-2000 (Philip D. Morgan Philippe R. Girard; Paradise Lost: Haiti’s Tumultuous Journey from Pearl of the Caribbean to Third World Hotspot (Carolle Charles Michael Deibert; Notes from the Last Testament: The Struggle for Haiti (Carolle Charles Ellen de Vries; Suriname na de binnenlandse oorlog (Aspha E. Bijnaar In: New West Indian Guide/ Nieuwe West-Indische Gids no. 82 (2008, no: 1-2, Leiden

  12. Rice is a potential dietary source of not only arsenic but also other toxic elements like lead and chromium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad M. Shraim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice is a staple food and a good source of nutrition for half of the earth’s population including Middle Eastern countries. However, rice may accumulate hazardous levels of toxic elements. In KSA, rice is imported from many countries; some of which suffer from arsenic contamination in their groundwater and soil. Despite the large daily consumption of rice in KSA, no investigations on the contamination of rice sold there are published so far. Additionally, reports on the contamination of rice with other toxic elements are rare in the literature. To investigate this issue, a total of 84 rice samples were collected from local markets in Almadinah Almunawarah, KSA (n = 70 and Brisbane, Australia (n = 12 and analyzed for arsenic and other elements by ICP-MS. The mean concentrations (mg kg−1 for the KSA samples with concentrations >LOQ were 0.136 for As (range 0.026–0.464, n = 70; Cd: 0.017 (0.003–0.046, n = 64; Pb: 0.029 (0.003–0.218, n = 40; Ni: 0.064 (0.042–0.086, n = 5; Mg: 157 (51.8–777, n = 70; Mn: 4.28 (0.960–10.9, n = 70; Fe: 7.07 (1.9–55.1, n = 70; Zn: 6.19 (1.15–13.5, n = 70; Cu 1.28 (0.508–2.41, n = 70; Se 0.202 (0.007–0.574, n = 70; Cr: 0.057 (0.010–0.184, n = 19; and Co: 0.012 (0.001–0.116, n = 56. Several samples were found to contain at least one element in excess of the Chinese MCL (0.2 mg kg−1for Cd, Cr, Pb, and iAs each. A large variation in element concentration was observed for samples of different origins. In comparison, the American rice accumulated the highest arsenic concentration (mean 0.257 mg kg−1 followed by the Thai rice (mean 0.200 mg kg−1, the Pakistani rice (mean 0.147 mg kg−1, the Indian rice (mean 0.103 mg kg−1, and finally the Egyptian rice (mean 0.097 mg kg−1. Additionally, 3 individual samples from Surinam, Australia, and France contained arsenic concentrations (mg kg−1 of 0.290, 0.188, and 0.183. The findings of this investigation

  13. Quantifying the risk of deforestation in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manners, Rhys; Varela-Ortega, Consuelo

    2015-04-01

    the ROBIN stakeholder workshops (heavily weighted the governance component). The results from the DRI were categorised as; low risk, moderate risk, at risk, elevated risk, high risk and extreme risk. The DRI demonstrated that in over 60% of countries, the risk of deforestation reduced between 2000-2010 with Belize, Costa Rica, Guyana and Venezuela being notable exceptions. Countries that saw reductions in their risk did so through economic growth (per capita GDP), institutional development (governmental effectiveness and regulatory quality), as well reductions in the scale of agricultural expansion. Despite the general trend towards lower risk, Amazonian countries were still found to be subject to potential deforestation. Bolivia, Ecuador, Guyana and Suriname were estimated to have an elevated risk of deforestation, with Brazil, Colombia and Peru considered to be at risk in 2010. The DRI provides an innovative, potentially multi-scalar tool, that can be used by national policy makers to identify where policies should be developed and directed, where specific measures in international programs such as REDD/+ could be most effectively pursued, and for international policy makers to identify and to tailor development or aid packages that reduce rather than contribute to deforestation.

  14. Atualização da nomenclatura de espécies do gênero Heliconia (Heliconiaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Ferreira de Castro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available As helicônias constituem um grupo de plantas cujo cultivo vem se intensificando devido ao crescente mercado. Porém, o uso incorreto da denominação para as espécies que vêm sendo cultivadas tem ocasionado alguns problemas ao produtor, como a decisão sobre adequadas técnicas de cultivo e manejo fitossanitário a serem adotadas, uma vez que o grupo é muito extenso e as exigências de nutrição mineral, espaçamento, condições de cultivo e ocorrência de pragas e doenças variam conforme a espécie considerada. Essa incorreção tem também ocasionado alguns entraves referentes às relações comerciais que envolvem a venda de mudas. Muitas vezes, seguindo nomenclaturas inadequadas ou nomes populares e/ou de variedades, o produtor rural pensa estar adquirindo mudas de determinada espécie, adaptada à sua região de cultivo e recebe um outro produto que poderá não ter uma produção satisfatória, ocorrendo prejuízos. O estudo baseou-se principalmente em informações obtidas em trabalhos originais publicados em periódicos nacionais e internacionais e livros sobre helicônias publicados entre 1880 e 2002 com descrições de espécies de helicônias. A interpretação dos dados compilados permitiu estipular 176 espécies de helicônias, de ocorrência na região neotropical e seis espécies nas Ilhas do Pacífico, perfazendo 182 espécies. O maior número de espécies e subespécies descritas tem ocorrência natural na Colômbia (94, seguindo em ordem decrescente Equador (60 Panamá (56, Costa Rica (47, Brasil (37, Peru (32, Venezuela (26, Nicarágua (22, Guatemala (16, Bolívia (15, Honduras e México (14 e Suriname (13. Das 182 espécies elencadas, 94 são registradas como endêmicas de determinada região, o que aponta uma grande fragilidade do gênero com relação à conservação de germoplasma. Face ao elevado grau de endemismo recomenda-se urgência no estabelecimento de um programa nacional/internacional que vise à coleta e

  15. Potencial nutritivo de frutos de pitangão (Eugenia neonitida, Sobral Nutritive potential of pitangão (Eugenia neonitida, Sobral fruits and seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana dos Santos Vilar

    2006-12-01

    water and low caloric value, 54,21 kcal, originated from 3,21 ± 0,25 g of lipids, 2,2 ± 0,86g of proteins, 0,55 ± 0,03g of carbohydrates, beyond 6g of soluble solids and high concentration of minerals, specially sodium with 480,8mg.100g-1. Total acidity is 1,38 ± 0,03g of NaOH.100g-1, pH is 2,85 and concentration of ascorbic acid is 17,86 ± 0,06 mg.100g-1. The value of beta-carotene is 60 ± 0,04 mg.100g-1. When compared the "Pitangão" pulp with of the Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora L. it was verified larger nutritional values for the first one. The "Pitangão" can be a great source of macro and micronutrients for human nutrition, although its cultivation and commercialization is not implemented yet.

  16. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Salmon

    1987-10-01

    Oriental and African studies, University of London, 1984, 366 pp. - J. Thomas Lindblad, K.M. Robinson, Stepchildren of progress; The political economy of development in an Indonesian mining town, Albany: State University of New York Press, 1986, xv + 315 pp. - Pauline Lunsingh Scheurleer, J.E. van Lohuizen-de Leeuw, Indo-Javanese Metalwork, Linden-Museum, Stuttgart, Staatliches Museum für Völkerkunde, 1984, 218 pp. - H.M.J. Maier, V. Matheson, Perceptions of the Haj; Five Malay texts, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian studies (Research notes and discussions paper no. 46, 1984; 63 pp., A.C. Milner (eds. - Wolfgang Marschall, Sandra A. Niessen, Motifs of life in Toba Batak texts and textiles, Verhandelingen KITLV 110. Dordrecht/Cinnaminson: Foris publications, 1985. VIII + 249 pp., 60 ills. - Peter Meel, Ben Scholtens, Opkomende arbeidersbeweging in Suriname. Doedel, Liesdek, De Sanders, De kom en de werklozenonrust 1931-1933, Nijmegen: Transculturele Uitgeverij Masusa, 1986, 224 pp. - Anke Niehof, Patrick Guinness, Harmony and hierarchy in a Javanese kampung, Asian Studies Association of Australia, Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1986, 191 pp. - C.H.M. Nooy-Palm, Toby Alice Volkman, Feasts of honor; Ritual and change in the Toraja Highlands, Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, Illinois Studies in Anthropology no. 16, 1985, IX + 217 pp., 2 maps, black and white photographs. - Gert J. Oostindie, Jean Louis Poulalion, Le Surinam; Des origines à l’indépendance. La Chapelle Monligeon, s.n., 1986, 93 pp. - Harry A. Poeze, Bob Hering, The PKI’s aborted revolt: Some selected documents, Townsville: James Cook University of North Queensland. (Occasional Paper 17. IV + 100 pp. - Harry A. Poeze, Biografisch woordenboek van het socialisme en de arbeidersbeweging in Nederland; Deel I, Amsterdam: Stichting tot Beheer van Materialen op het Gebied van de Sociale Geschiedenis IISG, 1986. XXIV + 184 pp. - S. Pompe, Philipus M. Hadjon, Perlindungan

  17. Book Reviews

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    Redactie KITLV

    1995-07-01

    Siewah, The lotus and the dagger: The Capildeo speeches (1957-1994. Port of Spain: Chakra Publishing House, 1994. 811 pp. -Donald R. Hill, Forty years of steel: An annotated discography of steel band and Pan recordings, 1951-1991. Jeffrey Thomas (comp.. Westport CT: Greenwood, 1992. xxxii + 307 pp. -Jill A. Leonard, André Lucrèce, Société et modernité: Essai d'interprétation de la société martiniquaise. Case Pilote, Martinique: Editions de l'Autre Mer, 1994. 188 pp. -Dirk H. van der Elst, Ben Scholtens ,Gaama Duumi, Buta Gaama: Overlijden en opvolging van Aboikoni, grootopperhoofd van de Saramaka bosnegers. Stanley Dieko. Paramaribo: Afdeling Cultuurstudies/Minov; Amsterdam: Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen, 1992. 204 pp., Gloria Wekker, Lady van Putten (eds -Rosemarijn Hoefte, Chandra van Binnendijk ,Sranan: Cultuur in Suriname. Amsterdam: Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen/Rotterdam: Museum voor Volkenkunde, 1992. 159 pp., Paul Faber (eds -Harold Munneke, A.J.A. Quintus Bosz, Grepen uit de Surinaamse rechtshistorie. Paramaribo: Vaco, 1993. 176 pp. -Harold Munneke, Irvin Kanhai ,Strijd om grond in Suriname: Verkenning van het probleem van de grondenrechten van Indianen en Bosnegers. Paramaribo, 1993, 200 pp., Joyce Nelson (eds -Ronald Donk, J. Hartog, De geschiedenis van twee landen: De Nederlandse Antillen en Aruba. Zaltbommel: Europese Bibliotheek, 1993. 183 pp. -Aart G. Broek, J.J. Oversteegen, In het schuim van grauwe wolken: Het leven van Cola Debrot tot 1948. Amsterdam: Muelenhoff, 1994. 556 pp.''Gemunt op wederkeer: Het leven van Cola Debrot vanaf 1948. Amsterdam: Muelenhoff, 1994. 397 pp.

  18. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Michiel Otto

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available - Martin A. van Bakel, C.B. Wilpert, Südsee Inseln, Völker und Kulturen. Hamburg: Christians, 1987. - Leonard Blussé, Leo Suryadinata, The ethnic Chinese in the Asean states: Bibliographical essays, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian studies, 1989. 271 pages. - G. Bos, Cees Koelewijn, Oral literature of the Trio Indians of Surinam, Dordrecht-Providence: Foris, 1987. [Koniniklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, Leiden, Caribbean series 6.] 312 pp., Peter Riviere (eds. - Gary Brana-Shute, Thomas Gibson, Sacrifice and sharing in the Philippine highlands. Religion and society among the Buid of Mindoro, London: Athlone press [Londons school of economics Monographs on social anthropology No 57], 1986. x, 259 pp. - H.J.M. Claessen, Claude Tardits, Princes et serviteurs du royaume; Cinq études de monarchies africaines. Paris: Societé d’Ethnographie. 1987. 230 pp., maps, figs. - Mary Eggermont-Molenaar, Haijo jan Westra, Gerard Termorshuizen, P.A. Daum; Journalist en romancier van tempo doeloe. Amsterdam: Nijgh & Van Ditmar, 1988. 632 pp. - P.C. Emmer, Selwyn H.H. Carrington, The British West Indies during the American revolution, Dordrecht/Providence: Foris publications, 1988. [Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, Caribbean series 8.] 222 pp., bibl. - James J. Fox, R. de Ridder, The Leiden tradition in structural anthropology; Essays in honour of P.E. de Josselin de Jong, Leiden: Brill, 1987., J.A.J. Karremans (eds. - Silvia W. de Groot, H.U.E. Thoden van Velzen, The great father and the danger; Religious cults, material forces, and the collective fantasies in the world of the Surinamese maroons. Dordrecht (Holland/Providence (USA: Foris, 1988, 451 pp., W. van Wetering (eds. - Paul van der Grijp, Frederick Errington, Cultural alternatives and a feminist anthropology; An analysis of culturally constructed gender interests in Papua New Guinea, Cambridge etc.: Cambridge University Press, 1987, 185 pp

  19. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2004-01-01

    Pennsylvania Press, 2003. viii + 305 pages. -Lise Winer, Kim Johnson, Renegades: The history of the renegades steel orchestra of Trinidad and Tobago. With photos by Jeffrey Chock. Oxford UK: Macmillan Caribbean Publishers, 2002. 170 pp. -Jerome Teelucksingh, Glenford Deroy Howe, Race, war and nationalism: A social history of West Indians in the first world war. Kingston: Ian Randle/Oxford UK: James Currey, 2002. vi + 270 pp. -Geneviève Escure, Glenn Gilbert, Pidgin and Creole linguistics in the twenty-first century. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 2002. 379 pp. -George L. Huttar, Eithne B. Carlin ,Atlas of the languages of Suriname. Leiden, The Netherlands: KITLV Press/Kingston: Ian Randle, 2002. vii + 345 pp., Jacques Arends (eds

  20. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ? Parakitri

    1991-10-01

    , Culture and language development, Studies in the social and cultural foundations of language No. 6, Cambridge University Press, 227 + 10 pp. - Denis Monnerie, Frederick H. Damon, Death rituals and life in the societies of the Kula Ring, Dekalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1989. 280 pp., maps, figs., bibliogr., Roy Wagner (eds. - Denis Monnerie, Frederick H. Damon, From Muyuw to the Trobriands; Transformations along the northern side of the Kula ring, Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 1990. xvi + 285 pp., maps, figs., illus., apps., bibliogr., index. - David S. Moyer, Jeremy Boissevain, Dutch dilemmas; Anthropologists look at the Netherlands, Assen/Maastricht: Van Gorcum, 1989, v + 186 pp., Jojada Verrips (eds. - Gert Oostindie, B.H. Slicher van Bath, Indianen en Spanjaarden; Een ontmoeting tussen twee werelden, Latijns Amerika 1500-1800. Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1989. 301 pp. - Parakitri, C.A.M. de Jong, Kompas 1965-1985; Een algemene krant met een katholieke achtergrond binnen het religieus pluralisme van Indonesie, Kampen: Kok, 1990. - C.A. van Peursen, J. van Baal, Mysterie als openbaring. Utrecht: ISOR, 1990. - Harry A. Poeze, R.A. Longmire, Soviet relations with South-East Asia; An historical survey. London-New York: Kegan Paul International, 1989, x + 176 pp. - Harry A. Poeze, Ann Swift, The road to Madiun; The Indonesian communist uprising of 1948. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell Modern Indonesia Project (Monograph series 69, 1989, xii + 116 pp. - Alex van Stipriaan, Cornelis Ch. Goslinga, The Dutch in the Caribbean and in Surinam 1791/5 - 1942, Assen/Maastricht: Van Gorcum, 1990. xii + 812 pp. - A. Teeuw, Keith Foulcher, Social commitment in literature and the arts: The Indonesian ‘Institute of People’s culture’ 1950-1965, Clayton, Victoria: Southeast Asian studies, Monash University (Centre of Southeast Asian studies, 1986, vii + 234 pp. - Elly Touwen-Bouwsma, T. Friend, The blue-eyed enemy; Japan against the West in Java and Luzon, 1942-1945. New

  1. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2003-01-01

    leadership, legitimacy and populist politics. Kingston: Ian Randle; Boulder CO: Lynne Rienner, 2001. xvi + 264 pp. -Bill Maurer, Cynthia Weber, Faking it: U.S. Hegemony in a 'post-phallic' era. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999. xvi + 151 pp. -Kelvin Santiago-Valles, Christina Duffy Burnett ,Foreign in a domestic sense: Puerto Rico, American expansion, and the constitution. Durham NC: Duke University Press, 2001. xv + 422 pp., Burke Marshall (eds -Rubén Nazario, Efrén Rivera Ramos, The legal construction of identity: The judicial and social legacy of American colonialism in Puerto Rico. Washington DC: American Psychological Association, 2000. 275 pp. -Marc McLeod, Louis A. Pérez, Jr., Winds of change: Hurricanes and the transformation of nineteenth-century Cuba. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001. x + 199 pp. -Jorge L. Giovannetti, Fernando Martínez Heredia ,Espacios, silencios y los sentidos de la libertad: Cuba entre 1878 y 1912. Havana: Ediciones Unión, 2001. 359 pp., Rebecca J. Scott, Orlando F. García Martínez (eds -Reinaldo L. Román, Miguel Barnet, Afro-Cuban religions. Princeton NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2001. 170 pp. -Philip W. Scher, Hollis 'Chalkdust' Liverpool, Rituals of power and rebellion: The carnival tradition in Trinidad and Tobago, 1763-1962. Chicago: Research Associates School Times Publications and Frontline distribution international, 2001. xviii + 518 pp. -Asmund Weltzien, David Griffith ,Fishers at work, workers at sea: A Puerto Rican journey through labor and refuge. Philadelphia PA: Temple University Press, 2002. xiv + 265 pp., Manuel Valdés Pizzini (eds -Riva Berleant-Schiller, Eudine Barriteau, The political economy of gender in the twentieth-century Caribbean. New York: Palgrave, 2001. xvi + 214 pp. -Edward Dew, Rosemarijn Hoefte ,Twentieth-century Suriname: Continuities and discontinuities in a new world society. Kingston: Ian Randle; Leiden: KITLV Press, 2001. xvi + 365 pp., Peter Meel (eds -Joseph

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    1992-01-01

    cemetery in Barbados, West Indies: a bioarcheological and ethnohistorical investigation, Carbondale IL: Center for archaeological investigations, Southern Illinois University, 1989. xviii + 125 pp., Michael D. Conner, Keith P. Jacobi (eds -Gert Oostindie, Cornelis Ch. Goslinga, The Dutch in the Caribbean and in Surinam 1791/1942, Assen, Maastricht: Van Gorcum, 1990. xii + 812 pp. -Rosemarijn Hoefte, Alfons Martinus Gerardus Rutten, Apothekers en chirurgijns: gezondheidszorg op de Benedenwindse eilanden van de Nederlandse Antillen in de negentiende eeuw, Assen/Maastricht: Van Gorcum, 1989. xx + 330 pp. -Rene A. Römer, Luc Alofs ,Ken ta Arubiano? sociale integratie en natievorming op Aruba, Leiden: Department of Caribbean studies, Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology, 1990. xi + 232 pp., Leontine Merkies (eds -Michiel van Kempen, Benny Ooft et al., De nacht op de Courage - Caraïbische vertellingen, Vreeland, the Netherlands: Basispers, 1990. -M. Stevens, F.E.R. Derveld ,Winti-religie: een Afro-Surinaamse godsdienst in Nederland, Amersfoort, the Netherlands: Academische Uitgeverij Amersfoort, 1988. 188 pp., H. Noordegraaf (eds -Dirk H. van der Elst, H.U.E. Thoden van Velzen ,The great Father and the danger: religious cults, material forces, and collective fantasies in the world of the Surinamese Maroons, Dordrecht, the Netherlands and Providence RI: Foris Publications, 1988. xiv + 451 pp. [Second printing, Leiden: KITLV Press, 1991], W. van Wetering (eds -Johannes M. Postma, Gert Oostindie, Roosenburg en Mon Bijou: twee Surinaamse plantages, 1720-1870, Dordrecht, Netherlands: Foris Publications, 1989. x + 548 pp. -Elizabeth Ann Schneider, John W. Nunley ,Caribbean festival arts: each and every bit of difference, Seattle/St. Louis: University of Washington Press / Saint Louis Art Museum, 1989. 217 pp., Judith Bettelheim (eds -Bridget Brereton, Howard S. Pactor, Colonial British Caribbean newspapers: a bibliography and directory, Westport CT: Greenwood, 1990. xiii

  3. Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae with description of three new aviculariine genera01

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    Caroline Sayuri Fukushima

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 is revised and all species are rediagnosed. The type species, described as Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758, is the oldest mygalomorph species described and its taxonomic history is extensive and confusing. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix of 46 taxa from seven theraphosid subfamilies, and 71 morphological and ecological characters. The optimal cladogram found with Piwe and concavity = 6 suggests Avicularia and Aviculariinae are monophyletic. Subfamily Aviculariinae includes Avicularia Lamarck, 1818, Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, Stromatopelma Karsch, 1881, Ephebopus Simon, 1892, Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895, Heteroscodra Pocock, 1899, Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901, Ybyrapora gen. n., Caribena gen. n., and Antillena gen. n. The clade is supported by well-developed scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi, greatly extended laterally. Avicularia synapomorphies are juveniles bearing black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles; spermathecae with an accentuated outwards curvature medially, and male palpal bulb with embolus medial portion and tegulum’s margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Avicularia is composed of twelve species, including three new species: Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1818, Avicularia glauca Simon, 1891, Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896 stat. n., A. minatrix Pocock, 1903, Avicularia taunayi (Mello-Leitão, 1920, Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923, Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945, Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990, A. hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006, Avicularia merianae sp. n., A. lynnae sp. n., and A. caei sp. n.. Avicularia species are distributed throughout Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. Three new genera are erected to accommodate former

  4. Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) with description of three new aviculariine genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri; Bertani, Rogério

    2017-01-01

    The genus Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 is revised and all species are rediagnosed. The type species, described as Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758, is the oldest mygalomorph species described and its taxonomic history is extensive and confusing. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix of 46 taxa from seven theraphosid subfamilies, and 71 morphological and ecological characters. The optimal cladogram found with Piwe and concavity = 6 suggests Avicularia and Aviculariinae are monophyletic. Subfamily Aviculariinae includes Avicularia Lamarck, 1818, Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, Stromatopelma Karsch, 1881, Ephebopus Simon, 1892, Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895, Heteroscodra Pocock, 1899, Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901, Ybyrapora gen. n. , Caribena gen. n. , and Antillena gen. n. The clade is supported by well-developed scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi, greatly extended laterally. Avicularia synapomorphies are juveniles bearing black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles; spermathecae with an accentuated outwards curvature medially, and male palpal bulb with embolus medial portion and tegulum's margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Avicularia is composed of twelve species, including three new species: Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1818), Avicularia glauca Simon, 1891, Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) stat. n., Avicularia minatrix Pocock, 1903, Avicularia taunayi (Mello-Leitão, 1920), Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923, Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945, Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990, Avicularia hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006, Avicularia merianae sp. n. , Avicularia lynnae sp. n. , and Avicularia caei sp. n. . Avicularia species are distributed throughout Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. Three new genera are erected to

  5. Book Reviews

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    Redactie KITLV

    2001-01-01

    York: Garland, 1999. xxiv + 224 pp. -Rosemarijn Hoefte, Clem Seecharan, Bechu: 'Bound coolie' Radical in British Guiana 1894-1901. Kingston: University of the West Indies Press, 1999. x + 315 pp. -Bonno Thoden van Velzen, C.N. Dubelaar ,Het Afakaschrift van de Tapanahoni Rivier in Suriname. Utrecht: Thela Thesis, 1999. 183 pp., André R.M. Pakosie (eds -Bonno Thoden van Velzen, André R.M. Pakosie, Gazon Matodja: Surinaams stamhoofd aan het einde van een tijdperk. Utrecht: Stichting Sabanapeti, 1999. 172 pp. -Geneviève Escure, Peter L. Patrick, Urban Jamaican Creole: Variation in the Mesolect. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1999. xx + 331 pp.

  6. Estádio de adaptação de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em hospedeiros alternativos Fitness stage of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae on alternative hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Gisele Brasil Boregas

    2013-03-01

    -de-açúcar.The main target pest on maize is the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, which, by their seasonal and geographical distribution is one of the most damaging species in tropical regions of America. The objective was the evaluation of S. frugiperda fitness stage on 17 host plant species, cultivated or wild, most common in the Brazilian agro ecosystem. The plants were cultivated in five planting times, between 2006 and 2008, using corn as standard of comparison. Newly hatched larvae of S. frugiperda were individualized and confined in 50 mL plastic pots, where they were fed with new leaves of each host. Food was replaced every other day with fresh leaf sections of each plant host. Four biological variables were evaluated and used to estimate the Fitness Index (FI. The initial larval survival ranged from 100% on maize to 46% on rice. The larval period ranged from 12.6 days on maize to 27.1 days on bahiagrass. The pupa biomass ranged from 173.1 mg on burgrass to 294.2 mg on maize. The fitness index, calculated on the base of S. frugiperda fitness on each host ranged from 17.43 on maize cultivated at time I to 1.46 on sugarcane cultivated at time III. In order to correct the time effect on S. frugiperda fitness stage on hosts, the Relative Fitness Index (RFI was calculated in relation to maize crop. According to this index, the host rank to S. frugiperda fitness was in decreasing order: grain sorghum, johnson grass, millet, guinea grass, peanut, bread grass, surinam grass, green amaranth, wheat, soybean, cotton, bean, rice, burgrass, bahiagrass and sugarcane.

  7. Book Reviews

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    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available -Bridget Brereton, Emilia Viotti Da Costa, Crowns of glory, tears of blood: The Demerara slave rebellion of 1823. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. xix + 378 pp. -Grant D. Jones, Assad Shoman, 13 Chapters of a history of Belize. Belize city: Angelus, 1994. xviii + 344 pp. -Donald Wood, K.O. Laurence, Tobago in wartime 1793-1815. Kingston: The Press, University of the West Indies, 1995. viii + 280 pp. -Trevor Burnard, Howard A. Fergus, Montserrat: History of a Caribbean colony. London: Macmillan Caribbean, 1994. x + 294 pp. -John L. Offner, Joseph Smith, The Spanish-American War: Conflict in the Caribbean and the Pacific, 1895-1902. London: Longman, 1994. ix + 262 pp. -Louis Allaire, John M. Weeks ,Ancient Caribbean. New York: Garland, 1994. lxxi + 325 pp., Peter J. Ferbel (eds -Aaron Segal, Hilbourne A. Watson, The Caribbean in the global political economy. Boulder CO: Lynne Rienner, 1994. ix + 261 pp. -Aaron Segal, Anthony P. Maingot, The United States and the Caribbean. London: Macmillan Caribbean, 1994. xi + 260 pp. -Bill Maurer, Helen I. Safa, The myth of the male breadwinner: Women and industrialization in the Caribbean. Boulder CO: Westview, 1995. xvi + 208 pp. -Peter Meel, Edward M. Dew, The trouble in Suriname, 1975-1993. Westport CT: Praeger, 1994. xv + 243 pp. -Henry Wells, Jorge Heine, The last Cacique: Leadership and politics in a Puerto Rican city. Pittsburgh PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1993. ix + 310 pp. -Susan Eckstein, Jorge F. Pérez-López, Cuba at a crossroads: Politics and economics after the fourth party congress. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1994. xviii + 282 pp. -David A.B. Murray, Marvin Leiner, Sexual politics in Cuba: Machismo, homosexuality, and AIDS. Boulder CO: Westview, 1994. xv + 184 pp. -Kevin A. Yelvington, Selwyn Ryan ,Sharks and sardines: Blacks in business in Trinidad and Tobago. St. Augustine, Trinidad: Institute of social and economic studies, University of the West Indies, 1992

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    1994-01-01

    literature in English, 1800-1990. Westport CT: Greenwood, 1991. xiv + 313 pp. -Gary Brana-Shute, Livio Sansone, Hangen boven de oceaan: het gewone overleven van Creoolse jongeren in Paramaribo. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis, 1992. 58 pp. -Ronald Gill, Dolf Huijgers ,Landhuizen van Curacao en Bonaire. Amsterdam: Persimmons Management. 1991. 286 pp., Lucky Ezechiëls (eds -Alex van Stipriaan, Waldo Heilbron, Colonial transformations and the decomposition of Dutch plantation slavery in Surinam. Amsterdam: Amsterdam centre for Caribbean studies (AWIC, University of Amsterdam, 1992. 133 pp. -Rosemarijn Hoefte, Bea Lalmahomed, Hindostaanse vrouwen: de geschiedenis van zes generaties. Utrecht: Jan van Arkel, 1992. 159 pp. -Aart G. Broek, Peter Hoefnagels ,Antilliaans spreekwoordenboek. Amsterdam: Thomas Rap, 1991. 92 pp., Shon Wé Hoogenbergen (eds

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    1994-07-01

    . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993. xxii + 322 pp. -Robert Fatton, Jr., Brian Weinstein ,Haiti: The failure of politics. New York: Praeger, 1992. ix + 203 pp., Aaron Segal (eds -Uli Locher, Michel S. Laguerre, The military and society in Haiti. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1993. x + 223 pp. -Paul E. Brodwin, Leslie G. Desmangles, The faces of the Gods: Vodou and Roman Catholicism in Haiti. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992. xiii + 218 pp. -Marian Goslinga, Enid Brown, Bibliographical guide to Caribbean mass communication. John A. Lent (comp.. Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1992. xi + 301 pp.''Suriname and the Netherlands Antilles: An annotated English-language bibliography. Metuchen NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1992. xi + 276 pp. -Jay B. Haviser, F.R. Effert, J.P.B. de Josselin de Jong, curator and archaeologist: A study of his early career (1910-1935. Leiden: Centre of Non-Western studies, University of Leiden, 1992. v + 119 pp. -Hans van Amersfoort, Anil Ramdas, De papegaai, de stier en de klimmende bougainvillea. Essays. Amsterdam: De Bezige Bij, 1992. -Ineke van Wetering, Deonarayan, Curse of the Devtas. Paramaribo: J.J. Buitenweg, 1992. v + 103 pp. -Ineke van Wetering, G. Mungra, Hindoestaanse gezinnen in Nederland. Leiden: Centrum voor Onderzoek Maatschappelijke Tegenstellingen, Rijksuniversiteit Leiden, 1990. 313 pp. -J.M.R. Schrils, Alex Reinders, Politieke geschiedenis van de Nederlandse Antillen en Aruba 1950-1993. Zutphen: Walburg Pers, 1993. 430 pp. -Gert Oostindie, G.J. Cijntje ,Stemmen OK, maar op wie? Delft: Eburon, 1991. 150 pp., A. Nicatia, F. Quirindongo (eds -Genevieve Escure, Donald Winford, Predication in Caribbean English Creoles. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1993, viii + 419 pp. -Jean D'Costa, Lise Winer, Trinidad and Tobago. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1993. xi + 369 pp. (plus cassette

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    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available -Edward L. Cox, Judith A. Carney, Black rice: The African origin of rice cultivation in the Americas. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 2001. xiv + 240 pp. -David Barry Gaspar, Brian Dyde, A history of Antigua: The unsuspected Isle. Oxford: Macmillan Education, 2000. xi + 320 pp. -Carolyn E. Fick, Stewart R. King, Blue coat or powdered wig: Free people of color in pre-revolutionary Saint Domingue. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2001. xxvi + 328 pp. -César J. Ayala, Birgit Sonesson, Puerto Rico's commerce, 1765-1865: From regional to worldwide market relations. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center Publications, 200. xiii + 338 pp. -Nadine Lefaucheur, Bernard Moitt, Women and slavery in the French Antilles, 1635-1848. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001. xviii + 217 pp. -Edward L. Cox, Roderick A. McDonald, Between slavery and freedom: Special magistrate John Anderson's journal of St. Vincent during the apprenticeship. Jamaica: University of the West Indies Press, 2001. xviii + 309 pp. -Jaap Jacobs, Benjamin Schmidt, Innocence abroad: The Dutch imagination and the new world, 1570-1670. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001. xxviii + 450 pp. -Wim Klooster, Johanna C. Prins ,The Low countries and the New World(s: Travel, Discovery, Early Relations. Lanham NY: University Press of America, 2000. 226 pp., Bettina Brandt, Timothy Stevens (eds -Wouter Gortzak, Gert Oostindie ,Knellende koninkrijksbanden: Het Nederlandse dekolonisatiebeleid in de Caraïben, 1940-2000. Volume 1, 1940-1954; Volume 2, 1954-1975; Volume 3, 1975-2000. 668 pp. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2001., Inge Klinkers (eds -Richard Price, Ellen-Rose Kambel, Resource conflicts, gender and indigenous rights in Suriname: Local, national and global perspectives. Leiden, The Netherlands: self-published, 2002, iii + 266. -Peter Redfield, Richard Price ,Les Marrons. Châteauneuf-le-Rouge: Vents d'ailleurs, 2003. 127 pp., Sally Price (eds -Mary Chamberlain

  11. Book Reviews

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    2000-07-01

    Wiener; Kingston: Ian Randle, 1999. xiii + 364 pp. -Edward M. Dew, Peter Meel, Tussen autonomie en onafhankelijkheid: Nederlands-Surinaamse betrekkingen 1954-1961. Leiden NL: KITLV Press, 1999. xiv + 450 pp. -Edo Haan, Theo E. Korthals Altes, Koninkrijk aan zee: De lange vlucht van liefde in het Caribisch-Nederlandse bestuur. Zutphen: Walburg Pers. 208 pp. -Richard Price, Ellen-Rose Kambel ,The rights of indigenous people and Maroons in Suriname. Copenhagen: International work group for indigenous affairs; Moreton-in-Marsh, U.K.: The Forest Peoples Programme, 1999. 206 pp., Fergus Mackay (eds

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    Jerome Rousseau

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available - Henri J.M. Claessen, Ross H. Cordy, A study of prehistoric social change: The development of complex societies in the Hawaiian Islands, New York: Academic Press, 1981, 274 pp., Maps, ills., index, Appendices. - Th. van den End, C. Guillot, L’affaire Sadrach. Un essai de christianisation à Java au XIXe siècle. Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, Paris 1981.374 pp. Etudes insulindiennes/Archipel 4. - Renée Hagesteijn, A. Milner, Kerajaan: Malay political culture on the eve of colonial rule. The Association for Asian Studies, Monograph no. XL, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 1982. - P. van Hees, Emile Henssen, Gerretson en Indië. Bouma’s Boekhuis/Wolters Noordhoff, Groningen 1983. 231 blz. + los register. - M. Hekker, H.D. Kubitschek, Geschichte Indonesiens. Vom Altertum bis zur Gegenwart, Akademie Verlag, Berlin, 1981. xiii + 266 pp., I. Wessel (eds. - Huynh Kim Khánh, W.R. Smyses, The independent Vietnamese: Vietnamese communism between Russia and China, Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies, Southeast Asia Program, 1980, 143 pages, bibliography. - Saskia Keller, Sandra Hira, Van Priary tot en met De Kom. De geschiedenis van het verzet in Suriname, 1630-1940, Rotterdam: Uitgeverij Futile, 1982. - Gerrit J. Knaap, R.Z. Leirissa, Maluku Tengah di masa lampau. Gambaran sekilas lewat arsip abad sembilan belas, Penerbitan Sumber-Sumber Sejarah no. 13, Arsip Nasional Republik Indonesia, Jakarta 1982. XIV + 218 pp., Z.J. Manusama, A.B. Lapian (eds. - S. Kooijman, Tibor Bodrogi, Stammeskunst, Vol I, Australien, Ozeanien, Afrika, ed. by Tibor Bodrogi, 306 pp., 396 photographs (16 coloured, 13 sketch maps. Vol. II. Amerika, Asien, ed. by Tibor Bodrogi and Lajos Boglár, 274 pp., 238 photographs (16 coloured, 8 sketch maps. German translation of Tözsi Müvészet, Budapest, Corvina Kiadó, 1982., Lajos Boglár (eds. - H.M.J. Maier, R.G. Tol, Raja Ali Haji Ibn Ahmad, The Precious Gift (Tuhfat al-Nafis. An