WorldWideScience

Sample records for surgically induced weight

  1. Surgically Induced Interpregnancy Weight Loss and Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmer, Mikaela; Berglind, Daniel; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Näslund, Erik; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    Introduction According to the fetal overnutrition hypothesis, obesity in pregnancy predisposes the offspring to obesity. Previous studies have suggested that after biliopancreatic surgery for obesity, the offspring is less likely to be obese. This study aims to further compare the BMI development of children born before and after maternal surgical weight loss. Method Women with at least one child born before and one child born after bariatric surgery were identified by record-linkage. Information about maternal BMI was extracted from medical records, as was information about the children's BMI from birth to 10 years of age. We retrieved BMI data at four years of age for 340 children, born to 223 women (164 children born before surgery (BS), 176 children born after surgery (AS)). We evaluated prevalence of overweight/obesity and mean BMI in children born BS and AS at the ages of four, six and ten using GEE regression models. For 71 families, where we had complete data on mother and both children, we used a fixed-effects regression model to explore the association between differences in maternal BMI in w10 of the pre- and post-operative pregnancies with siblings' BMI differences at age four. Results In no age group did we see a significantly reduced prevalence of overweight/obesity AS. For 10-year-old girls, the AS group had significantly higher rates of obesity. There was no association between differences in maternal BMI in early pregnancy and differences in siblings' BMI at four years of age (β = −0.01, CI 95% = −0.11; 0.09). Conclusions We have been unable to demonstrate any effect of bariatric surgery on weight development in offspring. It seems unlikely that restrictive bariatric surgery conveys a protective effect in offspring with regards to obesity. PMID:24349234

  2. Body weight at developmental age in siblings born to mothers before and after surgically induced weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barisione, Michela; Carlini, Flavia; Gradaschi, Raffaella; Camerini, Giovanni; Adami, Gian Franco

    2012-01-01

    To gain insight into the role of epigenetic factors in determining body weight in adolescence, we studied the body weight of siblings born to the same mother before and after biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) for obesity. The study was performed in a university hospital during a 20-year period. The siblings born before and after BPD were retrospectively rated by their mother as normal, overweight, or obese at 1, 6, and 12 years. At 1 and 6 years, the body weight was rated as similar in the subsets. However, at 12 years of age, a greater percentage of those born before BPD were considered overweight (42% versus 33%) and obese (22% versus 3%; P weight and body mass index in subjects born before BPD were greater (P weight later in adolescence. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rates of clinically apparent heparin-induced thrombocytopenia for unfractionated heparin vs. low molecular weight heparin in non-surgical patients are low and similar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerber Jonathan

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the growing use of low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH for the treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE, it is important to provide an evidence-based comparison with unfractionated heparin (UFH concerning rates of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT. Such comparisons are essential in clinical decision-making and cost-modeling. In this paper we review data regarding non-surgical (medical patients. We conclude that the lack of uniform evaluation and standardized testing for HIT in the current literature precludes making a reliable estimate of the relative risk of HIT in UFH vs. LMWH in either the treatment or prevention of VTE in non-surgical patients. However, current data suggest that the risk of thrombocytopenia and HIT is low and similar for non-surgical patients who receive either LMWH or UFH.

  4. Surgical Treatment of Laser Induced Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-05

    AD-A234 849 CONTRACT NO.: DAMD17-89-C-9026 TITLE: SURGICAL TREATMENT OF LASER INDUCED EYE INJURIES AUTHORS: Leonard M. Hjelmeland, Maurice B. Landers...62787A 62787A878 BA JDA318205 11. TITLE (Include Secirity Classification) (U) Surgical Treatment of Laser Induced Eye Injuries 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S...TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP RA 3; Lasers; Eye injury ; Surgery 09 03 06 04 19. ABSTRACT

  5. Effects of Surgical and Dietary Weight Loss Therapy for Obesity on Gut Microbiota Composition and Nutrient Absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Antje Damms-Machado; Suparna Mitra; Asja E. Schollenberger; Klaus Michael Kramer; Tobias Meile; Alfred Königsrainer; Huson, Daniel H.; Bischoff, Stephan C.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests a correlation between the gut microbiota composition and weight loss caused by caloric restriction. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), a surgical intervention for obesity, is classified as predominantly restrictive procedure. In this study we investigated functional weight loss mechanisms with regard to gut microbial changes and energy harvest induced by LSG and a very low calorie diet in ten obese subjects (n = 5 per group) demonstrating identical weight loss during a f...

  6. Update on bariatric surgical procedures and an introduction to the implantable weight loss device: the Maestro Rechargeable System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang SS

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie S Hwang,1 Mark C Takata,1 Ken Fujioka,2 William Fuller1 1Division of General/Bariatric Surgery, Scripps Clinic Weight Management, 2Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Scripps Clinic, La Jolla, CA, USA Abstract: There are many different methods of treating obesity, ranging from various medical options to several surgical therapies. This paper briefly summarizes current surgical options for weight loss with a focus on one of the newest US Food and Drug Administration-approved devices for surgical weight loss therapy, the Maestro Rechargeable System. Also known as the vagal blocking for obesity control implantable device, this tool blocks vagal nerve activity to induce weight loss. Keywords: VBLOC device, vagal, vagus, obesity

  7. Surgical vs conventional therapy for weight loss treatment of obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, John B; Schachter, Linda M; O'Brien, Paul E; Jones, Kay; Grima, Mariee; Lambert, Gavin; Brown, Wendy; Bailey, Michael; Naughton, Matthew T

    2012-09-19

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is strongly related to obesity. Weight loss is recommended as part of the overall management plan for obese patients diagnosed with OSA. To determine whether surgically induced weight loss is more effective than conventional weight loss therapy in the management of OSA. A randomized controlled trial of 60 obese patients (body mass index: >35 and obesity hypoventilation syndrome, previous bariatric surgery, contraindications to bariatric surgery, or significant cardiopulmonary, neurological, vascular, gastrointestinal, or neoplastic disease were excluded. Patients were randomized to a conventional weight loss program that included regular consultations with a dietitian and physician, and the use of very low-calorie diets as necessary (n = 30) or to bariatric surgery (laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding; n = 30). The primary outcome was baseline to 2-year change in AHI on diagnostic polysomnography scored by staff blinded to randomization. Secondary outcomes were changes in weight, CPAP adherence, and functional status. Patients lost a mean of 5.1 kg (95% CI, 0.8 to 9.3 kg) in the conventional weight loss program compared with 27.8 kg (95% CI, 20.9 to 34.7 kg) in the bariatric surgery group (P adherence did not differ between the groups. The bariatric surgery group had greater improvement in the Short Form 36 physical component summary score (mean, 9.3 [95% CI, 0.5 to 18.0]; P = .04). Among a group of obese patients with OSA, the use of bariatric surgery compared with conventional weight loss therapy did not result in a statistically greater reduction in AHI despite major differences in weight loss. anzctr.org Identifier: 12605000161628.

  8. A Generalized Induced Ordered Weighted Geometric Operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZeshuiXu; DaiWu

    2004-01-01

    Yager presented the Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) operator to provide a method for aggregating information of decision-making. Yager and Filev further presented the Induced Ordered Weighted Averaging (IOWA) operator. In this paper, we propose a Generalized Induced Ordered Weighted Geometric (GIOWG) operator and establish a simple objective-programming model to learn the associated weighting vector from observational data. Each object processed by the GIOWG operator consists of three components, where the first component represents the importance degree or character of the second component, and the second component is used to induce an ordering, through the first component, over the third components which are then aggregated. The desirable properties, such as commutativity, idempotency and monotonicity, etc., associated wlth the GIOWG operator are studied in detail, and some numerical examples are given to show the practicality and effectiveness of the developed operator.

  9. Surgical solutions to the problem of massive weight loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jason A Spector; Steven M Levine; Nolan S Karp

    2006-01-01

    In response to the global rise in obesity, bariatric surgery has become increasingly more popular and successful.As a result, the demand for body contouring following massive weight loss is rapidly growing. Although bariatric procedures may produce impressive weight loss, people who achieve massive weight loss are often unhappy with the hanging folds of skin and subcutaneous tissue that remain. This review examines the nature of the post-bariatric deformity in each body region and briefly reviews common approaches to their treatment.

  10. A surgical rat model of sleeve gastrectomy with staple technique: long-term weight loss results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikakos, Panagiotis; Toutouzas, Konstantinos G; Perrea, Despoina; Menenakos, Evangelos; Pantopoulou, Alkistis; Thomopoulos, Theodore; Papadopoulos, Stefanos; Bramis, John I

    2009-11-01

    Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is one of the surgical procedures applied for treating morbid obesity consisting of removing the gastric fundus and transforming the stomach into a narrow gastric tube. The aim of this experimental study is to create a functional model of SG and to present the long-term weight loss results. Twenty adult Wistar rats were fed with high fat diet for 12 weeks before being divided randomly in two groups of ten rats each. One group underwent SG performed with the use of staples, and the other group underwent a sham operation (control group). The animals' weight was evaluated weekly for 15 weeks after the operation. All animals survived throughout the experiment. After the operation both groups started to lose weight with maximum weight loss on the seventh postoperative day (POD) for the sham-operated group and on the 15th POD for the SG group. Thereafter, both groups started to regain weight but with different rates. By the fourth postoperative week (POW), the average weight of the sham group did not differ statistically significantly compared to the preoperative weight, while after the eighth POW, rats' average weight was statistically significantly increased compared to the preoperative value. On the other hand, average weight of the SG group was lower postoperatively until the end of the study compared to the preoperative average weight. We have created a surgical rat model of experimental SG model, enabling the further study of biochemical and hormonal parameters.

  11. Weight bearing or non-weight bearing after surgically fixed ankle fractures, the WOW! Study : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briet, Jan Paul; Houwert, Roderick M; Smeeing, Diederik P J; Pawiroredjo, Janity S; Kelder, Johannes C; Lansink, Koen W; Leenen, Luke P H; van der Zwaal, Peer; van Zutphen, Stephan W A M; Hoogendoorn, Jochem M; van Heijl, Mark; Verleisdonk, Egbert J M M; van Lammeren, Guus W; Segers, Michiel J; Hietbrink, Falco

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal post-operative care regimen after surgically fixed Lauge Hansen supination exorotation injuries remains to be established. This study compares whether unprotected weight bearing as tolerated is superior to protected weight bearing and unprotected non-weight bearing in terms o

  12. Myogenin, MyoD, and myosin expression after pharmacologically and surgically induced hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozdziak, P. E.; Greaser, M. L.; Schultz, E.

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between myogenin or MyoD expression and hypertrophy of the rat soleus produced either by clenbuterol and 3,3', 5-triiodo-L-thyronine (CT) treatment or by surgical overload was examined. Mature female rats were subjected to surgical overload of the right soleus with the left soleus serving as a control. Another group received the same surgical treatment but were administered CT. Soleus muscles were harvested 4 wk after surgical overload and weighed. Myosin heavy chain isoforms were separated by using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis while myogenin and MyoD expression were evaluated by Northern analysis. CT and functional overload increased soleus muscle weight. CT treatment induced the appearance of the fast type IIX myosin heavy chain isoform, depressed myogenin expression, and induced MyoD expression. However, functional overload did not alter myogenin or MyoD expression in CT-treated or non-CT-treated rats. Thus pharmacologically and surgically induced hypertrophy have differing effects on myogenin and MyoD expression, because their levels were associated with changes in myosin heavy chain composition (especially type IIX) rather than changes in muscle mass.

  13. Adopting epidemic model to optimize medication and surgical intervention of excess weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ruoyan

    2017-01-01

    We combined an epidemic model with an objective function to minimize the weighted sum of people with excess weight and the cost of a medication and surgical intervention in the population. The epidemic model is consisted of ordinary differential equations to describe three subpopulation groups based on weight. We introduced an intervention using medication and surgery to deal with excess weight. An objective function is constructed taking into consideration the cost of the intervention as well as the weight distribution of the population. Using empirical data, we show that fixed participation rate reduces the size of obese population but increases the size for overweight. An optimal participation rate exists and decreases with respect to time. Both theoretical analysis and empirical example confirm the existence of an optimal participation rate, u*. Under u*, the weighted sum of overweight (S) and obese (O) population as well as the cost of the program is minimized. This article highlights the existence of an optimal participation rate that minimizes the number of people with excess weight and the cost of the intervention. The time-varying optimal participation rate could contribute to designing future public health interventions of excess weight.

  14. Hospital transfers and patterns of mortality in very low birth weight neonates with surgical necrotizing enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Brenna S; Sparks, Eric A; Morrow, Kate A; Edwards, Erika M; Soll, Roger F; Jaksic, Tom; Horbar, Jeffrey D; Modi, Biren P

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate mortality rates in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants with surgical necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) by level of available surgical resources and to determine the effect of hospital transfer on mortality. Mortality among 4328 VLBW neonates with surgical NEC born 2009-2013 was assessed using the Vermont Oxford Network database. NICUs were classified by availability of resources as a marker of overall center capability: type A (restrictions on ventilation or do not routinely perform major neonatal surgery), type B (perform major neonatal surgery but not cardiac bypass), and type C (perform major surgery, including cardiac bypass in infants). Mortality was higher among those who had surgery at type B centers versus type C centers (44.3% vs 36.4%, adjusted prevalence ratio 1.20 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.33)). Neonates who were not transferred between birth and surgery had a higher mortality compared to those transferred (44.6% vs 31.6%, adjusted prevalence ratio 1.39 (95% CI: 1.25, 1.55)). Transfer between birth and surgery and a higher level of surgical resources at the operative center were associated with lower mortality. Early transfer of high risk neonates to centers with higher levels of surgical resources may be warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Surgical therapy for reconstruction of body shape and contour following massive weight reduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Mihai A; Olariu, Radu; Shafighi, Maziar

    2013-02-01

    The consequences of massive weight loss through bariatric procedures as well as diet are overall positive. However, the sequelae of massive weight loss present themselves as soft tissue redundancies in the areas of the lower abdomen, upper thigh, upper arm and breast as well as face and neck. This condition presents significant mechanical, physical and social day-to-day limitations for the quality of life of these patients. Surgical techniques are indicated for the reconstruction of the body shape and therapy of the above named problems and the coexistent psychosocial component. These surgical techniques involve dermolipectomies in different body areas and can lead to significant improvement. In view of the worldwide increase of adipositas and the increasing need for bariatric surgery, a parallel increase in demand for such reconstructive post-bariatric interventions can be foreseen. Early and precise information is crucial for the patients before engaging in weight reduction, as is the coverage of the costs of the resulting secondary reconstructive body contouring interventions by the insurance companies.

  16. Effects of Surgical and Dietary Weight Loss Therapy for Obesity on Gut Microbiota Composition and Nutrient Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Damms-Machado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests a correlation between the gut microbiota composition and weight loss caused by caloric restriction. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG, a surgical intervention for obesity, is classified as predominantly restrictive procedure. In this study we investigated functional weight loss mechanisms with regard to gut microbial changes and energy harvest induced by LSG and a very low calorie diet in ten obese subjects (n=5 per group demonstrating identical weight loss during a follow-up period of six months. For gut microbiome analysis next generation sequencing was performed and faeces were analyzed for targeted metabolomics. The energy-reabsorbing potential of the gut microbiota decreased following LSG, indicated by the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio, but increased during diet. Changes in butyrate-producing bacterial species were responsible for the Firmicutes changes in both groups. No alteration of faecal butyrate was observed, but the microbial capacity for butyrate fermentation decreased following LSG and increased following dietetic intervention. LSG resulted in enhanced faecal excretion of nonesterified fatty acids and bile acids. LSG, but not dietetic restriction, improved the obesity-associated gut microbiota composition towards a lean microbiome phenotype. Moreover, LSG increased malabsorption due to loss in energy-rich faecal substrates and impairment of bile acid circulation. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01344525.

  17. Effects of surgical and dietary weight loss therapy for obesity on gut microbiota composition and nutrient absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damms-Machado, Antje; Mitra, Suparna; Schollenberger, Asja E; Kramer, Klaus Michael; Meile, Tobias; Königsrainer, Alfred; Huson, Daniel H; Bischoff, Stephan C

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests a correlation between the gut microbiota composition and weight loss caused by caloric restriction. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), a surgical intervention for obesity, is classified as predominantly restrictive procedure. In this study we investigated functional weight loss mechanisms with regard to gut microbial changes and energy harvest induced by LSG and a very low calorie diet in ten obese subjects (n = 5 per group) demonstrating identical weight loss during a follow-up period of six months. For gut microbiome analysis next generation sequencing was performed and faeces were analyzed for targeted metabolomics. The energy-reabsorbing potential of the gut microbiota decreased following LSG, indicated by the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio, but increased during diet. Changes in butyrate-producing bacterial species were responsible for the Firmicutes changes in both groups. No alteration of faecal butyrate was observed, but the microbial capacity for butyrate fermentation decreased following LSG and increased following dietetic intervention. LSG resulted in enhanced faecal excretion of nonesterified fatty acids and bile acids. LSG, but not dietetic restriction, improved the obesity-associated gut microbiota composition towards a lean microbiome phenotype. Moreover, LSG increased malabsorption due to loss in energy-rich faecal substrates and impairment of bile acid circulation. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01344525.

  18. Massive weight loss-induced mechanical plasticity in obese gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, Tibor; Herring, Cortney; Pories, Walter J.; Rider, Patrick; DeVita, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Hortobagyi T, Herring C, Pories WJ, Rider P, DeVita P. Massive weight loss-induced mechanical plasticity in obese gait. J Appl Physiol 111: 1391-1399, 2011. First published August 18, 2011; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00291.2011.-We examined the hypothesis that metabolic surgery-induced massive weight

  19. Massive weight loss-induced mechanical plasticity in obese gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, Tibor; Herring, Cortney; Pories, Walter J.; Rider, Patrick; DeVita, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Hortobagyi T, Herring C, Pories WJ, Rider P, DeVita P. Massive weight loss-induced mechanical plasticity in obese gait. J Appl Physiol 111: 1391-1399, 2011. First published August 18, 2011; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00291.2011.-We examined the hypothesis that metabolic surgery-induced massive weight

  20. Ventricular tachycardia induced by weight loss pills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Hansson, Nils Henrik; Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2013-01-01

    A previously healthy 29-year-old man was admitted with palpitations, dizziness, and near-syncope after he had recently started taking weight loss pills purchased on the internet. The pills contained caffeine and ephedrine. An electrocardiogram and telemetry revealed multiple episodes of non-susta......-sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, which was successfully treated with amiodarone. In conclusion, unauthorized weight loss pills can be harmful. In particular, ephedrine-containing drugs carry a risk of ventricular tachycardia and should be discouraged....

  1. [Atypical antipsychotic-induced weight gain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewska, Beata R; Olajossy-Hilkesberger, Luiza; Marmurowska-Michałowska, Halina; Olajossy, Marcin; Landowski, Jerzy

    2006-01-01

    Introduction of a new group of antipsychotic drugs, called atypical because of the proprieties differing them from classical neuroleptics, gave hope for the beginning of a new era in treatment of psychoses, including schizophrenia. Different mechanisms of action not only resulted in a broader spectrum of action and high efficacy but also in a relative lack of extrapiramidal symptoms. However, atypical neuroleptics are not totally free from adverse effects. Symptoms such as sedation, metabolic changes and weight gain, often very quick and severe - present also in the case of classical drugs, but put to the background by extrapiramidal symptoms--have become prominent. Weight gain is important both from the clinical and subjective point of view--as associated with serious somatic consequences and as a source of enormous mental distress. These problems are addressed in this review, with the focus on weight gain associated with the use of specific atypical neuroleptics.

  2. Ventricular Tachycardia Induced by Weight Loss Pills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manan Pareek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy 29-year-old man was admitted with palpitations, dizziness, and near-syncope after he had recently started taking weight loss pills purchased on the internet. The pills contained caffeine and ephedrine. An electrocardiogram and telemetry revealed multiple episodes of non-sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, which was successfully treated with amiodarone. In conclusion, unauthorized weight loss pills can be harmful. In particular, ephedrine-containing drugs carry a risk of ventricular tachycardia and should be discouraged.

  3. Acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gary C; Ramanathan, Vivek S; Law, David; Funchain, Pauline; Chen, George C; French, Samuel; Shlopov, Boris; Eysselein, Viktor; Chung, David; Reicher, Sonya; Pham, Binh V

    2010-11-27

    We report three cases of patients with acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements. One patient took Hydroxycut while the other two took Herbalife supplements. Liver biopsies for all patients demonstrated findings consistent with drug-induced acute liver injury. To our knowledge, we are the first institute to report acute liver injury from both of these two types of weight-loss herbal supplements together as a case series. The series emphasizes the importance of taking a cautious approach when consuming herbal supplements for the purpose of weight loss.

  4. Physiogenomic analysis of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruaño, Gualberto; Windemuth, Andreas; Kocherla, Mohan; Holford, Theodore; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Forsythe, Cassandra E; Wood, Richard J; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S

    2006-05-15

    Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO) have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO approximately 10% of total energy). A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF), hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and galanin (GAL) genes were significantly associated with weight loss. A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction.

  5. Physiogenomic analysis of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Richard J

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. Methods We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO ~10% of total energy. A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Results Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF, hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP and galanin (GAL genes were significantly associated with weight loss. Conclusion A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction.

  6. Resistance to exercise-induced weight loss: compensatory behavioral adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Edward L; Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Donnelly, Joseph E; Braun, Barry; King, Neil A

    2013-08-01

    In many interventions that are based on an exercise program intended to induce weight loss, the mean weight loss observed is modest and sometimes far less than what the individual expected. The individual responses are also widely variable, with some individuals losing a substantial amount of weight, others maintaining weight, and a few actually gaining weight. The media have focused on the subpopulation that loses little weight, contributing to a public perception that exercise has limited utility to cause weight loss. The purpose of the symposium was to present recent, novel data that help explain how compensatory behaviors contribute to a wide discrepancy in exercise-induced weight loss. The presentations provide evidence that some individuals adopt compensatory behaviors, that is, increased energy intake and/or reduced activity, that offset the exercise energy expenditure and limit weight loss. The challenge for both scientists and clinicians is to develop effective tools to identify which individuals are susceptible to such behaviors and to develop strategies to minimize their effect.

  7. Mechanisms of Action of Surgical Interventions on Weight-Related Diseases: the Potential Role of Bile Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, Mohsen; de Caravatto, Pedro Paulo P; Speakman, John R; Cohen, Ricardo V

    2017-03-01

    Surgical interventions for weight-related diseases (SWRD) may have substantial and sustainable effect on weight reduction, also leading to a higher remission rate of type 2 diabetes (T2D) mellitus than any other medical treatment or lifestyle intervention. The resolution of T2D after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) typically occurs too quickly to be accounted for by weight loss alone, suggesting that these operations have a direct impact on glucose homeostasis. The mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects however remain unclear. Recent research suggests that changes in the concentrations of plasma bile acids might contribute to these metabolic changes after surgery. In this review, we aimed to outline the potential role of bile acids in SWRD. We systematically reviewed MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and Web of Science for articles reporting the effect of SWRD on outcomes published between 1969 and 2016. We found that changes in circulating bile acids after surgery may play a major role through activation of the farnesoid X receptor A (FXRA), the fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), and the G protein-coupled bile acid receptor (TGR5). Bile acid concentration increased significantly after RYGB. Some studies suggest that a transitory decrease occurs at 1 week post-surgery, followed by a gradual increase. Most studies have shown the increase to be proportionate by all bile acid subtypes. Bile acids can regulate glucose metabolism through the expression of TGR5 receptor in L cells, resulting in a release of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). It may also induce the synthesis and secretion of FGF19 in ileal cells, thereby improving insulin sensitivity and regulating glucose metabolism. All the present SWRD are involved with changes in food stimulation to the stomach. This implies that discovering and developing the antagonists to TGR5 and FXRA may effectively control metabolic syndrome and the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the physiological effects related to weight

  8. Surgical repair of traumatically induced collapsing trachea in an ostrich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, S R; Taylor, T S; Johnson, J H; Heisterkamp, K B; Sanders, E A

    1995-08-15

    A region of tracheal collapse was identified by endoscopy after surgical repair of a traumatic injury to the neck in an ostrich. During periods of excitation, the ostrich would become dyspneic and collapse. A tracheal split-ring prosthesis was placed surgically to support the collapsing trachea. This technique, which is frequently used in dogs, is applicable for use in birds with collapsing trachea.

  9. Major rapid weight loss induces changes in cardiac repolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Larsen, Esben; Iepsen, Eva Winning; Lundgren, Julie

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Obesity is associated with increased all-cause mortality, but weight loss may not decrease cardiovascular events. In fact, very low calorie diets have been linked to arrhythmias and sudden death. The QT interval is the standard marker for cardiac repolarization, but T-wave morphology...... analysis has been suggested as a more sensitive method to identify changes in cardiac repolarization. We examined the effect of a major and rapid weight loss on T-wave morphology. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six individuals had electrocardiograms (ECG) taken before and after eight weeks of weight loss......A1c (pweight loss induces changes in cardiac repolarization. Monitoring of MCS during calorie restriction makes it possible to detect repolarization changes with higher discriminative power than the QT-interval during major rapid weight...

  10. Massive weight loss-induced mechanical plasticity in obese gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortobágyi, Tibor; Herring, Cortney; Pories, Walter J; Rider, Patrick; Devita, Paul

    2011-11-01

    We examined the hypothesis that metabolic surgery-induced massive weight loss causes mass-driven and behavioral adaptations in the kinematics and kinetics of obese gait. Gait analyses were performed at three time points over ∼1 yr in initially morbidly obese (mass: 125.7 kg; body mass index: 43.2 kg/m(2)) but otherwise healthy adults. Ten obese adults lost 27.1% ± 5.1 (34.0 ± 9.4 kg) weight by the first follow-up at 7.0 mo (±0.7) and 6.5 ± 4.2% (8.2 ± 6.0 kg) more by the second follow-up at 12.8 mo (±0.9), with a total weight loss of 33.6 ± 8.1% (42.2 ± 14.1 kg; P = 0.001). Subjects walked at a self-selected and a standard 1.5 m/s speed at the three time points and were also compared with an age- and gender-matched comparison group at the second follow-up. Weight loss increased swing time, stride length, gait speed, hip range of motion, maximal knee flexion, and ankle plantarflexion. Weight loss of 27% led to 3.9% increase in gait speed. An additional 6.5% weight loss led to an additional 7.3% increase in gait speed. Sagittal plane normalized knee torque increased and absolute ankle and frontal plane knee torques decreased after weight loss. We conclude that large weight loss produced mechanical plasticity by modifying ankle and knee torques and gait behavior. There may be a weight loss threshold of 30 kg limiting changes in gait kinematics. Implications for exercise prescription are also discussed.

  11. [Antipsychotic-induced weight gain--pharmacogenetic studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olajossy-Hilkesberger, Luiza; Godlewska, Beata; Marmurowska-Michałowskal, Halina; Olajossy, Marcin; Landowski, Jerzy

    2006-01-01

    Drug-naive patients with schizophrenia often present metabolic abnormalities and obesity. Weight gain may be the side effect of treatment with many antipsychotic drugs. Genetic effects, besides many other factors, are known to influence obesity in patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotics. Numerous studies of several genes' polymorphisms have been performed. -759C/T polymorphism of 5HT2C gene attracted most attention. In 5 independent studies of this polymorphism the association between T allele with the lower AP-induced weight gain was detected. No associations could be detected between weight gain and other polymorphisms of serotonergic system genes as well as histaminergic system genes. Studies of adrenergic and dopaminergic system have neither produced any unambiguous results. Analysis of the newest candidate genes (SAP-25, leptin gene) confirmed the role of genetic factors in AP-induced weight gain. It is worth emphasising, that the studies have been conducted in relatively small and heterogenic groups and that various treatment strategies were used.

  12. The Effect of Ranitidine on Olanzapine-Induced Weight Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ranjbar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Induced weight gain is a disturbing side effect of Olanzapine that affects the quality of life in psychotic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of Ranitidine in attenuating or preventing Olanzapine-induced weight gain. A parallel 2-arm clinical trial was done on 52 patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective and schizophreniform disorders who received Olanzapine for the first time. All these were first-episode admitted patients. They were randomly allocated to receive either Ranitidine or placebo. The trend of body mass index (BMI was compared between groups over 16-week course of treatment. Mean weight was 62.3 (SD: 9.6 kg at baseline. Thirty-three subjects (63.5% had positive family history of obesity. The average BMI increment was 1.1 for Ranitidine group and 2.4 for the placebo group. The multivariate analysis showed this effect to be independent of sex, family history of obesity, and baseline BMI value. The longitudinal modeling after controlling for baseline values failed to show the whole trend slope to be different. Although the slight change in trend’s slope puts forward a hypothesis that combined use of Ranitidine and Olanzapine may attenuate the weight gain long run, this needs to be retested in future larger scale long-term studies. This trial is registered with IRCT.ir 201009112181N5.

  13. Management of Excessive Weight Loss Following Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: Clinical Algorithm and Surgical Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akusoba, Ikemefuna; Birriel, T Javier; El Chaar, Maher

    2016-01-01

    There are no clinical guidelines or published studies addressing excessive weight loss and protein calorie malnutrition following a standard Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) to guide nutritional management and treatment strategies. This study demonstrates the presentation, clinical algorithm, surgical technique, and outcomes of patients afflicted and successfully treated with excessive weight loss following a standard RYGB. Three patients were successfully reversed to normal anatomy after evaluation, management, and treatment by multidisciplinary team. Lowest BMI (kg/m(2)) was 18.9, 17.9, and 14.2, respectively. Twelve-month post-operative BMI (kg/m(2)) was 28.9, 22.8, and 26.1, respectively. Lowest weight (lbs) was 117, 128, and 79, respectively. Twelve-month post-operative weight (lbs) was 179, 161, and 145, respectively. Pre-reversal gastrostomy tube was inserted into the remnant stomach to demonstrate weight gain and improve nutritional status prior to reversal to original anatomy. We propose a practical clinical algorithm for the work-up and management of patients with excessive weight loss and protein calorie malnutrition after standard RYGB including reversal to normal anatomy.

  14. Evaluation of the accuracy of common weight estimation formulae in a Zambian paediatric surgical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, L; Zyambo, M; Snell, D; Kinnear, J; Bould, M D

    2016-12-27

    Limited resources and access to healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa are associated with high rates of malnourished children, although many countries globally are demonstrating increasing childhood obesity. This study evaluated how well current age- or height-based formulae estimate the weight of children undergoing surgery in Zambia. All children under 14 years of age presenting for elective surgery at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, had both height and weight measured. Their actual weight was compared against estimated weight from various formulae. The Broselow tape outperformed all the age-based formulae, demonstrating the lowest median percentage error of -5.8%, with 46.0% of estimates falling within 10% of the actual measured weight (p < 0.001). Of the 1111 children who were eligible for World Health Organization growth standard appraisal, 88 (8%) met the weight criteria for severe acute malnutrition. Our results are consistent with other studies in finding that the Broselow tape is the best estimator of weight in a lower middle-income country, followed by the original Advanced Paediatric Life Support formula if the Broselow tape is unavailable.

  15. Caloric restriction induces changes in insulin and body weight measurements that are inversely associated with subsequent weight regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Monica H T; Holst, Claus; Astrup, Arne; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Jebb, Susan A; Kafatos, Anthony; Kunesova, Marie; Larsen, Thomas M; Martinez, J Alfredo; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; van Baak, Marleen A; Saris, Wim H M; McNicholas, Paul D; Mutch, David M

    2012-01-01

    Successful weight maintenance following weight loss is challenging for many people. Identifying predictors of longer-term success will help target clinical resources more effectively. To date, focus has been predominantly on the identification of predictors of weight loss. The goal of the current study was to determine if changes in anthropometric and clinical parameters during acute weight loss are associated with subsequent weight regain. The study consisted of an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD) followed by a 6-month weight maintenance phase. Anthropometric and clinical parameters were analyzed before and after the LCD in the 285 participants (112 men, 173 women) who regained weight during the weight maintenance phase. Mixed model ANOVA, Spearman correlation, and linear regression were used to study the relationships between clinical measurements and weight regain. Gender differences were observed for body weight and several clinical parameters at both baseline and during the LCD-induced weight loss phase. LCD-induced changes in BMI (Spearman's ρ = 0.22, p = 0.0002) were inversely associated with weight regain in both men and women. LCD-induced changes in fasting insulin (ρ = 0.18, p = 0.0043) and HOMA-IR (ρ = 0.19, p = 0.0023) were also associated independently with weight regain in both genders. The aforementioned associations remained statistically significant in regression models taking account of variables known to independently influence body weight. LCD-induced changes in BMI, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR are inversely associated with weight regain in the 6-month period following weight loss.

  16. Patterns of surgical weight loss and resolution of metabolic abnormalities in superobese bariatric adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holterman, Ai-Xuan L; Holterman, Mark; Browne, Allen; Henriques, Steve; Guzman, Grace; Fantuzzi, Giamila

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the baseline and the 18-month follow-up for weight and metabolic characteristics of superobese (SO) (body mass index [BMI] ≥50 kg/m(2)) and morbidly obese (MO) (BMI weight loss is similar (30 ± 19 kg MO vs 28 ± 12 kg SO, P = .8 at 18 months; mean percent change in BMI, 22.8% ± 11.6% vs 20.5% ± 10.3% SO, P = .2), SO patients has less resolution of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia but experienced significantly improved health-related quality of life. The SO adolescents demonstrate equivalent short-term weight loss and improved quality of life but delayed metabolic response to a gastric banding-based weight loss treatment program compared with MO patients, illustrating the importance of early referral for timely intervention of MO patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of SERI Surgical Scaffold for Soft-tissue Support in a Massive Weight Loss Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Gross, MD, FACS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Patients with a history of massive weight loss have compromised and poor-quality skin and fascia. Various body contouring surgeries aim to improve appearance and shape of the trunk and restore fascial integrity. These patients may be at increased risk of recurrent fascial laxity or bulges after conventional techniques. Here, the author presents a case where a silk-based bioresorbable scaffold was used prophylactically in a massive weight loss patient undergoing a circumferential body lift.

  18. Weight Loss Decreases Inherent and Allergic Methacholine Hyperresponsiveness in Mouse Models of Diet-Induced Obese Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ather, Jennifer L; Chung, Michael; Hoyt, Laura R; Randall, Matthew J; Georgsdottir, Anna; Daphtary, Nirav A; Aliyeva, Minara I; Suratt, Benjamin T; Bates, Jason H T; Irvin, Charles G; Russell, Sheila R; Forgione, Patrick M; Dixon, Anne E; Poynter, Matthew E

    2016-08-01

    Obese asthma presents with inherent hyperresponsiveness to methacholine or augmented allergen-driven allergic asthma, with an even greater magnitude of methacholine hyperresponsiveness. These physiologic parameters and accompanying obese asthma symptoms can be reduced by successful weight loss, yet the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. We implemented mouse models of diet-induced obesity, dietary and surgical weight loss, and environmental allergen exposure to examine the mechanisms and mediators of inherent and allergic obese asthma. We report that the methacholine hyperresponsiveness in these models of inherent obese asthma and obese allergic asthma manifests in distinct anatomical compartments but that both are amenable to interventions that induce substantial weight loss. The inherent obese asthma phenotype, with characteristic increases in distal airspace tissue resistance and tissue elastance, is associated with elevated proinflammatory cytokines that are reduced with dietary weight loss. Surprisingly, bariatric surgery-induced weight loss further elevates these cytokines while reducing methacholine responsiveness to levels similar to those in lean mice or in formerly obese mice rendered lean through dietary intervention. In contrast, the obese allergic asthma phenotype, with characteristic increases in central airway resistance, is not associated with increased adaptive immune responses, yet diet-induced weight loss reduces methacholine hyperresponsiveness without altering immunological variables. Diet-induced weight loss is effective in models of both inherent and allergic obese asthma, and our examination of the fecal microbiome revealed that the obesogenic Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was normalized after diet-induced weight loss. Our results suggest that structural, immunological, and microbiological factors contribute to the manifold presentations of obese asthma.

  19. Reprogramming of defended body weight after Roux-En-Y gastric bypass surgery in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zheng; Mumphrey, Michael B; Townsend, R Leigh; Morrison, Christopher D; Münzberg, Heike; Ye, Jianping; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2016-03-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) results in sustained lowering of body weight in most patients, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to obtain support for the notion that reprogramming of defended body weight, rather than passive restriction of energy intake, is a fundamental mechanism of RYGB. Male C57BL6J mice reaching different degrees of obesity on a high-fat diet either with ad libitum access or with caloric restriction (weight-reduced) were subjected to RYGB. RYGB-induced weight loss and fat mass loss were proportional to pre-surgical levels, with moderately obese mice losing less body weight and fat compared with very obese mice. Remarkably, mice that were weight-reduced to the level of chow controls before surgery immediately gained weight after surgery, exclusively accounted for by lean mass gain. The results provide additional evidence for reprogramming of a new defended body weight as an important principle by which RYGB lastingly suppresses body weight. RYGB appears to selectively abolish defense of a higher fat mass level, while remaining sensitive to the defense of lean mass. The molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying this reprogramming remain to be elucidated. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  20. The Anatomy of a Weight Recidivism and Revision Bariatric Surgical Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. de Gara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Weight recidivism in bariatric surgery failure is multifactorial. It ranges from inappropriate patient selection for primary surgery to technical/anatomic issues related to the original surgery. Most bariatric surgeons and centers focus on primary bariatric surgery while weight recidivism and its complications are very much secondary concerns. Methods. We report on our initial experience having established a dedicated weight recidivism and revisional bariatric surgery clinic. A single surgeon, dedicated nursing, dieticians, and psychologist developed care maps, goals of care, nonsurgical candidate rules, and discharge planning strategies. Results. A single year audit (2012 of clinical activity revealed 137 patients, with a mean age 49 ± 10.1 years (6 years older on average than in our primary clinic, 75% of whom were women with BMI 47 ± 11.5. Over three quarters had undergone a vertical band gastroplasty while 15% had had a laparoscopic adjustable gastric band. Only 27% of those attending clinic required further surgery. As for primary surgery, the role of the obesity expert clinical psychologist was a key component to achieving successful revision outcomes. Conclusion. With an exponential rise in obesity and a concomitant major increase in bariatric surgery, an inevitable increase in revisional surgery is becoming a reality. Anticipating this increase in activity, Alberta Health Services, Alberta, Canada, has established a unique and dedicated clinic whose early results are promising.

  1. Effects of surgical and adjuvant therapies for breast cancer on sexuality, cognitive functions, and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglia, Nicoletta; Moggio, Giulia; Peano, Elisa; Sgandurra, Paola; Ponzone, Riccardo; Nappi, Rossella E; Sismondi, Piero

    2010-05-01

    Breast cancer and its treatment negatively affect the important aspects of a woman's life such as sexual health, cognitive functions, body image, and weight. Abrupt estrogen deficiency following chemotherapy and/or hormonal therapy plays an important role in worsening of sexuality. To evaluate the impact of breast cancer treatment on sexual functioning, cognitive function, and body weight in premenopausal women. Thirty-five women with a premenopausal diagnosis of breast cancer who are candidate to adjuvant treatment completed validated questionnaires on menopausal symptoms, sexuality, partner relationship, depression, body image, and cognitive functions after surgery (T0), then after chemotherapy or at least 6 months of endocrine therapy (T1), and after 1 year (T2). In addition, gynecological and dietological examinations were performed. The following validated questionnaires were used: Greene Climacteric Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Body Attitude Test, McCoy revised Italian version McCoy Female Sexuality Questionnaire, Cues for Sexual Desire Scale, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Numeric Matrix Test and Rey auditory-verbal learning test, to measure cognitive functions, a recall 24 H questionnaire to evaluate food intake, Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity questionnaire and Eating Attitude Test-40, while anthropometric and plicometry data were assessed by a dietitian. Low levels of sexual functioning were registered at baseline; a further decrease in sexual activity, quality of the partnered relationship, desire, and arousability was demonstrated at T1 and T2. We found a significant increase in hot flushes and anxiety. Nonsignificant deterioration of body image was demonstrated. Although women reported losing memory and concentration, "chemobrain" effect was not demonstrated as cognitive tests improved after 6 months, probably because of "learning effect." Women who had undergone chemotherapy gained weight and fat disposition was typically android. Young women

  2. Intraurethral knot in a very-low-birth-weight infant: radiological recognition, surgical management and prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodha, Abhay; Ly, Linh; McNamara, Patrick J. [Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Neonatology, Toronto (Canada); Brindle, Mary [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Surgery, Toronto (Canada); Daneman, Alan [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Radiology, Toronto (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    We report a case where a knot developed in a urinary catheter and became lodged within the urethra of a very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infant. The catheter was removed with the assistance of a urologist. We recommend using caution when placing urinary catheters in VLBW infants and question the appropriateness of feeding tubes as catheters. Recognition on radiographs of malpositioned bladder catheters is vital to the care of these patients. All staff involved in the insertion, maintenance or removal of these catheters should be suitably trained to minimize the risk of knots and related complications. (orig.)

  3. In vivo quantification of intraarticular cytokines in knees during natural and surgically induced cartilage repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, Hagen; Mehlhorn, Alexander; Stoffel, Fabian;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AIMS: Cartilage defects are considered to be an initial event in the progress of osteoarthritis. Reliable data about in vivo regulation of cytokines in natural and surgically induced cartilage repair are still missing. METHODS: Knee lavage fluids of 47 patients were collected prospecti......BACKGROUND AIMS: Cartilage defects are considered to be an initial event in the progress of osteoarthritis. Reliable data about in vivo regulation of cytokines in natural and surgically induced cartilage repair are still missing. METHODS: Knee lavage fluids of 47 patients were collected...

  4. Diffusion-weighted MRI of epithelial ovarian cancers: correlation of apparent diffusion coefficient values with histologic grade and surgical stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ji-Won; Rha, Sung Eun; Oh, Soon Nam; Park, Michael Yong; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Ahwon

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to correlate the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of epithelial ovarian cancers with histologic grade and surgical stage. We enrolled 43 patients with pathologically proven epithelial ovarian cancers for this retrospective study. All patients underwent preoperative pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted images with b value of 0 and 1000 s/mm2 at 3.0-T unit. The mean ADC values of the solid portion of the tumor were measured and compared among different histologic grades and surgical stages. The mean ADC values of epithelial ovarian cancers differed significantly between grade 1 (well-differentiated) and grade 2 (moderately-differentiated) (P=0.013) as well as between grade 1 and grade 3 (poorly-differentiated) (P=0.01); however, no statistically significant difference existed between grade 2 and grade 3 (P=0.737). The receiver-operating characteristic analysis indicated that a cutoff ADC value of less than or equal to 1.09×10(-3)mm2/s was associated with 94.4% sensitivity and 85.7% specificity in distinguishing grade 1 and grade 2/3 cancer. The difference in mean ADC values was statistically significant for early stage (FIGO stage I) and advanced stage (FIGO stage II-IV) cancer (P=0.011). The interobserver agreement for the mean ADC values of epithelial ovarian cancers was excellent. The mean ADC values of the solid portion of epithelial ovarian cancers negatively correlated to histologic grade and surgical stage. The mean ADC values may be useful imaging biomarkers for assessment of tumor grade of epithelial ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Surgical treatment of radiation induced injuries of the intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, E.H.; Symmonds, R.E.

    1981-12-01

    In the patient who has received high dose irradiation of the pelvis and abdomen, all abdominopelvic operations should be avoided, unless it is absolutely essential. Persisting obstruction, hemorrhage, intestinal perforation with peritonitis and with abscess and fistula formation are valid indications for surgical intervention. Ninety-three patients have been operated upon for these complications after irradiation. Some anastomotic dehiscence occurred in ten patients. Six operative deaths occurred. Of the 93 patients, 65 were managed by means of complete resection of the involved segment of intestine, followed by restoration of intestinal continuity by means of an end-to-end anastomosis. This is the treatment of choice when the involved area can be safely resected. In the absence of actual intestinal necrosis and when segments of strictured small intestine are adherent deep in the pelvis, and intestinal bypass procedure may represent the treatment of choice. This was accomplished in 20 patients, two of whom eventually required a second operation for resection of the bypassed segment of intestine.

  6. Effects of Dietary Induced Weight Loss on Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction in Overweight and Obese Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Janneke C.; Hoogstrate, Mira; Duiverman, Eric J.; Thio, Boony J.

    2014-01-01

    RationalePrevious studies showed that obesity in asthmatic children is associated with more severe exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), compared with non-obese asthmatic children. This study investigates the effect of weight loss on EIB in overweight and obese asthmatic children. MethodsIn th

  7. Using personality as a predictor of diet induced weight loss and weight management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munro Irene A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge for successful weight management is tailoring weight loss programs to individual needs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether personality traits could be used to match individuals to a compatible weight loss program that would maximize weight loss. Method Two different weight loss trials were conducted, both with a weight loss greater than 5% the measure of success. Fifty-four individuals, BMI 30-40 kg/m2, either followed a slow, healthy eating weight loss diet (HEWLD of 5000-6000 kJ/day for 12 weeks (n = 22, or a fast, very low energy diet (VLED of 3000 kJ/day for 4 weeks (n = 32. Anthropometric measurements were recorded at baseline, at the end of the weight loss period and, for VLED, at the end of 10 weeks of weight maintenance. Personality traits were measured at baseline using the Tangney Self Control Scale plus 3 of the scales from the Five Factor Model - Neuroticism, Conscientiousness and Extraversion. Results The percentage weight loss was significantly greater in VLED (-7.38% compared to HEWLD (-4.11%, (p Conclusion The personality factor, Neuroticism, was linked to successful weight loss (that is ≥ 5% with a particular weight loss treatment, suggesting that there is a potential to use measures of personality to identify appropriate weight loss/management strategies for individuals. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12611000716965

  8. Diffusion-weighted MRI of epithelial ovarian cancers: Correlation of apparent diffusion coefficient values with histologic grade and surgical stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Ji-Won, E-mail: fromentin@naver.com [Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Rha, Sung Eun, E-mail: serha@catholic.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Soon Nam, E-mail: hiohsn@catholic.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Michael Yong, E-mail: digirave@kmle.com [Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jae Young, E-mail: jybyun@catholic.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ahwon, E-mail: klee@catholic.ac.kr [Department of Hospital Pathology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •The solid component of all invasive epithelial cancers showed high b{sub 1000} signal intensity. •ADCs can predict the histologic grade of epithelial ovarian cancer. •ADCs correlate negatively to the surgical stage of epithelial ovarian cancer. •ADCs may be useful imaging biomarkers to assess epithelial ovarian cancer. -- Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this article is to correlate the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of epithelial ovarian cancers with histologic grade and surgical stage. Materials and methods: We enrolled 43 patients with pathologically proven epithelial ovarian cancers for this retrospective study. All patients underwent preoperative pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted images with b value of 0 and 1000 s/mm{sup 2} at 3.0-T unit. The mean ADC values of the solid portion of the tumor were measured and compared among different histologic grades and surgical stages. Results: The mean ADC values of epithelial ovarian cancers differed significantly between grade 1 (well-differentiated) and grade 2 (moderately-differentiated) (P = 0.013) as well as between grade 1 and grade 3 (poorly-differentiated) (P = 0.01); however, no statistically significant difference existed between grade 2 and grade 3 (P = 0.737). The receiver-operating characteristic analysis indicated that a cutoff ADC value of less than or equal to 1.09 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s was associated with 94.4% sensitivity and 85.7% specificity in distinguishing grade 1 and grade 2/3 cancer. The difference in mean ADC values was statistically significant for early stage (FIGO stage I) and advanced stage (FIGO stage II-IV) cancer (P = 0.011). The interobserver agreement for the mean ADC values of epithelial ovarian cancers was excellent. Conclusion: The mean ADC values of the solid portion of epithelial ovarian cancers negatively correlated to histologic grade and surgical stage. The mean ADC values may be useful imaging

  9. Sleeve gastrectomy induces loss of weight and fat mass in obese rats, but does not affect leptin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefater, Margaret A; Pérez-Tilve, Diego; Chambers, Adam P; Wilson-Pérez, Hilary E; Sandoval, Darleen A; Berger, José; Toure, Mouhamadoul; Tschöp, Matthias; Woods, Stephen C; Seeley, Randy J

    2010-06-01

    Surgical intervention produces sustainable weight loss and metabolic improvement in obese individuals. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) produces dramatic, sustained weight loss; we investigated whether these changes result from improved sensitivity to leptin. VSG was performed in Long-Evans rats with diet-induced obesity. Naïve or sham-operated rats, fed either ad libitum or pair-fed with the VSG group, were used as controls. Following surgery, body weights and food intake were monitored. We investigated energy expenditure, meal patterns, leptin sensitivity, and expression of pro-opiomelanocortin/agouti-related peptide/neuropeptide Y in the hypothalamus of the rats. We observed sustained losses in weight and body fat in male and female rats after VSG. Weight loss persisted after the disappearance of a transient, postsurgical food intake reduction. Resting energy expenditure was similar between control and VSG rats. VSG rats maintained their reduced body weights. However, they responded to a chronic food restriction challenge by overeating, which resulted in prerestriction, rather than pre-VSG, body weights. Consistent with lower adiposity, VSG decreased plasma leptin levels. Although VSG slightly improved leptin's anorectic action, the response was comparable to that observed in controls matched for adiposity by caloric restriction. Changes in hypothalamic neuropeptide expression were consistent with the lower body weight and lower leptin levels but cannot account for the sustained weight loss. VSG causes sustained reduction in body weight, which results from loss of fat mass. The maintenance of weight loss observed did not result from changes in sensitivity to leptin. Copyright 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Weight loss-induced stress in subcutaneous adipose tissue is related to weight regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumans, Nadia J T; Camps, Stefan G; Renes, Johan; Bouwman, Freek G; Westerterp, Klaas R; Mariman, Edwin C M

    2016-03-14

    Initial successful weight loss is often followed by weight regain after the dietary intervention. Compared with lean people, cellular stress in adipose tissue is increased in obese subjects. However, the relation between cellular stress and the risk for weight regain after weight loss is unclear. Therefore, we determined the expression levels of stress proteins during weight loss and weight maintenance in relation to weight regain. In vivo findings were compared with results from in vitro cultured human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes. In total, eighteen healthy subjects underwent an 8-week diet programme with a 10-month follow-up. Participants were categorised as weight maintainers or weight regainers (WR) depending on their weight changes during the intervention. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained before and after the diet and after the follow-up. In vitro differentiated SGBS adipocytes were starved for 96 h with low (0·55 mm) glucose. Levels of stress proteins were determined by Western blotting. WR showed increased expressions of β-actin, calnexin, heat shock protein (HSP) 27, HSP60 and HSP70. Changes of β-actin, HSP27 and HSP70 are linked to HSP60, a proposed key factor in weight regain after weight loss. SGBS adipocytes showed increased levels of β-actin and HSP60 after 96 h of glucose restriction. The increased level of cellular stress proteins in the adipose tissue of WR probably resides in the adipocytes as shown by in vitro experiments. Cellular stress accumulated in adipose tissue during weight loss may be a risk factor for weight regain.

  11. Prospective Study of Surgical Treatment of Acromegaly: Effects on Ghrelin, Weight, Adiposity, and Markers of CV Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Vidal, Carlos; Fernandez, Jean Carlos; Bruce, Jeffrey N.; Crisman, Celina; Conwell, Irene M.; Kostadinov, Jane; Geer, Eliza B.; Post, Kalmon D.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Although epidemiological studies have found that GH and IGF-1 normalization reduce the excess mortality of active acromegaly to expected rates, cross-sectional data report some cardiovascular (CV) risk markers to be less favorable in remission than active acromegaly. Objective: The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that remission of acromegaly after surgical therapy increases weight and adiposity and some CV risk markers and these changes are paralleled by a rise in ghrelin. Design: Forty-two adults with untreated, active acromegaly were studied prospectively. Changes in outcome measures from before to after surgery were assessed in 26 subjects achieving remission (normal IGF-1) and 16 with persistent active acromegaly (elevated IGF-1) after surgery. Setting: The study was conducted at tertiary referral centers for pituitary tumors. Main Outcome Measures: Endocrine, metabolic, and CV risk parameters, anthropometrics, and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured. Results: Remission increased total ghrelin, body weight, waist circumference, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, high-density lipoprotein, and leptin and reduced systolic blood pressure, homeostasis model assessment score, triglycerides, and lipoprotein (a) by 6 months and for 32 ± 4 months after surgery. The ghrelin rise correlated with the fall in the levels of GH, IGF-1, and insulin and insulin resistance. Weight, waist circumference, and ghrelin did not increase significantly in the persistent active acromegaly group. Total body fat, trunk fat, and perentage total body fat increased by 1 year after surgery in 15 remission subjects: the increase in body fat correlated with the rise in total ghrelin. Conclusions: Although most markers of CV risk improve with acromegaly remission after surgery, some markers and adiposity increase and are paralleled by a rise in total ghrelin, suggesting that these changes may be related. Understanding the mechanisms and

  12. Tail regeneration in the plethodontid salamander, Plethodon cinereus: induced autotomy versus surgical amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmore, C E

    1977-02-01

    Regeneration of the tail in the plethodontid salamander, Plethodon cinereus, occurs following either surgical amputation or induced autotomy. Autotomy may occur along any one of the caudal myosepta which form natural cleavage planes. The distally attached myofibers break away from the myoseptum which then becomes part of the stump surface remaining intact during subsequent regeneration of the distal segments. Under these conditions, therefore, muscle fibers do not normally participate in tail regeneration. If, however, the myofibers of a caudal myotome are interrupted as in mid-segment amputation, the damaged fibers undergo hyaline degeneration and are largely replaced by connective tissue often as far proximally as the next myoseptum. Other tissues at the amputation surface are concurrently engaged in the epimorphic regeneration of the tail, including myogenesis, though at a slower initial rate than that following autotomy. Muscle cells, therefore, appear not to participate in epimorphic tail regeneration in Plethodon cinereus following either surgical amputation or induced autotomy.

  13. Glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs against antipsychotic-induced weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Knop, Filip K; Ishøy, Pelle L

    2012-01-01

    between schizophrenia and overweight patients. DISCUSSION: Current interventions against antipsychotic-induced weight gain do not facilitate a substantial and lasting weight loss. GLP-1 analogues used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes are associated with significant and sustained weight loss...

  14. Evaluation of cardiovascular disease risk in women with surgically induced menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Nagihan; Engin-Üstün, Yaprak; Kiyak Çağlayan, Emel; Göçmen, Ayşe Yeşim; Polat, Muhammet Fevzi

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluates cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among women undergoing natural menopause or surgically induced menopause through the measurement of serum growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), ischemia modified albumin (IMA), total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride, fibrinogen, and C-reactive protein (CRP). The study included women with surgically induced menopause (n = 50) and women undergoing natural menopause (n = 50). The two study groups were matched according to age, body mass index, menopause duration. GDF-15, BNP, IMA, total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglyceride, fibrinogen, and CRP were measured. There was no significant difference in GDF-15, BNP, IMA, total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglyceride, fibrinogen, and CRP results between the two groups. We conclude that there is no increase in CVD risk among women aged 40-50 with surgically induced menopause relative to matched control subjects undergoing normal age-related menopause.

  15. Caffeine treatment prevented from weight regain after calorie shifting diet induced weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Sayed Hossein; Hajimiresmaiel, Seyed Javad; Ajami, Marjan; Mohseni-Bandpei, Anoushiravan; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Abdulmajid; Dowlatshahi, Kamran; Javedan, Gholamali; Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Low calorie diets are always difficult for obese subjects to follow and lead to metabolic and behavioral adaptation. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of caffeine treatment with calorie shifting diet (CSD) on weight loss. Female subjects (n=60; BMI≥25) completed 4-weeks control diet, 6-weeks CSD (3 repeated phases; each 2-weeks) and 4-weeks follow-up diet, with or without caffeine treatment (5 mg/Kg/day). The first 11 days of each phase included calorie restriction with four meals every day and 4 hours intervals. Significant weight and fat loss were observed after 4-weeks of CSD (5.7 ± 1.24 Kg and 4.84 ± 1.53 Kg) or CSD+Caffeine (7.57 ± 2.33 Kg and 5.24 ± 2.07 Kg) which was consistent for one month of the follow-up (CSD: 5.24 ± 1.83 Kg and 4.3 ± 1.62 Kg, CSD+Caffeine: 12.11 ± 2.31 Kg and 9.85 ± 1.6 Kg, p Caffeine treatments, significantly decreased plasma glucose, total-cholesterol, and triacylglycerol (p after 4-weeks of CSD (p after week 7 (p caffeine treatment with CSD could be an effective alternative approach to weight and fat loss with small changes in RMR and improved tolerance of subjects to the new diet.

  16. Animal models of surgically manipulated flow velocities to study shear stress-induced atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Leah C; Hoogendoorn, Ayla; Xing, Ruoyu; Wentzel, Jolanda J; Van der Heiden, Kim

    2015-07-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial tree that develops at predisposed sites, coinciding with locations that are exposed to low or oscillating shear stress. Manipulating flow velocity, and concomitantly shear stress, has proven adequate to promote endothelial activation and subsequent plaque formation in animals. In this article, we will give an overview of the animal models that have been designed to study the causal relationship between shear stress and atherosclerosis by surgically manipulating blood flow velocity profiles. These surgically manipulated models include arteriovenous fistulas, vascular grafts, arterial ligation, and perivascular devices. We review these models of manipulated blood flow velocity from an engineering and biological perspective, focusing on the shear stress profiles they induce and the vascular pathology that is observed.

  17. Successful Use of Add - On Topiramate for Antipsychotic - Induced Weight Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataram Shivakumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antipsychotic induced weight gain is the most common and distressing side effect. This also affects the compliance toward the treatment and hence the prognosis. Non - pharmacological interventions such as exercise and diet modifications alone might not be sufficient most of the times; also ensuring compliance toward this is difficult in patients with psychiatric illness. So, the role of weight - reducing drugs become important. In this case report, we describe the use of low - dose topiramate as a weight - reducing agent, in a patient with a bipolar affective disorder - mania with psychotic symptoms, who had significant risperidone - induced weight gain.

  18. Caffeine Treatment Prevented from Weight Regain after Calorie Shifting Diet Induced Weight Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Davoodi, Sayed Hossein; Hajimiresmaiel, Seyed Javad; Ajami, Marjan; Mohseni-Bandpei, Anoushiravan; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Abdulmajid; Dowlatshahi, Kamran; Javedan, Gholamali; Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Low calorie diets are always difficult for obese subjects to follow and lead to metabolic and behavioral adaptation. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of caffeine treatment with calorie shifting diet (CSD) on weight loss. Female subjects (n=60; BMI≥25) completed 4-weeks control diet, 6-weeks CSD (3 repeated phases; each 2-weeks) and 4-weeks follow-up diet, with or without caffeine treatment (5 mg/Kg/day). The first 11 days of each phase included calorie restriction with four meals every day ...

  19. Matched weight loss induced by sleeve gastrectomy or gastric bypass similarly improves metabolic function in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, David; Magkos, Faidon; Eagon, J Christopher; Varela, J Esteban; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Okunade, Adewole L; Patterson, Bruce W; Klein, Samuel

    2014-09-01

    The effects of marked weight loss, induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG) surgeries, on insulin sensitivity, β-cell function and the metabolic response to a mixed meal were evaluated. Fourteen nondiabetic insulin-resistant patients who were scheduled to undergo SG (n = 7) or RYGB (n = 7) procedures completed a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedure and a mixed-meal tolerance test before surgery and after losing ∼20% of their initial body weight. Insulin sensitivity (insulin-stimulated glucose disposal during a clamp procedure), oral glucose tolerance (postprandial plasma glucose area under the curve), and β-cell function (insulin secretion in relationship to insulin sensitivity) improved after weight loss, and were not different between surgical groups. The metabolic response to meal ingestion was similar after RYGB or SG, manifested by rapid delivery of ingested glucose into the systemic circulation and a large early postprandial increase in plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations in both groups. When matched on weight loss, RYGB and SG surgeries result in similar improvements in the two major factors involved in regulating plasma glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in obese people without diabetes. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  20. Cytokines and cholinergic signals co-modulate surgical stress-induced changes in mood and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lichter, Irit; Beilin, Benzion; Ofek, Keren; Bessler, Hanna; Gruberger, Michal; Shavit, Yehuda; Seror, Dan; Grinevich, Galina; Posner, Eldad; Reichenberg, Abraham; Soreq, Hermona; Yirmiya, Raz

    2008-03-01

    Inflammatory cytokines and the cholinergic system have been implicated in the effects of stressors on mood and memory; however, the underlying mechanisms involved and the potential interrelationships between these pathways remain unclear. To address these questions, we administered neuropsychological tests to 33 generally healthy surgery patients who donated blood samples several days prior to undergoing moderate surgery (baseline), on the morning of the surgery (i.e., a psychological stressor), and one day after surgery. Eighteen control subjects were similarly tested. Serum levels of inflammatory cytokines, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and the stressor-inducible AChE-R variant were measured. An elevation in anxiety levels, an increase in depressed mood, and a decline in declarative memory were observed on the morning of the surgery, prior to any medical intervention, and were exacerbated one day after surgery. The surgical stressor-induced elevated IL-1 beta levels, which contributed to the increased depressed mood and to the post-surgery increase in AChE-R expression. The latter increase, which was also predicted by pre-surgery AChE-R and post-surgery mood disturbances, was associated with exacerbated memory impairments induced by surgery. In addition, elevated levels of AChE-R on the morning of the surgery predicted the post-surgery elevation in IL-6 levels, which was associated with amelioration of the memory impairments induced by surgery. Taken together, these findings suggest that exposure to a surgical stressor induces a reciprocal up-regulation of AChE-R and pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are involved in regulating the surgery-induced mood and memory disturbances.

  1. Effect on Nitrogen Balance, Thermogenesis, Body Composition, Satiety, and Circulating Branched Chain Amino Acid Levels up to One Year after Surgery: Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial on Dietary Protein During Surgical Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Vidal, Josep; Miner, Patricia; Boirie, Yves; Laferrère, Blandine

    2016-01-01

    Background Bariatric surgery (BS), the most effective treatment for severe obesity, typically results in 40-50 kg weight loss in the year following the surgery. Beyond its action on protein metabolism, dietary protein intake (PI) affects satiety, thermogenesis, energy efficiency, and body composition (BC). However, the required amount of PI after surgical weight loss is not known. The current daily PI recommendation for diet-induced weight loss is 0.8 g/kg ideal body weight (IBW) per day, but whether this amount is sufficient to preserve fat-free mass during active surgical weight loss is unknown. Objective To evaluate the effect of a 3-month dietary protein supplementation (PS) on nitrogen balance (NB), BC, energy expenditure, and satiety in women undergoing either gastric bypass or vertical sleeve gastrectomy. Methods In this randomized prospective study, participants will be randomized to a high protein supplementation group (1.2 g/kg IBW per day) or standard protein supplementation group (0.8 g/kg IBW per day) based on current guidelines. Outcome measures including NB, BC, circulating branched chain amino acids, and satiety, which will be assessed presurgery, and at 3-months and 12-months postsurgery. Results To date, no studies have examined the effect of dietary PS after BS. Current guidelines for PI after surgery are based on weak evidence. Conclusions The results of this study will contribute to the development of evidence-based data regarding the safe and optimal dietary PI and supplementation after BS. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02269410; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02269410 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6m2f2QLeg). PMID:27895003

  2. SURGICALLY INDUCED ASTIGMATISM AFTER IMPLANTATION OF FOLDABLE AND NON - FOLDABLE LENSES IN CATARACT SURGERY BY PHACOEMULSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This prospective comparative study included 300 matched patients of different grades of senile cataract. All of them willfully underwent phacoemulsification at the hands of a single experienced surgeon, performing with a single and individual technique {Woodcutter’s technique 1 }; half of them were implanted with a foldable intraocular lens and the other half with a non - foldable PMMA intraocular lens. All the patients undergoing phacoemulsification had an improvement in vision. There was no statistically significant difference in the surgically induced astigmatism after implanting foldable or non - foldable IOL

  3. A model for prediction of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity by kidney weight in experimental rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Nematbakhsh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II; CP is used widely as an antitumor drug in clinics, but is accompanied with renal toxicity. Cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity consists of change in kidney weight, histological changes in kidney and increase in serum creatinine (Cr and blood urea nitrogen (BUN. This study was designed to find out a model for prediction of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Pathological damage score, kidney weight, BUN, and Cr of 227 rats that were involved in different projects were determined. A total of 187 rats were treated with 7 mg/kg cisplatin and sacrificed 1 week later. Results: There was a good significant correlation between normalized kidney weight and logarithmic scale of BUN and Cr. Relationship between BUN, Cr or normalized kidney weight and pathology damage score was significant. Conclusion: Normalized kidney weight and pathology damage score is a good predictor of renal function in cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in experimental rats.

  4. Lichen planus pemphigoides induced by a weight reduction drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmaninho, Aristoteles; Sanches, Madalena; Oliveira, Ana; Alves, Rosario; Selores, Manuela

    2011-12-01

    Lichen planus pemphigoides is a rare autoimmune dermatosis characterized by bullous lesions arising on lichen planus (LP) papules and on clinically uninvolved skin, coexistence of histological features of LP and bullous pemphigoid and linear deposits of IgG and/or C3 along the basal membrane zone on direct immunofluorescence of peribullous skin. LPP has been reported to be associated with several medications such as ramipril, cinnarizine, simvastatin, captopril, psoralen ultraviolet A therapy and antituberculous medications. We report a case of a 41-year-old woman with LPP associated with a weight reduction drug.

  5. The relationship between chemical-induced kidney weight increases and kidney histopathology in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Evisabel A; Yan, Zhongyu; Zhao, Q Jay

    2015-07-01

    The kidney is a major site of chemical excretion, which results in its propensity to exhibit chemically-induced toxicological effects at a higher rate than most other organs. Although the kidneys are often weighed in animal toxicity studies, the manner in which these kidney weight measurements are interpreted and the value of this information in predicting renal damage remains controversial. In this study we sought to determine whether a relationship exists between chemically-induced kidney weight changes and renal histopathological alterations. We also examined the relative utility of absolute and relative (kidney-to-body weight ratio) kidney weight in the prediction of renal toxicity. For this, data extracted from oral chemical exposure studies in rats performed by the National Toxicology Program were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated. Our analysis showed a statistically significant correlation between absolute, but not relative, kidney weight and renal histopathology in chemically-treated rats. This positive correlation between absolute kidney weight and histopathology was observed even with compounds that statistically decreased terminal body weight. Also, changes in absolute kidney weight, which occurred at subchronic exposures, were able to predict the presence or absence of kidney histopathology at both subchronic and chronic exposures. Furthermore, most increases in absolute kidney weight reaching statistical significance (irrespective of the magnitude of change) were found to be relevant for the prediction of histopathological changes. Hence, our findings demonstrate that the evaluation of absolute kidney weight is a useful method for identifying potential renal toxicants.

  6. Unfractionated heparin versus low molecular weight heparins for avoiding heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in postoperative patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Daniela R; Zorzela, Liliane M; Perini, Edson

    2017-04-21

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an adverse drug reaction presenting as a prothrombotic disorder related to antibody-mediated platelet activation. It is a paradoxical immune reaction resulting in thrombin generation in vivo, which leads to a hypercoagulable state and the potential to initiate venous or arterial thrombosis. A number of factors are thought to influence the incidence of HIT including the type and preparation of heparin (unfractionated heparin (UFH) or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH)) and the heparin-exposed patient population, with the postoperative patient population at higher risk.Although LMWH has largely replaced UFH as a front-line therapy, there is evidence supporting a lack of superiority of LMWH compared with UFH regarding prevention of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism following surgery, and similar frequencies of bleeding have been described with LMWH and UFH. The decision as to which of these two preparations of heparin to use may thus be influenced by harmful effects such as HIT. We therefore sought to determine the relative impact of UFH and LMWH on HIT in postoperative patients receiving thromboembolism prophylaxis. This is an update of a review first published in 2012. The objective of this review was to compare the incidence of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and HIT complicated by venous thromboembolism in postoperative patients exposed to unfractionated heparin (UFH) versus low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). For this update, the Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist searched the Specialised Register (May 2016), CENTRAL (2016, Issue 4) and trials registries. The authors searched Lilacs (June 2016) and additional trials were sought from reference lists of relevant publications. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which participants were postoperative patients allocated to receive prophylaxis with UFH or LMWH, in a blinded or unblinded fashion. Studies were excluded if they did not use

  7. Influence of surgical and chemical orchidectomy on weight and distribution of AChE-nerve fibres in thymuses of adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dorko

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The thymus is a crossroad between the immune and neuroendocrine systems. As such, it is innervated by acetylcholinesterase (AChE-positive fibres of the vagus, the recurrent laryngeal and the phrenic nerves. It is well know, that the innervations density of the thymus increases with age. In our study, adult rats were orchidectomized (surgically and chemically by the application of a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. The density of AChE-positive nerve fibres in thymuses, as well as the weight of thymuses was examined. The authors found that both surgical and chemical orchidectomy result in macroscopic and microscopic regeneration of the atrophied thymuses. In regenerated rat’s thymuses after orchidectomy the density of AChE-positive nerve fibres was markedly higher in comparison with the control animals. The distribution, as well as the density of AChE-positive nerve fibres in regenerated thymuses after orchidectomy evokes the images of its innervations like in young animals before age-related involution. The authors also found a markedly higher weight of thymuses of orchidectomized rats in comparison with the control groups. In recent study the authors proved that after 8 weeks surgical orchidectomy leads to the regeneration of thymic AChE-positive innervation and chemical orchidectomy by administration of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone after 4 weeks of adult rats.

  8. Bariatric surgery-induced weight loss causes remission of food addiction in extreme obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepino, Marta Yanina; Stein, Richard I; Eagon, J Christopher; Klein, Samuel

    2014-08-01

    To test the hypotheses that bariatric surgery-induced weight loss: induces remission of food addiction (FA), and normalizes other eating behaviors associated with FA. Forty-four obese subjects (BMI= 48 ± 8 kg/m(2) ) were studied before and after ∼20% weight loss induced by bariatric surgery (25 Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, 11 laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, and eight sleeve gastrectomy). We assessed: FA (Yale Food Addiction Scale), food cravings (Food Craving Inventory), and restrictive, emotional and external eating behaviors (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire). FA was identified in 32% of subjects before surgery. Compared with non-FA subjects, those with FA craved foods more frequently, and had higher scores for emotional and external eating behaviors (all P-values 0.8). Surgery-induced weight loss resulted in remission of FA in 93% of FA subjects; no new cases of FA developed after surgery. Surgery-induced weight loss decreased food cravings, and emotional and external eating behaviors in both groups (all P-values 1.1). Bariatric surgery-induced weight loss induces remission of FA and improves several eating behaviors that are associated with FA. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  9. Surgically Induced Interpregnancy Weight Loss and Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willmer, Mikaela; Berglind, Daniel; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2013-01-01

    According to the fetal overnutrition hypothesis, obesity in pregnancy predisposes the offspring to obesity. Previous studies have suggested that after biliopancreatic surgery for obesity, the offspring is less likely to be obese. This study aims to further compare the BMI development of children...

  10. Injection-induced gluteus muscle contractures: diagnosis with the "reverse Ober test" and surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, William F; White, Klane K; Song, Kit M; Mosca, Vincent S

    2015-03-01

    Adoption rates are increasing in the United States and other developed countries. A large proportion of adopted children have been found to have unsuspected medical diagnoses, including orthopedic problems. One condition, termed injection-induced gluteus maximus contracture, has been previously described in several case series and can be difficult to diagnose if unfamiliar with this condition. By reviewing the etiology and pathoanatomy of this problem, as well as the typical examination findings, including the near-pathognomonic-positive "reverse Ober test," treating providers will be better prepared to recognize and properly treat this condition. This is a retrospective review of 4 patients treated at our institution for injection-induced gluteus maximus contracture. Patient history, physical examination findings, and treatment outcomes were recorded. All had undergone surgical treatment through a longitudinal incision along the posterior margin of the iliotibial band, with division of thickened, contracted gluteus tissue down to the ischial tuberosity. All 4 of the patients were adopted from orphanages in developing countries. Chief complaints of the patients varied, but physical examination findings were very consistent. Three of the 4 patients had undergone rotational osteotomies for presumed femoral retroversion before their diagnosis and treatment for injection-induced gluteus maximus contracture. All patients had concave, atrophic buttock contours and numerous punctate buttock scars. All walked with an out-toed gait and had marked apparent femoral retroversion. Each patient was found to have full hip adduction when the hip was extended but a hip abduction contracture when the hip was flexed. This finding of increasing abduction as an extended/adducted hip is flexed to 90 degrees is described as a positive "reverse Ober test." After surgical treatment, all hips could adduct to neutral from full extension to full flexion. Although common in some countries

  11. Reduced Hospital Mortality With Surgical Ligation of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Premature, Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants: A Propensity Score-matched Outcome Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Jun; Perez, Eduardo A; Sola, Juan E

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate outcomes after surgical ligation (SL) of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in premature, extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Optimal management of PDA in this specialized population remains undefined. Currently, surgical therapy is largely reserved for infants failing medical management. To date, a large-scale, risk-matched population-based study has not been performed to evaluate differences in mortality and resource utilization. Data on identified premature (Propensity score-matched analysis of 1620 SL versus 1584 non-SL found reduced mortality (15% vs 26%) and more routine disposition (48% vs 41%) for SL (P Propensity score-matched analysis demonstrates reduced mortality in premature/ELBW infants with SL for PDA. NEC and sepsis are predictors of mortality and resource utilization.

  12. Role of 5-HT2C receptor gene variants in antipsychotic-induced weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandl EJ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Tessa JM Wallace, Clement C Zai, Eva J Brandl, Daniel J MüllerNeurogenetics Section, Center for Addiction and Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaAbstract: Antipsychotic-induced weight gain is a serious side effect of antipsychotic medication that can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and non-compliance in patients. Numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms have been studied for association with antipsychotic-induced weight gain in an attempt to find genetic predictors of this side effect. An ability to predict this side effect could lead to personalized treatment plans for predisposed individuals, which could significantly decrease the prevalence and severity of weight gain. Variations in the serotonin receptor 2c gene (HTR2C have emerged as promising candidates for prediction of antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Specifically, the well-studied -759C/T promoter polymorphism has been associated with weight gain in diverse populations, although some studies have reported no association. This discrepancy is likely due to heterogeneity in study design with respect to ethnicity, treatment duration, and other variables. Notably, the association between HTR2C and antipsychotic-induced weight gain appears strongest in short-term studies on patients with limited or no previous antipsychotic treatment. Other, less extensively studied promoter polymorphisms (-697C/G, -997G/A, and -1165A/G have also emerged as potential predictors of antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Conversely, the well-studied intronic polymorphism Cys23Ser does not appear to be associated. With further research on both HTR2C and other genetic and environmental predictors of antipsychotic-induced weight gain, a predictive test could one day be created to screen patients and provide preventative or alternative treatment for those who are predisposed to this serious side effect.Keywords: HTR2C, pharmacogenomics, promoter polymorphism

  13. CB(1) blockade-induced weight loss over 48 weeks decreases liver fat in proportion to weight loss in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergholm, R; Sevastianova, K; Santos, A; Kotronen, A; Urjansson, M; Hakkarainen, A; Lundbom, J; Tiikkainen, M; Rissanen, A; Lundbom, N; Yki-Järvinen, H

    2013-05-01

    Studies in mice have suggested that endocannabinoid blockade using the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) blocker rimonabant prevents obesity-induced hepatic steatosis. To determine effects of rimonabant on liver fat in humans, we measured liver fat content by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 37 subjects who used either a CB1 blocker rimonabant or placebo in a double-blind, randomized manner. This was retrospectively compared with a historical hypocaloric diet weight loss group (n=23). Weight loss averaged 8.5±1.4 kg in the rimonabant, 1.7±1.0 kg in the placebo and 7.5±0.2 kg in the hypocaloric diet group (Pfat decreased more in the rimonabant (5.9% (2.5-14.6%) vs 1.8% (0.9-3.5%), before vs after) than in the placebo group (6.8% (2.2-15.7%) vs 4.9% (1.6-7.8%), before vs after, Ploss of liver fat (r=0.70, P>0.0001). The decreases in liver fat were comparable between the rimonabant and the young historical hypocaloric diet groups. We conclude that, unlike in mice, in humans rimonabant decreases liver fat in proportion to weight loss.

  14. Surgical incision-induced nociception causes cognitive impairment and reduction in synaptic NMDA receptor 2B in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqin; Xin, Xin; Dong, Yuanlin; Zhang, Yiying; Yu, Buwei; Mao, Jianren; Xie, Zhongcong

    2013-11-06

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is associated with impairments in daily functioning, and increased morbidity and mortality. However, the causes and neuropathogenesis of POCD remain largely unknown. Uncontrolled pain often occurs postoperatively. We therefore set out to determine the effects of surgical incision-induced nociception on the cognitive function and its underlying mechanisms in 3- and 9-month-old mice. The mice had surgical incision in the hindpaw and then were tested for nociceptive threshold, learning, and memory. Brain levels of NMDA receptor and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) were also assessed. We found that surgical incision-induced nociception in mice led to a decreased freezing time in the tone test (which assesses the hippocampus-independent learning and memory function), but not the context test, of Fear Conditioning System at 3 and 7 d, but not 30 d post incision in 9-month-old, but not 3-month-old mice. Consistently, the surgical incision selectively decreased synaptic NMDA receptor 2B levels in the medial prefrontal cortex, and increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and CDK5 in the cortex, but not hippocampus, of the mice. Finally, eutectic mixture of local anesthetics and CDK5 inhibitor, roscovitine, attenuated the surgical incision-induced reduction in the synaptic NMDA receptor 2B levels and learning impairment. These results suggested that surgical incision-induced nociception reduced the synaptic NMDA receptor 2B level in the medial prefrontal cortex of mice, which might lead to hippocampus-independent learning impairment, contributing to POCD. These findings call for further investigation to determine the role of surgical incision-induced nociception in POCD.

  15. Weight loss induced by chronic dapagliflozin treatment is attenuated by compensatory hyperphagia in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devenny, James J; Godonis, Helen E; Harvey, Susan J; Rooney, Suzanne; Cullen, Mary J; Pelleymounter, Mary Ann

    2012-08-01

    Dapagliflozin is a potent and selective sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor which promotes urinary glucose excretion and induces weight loss. Since metabolic compensation can offset a negative energy balance, we explored the potential for a compensatory physiological response to the weight loss induced by dapagliflozin. Dapagliflozin was administered (0.5-5 mpk; p.o.) to diet-induced obese (DIO) rats with or without ad libitum access to food for 38 days. Along with inducing urinary glucose excretion, chronic administration of dapagliflozin dose-dependently increased food and water intake relative to vehicle-treated controls. Despite this, it reduced body weight by 4% (relative to controls) at the highest dose. The degree of weight loss was increased by an additional 9% if hyperphagia was prevented by restricting food intake to that of vehicle controls. Neither oxygen consumption (vO2) or the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were altered by dapagliflozin treatment alone. Animals treated with dapagliflozin and pair-fed to vehicle controls (5 mpk PF-V) showed a reduction in RER and an elevation in nonfasting β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) relative to ad libitum-fed 5 mpk counterparts. Fasting BHBA was elevated in the 1 mpk, 5 mpk, and 5 mpk PF-V groups. Serum glucose was reduced in the fasted, but not the unfasted state. Insulin was reduced in the non-fasted state. These data suggest that in rodents, the persistent urinary glucose excretion induced by dapagliflozin was accompanied by compensatory hyperphagia, which attenuated the weight loss induced by SGLT2 inhibition. Therefore, it is possible that dapagliflozin-induced weight loss could be enhanced with dietary intervention.

  16. The role of drug-induced sleep endoscopy in surgical planning for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Ozturk; Erdur, Omer; Cirik, Ahmet Adnan; Kayhan, Fatma Tulin

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the role of drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) in the surgical treatment planning of patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). This study was conducted using patients diagnosed with OSAS between January 2007 and March 2009, who were scheduled for surgical treatment. DISE was performed using propofol in patients considered to have upper respiratory tract obstruction as indicated by Muller's maneuver. After completing the sleep endoscopy, the patient was intubated and surgery was performed (tonsillectomy and uvulopalatopharyngoplasty). A successful operation was defined as a decrease in the respiratory disturbance index to below 5 or a decrease of ≥50 % following the operation. The study included 20 patients (4 female and 16 male) aged 19-57 years. No statistically significant correlation between modified Mallampati class and operation success or between the polysomnographic stage of disease and operation success was identified. A significantly high operation success rate was found in the group with obstruction of the upper airway according to DISE (p DISE (p DISE may be used to identify the localization of obstruction for diagnostic purposes, and it can be helpful in selecting the treatment method.

  17. SURGICALLY INDUCED ASTIGMATISM AFTER 20G VS 23G PARS PLANA VITRECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokabhi Reddy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pars Plana Vitrectomy is done to clear the Vitreous cavity of the Eye. Trans conjunctival Sutureless Vitrectomy with 23G & 25G has become more popular over the Conventional 20G Vitrectomy in recent times. It has many advantages. Less amount of Surgically Induc ed Astigmatism is one of the Advantages with Sutureless Vitrectomy, which will have the Advantage of Early Visual rehabilitation with better Vision. An interventional comparative study was done between 20G & 23 G Pars Plana Vitrectomy in 2 Groups of 30 pat ients each to assess the amount of Post - Operative Astigmatism. The cases were followed up for 6 months to assess the long term effects. There was a significant difference in immediate Post - Operative Astigmatism. But after some time the difference is much l ess showing that the main advantage on Astigmatism with Trans conjunctival Sutureless Vitrectomy is noted mainly during the first few weeks after the Surgery.

  18. Calorie-restricted weight loss reverses high-fat diet-induced ghrelin resistance, which contributes to rebound weight gain in a ghrelin-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Dana I; Lockie, Sarah H; Wu, Qunli; Lemus, Moyra B; Stark, Romana; Andrews, Zane B

    2013-02-01

    Twelve weeks of high-fat diet feeding causes ghrelin resistance in arcuate neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons. In the current study, we investigated whether diet-induced weight loss could restore NPY/AgRP neuronal responsiveness to ghrelin and whether ghrelin mediates rebound weight gain after calorie-restricted (CR) weight loss. Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were allocated to one of two dietary interventions until they reached the weight of age-matched lean controls. DIO mice received chow diet ad libitum or chow diet with 40% CR. Chow-fed and high-fat-fed mice served as controls. Both dietary interventions normalized body weight, glucose tolerance, and plasma insulin. We show that diet-induced weight loss with CR increases total plasma ghrelin, restores ghrelin sensitivity, and increases hypothalamic NPY and AgRP mRNA expression. We propose that long-term DIO creates a higher body weight set-point and that weight loss induced by CR, as seen in the high-fat CR group, provokes the brain to protect the new higher set-point. This adaptation to weight loss likely contributes to rebound weight gain by increasing peripheral ghrelin concentrations and restoring the function of ghrelin-responsive neuronal populations in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Indeed, we also show that DIO ghrelin-knockout mice exhibit reduced body weight regain after CR weight loss compared with ghrelin wild-type mice, suggesting ghrelin mediates rebound weight gain after CR weight loss.

  19. A STUDY OF PLACENTAL WEIGHT AND FETAL OUTCOME IN DIFFERENT GRADES OF PREGNANCY INDUCED HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra. A. Y

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objectives: Placenta is a feto-maternal organ which is vital for maintaining pregnancy and promoting normal development of the fetus. The weight of the placenta is functionally significant because it is related to villous surface area and to fetal metabolism. Present study has done to record the placental weight and co-relate with the corresponding fetal weight. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 placentae were studied, out of which 50 placentae belong to pregnancy induced hypertension and 50 placentae were of normotensive pregnant mothers. The weight of placenta and weight of fetus were compared between normotensive (Control and hypertensive mothers (Cases. Results: The mean weight of placenta in study group was low as compared to that in the control group. The birth weight of newborn was low with increasing grades of hypertension compared to control groups. The feto- placental weight ratio was higher in case of mild and severe preeclampsia. The incidence of stillbirth was 0.5%, 12.5% and 20% in mild pre-ecampsia, severe preeclampsia and eclampsia respectively. Conclusion: In present study, the birth weight was low with increasing grades of hypertension compared to control groups. The fetal: placental weight ratio was higher in case of mild and severe preeclampsia. The incidence of eclampsia was more common in primigravida where as mild preeclampsia was more common in multigravida. The mean weight of placenta in study group was low compared to control group. Thus study of placental changes in pregnancy induced hypertension may help us to understand patho-physiological mechanisms and design treatment plans for better maternal and foetal outcome. Modern sophisticated techniques like ultrasonography have made it possible to study the necessary placental parameters in utero. This helps in assessing the foetal outcome and management.

  20. Mortality of induced abortion, other outpatient surgical procedures and common activities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Elizabeth G; Grossman, Daniel; Weaver, Mark A; Toti, Stephanie; Winikoff, Beverly

    2014-11-01

    The recent surge of new legislation regulating induced abortion in the United States is ostensibly motivated by the desire to protect women's health. To provide context for interpreting the risk of abortion, we compared abortion-related mortality to mortality associated with other outpatient surgical procedures and selected nonmedical activities. We calculated the abortion-related mortality rate during 2000-2009 using national data. We searched PubMed and other sources for contemporaneous data on mortality associated with other outpatient procedures commonly performed on healthy young women, marathon running, bicycling and driving. The abortion-related mortality rate in 2000-2009 in the United States was 0.7 per 100,000 abortions. Studies in approximately the same years found mortality rates of 0.8-1.7 deaths per 100,000 plastic surgery procedures, 0-1.7deaths per 100,000 dental procedures, 0.6-1.2 deaths per 100,000 marathons run and at least 4 deaths among 100,000 cyclists in a large annual bicycling event. The traffic fatality rate per 758 vehicle miles traveled by passenger cars in the United States in 2007-2011 was about equal to the abortion-related mortality rate. The safety of induced abortion as practiced in the United States for the past decade met or exceeded expectations for outpatient surgical procedures and compared favorably to that of two common nonmedical voluntary activities. The new legislation restricting abortion is unnecessary; indeed, by reducing the geographic distribution of abortion providers and requiring women to travel farther for the procedure, these laws are potentially detrimental to women's health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The influence of enrichment devices on development of osteoarthritis in a surgically induced murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvarrey-Strati, Alba; Watson, Lyna; Blanchet, Tracey; Lu, Nelson; Glasson, Sonya S

    2008-09-01

    This study measured the influence of three different environmental enrichment devices (EEDs) on the severity of osteoarthritis (OA) in a surgically induced murine model. The development of OA requires joint movement after surgical instability induced by destabilization of the medial meniscus at 10 weeks of age. We evaluated the hypothesis that animals behavioral activity levels may influence the severity of the disease by investigating the effect of different EEDs on mouse activity and correlating this to OA severity. Thirty male 129S6/SvEvTac mice were housed in groups of five and provided with nesting material and one of three different EEDs: a heavy plastic tube (CPVC), Shepherd Shack (SS), or Tecniplast Mouse House (TMH). We videorecorded the cages throughout the study and constructed an ethogram. Eight weeks after surgery we euthanized the mice and performed a histologic examination of the knees to score the severity of OA based on the different housing systems, correlating the scores with behavioral activity levels for each cage. OA was higher in the mice with CPVC and TMH devices in their cages, whereas the mice with SS devices exhibited less cartilage damage; however, although we observed increased behavioral activity in mice with the CPVC tube and TMH and less in mice with the SS, the statistical results were not significant. The histological results of OA and the ethogram correlated to support our hypothesis that the type of EED plays an indirect role in the severity of the disease by modifying the activity levels of mice. In activity-dependent studies, the impact of an EED needs to be evaluated before change the environment.

  2. Fractal analysis of the surgical treatment of ligature-induced peri-implantitis in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hak Kun; Kim, Jin Soo [School of Dentisity, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    To evaluate the effect of surgical treatment of ligature-induced peri-implantitis in dogs using fractal analysis. Also, the capabilities of fractal analysis as bone analysis techniques were compared with those of histomorphometric analysis. A total of 24 implants were inserted in 6 dogs. After a 3-months, experimental periimplantitis characterized by a bone loss of about 3 mm was established by inducing with wires. Surgical treatment involving flap procedure, debridement of implants surface with chlorhexidine and saline (group 1), guided bone regeneration (GBR) with absorbable collagen membrane and mineralized bone graft (group 2), and CO2 laser application with GBR (group 3) were performed. After animals were sacrificed in 8 and 16 weeks respectively, bone sections including implants were made. Fractal dimensions were calculated by box-counting method on the skeletonized images, made from each region of interest, including five screws at medial and distal aspects of implant, were selected. Statistically significant differences in the fractal dimensions between the group 1 (0.9340 {+-} 0.0126) and group 3 (0.9783 {+-} 0.0118) at 16 weeks were found (P<0.05). The fractal dimension was statistically significant different between 8 (0.9395 {+-} 0.0283) and 16 weeks in group 3 (P<0.05). These results were similar with the result of the evaluation of new bone formation in histomorphometric analysis. Treatment of experimental peri-implantitis by using CO2 laser with GBR is more useful than other treatments in the formation of new bone and also the tendency of fractal dimension to increase relative to healing time may be a useful means of evaluating.

  3. Innate Fear-Induced Weight Regulation in the C57BL/6J Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genné-Bacon, Elizabeth A.; Trinko, Joseph R.; DiLeone, Ralph J.

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of body weight is an important strategy for small prey animals to avoid capture. Field and laboratory studies have shown that prey animals reduce body size when subjected to long-term predator stimuli. However, the causes of predator-induced weight regulation are highly variable and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Understanding this phenomenon is important for gaining a better understanding of how animals regulate body weight under ethologically relevant conditions and has implications for obesity. Here we expose inbred C57BL/6J mice to a fear-inducing odorant (2,4,5-trimethylthiazole; mT) to model predation-induced weight regulation. Eight week-old mice were put on a 45% high fat diet (HFD) or chow diet (5% fat) and exposed daily to mT, an equally aversive dose of butyric acid (BA), or a neutral control scent (almond). mT-exposed mice in both diet groups gained significantly less weight over a 6-week period than BA-exposed mice. This differential weight gain appears unlikely to be due to differences in food intake and activity level, or brown adipose thermogenesis between the mT and BA groups. However, following chronic mT exposure we find increases in ΔFosB protein, a marker for long-term neural plasticity, in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH)—an area previously implicated in chronic stress and defensive responses, as well as weight regulation. This study establishes a simplified and robust laboratory model of predation-mediated weight regulation with inbred lab mice and fear-inducing odor, and suggests a likely, yet undetermined, metabolic adaptation as contributing to this response. PMID:27458352

  4. Essential oil from Citrus aurantifolia prevents ketotifen-induced weight-gain in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnaashari, Solmaz; Delazar, Abbas; Habibi, Bohlol; Vasfi, Roghayeh; Nahar, Lutfun; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2010-12-01

    Obesity is a major health problem world-wide. Medical intervention is often needed to tackle this problem, and accordingly the need for developing more effective, safer and cheaper weight reducing drugs has become paramount in recent years. In the present study, the effects of lime (Citrus aurantifolia) essential oils in reducing body weight, individually and in co-administration with ketotifen, an antihistaminic drug that causes weight gain, has been investigated using a mouse model. During the 45 days experimental period, the mice that received ketotifen demonstrated an enhancement both in the amount of food intake and body weight compared with the control group. Groups treated with lime essential oil displayed a reduction in body weight and food consumption in mice, possibly through promoting anorexia which might have played a role in weight loss. Interestingly, co-administration of the lime essential oil and ketotifen caused significant suppression in gaining weight, as well as decreased body weights of mice. The data obtained in this study suggested that lime essential oil plays an important role in weight loss and could be useful in the treatment of drug-induced obesity and related diseases. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oils of C. aurantifolia was also performed and approximately 22 main components, with limonene (28.27%) being the principal one, were identified and quantified.

  5. Enriched Environment-induced Maternal Weight Loss Reprograms Metabolic Gene Expression in Mouse Offspring*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yanchang; Yang, Cai-Rong; Wei, Yan-Ping; Ge, Zhao-Jia; Zhao, Zhen-Ao; Zhang, Bing; Hou, Yi; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The global prevalence of weight loss is increasing, especially in young women. However, the extent and mechanisms by which maternal weight loss affects the offspring is still poorly understood. Here, using an enriched environment (EE)-induced weight loss model, we show that maternal weight loss improves general health and reprograms metabolic gene expression in mouse offspring, and the epigenetic alterations can be inherited for at least two generations. EE in mothers induced weight loss and its associated physiological and metabolic changes such as decreased adiposity and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Relative to controls, their offspring exhibited improved general health such as reduced fat accumulation, decreased plasma and hepatic lipid levels, and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Maternal weight loss altered gene expression patterns in the liver of offspring with coherent down-regulation of genes involved in lipid and cholesterol biosynthesis. Epigenomic profiling of offspring livers revealed numerous changes in cytosine methylation depending on maternal weight loss, including reproducible changes in promoter methylation over several key lipid biosynthesis genes, correlated with their expression patterns. Embryo transfer studies indicated that oocyte alteration in response to maternal metabolic conditions is a strong factor in determining metabolic and epigenetic changes in offspring. Several important lipid metabolism-related genes have been identified to partially inherit methylated alleles from oocytes. Our study reveals a molecular and mechanistic basis of how maternal lifestyle modification affects metabolic changes in the offspring. PMID:25555918

  6. Detection of electroporation-induced membrane permeabilization states in the brain using diffusion-weighted MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Faisal; Hansen, Rasmus H; Agerholm-Larsen, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tissue permeabilization by electroporation (EP) is a promising technique to treat certain cancers. Non-invasive methods for verification of induced permeabilization are important, especially in deep-seated cancers. In this study we evaluated diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging...... (DW-MRI) as a quantitative method for detecting EP-induced membrane permeabilization of brain tissue using a rat brain model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-four anesthetized Sprague-Dawley male rats were electroporated in the right hemisphere, using different voltage levels to induce no permeabilization......-induced permeabilization of brain tissue and to some extent of differentiating NP, TMP and PMP using appropriate scan timing....

  7. Excitatory Hindbrain-Forebrain Communication Is Required for Cisplatin-Induced Anorexia and Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadeff, Amber L; Holland, Ruby A; Zheng, Huiyuan; Rinaman, Linda; Grill, Harvey J; De Jonghe, Bart C

    2017-01-11

    Cisplatin chemotherapy is commonly used to treat cancer despite severe energy balance side effects. In rats, cisplatin activates nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) projections to the lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN) and calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) projections from the lPBN to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). We demonstrated previously that CeA glutamate receptor signaling mediates cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss. Here, we used neuroanatomical tracing, immunofluorescence, and confocal imaging to demonstrate that virtually all NTS→lPBN and lPBN→CeA CGRP projections coexpress vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2), providing evidence that excitatory projections mediate cisplatin-induced energy balance dysregulation. To test whether lPBN→CeA projection neurons are required for cisplatin-induced anorexia and weight loss, we inhibited these neurons chemogenetically using a retrograde Cre-recombinase-expressing canine adenovirus-2 in combination with Cre-dependent inhibitory Designer Receptors Exclusive Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) before cisplatin treatment. Inhibition of lPBN→CeA neurons attenuated cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss significantly. Using a similar approach, we additionally demonstrated that inhibition of NTS→lPBN neurons attenuated cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss significantly. Together, our data support the view that excitatory hindbrain-forebrain projections are necessary for cisplatin's untoward effects on energy intake, elucidating a key neuroanatomical circuit driving pathological anorexia and weight loss that accompanies chemotherapy treatment. Chemotherapy treatments are commonly used to treat cancers despite accompanying anorexia and weight loss that may limit treatment adherence and reduce patient quality of life. Strikingly, we lack a neural understanding of, and effective treatments for, chemotherapy-induced anorexia and weight loss. The current data

  8. Comparison of surgical conditions in 2 different anesthesia techniques of esmolol-induced controlled hypotension in breast reduction surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besir, Ahmet; Cekic, Bahanur; Kutanis, Dilek; Akdogan, Ali; Livaoglu, Murat

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Breast reduction surgery is a common cosmetic surgery with a high incidence of blood loss and transfusion. In this surgery, the reduction of blood loss related to surgical manipulation and the volume of resected tissue is a target. In the present study, we compared the effects of esmolol-induced controlled hypotension on surgical visibility, surgical bleeding, and the duration of surgery in patients anesthetized with propofol/remifentanil (PR) or sevoflurane/remifentanil (SR). Methods: Patients in the American Society of Anesthesiologists I/II risk group undergoing breast reduction surgery were prospectively randomized into PR (n = 25) and SR (n = 25) groups. Controlled hypotension was induced with esmolol in both groups. During the intraoperative period, the heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), operation duration, volume of intraoperative blood loss, volume of blood received through postoperative drains, volume of resected tissues, and surgical area bleeding score were recorded. Results: The duration of operation in the incisional period was shorter in group PR compared to group SR (P = 0.04). The change in HR was lower in incision and hemostasis periods in the group PR compared to the group SR (P blood received through drains on postoperative postoperative day 1, day 2, and in total were found to be significantly lower in group PR compared to group SR. Surgical visibility scoring was more effective in group PR compared to SR. Conclusion: In the breast reduction surgery performed under esmolol-induced controlled hypotension, the effect of propofol + remifentanil anesthesia on the duration of incisional surgery, surgical visibility, and volume of surgical blood loss was more reliable and effective compared to that of sevoflurane + remifentanil, which seems to be an advantage. PMID:28272228

  9. Surgical treatment of cyclosporine A- and nifedipine-induced gingival enlargement: gingivectomy versus periodontal flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilloni, A; Camargo, P M; Carere, M; Carranza, F A

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare probing depth resolution achieved by gingivectomy and periodontal flap techniques in the treatment of cyclosporine A- and nifedipine-induced gingival enlargement. Ten kidney transplant patients who were receiving cyclosporine A and nifedipine for at least 6 months participated in the study. Five patients were randomly assigned to the gingivectomy group and 5 patients to the periodontal flap group. Only anterior segments of the oral cavity (canine to canine) were surgically treated. Clinical measurements, including probing depths, plaque index, and gingival sulcus index, were taken at baseline, 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year. Results showed that probing depths, while similar for both groups in the first 6 weeks of the study, were significantly shallower for the periodontal flap group when compared to the gingivectomy group at 6 months (2.48 +/- 0.34 mm versus 4.87 +/- 0.79 mm, respectively) and 1 year (322 +/- 0.65 mm versus 6.40 +/- 1.02 mm, respectively). Within its limitations, this study suggests that the pocket reduction achieved by the periodontal flap may be sustained for longer periods of time than by the gingivectomy technique in the treatment of cyclosporine A- and nifedipine-induced gingival enlargement.

  10. Surgical treatment of denture-induced fibrous hyperplasia with plasma rich in growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzati, Marco; Mortellaro, Carmen; Gallesio, Giorgia; Ruggiero, Tiziana; Pol, Renato

    2015-05-01

    Denture-induced fibrous hyperplasia is a fibrous connective tissue lesion that commonly occurs in oral mucosa in patients showing important alveolar ridge atrophy. In this study, we propose Plasma Rich in Growth Factors (PRGF) to overcome constrains of traditional surgical treatment. Herein, we demonstrated that PRGF represents an autologous source of growth factors able to reduce the healing time of the alveolar mucosa and the discomfort of those patients. These properties are the result of PRGF's precise biological features that result in the following: reduction of duration and intensity of postsurgical pain, acceleration of re-epithelialization of the wound, and reduction of bleeding events and of edema. In conclusion, we showed that using PRGF on patients affected by denture-induced fibrous hyperplasia allows a short healing time, thereby reducing complications and overall improving their quality of life. The aims of this study were to evaluate the influence of PRGF-ENDORET on secondary re-epithelialization in vestibuloplasty after excision of denture irritation fibrous hyperplasia, with an explorative randomized case control trial with 10 patients, 5 patients treated with PRGF and 5 patients with traditional hemostasis, and to analyze differences with simple surgery, considering postoperative rapidity of re-epithelialization, comfort, and discomfort of patients, pain, swelling, and infections.

  11. Comparison of surgically induced astigmatism in patients with horizontal rectus muscle recession

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harun; akmak; Tolga; Kocatürk; Sema; Oru; Dündar

    2014-01-01

    ·AIM: To compare surgically induced astigmatism(SIA)following horizontal rectus muscle recession surgery between suspension recession with both the "hang-back" technique and conventional recession technique.·METHODS: Totally, 48 eyes of 24 patients who had undergone horizontal rectus muscle recession surgery were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups. Twelve patients were operated on by the hang-back technique(Group 1), and 12 by the conventional recession technique(Group 2). SIA was calculated on the 1stwk, 1stand in the 3rdmo after surgery using the SIA calculator.·RESULTS: SIA was statistically higher in the Group 1all postoperative follow-up. SIA was the highest in the 1st wk, and decreased gradually in both groups.·CONCLUSION: The suspension recession technique induced much more SIA than the conventional recession technique. This difference also continued in the following visits. Therefore, the refractive power should be checked postoperatively in order to avoid refractive amblyopia.Conventional recession surgery should be the preferred method so as to minimize the postoperative refractive changes in patients with amblyopia.

  12. Bladder changes after several coverage modalities in the surgically induced model of myelomeningocele in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, L; Encinas, J L; García-Cabezas, M Á; Peiró, J L; López-Santamaría, M; Jaureguízar, E

    2014-01-01

    To assess the presence of early bladder abnormalities in a prenatally corrected and uncorrected animal model of Myelomeningocele (MMC). A MMC-like lesion was surgically created in 18 fetal lambs between the 60th and the 80th day of gestation. Eight of them did not undergo fetal repair (group A), three were repaired with an open two-layer closure (group B), three using BioGlue® (groupC) and four fetoscopically (group D). At term, bladders were examined macroscopically and histopathological changes were assessed using H-E and Masson Trichrome. Five animals in group A (5/8, 62%), two in group B (2/3, 66%), one in group C (1/3, 33%) and one in group D (1/4, 25%) survived. Macroscopically bladders in group A were severely dilated and showed thinner walls. Microscopically they showed a thin layer of colagenous tissue (Blue layer. BL) lying immediately subjacent to the urothelium. The muscular layers were thinner. Non compliant pattern with thick wall and low capacity was also found in the non corrected model. Group B and the control showed preservation of muscular layers and absence of BL. Groups C and D presented BL but also preservation of muscular layers. Bladder changes in a surgically-induced model of MMC can be described using histopathological data. Both extremes of bladder changes can be observed in the model. These changes were completely prevented with open fetal surgery and partially with other coverage modalities. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes in taste perception and eating behavior after bariatric surgery-induced weight loss in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepino, Marta Yanina; Bradley, David; Eagon, J. Christopher; Sullivan, Shelby; Abumrad, Nada A.; Klein, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Objective Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery causes greater weight loss than laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). We tested the hypothesis that RYGB has weight loss-independent effects on taste perception which influence eating behavior and contribute to the greater weight loss. Design and Methods Subjects were studied before and after ~20% weight loss induced by RYGB (n=17) or LAGB (n=10). We evaluated: taste sensitivity for sweet, salty and savory stimuli; sucrose and monosodium glutamate (MSG) preferences; sweetness palatability; eating behavior; and expression of taste-related genes in biopsies of fungiform papillae. Results Weight loss induced by both procedures caused the same decrease in: preferred sucrose concentration (−12±10%), perceived sweetness of sucrose (−7±5%), cravings for sweets and fast-foods (−22 ±5%), influence of emotions (−27±5%) and external food cues (−30±4%) on eating behavior, and expression of α-gustducin in fungiform papillae (all P-values <0.05). RYGB, but not LAGB, shifted sweetness palatability from pleasant to unpleasant when repetitively tasting sucrose (P=0.05). Neither procedure affected taste detection thresholds or MSG preferences. Conclusions LAGB and RYGB cause similar alterations in eating behaviors, when weight loss is matched. These changes in eating behavior were not associated with changes in taste sensitivity, suggesting other, as yet unknown, mechanisms are involved. PMID:24167016

  14. Changes in taste perception and eating behavior after bariatric surgery-induced weight loss in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepino, Marta Yanina; Bradley, David; Eagon, J Christopher; Sullivan, Shelby; Abumrad, Nada A; Klein, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery causes greater weight loss than laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). We tested the hypothesis that RYGB has weight loss-independent effects on taste perception, which influence eating behavior and contribute to the greater weight loss. Subjects were studied before and after ∼20% weight loss induced by RYGB (n = 17) or LAGB (n = 10). The following have been evaluated: taste sensitivity for sweet, salty and savory stimuli, sucrose and monosodium glutamate (MSG) preferences, sweetness palatability, eating behavior, and expression of taste-related genes in biopsies of fungiform papillae. Weight loss induced by both procedures caused the same decrease in: preferred sucrose concentration (-12 ± 10%), perceived sweetness of sucrose (-7 ± 5%), cravings for sweets and fast-foods (-22 ± 5%), influence of emotions (-27 ± 5%), and external food cues (-30 ± 4%) on eating behavior, and expression of α-gustducin in fungiform papillae (all P values <0.05). RYGB, but not LAGB, shifted sweetness palatability from pleasant to unpleasant when repetitively tasting sucrose (P = 0.05). Neither procedure affected taste detection thresholds nor MSG preferences. LAGB and RYGB cause similar alterations in eating behaviors, when weight loss is matched. These changes in eating behavior were not associated with changes in taste sensitivity, suggesting other, as yet unknown, mechanisms are involved. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  15. Caloric restriction induces changes in insulin and body weight measurements that are inversely associated with subsequent weight regain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Monica H T; Holst, Claus; Astrup, Arne;

    2012-01-01

    Successful weight maintenance following weight loss is challenging for many people. Identifying predictors of longer-term success will help target clinical resources more effectively. To date, focus has been predominantly on the identification of predictors of weight loss. The goal of the current...... study was to determine if changes in anthropometric and clinical parameters during acute weight loss are associated with subsequent weight regain....

  16. Sex differences in severity of inflammation-induced anorexia and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennie, Terry A

    2004-04-01

    Food intake and body weight changes in response to induction of acute inflammation were examined in intact cycling females, ovariectomized females, and sham-operated male rats. In intact females, body weight and feeding responses were compared between rats in which inflammation was induced on day of estrus with rats in which inflammation was induced on day of diestrus. Anorexia and weight loss were more severe in the female rats with inflammation induced on estrus day, which coincides with peak serum estrogen levels. In ovariectomized females, inflammation was induced the day after rats received injections of estrogen, progesterone, or sesame oil (vehicle). Males received vehicle injections. Among female rats, the group that received estradiol injections the previous day displayed the most severe anorexia. The least severe anorexia was observed in female rats that received progesterone the previous day. Food intake of female rats that received vehicle injections prior to induction of inflammation was greater than the rats receiving estrogen but less than the rats receiving progesterone. Male rats displayed the most severe anorexia and greatest weight loss. These data suggest that, although females exposed to estradiol prior to induction of acute inflammation display more severe anorexia than those exposed to progesterone, it may be that progesterone attenuates severity of anorexia rather than estrogen solely potentiating severity. Male rats, however, appear to experience the most severe anorexia in response to this form of inflammation.

  17. Glomerular number and function are influenced by spontaneous and induced low birth weight in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreuder, Michiel F; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Fodor, M

    2005-01-01

    A link exists between low birth weight and diseases in adulthood, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and insulin resistance. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been used to explain this association and has been shown to lead to a nephron endowment in humans. A reduction...... in glomerular number has been described in animal models with induced low birth weight as well but not in animals with spontaneous low birth weight. It therefore is debatable whether the models are suitable. The effect on glomerular number and size was studied in rats with naturally occurring IUGR...... and experimental IUGR, induced by bilateral uterine artery ligation. Design-based stereologic methods were used. Urinary protein excretion was determined as a measure of renal damage. Results showed a decrease of approximately 20% in glomerular number in both groups of IUGR (control 35,400, naturally occurring...

  18. Glomerular number and function are influenced by spontaneous and induced low birth weight in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreuder, Michiel F; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Fodor, M;

    2005-01-01

    A link exists between low birth weight and diseases in adulthood, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and insulin resistance. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been used to explain this association and has been shown to lead to a nephron endowment in humans. A reduction...... in glomerular number has been described in animal models with induced low birth weight as well but not in animals with spontaneous low birth weight. It therefore is debatable whether the models are suitable. The effect on glomerular number and size was studied in rats with naturally occurring IUGR...... and experimental IUGR, induced by bilateral uterine artery ligation. Design-based stereologic methods were used. Urinary protein excretion was determined as a measure of renal damage. Results showed a decrease of approximately 20% in glomerular number in both groups of IUGR (control 35,400, naturally occurring...

  19. Exploitation of linguistic indicators for automatic weighting of synonyms induced within three biomedical terminologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabar, Natalia; Hamon, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Acquisition and enrichment of lexical resources is an important research area for the computational linguistics. We propose a method for inducing a lexicon of synonyms and for its weighting in order to establish its reliability. The method is based on the analysis of syntactic structure of complex terms. We apply and evaluate the approach on three biomedical terminologies (MeSH, Snomed Int, Snomed CT). Between 7.7 and 33.6% of the induced synonyms are ambiguous and cooccur with other semantic relations. A virtual reference allows to validate 9 to 14% of the induced synonyms.

  20. Electroacupuncture Reduces Weight Gain Induced by Rosiglitazone through PPARγ and Leptin Receptor in CNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyue Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA on protecting the weight gain side effect of rosiglitazone (RSG in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM rats and its possible mechanism in central nervous system (CNS. Our study showed that RSG (5 mg/kg significantly increased the body weight and food intake of the T2DM rats. After six-week treatment with RSG combined with EA, body weight, food intake, and the ratio of IWAT to body weight decreased significantly, whereas the ratio of BAT to body weight increased markedly. HE staining indicated that the T2DM-RSG rats had increased size of adipocytes in their IWAT, but EA treatment reduced the size of adipocytes. EA effectively reduced the lipid contents without affecting the antidiabetic effect of RSG. Furthermore, we noticed that the expression of PPARγ gene in hypothalamus was reduced by EA, while the expressions of leptin receptor and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 were increased. Our results suggest that EA is an effective approach for inhibiting weight gain in T2DM rats treated by RSG. The possible mechanism might be through increased levels of leptin receptor and STAT3 and decreased PPARγ expression, by which food intake of the rats was reduced and RSG-induced weight gain was inhibited.

  1. Body weight decreases induced by estradiol in female rhesus monkeys are dependent upon social status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Wilson, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Gonadal steroids regulate appetite and thus body weight. In addition, continuous exposure to stressors negatively influences appetite through circuits likely distinct from those of gonadal steroids. The occurrence of adverse metabolic consequences due to chronic exposure to psychosocial stressors is twice as frequent in women as men, implicating a role for ovarian hormones, estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), in modulating stress-induced changes in appetite. Using social subordination in female macaques as a model of social stress, the current study tested the hypothesis that subordinate females would lose more weight during E2 treatment and gain less weight during P4 administration than dominant females. Because polymorphisms in the gene encoding the serotonin transporter (5HTT; SCL6A4) are known to alter responsivity to stress, we hypothesized that weight loss during E2 administration would be greatest in females with the short variant (s-variant) allele of 5HTT. Dominant females were significantly heavier than subordinate animals throughout the study, a result consistent with previous accounts of food intake when animals are fed a low-fat, high-fiber diet. Females with the s-variant 5HTT genotype weighed significantly less than l/l animals. Dominant animals lost significantly more weight than subordinate animals during E2 treatment. Administration of P4 blocked the weight-reducing effects of E2 in all females, regardless of social status. These data provide evidence that social subordination modulates the influence of ovarian steroid hormones on body weight in female rhesus monkeys independent of 5HTT genotype. Given the prosocial effects of these steroids, future studies are necessary to determine whether status differences in E2-induced weight loss are due to diminished food intake and or increases in energy expenditure and how the change in energy availability during E2 treatments relates to a female’s motivation to interact with conspecifics. PMID

  2. Effects of leptin replacement alone and with exendin-4 on food intake and weight regain in weight-reduced diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidelberger, Roger; Haver, Alvin; Chelikani, Prasanth K; Apenteng, Bettye; Perriotte-Olson, Curtis; Anders, Krista; Steenson, Sharalyn; Blevins, James E

    2012-06-15

    Weight loss in obese humans produces a relative leptin deficiency, which is postulated to activate potent orexigenic and energy conservation mechanisms to restrict weight loss and promote weight regain. Here we determined whether leptin replacement alone or with GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 attenuates weight regain or promotes greater weight loss in weight-reduced diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Forty percent restriction in daily intake of a high-fat diet in DIO rats for 4 wk reduced body weight by 12%, body fat by 29%, and plasma leptin by 67% and normalized leptin sensitivity. When food restriction ended, body weight, body fat, and plasma leptin increased rapidly. Daily administration of leptin [3-h intraperitoneal (ip) infusions (4 nmol·kg(-1)·h(-1))] at onset and end of dark period for 3 wk did not attenuate hyperphagia and weight regain, nor did it affect mean daily meal sizes or meal numbers. Exendin-4 (50 pmol·kg(-1)·h(-1)) infusions during the same intervals prevented postrestriction hyperphagia and weight regain by normalizing meal size. Coadministration of leptin and exendin-4 did not reduce body weight more than exendin-4 alone. Instead, leptin began to attenuate the inhibitory effects of exendin-4 on food intake, meal size, and weight regain by the end of the second week of administration. Plasma leptin in rats receiving leptin was sevenfold greater than in rats receiving vehicle and 17-fold greater than in rats receiving exendin-4. Together, these results do not support the hypothesis that leptin replacement alone or with exendin-4 attenuates weight regain or promotes greater weight loss in weight-reduced DIO rats.

  3. Effects of leptin replacement alone and with exendin-4 on food intake and weight regain in weight-reduced diet-induced obese rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haver, Alvin; Chelikani, Prasanth K.; Apenteng, Bettye; Perriotte-Olson, Curtis; Anders, Krista; Steenson, Sharalyn; Blevins, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Weight loss in obese humans produces a relative leptin deficiency, which is postulated to activate potent orexigenic and energy conservation mechanisms to restrict weight loss and promote weight regain. Here we determined whether leptin replacement alone or with GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 attenuates weight regain or promotes greater weight loss in weight-reduced diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Forty percent restriction in daily intake of a high-fat diet in DIO rats for 4 wk reduced body weight by 12%, body fat by 29%, and plasma leptin by 67% and normalized leptin sensitivity. When food restriction ended, body weight, body fat, and plasma leptin increased rapidly. Daily administration of leptin [3-h intraperitoneal (ip) infusions (4 nmol·kg−1·h−1)] at onset and end of dark period for 3 wk did not attenuate hyperphagia and weight regain, nor did it affect mean daily meal sizes or meal numbers. Exendin-4 (50 pmol·kg−1·h−1) infusions during the same intervals prevented postrestriction hyperphagia and weight regain by normalizing meal size. Coadministration of leptin and exendin-4 did not reduce body weight more than exendin-4 alone. Instead, leptin began to attenuate the inhibitory effects of exendin-4 on food intake, meal size, and weight regain by the end of the second week of administration. Plasma leptin in rats receiving leptin was sevenfold greater than in rats receiving vehicle and 17-fold greater than in rats receiving exendin-4. Together, these results do not support the hypothesis that leptin replacement alone or with exendin-4 attenuates weight regain or promotes greater weight loss in weight-reduced DIO rats. PMID:22510712

  4. Comparison of surgically induced astigmatism in various incisions in manual small incision cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Jauhari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To determine the surgically induced astigmatism (SIA in Straight, Frown and Inverted V shape (Chevron incisions in manual small incision cataract surgery (SICS.METHODS:A prospective cross sectional study was done on a total of 75 patients aged 40y and above with senile cataract. The patients were randomly divided into three groups (25 each. Each group received a particular type of incision (Straight, Frown or Inverted V shape incisions. Manual SICS with intraocular lens (IOL implantation was performed. The patients were compared 4wk post operatively for uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA and SIA. All calculations were performed using the SIA calculator version 2.1, a free software program. The study was analyzed using SPSS version 15.0 statistical analysis software.RESULTS:The study found that 89.5% of patients in Straight incision group, 94.2% in Frown incision group and 95.7% in Inverted V group attained BCVA post-operatively in the range of 6/6 to 6/18. Mean SIA was minimum (-0.88±0.61D×90 degrees with Inverted V incision which was statistically significant.CONCLUSION:Inverted V (Chevron incision gives minimal SIA.

  5. Prognosis of surgically treated radiation-induced damage to the intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahnson, S.; Westerborn, O. (Orebro Medical Center Hospital, Orebro (Sweden)); Gerdin, B. (Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala (Sweden))

    1992-10-01

    A series of 88 patients operated on during 24 years for radiation-induced damage (RID) to the intestinal tract were retrospectively reviewed and clinical and surgical factors were related to the ultimate prognosis by multivariate analysis. The first operation was performed on the small intestine in 47 patients, the large intestine in 32 patients or both in nine patients. Postoperative complications occurred in 35 patients (40%), with fatal outcome in 12 (13%). Thirty-one patients (35%) required further surgery and altogether 19 patients (22%) ultimately died from RID. Negative prognostic factors after the first operation were post-operative intestinal leak (P < 0.05) and operation for fistula or perforation (P < 0.01). The outcome after the last operation was negatively influenced by intestinal leak (P < 0.001) by the choice of bypass as operative procedure (P < 0.01) and by operation for fistula or perforation (P < 0.01). In addition, 43% of the patients in whom the disease had progressed between two explorations died from RID. Thus, the severity of the RID as diagnosed at laparotomy, and progression of the disease between two subsequent explorations were related to the prognosis. Care should be taken to avoid intestinal leak. Resections should be preferred to bypass of injured intestine whenever possible. (author).

  6. Evaluation of conventional, dynamic contrast enhanced and diffusion weighted MRI for quantitative Crohn's disease assessment with histopathology of surgical specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tielbeek, Jeroen A.W.; Ziech, Manon L.W.; Lavini, Cristina; Bipat, Shandra; Stoker, Jaap [University of Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Li, Zhang [Delft University of Technology, Quantitative Imaging Group, Department of Imaging Science and Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Bemelman, Willem A. [University of Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Roelofs, Joris J.T.H. [University of Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ponsioen, Cyriel Y. [University of Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vos, Frans M. [University of Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Quantitative Imaging Group, Department of Imaging Science and Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-03-15

    To prospectively compare conventional MRI sequences, dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) with histopathology of surgical specimens in Crohn's disease. 3-T MR enterography was performed in consecutive Crohn's disease patients scheduled for surgery within 4 weeks. One to four sections of interest per patient were chosen for analysis. Evaluated parameters included mural thickness, T1 ratio, T2 ratio; on DCE-MRI maximum enhancement (ME), initial slope of increase (ISI), time-to-peak (TTP); and on DWI apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). These were compared with location-matched histopathological grading of inflammation (AIS) and fibrosis (FS) using Spearman correlation, Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-squared tests. Twenty patients (mean age 38 years, 12 female) were included and 50 sections (35 terminal ileum, 11 ascending colon, 2 transverse colon, 2 descending colon) were matched to AIS and FS. Mural thickness, T1 ratio, T2 ratio, ME and ISI correlated significantly with AIS, with moderate correlation (r = 0.634, 0.392, 0.485, 0.509, 0.525, respectively; all P < 0.05). Mural thickness, T1 ratio, T2 ratio, ME, ISI and ADC correlated significantly with FS (all P < 0.05). Quantitative parameters from conventional, DCE-MRI and DWI sequences correlate with histopathological scores of surgical specimens. DCE-MRI and DWI parameters provide additional information. (orig.)

  7. Medical and surgical treatments for obesity have opposite effects on peptide YY and appetite: a prospective study controlled for weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderas, Juan P; Irribarra, Verónica; Boza, Camilo; de la Cruz, Rolando; Liberona, Yessica; Acosta, Ana Maria; Yolito, Macarena; Maiz, Alberto

    2010-03-01

    The effects of medical and surgical treatments for obesity on peptide YY (PYY) levels, in patients with similar weight loss, remain unclear. The objective of the study was to assess PYY and appetite before and after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), sleeve gastrectomy (SG), and medical treatment (MED). This was a prospective, controlled, nonrandomized study. The study was conducted at the Departments of Nutrition and Digestive Surgery at a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS included three groups of eight patients with similar body mass indexes (RYGB 37.8 +/- 0.8, SG 35.3 +/- 0.7, and MED 39.1 +/- 1.7 kg/m(2), P = NS) and eight lean controls (body mass index 21.7 +/- 0.7 kg/m(2)). Total plasma PYY, hunger, and satiety visual analog scales in fasting and after ingestion of a standard test meal were measured. At baseline there were no differences in the area under the curve (AUC) of PYY, hunger, or satiety in obese groups. Two months after the interventions, RYGB, SG, and MED groups achieved similar weight loss (17.7 +/- 3, 14.9 +/- 2.4, 16.6 +/- 4%, respectively, P = NS). PYY AUC increased in RYGB (P < 0.001) and SG (P < 0.05) and did not change in MED. PYY levels decreased at fasting, 30 min, and 180 min after a standard test meal in MED (P < 0.05). Hunger AUC decreased in RYGB (P < 0.05). Satiety AUC increased in RYGB (P < 0.05) and SG (P < 0.05). Appetite did not change in MED. PYY AUC correlated with satiety AUC (r = 0.35, P < 0.05). RYGB and SG increased PYY and reduced appetite. MED failed to produce changes. Different effects occur despite similar weight loss. This suggests that the weight-loss effects of these procedures are enhanced by an increase in PYY and satiety.

  8. Enhanced amylin-mediated body weight loss in estradiol-deficient diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevaskis, James L; Turek, Victoria F; Wittmer, Carrie; Griffin, Peter S; Wilson, Julie K; Reynolds, James M; Zhao, Yu; Mack, Christine M; Parkes, David G; Roth, Jonathan D

    2010-12-01

    In rodents, ovariectomy (OVX) elicits weight gain and diminished responsiveness to homeostatic signals. Here we characterized the response of obese OVX rats to peripheral amylin. Rats received sham surgery (SHAM), OVX, or OVX with hormonal replacement (17β-estradiol, 2 μg per 4 d; OVX+E) and were infused with vehicle or amylin (50 μg/kg · d) for 28 d. Amylin reduced body weight (5.1 ± 1.1%) and food intake (10.9 ± 3.4%) in SHAM rats but was twice as efficacious in OVX rats in reducing weight (11.2 ± 1.9%) and food intake (23.0 ± 2.0%). There were no differences between amylin-treated SHAM and OVX+E rats. OVX decreased metabolic rate (∼24%) and increased respiratory exchange ratio relative to SHAM. Amylin partially normalized metabolic rate (13% increase) in OVX rats and decreased respiratory exchange ratio in OVX and SHAM rats. Regarding central mechanisms, amylin infusion corrected the OVX-induced decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis and increased immobility in the forced swim test. Additionally, amylin increased neurogenesis (∼2-fold) within the area postrema of OVX rats. To assess the contribution of endogenous leptin to amylin-mediated weight loss in OVX rats, amylin was administered to SHAM or OVX Zucker diabetic fatty rats. In SHAM rats, amylin infusion reduced food intake but not body weight, whereas in OVX Zucker diabetic fatty rats, food intake, body weight, and insulin were reduced. Overall, amylin induced greater body weight loss in the absence of estradiol via central and peripheral actions that did not require leptin. These findings support the clinical investigation of amylin in low estradiol (e.g. postmenopausal) states.

  9. Effects of canagliflozin on weight loss in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Wenjun; Zhao, Mei; Wang, Meng; Yan, Wenhui; Liu, Yuan; Ren, Shuting; Lu, Jun; Wang, Bing; Chen, Lina

    2017-01-01

    Canagliflozin, an inhibitor of sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT) 2, has been shown to reduce body weight during the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this study, we sought to determine the role of canagliflozin in body weight loss and liver injury in obesity. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet to simulate diet-induced obesity (DIO). Canagliflozin (15 and 60 mg/kg) was administered to DIO mice for 4 weeks. Orlistat (10 mg/kg) was used as a positive control. The body weigh...

  10. Doping-Induced Spectral Weight Transfer with d-p Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹天德; 李传起; 赵德林; 程国生; 郭胜利

    2003-01-01

    The doping-induced spectral weight transfer is studied by using the d-p model and considering spatial fluctuations in the high-Tc cuprates. The results led by the Cu-O interaction are found as follows: (i) the energy levels are grown inside the charge-transfer gap, (ii) the spectral weight is decreased below EF, and (iii) the d holes at Cu-sites in CuO2 planes are delocalized with hole doping. Both metal-insulator transition and electrons of two states are also discussed.

  11. Chronic treatment with antipsychotics in rats as a model for antipsychotic-induced weight gain in human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouzet, B; Mow, T; Kreilgaard, Mads;

    2003-01-01

    Several clinical reports have demonstrated that most antipsychotics of the new generation, but not the typical antipsychotic haloperidol, induce weight gain in schizophrenic patients. Since weight gain induces serious health complications in humans, it is crucial to test upcoming antipsychotic co...

  12. Arctigenin Inhibits Adipogenesis by Inducing AMPK Activation and Reduces Weight Gain in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yo-Han; Kee, Ji-Ye; Park, Jinbong; Kim, Hye-Lin; Jeong, Mi-Young; Kim, Dae-Seung; Jeon, Yong-Deok; Jung, Yunu; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, JongWook; So, Hong-Seob; Park, Raekil; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Shin, Soyoung; Kim, Su-Jin; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2016-09-01

    Although arctigenin (ARC) has been reported to have some pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, and antioxidant, there have been no reports on the anti-obesity effect of ARC. The aim of this study is to investigate whether ARC has an anti-obesity effect and mediates the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. We investigated the anti-adipogenic effect of ARC using 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs). In high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, whether ARC can inhibit weight gain was investigated. We found that ARC reduced weight gain, fat pad weight, and triglycerides in HFD-induced obese mice. ARC also inhibited the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) in in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, ARC induced the AMPK activation resulting in down-modulation of adipogenesis-related factors including PPARγ, C/EBPα, fatty acid synthase, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase. This study demonstrates that ARC can reduce key adipogenic factors by activating the AMPK in vitro and in vivo and suggests a therapeutic implication of ARC for obesity treatment. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2067-2077, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Surgical bleeding after pre-operative unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin for coronary bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renda, Giulia; Di Pillo, Raffaele; D'Alleva, Alberto; Sciartilli, Adolfo; Zimarino, Marco; De Candia, Erica; Landolfi, Raffaele; Di Giammarco, Gabriele; Calafiore, Antonio; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2007-03-01

    Since the impairment of platelet function may cause excess peri-operative bleeding, pre-operative discontinuation of aspirin and heparin bridging are common for cardiac surgery. We evaluated the impact of pre-operative administration of enoxaparin and unfractionated heparin (UFH) on coagulation parameters and peri-operative bleeding in patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery after discontinuation of aspirin. Forty-three patients with three-vessel coronary artery disease undergoing elective CABG surgery discontinued aspirin and were randomized to receive either UFH 180 UI/Kg x 2/day s.c. or enoxaparin 100 UI/Kg x 2/day s.c. until 12 h before surgery (median pre-operative treatment 8 days, range 6-12 days). Surgery was performed as usual with UFH. Neither UFH nor any low molecular weight heparin was given in the immediate post-operative period. The effects of UFH and enoxaparin were monitored by the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and the Enox-test (sensitive to factor Xa inhibition) using a Rapidpoint Coagulation Analyzer. aPTT and factor Xa activity were also measured by standard methods. Peri-operative bleeding and the nadirs of hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit and platelet count were monitored post-operatively. Patients in the two groups were similar for number of bypasses, on-pump time, total surgery time, and time from the last heparin administration. Coagulation parameters increased significantly and similarly at 30 min and 6 h with both treatments, but returned within the normal range at 12 h. Hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelet counts significantly decreased to the same extent after CABG and re-normalized at the same time. Transfusional requirements of blood and plasma units were similar in the two groups. From the kinetics of coagulation parameters and the evaluation of bleeding, enoxaparin is a safe alternative to UFH as a bridging therapy to CABG after discontinuation of aspirin.

  14. Alterations to melanocortinergic, GABAergic and cannabinoid neurotransmission associated with olanzapine-induced weight gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Weston-Green

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIM: Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs are used to treat schizophrenia but can cause serious metabolic side-effects, such as obesity and diabetes. This study examined the effects of low to high doses of olanzapine on appetite/metabolic regulatory signals in the hypothalamus and brainstem to elucidate the mechanisms underlying olanzapine-induced obesity. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: Levels of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC, neuropeptide Y (NPY and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD(65, enzyme for GABA synthesis mRNA expression, and cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R binding density (using [(3H]SR-141716A were examined in the arcuate nucleus (Arc and dorsal vagal complex (DVC of female Sprague Dawley rats following 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg olanzapine or vehicle (3×/day, 14-days. Consistent with its weight gain liability, olanzapine significantly decreased anorexigenic POMC and increased orexigenic NPY mRNA expression in a dose-sensitive manner in the Arc. GAD(65 mRNA expression increased and CB1R binding density decreased in the Arc and DVC. Alterations to neurotransmission signals in the brain significantly correlated with body weight and adiposity. The minimum dosage threshold required to induce weight gain in the rat was 0.5 mg/kg olanzapine. CONCLUSIONS: Olanzapine-induced weight gain is associated with reduced appetite-inhibiting POMC and increased NPY. This study also supports a role for the CB1R and GABA in the mechanisms underlying weight gain side-effects, possibly by altering POMC transmission. Metabolic dysfunction can be modelled in the female rat using low, clinically-comparable olanzapine doses when administered in-line with the half-life of the drug.

  15. Ameliorating antipsychotic-induced weight gain by betahistine: Mechanisms and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Pai, Nagesh; Deng, Chao

    2016-04-01

    Second generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) cause substantial body weight gain/obesity and other metabolic side-effects such as dyslipidaemia. Their antagonistic affinity to the histaminergic H1 receptor (H1R) has been identified as one of the main contributors to weight gain/obesity side-effects. The effects and mechanisms of betahistine (a histaminergic H1R agonist and H3 receptor antagonist) have been investigated for ameliorating SGA-induced weight gain/obesity in both animal models and clinical trials. It has been demonstrated that co-treatment with betahistine is effective in reducing weight gain, associated with olanzapine in drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia, as well as in the animal models of both drug-naïve rats and rats with chronic, repeated exposure to olanzapine. Betahistine co-treatment can reduce food intake and increase the effect of thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue by modulating hypothalamic H1R-NPY-AMPKα (NPY: neuropeptide Y; AMPKα: AMP-activated protein kinase α) pathways, and ameliorate olanzapine-induced dyslipidaemia through modulation of AMPKα-SREBP-1-PPARα-dependent pathways (SREBP-1: Sterol regulatory element binding protein 1; PPARα: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α) in the liver. Although reduced locomotor activity was observed from antipsychotic treatment in rats, betahistine did not affect locomotor activity. Importantly, betahistine co-treatment did not influence the effects of antipsychotics on serotonergic receptors in the key brain regions for antipsychotic therapeutic efficacy. However, betahistine co-treatment reverses the upregulated dopamine D2 binding caused by chronic olanzapine administration, which may be beneficial in reducing D2 supersensitivity often observed in chronic antipsychotic treatment. Therefore, these results provide solid evidence supporting further clinical trials in treating antipsychotics-induced weight gain using betahistine in patients with schizophrenia and other mental

  16. Intermittent Moderate Energy Restriction Improves Weight Loss Efficiency in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika V Seimon

    Full Text Available Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled.Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5-6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1-3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID-(total average energy intake of controls]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding.Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1-3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, P<0.05. There were no significant differences between CD and ID groups at the end of the weight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, P<0.01. Mice on the CD exhibited significantly greater hypothalamic mRNA expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC relative to ID and control mice, with no differences in neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide mRNA expression between energy-restricted groups.Intermittent moderate energy restriction may offer an advantage over continuous moderate energy restriction, because it induces significantly greater weight loss relative

  17. Effects of Orlistat-induced Weight Loss on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Chinese Subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐明彤; 吴木潮; 黎锋; 周淑娴; 程桦; 傅祖植

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To observe the influence of weight loss induced by orlistat onseveral cardiovascular diseases risk factors in obeseChinese subjects. Methods Sixty obese Chinesepatients participated in a 24 week clinical trial. Par-ticipants were prescribed a slightly hypocaloric diet andexercise, then they were randomly assigned double-blind treatment with either orlistat 120 mg three times aday or placebo. Their body weight, blood pressure,fasting glucose, insulin, HbA1c, and serum lipid pro-file were performed before and after the weight lossintervention. Results After 24 weeks, orlistat-treated group lost more of their body weight thanplacebo group (6.66 ± 0.52 kg, 8.44 ± 4.08 % and1.98±0.44 kg, 2.44±1.74%, respectively, P <0.05) Moreover, after treatment, orlistat - treatedpatients showed significant decreases in serum levels oftotal cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesteroland high density lipoprotein - cholesterol ( P <0.01), but in placebo group we found no change.Both systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pres-sure fell significantly in orlistat-treated group.Fasting glucose and HOMA- IR in orlistat- treatedgroup was distinctly reduced if compared with placebogroup. Conclusions Weight loss resulting fromorlistat treatment and slightly hypocaloric diet hasproduced favorable effects on several cardiovascularrisk factors in obese Chinese subjects.

  18. Ameliorative Potentials of Ginger (Z. officinale Roscoe) on Relative Organ Weights in Streptozotocin induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleazu, C O; Iroaganachi, M; Okafor, P N; Ijeh, I I; Eleazu, K C

    2013-06-01

    The ameliorating potentials of ginger incorporated feed (10%) on the relative organ weights of Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats was investigated. The experiment lasted for three weeks. Results show that administration of 10% ginger feed to the diabetic rats of group 3, resulted in a 29.81% decrease in their resulting hyperglycemia with a corresponding amelioration of elevated urinary protein, sugars, specific gravity as well as renal growth. In addition, administration of the ginger incorporated feeds to the diabetic rats of group 3, resulted in 9.88% increase in body weight with a corresponding 60.24% increase in growth compared with the non-diabetic rats administered standard rat pellets that had 6.21% increase in weight with a corresponding 60.14% increase in growth unlike the diabetic control rats that recorded 28.62% decrease in body weight with a corresponding 239.9% decrease in growth rates. Analysis of the chemical composition of the flour of the ginger incorporated feed indicated that it contained moderate amounts of moisture, crude fibre, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, Fe and Zn but considerable amounts of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, ash, flavonoids, calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorous and energy value. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the liver and relative liver weights of the diabetic control rats and the diabetic -ginger treated rats. In addition, there were no significant differences in the kidney weights of the non-diabetic, diabetic control and diabetic treated rats (P>0.05) while there were significant differences in the relative kidney weights of the non-diabetic rats and the diabetic rats treated with ginger feeds (Pginger in the dietary management of diabetes mellitus could be a breakthrough in the search for novel plants that could prevent the development of diabetic glomerular hypertrophy.

  19. Prior exercise training blunts short-term high-fat diet-induced weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Laelie A; MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Monaco, Cynthia M F; Frendo-Cumbo, Scott; Castellani, Laura; Peppler, Willem T; Anderson, Zachary G; Buzelle, Samyra L; LeBlanc, Paul J; Holloway, Graham P; Wright, David C

    2016-08-01

    High-fat diets rapidly cause weight gain and glucose intolerance. We sought to determine whether these changes could be mitigated with prior exercise training. Male C57BL/6J mice were exercise-trained by treadmill running (1 h/day, 5 days/wk) for 4 wk. Twenty-four hours after the final bout of exercise, mice were provided with a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal from lard) for 4 days, with no further exercise. In mice fed the HFD prior to exercise training, the results were blunted weight gain, reduced fat mass, and a slight attenuation in glucose intolerance that was mirrored by greater insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle compared with sedentary mice fed the HFD. When ad libitum-fed sedentary mice were compared with sedentary high-fat fed mice that were calorie restricted (-30%) to match the weight gain of the previously trained high-fat fed mice, the same attenuated impairments in glucose tolerance were found. Blunted weight gain was associated with a greater capacity to increase energy expenditure in trained compared with sedentary mice when challenged with a HFD. Although mitochondrial enzymes in white adipose tissue and UCP-1 protein content in brown adipose tissue were increased in previously exercised compared with sedentary mice fed a HFD, ex vivo mitochondrial respiration was not increased in either tissue. Our data suggest that prior exercise training attenuates high-fat diet-induced weight gain and glucose intolerance and is associated with a greater ability to increase energy expenditure in response to a high-fat diet.

  20. Regulation of mouse hepatic genes in response to diet induced obesity, insulin resistance and fasting induced weight reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantzoros Christos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is associated with insulin resistance that can often be improved by caloric restriction and weight reduction. Although many physiological changes accompanying insulin resistance and its treatment have been characterized, the genetic mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance are largely unknown. We used DNA microarrys and RT-PCR to investigate significant changes in hepatic gene transcription in insulin resistant, diet-induced obese (DIO-C57/BL/6J mice and DIO-C57/BL/6J mice fasted for 48 hours, whose weights returned to baseline levels during these conditions. Results Transcriptional profiling of hepatic mRNA revealed over 1900 genes that were significantly perturbed between control, DIO, and fasting/weight reduced DIO mice. From this set, our bioinformatics analysis identified 41 genes that rigorously discriminate these groups of mice. These genes are associated with molecular pathways involved in signal transduction, and protein metabolism and secretion. Of particular interest are genes that participate in pathways responsible for modulating insulin sensitivity. DIO altered expression of genes in directions that would be anticipated to antagonize insulin sensitivity, while fasting/ weight reduction partially or completely normalized their levels. Among these discriminatory genes, Sh3kbp1 and RGS3, may have special significance. Sh3kbp1, an endogenous inhibitor of PI-3-kinase, was upregulated by high-fat feeding, but normalized to control levels by fasting/weight reduction. Because insulin signaling occurs partially through PI-3-kinase, increased expression of Sh3kbp1 by DIO mice may contribute to hepatic insulin resistance via inhibition of PI-3-kinase. RGS3, a suppressor of G-protein coupled receptor generation of cAMP, was repressed by high-fat feeding, but partially normalized by fasting/weight reduction. Decreased expression of RGS3 may augment levels of cAMP and thereby contribute to increased, cAMP-induced

  1. Pyrrolidin-2-one derivatives may reduce body weight in rats with diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Magdalena; Knutelska, Joanna; Bednarski, Marek; Nowiński, Leszek; Zygmunt, Małgorzata; Kazek, Grzegorz; Mordyl, Barbara; Głuch-Lutwin, Monika; Zaręba, Paula; Kulig, Katarzyna; Sapa, Jacek

    2016-04-05

    Obesity affects an increasing number of individuals in the human population and significant importance is attached to research leading to the discovery of drug which would effectively reduce weight. The search for new drugs with anorectic activity and acting within the adrenergic system has attracted the interest of researchers. This study concerns the experimental effects on body weight of α2-adrenoceptor antagonists from the group of pyrrolidin-2-one derivatives in rats with diet-induced obesity. The intrinsic activity of the test compounds at the α-adrenoreceptors was tested. Obesity in rats was obtained by the use of fatty diet and then the influence of the test compounds on body weight, food and water intakes, lipid and glucose profiles and glycerol and cortisol levels were determinated. The effects of the compounds on locomotor activity, body temperature, blood pressure and heart rate were tested. One of the test compounds (1-(3-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)propyl)pyrrolidin-2-one) reduces the animal's body weight and the amount of peritoneal adipose tissue during chronic administration, at the same time it does not cause significant adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. This compound decreases temperature and elevates glycerol levels and does not change the locomotor activity and cortisol level at anti-obese dose. Some derivatives of pyrrolidin-2-one that act as antagonists of the α2-adrenoreceptor may reduce body weight. Reducing body weight for 1-(3-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)propyl)pyrrolidin-2-one can be associated with decrease in food intake, body fat reduction, reduction of blood glucose, and increased thermogenesis and lipolysis. This effect cannot be the result of changes in spontaneous activity or stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Weight loss enhances hepatic antioxidant status in a NAFLD model induced by high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Iara Karise Santos; Matsuura, Cristiane; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa; Daleprane, Julio Beltrame; Martins, Marcela Anjos; Mury, Wanda Vianna; Brunini, Tatiana Marlowe Cunha

    2017-08-23

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a benign condition that can progress to more severe liver damage in a process mediated, in part, by disturbances in redox balance. Additionally, some argue that it is set to become the main cause of end-stage liver disease in the near future. Here, we investigated whether a diet-induced weight loss is able to reverse hepatic lipid accumulation and to reduce oxidative stress in liver from C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: SC (standard chow, 10% energy from fat, 16 wk); HF (high fat diet, 50% energy from fat, 16 wk); SC-HF (SC 8 wk followed by HF 8 wk); and HF-SC (HF 8 wk followed by SC 8 wk). The HF diet during 8 (SC-HF) and 16 weeks (HF) downregulated mRNA levels and protein expression of Nrf2 and endogenous antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) in the liver, caused liver steatosis, affected liver function markers, increased intra-abdominal and subcutaneous adipose tissue, and induced glucose intolerance and hypercholesterolemia compared to controls (SC). Diet-induced weight loss significantly reduced the intrahepatic lipid accumulation, improved glucose tolerance, and restored both gene and protein expression of the antioxidant enzymes. Our findings suggest that a dietary intervention aimed to induce weight loss may exert protective effects in NAFLD as it can reduce hepatic oxidative stress and intrahepatic lipid accumulation, which can hinder the progression of this condition to more severe states.

  3. Diet-induced thermogenesis in postoperatve Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients with weight regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardeal, Mariane de Almeida; Faria, Silvia Leite; Faria, Orlando Pereira; Facundes, Marcela; Ito, Marina Kiyomi

    2016-06-01

    Bariatric surgery has been shown to be an effective treatment for obesity. Changes in energy expenditure, especially through diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), have been identified as one of the mechanisms to explain this success. However, not all patients are able to maintain healthy postoperative weight loss. Therefore, a question arises: In the weight regain after bariatric surgery, are these changes in energy metabolism still active? To investigate if weight regain after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is associated with a lower diet-induced thermogenesis in the late postoperative period. A cross-sectional study with the participants chosen from among the patients from a private practice. This was a cross-sectional study where 3 groups of female patients were evaluated: (1) 20 patients with a RYGB postoperative time period of at least 2 years, who kept a healthy weight after surgery (loss of at least 50% of excess weight; Healthy group); (2) 19 patients with clinically severe obesity (BMI>40 kg/m(2), without co-morbidities and>35 kg/m(2), with co-morbidities; Pre group); (3) 18 patients who experienced weight regain after RYGB (Regain group). The 3 groups were submitted to indirect calorimetry to measure resting metabolic rate (RMR), respiratory quotient (RQ), and DIT. Immediately after the RMR measurement, a mixed meal of regular consistency was offered. Ten minutes after the food intake began, energy expenditure measurements were initiated continuing throughout the following 3 postprandial hours. Body composition was evaluated using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance. In subgroups of the studied population, glucose and insulin levels were measured at baseline and at 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 minutes after feeding. The mean area under the curve (AUC) between the 3 groups and measurements at baseline were compared using the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The Healthy group had the highest weight adjusted RMR value compared with both the Pre and Regain

  4. A Losing Battle: Weight Regain Does Not Restore Weight Loss-Induced Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalon, Karen L.; Gozansky, Wendolyn S.; Van Pelt, Rachael E.; Wolfe, Pam; Jankowski, Catherine M.; Schwartz, Robert S.; Kohrt, Wendy M.

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we reported significant bone mineral density (BMD) loss in postmenopausal women after modest weight loss. It remains unclear whether the magnitude of BMD change in response to weight loss is appropriate (i.e., proportional to weight loss) and whether BMD is recovered with weight regain. We now report changes in BMD after a 1-year follow-up. Subjects (n = 23) in this secondary analysis were postmenopausal women randomized to placebo as part of a larger trial. They completed a 6-month exercise-based weight loss program and returned for follow-up at 18 months. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed at baseline, 6, and 18 months. At baseline, subjects were aged 56.8 ± 5.4 years (mean ± s.d.), 10.0 ± 9.2 years postmenopausal, and BMI was 29.6 ± 4.0 kg/m2. They lost 3.9 ± 3.5 kg during the weight loss intervention. During follow-up, they regained 2.9 ± 3.9 kg. Six months of weight loss resulted in a significant decrease in lumbar spine (LS) (−1.7 ± 3.5%; P = 0.002) and hip (−0.04 ± 3.5%; P = 0.03) BMD that was accompanied by an increase in a biomarker of bone resorption (serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, CTX: 34 ± 54%; P = 0.08). However, weight regain was not associated with LS (0.05 ± 3.8%; P = 0.15) or hip (−0.6 ± 3.0%; P = 0.81) bone regain or decreased bone resorption (CTX: −3 ± 37%; P = 0.73). The findings suggest that BMD lost during weight reduction may not be fully recovered with weight regain in hormone-deficient, postmenopausal women. Future studies are needed to identify effective strategies to prevent bone loss during periods of weight loss. PMID:21852813

  5. Theory of interaction-induced renormalization of Drude weight and plasmon frequency in chiral multilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Tse, Wang-Kong

    2017-02-01

    We develop a theory for the optical conductivity of doped ABC-stacked multilayer graphene including the effects of electron-electron interactions. Applying the quantum kinetic formalism, we formulate a set of pseudospin Bloch equations that govern the dynamics of the nonequilibrium density matrix driven by an external ac electric field under the influence of Coulomb interactions. These equations reveal a dynamical mechanism that couples the Drude and interband responses arising from the chirality of pseudospin textures in multilayer graphene systems. We demonstrate that this results in an interaction-induced enhancement of the Drude weight and plasmon frequency strongly dependent on the pseudospin winding number. Using bilayer graphene as an example, we also study the influence of higher-energy bands and find that they contribute considerable renormalization effects not captured by a low-energy two-band description. We argue that this enhancement of Drude weight and plasmon frequency occurs generally in materials characterized by electronic chirality.

  6. Impaired glucose-induced thermogenesis and arterial norepinephrine response persist after weight reduction in obese humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Andersen, T; Christensen, N J;

    1990-01-01

    A reduced thermic response and an impaired activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) has been reported after oral glucose in human obesity. It is, however, not known whether the reduced SNS activity returns to normal along with weight reduction. The thermic effect of glucose was lower...... in eight obese patients than in matched control subjects (1.7% vs 9.2%, p less than 0.002). The increase in arterial norepinephrine after glucose was also blunted in the obese patients. After a 30-kg weight loss their glucose and lipid profiles were markedly improved but the thermic effect of glucose...... was still lower than that of the control subjects (4.2%, p less than 0.001). The glucose-induced arterial norepinephrine response remained diminished in the reduced obese patients whereas the changes in plasma epinephrine were similar in all three groups. The results suggest that a defective SNS may...

  7. Betahistine ameliorates olanzapine-induced weight gain through modulation of histaminergic, NPY and AMPK pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Pai, Nagesh; Deng, Chao

    2014-10-01

    Olanzapine is widely used to treat schizophrenia and other disorders, but causes adverse obesity and other metabolic side-effects. Both animal and clinical studies have shown that co-treatment with betahistine (a histaminergic H1 receptor agonist and H3 receptor antagonist) is effective for ameliorating olanzapine-induced weight gain/obesity. To reveal the mechanisms underlying these effects, this study investigated the effects of co-treatment of olanzapine and betahistine (O+B) on expressions of histaminergic H1 receptor (H1R), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in the hypothalamus associated with reducing olanzapine-induced weight gain. Olanzapine significantly upregulated the mRNA and protein expressions of H1R, while O+B co-treatment significantly downregulated the H1R levels, compared to the olanzapine-only treatment group. The NPY mRNA expression was significantly enhanced by olanzapine, but it was significantly reversed by O+B co-treatment. The hypothalamic H1R expression was positively correlated with total food intake, and NPY expression. Olanzapine also increased AMPKα activation measured by the AMPKα phosphorylation (pAMPKα)/AMPKα ratio compared with controls, whereas O+B co-treatment decreased the pAMPKα/AMPKα ratio, compared with olanzapine only treatment. The pAMPKα/AMPKα ratio was positively correlated with total food intake and H1R expression. Although olanzapine administration decreased the POMC mRNA level, this level was not affected by O+B co-treatment. Therefore, these results suggested that co-treatment with betahistine may reverse olanzapine-induced body weight gain via the H1R-NPY and H1R-pAMPKα pathways.

  8. Electric block current induced detachment from surgical stainless steel and decreased viability of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Borden, AJ; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, H

    2005-01-01

    In vitro Studies investigating the influence of electric DC current on bacterial detachment have demonstrated that continuous currents of only 25-125 mu A stimulated Staphylococcal strains to detach from surgical stainless steel. However, DC Currents produce more power that has to be dissipated by t

  9. Induced Unbalanced Linguistic Ordered Weighted Average and Its Application in Multiperson Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Marin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic variables are very useful to evaluate alternatives in decision making problems because they provide a vocabulary in natural language rather than numbers. Some aggregation operators for linguistic variables force the use of a symmetric and uniformly distributed set of terms. The need to relax these conditions has recently been posited. This paper presents the induced unbalanced linguistic ordered weighted average (IULOWA operator. This operator can deal with a set of unbalanced linguistic terms that are represented using fuzzy sets. We propose a new order-inducing criterion based on the specificity and fuzziness of the linguistic terms. Different relevancies are given to the fuzzy values according to their uncertainty degree. To illustrate the behaviour of the precision-based IULOWA operator, we present an environmental assessment case study in which a multiperson multicriteria decision making model is applied.

  10. Compensating the effects of FES-induced muscle fatigue by rehabilitation robotics during arm weight support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer-Rachner Paul

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Motor functions can be hindered in consequence to a stroke or a spinal cord injury. This often results in partial paralyses of the upper limb. The effectiveness of rehabilitation therapy can be improved by the use of rehabilitation robotics and Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES. We consider a hybrid arm weight support combining both. In order to compensate the effect of FES-induced muscle fatigue, we introduce a method to substitute the decreasing level of FES support by cable-driven robotics. We evaluated the approach in a trial with one healthy subject performing repetitive arm lifting. The controller automatically adapted the support and thus no increase in user generated volitional effort was observed when FES induced muscle fatigue occured.

  11. Nigrostriatal rAAV-mediated GDNF Overexpression Induces Robust Weight Loss in a Rat Model of Age-related Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Manfredsson, Fredric P; Tumer, Nihal; Erdos, Benedek; Landa, Tessa; Broxson, Christopher S; Sullivan, Layla F; Rising, Aaron C; Foust, Kevin D.; Zhang, Yi; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Gorbatyuk, Oleg S.; Scarpace, Philip J.; Mandel, Ronald J.

    2009-01-01

    Intraventricular administration of glial cell line–derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in primate and humans to study Parkinson's disease (PD) has revealed the potential for GDNF to induce weight loss. Our previous data indicate that bilateral continuous hypothalamic GDNF overexpression via recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) results in significant failure to gain weight in young rats and weight loss in aged rats. Based on these previous results, we hypothesized that because the nigrostr...

  12. Natural mixtures of POPs affected body weight gain and induced transcription of genes involved in weight regulation and insulin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyche, Jan L; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Karlsson, Camilla; Stavik, Benedicte; Berg, Vidar; Skåre, Janneche Utne; Alestrøm, Peter; Ropstad, Erik

    2011-04-01

    Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions worldwide, and is associated with chronic illnesses such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and dyslipidemias (metabolic syndrome). Commonly held causes of obesity are overeating coupled with a sedentary lifestyle. However, it has also been postulated that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be related to the significant increase in the prevalence of obesity and associated diseases. In the present study, developmental and reproductive effects of lifelong exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of two natural mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were investigated using classical and molecular methods in a controlled zebrafish model. The mixtures used were extracted from burbot (Lota lota) liver originating from freshwater systems in Norway (Lake Mjøsa and Lake Losna). The concentration of POPs in the zebrafish ranged from levels detected in wild fish (Lake Mjøsa and Lake Losna), to concentrations reported in human and wildlife populations. Phenotypic effects observed in both exposure groups included (1) earlier onset of puberty, (2) elevated male/female sex ratio, and (3) increased body weight at 5 months of age. Interestingly, genome-wide transcription profiling identified functional networks of genes, in which key regulators of weight homeostasis (PPARs, glucocoricoids, CEBPs, estradiol), steroid hormone functions (glucocoricoids, estradiol, NCOA3) and insulin signaling (HNF4A, CEBPs, PPARG) occupied central positions. The increased weight and the regulation of genes associated with weight homeostasis and insulin signaling observed in the present study suggest that environmental pollution may affect the endocrine regulation of the metabolism, possibly leading to increased weight gain and obesity.

  13. Herpes Virus Entry Mediator Signaling in the Brain Is Imperative in Acute Inflammation-Induced Anorexia and Body Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Kon Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundReduced appetite and body weight loss are typical symptoms of inflammatory diseases. A number of inflammatory stimuli are responsible for the imbalance in energy homeostasis, leading to metabolic disorders. The herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM protein plays an important role in the development of various inflammatory diseases, such as intestinal inflammation and diet-induced obesity. However, the role of HVEM in the brain is largely unknown. This study aims to investigate whether HVEM signaling in the brain is involved in inflammation-induced anorexia and body weight loss.MethodsFood intake and body weight were measured at 24 hours after intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS or intracerebroventricular injection of recombinant mouse LIGHT (also called tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 14, TNFSF14, an HVEM ligand, into 8- to 10-week-old male C57BL/6 mice and mice lacking HVEM expression (HVEM-/-. We also assessed LPS-induced change in hypothalamic expression of HVEM using immunohistochemistry.ResultsAdministration of LPS significantly reduced food intake and body weight, and moreover, increased expression of HVEM in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. However, LPS induced only minor decreases in food intake and body weight in HVEM-/- mice. Administration of LIGHT into the brain was very effective at decreasing food intake and body weight in wild-type mice, but was less effective in HVEM-/- mice.ConclusionActivation of brain HVEM signaling is responsible for inflammation-induced anorexia and body weight loss.

  14. Protective effect of resveratrol on spermatozoa function in male infertility induced by excess weight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiangrong; Jing, Xuan; Wu, Xueqing; Yan, Meiqin

    2016-11-01

    Male infertility is a complex, multifactorial and polygenic disease that contributes to ~50% cases of infertility. Previous studies have demonstrated that excess weight and obesity factors serve an important role in the development of male infertility. An increasing number of studies have reported that resveratrol may regulate the response of cells to specific stimuli that induce cell injury, as well as decrease germ cell apoptosis in mice or rats. In the present study, the semen quality and serum sex hormone levels were evaluated in 324 men, which included 73 underweight, 82 normal weight, 95 overweight and 74 obese men. All patients were referred to The Reproductive Medicine Center of Shanxi Women and Infants Hospital (Taiyuan, China) between January 2013 and January 2015. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol treatment on the motility, plasma zinc concentration and acrosin activity of sperm from obese males. The sperm concentration, normal sperm morphology, semen volumes, DNA fragmentation rates and testosterone levels in men from the overweight and obese groups were markedly decreased when compared with men in the normal weight group. In addition, the progressive motility, seminal plasma zinc concentration and spermatozoa acrosin activity were notably decreased in the obese group compared with the normal weight group. However, estradiol levels were significantly increased in the overweight, obese and underweight groups compared with the normal weight group. Notably, semen samples from obese males with astenospermia treated with 0‑100 µmol/l resveratrol for 30 min demonstrated varying degrees of improvement in sperm motility. When these semen samples were treated with 30 µmol/l resveratrol, sperm motility improved when compared to other doses of resveratrol. Therefore, 30 µmol/l resveratrol was selected for further experiments. Upon treatment of semen samples with resveratrol (30 µmol/l) for 30 min, the seminal

  15. Protective effect of resveratrol on spermatozoa function in male infertility induced by excess weight and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiangrong; Jing, Xuan; Wu, Xueqing; Yan, Meiqin

    2016-01-01

    Male infertility is a complex, multifactorial and polygenic disease that contributes to ~50% cases of infertility. Previous studies have demonstrated that excess weight and obesity factors serve an important role in the development of male infertility. An increasing number of studies have reported that resveratrol may regulate the response of cells to specific stimuli that induce cell injury, as well as decrease germ cell apoptosis in mice or rats. In the present study, the semen quality and serum sex hormone levels were evaluated in 324 men, which included 73 underweight, 82 normal weight, 95 overweight and 74 obese men. All patients were referred to The Reproductive Medicine Center of Shanxi Women and Infants Hospital (Taiyuan, China) between January 2013 and January 2015. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol treatment on the motility, plasma zinc concentration and acrosin activity of sperm from obese males. The sperm concentration, normal sperm morphology, semen volumes, DNA fragmentation rates and testosterone levels in men from the overweight and obese groups were markedly decreased when compared with men in the normal weight group. In addition, the progressive motility, seminal plasma zinc concentration and spermatozoa acrosin activity were notably decreased in the obese group compared with the normal weight group. However, estradiol levels were significantly increased in the overweight, obese and underweight groups compared with the normal weight group. Notably, semen samples from obese males with astenospermia treated with 0–100 µmol/l resveratrol for 30 min demonstrated varying degrees of improvement in sperm motility. When these semen samples were treated with 30 µmol/l resveratrol, sperm motility improved when compared to other doses of resveratrol. Therefore, 30 µmol/l resveratrol was selected for further experiments. Upon treatment of semen samples with resveratrol (30 µmol/l) for 30 min, the seminal plasma

  16. Exercise, appetite and weight management: understanding the compensatory responses in eating behaviour and how they contribute to variability in exercise-induced weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, N A; Horner, K; Hills, A P; Byrne, N M; Wood, R E; Bryant, E; Caudwell, P; Finlayson, G; Gibbons, C; Hopkins, M; Martins, C; Blundell, J E

    2012-04-01

    Does exercise promote weight loss? One of the key problems with studies assessing the efficacy of exercise as a method of weight management and obesity is that mean data are presented and the individual variability in response is overlooked. Recent data have highlighted the need to demonstrate and characterise the individual variability in response to exercise. Do people who exercise compensate for the increase in energy expenditure via compensatory increases in hunger and food intake? The authors address the physiological, psychological and behavioural factors potentially involved in the relationship between exercise and appetite, and identify the research questions that remain unanswered. A negative consequence of the phenomena of individual variability and compensatory responses has been the focus on those who lose little weight in response to exercise; this has been used unreasonably as evidence to suggest that exercise is a futile method of controlling weight and managing obesity. Most of the evidence suggests that exercise is useful for improving body composition and health. For example, when exercise-induced mean weight loss is variability will help tailor weight loss strategies to suit individuals.

  17. Persistent sciatica induced by quadratus femoris muscle tear and treated by surgical decompression: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzanakakis George

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Quadratus femoris tear is an uncommon injury, which is only rarely reported in the literature. In the majority of cases the correct diagnosis is delayed due to non-specific symptoms and signs. A magnetic resonance imaging scan is crucial in the differential diagnosis since injuries to contiguous soft tissues may present with similar symptoms. Presentation with sciatica is not reported in the few cases existing in the English literature and the reported treatment has always been conservative. Case presentation We report here on a case of quadratus femoris tear in a 22-year-old Greek woman who presented with persistent sciatica. She was unresponsive to conservative measures and so was treated with surgical decompression. Conclusion The correct diagnosis of quadratus muscle tear is a challenge for physicians. The treatment is usually conservative, but in cases of persistent sciatica surgical decompression is an alternative option.

  18. Blocking Surgically Induced Lysyl Oxidase Activity Reduces the Risk of Lung Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Rachman-Tzemah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Surgery remains the most successful curative treatment for cancer. However, some patients with early-stage disease who undergo surgery eventually succumb to distant metastasis. Here, we show that in response to surgery, the lungs become more vulnerable to metastasis due to extracellular matrix remodeling. Mice that undergo surgery or that are preconditioned with plasma from donor mice that underwent surgery succumb to lung metastases earlier than controls. Increased lysyl oxidase (LOX activity and expression, fibrillary collagen crosslinking, and focal adhesion signaling contribute to this effect, with the hypoxic surgical site serving as the source of LOX. Furthermore, the lungs of recipient mice injected with plasma from post-surgical colorectal cancer patients are more prone to metastatic seeding than mice injected with baseline plasma. Downregulation of LOX activity or levels reduces lung metastasis after surgery and increases survival, highlighting the potential of LOX inhibition in reducing the risk of metastasis following surgery.

  19. Unfractionated heparin versus low molecular weight heparin for avoiding heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in postoperative patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Daniela R G; Perini, Edson; Penholati, Raphael R M; Carvalho, Maria G

    2012-09-12

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an adverse drug reaction presenting as a prothrombotic disorder related to antibody-mediated platelet activation. It is a poorly understood paradoxical immune reaction resulting in thrombin generation in vivo, which leads to a hypercoagulable state and the potential to initiate venous or arterial thrombosis. A number of factors are thought to influence the incidence of HIT including the type and preparation of heparin (unfractionated heparin (UFH) or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH)) and the heparin-exposed patient population, with the postoperative patient population presenting a higher risk.Although LMWH has largely replaced UFH as a front-line therapy, there is evidence supporting a lack of superiority of LMWH compared with UFH regarding prevention of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism following surgery, and similar frequencies of bleeding have been described with LMWH and UFH. The decision as to which of these two preparations of heparin to use may thus be influenced by adverse reactions such as HIT. We therefore sought to determine the relative impact of UFH and LMWH specifically on HIT in postoperative patients receiving thromboembolism prophylaxis. The objective of this review was to compare the incidence of HIT and HIT complicated by thrombosis in patients exposed to UFH versus LMWH in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of postoperative heparin therapy. The Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group searched their Specialised Register (March 2012) and CENTRAL (2012, Issue 2). In addition, the authors searched LILACS (March 2012) and additional trials were sought from reference lists of relevant publications. We were interested in comparing the incidence of HIT occurring during exposure to UFH or LMWH after any surgical intervention. Therefore, we studied RCTs in which participants were postoperative patients allocated to receive UFH or LMWH, in a blinded or unblinded fashion. Eligible studies were

  20. Pulmonary transcriptome analysis in the surgically induced rabbit model of diaphragmatic hernia treated with fetal tracheal occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Alexander C; Brady, Paul D; Kammoun, Molka; Finalet Ferreiro, Julio; DeKoninck, Philip; Endo, Masayuki; Toelen, Jaan; Vermeesch, Joris R; Deprest, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a malformation leading to pulmonary hypoplasia, which can be treated in utero by fetal tracheal occlusion (TO). However, the changes of gene expression induced by TO remain largely unknown but could be used to further improve the clinically used prenatal treatment of this devastating malformation. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the pulmonary transcriptome changes caused by surgical induction of diaphragmatic hernia (DH) and additional TO in the fetal rabbit model. Induction of DH was associated with 378 upregulated genes compared to controls when allowing a false-discovery rate (FDR) of 0.1 and a fold change (FC) of 2. Those genes were again downregulated by consecutive TO. But DH+TO was associated with an upregulation of 157 genes compared to DH and controls. When being compared to control lungs, 106 genes were downregulated in the DH group and were not changed by TO. Therefore, the overall pattern of gene expression in DH+TO is more similar to the control group than to the DH group. In this study, we further provide a database of gene expression changes induced by surgical creation of DH and consecutive TO in the rabbit model. Future treatment strategies could be developed using this dataset. We also discuss the most relevant genes that are involved in CDH.

  1. Low-molecular-weight-chitosan ameliorates cadmium-induced toxicity in the freshwater crab, Sinopotamon yangtsekiense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruijin; Zhou, Yanying; Wang, Lan; Ren, Guorui

    2011-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has been shown to induce oxidative stress. Low-molecular-weight-chitosan (LMWC) has been demonstrated to exhibit potent antioxidant effects. We investigated the regulation role in Cd²⁺-induced oxidative damage in the hepatopancreas of the freshwater crab Sinopotamon yangtsekiense and the protective effect of LMWC. The results showed that Cd²⁺ significantly increased the hepatopancreatic metallothionein (MT) mRNA levels and protein kinase C (PKC) activity while decreasing the activities of Na⁺,K⁺-ATPase and Ca²⁺-ATPase in crabs relative to the control group. Co-treatment with LMWC suppressed the levels of MT and PKC but raised the activities of Na⁺,K+-ATPase and Ca²⁺-ATPase in hepatopancreatic tissues compared with the crabs exposed to Cd²⁺ alone. We postulate that LMWC may exert its protective effect through regulating the expressions of MT, PKC, Na⁺,K⁺-ATPase and Ca²⁺-ATPase, thereby enhancing antioxidant defense. These observations suggest that LMWC may be beneficial because of its ability to alleviate the Cd²⁺-induced damages to the crabs.

  2. Heroin-induced leukoencephalopathy: characterization using MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging, and MR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offiah, C. [Department of Neuroradiology, St Bartholomew' s and the London Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Hall, E. [Department of Neuroradiology, St Bartholomew' s and the London Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: curtis.offiah@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk

    2008-02-15

    Aim: To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of heroin-induced leukoencephalopathy or 'chasing the dragon syndrome' and, in particular, the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) features. Material and methods: Six patients with a clinical or histopathological diagnosis of heroin-induced leukoencephalopathy were identified and MRI examinations, including DWI and single-voxel MRS, reviewed. Results: Cerebellar white matter was involved in all six cases demonstrating similar symmetrical distribution with sparing of the dentate nuclei. Brain stem signal change was evident in five of the six patients imaged. Supratentorial brain parenchymal involvement, as well as brain stem involvement, correlated anatomically with corticospinal tract distribution. None of the areas of signal abnormality were restricted on DWI. Of those patients subjected to MRS, the areas of parenchymal damage demonstrated reduced N-acetylaspartate, reduced choline, and elevated lactate. Conclusion: Heroin-induced leukoencephalopathy results in characteristic and highly specific signal abnormalities on MRI, which can greatly aid diagnosis. DWI and MRS findings can be explained by known reported neuropathological descriptions in this condition and can be used to support a proposed mechanism for the benefit of current recommended drug treatment regimes.

  3. 白内障手术技巧对术源性散光的影响%Effect of surgical skill on surgically -induced astigmatism in cataract surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Numan Eraslan; Ufuk Elgin; Emine Sen; Pelin Yilmazbas

    2015-01-01

    目的:评估行普通白内障超声乳化术,手术经验对术源性散光( SIA)的影响。  方法:选取患者50例53眼,平均年龄64.5±10.8a,随机分为两组,一组23眼,二组30眼。手术方式均采用透明角膜切口白内障超声乳化吸除联合人工晶状体植入术。第一组由白内障专家手术,第二组则由住院医师手术。术前所有患者均接受全面眼科检查,包括角膜曲率和自动屈光检测。 SIA应用向量分析程序-Alpins法计算,于术后1d,1mo及2mo重复上述检查并记录结果变化。应用Shapiro Wilk和Mann-Whitney检验判断两组间SIA的统计学差异。  结果:两组患者人口资料差异无统计学意义。组间分析显示,一组术后1d,1mo及2mo的SIA分别为0.79±0.41 D,0.54±0.41 D及0.47±0.37 D;二组分别为1.27±0.66 D,0.98±0.56 D及0.94±0.54 D。可见一组术后1d ( P=0.002),1mo (P=0.004)及2mo (P=0.001)的SIA更小。  结论:手术经验是影响SIA的因素之一。住院医师应增加超声乳化术手术量以获取更多手术经验。%?AIM:To evaluate the effect of surgical experience on surgically-induced astigmatism ( SIA ) in patients with uncomplicated phacoemulsification surgery. ?METHODS:Fifty-three eyes of fifty patients, mean age 64.5±10.8y, were randomly divided into two groups (23 eyes and 30 eyes) .First group was underwent surgery by cataract specialists and the second was by residents.At baseline all the patients were underwent a complete opthalmological examination including keratom etry and autorefractometer measurements. Vector analysis programme including the Alpins'method was used for the calcu lation of SIA.All the measurements were repeated postoperative first day, first month and second month and changes were recorded.Shapiro Wilk and Mann-Whitney tests were applied for determiningthe statistic al differences between the SIA

  4. DHA effect on chemotherapy-induced body weight loss: an exploratory study in a rodent model of mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjaji, Nawale; Couet, Charles; Besson, Pierre; Bougnoux, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Body weight loss during the course of cancer disease has been associated with poor prognosis. Beside cancer-associated cachexia, weight loss can also result from chemotherapy. This work explored whether a model of mammary tumors in female Sprague Dawley rats could be appropriate to study the effect of doxorubicin on body weight, described weight change in this model, and assessed the effect of DHA on weight during chemotherapy. After tumor induction, rats were randomly assigned to a control or a DHA-enriched diet, and treated with doxorubicin or placebo twice a week for 2.5 wk (n = 6 in each group). Body weight, food intake, and tumor growth were monitored. Neither the induction of tumors nor their initial development impaired body weight gain. No reduction in food intake was observed. Tumor growth was similar between groups from day 1 to day 11. Although doxorubicin induced body weight loss from day 4 compared to placebo (Pweight loss in rats fed the DHA-enriched diet (P = 0.02), indicating that DHA had a protective effect. These results indicate that doxorubicin can induce body weight loss in this model and that a DHA-enriched diet can prevent this effect.

  5. Rapid response of the steatosis-sensing hepatokine LECT2 during diet-induced weight cycling in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikamoto, Keita; Misu, Hirofumi; Takayama, Hiroaki; Kikuchi, Akihiro; Ishii, Kiyo-Aki; Lan, Fei; Takata, Noboru; Tajima-Shirasaki, Natsumi; Takeshita, Yumie; Tsugane, Hirohiko; Kaneko, Shuichi; Matsugo, Seiichi; Takamura, Toshinari

    2016-09-23

    Dieting often leads to body weight cycling involving repeated weight loss and regain. However, little information is available regarding rapid-response serum markers of overnutrition that predict body weight alterations during weight cycling. Here, we report the rapid response of serum leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2), a hepatokine that induces insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, during diet-induced weight cycling in mice. A switch from a high-fat diet (HFD) to a regular diet (RD) in obese mice gradually decreased body weight but rapidly decreased serum LECT2 levels within 10 days. In contrast, a switch from a RD to a HFD rapidly elevated serum LECT2 levels. Serum LECT2 levels showed a positive correlation with liver triglyceride contents but not with adipose tissue weight. This study demonstrates the rapid response of LECT2 preceding body weight alterations during weight cycling in mice and suggests that measurement of serum LECT2 may be clinically useful in the management of obesity.

  6. Methanol-induced toxic optic neuropathy with diffusion weighted MRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanrivermis Sayit, Asli; Aslan, Kerim; Elmali, Muzaffer; Gungor, Inci

    2016-12-01

    We report a 52-year-old man with methanol intoxication who showed optic nerve damage as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). He was admitted to the hospital with blurred vision after the consumption of alcohol (600-700 ml of cologne). He was treated with intravenous ethanol, NaHCO3 and hemodialysis. On admission, a brain and orbital MRI was performed. Bilateral mild contrast enhancement was detected on the contrast-enhanced images in the retrobulbar segment of the optic nerves (RBONs). Also, diffusion-weighted images showed restricted diffusion in the RBONs. Diagnosis was considered as methanol-induced optic neuropathy based on the MRI findings of the optic nerves.

  7. Diet-Induced Weight Loss Alters Functional Brain Responses during an Episodic Memory Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan; Stomby, Andreas; Ryberg, Mats; Lindahl, Bernt; Larsson, Christel; Nyberg, Lars; Olsson, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that overweight is negatively associated with cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a reduction in body weight by dietary interventions could improve episodic memory performance and alter associated functional brain responses in overweight and obese women. 20 overweight postmenopausal women were randomized to either a modified paleolithic diet or a standard diet adhering to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations for 6 months. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain function during an episodic memory task as well as anthropometric and biochemical data before and after the interventions. Episodic memory performance improved significantly (p = 0.010) after the dietary interventions. Concomitantly, brain activity increased in the anterior part of the right hippocampus during memory encoding, without differences between diets. This was associated with decreased levels of plasma free fatty acids (FFA). Brain activity increased in pre-frontal cortex and superior/middle temporal gyri. The magnitude of increase correlated with waist circumference reduction. During episodic retrieval, brain activity decreased in inferior and middle frontal gyri, and increased in middle/superior temporal gyri. Diet-induced weight loss, associated with decreased levels of plasma FFA, improves episodic memory linked to increased hippocampal activity. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  8. Diet-Induced Weight Loss Alters Functional Brain Responses during an Episodic Memory Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl-Johan Boraxbekk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It has been suggested that overweight is negatively associated with cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a reduction in body weight by dietary interventions could improve episodic memory performance and alter associated functional brain responses in overweight and obese women. Methods: 20 overweight postmenopausal women were randomized to either a modified paleolithic diet or a standard diet adhering to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations for 6 months. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain function during an episodic memory task as well as anthropometric and biochemical data before and after the interventions. Results: Episodic memory performance improved significantly (p = 0.010 after the dietary interventions. Concomitantly, brain activity increased in the anterior part of the right hippocampus during memory encoding, without differences between diets. This was associated with decreased levels of plasma free fatty acids (FFA. Brain activity increased in pre-frontal cortex and superior/middle temporal gyri. The magnitude of increase correlated with waist circumference reduction. During episodic retrieval, brain activity decreased in inferior and middle frontal gyri, and increased in middle/superior temporal gyri. Conclusions: Diet-induced weight loss, associated with decreased levels of plasma FFA, improves episodic memory linked to increased hippocampal activity.

  9. Does medically induced weight loss improve obstructive sleep apnoea in the obese: review of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmingsson, E

    2011-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea is characterized by repeated periods of breathing cessation during sleep. Obstructive sleep apnoea is both common and underdiagnosed in the obese. A recent study found that as many as 86% of older obese type 2 diabetics had obstructive sleep apnoea. Obesity is independently associated with developing obstructive sleep apnoea, and the reverse may also occur. The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea is therefore expected to rise in the wake of the obesity epidemic. The number of partial (hypopnoea) or complete (apnoea) airway obstructions per hour (apnoea-hypopnoea index) is used to classify obstructive sleep apnoea as mild (5-14 events per hour), moderate (15-30) or severe (>30). Severe obstructive sleep apnoea is associated with a two to sixfold increase in all-cause mortality; the impact of mild and moderate obstructive sleep apnoea is less clear. Until recently, the evidence supporting a beneficial effect of weight loss on obstructive sleep apnoea has been limited by a lack of randomized trials. In 2009, at least three randomized controlled trials evaluated whether medically induced weight loss improves obstructive sleep apnoea. The treatment effect ranged from 42% to 62% improvement, although the highest estimate was seen in a very short duration study (9 weeks). Patients who either lost 10-15 kg or more, or had severe obstructive sleep apnoea at baseline, benefited most from treatment.

  10. Abortion - surgical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...

  11. The novel triple monoamine reuptake inhibitor tesofensine induces sustained weight loss and improves glycemic control in the diet-induced obese rat: comparison to sibutramine and rimonabant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik H; Hansen, Gitte; Tang-Christensen, Mads

    2010-01-01

    Tesofensine, a novel triple monoamine reuptake inhibitor, produces a significant weight loss in humans. The present study aimed at characterizing the weight-reducing effects of tesofensine in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Sibutramine and rimonabant were used as reference comparators....... Compared to baseline, long-term treatment with tesofensine (28 days, 1.0 or 2.5mg/kg, p.o.) resulted in a significant, dose-dependent and sustained weight loss of 5.7 and 9.9%, respectively. Sibutramine (7.5mg/kg, p.o.) treatment caused a sustained weight loss of 7.6%, whereas the employed dose...

  12. Ginseng panaxoside Rb1 reduces body weight in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ning; Cai, Dong-Lian; Jin, Di; Chen, Yi; Shi, Jiao-Jiao

    2014-01-01

    Crude extracts from ginseng demonstrated anti-obesity properties. Ginsenoside Rb1 is the main component of ginseng, however, there are only few studies examining its effects in obesity. In the present study, we evaluated its potential anti-obesity effects in the murine model of diet-induced obesity. Seventy male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided to consume for 12 weeks either chow diet (N = 8) or high-fat (HF) diet (N = 62). The latter mice were then divided into four groups: diet-induced obesity group (DIO; N = 10), obesity-resistant group (OR; N = 10), HF group (N = 5), and the group whose diet was changed from HF to normal diet (DC; N = 5). Intraperitoneal injections of Rb-1 were administered daily to mice in the DIO and OR groups for 3 weeks. Body weight and energy intake were monitored, and fasting blood glucose, lipids, neuropeptide Y, Y2 receptor, and peptide YY were quantified. Compared with HF group, weight gain and food intake of DIO mice with Rb-1 injection was significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Further, levels of blood glucose and some lipids were also decreased in DIO-Rb1 group compared with HF group. Furthermore, Rb1 was also found to modulate serum levels of PYY and NPY, and mRNA expression of NPY, Y2 receptor and PYY in tissue samples of DIO mice. Taken together, ginsenoside Rb1 may be useful in the treatment of obesity via modifying the serum content and mRNA expression of NPY, Y2 receptor and PYY.

  13. Reducing olanzapine-induced weight gain side effect by using betahistine: a study in the rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chao; Lian, Jiamei; Pai, Nagesh; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2012-09-01

    Olanzapine is effective at treating multiple domains of schizophrenia symptoms. However, it induces serious metabolic side effects. Antipsychotic drug's antagonistic affinity to histamine H₁ receptors has been identified as a main contributor for weight gain/obesity side effects. This study therefore investigated whether a combined treatment of betahistine (a H₁ receptor agonist and H₃ receptor antagonist) could reduce the body weight/obesity induced by olanzapine. Female Sprague Dawley rats were treated orally with olanzapine (1 mg/kg, t.i.d.) and/or betahistine (2.67 mg/kg, t.i.d.), or vehicle for two weeks. Rats treated with olanzapine exhibited significant body weight gain and increased food intake. Co-treatment of olanzapine with betahistine significantly prevented (-45%) weight gain and reduced feeding efficiency compared to sole olanzapine treatment. Betahistine treatment alone had no effect on weight gain and food intake. Olanzapine reduced locomotor activity, but not betahistine. These findings demonstrate that olanzapine-induced body weight gain can partially be reduced by co-treatment with betahistine. Betahistine has H₃ receptor antagonistic effects to increase histamine release, which may augment its direct agonistic effects on H₁ receptors. These findings have important implications for clinical trials using betahistine to control antipsychotic-induced obesity side effects.

  14. Propranolol Attenuates Surgical Stress-Induced Elevation of the Regulatory T Cell Response in Patients Undergoing Radical Mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Li, Yunli; Li, Xiaoxiao; Chen, Gong; Liang, Huiying; Wu, Yuhui; Tong, Jianbin; Ouyang, Wen

    2016-04-15

    Surgical stress and inflammatory response induce the release of catecholamines and PGs, which may be key factors in facilitating cancer recurrence through immunosuppression. Animal studies have suggested the efficacy of perioperative blockades of catecholamines and PGs in reducing immunosuppression. In this study, to our knowledge, we present the first report of the effects of perioperative propranolol and/or parecoxib on peripheral regulatory T cells (Tregs) in breast cancer patients. Patients were randomly assigned to control, propranolol, parecoxib, and propranolol plus parecoxib groups. We demonstrated that levels of circulating epinephrine, norepinephrine, and PGE2increased in response to surgery. Meanwhile, peripheral FOXP3 mRNA level and Treg frequencies were elevated on postoperative day 7. Propranolol administration, rather than parecoxib, attenuated such elevation of Tregs, indicating the critical roles for catecholamines in surgery-induced promotion of Tregs. Besides, propranolol plus parecoxib treatment demonstrated no additive or synergistic effects. Furthermore, a study of Treg activity on CD4(+)T cell responses to specific tumor Ags was performed in the control and propranolol groups. Propranolol abrogated the increased Treg activity and accompanying suppression of CD4(+)T cell responses after surgery. Finally, we conducted ex vivo experiments on the effects of varying concentrations of epinephrine and/or propranolol on Treg proliferation over PBMCs from breast cancer patients, to provide further direct evidence strengthening our clinical observations. Epinephrine markedly promoted Treg proliferation, whereas propranolol prevented such enhancement effect. In conclusion, our study highlights beneficial roles for propranolol in inhibiting Treg responses in vivo and in vitro, and demonstrates that propranolol could alleviate surgical stress-induced elevation of Tregs in breast cancer patients.

  15. Correção cirúrgica da persistência do canal arterial em crianças de baixo peso e neonatos Surgical treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in low-weight child and neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Denevitz de Castro Herdy

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available A persistência do canal arterial ocorre com freqüência em neonatos prematuros, provocando um grave quadro de disfunção cardiopulmonar. O tratamento envolve duas abordagens, sendo uma clínica e outra cirúrgica. A operação para a ligadura do canal arterial é praticada desde 1938. O enfoque clínico preconiza o uso da indometacina, com o intuito de promover a oclusão do canal arterial. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo avaliar os resultados obtidos com o tratamento cirúrgico da persistência do canal arterial, através de toracotomia e ligadura em 14 pacientes, incluindo crianças de baixo peso e neonatos prematuros com quadro clínico instável. A principal indicação cirúrgica, nestes casos, foi a presença de insuficiência respiratória aguda e insuficiência cardíaca. A técnica empregada foi a tripla ligadura do canal arterial. Nos 14 casos não obtivemos nenhum tipo de complicação e sem mortalidade. A presença de uma Unidade de Tratamento Intensivo Neonatal (U.T.I no Hospital foi de extremo valor no preparo dos pacientes e na evolução no período de pós-operatório. Este trabalho comprova a eficácia do método cirúrgico empregado, com baixas taxas de morbidade e mortalidade e a importância da U.T.I neonatal no acompanhamento dos pacientes.The patent ductus arterious frequently occurs in premature neonates causing serious cardiopulmonary disfunction. The treatment includes two options; one clinic and the other surgical procedure. The surgery for patent ductus arteriosus has been done since 1938. Clinical treatment with indometacin induces closure of the arteriosus ductus. The aim of the article is to analize the surgical results with thoractomy by triple-ligature of the ductus for the treatment of persistent ductus arteriosus in fourteen patients including low weight children and premature neonates with cardiopulmonary disfunction. The indications for surgery in these cases were respiratory distress and congestive

  16. Heparanase and Syndecan-4 Are Involved in Low Molecular Weight Fucoidan-Induced Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oualid Haddad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Induction of angiogenesis is a potential treatment for chronic ischemia. Low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF, the sulfated polysaccharide from brown seaweeds, has been shown to promote revascularization in a rat limb ischemia, increasing angiogenesis in vivo. We investigated the potential role of two heparan sulfate (HS metabolism enzymes, exostosin-2 (EXT2 and heparanase (HPSE, and of two HS-membrane proteoglycans, syndecan-1 and -4 (SDC-1 and SDC-4, in LMWF induced angiogenesis. Our results showed that LMWF increases human vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC migration and angiogenesis in vitro. We report that the expression and activity of the HS-degrading HPSE was increased after LMWF treatment. The phenotypic tests of LMWF-treated and EXT2- or HPSE-siRNA-transfected cells indicated that EXT2 or HPSE expression significantly affect the proangiogenic potential of LMWF. In addition, LMWF increased SDC-1, but decreased SDC-4 expressions. The effect of LMWF depends on SDC-4 expression. Silencing EXT2 or HPSE leads to an increased expression of SDC-4, providing the evidence that EXT2 and HPSE regulate the SDC-4 expression. Altogether, these data indicate that EXT2, HPSE, and SDC-4 are involved in the proangiogenic effects of LMWF, suggesting that the HS metabolism changes linked to LMWF-induced angiogenesis offer the opportunity for new therapeutic strategies of ischemic diseases.

  17. Survival of a patient with trauma-induced mucormycosis using an aggressive surgical and medical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sickels, Nicholas; Hoffman, Jordan; Stuke, Lance; Kempe, Kelly

    2011-02-01

    Mucormycosis is a deadly angioinvasive fungal infection that is increasing in incidence. Gastrointestinal and abdominal involvement is rare, has higher mortality rates, and is frequently diagnosed late. We report a patient who sustained multiple gunshot wounds to the chest and abdomen and subsequently developed omental and hepatic mucormycosis. He underwent 14 abdominal washouts and several liver debridements, and he received combination therapy with amphotericin B and micafungin. The patient survived the disease, with negative cultures and pathology at the last washout, and underwent skin grafting. He is clinically improved and remains on oral antifungals as an outpatient. Mucormycosis should be considered in trauma patients with persistent signs of infection after lavage and antibiotics, especially when necrosis or atypical wound presentations are noted. Approaches such as ours using aggressive surgical management and intensive antifungal administration should be instituted once the diagnosis is suspected.

  18. Surgical Management of Levamisole-Adulterated Cocaine Induced Soft Tissue Necrosis: Case Study and Treatment Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcevenue, Giancarlo; Brichacek, Michael; Logsetty, Sarvesh; Shahrokhi, Shar

    2016-08-18

    Levamisole is an increasingly common cocaine adulterant that can cause severe and rapid onset cutaneous vasculitis in humans. While most cases may be managed conservatively, we describe a series of patients in whom the extent of skin and soft tissue necrosis mandated surgical intervention. A retrospective review of all patients admitted to one of two regional burn centers between 2006 and 2016 for soft tissue necrosis after exposure to levamisole-adulterated cocaine was included in our study. Ten patients, majority female (9/10) with an average age of 43.4 years (range 31-57), were included. Cocaine usage before presentation averaged 6 days (range 1-14). Presenting complaints consisted of arthralgia (5/10), fever (7/10), and purpuric lesions (10/10). Average TBSA involvement was 23.5% (range 4-70). Immunological testing revealed pANCA+ in 8 of 10 and cANCA+ in 4 of 8 patients. Operative intervention occurred by postadmission day 11.6 (range 3-30). The mean number of operations required was 3 (range 2-6); length of stay averaged 46.8 days (range 14-120); and survival to discharge was 100% (10/10). To our knowledge, this is the largest case study detailing the surgical management of levamisole-associated skin necrosis. Additionally, we describe the most extensive case of this disease process at 70% TBSA involvement. Based on our experience, we recommend waiting for purpuric rash resolution and soft tissue necrosis to be fully demarcated before fascial debridement and then staged skin grafting with allograft followed by autograft.

  19. Management of cannabis-induced periodontitis via resective surgical therapy: A clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen-Heravi, Fatemeh; Kang, Philip

    2017-03-01

    There is a lack of clinical research on the potential effect of cannabis use on the periodontium as well as its effect on treatment outcomes. The aim of this case report is to illustrate the clinical presentation of periodontal disease in a young woman who was a chronic cannabis user, as well as successful treatment involving motivating the patient to quit cannabis use and undergo nonsurgical and surgical therapy. A 23-year-old woman sought care at the dental clinic for periodontal treatment. During a review of her medical history, the patient reported using cannabis frequently during a 3-year period, which coincided with the occurrence of gingival inflammation. She used cannabis in the form of cigarettes that were placed at the mandibular anterior region of her mouth for prolonged periods. Localized prominent papillary and marginal gingival enlargement of the anterior mandible were present. The mandibular anterior teeth showed localized severe chronic periodontitis. The clinicians informed the patient about the potentially detrimental consequences of continued cannabis use; she was encouraged to quit, which she did. The clinicians performed nonsurgical therapy (scaling and root planing) and osseous surgery. The treatment outcome was evaluated over 6 months; improved radiographic and clinical results were observed throughout the follow-up period. Substantial availability and usage of cannabis, specifically among young adults, requires dentists to be vigilant about clinical indications of cannabis use and to provide appropriate treatments. Behavioral modification, nonsurgical therapy, and surgical therapy offer the potential for successful management of cannabis-related periodontitis. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. HIV infection does not prevent the metabolic benefits of diet-induced weight loss in women with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeds, Dominic N; Pietka, Terri A; Yarasheski, Kevin E; Cade, W Todd; Patterson, Bruce W; Okunade, Adewole; Abumrad, Nada A; Klein, Samuel

    2017-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that HIV infection impairs the beneficial effects of weight loss on insulin sensitivity, adipose tissue inflammation, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. A prospective clinical trial evaluated the effects of moderate diet-induced weight loss on body composition, metabolic function, and adipose tissue biology in women with obesity who were HIV-seronegative (HIV-) or HIV-positive (HIV+). Body composition, multiorgan insulin sensitivity (assessed by using a two-stage hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedure with stable isotopically labeled tracer infusions), and adipose tissue expression of markers of inflammation, autophagy, and ER stress were evaluated in 8 HIV- and 20 HIV+ women with obesity before and after diet-induced weight loss of 6% to 8%. Although weight loss was not different between groups (∼7.5%), the decrease in fat-free mass was greater in HIV+ than HIV- subjects (-4.4 ± 0.7% vs. -1.7 ± 1.0%, P diet-induced weight loss improves multiorgan insulin sensitivity in HIV+ women to the same extent as women who are HIV-. However, weight loss causes a greater decline in fat-free mass in HIV+ than HIV- women. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  1. ROLE OF INCISION SITE IN REDUCING SURGICALLY INDUCE D ASTIGMATISM IN MANUAL SMALL INCISION CATARACT SURGE RY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathish

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Phacoemulsification and foldable IOLs allow modern day surgeon to aim at minimal induction of any astigmatic error as well a s correct any pre-operative refractive errors thus making patients’ life, spectacle free i.e. una ided emmetropia. But its high price and maintenance with a long learning curve for the surg eon make it unsuitable for the Indian camp scenario. Manual SICS in comparison needs a larger incision f or both nucleus removal and a rigid IOL insertion, but still provides for a sutureless and c onvenient alternative to phaco. Manual SICS does induce some amount of astigmatism by altering corneal curvatures (i.e., by coupling effect, while phaco surgery with 3 mm incision is astigmatic ally neutral. Manifold of studies have been done to compare Surgically Induced Astigmatism of ma nual SICS to phaco surgery but not much has been done to compare various techniques in manua l SICS itself. In this study an attempt has been made to analyze t he role of incision site depending on the pre operative keratometry readings in reducing su rgically induced astigmatism in manual small incision cataract surgery.

  2. Surgically induced astigmatism after 3.0 mm temporal and nasal clear corneal incisions in bilateral cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Hwan Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare the corneal refractive changes induced after 3.0 mm temporal and nasal corneal incisions in bilateral cataract surgery. Materials and Methods: This prospective study comprised a consecutive case series of 60 eyes from 30 patients with bilateral phacoemulsification that were implanted with a 6.0 mm foldable intraocular lens through a 3.0 mm horizontal clear corneal incision (temporal in the right eyes, nasal in the left eyes. The outcome measures were surgically induced astigmatism (SIA and uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA 1 and 3 months, post-operatively. Results: At 1 month, the mean SIA was 0.81 diopter (D for the temporal incisions and 0.92 D for nasal incisions (P = 0.139. At 3 months, the mean SIA were 0.53 D for temporal incisions and 0.62 D for nasal incisions (P = 0.309. The UCVA was similar in the 2 incision groups before surgery, and at 1 and 3 months post-operatively. Conclusion: After bilateral cataract surgery using 3.0 mm temporal and nasal horizontal corneal incisions, the induced corneal astigmatic change was similar in both incision groups. Especially in Asian eyes, both temporal and nasal incisions (3.0 mm or less would be favorable for astigmatism-neutral cataract surgery.

  3. High-Fat Diet in the Absence of Obesity Does Not Aggravate Surgically Induced Lymphoedema in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gousopoulos, Epameinondas; Karaman, Sinem; Proulx, Steven T; Leu, Kristin; Buschle, Dorina; Detmar, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Lymphoedema represents the cardinal manifestation of lymphatic dysfunction and is associated with expansion of the adipose tissue in the affected limb. In mice, high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity was associated with impaired collecting lymphatic vessel function, and adiposity aggravated surgery-induced lymphoedema in a mouse model. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether adiposity is necessary to impair lymphatic function or whether increased lipid exposure alone might be sufficient in a surgical lymphoedema model. To investigate the role of increased lipid exposure in lymphoedema development we used a well-established mouse tail lymphoedema model. Female mice were subjected to a short-term (6 weeks) HFD, without development of obesity, before surgical induction of lymphedema. Lymphoedema was followed over a period of 6 weeks measuring oedema, evaluating tissue histology and lymphatic vascular function. HFD increased baseline angiogenesis and average lymphatic vessel size in comparison to the chow control group. Upon induction of lymphedema, HFD-treated mice did not exhibit aggravated oedema and no morphological differences were observed in the blood and lymphatic vasculature. Importantly, the levels of fibro-adipose tissue deposition were comparable between the 2 groups and lymphatic vessel function was not impaired as a result of the HFD. Although the net immune cell infiltration was comparable, the HFD group displayed an increased infiltration of macrophages, which exhibited an M2 polarization phenotype. These results indicate that increased adiposity rather than dietary influences determines predisposition to or severity of lymphedema. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Transgenic Rescue of Adipocyte Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Receptor Expression Restores High Fat Diet-induced Body Weight Gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugleholdt, Randi; Pedersen, Jens; Bassi, Maria Rosaria

    2011-01-01

    to adipose tissue have a similar high fat diet -induced body weight gain as control mice, significantly greater than the weight gain in mice with a general ablation of the receptor. Surprisingly, this difference was due to an increase in total lean body mass rather than a gain in total fat mass......The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPr) has been implicated in high fat diet-induced obesity and is proposed as an anti-obesity target despite an uncertainty regarding the mechanism of action. To independently investigate the contribution of the insulinotropic effects...

  5. Dairy food consumption and meal-induced cortisol response interacted to influence weight loss in overweight women undergoing a 12-week, meal-controlled, weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witbracht, Megan G; Van Loan, Marta; Adams, Sean H; Keim, Nancy L; Laugero, Kevin D

    2013-01-01

    Dairy food enhances weight loss in animal models, possibly by modifying the metabolic effects of cortisol. This study determined in overweight women (ages 20.0-45.9 y; n = 51) whether including dairy food in an energy-restricted diet affects cortisol concentrations and whether differences in provoked cortisol explain the magnitude of weight loss. Women received either an adequate amount of dairy food (AD), the equivalent of ≥711 mL/d milk, or a low amount of dairy food (LD), the equivalent to ≤238 mL/d milk, in a 12-wk, energy-restricted dietary intervention. Participants were tested in a 12-h laboratory visit, which included 2 standard meals and a dinner buffet that was consumed ad libitum. Salivary cortisol was measured from waking to bedtime. Energy restriction increased (P ≤ 0.04) the minimum and decreased (P ≤ 0.02) the diurnal amplitude in the salivary cortisol concentration from baseline to postintervention. Energy restriction enhanced the dinner meal-stimulated salivary cortisol response (DMR) (P ≤ 0.02) but only in the LD group. Compared with the LD treatment, the AD treatment induced (P ≤ 0.04) greater reductions in body weight and fat, but only in women characterized as having a baseline DMR (responders) (n = 26); weight and fat lost in the AD and LD groups were similar in nonresponders (n = 25). Overall, energy restriction dampened diurnal salivary cortisol fluctuations [symptomatic of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction] and enhanced dinner meal-stimulated salivary cortisol concentrations. The AD treatment prevented the latter. Furthermore, certain phenotypic markers of HPA axis function may help to expose the weight-reducing effects of consuming dairy food.

  6. Variation of perimplant biofilm induced by non surgical periodontal therapy and the use of probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Gatti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to improved surgical tecniques the use of dental implants has increased greatly. However, high rates of osseointegrated correctly implants, over the years are undermined by disease of bacterial etiology in the perimplant zone, especially by Gram negative anaerobes such as in gingivitis and periodontitis, in particular: Fusobacterium spp.(F., Treponema denticola (T.d., Tannerella forsythensis (T.f., Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A.a., Prevotella intermedia (P.i. e Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.. The mechanic treatment (MS results in a reduction of the total bacterial count (TBC and a slight change in the subgingival bacterial microflora towards the less pathogenic species and more like those of a healthy periodontium.Also the use of a probiotic in the form of buccal tablets of Lactobacillus reuteri (L.r., as demonstrated in this study, is thought to improve and modulate the composition of plaque, as it is able to exert an inhibitory effect on oral bacteria that support caries, gingivitis, periodontal and perimplant disease with a combination of different mechanisms.

  7. Evaluations of sagittal and vertical changes induced by surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iodice, Giorgio; Bocchino, Tecla; Casadei, Matteo; Baldi, Domenico; Robiony, Massimo

    2013-07-01

    Class II, anterior open bite and/or a steep mandibular plane angle are frequently considered a contraindication to the use of surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion (SARPE). Nevertheless, few studies have investigated the maxillary and mandibular effects after SARPE on the sagittal and vertical planes, with dissimilar results and small samples of patients.The aim of the current study was to evaluate the sagittal and vertical effects after SARPE. Twenty-one consecutive adult patients (7 males, 14 females; mean age, 25.6 ± 6.3 years) who required SARPE were included in this study. All patients were subjected to subtotal LeFort I osteotomy with pterygomaxillary disjunction. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken during the preoperative assessment (T0) and 6 months after the end of the expansion (T1). Cephalometric measurements were realized at T0 and T1 for all the patients. Independent-sample t test and analysis of variance were used. Statistically significant changes were observed only in upper incisor^NA (P = 0.04). No skeletal sagittal or vertical variation was found after SARPE. Class II, anterior open bite and/or a steep mandibular plane angle cannot be considered an outright contraindication to its use. Upper incisor palatal inclination could result after SARPE.

  8. Prognostic markers for diet-induced weight loss in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Buemann, B; Gluud, C

    1995-01-01

    To identify prognostic metabolic and hormonal markers for long-term weight loss outcome in obese women.......To identify prognostic metabolic and hormonal markers for long-term weight loss outcome in obese women....

  9. Evidence that plasma concentration rather than dose per kilogram body weight predicts ribavirin-induced anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, K; Schvarcz, R; Bruchfeld, A; Ståhle, L

    2004-01-01

    Ribavirin in combination with interferon alpha-2 or pegylated interferon is the standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C. The current dosage recommendations for ribavirin are based on body weight (bw). Ribavirin is mainly eliminated by the kidneys and we have recently shown that ribavirin plasma concentrations are determined primarily by renal function. It is therefore reasonable to hypothesize that side-effects of ribavirin, i.e. anaemia, should be more closely related to plasma concentrations of ribavirin than to the dose per kg bw. A total of 108 consecutive patients eligible for treatment of chronic hepatitis C were studied. Ribavirin concentrations in plasma were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV after solid-phase extraction in trough samples taken 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the treatment commenced. A total of 213 samples were obtained and the change in the haemoglobin level and the creatinine concentration was measured in addition to ribavirin. The dose of ribavirin per kg bw did not correlate with the drop in haemoglobin level induced by ribavirin. The concentration of ribavirin was non-linearly related to the drop in the haemoglobin level as revealed by fitting a standard Hill equation type dose-response curve. The half maximal drop in haemoglobin was obtained at 4.4 microm. The results from this study suggest that the anaemia induced by ribavirin depends primarily on the concentration of ribavirin, and not on the dose per kg bw. This lends further support to the idea that ribavirin should be dosed according to renal function.

  10. Factors influencing individual variability in high fat diet-induced weight gain in out-bred MF1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaanholt, L M; Sinclair, R E; Mitchell, S E; Speakman, J R

    2015-05-15

    Easy access to high-energy palatable foods has been suggested to have contributed to the world-wide obesity epidemic. However, within these 'obesogenic' environments many people manage to remain lean. Mice also show variability in their weight gain responses to high-fat diet (HFD) feeding and their weight loss responses to calorically restricted (CR) feeding. In this study we investigated which factors contribute to determining susceptibility to HFD-induced obesity in mice, and whether the responses in weight gain on HFD are correlated with the responses to CR. One-hundred twenty four mice were exposed to 30% CR for 28days followed by a 14day recovery period, and subsequent exposure to 60% HFD for 28days. Responses in various metabolic factors were measured before and after each exposure (body mass; BM, body composition, food intake; FI, resting metabolic rate; RMR, physical activity, body temperature and glucose tolerance; GT). Weight changes on HFD ranged from -1 to 26%, equivalent to -0.2g to 10.5g in absolute mass. Multiple regression models showed that fat free mass (FFM) of the mice before exposure to HFD predicted 12% of the variability in weight gain on HFD (pweight gain. Weight gain on the HFD was significantly negatively correlated to weight loss on CR, indicating that animals that are poor at defending against weight gain on HFD, were also poor at defending against CR-induced weight loss. Changes in FM and FFM in response to HFD or CR were not correlated however. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A low TSH profile predicts olanzapine-induced weight gain and relief by adjunctive topiramate in healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Simon S; van Vliet, André; van Vugt, Barbara; Scheurink, Anton J W; van Dijk, Gertjan

    2016-04-01

    Second generation antipsychotics, like olanzapine (OLZ), have become the first line drug treatment for patients with schizophrenia. However, OLZ treatment is often associated with body weight (BW) gain and metabolic derangements. Therefore, the search for prospective markers for OLZ's negative side effects as well as adjunctive treatments to inhibit these has been of major interest. The aim of this study was to investigate in healthy male volunteers (age: 36 ± 11 years; BW: 84 ± 12 kg; BMI=25.5 ± 2.5) whether adjunctive topiramate (TPM) administration opposes OLZ-induced weight gain over the course of 14 days treatment. In addition, we investigated behavioral, endocrine and metabolic characteristics as underlying and potentially predictive factors for weight regulation and/or metabolic derangements associated with OLZ and TPM treatment. While adjunctive TPM indeed reduced OLZ-induced weight gain (PTPM. Using multiple regression analysis, BW gain was the key factor explaining metabolic disturbances (e.g., plasma insulin- LDL interaction: PTPM treatment, nor its circulating levels, contributed to variation observed in ΔBW. In a second multiple regression analysis, we observed that a low baseline thyrotropin profile (TSHAUC) before the start of drug treatment was associated with an increase in ΔBW over the course of drug treatment (PTPM treatment did attenuate OLZ induced BW gain (PTPM treatment blocking OLZ-induced ΔBW gain. Others have shown that OLZ-induced BW gain is associated with improvement in brief psychiatric rating scores (BPRS); adjunctive TPM treatment may be a solution specifically for those subjects susceptible to OLZ-induced rapid weight gain who-on a therapeutic level-benefit most of OLZ treatment.

  12. Tail nerve electrical stimulation induces body weight-supported stepping in rats with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Xin; Huang, Fengfa; Gates, Mary; White, Jason; Holmberg, Eric G

    2010-03-30

    Walking or stepping has been considered the result from the activation of the central pattern generator (CPG). In most patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) the CPG is undamaged. To date, there are no noninvasive approaches for activating the CPG. Recently we developed a noninvasive technique, tail nerve electrical stimulation (TANES), which can induce positive hind limb movement of SCI rats. The purpose of this study is to introduce the novel technique and examine the effect of TANES on CPG activation. A 25 mm contusion injury was produced at spinal cord T10 of female, adult Long-Evans rats by using the NYU impactor device. Rats received TANES ( approximately 40 mA at 4 kHz) 7 weeks after injury. During TANES all injured rats demonstrated active body weight-supported stepping of hind limbs with left-right alternation and occasional front-hind coordination, resulting in significant, temporary increase in BBB scores (pelectrical stimulation. Therefore the TANES may have considerable potential for achieving improvement of functional recovery in animal models and a similar method may be suggested for human study. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Metformin in prevention and treatment of antipsychotic induced weight gain: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Varuni Asanka; Suraweera, Chathurie; Ratnatunga, Suhashini S; Dayabandara, Madhubashinee; Wanniarachchi, Nimali; Hanwella, Raveen

    2016-10-03

    Most antipsychotics are associated with weight gain and other metabolic complications. Several randomized trials have shown metformin to be effective, but this still hasn't been included in clinical guidelines on managing antipsychotic induced weight gain. All double blind placebo controlled trials assessing the efficacy of metformin in the treatment of antipsychotic induced weight gain were included. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and MEDLINE were searched for the period January 2000-December 2015. Meta-analysis was carried out using the random effects model. Meta analysis of 12 published studies with a total of 743 patients found that in patients treated with antipsychotics, metformin treatment resulted in significantly better anthropometric and metabolic parameters than placebo. The mean change in weight was -3.27 kg (95 % CI -4.66 to -1.89) (Z = 4.64, p resistance index [-1.49 (95 % CI -2.40 to -0.59)] but not fasting blood sugar [-2.48 mg/dl (95 % CI -5.54 to 0.57]. This meta-analysis confirms that metformin is effective in treating antipsychotic induced weight gain in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

  14. An ex vivo RT-qPCR-based assay for human peripheral leukocyte responsiveness to glucocorticoids in surgically induced inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gråberg T

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Truls Gråberg,1 Lovisa Strömmer,1 Erik Hedman,2 Mehmet Uzunel,3 Ewa Ehrenborg,4 Ann-Charlotte Wikström5 1Division of Surgery, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC, Karolinska Institutet, 2Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Karolinska University Hospital, 3Division of Therapeutic Immunology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, 4Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Solna, 5Unit of Translational Immunology, Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Introduction: An assay to determine glucocorticoid (GC responsiveness in humans could be used to monitor GC non-responsiveness in states of GC insufficiency and could provide a tool to adapt GC treatment to individual patients. We propose an ex vivo assay to test GC responsiveness in peripheral leukocytes. The assay was evaluated in a human experimental model of surgery-induced inflammation. Patients and methods: Changes in expression of the GC-regulated genes GILZ, IL1R2, FKBP5, and HLA-DR and glucocorticoid receptor alpha (GRα were determined by reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR in peripheral leukocytes from surgical patients and healthy blood donors (total n=60 in response to low (1 nM and high (1 µM dexamethasone (DEX. The final selection of a suitable endogenous control gene was based on the studies of stability during DEX treatment and inflammation. Correlations between pre- and postoperative GC-induced gene expression, the postoperative systemic inflammatory and metabolic response (CRP, IL-6, white blood cell count, cytokines, resistin, free fatty acids, glucose, insulin, and adiponectin, and the clinical outcome were analyzed. The length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU-LOS, the length of stay in the hospital, and postoperative complications were used to measure clinical outcome. Results: When the blood donors were compared to the patients, there were no significant

  15. Effects of 8 Weeks of Balance or Weight Training for the Independently Living Elderly on the Outcomes of Induced Slips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sukwon; Lockhart, Thurmon

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate whether the balance or weight training could alter gait characteristics of elderly contributing to a reduction in the likelihood of slip-induced falls. A total of 18 elderly were evaluated for the study. The results indicated decreases in heel contact velocities and the friction demand characteristics after 8…

  16. A novel oral form of salmon calcitonin improves glucose homeostasis and reduces body weight in diet-induced obese rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feigh, M; Henriksen, K; Andreassen, K V

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of acute and chronic administration of a novel oral formulation of salmon calcitonin (sCT) on glycaemic control, glucose homeostasis and body weight regulation in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats-an animal model of obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes....

  17. Effects of 8 Weeks of Balance or Weight Training for the Independently Living Elderly on the Outcomes of Induced Slips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sukwon; Lockhart, Thurmon

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate whether the balance or weight training could alter gait characteristics of elderly contributing to a reduction in the likelihood of slip-induced falls. A total of 18 elderly were evaluated for the study. The results indicated decreases in heel contact velocities and the friction demand characteristics after 8…

  18. The effects of exercise-induced weight loss on appetite-related peptides and motivation to eat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cecilia; Kulseng, B; King, N A

    2010-01-01

    The magnitude of exercise-induced weight loss depends on the extent of compensatory responses. An increase in energy intake is likely to result from changes in the appetite control system toward an orexigenic environment; however, few studies have measured how exercise impacts on both orexigenic...

  19. Co-micronized palmitoylethanolamide/polydatin treatment causes endometriotic lesion regression in a rodent model of surgically-induced endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Di Paola

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a chronic, painful disease characterized by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA, an endogenous fatty acid amide, has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. PEA lacks free radical scavenging activity, unlike polydatin (PLD, a natural precursor of resveratrol. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of orally administered co-micronized PEA/polydatin (m(PEA/PLD in an autologous rat model of surgically-induced endometriosis. Endometriosis was induced in female Wistar albino rats by auto-transplantation of uterine squares (implants into the intestinal mesentery and peritoneal cavity. Rats were distributed into one control group and one treatment group (10 animals each: m(PEA/PLD 10 mg/kg/day. At 28 days after surgery the relative volume of the endometrioma was determined. Endometrial-like tissue was confirmed by histology: Masson trichrome and toluidine blue were used to detect fibrosis and mast cells, respectively. The treated group displayed a smaller cyst diameter, with improved fibrosis score and mast cell number decrease. m(PEA/PLD administration decreased angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor, nerve growth factor, intercellular adhesion molecule, matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression and lymphocyte accumulation. m(PEA/PLD treatment also reduced peroxynitrite formation, (poly-ADPribose polymerase activation, IkBα phosphorylation and nuclear facor-kB traslocation in the nucleus. Our results suggested that m(PEA/PLD may be of use to inhibit development of endometriotic lesions in rats.

  20. Co-micronized Palmitoylethanolamide/Polydatin Treatment Causes Endometriotic Lesion Regression in a Rodent Model of Surgically Induced Endometriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paola, Rosanna; Fusco, Roberta; Gugliandolo, Enrico; Crupi, Rosalia; Evangelista, Maurizio; Granese, Roberta; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic, painful disease characterized by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), an endogenous fatty acid amide, has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. PEA lacks free radical scavenging activity, unlike polydatin (PLD), a natural precursor of resveratrol. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of orally administered co-micronized PEA/polydatin [m(PEA/PLD)] in an autologous rat model of surgically induced endometriosis. Endometriosis was induced in female Wistar albino rats by auto-transplantation of uterine squares (implants) into the intestinal mesentery and peritoneal cavity. Rats were distributed into one control group and one treatment group (10 animals each): m(PEA/PLD) 10 mg/kg/day. At 28 days after surgery the relative volume of the endometrioma was determined. Endometrial-like tissue was confirmed by histology: Masson trichrome and toluidine blue were used to detect fibrosis and mast cells, respectively. The treated group displayed a smaller cyst diameter, with improved fibrosis score and mast cell number decrease. m(PEA/PLD) administration decreased angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor), nerve growth factor, intercellular adhesion molecule, matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression, and lymphocyte accumulation. m(PEA/PLD) treatment also reduced peroxynitrite formation, (poly-ADP)ribose polymerase activation, IkBα phosphorylation and nuclear facor-kB traslocation in the nucleus. Our results suggested that m(PEA/PLD) may be of use to inhibit development of endometriotic lesions in rats. PMID:27790149

  1. Surgical Assisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Insert and remove Foley urinary bladder catheter Place pneumatic tourniquet Confirm procedure with surgeon Drape patient within ... Technology and Surgical Assisting (NBSTSA) offers the CertifiedSurgical First Assistant (CSFA) credential, and the National Surgical Assistant ...

  2. Reduction of Macrophage Infiltration and Chemoattractant Gene Expression Changes in White Adipose Tissue of Morbidly Obese Subjects After Surgery-Induced Weight Loss

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raffaella Cancello; Corneliu Henegar; Nathalie Viguerie; Soraya Taleb; Christine Poitou; Christine Rouault; Muriel Coupaye; Veronique Pelloux; Danielle Hugol; Jean-Luc Bouillot; Anne Bouloumié; Giorgio Barbatelli; Saverio Cinti; Per-Arne Svensson; Gregory S. Barsh; Jean-Daniel Zucker; Arnaud Basdevant; Dominique Langin; Karine Clément

    2005-01-01

    Reduction of Macrophage Infiltration and Chemoattractant Gene Expression Changes in White Adipose Tissue of Morbidly Obese Subjects After Surgery-Induced Weight Loss Raffaella Cancello 1 , Corneliu...

  3. The DPP-IV inhibitor linagliptin and GLP-1 induce synergistic effects on body weight loss and appetite suppression in the diet-induced obese rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Henrik H; Hansen, Gitte; Paulsen, Sarah; Vrang, Niels; Mark, Michael; Jelsing, Jacob; Klein, Thomas

    2014-10-15

    Linagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-IV inhibitor approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. DPP-IV inhibitors are considered weight neutral, suggesting that elevation of endogenous incretin levels is not sufficient to promote weight loss per se. Here we evaluated the effect of linagliptin in combination with subcutaneous treatment of GLP-1(7-36) on body weight regulation in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Linagliptin administered perorally (1.5mg/kg, b.i.d.), but not subcutaneously (0.5mg/kg, b.i.d.), evoked a very modest body weight loss (2.2%) after 28 days of treatment. GLP-1 (0.5mg/kg, s.c.) treatment alone induced a body weight loss of 4.1%. In contrast, combined linagliptin (1.5mg/kg, p.o., or 0.5mg/kg, s.c.) and GLP-1 (0.5mg/kg) treatment evoked a marked anorectic response with both routes of linagliptin administration being equally effective on final body weight loss (7.5-8.0%). In comparison, liraglutide monotherapy (0.2mg/kg, s.c., b.i.d.) reduced body weight by 10.1%. Interestingly, the weight lowering effect of combined linagliptin and GLP-1 treatment was associated with a marked increase in chow preference, being more pronounced as compared to liraglutide treatment. In addition, linagliptin and GLP-1 co-treatment, but not liraglutide, specifically increased prepro-dynorphin mRNA levels in the caudate-putamen, an effect not obtained with administration of the compounds individually. In conclusion, co-treatment with linagliptin and GLP-1 synergistically reduces body weight in obese rats. The anti-obesity effect was caused by appetite suppression with a concomitant change in diet preference, which may potentially be associated with increased dynorphin activity in forebrain regions involved in reward anticipation and habit learning.

  4. High-Protein Intake during Weight Loss Therapy Eliminates the Weight-Loss-Induced Improvement in Insulin Action in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon I. Smith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available High-protein (HP intake during weight loss (WL therapy is often recommended because it reduces the loss of lean tissue mass. However, HP intake could have adverse effects on metabolic function, because protein ingestion reduces postprandial insulin sensitivity. In this study, we compared the effects of ∼10% WL with a hypocaloric diet containing 0.8 g protein/kg/day and a hypocaloric diet containing 1.2 g protein/kg/day on muscle insulin action in postmenopausal women with obesity. We found that HP intake reduced the WL-induced decline in lean tissue mass by ∼45%. However, HP intake also prevented the WL-induced improvements in muscle insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, as well as the WL-induced adaptations in oxidative stress and cell structural biology pathways. Our data demonstrate that the protein content of a WL diet can have profound effects on metabolic function and underscore the importance of considering dietary macronutrient composition during WL therapy for people with obesity.

  5. A novel mouse model of high flow-induced pulmonary hypertension-surgically induced by right pulmonary artery ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anchen; Wang, Hongfei; Wang, Shengwei; Huang, Xiaofan; Ye, Ping; Du, Xinling; Xia, Jiahong

    2017-02-01

    This study sought to establish a new model of high-flow pulmonary hypertension (PH) in mice. This model may be useful for studies seeking to reduce the pulmonary vascular resistance and delay the development of PH caused by congenital heart disease. The right pulmonary artery was ligated via a right posterolateral thoracotomy. Pulmonary hemodynamics was evaluated by right heart catheterization immediately after ligation and at 2, 4, 8, and 12 wk postoperatively. The right ventricle (RV) and the left ventricle (LV) with septum (S) were weighed to calculate the RV/(LV + S) ratio as an index of right ventricular hypertrophy. Morphologic changes in the left lungs were analyzed, and percentages of muscularized pulmonary vessels were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin, elastica van Gieson and alpha-smooth muscle actin staining. All the study data were compared with data from a model of PH generated by hypoxic stimulation. A pulmonary hypertensive state was successfully induced by 2 wk after surgery. However, the morphologic analysis demonstrated that pulmonary vascular muscularization, as evaluated using right ventricular systolic pressure and RV/(LV + S), was not significantly increased until 4 wk postoperatively. When mice from the new model and the hypoxic model were compared, no significant differences were observed in any of the evaluated indices. High-flow PH can be induced within 4 wk after ligation of the right pulmonary artery, which is easily performed in mice. Such mice can be used as a model of high-flow PH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of CMC Molecular Weight on Acid-Induced Gelation of Heated WPI-CMC Soluble Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Yan; Zhang, Sha; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2016-02-01

    Acid-induced gelation properties of heated whey protein isolate (WPI) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) soluble complex were investigated as a function of CMC molecular weight (270, 680, and 750 kDa) and concentrations (0% to 0.125%). Heated WPI-CMC soluble complex with 6% protein was made by heating biopolymers together at pH 7.0 and 85 °C for 30 min and diluted to 5% protein before acid-induced gelation. Acid-induced gel formed from heated WPI-CMC complexes exhibited increased hardness and decreased water holding capacity with increasing CMC concentrations but gel strength decreased at higher CMC content. The highest gel strength was observed with CMC 750 k at 0.05%. Gels with low CMC concentration showed homogenous microstructure which was independent of CMC molecular weight, while increasing CMC concentration led to microphase separation with higher CMC molecular weight showing more extensive phase separation. When heated WPI-CMC complexes were prepared at 9% protein the acid gels showed improved gel hardness and water holding capacity, which was supported by the more interconnected protein network with less porosity when compared to complexes heated at 6% protein. It is concluded that protein concentration and biopolymer ratio during complex formation are the major factors affecting gel properties while the effect of CMC molecular weight was less significant. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Surgical therapy of radiation-induced lesions of the colon and rectum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miholic, J.; Schwarz, C.; Moeschl, P.

    1988-06-01

    Thirty-six operations for late sequelae of radiotherapy were carried out in 31 patients from 1971 to 1986. The most frequent indications for surgery were stricture (58 percent) and fistula (29 percent). In the first 8 year period from 1971 through 1978, 13 of 14 operations were diversions (colostomy or by-pass). From 1979 through 1986, a more aggressive approach prevailed. Only 32 percent of the operations were diversions. This more aggressive strategy was accompanied by a decrease of the postoperative mortality rate from 21 percent through 1978 to 0 in the later period. The overall complication rate was 23 percent. Complications were relatively more frequent after two-layer sutured or stapled anastomoses and after resection or fistula closure without temporary colostomy. We conclude that in radiation-induced colonic and rectal lesions, diversion should be performed in patients with unproved cure of disease or tumor persistence. Resection and fistula closure can be carried out safely, and a temporary colostomy is strongly recommended.

  8. Preventing olanzapine-induced weight gain using betahistine: a study in a rat model with chronic olanzapine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Pai, Nagesh; Deng, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Olanzapine is the one of first line antipsychotic drug for schizophrenia and other serious mental illness. However, it is associated with troublesome metabolic side-effects, particularly body weight gain and obesity. The antagonistic affinity to histamine H1 receptors (H1R) of antipsychotic drugs has been identified as one of the main contributors to weight gain/obesity side-effects. Our previous study showed that a short term (2 weeks) combination treatment of betahistine (an H1R agonist and H3R antagonist) and olanzapine (O+B) reduced (-45%) body weight gain induced by olanzapine in drug-naïve rats. A key issue is that clinical patients suffering with schizophrenia, bipolar disease and other mental disorders often face chronic, even life-time, antipsychotic treatment, in which they have often had previous antipsychotic exposure. Therefore, we investigated the effects of chronic O+B co-treatment in controlling body weight in female rats with chronic and repeated exposure of olanzapine. The results showed that co-administration of olanzapine (3 mg/kg, t.i.d.) and betahistine (9.6 mg/kg, t.i.d.) significantly reduced (-51.4%) weight gain induced by olanzapine. Co-treatment of O+B also led to a decrease in feeding efficiency, liver and fat mass. Consistently, the olanzapine-only treatment increased hypothalamic H1R protein levels, as well as hypothalamic pAMPKα, AMPKα and NPY protein levels, while reducing the hypothalamic POMC, and UCP1 and PGC-1α protein levels in brown adipose tissue (BAT). The olanzapine induced changes in hypothalamic H1R, pAMPKα, BAT UCP1 and PGC-1α could be reversed by co-treatment of O+B. These results supported further clinical trials to test the effectiveness of co-treatment of O+B for controlling weight gain/obesity side-effects in schizophrenia with chronic antipsychotic treatment.

  9. New Nordic Diet induced weight loss is accompanied by changes in metabolism and AMPK signalling in adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzen, Andreas Mæchel; Lundsgaard, Annemarie; Jordy, Andreas Børsting

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: The molecular mechanisms behind diet-induced metabolic improvements remain to be studied. The Objective was to investigate whether expression of proteins in skeletal muscle or adipose tissue could explain improvements in glucose and lipid homeostasis after weight loss. DESIGN: Volunteers...... adipose tissue (SCAT) were obtained at week 0 and 26. OUTCOME: Gene and protein expressions were analysed by real time PCR and western blotting. RESULTS: Improved HOMA-IR index and lowered plasma triacylglycerol concentration after NND coincided with molecular adaptations in SCAT, but not in skeletal...... regulation of key glucose and lipid handling proteins suggests an improved metabolic capacity in adipose tissue after weight loss....

  10. Weight loss induced by tyrosine kinase inhibitors of the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desar, I.M.E.; Thijs, A.M.J.; Mulder, S.F.; Tack, C.J.J.; Herpen, C.M.L. van; Graaf, W.T.A. van der

    2012-01-01

    Weight loss, cachexia and sarcopenia are profound problems in the frail oncologic patients. With the development and increasing use of angiogenesis inhibitors in metastatic cancer patients, the question arises as to their influence on body weight and composition. Angiogenesis is not only important f

  11. Leptin levels are associated with fat oxidation and dietary-induced weight loss in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdich, C; Toubro, S; Buemann, B

    2001-01-01

    To examine the relationship between fasting plasma leptin and 24-hour energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidation, and spontaneous physical activity (SPA) in obese subjects before and after a major weight reduction compared with normal weight controls. To test fasting plasma leptin, substrate ox...

  12. Effect of modified constraint induced movement therapy on weight bearing and protective extension in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Gharib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Constraint induced movement therapy is one of the new therapeutic interventions that limits the performance of intact upper limb with increased use of the affected limb. Aim of this study was to investigate the effects of modified constraint induced movement therapy on weight bearing & protective extension in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.Methods: 21 hemiplegic children were selected and randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Common Practices of Occupational Therapy applied for 6 weeks in both groups equally and test group received constrain induced movement therapy for three hours every day. Weight-bearing and protective extension was measured based on quality of test skills of upper limbs (QUEST. Data analyzed using appropriated statistical methods. Results: 11 children in the experimental group (7 girls, 4 boys with mean age 47.2 ± 55.5 months and 10 children in the control group (5 girls, 5 boys with mean age 19.2 ± 10.5 months were studied. No significant difference observed before and after six weeks intervention between two groups (P>0.05. There was a significant change before and after six weeks intervention in both subscales (P<0.05.Conclusion: This study showed that modified constraint induced movement therapy may affect weight bearing, but has no effect on the protective extension.

  13. Effects of Low-Molecular-Weight-Chitosan on the Adenine- Induced Chronic Renal Failure Ratsin vitro andin vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHI Xuan; HAN Baoqin; SUI Xianxian; HU Rui; LIU Wanshun

    2015-01-01

    Theeffects of low-molecular-weight-chitosan (LMWC) on chronic renal failure (CRF) rats induced by adenine were investigatedin vivoand in vitro. Chitosan were hydrolyzed using chitosanase at pH 6–7 and 37℃ for 24h to obtain LMWC.In vitro, the effect of LMWC on the proliferation of renal tubular epithelial cells (RTEC) showed that it had no cytotoxic effect and could promote cell growth. For theinvivo experiment, chronic renal failure rats induced by adenine were randomly divided into control group, Niaoduqing group, and high-, medium- and low-dose LMWC groups. For each group, we detected serum creatinine (SCR), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), glutathione oxidase (GSH-Px) activities of renal tissue, and obtained the ratio of kidney weight/body weight, pathological changes of kidney. The levels of serum SCR, BUN were higher in the adenine-induced rats than those in the controlgroup, indicating that the rat chronic renal failure model worked successfully. The re-sults after treatment showed that LMWC could reduce the SCR and BUN levels and enhance the activities/levels of T-SOD and GSH-PX in kidney compared to control group. Histopathological examination revealed that adenine-induced renal alterations were restored by LMWC at three tested dosages, especially at the low dosage of 100mgkg−1d−1.

  14. Surgically induced astigmatism after phacoemulsification with and without correction for posture-related ocular cyclotorsion: randomized controlled study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dooley, Ian

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To report the impact of posture-related ocular cyclotorsion on one surgeon\\'s surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) results and the variance in SIA. SETTING: Institute of Eye Surgery, Whitfield Clinic, Waterford, Ireland. METHODS: This prospective randomized controlled study included eyes that had phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation. Eyes were randomly assigned to have (intervention group) or not have (control group) correction for posture-related ocular cyclotorsion. In the intervention group, the clear corneal incision was placed precisely at the 120-degree meridian with instruments designed to correct posture-related ocular cyclotorsion. In the control group, the surgeon endeavored to place the incision at the 120-degree meridian, but without markings. RESULTS: The intervention group comprised 41 eyes and the control group, 61 eyes. The mean absolute SIA was 0.74 diopters (D) in the intervention group and 0.78 D in the control group; the difference between groups was not statistically significant (P>.5, unpaired 2-tailed Student t test). The variance in SIA was 0.29 D(2) and 0.31 D(2), respectively; the difference between groups was not statistically significant (P>.5, unpaired F test). CONCLUSIONS: Attempts to correct for posture-related ocular cyclotorsion did not influence SIA or its variance in a single-surgeon series. These results should be interpreted with full appreciation of the limitations of currently available techniques to correct for posture-related ocular cyclotorsion in the clinical setting.

  15. Treatment of surgical brain injury by immune tolerance induced by intrathymic and hepatic portal vein injection of brain antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weijian; Liu, Yong; Liu, Baolong; Tan, Huajun; Lu, Hao; Wang, Hong; Yan, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Surgical brain injury (SBI) defines complications induced by intracranial surgery, such as cerebral edema and other secondary injuries. In our study, intrathymic and hepatic portal vein injection of allogeneic myelin basic protein (MBP) or autogeneic brain cell suspensions were administered to a standard SBI model. Serum pro-inflammatory IL-2, anti-inflammatory IL-4 concentrations and the CD4+T/CD8+T ratio were measured at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 d after surgery to verify the establishment of immune tolerance. Furthermore, we confirmed neuroprotective effects by evaluating neurological scores at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 d after SBI. Anti-Fas ligand (FasL) immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assays of brain sections were tested at 21 d after surgery. Intrathymic injections of MBP or autogeneic brain cell suspensions functioned by both suppressing secondary inflammatory reactions and improving prognoses, whereas hepatic portal vein injections of autogeneic brain cell suspensions exerted a better effect than MBP. Intrathymic and hepatic portal vein injections of MBP had equal effects on reducing secondary inflammation and improving prognoses. Otherwise, hepatic portal vein injections of autogeneic brain cell suspensions had better outcomes than intrathymic injections of autogeneic brain cell suspensions. Moreover, the benefit of injecting antigens into the thymus was outweighed by hepatic portal vein injections. PMID:27554621

  16. Intermittent Moderate Energy Restriction Improves Weight Loss Efficiency in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimon, Radhika V.; Shi, Yan-Chuan; Slack, Katy; Lee, Kailun; Fernando, Hamish A.; Nguyen, Amy D.; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Shu; Enriquez, Ronaldo F.; Lau, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Background Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled. Methods Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD) provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID) provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5–6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1–3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change) ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID)–(total average energy intake of controls)]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding. Results Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1–3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, Pweight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, Pweight loss relative to energy deficit in mice. PMID:26784324

  17. Monitoring the Progression of Renal Fibrosis by T2-weighted Signal Intensity and Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Cisplatin induced Rat Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan-Huan Wu; Hui-Ru Jia; Yi Zhang; Le Liu; Dong-Bo Xu; Hao-Ran Sun

    2015-01-01

    Background:Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI),with the applying of intravoxel incoherent motion model,has showed promising results in obtaining additional information about microperfusion and tubular flow associated with morphologic changes in chronic kidney diseases.The study aims to evaluate the potential of T2-weighted signal intensity (SI) and DWI with mono-and bi-exponential models to reflect the serial changes on cisplatin (CP) induced rat renal fibrosis models.Methods:Magnetic resonance exams were performed prior to and 2nd day,4th day,6th day,8th day,2nd week,3rd week and 4th week after CP injection at a 3.0T with an animal coil.Besides T2-weighted images (T2WI),DWI of 13 b values from 0 to 1500 s/mm2 was acquired.Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC),fluid fraction f,pure diffusivity D and pseudodiffusivity D* values were calculated.The regions of interest were placed on cortex (CO),outer stripe of the outer medulla (OM) and inner stripe of the outer medulla (OM),parameters were measured and compared among different time points.Five rats were scarified at each time point for pathological examination.Results:OM revealed remarkable hyperintense and broadened before it became an obscure thread,while CO demonstrated moderate hyperintense and IM didn't show significant change on T2WI.On all three stripes,ADC values decreased firstly then kept increasing since the 4th day;f values decreased on all stripes; D values had a tendency to increase with fluctuations but the changes didn't achieve statistical significance; D* values increased at the 2nd day then tended to be steady thereafter.Pathological findings revealed tubules epitheliums swelling followed by inflammation cells infiltration,interstitial fibrosis was observed since the 2nd week.Conclusions:All of T2-weighted SI,ADC,and biexponential models parameters vary during fibrotic process; biexponential model is superior to monoexponential model in separating changes of microperfusion together with tubular flow

  18. Weight loss induced by tyrosine kinase inhibitors of the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desar, Ingrid M E; Thijs, Annemarie M J; Mulder, Sasja F; Tack, Cees J J; van Herpen, Carla M L; van der Graaf, Winette T A

    2012-02-01

    Weight loss, cachexia and sarcopenia are profound problems in the frail oncologic patients. With the development and increasing use of angiogenesis inhibitors in metastatic cancer patients, the question arises as to their influence on body weight and composition. Angiogenesis is not only important for the growth, development and metastatic potential of tumors but also for physiological processes in adipogenesis. A less known approach of angiogenesis inhibitors is their experimental use in obese models. This review focuses on the effects on the body weight and composition of angiogenesis inhibitors, especially of those targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway.

  19. High fat diet-induced changes of mouse hepatic transcription and enhancer activity can be reversed by subsequent weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersbæk, Majken; Varticovski, Lyuba; Yang, Shutong

    2017-01-01

    of chow, to identify HFD-mediated changes to the hepatic transcriptional program that may persist after weight loss. Mice fed a HFD displayed increased fasting insulin levels, hepatosteatosis and major changes in hepatic gene transcription associated with modulation of H3K27Ac at enhancers...... fully restored to normal levels. Moreover, HFD-regulated H3K27Ac and mRNA levels returned to similar levels as control mice. These data demonstrates that the transcription regulatory landscape in the liver induced by HFD is highly dynamic and can be reversed by weight loss. This provides hope...... for efficient treatment of early obesity-associated changes to hepatic complications by simple weight loss intervention without persistent reprograming of the liver transcriptome....

  20. Metformin in prevention and treatment of antipsychotic induced weight gain: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varuni Asanka de Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most antipsychotics are associated with weight gain and other metabolic complications. Several randomized trials have shown metformin to be effective, but this still hasn’t been included in clinical guidelines on managing antipsychotic induced weight gain. Methods All double blind placebo controlled trials assessing the efficacy of metformin in the treatment of antipsychotic induced weight gain were included. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL and MEDLINE were searched for the period January 2000-December 2015. Meta-analysis was carried out using the random effects model. Results Meta analysis of 12 published studies with a total of 743 patients found that in patients treated with antipsychotics, metformin treatment resulted in significantly better anthropometric and metabolic parameters than placebo. The mean change in weight was −3.27 kg (95 % CI −4.66 to −1.89 (Z = 4.64, p < 0.001. Metformin compared to placebo resulted in significant reduction in BMI [−1.13 kg/m2 (95 % CI −1.61 to −0.66] and insulin resistance index [−1.49 (95 % CI −2.40 to −0.59] but not fasting blood sugar [−2.48 mg/dl (95 % CI −5.54 to 0.57]. Conclusion This meta-analysis confirms that metformin is effective in treating antipsychotic induced weight gain in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

  1. Changes in Leptin Signaling by SOCS3 Modulate Fasting-Induced Hyperphagia and Weight Regain in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, João A B; Silveira, Marina A; Lima, Leandro B; Furigo, Isadora C; Zampieri, Thais T; Ramos-Lobo, Angela M; Buonfiglio, Daniella C; Teixeira, Pryscila D S; Frazão, Renata; Donato, Jose

    2016-10-01

    Weight regain frequently follows interventions that reduce body weight, leading to a failure in long-term obesity treatment. Inhibitory proteins of the leptin signaling pathway, such as the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), have been studied in conditions that predispose animals to obesity. However, whether SOCS3 modulates postrestriction hyperphagia and weight regain remains unknown. Mice lacking SOCS3 protein specifically in leptin receptor (LepR)-expressing cells (LepR SOCS3 knockout [KO]) were generated and studied in fasting and refeeding conditions. LepR SOCS3 KO mice exhibited increased leptin sensitivity in the hypothalamus. Notably, LepR SOCS3 KO males and females showed attenuated food intake and weight regain after 48 hours of fasting. Postrestriction hyperleptinemia was also prevented in LepR SOCS3 KO mice. Next, we studied possible mechanisms and neural circuits involved in the SOCS3 effects. SOCS3 deletion did not prevent fasting- or refeeding-induced c-Fos expression in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) nor fasting-induced increased excitability of ARH LepR-expressing cells. On the other hand, SOCS3 ablation reduced the mRNA levels of hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptides during fasting (neuropeptide Y, agouti-related protein, orexin, and melanin-concentrating hormone). In summary, our findings suggest that increased leptin sensitivity contributes to the maintenance of a reduced body weight after food deprivation. In addition, the attenuated postrestriction food intake observed in mutant mice was not explained by fasting-induced changes in the activity of ARH neurons but exclusively by a lower transcription of orexigenic neuropeptides during fasting. These results indicate a partial dissociation between the regulation of neuronal activity and gene expression in ARH LepR-expressing cells.

  2. Early excision and grafting, an alternative approach to the surgical management of large body surface area levamisole-adulterated cocaine induced skin necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Jason; Gruber, Paul; Perry, Travis L

    2015-05-01

    Levamisole-adulterated cocaine as a cause of retiform purpura progressing to full-thickness skin necrosis was first documented in 2003 and currently comprises over 200 reported cases. Whereas, its presentation, pathophysiology, and diagnostic workup have been reasonably well-defined, only one publication has significantly detailed its surgical management. For this reason there exists a relative absence of data in comparison to its reported incidence to suggest a preferred treatment strategy. In the case mentioned, treatment emphasized delayed surgical intervention while awaiting lesion demarcation and the monitoring of autoantibodies. At our institution we offer an alternative approach and present the case of a 34 year old female who presented with 49% TBSA, levamisole-induced skin necrosis managed with early surgical excision and skin grafting. The patient presented three days following cocaine exposure with painful, purpura involving the ears, nose, buttocks, and bilateral lower extremities which quickly progressed to areas of full-thickness necrosis. Lab analysis demonstrated elevated p-ANCA and c-ANCA, as well as leukopenia, decreased C4 complement, and urinalysis positive for levamisole, corroborating the diagnosis. Contrasting the most thoroughly documented case in which the patient underwent first surgical excision on hospital day 36 and underwent 18 total excisions, our patient underwent first excision on hospital day 10 and received only one primary excision prior to definitive autografting. To our knowledge, this is the largest surface area surgically treated that did not result in surgical amputation or autoamputation of limbs or appendages, respectively. We contend that early excision and grafting provides optimal surgical management of this syndrome while avoiding the morbidity seen with delayed intervention.

  3. Mandatory weight loss during the wait for bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Nicole M; Raine, Kim D; Spence, John C

    2015-01-01

    Mandatory presurgical, behavior-induced weight loss, although not standard, is a relatively common practice among bariatric surgical clinics. We explore the patient's experience of this practice using phenomenology. We gathered experiential accounts from 7 individuals waiting to have the procedure at a large publically funded clinic in western Canada. In writing this article, we focused on four phenomenological themes: "just nod your head and carry on"-silencing through the ideal; waiting and weighing-promoting weight consciousness to the weight conscious; paying for surgical approval through weight loss; and presurgical weight loss and questioning the need for weight loss surgery altogether. We contrast the experiential findings with the clinical literature to question the impact and possible (unintended or unexpected) effects the practice might have, particularly on patients' lives. We situate this article within a larger discussion about the possible contribution of experiential knowledge to clinical guidelines, practices, and pedagogies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Ascent to altitude as a weight loss method: the good and bad of hypoxia inducible factor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Biff F; Clegg, Deborah J

    2014-02-01

    Given the epidemic of obesity worldwide there is a need for more novel and effective weight loss methods. Altitude is well known to be associated with weight loss and has actually been used as a method of weight reduction in obese subjects. This review demonstrates the critical role of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) in bringing about reductions in appetite and increases in energy expenditure characteristic of hypobaric hypoxia A MEDLINE search of English language articles through February 2013 identified publications associating altitude or hypobaric hypoxia with key words to include HIF, weight loss, appetite, basal metabolic rate, leptin, cellular energetics, and obesity. The data from these articles were synthesized to formulate a unique and novel mechanism by which HIF activation leads to alterations in appetite, basal metabolic rate, and reductions in body adiposity. A synthesis of previously published literature revealed mechanisms by which altitude induces activation of HIF, thereby suggesting this transcription factor regulates changes in cellular metabolism/energetics, activation of the central nervous system, as well as peripheral pathways leading to reductions in food intake and increases in energy expenditure. Here a unifying hypothesis is present suggesting that activation of HIF under conditions of altitude potentially leads to metabolic benefits that are dose dependent, gender and genetic specific, and results in adverse effects if the exposure is extreme. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  5. Olanzapine-high potency antipsychotic drug inducing significant weight gain: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Nađa P.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Olanzapine is a second generation antipsychotic (SGA with a high level of therapeutic effectiveness in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Along with the positive therapeutic effects, an increase of the body weight frequently occurs. According to the literature, the average weight gain is about 6-7 kg during several months of treatment. This could be valued as a moderate weight increase. CASE OUTLINE This article presents a case of a young female with schizophrenia, without clinical improvement with several antipsychotics (clozapine, risperidone, haloperidol and with the occurrence of significant neurological side effects. The treatment started with olanzapine (baseline was associated with good initial response (PANSS reduction 20% in the first two weeks and the improvement was maintained further on (PANSS reduction 50% after 16 weeks. Significant increase (20 kg, 40% in weight appeared during the following 16 weeks (BMI at baseline 17.9 kg/m2; BMI 16 weeks later 25.1 kg/m2. CONCLUSION High effectiveness of olanzapine in schizophrenia symptoms reduction was accompanied by a significant weight gain. However, this drug leads to impaired glucoregulation, dyslipidaemia etc. It also increases the risk of diabetes and cardio-vascular diseases, i.e. the main causes of mortality in schizophrenia after a suicide. Therefore, clinicians are suggested to focus on possible predictors of weight gain during olanzapine therapy, and act accordingly in order to prevent serious health consequences.

  6. Loss of UCP1 exacerbates Western diet-induced glycemic dysregulation independent of changes in body weight in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Nathan C; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Gastecki, Michelle L; Welly, Rebecca J; Scroggins, Rebecca J; Zidon, Terese M; Gaines, T'Keaya L; Woodford, Makenzie L; Karasseva, Natalia G; Kanaley, Jill A; Sacks, Harold S; Padilla, Jaume

    2017-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that female mice null for uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) would have increased susceptibility to Western diet-induced "whitening" of brown adipose tissue (AT) and glucose intolerance. Six-week-old C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) and UCP1 knockout (UCP1(-/-)) mice, housed at 25°C, were randomized to either a control diet (10% kcal from fat) or Western diet (45% kcal from fat and 1% cholesterol) for 28 wk. Loss of UCP1 had no effect on energy intake, energy expenditure, spontaneous physical activity, weight gain, or visceral white AT mass. Despite similar susceptibility to weight gain compared with WT, UCP1(-/-) exhibited whitening of brown AT evidenced by a striking ~500% increase in mass and appearance of large unilocular adipocytes, increased expression of genes related to inflammation, immune cell infiltration, and endoplasmic reticulum/oxidative stress (P diet (P diet. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that loss of UCP1 exacerbates Western diet-induced whitening of brown AT, glucose intolerance, and induces liver steatosis. Notably, the adverse metabolic manifestations of UCP1(-/-) were independent of changes in body weight, visceral adiposity, and energy expenditure. These novel findings uncover a previously unrecognized metabolic protective role of UCP1 that is independent of its already established role in energy homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. The importance of drug-induced sedation endoscopy (D.I.S.E.) techniques in surgical decision making: conventional versus target controlled infusion techniques-a prospective randomized controlled study and a retrospective surgical outcomes analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vito, Andrea; Agnoletti, Vanni; Zani, Gianluca; Corso, Ruggero Massimo; D'Agostino, Giovanni; Firinu, Elisabetta; Marchi, Chiara; Hsu, Ying-Shuo; Maitan, Stefano; Vicini, Claudio

    2017-02-17

    Drug-Induced Sedation Endoscopy (DISE) consists of the direct observation of the upper airways during sedative-induced sleep, allowing the identification of the sites of pharyngeal collapse, which is the main pathological event in Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). The Authors have compared Target Controlled Infusion (TCI) sedation endoscopy (TCI-DISE) technique to conventional DISE (CDISE), performed by a manual bolus injection of sedative agent, to recreate accurately and safely snoring and apnea patterns comparable to natural sleep. The authors conducted a prospective, randomized, long-term study and a retrospective analysis of surgical outcomes. The apnea-event observation and its correlation with pharyngeal collapse patterns is the primary endpoint; secondary endpoints are defined as stability and safety of sedation plan of DISE-TCI technique. From January 2009 to January 2011, OSA patients were included in the study and randomly allocated into two groups: the bolus injection conventional DISE group and the TCI-DISE group. Third endpoint is to compare the surgical outcomes enrolling OSA patients from January 2009 to June 2015. We recorded the complete apnea-event at oropharynx and hypopharynx levels in 15/50 pts in conventional DISE group (30%) and in 99/123 pts in TCI-DISE group (81%) (p DISE group because a severe desaturation occurred during the first bolus of propofol (1 mg/kg) (p = 0.4872 ns). We recorded instability of the sedation plan in 13 patients of conventional DISE group (65%) and 1 patient of the TCI-DISE group (5%) (p = 0.0001). In 37 TCI-DISE group surgical patients we reported a significant reduction of postoperative AHI (from 42.7 ± 20.2 to 11.4 ± 10.3) in comparison with postoperative AHI in 15 C-DISE group surgical patients (from 41.3 ± 23.4 to 20.4 ± 15.5) (p = 0.05). Our results suggest the DISE-TCI technique as first choice in performing sleep-endoscopy because of its increased accuracy, stability and

  8. A dual epigenomic approach for the search of obesity biomarkers: DNA methylation in relation to diet-induced weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milagro, Fermin I; Campión, Javier; Cordero, Paúl; Goyenechea, Estíbaliz; Gómez-Uriz, Ana M; Abete, Itziar; Zulet, Maria A; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2011-04-01

    Epigenetics could help to explain individual differences in weight loss after an energy-restriction intervention. Here, we identify novel potential epigenetic biomarkers of weight loss, comparing DNA methylation patterns of high and low responders to a hypocaloric diet. Twenty-five overweight or obese men participated in an 8-wk caloric restriction intervention. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and treated with bisulfite. The basal and endpoint epigenetic differences between high and low responders were analyzed by methylation microarray, which was also useful in comparing epigenetic changes due to the nutrition intervention. Subsequently, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was used to validate several relevant CpGs and the surrounding regions. DNA methylation levels in several CpGs located in the ATP10A and CD44 genes showed statistical baseline differences depending on the weight-loss outcome. At the treatment endpoint, DNA methylation levels of several CpGs on the WT1 promoter were statistically more methylated in the high than in the low responders. Finally, different CpG sites from WT1 and ATP10A were significantly modified as a result of the intervention. In summary, hypocaloric-diet-induced weight loss in humans could alter DNA methylation status of specific genes. Moreover, baseline DNA methylation patterns may be used as epigenetic markers that could help to predict weight loss.

  9. Acute drug induced hepatitis secondary to a weight loss product purchased over the internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cross Tim JS

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people now seek alternative methods of weight loss. The internet provides a readily available source of weight reduction products, the ingredients of which are often unclear. The authors describe a case of acute hepatitis in a 20 year old woman caused by such a product purchased over the internet. Case Presentation A 20-year old woman presented with a two day history of abdominal pain, vomiting and jaundice. There were no identifiable risk factors for chronic liver disease. Liver function tests demonstrated an acute hepatitis (aminoaspartate transaminase 1230 IU/L. A chronic liver disease screen was negative. The patient had started a weight loss product (Pro-Lean, purchased over the internet two weeks prior to presentation. The patient was treated conservatively, and improved. The sequence of events suggests an acute hepatitis caused by an herbal weight loss product. Conclusion This case report highlights the dangers of weight loss products available to the public over the internet, and the importance of asking specifically about alternative medicines in patients who present with an acute hepatitis.

  10. Cardiac natriuretic peptides in plasma increase after dietary induced weight loss in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kistorp, Caroline Michaela Nervil; Bliddal, Henning; Gøtze, Jens P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac natriuretic peptides are established biomarkers in heart disease, but are also affected by body mass index (BMI). The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of weight loss and changes in body composition following dietary intervention on plasma concentrations...... of the prohormones to A- and B-type natriuretic peptides (proANP and proBNP) and adrenomedullin (proADM). RESULTS: A total of 52 healthy obese subjects, 47 women and 5 men (BMI 36.5 ± 5.6 kg/m(2)) were randomised to either an intensive weight reduction programme using a combination of very low calorie diet (810 kcal...... pmol/L; P weight loss of 6% (P

  11. Improvement of impaired diastolic left ventricular function after diet-induced weight reduction in severe obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian, Sevda; Stein, Juergen; Bauer, Boris; Teupe, Claudius

    2017-01-01

    Background/objectives Obesity is independently associated with left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction and altered cardiac morphology. Morbidity and mortality in patients with diastolic dysfunction are similar to values observed in patients with systolic heart failure. We hypothesized that dysfunctional cardiac responses in people with obesity are reversible after weight loss. Thus, we studied the effect of dietary weight reduction on LV diastolic function as well as on cardiac structure using transthoracic echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Subjects/methods Thirty-two subjects with obesity underwent a 12-week low-calorie fasting phase of a formula diet. Echocardiographic tissue Doppler indices of diastolic function and measurements of cardiac size were obtained prior to and after the fasting phase. Results A 12-week diet significantly reduced body mass index from 40.3 ± 6.6 kg/m2 to 33.2 ± 6.1 kg/m2 (p < 0.01). Weight loss was associated with a significant reduction in blood pressure and heart rate. Echocardiography revealed diastolic dysfunction in subjects with obesity, which was improved by dieting. After weight loss, trans-mitral Doppler echocardiography showed a significant reduction in A-wave velocity, from 65.8 ± 19.2 cm/s to 57.0 ± 16.8 cm/s, and an increase in E/A ratio from 1.2 ± 0.4 to 1.4 ± 0.5 (p < 0.01). TDI displayed a significantly lower a′-wave velocity (10.3 ± 2.3 cm/s and 8.9 ± 1.7 cm/s; p < 0.01). Left atrial and LV dimensions were normal and remained unchanged after weight loss. Conclusion Obesity is associated with diastolic dysfunction. A 12-week low-calorie diet with successful weight loss can reduce blood pressure and heart rate and partially normalize diastolic dysfunction. PMID:28123309

  12. Diet induced weight loss accelerates onset of negative alliesthesia in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frankham Patrick

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physiological and behavioral responses to hypocaloric diet are to increase energy intake to defend a steady body weight. We utilized the method of "negative alliesthesia" for measuring the hedonic reponse to sweet stimulus before (Initial session and 3 months after entering a weight loss program. The negative alliesthesia test is known by physiologists but few clinical data exist. It is based on the observation that repeated pleasant gustatory stimuli turn into unpleasantness in the process of alliesthesia. At first visit participants repeatedly ingested sweet stimuli until they found them unpleasant and rated quantitatively on a linear analogue scale their hedonic experience. This procedure was repeated every 3 min until participants felt displeasure to end the session. The same protocol was followed after three months of following a weight loss diet. Dieting energy intake was from 1400 – 2000 kcal/d for 8 wk. Energy composition was 50% carb:25% prot: 25% lipid. After 8 wk caloric intake increased by 50 kcal/wk, to reach daily intake of 1800 – 2400 kcal/d. Energy composition was 50% carb:22% prot: 27% lipid. We report results on the effect of slow weight loss on negative alliesthesia in ten obese female participants enrolled in a commercial diet program based on Canada's Food Guide (Mincavi®. Results Results showed that diet lowered the mean BMI (Initial session 36.8 +/- 1.8 vs. 3 mo 34.9 +/- 1.8 kg/m2. At 3 mo the onset of negative alliesthesia, time to abandon experimental session, was shortened (Initial session 33 vs. 3 mo 24 min. The same trend was observed in the time to reach indifference (Initial session 21.9 +/- 3.8 vs. 3 mo 16.2 +/-2.4 min. There was no observed difference in maximum (Initial session +79.5 +/- 11.7; 3 mo +94.5 +/- 9.9 mm and minimum (Initial session -90.0 +/- 14.4; 3 mo -106 +/- 11.1 mm hedonic rating. Conclusion Earlier onset of negative alliesthesia, as seen in our participants, is not

  13. The effects of diet- and RYGB-induced weight loss on insulin sensitivity in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Merethe; Lund, Michael Taulo; Jørgensen, Anne Line Kjærholm

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The impact of diet-induced weight loss and weight loss due to RYGB in patients with (T2DM, N = 16) and without (OB, N = 27) type 2 diabetes was studied. METHODS: At inclusion (A), after diet-induced weight loss (B), 4 months post-surgery (C) and 18 months post-surgery (D) body composition......, and approximately one-third of the total improvement in GIR in T2DM was observed after the diet-induced weight loss of only ~6 kg (B). Insulin clearance, visceral fat and fasting plasma insulin also improved significantly after the diet (P ... not change significantly, but IMTG decreased significantly consistent with significant increases in GIR. Metabolic flexibility and hepatic insulin sensitivity improved after RYGB. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic improvements of RYGB are present already after the diet-induced weight loss prior to surgery. GLUT4...

  14. Thermoneutrality results in prominent diet-induced body weight differences in C57BL/6J mice, not paralleled by diet-induced metabolic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoevenaars, Femke P M; Bekkenkamp-Grovenstein, Melissa; Janssen, Rolf J R J; Heil, Sandra G; Bunschoten, Annelies; Hoek-van den Hil, Elise F; Snaas-Alders, Sophie; Teerds, Katja; van Schothorst, Evert M; Keijer, Jaap

    2014-04-01

    Mice are usually housed at 20-24 °C. At thermoneutrality (28 °C) larger diet-induced differences in obesity are seen. We tested whether this leads to large differences in metabolic health parameters. We performed a 14-wk dietary intervention in C57BL/6J mice at 28 °C and assessed adiposity and metabolic health parameters for a semipurified low fat (10 energy%) diet and a moderate high fat (30 energy%) diet. A large and significant diet-induced differential increase in body weight, adipose tissue mass, adipocyte size, serum leptin level, and, to some extent, cholesterol level was observed. No adipose tissue inflammation was seen. No differential effect of the diets on serum glucose, free fatty acids, triacylglycerides, insulin, adiponectin, resistin, PAI-1, MMP-9, sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, sE-selectin, IL-6, ApoE, fibrinogen levels, or HOMA index was observed. Also in muscle no differential effect on mitochondrial density, mitochondrial respiratory control ratio, or mRNA expression of metabolic genes was found. Finally, in liver no differential effect on weight, triacylglycerides level, aconitase/citrate synthase activity ratio was seen. Low fat diet and moderate high fat diet induce prominent body weight differences at thermoneutrality, which is not paralleled by metabolic differences. Our data rather suggest that thermoneutrality alters metabolic homeostasis. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Low molecular weight chemical-induced occupational asthma : The focus on alveolar macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valstar, Dingena Labine

    2004-01-01

    Asthma is a very common disorder and its prevalence has increased over the past two to three decades. The proportion of cases attributable to occupational exposure at the workplace is estimated at ~10% of adult-onset asthma. Most cases of occupational asthma are caused by low molecular weight

  16. Methanol-induced chain termination in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) biopolymers: molecular weight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    A systematic study was performed to demonstrate the impact of methanol (MeOH) on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) synthesis and molecular weight (MW) control. Glycerine (init. conc. = 1.0%; w/v), was used as the primary carbon source in batch-culture fermentations with varying concentrations (0 to 0.85...

  17. Olanzapine-induced weight gain: lessons learned from developing rat models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaal, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Olanzapine is an effective and commonly prescribed antipsychotic drug, used for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Unfortunately significant weight gain is a common side effect. In order to effectively address this side effect, it is crucial to gain insight into the underlying mech

  18. Olanzapine-induced weight gain: lessons learned from developing rat models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaal, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Olanzapine is an effective and commonly prescribed antipsychotic drug, used for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Unfortunately significant weight gain is a common side effect. In order to effectively address this side effect, it is crucial to gain insight into the underlying

  19. Weight loss following diet-induced obesity does not alter colon tumorigenesis in the AOM mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Kandy T; Enos, Reilly T; Carson, Meredith S; Cranford, Taryn L; Bader, Jackie E; Chatzistamou, Ioulia; Singh, Udai P; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Davis, J Mark; Carson, James A; Murphy, E Angela

    2016-10-01

    Obesity presents a significant public health concern given its association with increased cancer incidence, unfavorable prognosis, and metastasis. However, there is very little literature on the effects of weight loss, following obesity, on risk for colon cancer or liver cancer. Therefore, we sought to study whether intentional weight loss through diet manipulation was capable of mitigating colon and liver cancer in mice. We fed mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) comprised of 47% carbohydrates, 40% fat, and 13% protein for 20 wk to mimic human obesity. Subsequently, azoxymethane (AOM) was used to promote colon and liver carcinogenesis. A subset of obese mice was then switched to a low-fat diet (LFD) containing 67.5% carbohydrate, 12.2% fat, and 20% protein to promote intentional weight loss. Body weight loss and excess fat reduction did not protect mice from colon cancer progression and liver dysplastic lesion in the AOM-chemical-cancer model even though these mice had improved blood glucose and leptin levels. Intentional weight loss in AOM-treated mice actually produced histological changes that resemble dysplastic alterations in the liver and presented a higher percentage of F4/80(+)CD206(+) macrophages and activated T cells (CD4(+)CD69(+)) in the spleen and lymph nodes, respectively. In addition, the liver of AOM-treated mice exposed to a HFD during the entire period of the experiment exhibited a marked increase in proliferation and pNF-κB activation. Altogether, these data suggest that intentional weight loss following chemical-induced carcinogenesis does not affect colon tumorigenesis but may in fact negatively impact liver repair mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Weight loss reversed obesity-induced HGF/c-Met pathway and basal-like breast cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha eSundaram

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies demonstrate that obesity is associated with an aggressive subtype of breast cancer called basal-like breast cancer (BBC. Using the C3(1-TAg murine model of BBC, we previously demonstrated that mice displayed an early onset of tumors when fed obesogenic diets in the adult window of susceptibility. Obesity was also shown to elevate mammary gland expression and activation of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF/c-Met compared to lean controls, a pro-tumorigenic pathway associated with BBC in patients. Epidemiologic studies estimate that weight loss could prevent a large proportion of BBC. We sought to investigate whether weight loss in adulthood prior to tumor onset would protect mice from accelerated tumorigenesis observed in obese mice. Using a life-long model of obesity, C3(1-TAg mice were weaned onto and maintained on an obesogenic high fat diet. Obese mice displayed significant elevations in tumor progression, but not latency or burden. Tumor progression was significantly reversed when obese mice were induced to lose weight by switching to a control low fat diet prior to tumor onset compared to mice maintained on obesogenic diet. It is likely that other factors regulated tumor progression, hence we investigated the HGF/c-Met pathway known to regulate tumorigenesis. Importantly, HGF/c-Met expression in normal mammary glands and c-Met in tumors was elevated with obesity and was significantly reversed with weight loss. Changes in tumor growth could not be explained by measures of HGF action including phospho-AKT or phospho-S6. Other mediators associated with oncogenesis such as hyperinsulinemia and a high leptin/adiponectin ratio were elevated by obesity and reduced with weight loss. In sum, weight loss significantly blunted the obesity-responsive pro-tumorigenic HGF/c-Met pathway and improved several metabolic risk factors associated with BBC, which together may have contributed to the dramatic reversal of obesity-driven tumor

  1. Weight loss-induced cellular stress in subcutaneous adipose tissue and the risk for weight regain in overweight and obese adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roumans, N.J.T.; Vink, R.G.; Bouwman, F.G.; Fazelzadeh, P.; Baak, van M.A.; Mariman, E.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background/objective: Weight loss is often followed by weight regain after the dietary intervention (DI). Cellular stress is increased in adipose tissue of obese individuals. However, the relation between cellular stress and weight regain is unclear. Previously, we observed increased adipose

  2. Preventing olanzapine-induced weight gain using betahistine: a study in a rat model with chronic olanzapine treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiamei Lian

    Full Text Available Olanzapine is the one of first line antipsychotic drug for schizophrenia and other serious mental illness. However, it is associated with troublesome metabolic side-effects, particularly body weight gain and obesity. The antagonistic affinity to histamine H1 receptors (H1R of antipsychotic drugs has been identified as one of the main contributors to weight gain/obesity side-effects. Our previous study showed that a short term (2 weeks combination treatment of betahistine (an H1R agonist and H3R antagonist and olanzapine (O+B reduced (-45% body weight gain induced by olanzapine in drug-naïve rats. A key issue is that clinical patients suffering with schizophrenia, bipolar disease and other mental disorders often face chronic, even life-time, antipsychotic treatment, in which they have often had previous antipsychotic exposure. Therefore, we investigated the effects of chronic O+B co-treatment in controlling body weight in female rats with chronic and repeated exposure of olanzapine. The results showed that co-administration of olanzapine (3 mg/kg, t.i.d. and betahistine (9.6 mg/kg, t.i.d. significantly reduced (-51.4% weight gain induced by olanzapine. Co-treatment of O+B also led to a decrease in feeding efficiency, liver and fat mass. Consistently, the olanzapine-only treatment increased hypothalamic H1R protein levels, as well as hypothalamic pAMPKα, AMPKα and NPY protein levels, while reducing the hypothalamic POMC, and UCP1 and PGC-1α protein levels in brown adipose tissue (BAT. The olanzapine induced changes in hypothalamic H1R, pAMPKα, BAT UCP1 and PGC-1α could be reversed by co-treatment of O+B. These results supported further clinical trials to test the effectiveness of co-treatment of O+B for controlling weight gain/obesity side-effects in schizophrenia with chronic antipsychotic treatment.

  3. Improvement of impaired diastolic left ventricular function after diet-induced weight reduction in severe obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimian S

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sevda Karimian,1 Juergen Stein,2 Boris Bauer,3 Claudius Teupe1 1Department of Medicine – Cardiology, 2Department of Medicine – Gastroenterology, 3Department of Radiology, Krankenhaus Sachsenhausen, Teaching Hospital of Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany Background/objectives: Obesity is independently associated with left ventricular (LV diastolic dysfunction and altered cardiac morphology. Morbidity and mortality in patients with diastolic dysfunction are similar to values observed in patients with systolic heart failure. We hypothesized that dysfunctional cardiac responses in people with obesity are reversible after weight loss. Thus, we studied the effect of dietary weight reduction on LV diastolic function as well as on cardiac structure using transthoracic echocardiography and tissue Doppler ­imaging (TDI. Subjects/methods: Thirty-two subjects with obesity underwent a 12-week low-calorie fasting phase of a formula diet. Echocardiographic tissue Doppler indices of diastolic function and measurements of cardiac size were obtained prior to and after the fasting phase. Results: A 12-week diet significantly reduced body mass index from 40.3 ± 6.6 kg/m2 to 33.2 ± 6.1 kg/m2 (p < 0.01. Weight loss was associated with a significant reduction in blood pressure and heart rate. Echocardiography revealed diastolic dysfunction in subjects with obesity, which was improved by dieting. After weight loss, trans-mitral Doppler echocardiography showed a significant reduction in A-wave velocity, from 65.8 ± 19.2 cm/s to 57.0 ± 16.8 cm/s, and an increase in E/A ratio from 1.2 ± 0.4 to 1.4 ± 0.5 (p < 0.01. TDI displayed a significantly lower a′-wave velocity (10.3 ± 2.3 cm/s and 8.9 ± 1.7 cm/s; p < 0.01. Left atrial and LV dimensions were normal and remained unchanged after weight loss. Conclusion: Obesity is associated with diastolic dysfunction. A 12-week low-calorie diet with successful weight loss can reduce blood pressure

  4. Drug-induced gingival enlargement: biofilm control and surgical therapy with gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser-A 2-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Guaré, Renata; Costa, Soraya Carvalho; Baeder, Fernando; de Souza Merli, Luiz Antonio; Dos Santos, Maria Teresa Botti Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Drug-induced gingival enlargement has been reported in patients treated with various types of anticonvulsant drugs, and is generally associated with the presence of plaque, gingival inflammation, and a genetic predisposition. Effective treatment includes daily oral hygiene and periodic professional prophylaxis. However, in some patients, surgical removal of the gingival tissue overgrowth becomes necessary. The patient in this case report was mentally impaired and had severe drug-induced gingival enlargement. This report describes the initial protocol, the gingivectomy, and a 2-year follow-up. A diode laser was used as an effective and safe method to remove the patient's overgrown gingival tissue.

  5. Neuromodulation targeted to the prefrontal cortex induces changes in energy intake and weight loss in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, Marci E; Alonso-Alonso, Miguel; Piaggi, Paolo; Weise, Christopher M; Jumpertz-von Schwartzenberg, Reiner; Reinhardt, Martin; Wassermann, Eric M; Venti, Colleen A; Votruba, Susanne B; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    Obesity is associated with decreased activity in the prefrontal cortex. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modifies cortical excitability and may facilitate improved control of eating. The energy intake (EI) and body weight in subjects who received cathodal versus sham (study 1) and subsequent anodal versus sham (study 2) tDCS aimed at the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (LDLPFC) were measured. Nine (3m, 6f) healthy volunteers with obesity (94 ± 15 kg [M ± SD]; 42 ± 8 y) were admitted as inpatients for 9 days to participate in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover experiment. Study 1: following 5 days of a weight-maintaining diet, participants received cathodal or sham tDCS (2 mA, 40 min) on three consecutive mornings and then ate ad libitum from a computerized vending machine, which recorded EI. Weight was measured daily. Study 2: participants repeated the study, maintaining original assignment to active (this time anodal) and sham. Participants tended to consume fewer kilocalories per day (P = 0.07), significantly fewer kilocalories from soda (P = 0.02) and fat (P = 0.03), and had a greater % weight loss (P = 0.009) during anodal versus cathodal tDCS. The results indicated a role for the LDLPFC in obesity and food intake. This proof of concept study suggested, for the first time, the potential application of anodal tDCS to facilitate weight loss. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  6. Association study of olanzapine-induced weight gain and therapeutic response with SERT gene polymorphisms in female schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozina, Nada; Medved, Vesna; Kuzman, Martina Rojnic; Sain, Ivica; Sertic, Jadranka

    2007-09-01

    We investigated the relationships between L/S promoter (SERTPR) and l/s intron2 (SERTin2) genetic variants of serotonin transporter (SERT) polymorphisms with olanzapine-induced weight gain and treatment response in 94 female schizophrenic patients treated with olanzapine for up to 3 months. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated for each patient prior to olanzapine administration and 3 months afterwards. To assess and evaluate improvement of clinical psychotic symptoms and therapeutic response to the antipsychotic, all patients were rated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome ScaLe (PANSS). Overall, the presence of S SERTPR allelic variant and SS genotype was associated with significantly higher weight gain in subjects who were non-obese at the time of admission. The presence of L SERTPR variant was associated with significantly better treatment response measured with total PANSS and general PANSS subscale, while the presence of l SERTin2 variant determined better treatment response only in several items. No evidence of linkage disequilibrium between the two loci was found in the sample. These findings identify genetic factors associated with oLanzapine-induced weight gain and treatment response in femaLe schizophrenic patients.

  7. Impact of Orlistat-Induced Weight Loss on Diastolic Function and Heart Rate Variability in Severely Obese Subjects with Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Martin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Determine the impact of Orlistat-induced weight loss on metabolic profile and cardiovascular function in severely obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. Twenty-nine patients were randomized either to a nonplacebo control group or to a treatment group with Orlistat thrice a day. Metabolic profile, anthropometric parameters, heart rate variability indices, and echocardiographic variables were measured before and after a 12-week treatment period. Results. Treatment with Orlistat induced a modest but significant weight loss compared to controls (3.7 ± 3.0 versus 0.5 ± 2.2 kg, resp.; P=.003. There was significant decrease in fasting glycemia (7.9 ± 3.0 versus 6.7 ± 2.2 mmol/L; P=.03 and significant improvements in left ventricular diastolic function (P=.03 and in the sympathovagal balance (LF/HF ratio (P=.04 in the Orlistat group. Conclusion. These results suggest that a modest weight loss improves fasting glycemia, left ventricular diastolic function, and sympathovagal balance in severely obese patients with type 2 diabetes.

  8. Parasitic nematode-induced modulation of body weight and associated metabolic dysfunction in mouse models of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhonghan; Grinchuk, Viktoriya; Smith, Allen; Qin, Bolin; Bohl, Jennifer A; Sun, Rex; Notari, Luigi; Zhang, Zhongyan; Sesaki, Hiromi; Urban, Joseph F; Shea-Donohue, Terez; Zhao, Aiping

    2013-06-01

    Obesity is associated with a chronic low-grade inflammation characterized by increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines that are implicated in disrupted metabolic homeostasis. Parasitic nematode infection induces a polarized Th2 cytokine response and has been explored to treat autoimmune diseases. We investigated the effects of nematode infection against obesity and the associated metabolic dysfunction. Infection of RIP2-Opa1KO mice or C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis decreased weight gain and was associated with improved glucose metabolism. Infection of obese mice fed the HFD reduced body weight and adipose tissue mass, ameliorated hepatic steatosis associated with a decreased expression of key lipogenic enzymes/mediators, and improved glucose metabolism, accompanied by changes in the profile of metabolic hormones. The infection resulted in a phenotypic change in adipose tissue macrophages that was characterized by upregulation of alternative activation markers. Interleukin-13 (IL-13) activation of the STAT6 signaling pathway was required for the infection-induced attenuation of steatosis but not for improved glucose metabolism, whereas weight loss was attributed to both IL-13/STAT6-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Parasitic nematode infection has both preventive and therapeutic effects against the development of obesity and associated features of metabolic dysfunction in mice.

  9. Quercetin decreases high-fat diet induced body weight gain and accumulation of hepatic and circulating lipids in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek-van den Hil, E F; van Schothorst, E M; van der Stelt, I; Swarts, H J M; Venema, D; Sailer, M; Vervoort, J J M; Hollman, P C H; Rietjens, I M C M; Keijer, J

    2014-09-01

    Dietary flavonoids may protect against cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Increased circulating lipid levels and hepatic lipid accumulation are known risk factors for CVD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of the flavonoid quercetin on hepatic lipid metabolism in mice with high-fat diet induced body weight gain and hepatic lipid accumulation. Adult male mice received a 40 energy% high-fat diet without or with supplementation of 0.33 % (w/w) quercetin for 12 weeks. Body weight gain was 29 % lower in quercetin fed mice (p lipid accumulation to 29 % of the amount present in the control mice (p lipid profiling revealed that the supplementation significantly lowered serum lipid levels. Global gene expression profiling of liver showed that cytochrome P450 2b (Cyp2b) genes, key target genes of the transcription factor constitutive androstane receptor (Car; official symbol Nr1i3), were downregulated. Quercetin decreased high-fat diet induced body weight gain, hepatic lipid accumulation and serum lipid levels. This was accompanied by regulation of cytochrome P450 2b genes in liver, which are possibly under transcriptional control of CAR. The quercetin effects are likely dependent on the fat content of the diet.

  10. Gastric Bypass Promotes More Lipid Mobilization Than a Similar Weight Loss Induced by Low-Calorie Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Kullberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recently, we found large reductions in visceral and subcutaneous fat one month after gastric bypass (GBP, without any change in liver fat content. Purpose. Firstly to characterize weight loss-induced lipid mobilization after one month with preoperative low-calorie diet (LCD and a subsequent month following GBP, and secondly, to discuss the observations with reference to our previous published findings after GBP intervention alone. Methods. 15 morbidly obese women were studied prior to LCD, at GBP, and one month after GBP. Effects on metabolism were measured by magnetic resonance techniques and blood tests. Results. Body weight was similarly reduced after both months (mean: −8.0 kg, n=13. Relative body fat changes were smaller after LCD than after GBP (−7.1±3.6% versus −10±3.2%, P=.029, n=13. Liver fat fell during the LCD month (−41%, P=.001, n=13 but was unaltered one month after GBP (+12%. Conclusion. Gastric bypass seems to cause a greater lipid mobilization than a comparable LCD-induced weight loss. One may speculate that GBP-altered gastrointestinal signalling sensitizes adipose tissue to lipolysis, promoting the changes observed.

  11. Effect of diet-induced weight loss on plasma apelin and cytokine levels in individuals with the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, M V; Laaksonen, D E; Karhu, T; Karhunen, L; Laitinen, T; Kainulainen, S; Rissanen, A; Niskanen, L; Herzig, K H

    2009-11-01

    Adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ that secretes signaling molecules involved in the regulation of insulin sensitivity, food intake and inflammation. Apelin is a peptide secreted by adipose tissue that has been shown to modulate cardiovascular tone in animals. The aim of this study was to measure abdominal fat, blood pressure and circulating apelin, adiponectin, leptin, ghrelin, TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels in patients with the metabolic syndrome after a diet-induced weight loss. 35 obese individuals with the metabolic syndrome underwent an 8-week very-low-calorie diet (VLCD) and a 6-month weight maintenance period (WM) with 120mg orlistat or placebo administered 3 times daily. VLCD and WM (-15.1+/-1.0kg) decreased mean arterial pressure (MAP), insulin, leptin, triglycerides and visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Moreover, adiponectin increased in response to the weight loss. However, the overall changes in plasma apelin, TNF-alpha and IL-6 were non-significant. A correlation between plasma apelin and TNF-alpha was observed at baseline (0.41, pmetabolism and adiponectin in response to weight loss, no significant changes in plasma apelin, TNF-alpha and IL-6 were observed. However, apelin significantly correlated with TNF-alpha and MAP. These results suggest that apelin may not be that strongly correlated with the fat mass as an adipokine like the more abundant adipokines adiponectin or leptin and it might be involved in the regulation of inflammation and cardiovascular tone.

  12. Risperidone-induced weight gain is mediated through shifts in the gut microbiome and suppression of energy expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Bahr

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Risperidone is a second-generation antipsychotic that causes weight gain. We hypothesized that risperidone-induced shifts in the gut microbiome are mechanistically involved in its metabolic consequences. Wild-type female C57BL/6J mice treated with risperidone (80 μg/day exhibited significant excess weight gain, due to reduced energy expenditure, which correlated with an altered gut microbiome. Fecal transplant from risperidone-treated mice caused a 16% reduction in total resting metabolic rate in naïve recipients, attributable to suppression of non-aerobic metabolism. Risperidone inhibited growth of cultured fecal bacteria grown anaerobically more than those grown aerobically. Finally, transplant of the fecal phage fraction from risperidone-treated mice was sufficient to cause excess weight gain in naïve recipients, again through reduced energy expenditure. Collectively, these data highlight a major role for the gut microbiome in weight gain following chronic use of risperidone, and specifically implicates the modulation of non-aerobic resting metabolism in this mechanism.

  13. High fat diet-induced changes of mouse hepatic transcription and enhancer activity can be reversed by subsequent weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siersbæk, Majken; Varticovski, Lyuba; Yang, Shutong; Baek, Songjoon; Nielsen, Ronni; Mandrup, Susanne; Hager, Gordon L; Chung, Jay H; Grøntved, Lars

    2017-01-10

    Epigenetic factors have been suggested to play an important role in metabolic memory by trapping and maintaining initial metabolic changes within the transcriptional regulatory machinery. In this study we fed mice a high fat diet (HFD) for seven weeks followed by additional five weeks of chow, to identify HFD-mediated changes to the hepatic transcriptional program that may persist after weight loss. Mice fed a HFD displayed increased fasting insulin levels, hepatosteatosis and major changes in hepatic gene transcription associated with modulation of H3K27Ac at enhancers, but no significant changes in chromatin accessibility, indicating that HFD-regulated gene transcription is primarily controlled by modulating the activity of pre-established enhancers. After return to the same body weight as chow fed control mice, the fasting insulin, glucose, and hepatic triglyceride levels were fully restored to normal levels. Moreover, HFD-regulated H3K27Ac and mRNA levels returned to similar levels as control mice. These data demonstrates that the transcription regulatory landscape in the liver induced by HFD is highly dynamic and can be reversed by weight loss. This provides hope for efficient treatment of early obesity-associated changes to hepatic complications by simple weight loss intervention without persistent reprograming of the liver transcriptome.

  14. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF UNSTEADY TURBULENT FLOW INDUCED BY TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEVATOR CAR AND COUNTER WEIGHT SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A two-dimensional model of unsteady turbulent flow induced by high-speed elevator system was established in the present study. The research was focused on the instantaneous variation of the aerodynamic force on the car structure during traversing motion of the counter weight in the hoistway. A dynamic meshing method was employed to treat the multi-body motion system to avoid poor distortion of meshes. A comprehensive understanding of this significant aspect was obtained by varying the horizontal gap (δ=0.1m, 0.2m, and 0.3m) between the elevator car and the counter weight, and the moving speed (U0=2m/s, 6m/s, and 10m/s) of the elevator system. A pulsed intensification of the aerodynamic force on the elevator car and subsequent appearance of large valley with negative aerodynamic force were clearly observed in the numerical results. In parameters studied (δ=0.1m, U0=2m/s, 6m/s, 10m/s), the peaked horizontal and vertical forces are respectively 7-11 and 4.3-5.65 times of that when the counter weight is far from the car. These results demonstrated the prominent influence of the traversing counter weight on aerodynamic force on the elevator car, which is of great significance to designers of high-speed elevator system.

  15. Three months of high-fructose feeding fails to induce excessive weight gain or leptin resistance in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik J Tillman

    Full Text Available High-fructose diets have been implicated in obesity via impairment of leptin signaling in humans and rodents. We investigated whether fructose-induced leptin resistance in mice could be used to study the metabolic consequences of fructose consumption in humans, particularly in children and adolescents. Male C57Bl/6 mice were weaned to a randomly assigned diet: high fructose, high sucrose, high fat, or control (sugar-free, low-fat. Mice were maintained on their diets for at least 14 weeks. While fructose-fed mice regularly consumed more kcal and expended more energy, there was no difference in body weight compared to control by the end of the study. Additionally, after 14 weeks, both fructose-fed and control mice displayed similar leptin sensitivity. Fructose-feeding also did not change circulating glucose, triglycerides, or free fatty acids. Though fructose has been linked to obesity in several animal models, our data fail to support a role for fructose intake through food lasting 3 months in altering of body weight and leptin signaling in mice. The lack of impact of fructose in the food of growing mice on either body weight or leptin sensitivity over this time frame was surprising, and important information for researchers interested in fructose and body weight regulation.

  16. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN BLOOD PRESSURE AND BODY WEIGHT, SERUM LEPTIN IN HIGH CALORIE DIET-INDUCED OBESE RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Zhi; Ma Aiqun; Yang Chun; Tian Hongyan

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine the change of body weight (BW) and blood pressure (BP) in obese rats, clarify relationships between BP and BW and other factors. Methods Male Spraque-Dawley rats were fed either with normal diet (ND) or high calorie diet (HC) for 20 weeks. BW and BP of tail artery were observed biweekly and tetraweekly respectively; serum leptin and fasting insulin (FINS) were detected by enzyme-linked immunoadsordent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) respectively. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and free fatty acid(FFA) were measured by conventional means. Results BW, abdominal fat weight (AFW), ratio of abdominal fat weight to body weight (RF/W), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), serum levels of leptin and FINS, FPG, FFA increased in the HD group after 20 weeks diet intervention (P<0.05 or P<0.01). SBP was strongly correlated with BW, leptin, FINS and FFA (P<0.05), DBP was correlated with FFA (r=0.47, P<0.05). In addition, leptin was positively correlated with BW, AFW, RF/W, FINS and FFA (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion In this study of high calorie-diet induced rats, the gain of BW is accompanied by increased BP. The obese rats have hyperleptinemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia which may have important effects on the development of obesity-related hypertension. RF/W is the key factor in which affect serum leptin level.

  17. Effects of 4-methylumbelliferone and high molecular weight hyaluronic acid on the inflammation of corneal stromal cells induced by LPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Hao, Peng; Liu, Guangjie; Wang, Weiyi; Han, Ruifang; Jiang, Zhixin; Li, Xuan

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the effects of hyaluronic acid (HA) on the inflammation of corneal fibroblasts induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Primary rabbit corneal keratocytes were isolated with collagenase. The keratocytes were cultured in a serum-containing medium to induce corneal fibroblasts, which represented the wound repair phenotype of corneal keratocytes. Corneal fibroblasts were treated with LPS with or without 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) / high molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HMWHA). The gene expression was evaluated via real-time PCR, immunofluorescence, and western blot. The release of inflammatory cytokines and HA was determined by ELISA. Three types of hyaluronan synthase (HAS) were detected in corneal fibroblasts. LPS stimulation caused the up-regulation of HAS1 and HAS2 expression in corneal fibroblasts. LPS-induced HAS2 expression was significantly inhibited by 4-MU, and accompanied by decreased HA release by the corneal fibroblasts. In the corneal fibroblasts, 4-MU reduced the LPS-stimulated up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines including IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and also attenuated the LPS-induced up-regulation of inflammatory related receptors including TLR2, TLR4, CD44, and CXCR1. HMWHA treatment resulted in a significant decline in the expression of IL-6, IL-8, TLR4, and CXCR1 responded to LPS stimulation. Consistent with mRNA expression of level, the up-regulation of the release of IL-6 and IL-8 induced by LPS in corneal fibroblasts was significantly attenuated by 4-MU and HMWHA. The LPS-induced expression of IL-8 and its receptor CXCR1 at both the mRNA and protein level were significantly attenuated by 4-MU and HMWHA. The inhibitor of HA synthesis 4-MU, and HMWHA successfully reduced LPS-induced inflammation in corneal fibroblasts. The mechanism might be via the inhibition of LPS-induced TLR4 up-regulation.

  18. Action relevance induces an attentional weighting of representations in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Anna; Crawford, J Douglas; Schubö, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Information maintained in visual working memory (VWM) can be strategically weighted according to its task-relevance. This is typically studied by presenting cues during the maintenance interval, but under natural conditions, the importance of certain aspects of our visual environment is mostly determined by intended actions. We investigated whether representations in VWM are also weighted with respect to their potential action relevance. In a combined memory and movement task, participants memorized a number of items and performed a pointing movement during the maintenance interval. The test item in the memory task was subsequently presented either at the movement goal or at another location. We found that performance was better for test items presented at a location that corresponded to the movement goal than for test items presented at action-irrelevant locations. This effect was sensitive to the number of maintained items, suggesting that preferential maintenance of action relevant information becomes particularly important when the demand on VWM is high. We argue that weighting according to action relevance is mediated by the deployment of spatial attention to action goals, with representations spatially corresponding to the action goal benefitting from this attentional engagement. Performance was also better at locations next to the action goal than at locations farther away, indicating an attentional gradient spreading out from the action goal. We conclude that our actions continue to influence visual processing at the mnemonic level, ensuring preferential maintenance of information that is relevant for current behavioral goals.

  19. Betahistine decreases olanzapine-induced weight gain and somnolence in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Nir; Beck, Yaffa; Albeck, Joseph H

    2016-03-01

    Olanzapine's efficacy in schizophrenia is attributed to antagonism of dopamine and serotonin receptors. Olanzapine is also a potent histamine-H1 antagonist that results in weight gain and somnolence. Betahistine is a centrally acting histamine-H1 agonist, and therefore may reduce olanzapine's effect on histamine receptors in the brain. Olanzapine's high affinity for the histamine-H1 receptor warrants the use of high doses of betahistine. Forty-eight healthy women were recruited and randomized to receive either betahistine 144 mg/day or matching placebo for 4 weeks. Due to the high dose of betahistine, olanzapine was started only on the second week and titrated up to 10 mg/day, and co-administration continued for an additional 2 weeks. Only nominal differences in adverse events were noted between the treatment groups. Betahistine caused a 37% reduction in mean weight gain (1.24 kg in the betahistine arm vs. 1.93 kg in the placebo arm; p=.049) and 60% reduction in the mean increase in daytime Epworth sleepiness scores (1.82 units in the betahistine group vs. 3.57 units in the placebo group; p=.042). The present study suggests that betahistine-olanzapine co-administration, in healthy female subjects, yields an acceptable safety profile with mitigation of weight gain and somnolence. This should be further tested in a patient cohort.

  20. Impact of lipid-induced degradation on the mechanical properties of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene for joint replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoda, Hideyuki; Niimi, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    Gamma or electron beam irradiation of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) used in artificial joints for sterilization and/or crosslinking purposes generates free radicals in the material, which causes long-term oxidative degradation of UHMWPE. Recently, another mechanism for the degradation of UHMWPE by the absorption of lipids during in vivo clinical use was proposed. However, knowledge on lipid-induced degradation is quite limited, compared with that on radical-induced degradation. In this study, lipid-induced degradation was simulated using squalene absorption and subsequent accelerated aging, and its impact on the mechanical properties of UHMWPE was evaluated. The simulated lipid-induced degradation caused an increased elastic modulus and decreased elongation with maximum degradation at the surfaces. These results imply that degradation of UHMWPE may occur during in vivo long-term use, even if free radicals are completely eliminated. Therefore, further investigation is required to clarify the impact of lipid-induced degradation on clinical outcomes, such as the wear and fatigue characteristics of UHMWPE components.

  1. Melanocortin 1 receptor-signaling deficiency results in an articular cartilage phenotype and accelerates pathogenesis of surgically induced murine osteoarthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Lorenz

    Full Text Available Proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides exert pleiotropic effects via binding to melanocortin receptors (MCR. MCR-subtypes have been detected in cartilage and bone and mediate an increasing number of effects in diathrodial joints. This study aims to determine the role of MC1-receptors (MC1 in joint physiology and pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA using MC1-signaling deficient mice (Mc1re/e. OA was surgically induced in Mc1re/e and wild-type (WT mice by transection of the medial meniscotibial ligament. Histomorphometry of Safranin O stained articular cartilage was performed with non-operated controls (11 weeks and 6 months and 4/8 weeks past surgery. µCT-analysis for assessing epiphyseal bone architecture was performed as a longitudinal study at 4/8 weeks after OA-induction. Collagen II, ICAM-1 and MC1 expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry. Mc1re/e mice display less Safranin O and collagen II stained articular cartilage area compared to WT prior to OA-induction without signs of spontaneous cartilage surface erosion. This MC1-signaling deficiency related cartilage phenotype persisted in 6 month animals. At 4/8 weeks after OA-induction cartilage erosions were increased in Mc1re/e knees paralleled by weaker collagen II staining. Prior to OA-induction, Mc1re/e mice do not differ from WT with respect to bone parameters. During OA, Mc1re/e mice developed more osteophytes and had higher epiphyseal bone density and mass. Trabecular thickness was increased while concomitantly trabecular separation was decreased in Mc1re/e mice. Numbers of ICAM-positive chondrocytes were equal in non-operated 11 weeks Mc1re/e and WT whereas number of positive chondrocytes decreased during OA-progression. Unchallenged Mc1re/e mice display smaller articular cartilage covered area without OA-related surface erosions indicating that MC1-signaling is critical for proper cartilage matrix integrity and formation. When challenged with OA, Mc1re/e mice develop a more

  2. Global IP6K1 deletion enhances temperature modulated energy expenditure which reduces carbohydrate and fat induced weight gain

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Qingzhang; Ghoshal, Sarbani; Tyagi, Richa; Chakraborty, Anutosh

    2017-01-01

    Objective: IP6 kinases (IP6Ks) regulate cell metabolism and survival. Mice with global (IP6K1-KO) or adipocyte-specific (AdKO) deletion of IP6K1 are protected from diet induced obesity (DIO) at ambient (23 °C) temperature. AdKO mice are lean primarily due to increased AMPK mediated thermogenic energy expenditure (EE). Thus, at thermoneutral (30 °C) temperature, high fat diet (HFD)-fed AdKO mice expend energy and gain body weight, similar to control mice. IP6K1 is ubiquitously expressed; thus,...

  3. Effects of Weight Loss Induced By Eight-Week Orlistat Therapy on Maximal Work Production Capacity in Obese Females

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZÇELİK, Oğuz; Doğan, Halil; KELEŞTİMUR, Haluk

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of weight loss induced by pharmacotherapy combined with a hypocaloric diet for a period of 8-weeks on maximal work (Wmax) production capacity and aerobic fitness in obese patients. Twelve obese females were put on an integrated energy restricted diet with orlistat supplement 3 x 120 mg/day. Each patient performed 3 incremental ramp exercise tests using an electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer: one at onset, one at the end of 4-weeks and o...

  4. The effect of betahistine, a histamine H1 receptor agonist/H3 antagonist, on olanzapine-induced weight gain in first-episode schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyurovsky, Michael; Pashinian, Artashes; Levi, Aya; Weizman, Ronit; Weizman, Abraham

    2005-03-01

    Histamine antagonism has been implicated in antipsychotic drug-induced weight gain. Betahistine, a histamine enhancer with H1 agonistic/H3 antagonistic properties (48 mg t.i.d.), was coadministered with olanzapine (10 mg/day) in three first-episode schizophrenia patients for 6 weeks. Body weight was measured at baseline and weekly thereafter. Clinical rating scales were completed at baseline and at week 6. All participants gained weight (mean weight gain 3.1+/-0.9 kg) and a similar pattern of weight gain was observed: an increase during the first 2 weeks and no additional weight gain (two patients) or minor weight loss (one patient) from weeks 3 to 6. None gained 7% of baseline weight, which is the cut-off for clinically significant weight gain. Betahistine was safe and well tolerated and did not interfere with the antipsychotic effect of olanzapine. Our findings justify a placebo-controlled evaluation of the putative weight-attenuating effect of betahistine in olanzapine-induced weight gain.

  5. Comment on: A model for prediction of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity by kidney weight in experimental rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Nasri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II, as one of the most applicable and potent anticancer medication, is used in the treatment of a various pediatric and adult malignancies. However, it gives side-effects such as renal toxicity which is dose-dependent, and thus limited its usage. Treatment with cisplatin induces the inflammatory mechanisms, which leads to a reduction in the antioxidant levels, leading to a failure of the antioxidant protection against free-radical damage generated by antitumor drugs. The oxidative stress, induced by cisplatin in the kidney was partially inhibited by antioxidant therapy using selenium, glutathione, flavonoids, and superoxide dismutase.

  6. Adipose tissue meal-derived fatty acid uptake before and after diet-induced weight loss in adults with overweight and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, Roel G.; Roumans, Nadia J.T.; Kolk, van der Birgitta W.; Fazelzadeh, Parastoo; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Mariman, Edwin C.M.; Baak, van Marleen A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated whether diet-induced weight loss alters indices of in vivo postprandial fat uptake in adipose tissue (AT) and whether these changes are associated with weight regain in adults with overweight and obesity. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 16 (6 male)

  7. Computer-aided detection of radiation-induced cerebral microbleeds on susceptibility-weighted MR images☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Wei; Hess, Christopher P.; Chang, Susan M.; Nelson, Sarah J.; Lupo, Janine M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent interest in exploring the clinical relevance of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) has motivated the search for a fast and accurate method to detect them. Visual inspection of CMBs on MR images is a lengthy, arduous task that is highly prone to human error because of their small size and wide distribution throughout the brain. Several computer-aided CMB detection algorithms have recently been proposed in the literature, but their diagnostic accuracy, computation time, and robustness are still in need of improvement. In this study, we developed and tested a semi-automated method for identifying CMBs on minimum intensity projected susceptibility-weighted MR images that are routinely used in clinical practice to visually identify CMBs. The algorithm utilized the 2D fast radial symmetry transform to initially detect putative CMBs. Falsely identified CMBs were then eliminated by examining geometric features measured after performing 3D region growing on the potential CMB candidates. This algorithm was evaluated in 15 patients with brain tumors who exhibited CMBs on susceptibility-weighted images due to prior external beam radiation therapy. Our method achieved heightened sensitivity and acceptable amount of false positives compared to prior methods without compromising computation speed. Its superior performance and simple, accelerated processing make it easily adaptable for detecting CMBs in the clinic and expandable to a wide array of neurological disorders. PMID:24179783

  8. Performance on the Iowa gambling task is related to magnitude of weight loss and salivary cortisol in a diet-induced weight loss intervention in overweight women

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overall objective of this study was to examine the relationship between executive function, specifically decision making, and weight loss. We used the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to characterize decision making and compared performance on this task to weight loss in obese women (n=29) participatin...

  9. Effect of birth weight and 12 weeks of exercise training on exercise-induced AMPK signaling in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Hingst, Janne Rasmuss; Frederiksen, Nicklas;

    2013-01-01

    Subjects with a low birth weight (LBW) display increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesized that this is associated with defects in muscle adaptations following acute and regular physical activity, evident by impairments in the exercise-induced activation of AMPK signaling....... the need for AMPK to control energy turnover during exercise. Thus, the remaining ¿3-associated AMPK activation by acute exercise after exercise training might be sufficient to maintain cellular energy balance........ We investigated 21 LBW and 21 normal birth weight (NBW) subjects during 1 hour of acute exercise performed at the same relative workload before and after 12 weeks of exercise training. Multiple skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained before and after exercise. Protein levels and phosphorylation status...... were determined by Western blotting. AMPK activities were measured using activity assays. Protein levels of AMPK isoforms a1 and ¿1 were significantly increased while ¿3 levels decreased with training independent of group. The LBW group had higher exercise-induced AMPK Thr(172) phosphorylation before...

  10. Intraoperative recruitment maneuver reverses detrimental pneumoperitoneum-induced respiratory effects in healthy weight and obese patients undergoing laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futier, Emmanuel; Constantin, Jean-Michel; Pelosi, Paolo; Chanques, Gerald; Kwiatkoskwi, Fabrice; Jaber, Samir; Bazin, Jean-Etienne

    2010-12-01

    Pulmonary function is impaired during pneumoperitoneum mainly as a result of atelectasis formation. We studied the effects of 10 cm H2O of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and PEEP followed by a recruitment maneuver (PEEP+RM) on end-expiratory lung volume (EELV), oxygenation and respiratory mechanics in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Sixty consecutive adult patients (30 obese, 30 healthy weight) in reverse Trendelenburg position were prospectively studied. EELV, static elastance of the respiratory system, dead space, and gas exchange were measured before and after pneumoperitoneum insufflation with zero end-expiratory pressure, with PEEP alone, and with PEEP+RM. Results are presented as mean ± SD. Pneumoperitoneum reduced EELV (healthy weight, 1195 ± 405 vs. 1724 ± 774 ml; obese, 751 ± 258 vs. 886 ± 284 ml) and worsened static elastance and dead space in both groups (in all P obese, 364 ml, P < 0.01) with no effect on oxygenation. Compared with PEEP alone, EELV and static elastance were further improved after RM in both groups (P < 0.05), as was oxygenation (P < 0.01). In all patients, RM-induced change in EELV was 16% (P = 0.04). These improvements were maintained 30 min after RM. RM-induced changes in EELV correlated with change in oxygenation (r = 0.42, P < 0.01). RM combined with 10 cm H2O of PEEP improved EELV, respiratory mechanics, and oxygenation during pneumoperitoneum whereas PEEP alone did not.

  11. Pro- and mature IGF-II during diet-induced weight loss in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelund, Ulrick; Bruun, Jens Meldgaard; Richelsen, Bjørn; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Frystyk, Jan

    2005-12-01

    In normal subjects up to 10% of circulating insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) consists of pro-IGF-II. However, its regulation and biological impact remains unknown. In obese subjects, serum free and total IGF-II are increased, and we therefore investigated the impact of obesity and diet on serum pro-IGF-II. Non-diabetic, obese subjects (n = 34) with a body mass index (BMI) of 38.9 +/- 0.5 kg/m2 were subjected to 8 weeks with very low calorie diet (800 kcal/day) followed by 12 weeks with a weight-stabilizing diet. Fasting serum was collected before the study, and after 8 and 20 weeks. Pro-IGF-II was determined after acid-gel chromatography using a novel, highly specific in-house assay, free and total IGFs were measured after ultrafiltration and acid-ethanol extraction, respectively, and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) were measured with specific immunoassays. Diet reduced BMI and fasting levels of insulin and glucose (P < 0.001). Serum pro-IGF-II was markedly reduced in obese subjects as compared with matched normal-weight controls (means and 95% confidence intervals: 93 microg/l (82-104 microg/l) versus 171 microg/l (152-192 microg/l), respectively; P < 0.001), and levels remained unchanged after the weight loss. In contrast, during the study period total and free IGF-II decreased (P < 0.05), whereas total IGF-I, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 increased (P < 0.001). Serum free IGF-I remained unaltered. Cross-sectional and longitudinal correlation analyses showed that pro-IGF-II was closer and more consistently associated with IGF-I than IGF-II. This study demonstrates that pro-IGF-II is reduced in obesity, in contrast to mature IGF-II. This indicates a hitherto unrecognized link between nutrition and pro-IGF-II. In addition, our data indicate that pro-IGF-II is regulated independently of mature IGF-II.

  12. Effect of soil sieving on respiration induced by low-molecular-weight substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Rahul; Vranová, Valerie; Pavelka, Marian; Rejšek, Klement; Formánek, Pavel

    2014-03-01

    The mesh size of sieves has a significant impact upon soil disturbance, affecting pore structure, fungal hyphae, proportion of fungi to bacteria, and organic matter fractions. The effects are dependent upon soil type and plant coverage. Sieving through a 2 mm mesh increases mineralization of exogenously supplied carbohydrates and phenolics compared to a 5 mm mesh and the effect is significant (p<0.05), especially in organic horizons, due to increased microbial metabolism and alteration of other soil properties. Finer mesh size particularly increases arabinose, mannose, galactose, ferulic and pthalic acid metabolism, whereas maltose mineralization is less affected. Sieving through a 5 mm mesh size is suggested for all type of experiments where enhanced mineralization of low-molecular-weight organic compounds needs to be minimalized.

  13. A new low molecular weight heparan sulphate antagonizes kappa-carrageenan-induced thrombosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasi, G B; Bartoli, C; Carpita, G

    1991-07-01

    Kappa-carrageenan (kappa-carrageenin; kappa-carragheen) was found to be thrombogenic in rats. After i.p. injection of 3 mg/kg of kappa-carrageenan the thrombosis extended to a maximum 7.5 cm from the tip of the tail. Infarction frequency as well as the extent of infarction were inhibited by oral administration of a new heparan sulphate of low molecular weight (LMW-HS) (alpha-idosane). Mesoglycan and heparin were active when administered by parenteral route, and aspirin showed no effect; mesoglycan was inactive at 50 mg/kg per os. The present data confirm the validity of this experimental model for evaluating the protective effects of antithrombotic drugs and show the activity of oral administration of a new drug endowed with fibrinolytic activity.

  14. Performance on the Iowa Gambling Task is related to magnitude of weight loss and salivary cortisol in a diet-induced weight loss intervention in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witbracht, Megan G; Laugero, Kevin D; Van Loan, Marta D; Adams, Sean H; Keim, Nancy L

    2012-05-15

    The overall objective of this study was to examine the relationship between executive function, specifically decision-making, and weight loss. We used the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to characterize decision-making and compared performance on this task to weight loss in obese women (n=29) participating in a 12-week controlled, calorie-reduced intervention. We hypothesized that a greater amount of weight loss over the course of the intervention would be associated with better performance on the IGT, assessed at the end of the intervention. The intervention led to significant weight loss of 5.8±3.1 kg (pcortisol), metabolic (resting energy expenditure), and behavioral (food intake; dietary restraint) factors that might be related to differences in the magnitude of weight loss. Of these variables, ad libitum consumption of energy, fat and protein during a buffet meal was inversely related to weight loss (r=-0.428; pemotionally or socially salient ramifications. These findings underscore the need to further investigate higher cognitive and neuroendocrine pathways that may influence or be altered by the process of dieting and weight loss.

  15. Longitudinal variation of circulating irisin after an energy restriction-induced weight loss and following weight regain in obese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crujeiras, Ana B; Pardo, María; Arturo, Roca-Rivada; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Zulet, M Angeles; Martínez, J Alfredo; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2014-01-01

    The recently discovered peptide irisin has been hypothesized to be a regulator of body metabolism. The objective of this work was to evaluate whether circulating human irisin levels are modulated by body size and changes in adiposity during an energy restriction treatment and the subsequent weight regain. A group of 94 obese patients (50 men, 44 women; 49.4 ± 9.4 years; BMI 35.6 ± 4.5 kg/m(2) ) participated in a weight loss program following an 8-week hypocaloric diet (-30% energy expenditure) with a weight maintenance follow-up. The patients were evaluated at 0, 8, and 24 weeks after starting treatment. In addition, 48 normal-weight subjects (16 men, 32 women; 35.71 ± 8.8 years; BMI 22.9 ± 2.2 kg/m(2) ) participated as controls. Plasma irisin, body weight, body composition, and hormones controlling energy homeostasis were measured. Irisin levels were higher in obese subjects (353.1 ± 18.6 ng/mL) than in those of normal-weight (198.4 ± 7.8 ng/mL; P ≤ 0.001) and were also higher in men (340.9 ± 20 ng/mL) than in women (267.6 ± 12 ng/mL; P weight, BMI, waist circumference, and fat mass, as measured by bioimpedance, but not with height or leptin levels. Interestingly, irisin levels paralleled body weight reduction after the dietary treatment (week 8) and again returned to the baseline levels at 24 weeks in those patients regaining the lost weight. Irisin strongly reflects body fat mass, suggesting that the irisin circulating levels are conditioned by adiposity level. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. SURGICALLY INDUCED ASTIGMATISM AFTER 2.8 MM TEMPORAL AND NASAL CLEAR CORNEAL INCISIONS IN PHACOEMULSIFICATION CATARACT SURGERY OF SAME PATIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare the surgically induced astigmatism in phacoemulsification cataract surgery after 2.8 mm temporal and nasal clear corneal incision of same patient . MATERIAL AND METHOD : This prospective study comprised a consecutive case series of 60 eyes. Eyes from 30 patients with phacoemulsification those were implanted with a 6.00 mm foldable intraocular le ns through a 2.8 mm horizontal clear corneal incision (temporal in the right eye , nasal in the left eye. RESULTS : T he outcome measures were surgically induced astigmatism (SIA and uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA , at 1 and 3 months post - operatively. A 1 month the mean SIA was 0.81 D. for the temporal incision and 0.92 D for nasal incision (P = 0.139 at 3 months the mean SIA was 0.53 D for temporal incision and 0.62 D for nasal incision (P =0.309. The pre - operative parameters i.e. (UCVA , mean keratomet ry & keratometric cylinder between these groups were comparable. There was no statistically significant difference found between three groups pre - operatively . CONCLUSION : After cataract surgery using 2.8mm temporal and nasal horizontal corneal incision , t he induced corneal astigmatic changes was similar in both incision groups. Especially in Asian eyes , both temporal and nasal incisions (2.8 mm or less would be equally favourable for astigmatism neutral cataract surgery

  17. Elevated Mechanical Loading When Young Provides Lifelong Benefits to Cortical Bone Properties in Female Rats Independent of a Surgically Induced Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galley, Matthew R.; Hurd, Andrea L.; Wallace, Joseph M.; Gallant, Maxime A.; Richard, Jeffrey S.; George, Lydia A.

    2013-01-01

    Exercise that mechanically loads the skeleton is advocated when young to enhance lifelong bone health. Whether the skeletal benefits of elevated loading when young persist into adulthood and after menopause are important questions. This study investigated the influence of a surgically induced menopause in female Sprague-Dawley rats on the lifelong maintenance of the cortical bone benefits of skeletal loading when young. Animals had their right forearm extrinsically loaded 3 d/wk between 4 and 10 weeks of age using the forearm axial compression loading model. Left forearms were internal controls and not loaded. Animals were subsequently detrained (restricted to cage activities) for 94 weeks (until age 2 years), with ovariectomy (OVX) or sham-OVX surgery being performed at 24 weeks of age. Loading enhanced midshaft ulna cortical bone mass, structure, and estimated strength. These benefits persisted lifelong and contributed to loaded ulnas having greater strength after detraining. Loading also had effects on cortical bone quality. The benefits of loading when young were not influenced by a surgically induced menopause because there were no interactions between loading and surgery. However, OVX had independent effects on cortical bone mass, structure, and estimated strength at early postsurgery time points (up to age 58 weeks) and bone quality measures. These data indicate skeletal loading when young had lifelong benefits on cortical bone properties that persisted independent of a surgically induced menopause. This suggests that skeletal loading associated with exercise when young may provide lifelong antifracture benefits by priming the skeleton to offset the cortical bone changes associated with aging and menopause. PMID:23782938

  18. Salvianolic Acid B Inhibited PPARγ Expression and Attenuated Weight Gain in Mice with High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peijian Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Obesity contributes to the development of cardiometabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B is a molecule derived from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen, which is a traditional Chinese medicine that is widely used to treat cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of Sal B in obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders is unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of Sal B on high-fat diet-induced obesity and determine the possible mechanisms involved. Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet for 12 weeks received a supplement of Sal B (100 mg/kg/day by gavage for a further 8 weeks. These mice were compared to control mice fed an un-supplemented high-fat diet. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were used in vitro studies. Results: Sal B administration significantly decreased body weight, white adipose tissue weight, adipocyte size and lipid (triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in obese mice. Eight weeks of Sal B administration also improved the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test (IPITT scores in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes that were cultured in vitro and induced to differentiate, Sal B reduced the accumulation of lipid droplets and lipid content in a dose-dependent manner. Immunoblotting indicated that Sal B decreased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα expression but increased the expression of GATA binding protein 2 and 3 (GATA 2, GATA 3 both in vivo and in vitro. Conclusion: Our data suggest that Sal B may reduce obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders by suppressing adipogenesis. The effects of Sal B in adipose tissue may be related to its action on PPARγ, C/EBPα, GATA-2 and GATA-3.

  19. Radiologically determined orthodontically induced external apical root resorption in incisors after non-surgical orthodontic treatment of class II division 1 malocclusion: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieu, Long D; Saltaji, Humam; Normando, David; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2014-07-23

    This study aims to critically evaluate orthodontically induced external apical root resorption (OIEARR) in incisors of patients undergoing non-surgical orthodontic treatment of class II division 1 malocclusion by a systematic review of the published data. An electronic search of two databases was performed; the bibliographies of relevant articles were also reviewed. Studies were included if they examined the amount of OIEARR in incisors produced during non-surgical orthodontic treatment of individuals with class II division I malocclusion in the permanent dentition. Individuals had no previous history of OIEARR, syndromes, pathologies, or general diseases. Study selections, risk of bias assessment, and data extraction were performed in duplicate. Eight studies of moderate methodological quality were finally included. An increased prevalence (65.6% to 98.1%) and mild to moderate severity of OIEARR (resorption was found. For the maxillary incisors, there was no evidence that either the central or lateral incisor was more susceptible to OIEARR. A weak to moderate positive correlation between treatment duration and root resorption, and anteroposterior apical displacement and root resorption was found. Current limited evidence suggests that non-surgical comprehensive orthodontic treatment to correct class II division 1 malocclusions causes increased prevalence and severity of OIEARR the more the incisor roots are displaced and the longer this movement takes.

  20. Effect of vehicle weight on natural frequencies of bridges measured from traffic-induced vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Recently, ambient vibration test (AVT) is widely used to estimate dynamic characteristics of large civil structures. Dynamic characteristics can be affected by various environmental factors such as humidity, intensity of wind, and temperature. Besides these environmental conditions, the mass of vehicles may change the measured values when traffic-induced vibration is used as a source of AVT for bridges. The effect of vehicle mass on dynamic characteristics is investigated through traffic-induced vibration tests on three bridges; (1) three-span suspension bridge (128m+404m+128m), (2) five-span continuous steel box girder bridge (59m+3@95m+59m), (3) simply supported plate girder bridge (46m). Acceleration histories of each measurement location under normal traffic are recorded for 30 minutes at field. These recorded histories are divided into individual vibrations and are combined into two groups according to the level of vibration; one by heavy vehicles such as trucks and buses and the other by light vehicles such as passenger cars. Separate processing of the two groups of signals shows that, for the middle and long-span bridges, the difference can be hardly detected, but, for the short span bridges whose mass is relatively small, the measured natural frequencies can change up to 5.4%.

  1. Surgical induced astigmatism correlated with corneal pachymetry and intraocular pressure: transconjunctival sutureless 23-gauge versus 20-gauge sutured vitrectomy in diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; Shao; Li-Jie; Dong; Yan; Zhang; Hui; Liu; Bo-Jie; Hu; Ju-Ping; Liu; Xiao-Rong; Li

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the difference of surgical induced astigmatism between conventional 20-gauge sutured vitrectomy and 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy, and the influence of corneal pachymetry and intraocular pressure(IOP) on surgical induced astigmatism in diabetic patients.METHODS: This retrospective, consecutive case series consisted of 40 eyes of 38 diabetic subjects who underwent either 20-gauge or 23-gauge vitrectomy. The corneal curvature and thickness were measured with Scheimpflug imaging before surgery and 1wk; 1, 3mo after surgery. We compared the surgical induced astigmatism(SIA) on the true net power in 23-gauge group with that in 20-gauge group. We determined the correlation between corneal thickness change ratio, IOP and SIA measured by Pentacam. RESULTS: The mean SIAs were 1.082 ±0.085 D( mean ± SEM), 0.689 ±0.070 D and 0.459 ±0.063 D at postoperative 1wk; 1, 3mo respectively in diabetic subjects. The vitrectomy induced astigmatisms were declined significantly with time(F2,36=33.629, P =0.000)postoperatively. The 23-gauge surgery group induced significantly less astigmatism than 20-gauge surgery group(F1,37=11.046, P =0.020). Corneal thickness in diabetes elevated after surgery(F3,78=10.532, P =0.000).The linear regression analysis at postoperatively 1wk went as: SIA =-4.519 +4.931 change ratio(Port3) +0.026IOP(R2=0.46, P =0.000), whereas the rate of cornealthickness change and IOP showed no correlation with the change of astigmatism at postoperatively 1 and 3mo.CONCLUSION: There are significant serial changes in both 20-gauge and 23-gauge group in diabetic subjects.23-gauge induce less astigmatism than 20-gauge and become stable more rapidly than 20-gauge. The elevation of corneal thickness and IOP was associated with increased astigmatim at the early postoperative stage both in 23-gauge and 20-gauge surgery group.

  2. Tesofensine induces appetite suppression and weight loss with reversal of low forebrain dopamine levels in the diet-induced obese rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik H; Jensen, Majbrit M; Overgaard, Agnete

    2013-01-01

    Tesofensine is a triple monoamine reuptake inhibitor which inhibits noradrenaline, 5-HT and dopamine reuptake. Tesofensine is currently in clinical development for the treatment of obesity, however, the pharmacological basis for its strong and sustained effects in obesity management is not clarif......, tesofensine produces weight loss together with reversal of lowered forebrain dopamine levels in DIO rats, suggesting that tesofensine's anti-obesity effects, at least in part, are associated with positive modulation of central dopaminergic activity....... is not clarified. Tesofensine effectively induces appetite suppression in the diet-induced obese (DIO) rat partially being ascribed to an indirect stimulation of central dopamine receptor function subsequent to blocked dopamine transporter activity. This is interesting, as obese patients have reduced central...... dopaminergic activity thought to provide a drive for compensatory overeating, but whether treatment with an uptake inhibitor counteracts these changes or not has not been investigated. Tesofensine treatment (2.0mg/kg/day for 14days) caused a pronounced anorexigenic and weight-reducing response in DIO rats...

  3. Inhibitory effects and mechanisms of high molecular-weight phlorotannins from Sargassum thunbergii on ADP-induced platelet aggregation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Yuxi; WANG Changyun; LI Jing; GUO Qi; QI Hongtao

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of high molecular-weight phlorotannins from Sargassum thunbergii (STP) on ADP-induced platelet aggregation and arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism in New Zealand white rabbits and Wistar rats. The inhibition of STP on platelet aggregation was investigated using a turbidimetric method, and the levels of the terminal products of AA metabolism were measured using the corresponding kits for maleic dialdehyde (MDA), thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α) by colorimetry and radioimmunoassay, as appropriate. We found that STP could inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation, and the inhibitory ratio was 91.50% at the STP concentration of 4.0 mg/mL. Furthermore, STP markedly affected AA metabolism by decreasing the synthesis of MDA (P<0.01) and increasing the synthesis of 6-keto-PGF1α, thus changing the plasma TXB2/6-keto-PGF1α balance when the platelets were activated (P<0.01). Therefore, STP altered AA metabolism and these findings partly revealed the molecular mechanism by which STP inhibits ADP-induced platelet aggregation.

  4. [Reduction of dielectric properties of rat gastrocnemius induced by loss of weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhiynan; Zhao, Weihong; Wang, Lin; Ma, Qing

    2009-10-01

    In this experimental study, the AC impedance of isolated gastrocnemius was measured with an impendance analyzer of Agilent 4294A, and the effect of simulated weightlessness on the dielectric properties of the cells in isolated rat sural muscle was investigated by analyzing the dielectric numerical characters with the use of dielectric spectroscopy, the Cole-Cole plots, the spectrum of loss factor and loss tangent, as well as the spectrum of conductivity imaginary part. The results demonstrated that 10 weeks' simulated weightlessness caused some changes; for example, both permittivity at low frequency (epsilonL) and permittivity increment (deltaepsilon) were reduced, and conductivity at high frequency (kappa(h)) was also reduced; at the same time, conductivity increment (deltakappa) was reduced, too. The first characteristic frequency (f(C1)) decreased, while the second characteristic frequency(f(C2)) increased. All of the peak of loss factor, the peak of loss tangent, and the maximum of conductivity imaginary part were reduced. These data indicated that the reduction of dielectric properties of skeletal muscles was induced by weightlessness.

  5. Sepsis-induced morbidity in mice: effects on body temperature, body weight, cage activity, social behavior and cytokines in brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Jill I; Ratti, Pietro-Luca; Datta, Subhash C; Raymond, Richard M; Opp, Mark R

    2013-07-01

    Infection negatively impacts mental health, as evidenced by the lethargy, malaise, and cognitive deficits experienced during illness. These changes in central nervous system processes, collectively termed sickness behavior, have been shown in animal models to be mediated primarily by the actions of cytokines in brain. Most studies of sickness behavior to date have used bolus injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or selective administration of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or IL-6 as the immune challenge. Such models, although useful for determining mechanisms responsible for acute changes in physiology and behavior, do not adequately represent the more complex effects on central nervous system (CNS) processes of a true infection with replicating pathogens. In the present study, we used the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model to quantify sepsis-induced alterations in several facets of physiology and behavior of mice. We determined the impact of sepsis on cage activity, body temperature, food and water consumption and body weights of mice. Because cytokines are critical mediators of changes in behavior and temperature regulation during immune challenge, we also quantified sepsis-induced alterations in cytokine mRNA and protein in brain during the acute period of sepsis onset. We now report that cage activity and temperature regulation in mice that survive are altered for up to 23 days after sepsis induction. Food and water consumption are transiently reduced, and body weight is lost during sepsis. Furthermore, sepsis decreases social interactions for 24-48 h. Finally, mRNA and protein for IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) are upregulated in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and brain stem during sepsis onset, from 6h to 72 h post sepsis induction. Collectively, these data indicate that sepsis not only acutely alters physiology, behavior and cytokine profiles in brain, but that some brain functions are impaired for

  6. The adaptive metabolic response to exercise-induced weight loss influences both energy expenditure and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, M; Gibbons, C; Caudwell, P; Hellström, P M; Näslund, E; King, N A; Finlayson, G; Blundell, J E

    2014-05-01

    A decline in resting energy expenditure (REE) beyond that predicted from changes in body composition has been noted following dietary-induced weight loss. However, it is unknown whether a compensatory downregulation in REE also accompanies exercise (EX)-induced weight loss, or whether this adaptive metabolic response influences energy intake (EI). Thirty overweight and obese women (body mass index (BMI)=30.6±3.6 kg/m(2)) completed 12 weeks of supervised aerobic EX. Body composition, metabolism, EI and metabolic-related hormones were measured at baseline, week 6 and post intervention. The metabolic adaptation (MA), that is, difference between predicted and measured REE was also calculated post intervention (MApost), with REE predicted using a regression equation generated in an independent sample of 66 overweight and obese women (BMI=31.0±3.9 kg/m(2)). Although mean predicted and measured REE did not differ post intervention, 43% of participants experienced a greater-than-expected decline in REE (-102.9±77.5 kcal per day). MApost was associated with the change in leptin (r=0.47; P=0.04), and the change in resting fat (r=0.52; P=0.01) and carbohydrate oxidation (r=-0.44; P=0.02). Furthermore, MApost was also associated with the change in EI following EX (r=-0.44; P=0.01). Marked variability existed in the adaptive metabolic response to EX. Importantly, those who experienced a downregulation in REE also experienced an upregulation in EI, indicating that the adaptive metabolic response to EX influences both physiological and behavioural components of energy balance.

  7. Effect of Age-Related Cartilage Turnover on Serum C-Telopeptide of Collagen Type II and Osteocalcin Levels in Growing Rabbits with and without Surgically Induced Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Cheng Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of age-related cartilage turnover on the serum C-telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II and osteocalcin (OC levels in growing rabbits with and without surgically induced osteoarthritis. Twenty-four New Zealand male 3-month-old rabbits were randomized into three operated groups (n = 6 per group, with surgically induced osteroarthritis in the right knee; after blood sampling, the knees were harvested following euthanization at 2, 3, and 6 months after surgery and a control group (n = 6, blood samples were obtained monthly between 3 and 15 months. Histomorphologically, the medial femoral condyles, particularly the central parts, harbored the most severe osteoarthritic changes among the operated rabbits. The serum levels of CTX-II and OC decreased in the controls from 3 to 11 months and then remained stable. No significant differences in the serum CTX-II and OC levels between the osteoarthritic rabbits and controls were observed. The osteoarthritic-to-normal ratios (ONRs, the ratios of serum CTX-II or OC levels in osteoarthritic rabbits to those of the controls at same ages enabled an overall assessment of osteoarthritis and age-related cartilage turnover. Elevated CTX-II ONRs were observed in rabbits with mild to advanced osteoarthritis. However, the OC ONRs were unhelpful in assessing osteoarthritic growing rabbits.

  8. A novel dual amylin and calcitonin receptor agonist, KBP-089, induces weight loss through a reduction in fat, but not lean mass, while improving food preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gydesen, Sofie; Hjuler, Sara Toftegaard; Freving, Zenia; Andreassen, Kim Vietz; Sonne, Nina; Hellgren, Lars I; Karsdal, Morten Asser; Henriksen, Kim

    2017-04-01

    Obesity and associated co-morbidities, such as type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, are major health challenges. Hence, there is an important need to develop weight loss therapies with the ability to reduce the co-morbidities. The effect of the dual amylin and calcitonin receptor agonist (DACRA), KBP-089, on body weight, glucose homeostasis and fatty acid accumulation in liver and muscle tissue and on food preference was investigated. Furthermore, we elucidated weight-independent effects of KBP-089 using a weight-matched group. Rats fed a high-fat diet were treated, s.c., with KBP-089 0.625, 1.25, 2.5 μg·kg(-1) or vehicle. KB-089 induced in a dose-dependent and sustained weight loss (~17% by 2.5 μg·kg(-1) ). Moreover, KBP-089 reduced fat depot size and reduced lipid accumulation in muscle and liver. In Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats, KBP-089 improved glucose homeostasis through improved insulin action. To obtain a weight-matched group, significantly less food was offered (9% less than in the KBP-089 group). Weight matching led to improved glucose homeostasis by reducing plasma insulin; however, these effect were inferior compared to those of KBP-089. In the food preference test, rats fed a normal diet obtained 74% of their calories from chocolate. KBP-089 reduced total caloric intake and induced a relative increase in chow consumption while drastically reducing chocolate consumption compared with vehicle. The novel DACRA, KBP-089, induces a sustained weight loss, leading to improved metabolic parameters including food preference, and these are beyond those observed simply by diet-induced weight loss. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Surgical Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azarmehr, Iman; Stokbro, Kasper; Bell, R. Bryan

    2017-01-01

    were identified in the field of traumatology. Treatment of complex orbital fractures was considerably improved by the use of SN compared with traditionally treated control groups. Conclusions: SN seems to be a very promising addition to the surgical toolkit. Planning details of the surgical procedure...... in a 3-dimensional virtual environment and execution with real-time guidance can significantly improve precision. Among factors to be considered are the financial investments necessary and the learning curve....

  10. Prevention of Diet-Induced Obesity Effects on Body Weight and Gut Microbiota in Mice Treated Chronically with Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina L Cluny

    Full Text Available Acute administration of cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists, or the ingestion of cannabis, induces short-term hyperphagia. However, the incidence of obesity is lower in frequent cannabis users compared to non-users. Gut microbiota affects host metabolism and altered microbial profiles are observed in obese states. Gut microbiota modifies adipogenesis through actions on the endocannabinoid system. This study investigated the effect of chronic THC administration on body weight and gut microbiota in diet-induced obese (DIO and lean mice.Adult male DIO and lean mice were treated daily with vehicle or THC (2mg/kg for 3 weeks and 4 mg/kg for 1 additional week. Body weight, fat mass, energy intake, locomotor activity, whole gut transit and gut microbiota were measured longitudinally.THC reduced weight gain, fat mass gain and energy intake in DIO but not lean mice. DIO-induced changes in select gut microbiota were prevented in mice chronically administered THC. THC had no effect on locomotor activity or whole gut transit in either lean or DIO mice.Chronic THC treatment reduced energy intake and prevented high fat diet-induced increases in body weight and adiposity; effects that were unlikely to be a result of sedation or altered gastrointestinal transit. Changes in gut microbiota potentially contribute to chronic THC-induced actions on body weight in obesity.

  11. Prevention of Diet-Induced Obesity Effects on Body Weight and Gut Microbiota in Mice Treated Chronically with Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluny, Nina L; Keenan, Catherine M; Reimer, Raylene A; Le Foll, Bernard; Sharkey, Keith A

    2015-01-01

    Acute administration of cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists, or the ingestion of cannabis, induces short-term hyperphagia. However, the incidence of obesity is lower in frequent cannabis users compared to non-users. Gut microbiota affects host metabolism and altered microbial profiles are observed in obese states. Gut microbiota modifies adipogenesis through actions on the endocannabinoid system. This study investigated the effect of chronic THC administration on body weight and gut microbiota in diet-induced obese (DIO) and lean mice. Adult male DIO and lean mice were treated daily with vehicle or THC (2mg/kg for 3 weeks and 4 mg/kg for 1 additional week). Body weight, fat mass, energy intake, locomotor activity, whole gut transit and gut microbiota were measured longitudinally. THC reduced weight gain, fat mass gain and energy intake in DIO but not lean mice. DIO-induced changes in select gut microbiota were prevented in mice chronically administered THC. THC had no effect on locomotor activity or whole gut transit in either lean or DIO mice. Chronic THC treatment reduced energy intake and prevented high fat diet-induced increases in body weight and adiposity; effects that were unlikely to be a result of sedation or altered gastrointestinal transit. Changes in gut microbiota potentially contribute to chronic THC-induced actions on body weight in obesity.

  12. Surgical treatment of giant cell tumors of long bone combined with inserted microwave antennas induced hyperthermia%插入式微波天线阵列诱导高温治疗长骨骨巨细胞瘤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周勇; 范清宇; 马保安; 张明华; 沈万安

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the surgical treatment methods of giant cell tumors (GCT) of long bone in conjunction with inserted microwave antennas induced hyperthermia.METHODS:46 patients, included the surgical procedures,the oncology results,the functions of the limbs and the complications were analyzed.RESULTS:Follow up 3.5 to 9 years (mean 5.5 years).All patients were evaluated according to oncological and orthopaedic criteria.Two tumors were recurred.Orthopaedic function were perfect in 44 patients and were fair in 2.Infection was found in 2 patients.CONCLUSION:The surgical procedure to treat the giant cell tumors of long bone by inserted microwave antennas induced hyperthermia is a definitive surgical method which is safe and confident.

  13. Dairy food consumption and meal-induced cortisol response interact to influence weight loss in overweight women undergoing a 12-week meal-controlled weight loss intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy foods enhance weight loss in animal models possibly by modifying the metabolic effects of cortisol. This study aimed to determine in overweight women (ages 20-45; n=51) whether inclusion of dairy foods in an energy-restricted diet affects basal and stimulated cortisol concentrations, and whet...

  14. Surgical treatment of epilepsy induced by gray matter heterotopia%灰质异位所致癫痫的外科治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗智刚; 唐运林; 周连银; 周辉; 卞园园; 单健; 张奕生

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between gray matter heterotopia and epilepsy and assess the therapeutic effect of surgical intervention. Methods Six cases of gray matter heterotopia-induced epilepsy treated in our department between May, 2004 and May, 2006 were analyzed retrospectively for the clinical characteristics, surgical approaches, and the outcomes in the 2- to 4-year-long follow-up. Results All the patients received surgical interventions through different approaches, including resection of the heterotopic gray matter plus bipolar coagulation of the cortexes in 4 cases, heterotopic gray matter resection with bipolar coagulation of the cortexes and temporal lobectomy in 1 case, and exclusive bipolar coagulation of the cortexes in 1 case. Five patients were free of seizure attach and 1 patient showed significantly reduced seizure attack after the operation. Conclusion Surgical intervention can be effective for treatment of intractable epilepsy induced by gray matter heterotopia.%目的 探讨大脑灰质异位(HGM)与癫痫的关系,以及手术治疗的价值. 方法 回顾性分析解放军第四五八医院神经外科自2004年5月至2006年5月收治的6例HGM所致癫痫患者的临床特点、手术方式以及随访结果. 结果 6例患者中,4例行异位灰顶切除+皮层热灼,1例行异位灰顶切除+皮层热灼+前颞叶切除.1例行单纯皮层热灼.术后随访2~4年,5例至今未见发作,1例发作明显缓解. 结论 对于HGM所致的难治性癫痫,外科手术是一个有效的治疗方法.

  15. Exercise prevents weight gain and alters the gut microbiota in a mouse model of high fat diet-induced obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian C Evans

    Full Text Available Diet-induced obesity (DIO is a significant health concern which has been linked to structural and functional changes in the gut microbiota. Exercise (Ex is effective in preventing obesity, but whether Ex alters the gut microbiota during development with high fat (HF feeding is unknown.Determine the effects of voluntary Ex on the gastrointestinal microbiota in LF-fed mice and in HF-DIO.Male C57BL/6 littermates (5 weeks were distributed equally into 4 groups: low fat (LF sedentary (Sed LF/Sed, LF/Ex, HF/Sed and HF/Ex. Mice were individually housed and LF/Ex and HF/Ex cages were equipped with a wheel and odometer to record Ex. Fecal samples were collected at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks and used for bacterial DNA isolation. DNA was subjected both to quantitative PCR using primers specific to the 16S rRNA encoding genes for Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes and to sequencing for lower taxonomic identification using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Data were analyzed using a one or two-way ANOVA or Pearson correlation.HF diet resulted in significantly greater body weight and adiposity as well as decreased glucose tolerance that were prevented by voluntary Ex (p<0.05. Visualization of Unifrac distance data with principal coordinates analysis indicated clustering by both diet and Ex at week 12. Sequencing demonstrated Ex-induced changes in the percentage of major bacterial phyla at 12 weeks. A correlation between total Ex distance and the ΔCt Bacteroidetes: ΔCt Firmicutes ratio from qPCR demonstrated a significant inverse correlation (r2 = 0.35, p = 0.043.Ex induces a unique shift in the gut microbiota that is different from dietary effects. Microbiota changes may play a role in Ex prevention of HF-DIO.

  16. Exercise Prevents Weight Gain and Alters the Gut Microbiota in a Mouse Model of High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Christian C.; LePard, Kathy J.; Kwak, Jeff W.; Stancukas, Mary C.; Laskowski, Samantha; Dougherty, Joseph; Moulton, Laura; Glawe, Adam; Wang, Yunwei; Leone, Vanessa; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A.; Smith, Dan; Chang, Eugene B.; Ciancio, Mae J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Diet-induced obesity (DIO) is a significant health concern which has been linked to structural and functional changes in the gut microbiota. Exercise (Ex) is effective in preventing obesity, but whether Ex alters the gut microbiota during development with high fat (HF) feeding is unknown. Objective Determine the effects of voluntary Ex on the gastrointestinal microbiota in LF-fed mice and in HF-DIO. Methods Male C57BL/6 littermates (5 weeks) were distributed equally into 4 groups: low fat (LF) sedentary (Sed) LF/Sed, LF/Ex, HF/Sed and HF/Ex. Mice were individually housed and LF/Ex and HF/Ex cages were equipped with a wheel and odometer to record Ex. Fecal samples were collected at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks and used for bacterial DNA isolation. DNA was subjected both to quantitative PCR using primers specific to the 16S rRNA encoding genes for Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes and to sequencing for lower taxonomic identification using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Data were analyzed using a one or two-way ANOVA or Pearson correlation. Results HF diet resulted in significantly greater body weight and adiposity as well as decreased glucose tolerance that were prevented by voluntary Ex (p<0.05). Visualization of Unifrac distance data with principal coordinates analysis indicated clustering by both diet and Ex at week 12. Sequencing demonstrated Ex-induced changes in the percentage of major bacterial phyla at 12 weeks. A correlation between total Ex distance and the ΔCt Bacteroidetes: ΔCt Firmicutes ratio from qPCR demonstrated a significant inverse correlation (r2 = 0.35, p = 0.043). Conclusion Ex induces a unique shift in the gut microbiota that is different from dietary effects. Microbiota changes may play a role in Ex prevention of HF-DIO. PMID:24670791

  17. Expression of vitamin D-metabolizing enzymes in human adipose tissue—the effect of obesity and diet-induced weight loss

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wamberg, L; Christiansen, T; Paulsen, S K; Fisker, S; Rask, P; Rejnmark, L; Richelsen, B; Pedersen, S B

    2012-01-01

    ... diet- and exercise-induced weight loss, both increased (9-11) and unaltered (12,13) circulating levels of 25OHD have been reported. Likewise, after major weight loss by bariatric surgery, both temporary (14-16) and long-term increases (16-18) in circulating levels of 25OHD have been reported, along with reports of no changes one year after surger...

  18. Renal Protective Effects of Low Molecular Weight of Inonotus obliquus Polysaccharide (LIOP on HFD/STZ-Induced Nephropathy in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Jung Chou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress, insulin resistance and pro-inflammatory cytokines have been shown to play an important role in pathogeneses of renal damage on type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Inonotus obliquus (IO is a white rot fungus that belongs to the family Hymenochaetaceae; it has been used as an edible mushroom and exhibits many biological activities including anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycemic properties. Especially the water-soluble Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides (IOPs have been previously reported to significantly inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines in mice and protect from streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. In order to identify the nephroprotective effects of low molecular weight of IOP fraction (LIOP, from the fruiting bodies of Inonotus obliquus, high-fat diet (HFD plus STZ-induced type 2-like diabetic nephropathy C57BL/6 mice were investigated in this study. Our data showed that eight weeks of administration of 10–100 kDa, LIOP (300 mg/kg had progressively increased their sensitivity to glucose (less insulin tolerance, reduced triglyceride levels, elevated the HDL/LDL ratio and decreased urinary albumin/creatinine ratio(ACR compared to the control group. By pathological and immunohistochemical examinations, it was indicated that LIOP can restore the integrity of the glomerular capsules and increase the numbers of glomerular mesangial cells, associated with decreased expression of TGF-β on renal cortex in mice. Consistently, three days of LIOP (100 μg/mL incubation also provided protection against STZ + AGEs-induced glucotoxicity in renal tubular cells (LLC-PK1, while the levels of NF-κB and TGF-β expression significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings demonstrate that LIOP treatment could ameliorate glucolipotoxicity-induced renal fibrosis, possibly partly via the inhibition of NF

  19. [The effects of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet on body weight and the expression of gastrointestinal hormones in diet-induced obesity rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-yan; Ma, Li-chuan; Li, Yin-yin; Zhao, Jia-jun; Li, Ming-long

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the effects of long-term high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet on body weight and the expression of gastrointestinal hormones in diet-induced obesity rats. Twenty-four diet-induced obesity rat models were established by feeding fat-enriched diet, then were randomly divided into two groups by stratified sampling method by weight: the high-protein diet group (HP, 36.7% of energy from protein), and the normal chow group (NC, 22.4% of energy from protein), 12 rats in each group. The total calorie intake of each rat per day was similar and was maintained for 24 weeks, then body weight, visceral fat mass, fasting plasma ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were determined, as well as protein expression of ghrelin in stomach, GLP-1 in ileum were detected by immunohistochemistry. After 24 weeks, body weight of HP, NC groups were (490.92 ± 39.47) g and (545.55 ± 31.08) g, respectively (t = -3.664, P 0.05), and plasma ghrelin level was negatively correlated to body weight (r = -0.370, t = -1.899, P diet can reduce body weight and visceral fat, increase the expression of ghrelin, and decline GLP-1 expression in diet-induced obesity rats.

  20. Body weight gain and deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieu, Isabelle; Derost, Philippe; Ulla, Miguel; Marques, Ana; Debilly, Bérangère; De Chazeron, Ingrid; Chéreau, Isabelle; Lemaire, Jean Jacques; Boirie, Yves; Llorca, Pierre Michel; Durif, Franck

    2011-11-15

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical technique that has now been available for some 25 years. It is used in the treatment of various motor disorders, e.g. Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor and dystonia, and neuropsychiatric illnesses, e.g. obsessive-compulsive disorder and Tourette syndrome. The surgical targets of DBS include the thalamic ventralis intermedius nucleus (Vim), the globus pallidus internus (GPi) and more recently the subthalamic nucleus (STN), currently considered as the reference target in the treatment of PD. In the last ten years, most studies in PD patients have described a rapid and marked weight gain in the months following DBS of the STN. This weight gain sometimes induces obesity and can have metabolic repercussions. The physiopathological mechanisms responsible for the weight gain are multifactorial (changes in energy metabolism and eating behaviour, reduction of motor complications, etc.). This review reports current knowledge concerning weight changes in patients treated by DBS with different surgical targets. It also describes the mechanisms responsible for weight gain and the health outcome for the patients.

  1. Short-days induce weight loss in Siberian hamsters despite overexpression of the agouti-related peptide gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethwa, P H; Warner, A; Fowler, M J; Murphy, M; de Backer, M W; Adan, R A H; Barrett, P; Brameld, J M; Ebling, F J P

    2010-06-01

    Many vertebrates express profound annual cycles of body fattening, although it is not clear whether these represent differential activity of the central pathways known to mediate homeostatic control of food intake and energy expenditure, or whether the recent discovery of a major role for pars tuberalis-ependymal signalling points towards novel mechanisms. We examined this in the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) by using gene transfection to up-regulate a major orexigenic peptide, agouti-related peptide (AgRP), and then determined whether this increased anabolic drive could prevent the short-day induced winter catabolic state. Infusions of a recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding an AgRP construct into the hypothalamus of hamsters in the long-day obese phase of their seasonal cycle produced a 20% gain in body weight over 6 weeks compared to hamsters receiving a control reporter construct, reflecting a significant increase in food intake and a significant decrease in energy expenditure. However, all hamsters showed a significant, prolonged decrease in body weight when exposed to short photoperiods, despite the hamsters expressing the AgRP construct maintaining a higher food intake and lower energy expenditure relative to the control hamsters. Visualisation of the green fluorescent protein reporter and analysis of AgRP-immunoreactivity confirmed widespread expression of the construct in the hypothalamus, which was maintained for the 21-week duration of the study. In conclusion, the over-expression of AgRP in the hypothalamus produced a profoundly obese state but did not block the seasonal catabolic response, suggesting a separation of rheostatic mechanisms in seasonality from those maintaining homeostasis of energy metabolism.

  2. The Effect of PPARα, PPARδ, PPARγ, and PPARpan Agonists on Body Weight, Body Mass, and Serum Lipid Profiles in Diet-Induced Obese AKR/J Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wallace Harrington

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR α, δ, and γ subtypes increases expression of genes involved in fatty acid transport and oxidation and alters adiposity in animal models of obesity and type-2 diabetes. PPARpan agonists which activate all three receptor subtypes have antidiabetic activity in animal models without the weight gain associated with selective PPARγ agonists. Herein we report the effects of selective PPAR agonists (GW9578, a PPARα agonist, GW0742, a PPARδ agonist, GW7845, a PPARγ agonist, combination of PPARα and δ agonists, and PPARpan (PPARα/γ/δ activators (GW4148 or GW9135 on body weight (BW, body composition, food consumption, fatty acid oxidation, and serum chemistry of diet-induced obese AKR/J mice. PPARα or PPARδ agonist treatment induced a slight decrease in fat mass (FM while a PPARγ agonist increased BW and FM commensurate with increased food consumption. The reduction in BW and food intake after cotreatment with PPARα and δ agonists appeared to be synergistic. GW4148, a PPARpan agonist, induced a significant and sustained reduction in BW and FM similar to an efficacious dose of rimonabant, an antiobesity compound. GW9135, a PPARpan agonist with weak activity at PPARδ, induced weight loss initially followed by rebound weight gain reaching vehicle control levels by the end of the experiment. We conclude that PPARα and PPARδ activations are critical to effective weight loss induction. These results suggest that the PPARpan compounds may be expected to maintain the beneficial insulin sensitization effects of a PPARγ agonist while either maintaining weight or producing weight loss.

  3. Comparison of surgically induced astigmatism after coaxial phacoemulsification through 1.8 mm microincision and bimanual phacoemulsification through 1.7 mm microincision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczynski, Michal; Supady, Ewa; Piotr, Loba; Synder, Aleksandra; Palenga-Pydyn, Dorota; Omulecki, Wojciech

    2009-09-01

    To compare surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) after coaxial 1.8 mm microincision cataract surgery (MICS) and bimanual 1.7 mm MICS calculated with 3 mathematical methods. Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland. Study comprised a nonrandomized prospective consecutive series of 58 eyes of 58 patients who had uneventful coaxial MICS with implantation of an Akreos MI60 foldable intraocular lens (IOL) using a 1.8 mm temporal clear corneal incision. Fifty eyes of 50 patients who had uneventful bimanual MICS through a 1.7 mm clear corneal incision for a sleeveless phaco tip and a 1.5 mm side port for an irrigating chopper with implantation of an Acri.Smart 48S foldable IOL served as a comparison group. All surgery was performed by 2 experienced surgeons. Surgically induced astigmatism was calculated using 3 methods. The patients were examined preoperatively and 2 weeks to 1 month postoperatively. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were seen in any patient. The corrected distance visual acuity improved significantly in both groups after surgery (P.05). In vector analysis, the mean SIA was 0.42 +/- 0.29 in the coaxial MICS group and 0.50 +/- 0.24 in the bimanual group; the difference was not statistically significant (P>.05). In vector decomposition, the mean SIA (C90) coaxial MICS group was 0.23 +/- 0.29 in the coaxial MICS group and 0.23 +/- 0.22 in the bimanual MICS group; the difference was not significant. Using the Naeser method, DeltaKP-90 was calculated, amounting to 0.05 +/- 0.44 in the coaxial MICS group and -0.04 +/- 0.42 in the bimanual MICS group; the difference was not significant. The amount of SIA induced by bimanual MICS and coaxial MICS phacoemulsification was very small. The bimanual MICS induced a slightly higher degree of SIA; however, according to all methods of SIA analysis, there was no significant difference in the mean SIA induced by both techniques.

  4. High-Density Lipoprotein-Associated miR-223 Is Altered after Diet-Induced Weight Loss in Overweight and Obese Males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatiha Tabet

    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs are small, endogenous non-coding RNAs that regulate metabolic processes, including obesity. The levels of circulating miRNAs are affected by metabolic changes in obesity, as well as in diet-induced weight loss. Circulating miRNAs are transported by high-density lipoproteins (HDL but the regulation of HDL-associated miRNAs after diet-induced weight loss has not been studied. We aim to determine if HDL-associated miR-16, miR-17, miR-126, miR-222 and miR-223 levels are altered by diet-induced weight loss in overweight and obese males.HDL were isolated from 47 subjects following 12 weeks weight loss comparing a high protein diet (HP, 30% of energy with a normal protein diet (NP, 20% of energy. HDL-associated miRNAs (miR-16, miR-17, miR-126, miR-222 and miR-223 at baseline and after 12 weeks of weight loss were quantified by TaqMan miRNA assays. HDL particle sizes were determined by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. Serum concentrations of human HDL constituents were measured immunoturbidometrically or enzymatically.miR-16, miR-17, miR-126, miR-222 and miR-223 were present on HDL from overweight and obese subjects at baseline and after 12 weeks of the HP and NP weight loss diets. The HP diet induced a significant decrease in HDL-associated miR-223 levels (p = 0.015, which positively correlated with changes in body weight (r = 0.488, p = 0.032. Changes in miR-223 levels were not associated to changes in HDL composition or size.HDL-associated miR-223 levels are significantly decreased after HP diet-induced weight loss in overweight and obese males. This is the first study reporting changes in HDL-associated miRNA levels with diet-induced weight loss.

  5. Surgical management of presbyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torricelli AA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available André AM Torricelli, Jackson B Junior, Marcony R Santhiago, Samir J BecharaDivision of Ophthalmology, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Presbyopia, the gradual loss of accommodation that becomes clinically significant during the fifth decade of life, is a physiologic inevitability. Different technologies are being pursued to achieve surgical correction of this disability; however, a number of limitations have prevented widespread acceptance of surgical presbyopia correction, such as optical and visual distortion, induced corneal ectasia, haze, anisometropy with monovision, regression of effect, decline in uncorrected distance vision, and the inherent risks with invasive techniques, limiting the development of an ideal solution. The correction of the presbyopia and the restoration of accommodation are considered the final frontier of refractive surgery. The purpose of this paper is to provide an update about current procedures available for presbyopia correction, their advantages, and disadvantages.Keywords: presbyopia, surgical correction, treatment

  6. Maternal diet-induced obesity programs cardiovascular dysfunction in adult male mouse offspring independent of current body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Heather L; Niu, Youguo; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Giussani, Dino A; Ozanne, Susan E

    2014-10-01

    Obese pregnancies are not only associated with adverse consequences for the mother but also the long-term health of her child. Human studies have shown that individuals from obese mothers are at increased risk of premature death from cardiovascular disease (CVD), but are unable to define causality. This study aimed to determine causality using a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity. Obesity was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by feeding a diet rich in simple sugars and saturated fat 6 weeks prior to pregnancy and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Control females were fed laboratory chow. Male offspring from both groups were weaned onto chow and studied at 3, 5, 8, and 12 weeks of age for gross cardiac morphometry using stereology, cardiomyocyte cell area by histology, and cardiac fetal gene expression using qRT-PCR. Cardiac function was assessed by isolated Langendorff technology at 12 weeks of age and hearts were analyzed at the protein level for the expression of the β1 adrenergic receptor, muscarinic type-2 acetylcholine receptor, and proteins involved in cardiac contraction. Offspring from obese mothers develop pathologic cardiac hypertrophy associated with re-expression of cardiac fetal genes. By young adulthood these offspring developed severe systolic and diastolic dysfunction and cardiac sympathetic dominance. Importantly, cardiac dysfunction occurred in the absence of any change in corresponding body weight and despite the offspring eating a healthy low-fat diet. These findings provide a causal link to explain human observations relating maternal obesity with premature death from CVD in her offspring.

  7. Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Fragaria Vesca on serum glucose levels and body weight in diet induced obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkat ramana Yella

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract Fragaria Vesca on serum glucose levels in diet induced obese rats.Material and methods: Male Wister albino rats weighing 200- 250 gm, were divided into 3 groups of 6 animals each. The animals of all the groups except normal group were given a lipid diet consisting of cholesterol (1%, cholic acid (0.5%, casein (20%, choline (0.25%, d-l-methionin1(0.4%, coconut oil (25%, multi vitamin mix (3.5% and sucrose (48.4% with standard pellet diet for 30 days [20]. Growth rate was monitored during the treatment. Results: There was significantly decrease in blood glucose in standard group compared to HFD model (P< 0.05.  But there was no significant change among other groupsConclusion:  There was no significant change in the blood glucose level in all the groups except the standard group, but there was reduction in body weight.

  8. Comparison of hindlimb unloading and partial weight suspension models for spaceflight-type condition induced effects on white blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jolaine M; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wagner, Erika B.; Mick, Rosemarie; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models are frequently used to assist in the determination of the long- and short-term effects of space flight. The space environment, including microgravity, can impact many physiological and immunological system parameters. It has been found that ground based models of microgravity produce changes in white blood cell counts, which negatively affects immunologic function. As part of the Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR), we compared the acute effects on white blood cell parameters induced by the more traditionally used animal model of hindlimb unloading (HU) with a recently developed reduced weightbearing analog known as partial weight suspension (PWS). Female ICR mice were either hindlimb unloaded or placed in the PWS system at 16% quadrupedal weightbearing for 4 h, 1, 2, 7 or 10 days, at which point complete blood counts were obtained. Control animals (jacketed and non-jacketed) were exposed to identical conditions without reduced weightbearing. Results indicate that significant changes in total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte and eosinophil counts were observed within the first 2 days of exposure to each system. These differences in blood cell counts normalized by day 7 in both systems. The results of these studies indicate that there are some statistically significant changes observed in the blood cell counts for animals exposed to both the PWS and HU simulated microgravity systems. PMID:23766550

  9. Food neophobia in the context of a varied diet induced by a weight reduction program in massively obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigal, Natalie; Frelut, Marie-Laure; Monneuse, Marie-Odile; Hladik, Claude-Marcel; Simmen, Bruno; Pasquet, Patrick

    2006-03-01

    Previous studies in humans have shown that short to middle-term pre-exposure to multiple foods can reduce the negative response to novel foods (neophobia). In order to explore the effects of a long-term exposure to varied foods on food neophobia, we studied a population of obese adolescents observed in a longitudinal protocol in which the multiple food experiences are induced by a residential weight reduction program (WRP) that encourages the consumption of a wide variety of foods. Seventy-two massively obese adolescents (22 boys) filled the food neophobia scale (FNS, [Pliner, P., & Hobden, K. (1992). Development of a scale to measure the trait of food neophobia in humans. Appetite 19, 105-120]) and an ad hoc food familiarity and liking questionnaire at the beginning and at the end of the program (mean duration: 8.9 months). Their scores were compared to those of a control group of 51 adolescents (14 boys) tested within a similar period. FNS results show a decrease of food neophobia, without significant difference between the control group and the WRP subjects, although only WRP have encountered new foods experiences as attested by the familiarity and liking results. Methodological considerations, concerning the characteristics of the participants, the nature of the multiple food exposure and the food neophobia measurements, will be proposed to explain differences among studies.

  10. Dynamics of intrapericardial and extrapericardial fat tissues during long-term, dietary-induced, moderate weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaban, Gal; Wolak, Arik; Avni-Hassid, Hila; Gepner, Yftach; Shelef, Ilan; Henkin, Yaakov; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Cohen, Noa; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Serfaty, Dana; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Tene, Lilac; Zelicha, Hila; Yaskolka-Meir, Anat; Komy, Oded; Bilitzky, Avital; Chassidim, Yoash; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Thiery, Joachim; Dicker, Dror; Rudich, Assaf; Stampfer, Meir J; Shai, Iris

    2017-10-01

    = 3.766; 95% CI: 1.092, 6.440; P = 0.007).Conclusions: Moderate but persistent dietary-induced weight loss substantially decreased both IPF and EPF volumes. Reduction of pericardial adipose tissues is independently associated with an improved lipid profile. The Mediterranean diet, rich in unsaturated fats and restricted carbohydrates, is superior to an LF diet in terms of the IPF burden reduction. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01530724. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Weight Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anger Weight Management Weight Management Smoking and Weight Healthy Weight Loss Being Comfortable in Your Own Skin Your Weight Loss Expectations & Goals Healthier Lifestyle Healthier Lifestyle Physical Fitness Food & Nutrition Sleep, Stress & Relaxation Emotions & Relationships HealthyYouTXT ...

  12. Evaluation of weight reduction and anti-cholesterol activity of Punarnava root extract against high fat diets induced obesity in experimental rodent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Khalid; H H Siddiqui

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the weight reduction and hypercholesteremic potential of punarnava root extract induced with high fat diets in experimental rodents by administrating oral doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg). Methods: Thirty six female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided in six groups and each group had six animals. Group-I administered laboratory diet, control obese group-II induced with high fat diet (HFD), group-III standard drug plus HFD rats (5 mg/kg) and Boerhaavia diffusa root extract (BDRE) were administered (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) plus HFD rats (group-IV, V and VI). After the end of experimental period (60 days) the body weight, organ fat pad weight, lipid profile, liver and kidney marker enzyme were estimated along with histopathological examination in experimental groups of animals. Results: The obtained results showed that the significant reduction on administration of BDRE (200 and 400 mg/kg) in body weight, visceral fat pad (P<0.01- ), lipids level (P<0.01), AST and ALT (P<0.01), urea (P<0.01) and creatinine (P<0.01) when compared with HFD groups II. The biochemical estimation were supplemented by histopathological examinations. Conclusions: The results of this study scientifically supported its traditional uses of Boerhaaviadiffusa as antiobesity activity by normalizes the elevated body weight and organ fat pad weight as well as antilipidemic property by lowering the altered levels of lipid profile in female Sprague-Dawley.

  13. Low-calorie diet induced weight loss may alter regulatory hormones and contribute to rebound visceral adiposity in obese persons with a family history of type-2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banasik, Jacquelyn L; Walker, Marilee K; Randall, Judith M; Netjes, Robert B; Foutz, Mary S

    2013-08-01

    To examine potential detrimental long-term effects of acute diet-induced weight loss on visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, cortisol, and adipokines in obese individuals at risk for type-2 diabetes. Anthropometric measures (height, weight, waist circumference), self-report instruments, abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan, and blood samples (glucose, insulin, interleukin-6, leptin, adiponectin) were obtained from a convenience sample of 20 participants at baseline, after a 28-day low-calorie diet (800 kcal/day) intervention, and again 6 months later. Fifteen of 20 participants completed the 28-day diet intervention and had a mean weight loss of 15 pounds. Comparison between baseline, postdiet, and 6-month data, demonstrated that although participants had significant improvements after the diet, they regained fat mass, particularly in the visceral area. Clinicians may need to revise recommendations for using low-calorie diets to achieve weight loss. Diet-induced weight cycling may contribute to dysregulation of metabolism and have long-term detrimental consequences for accumulation of visceral adipose tissue. The likelihood of success is low, with high dropout rates, and those patients who achieve weight loss are very likely to regain it. Thus, the perceived short-term benefits of calorie-restricted diets in this population likely do not outweigh the potential long-term detrimental effects. ©2012 The Author(s) ©2012 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  14. Effect of the Lectin of Bauhinia variegata and Its Recombinant Isoform on Surgically Induced Skin Wounds in a Murine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bainy Leal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are a structurally heterogeneous group of highly specific carbohydrate-binding proteins. Due to their great biotechnological potential, lectins are widely used in biomedical research. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the healing potential of the lectin of Bauhinia variegata (nBVL and its recombinant isoform (rBVL-1. Following surgical creation of dorsal skin wounds, seven groups of mice were submitted to topical treatment for 12 days with lectin, D-galactose, BSA and saline. The animals were anesthetized and euthanized on POD 2, 7 and 12 in order to evaluate the healing potential of each treatment. The parameters considered included wound size, contraction rate, epithelialization rate and histopathological findings. Wound closure was fastest in animals treated with rBVL-1 (POD 7. nBVL was more effective than the controls. All skin layers were reconstructed and keratin deposition increased. Our findings indicate that the lectin of Bauhinia variegata possesses pro-healing properties and may be employed in the treatment of acute skin wounds.

  15. Effect of the lectin of Bauhinia variegata and its recombinant isoform on surgically induced skin wounds in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Luiz Gonzaga do Nascimento; Pinto, Luciano da Silva; Bastos, Rafaela Mesquita; Evaristo, Francisco Flávio Vasconcelos; Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves de; Carneiro, Victor Alves; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy; Júnior, Valdemiro Amaro da Silva; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Teixeira, Edson Holanda

    2011-11-07

    Lectins are a structurally heterogeneous group of highly specific carbohydrate-binding proteins. Due to their great biotechnological potential, lectins are widely used in biomedical research. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the healing potential of the lectin of Bauhinia variegata (nBVL) and its recombinant isoform (rBVL-1). Following surgical creation of dorsal skin wounds, seven groups of mice were submitted to topical treatment for 12 days with lectin, D-galactose, BSA and saline. The animals were anesthetized and euthanized on POD 2, 7 and 12 in order to evaluate the healing potential of each treatment. The parameters considered included wound size, contraction rate, epithelialization rate and histopathological findings. Wound closure was fastest in animals treated with rBVL-1 (POD 7). nBVL was more effective than the controls. All skin layers were reconstructed and keratin deposition increased. Our findings indicate that the lectin of Bauhinia variegata possesses pro-healing properties and may be employed in the treatment of acute skin wounds.

  16. Inflammation- and tumor-induced anorexia and weight loss require MyD88 in hematopoietic/myeloid cells but not in brain endothelial or neural cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruud, Johan; Wilhelms, Daniel Björk; Nilsson, Anna; Eskilsson, Anna; Tang, Yan-Juan; Ströhle, Peter; Caesar, Robert; Schwaninger, Markus; Wunderlich, Thomas; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Engblom, David; Blomqvist, Anders

    2013-05-01

    Loss of appetite is a hallmark of inflammatory diseases. The underlying mechanisms remain undefined, but it is known that myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), an adaptor protein critical for Toll-like and IL-1 receptor family signaling, is involved. Here we addressed the question of determining in which cells the MyD88 signaling that results in anorexia development occurs by using chimeric mice and animals with cell-specific deletions. We found that MyD88-knockout mice, which are resistant to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anorexia, displayed anorexia when transplanted with wild-type bone marrow cells. Furthermore, mice with a targeted deletion of MyD88 in hematopoietic or myeloid cells were largely protected against LPS-induced anorexia and displayed attenuated weight loss, whereas mice with MyD88 deletion in hepatocytes or in neural cells or the cerebrovascular endothelium developed anorexia and weight loss of similar magnitude as wild-type mice. Furthermore, in a model for cancer-induced anorexia-cachexia, deletion of MyD88 in hematopoietic cells attenuated the anorexia and protected against body weight loss. These findings demonstrate that MyD88-dependent signaling within the brain is not required for eliciting inflammation-induced anorexia. Instead, we identify MyD88 signaling in hematopoietic/myeloid cells as a critical component for acute inflammatory-driven anorexia, as well as for chronic anorexia and weight loss associated with malignant disease.

  17. [Cyanidin-3-glucoside attenuates body weight gain, serum lipid concentrations and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced obese rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ren-Qiang; Wu, Xiao-You; Zhou, Xiang; Zhu, Jing; Ma, Lu-Yi

    2014-05-01

    Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) is the main active ingredient of anthocyanidin. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of C3G on body weight gain, visceral adiposity, lipid profiles and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group (n=8) and a high fat diet group (n=22), and were fed with standard diet or high fat diet. Five weeks later, 17 high-fat diet-induced obese rats were randomly given C3G [100 mg/(kg·d)] or normal saline via intragastric administration for 5 weeks. Five weeks later, body weight, visceral adiposity and food intake were measured. Blood samples were collected for detecting fasting glucose, serum insulin, lipid profiles and adiponectin. Insulin resistance index, atherosclerosis index and average feed efficiency ratio were calculated. C3G supplementation markedly decreased body weight, visceral adiposity, average feed efficiency ratio, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index and atherosclerosis index in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. C3G supplementation normalized serum adiponectin and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Cyanidin-3-glucoside can reduce body weight gain, and attenuate obesity-associated dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed rats via up-regulating serum adiponectin level.

  18. MyD88 is a key mediator of anorexia, but not weight loss, induced by lipopolysaccharide and interleukin-1 beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogimoto, Kayoko; Harris, Marvin K; Wisse, Brent E

    2006-09-01

    Systemic inflammatory signals can disrupt the physiological regulation of energy balance, causing anorexia and weight loss. In the current studies, we investigated whether MyD88, the primary, but not exclusive, intracellular signal transduction pathway for Toll-like receptor 4 and IL-1 receptor I, is necessary for anorexia and weight loss to occur in response to stimuli that activate these key innate immune receptors. Our findings demonstrate that the absence of MyD88 signaling confers complete protection against anorexia induced by either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (20 h food intake in MyD88-/- mice 5.4 +/- 0.3 vs. 3.3 +/- 0.4 g in MyD88+/+ control mice, P anorexia in the absence of MyD88 signaling, it may contribute to LPS-induced weight loss.

  19. RYGB Produces more Sustained Body Weight Loss and Improvement of Glycemic Control Compared with VSG in the Diet-Induced Obese Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zheng; Townsend, R Leigh; Mumphrey, Michael B; Morrison, Christopher D; Münzberg, Heike; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2017-04-06

    Weight regain and type-2 diabetes relapse has been reported in a significant proportion of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) patients in some studies, but definitive conclusions regarding the long-term comparative effectiveness of VSG and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery are lacking both in humans and rodent models. This study's objective was to compare the effects of murine models of VSG and RYGB surgery on body weight, body composition, food intake, energy expenditure, and glycemic control. VSG, RYGB, and sham surgery was performed in high-fat diet-induced obese mice, and the effects on body weight and glycemic control were observed for a period of 12 weeks. After the initial weight loss, VSG mice regained significant amounts of body weight and fat mass that were only marginally lower than in sham-operated mice. In contrast, RYGB produced sustained loss of body weight and fat mass up to 12 weeks and drastically improved fasting insulin and HOMA-IR compared with sham-operated mice. Using weight-matched control groups, we also found that the adaptive hypometabolic response to weight loss was blunted by both VSG and RYGB, and that despite large weight/fat regain, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were markedly improved, but not reversed, in VSG mice. VSG is less effective to lastingly suppress body weight and improve glycemic control compared with RYGB in mice. Given similar observations in many human studies, the run towards replacing RYGB with VSG is premature and should await carefully controlled randomized long-term trials with VSG and RYGB.

  20. Comparison of the effects of curcumin, tramadol and surgical treatments on neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan, Dilek; Kocman, Atacan Emre; Yildirim, Engin; Ozatik, Orhan; Aydin, Sule; Aydan, Kose

    2017-04-04

    Nerve entrapment syndromes are the most common causes of neuropathic pain. Surgical decompression is preferred method of treatment. The goal of the study was to compare the efficacy of curcumin, tramadol and chronic constriction release treatment (CCR), individually or together, in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury. Eighty male-rats were divided into eight study groups. Group 1 was the sham group. Group 2 was the control group with established chronic constriction injury (CCI). CCI was also established in Groups 3-8. Group 3 underwent chronic constriction release (CCR). Groups 4 and 5 received curcumin and tramadol. Groups 6 and 7 also received curcumin (100 mg kg-1 daily, oral) and tramadol (10 mg kg-1 daily, intraperitoneal, 14 days) after CCR, respectively. Combined curcumin-tramadol treatment was applied to Group 8. Behavioral tests (thermal hyperalgesia, dynamic plantar, cold plate test) were performed on days 0, 3, 7, 13, 17, and 21. Tissue tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels were analyzed in the nerve and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) samples on day 21.days. Histopathologic examination was performed on nervous tissue and DRG. Tramadol-CCR and tramadol-curcumin significantly attenuated mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. In CCI-CCR-tramadol treatment, TNF-α levels were found significantly lower in the sciatic nerve tissue and DRG, and IL-10 levels were significantly higher in the sciatic nerve tissue. CCI-CCR-tramadol treatment is highly effective in the symptomatic treatment of neuropathic pain. CCR-curcumin is associated with decreased degeneration and increased regeneration of the nerve tissue.

  1. Effects of molecular weight and ratio of guluronic acid to mannuronic acid on the antioxidant properties of sodium alginate fractions prepared by radiation-induced degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Murat, E-mail: msen@hacettepe.edu.t [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry Division, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    In this study, the effects of the molecular weight and ratio of guluronic acid (G) to mannuronic acid (M), G/M, of some sodium alginate (NaAlg) fractions on their antioxidative properties were investigated. Low-molecular-weight-fractions with various G/M were prepared by gamma radiation-induced degradation of NaAlg. Change in their molecular weight was monitored. Antioxidant properties of the fractions with various molecular weight and G/M were evaluated by determining the scavenging ability of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH{sup {center_dot}}). 50% inhibition concentrations of the 50 kGy-irradiated NaAlgs having molecular weights of 20.5, 17.7, and 16.0 kDa were found to be 11.0, 18.0, and 24.0 mg/ml, respectively, whereas the fractions of the same molecular weight with a lower G/M exhibited a better DPPH{sup {center_dot}}scavenging activity. The results demonstrated that its molecular weight and G/M were important factors in controlling the antioxidant properties of NaAlg.

  2. Bariatric surgery patients’ perceptions of weight-related stigma in healthcare settings impair post-surgery dietary adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle M. Raves

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Weight-related stigma is reported frequently by higher body-weight patients in healthcare settings. Bariatric surgery triggers profound weight loss. This weight loss may therefore alleviate patients’ experiences of weight-related stigma within healthcare settings. In non-clinical settings, weight-related stigma is associated with weight-inducing eating patterns. Dietary adherence is a major challenge after bariatric surgery.Objectives: (1 Evaluate the relationship between weight-related stigma and post-surgical dietary adherence; (2 understand if weight loss reduces weight-related stigma, thereby improving post-surgical dietary adherence; and (3 explore provider and patient perspectives on adherence and stigma in healthcare settings. Design: This mixed methods study contrasts survey responses from 300 postoperative bariatric patients with ethnographic data based on interviews with 35 patients and extensive multi-year participant-observation within a clinic setting. The survey measured experiences of weight-related stigma, including from healthcare professionals, on the Interpersonal Sources of Weight Stigma scale and internalized stigma based on the Weight Bias Internalization Scale. Dietary adherence measures included patient self-reports, non-disordered eating patterns reported on the Disordered Eating after Bariatric Surgery scale, and food frequencies. Regression was used to assess the relationships among post-surgical stigma, dietary adherence, and weight loss. Qualitative analyses consisted of thematic analysis.Results: The quantitative data show that internalized stigma and general experiences of weight-related stigma predict worse dietary adherence, even after weight is lost. The qualitative data show patients did not generally recognize this connection, and health professionals explained it as poor patient compliance.Conclusion: Reducing perceptions of weight-related stigma in healthcare settings and weight bias

  3. Pharmacological strategies to counteract antipsychotic-induced weight gain and metabolic adverse effects in schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yuya; Suzuki, Takefumi; Nakagawa, Atsuo; Yoshida, Kazunari; Mimura, Masaru; Fleischhacker, Walter Wolfgang; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-01

    Antipsychotic-induced metabolic adversities are often difficult to manage. Using concomitant medications to counteract these adversities may be a rational option. To systematically determine the effectiveness of medications to counteract antipsychotic-induced metabolic adversities in patients with schizophrenia. Published articles until November 2013 were searched using 5 electronic databases. Clinical trial registries were searched for unpublished trials. Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trials focusing on patients with schizophrenia were included if they evaluated the effects of concomitant medications on antipsychotic-induced metabolic adversities as a primary outcome. Variables relating to participants, interventions, comparisons, outcomes, and study design were extracted. The primary outcome was change in body weight. Secondary outcomes included clinically relevant weight change, fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, fasting insulin, insulin resistance, cholesterol, and triglycerides. Forty trials representing 19 unique interventions were included in this meta-analysis. Metformin was the most extensively studied drug in regard to body weight, the mean difference amounting to -3.17 kg (95% CI: -4.44 to -1.90 kg) compared to placebo. Pooled effects for topiramate, sibutramine, aripiprazole, and reboxetine were also different from placebo. Furthermore, metformin and rosiglitazone improved insulin resistance, while aripiprazole, metformin, and sibutramine decreased blood lipids. When nonpharmacological strategies alone are insufficient, and switching antipsychotics to relatively weight-neutral agents is not feasible, the literature supports the use of concomitant metformin as first choice among pharmacological interventions to counteract antipsychotic-induced weight gain and other metabolic adversities in schizophrenia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For

  4. Anesthetic and Surgical Management of Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in a Patient with Radiocontrast-Induced Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Levent Acar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThere is a little experience of anesthetic management of patients with radiocontrast induced nephropathy (RCIN. We report anesthetic management of a 75 years-old, diabetic male patient who underwent off-pump CABG surgery with the diagnosis of RCIN following coronary angiography. The treatment of RCIN is limited. Thus supportive approach should be performed while awaiting the recovery of the impaired renal functions. Protracted period of recovery and the deterioration of the patient’s clinical situation, forced us for immediate revascularization. Off-pump CABG was the preferred technique of surgery. Postoperative period was uneventful and patient was discharged. Although waiting for spontaneous resolving of the nephropathy is mostly recommended, Off-pump CABG with balanced anesthesia may be performed safely on patients with RCIN if the patients’ cardiac complaints become worse.

  5. Serotonin receptors are involved in the spinal mediation of descending facilitation of surgical incision-induced increase of Fos-like immunoreactivity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prado Wiliam A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Descending pronociceptive pathways may be implicated in states of persistent pain. Paw skin incision is a well-established postoperative pain model that causes behavioral nociceptive responses and enhanced excitability of spinal dorsal horn neurons. The number of spinal c-Fos positive neurons of rats treated intrathecally with serotonin, noradrenaline or acetylcholine antagonists where evaluated to study the descending pathways activated by a surgical paw incision. Results The number of c-Fos positive neurons in laminae I/II ipsilateral, lamina V bilateral to the incised paw, and in lamina X significantly increased after the incision. These changes: remained unchanged in phenoxybenzamine-treated rats; were increased in the contralateral lamina V of atropine-treated rats; were inhibited in the ipsilateral lamina I/II by 5-HT1/2B/2C (methysergide, 5-HT2A (ketanserin or 5-HT1/2A/2C/5/6/7 (methiothepin receptors antagonists, in the ipsilateral lamina V by methysergide or methiothepin, in the contralateral lamina V by all the serotonergic antagonists and in the lamina X by LY 278,584, ketanserin or methiothepin. Conclusions We conclude: (1 muscarinic cholinergic mechanisms reduce incision-induced response of spinal neurons inputs from the contralateral paw; (2 5-HT1/2A/2C/3 receptors-mediate mechanisms increase the activity of descending pathways that facilitates the response of spinal neurons to noxious inputs from the contralateral paw; (3 5-HT1/2A/2C and 5-HT1/2C receptors increases the descending facilitation mechanisms induced by incision in the ipsilateral paw; (4 5-HT2A/3 receptors contribute to descending pronociceptive pathways conveyed by lamina X spinal neurons; (5 α-adrenergic receptors are unlikely to participate in the incision-induced facilitation of the spinal neurons.

  6. A piglet with surgically induced exocrine pancreatic insufficiency as an animal model of newborns to study fat digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharova, Kateryna; Pierzynowski, Stefan G; Grujic, Danica; Kirko, Siarhei; Szwiec, Katarzyna; Wang, Jing; Kovalenko, Tetiana; Osadchenko, Iryna; Ushakova, Galyna; Shmigel, Halyna; Fedkiv, Olexandr; Majda, Blanka; Prykhodko, Olena

    2014-12-28

    The maldigestion and malabsorption of fat in infants fed milk formula results due to the minimal production of pancreatic lipase. Thus, to investigate lipid digestion and absorption and mimic the situation in newborns, a young porcine exocrine pancreatic insufficient (EPI) model was adapted and validated in the present study. A total of thirteen EPI pigs, aged 8 weeks old, were randomised into three groups and fed either a milk-based formula or a milk-based formula supplemented with either bacterial or fungal lipase. Digestion and absorption of fat was directly correlated with the addition of lipases as demonstrated by a 30% increase in the coefficient of fat absorption. In comparison to the control group, a 40 and 25% reduction in total fat content and 26 and 45% reduction in n-3 and n-6 fatty acid (FA) content in the stool was observed for lipases 1 and 2, respectively. Improved fat absorption was reflected in the blood levels of lipid parameters. During the experiment, only a very slight gain in body weight was observed in EPI piglets, which can be explained by the absence of pancreatic protease and amylase in the gastrointestinal tract. This is similar to newborn babies that have reduced physiological function of exocrine pancreas. In conclusion, we postulate that the EPI pig model fed with infant formula mimics the growth and lipid digestion and absorption in human neonates and can be used to elucidate further importance of fat and FA in the development and growth of newborns, as well as for testing novel formula compositions.

  7. Effect of Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Blood Glucose, Body Weight and Feed Intake of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Iroaganachi; C.O, Eleazu; P.N, Okafor; N, Nwaohu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on blood glucose (BG), feed intake (FI) and weight of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods: Twenty four male albino rats were used and were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 (non-diabetic) and Group 2 (diabetic) received standard rat feed; Group 3 received unripe plantain incorporated feed (810 /kg body weight) and Group 4 received unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feed (710:100 g/kg body weight). The weights and FI of the rats were measured daily throughout the experimentation. Results: Groups 3 and 4 rats had 159.52% and 71.83% decreases in BG but 24.91% and 35.32% decreases in weights compared with groups 1 and 2 rats that had 2.09% and 22.94% increases in BG with 13.42% increase and 45.36% decrease in weights respectively. The FI of the experimental rats did not differ significantly from each other (P>0.05) at the end of experimentation. The standard rat feed contained higher amounts of Ca but lower amounts of Mg and Fe compared with the unripe plantain and unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feeds. Conclusion: Combination of unripe plantain and ginger at the dose used in the management of diabetes was not very effective compared with unripe plantain alone. PMID:25674161

  8. Hypolipidemic and weight reducing activity of the ethanolic extract of Tamarindus indica fruit pulp in cafeteria diet- and sulpiride-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Vaneeta; Dhingra, Dinesh; Sharma, Sunil; Parle, Milind; Harna, Rajinder Kumar

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the effect of ethanolic extract of fruit pulp of Tamarindus indica Linn. (Family: Caesalpiniaceae) on obesity in rats using cafeteria diet-induced obesity and antipsychotic drug (sulpiride)-induced obesity. Cafeteria dietwas administered for 40 successive days to male Wistar rats and sulpiride (20 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered for 28 successive days to female Wistar rats. In separate groups of animals, the ethanolic extract (50 and 100 mg/kg p.o.) of Tamarindus indica fruit was administered along with cafeteria diet for 40 successive days to Wistar male rats and along with sulpiride for 28 successive days to Wistar female rats. Cafeteria diet alone significantly increased body weight, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose levels and decreased HDL cholesterol in male rats as compared to control. Sulpiride per se significantly increased the levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and there was no significant effect on HDL-cholesterol in female rats as compared to control. Ethanolic extract showed a significant decrease in body weight, serum cholesterol, and triglycerides and a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol in cafeteria diet- and sulpiride-induced obese rats as compared to their respective control groups. Thus, the ethanolic extract of Tamarindus indica fruit pulp showed a significant weight-reducing and hypolipidemic activity in cafeteria diet- and sulpiride-induced obese rats.

  9. Hypolipidemic and weight reducing activity of the ethanolic extract of Tamarindus indica fruit pulp in cafeteria diet- and sulpiride-induced obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaneeta Jindal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the effect of ethanolic extract of fruit pulp of Tamarindus indica Linn. (Family: Caesalpiniaceae on obesity in rats using cafeteria diet-induced obesity and antipsychotic drug (sulpiride-induced obesity. Materials and Methods: Cafeteria diet was administered for 40 successive days to male Wistar rats and sulpiride (20 mg/kg, i.p. was administered for 28 successive days to female Wistar rats. In separate groups of animals, the ethanolic extract (50 and 100 mg/kg p.o. of Tamarindus indica fruit was administered along with cafeteria diet for 40 successive days to Wistar male rats and along with sulpiride for 28 successive days to Wistar female rats. Results: Cafeteria diet alone significantly increased body weight, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose levels and decreased HDL cholesterol in male rats as compared to control. Sulpiride per se significantly increased the levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and there was no significant effect on HDL-cholesterol in female rats as compared to control. Ethanolic extract showed a significant decrease in body weight, serum cholesterol, and triglycerides and a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol in cafeteria diet- and sulpiride-induced obese rats as compared to their respective control groups. Conclusions: Thus, the ethanolic extract of Tamarindus indica fruit pulp showed a significant weight-reducing and hypolipidemic activity in cafeteria diet- and sulpiride-induced obese rats.

  10. Effects of low-molecular-weight-chitosan on the adenine-induced chronic renal failure rats in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Xuan; Han, Baoqin; Sui, Xianxian; Hu, Rui; Liu, Wanshun

    2015-02-01

    The effects of low-molecular-weight-chitosan (LMWC) on chronic renal failure (CRF) rats induced by adenine were investigated in vivo and in vitro. Chitosan were hydrolyzed using chitosanase at pH 6-7 and 37° for 24 h to obtain LMWC. In vitro, the effect of LMWC on the proliferation of renal tubular epithelial cells (RTEC) showed that it had no cytotoxic effect and could promote cell growth. For the in vivo experiment, chronic renal failure rats induced by adenine were randomly divided into control group, Niaoduqing group, and high-, medium- and low-dose LMWC groups. For each group, we detected serum creatinine (SCR), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), glutathione oxidase (GSH-Px) activities of renal tissue, and obtained the ratio of kidney weight/body weight, pathological changes of kidney. The levels of serum SCR, BUN were higher in the adenine-induced rats than those in the control group, indicating that the rat chronic renal failure model worked successfully. The results after treatment showed that LMWC could reduce the SCR and BUN levels and enhance the activities/levels of T-SOD and GSH-PX in kidney compared to control group. Histopathological examination revealed that adenine-induced renal alterations were restored by LMWC at three tested dosages, especially at the low dosage of 100 mg kg-1 d-1.

  11. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved.

  12. The role of histaminergic H1 and H3 receptors in food intake: a mechanism for atypical antipsychotic-induced weight gain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chao; Weston-Green, Katrina; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2010-02-01

    Atypical antipsychotics such as olanzapine and clozapine are effective at treating the multiple domains of schizophrenia, with a low risk of extra-pyramidal side-effects. However a major downfall to their use is metabolic side-effects particularly weight gain/obesity, which occurs by unknown mechanisms. The present paper explores the potential candidature of histaminergic neurotransmission in the mechanisms of atypical antipsychotic-induced weight gain, with a focus on the histaminergic H1 and H3 receptors. Olanzapine and clozapine have a high affinity for the H1 receptor, and meta-analyses show a strong correlation between risk of weight gain and H1 receptor affinity. In addition, olanzapine treatment decreases H1 receptor binding and mRNA expression in the rat hypothalamus. Furthermore, a complex role is emerging for the histamine H3 receptor in the control of hunger. The H3 receptor is a pre-synaptic autoreceptor that inhibits the synthesis and release of histamine, and a heteroreceptor that inhibits other neurotransmitters such as serotonin (5-HT), noradrenaline (NA) and acetylcholine (ACh), which are also implicated in the regulation of food intake. Thus, the H3 receptor is in a prime position to regulate food intake, both through its control of histamine and its influence on other feeding pathways. We proposed that a mechanism for atypical antipsychotic-induced weight gain may be partly through the H3 receptor, as a drug-induced decrease in H1 receptor activity may decrease histamine tone through the H3 autoreceptors, compounding the weight gain problem. In addition, atypical antipsychotics may affect food intake by influencing 5-HT, NA and ACh release via interactions with the H3 heteroreceptor.

  13. Total adiponectin and adiponectin multimeric complexes in relation to weight loss-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polak, J.; Kovacova, Z.; Holst, C.

    2008-01-01

    AIM: Adiponectin increases insulin sensitivity, protects arterial walls against atherosclerosis, and regulates glucose metabolism, and is decreased in obese, insulin resistant, and type 2 diabetic patients. Adiponectin circulates in plasma as high, medium, and low molecular weight forms (HMW, MMW...

  14. Exercise Training and Grape Seed Extract Co-Administration Improves Lipid Profile, Weight Loss, Bradycardia, and Hypotension of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Badavi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:: Exercise Training (ET and Grape Seed Extract (GSE as an antioxidant have many positive effects on controlling diabetes mellitus and its complications. Objectives:: This study aimed to determine the effects of GSE alone or combined with ET on body weight, plasma lipid profile, blood pressure, and heart rate in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods:: In this study, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to five groups: sedentary control, sedentary diabetic, trained diabetic, GSE treated sedentary diabetic, and GSE treated trained diabetic. ET was conducted on the treadmill daily for 8 weeks. One way ANOVA followed by LSD test was used for statistical analysis. Results:: Reduction of body weight, high density lipoproteins, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure and increment of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoproteins were observed after STZ injection. Co-administration of GSE and ET had more positive effects on lipid profile compared to each method alone. In addition, GSE and ET modified heart rate partially, while their combination was more effective in improvement of heart rat in conscious rats. On the other hand, administration of ET or GSE alone did not affect systolic blood pressure and body weight, while their combination restored systolic blood pressure completely and improved body weight partially. Conclusions:: The study findings indicated that ET combined with GSE had more beneficial effects compared to each one alone on the complications of STZ induced diabetes. This may constitute a convenient and inexpensive therapeutic approach to diabetic complications.

  15. Time-restricted feeding on weekdays restricts weight gain: A study using rat models of high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Magnus Kringstad; Choi, Man Hung; Kulseng, Bård; Zhao, Chun-Mei; Chen, Duan

    2017-05-01

    A recent study reported that a special weekly scheduled time-restricted feeding regimen (TRF), i.e., no food consumption for 15h during the light (inactive) phase per day for 5 weekdays, attenuated the outcome of diverse nutritional challenges in response to high-fat diet in mice. In the present study, we wanted to further test whether this TRF could restrict body weight gain in both juvenile and adult animals when fed a high-fat diet. Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats at ages from 5 to 27weeks were used. First, we found that freely fed rats with 60% fat diet gained weight significantly, which was associated with more calorie intake (particularly during light phase) than those fed standard food (7% fat). Secondly, we found that TRF restricted high-fat diet-induced weight gain in both groups of juvenile rats (5 and 13weeks of age) compared to freely fed rats with high-fat diet, despite the same levels of 24h-calorie intake during either weekdays or the weekend. Thirdly, we found that TRF did not restrict high-fat diet-induce weight gain in adult rats (27weeks of age). Thus, we suggest that this special TRF regimen could be further tested in humans (particularly young adults) for the purpose of obesity prevention. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fructans from Agave tequilana with a Lower Degree of Polymerization Prevent Weight Gain, Hyperglycemia and Liver Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez-Aguirre, A. L.; Camacho-Ruíz, R. M.; Gutiérrez-Mercado, Y. K.; Padilla-Camberos, E.; González-Ávila, M.; Gálvez-Gastélum, F. J.; N.E. Díaz-Martínez; Ortuño-Sahagún, D.

    2016-01-01

    Fructans from agave have received specific attention because of their highly branched fructan content. We have previously reported that the degree of polymerization (dp) influences their biological activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of unfractionated and fractionated fructans (higher and lower dps) from Agave tequilana in high-fat diet-induced (HFD) obese mice. Fructans with a lower dp (HFD+ScF) decreased weight gain by 30 %, body fat mass by 51 %, hyperg...

  17. Evaluation of the usefulness of three-dimensional optical coherence tomography in a guinea pig model of endolymphatic hydrops induced by surgical obliteration of the endolymphatic duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Nam Hyun; Lee, Jang Woo; Cho, Jin-ho; Kim, Jeehyun; Jang, Jeong Hun; Jung, Woonggyu

    2015-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has advanced significantly over the past two decades and is currently used extensively to monitor the internal structures of organs, particularly in ophthalmology and dermatology. We used ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) to decalcify the bony walls of the cochlea and investigated the inner structures by deep penetration of light into the cochlear tissue using OCT on a guinea pig model of endolymphatic hydrops (EH), induced by surgical obliteration of the endolymphatic duct. The structural and functional changes associated with EH were identified using OCT and auditory brainstem response tests, respectively. We also evaluated structural alterations in the cochlea using three-dimensional reconstruction of the OCT images, which clearly showed physical changes in the cochlear structures. Furthermore, we found significant anatomical variations in the EH model and conducted graphical analysis by strial atrophy for comparison. The physical changes included damage to and flattening of the organ of Corti-evidence of Reissner's membrane distention-and thinning of the lateral wall. These results indicate that observation of EDTA-decalcified cochlea using OCT is significant in examination of gradual changes in the cochlear structures that are otherwise not depicted by hematoxylin and eosin staining.

  18. Pharmacological blockade of the aromatase enzyme, but not the androgen receptor, reverses androstenedione-induced cognitive impairments in young surgically menopausal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennenga, Sarah E; Koebele, Stephanie V; Mousa, Abeer A; Alderete, Tanya J; Tsang, Candy W S; Acosta, Jazmin I; Camp, Bryan W; Demers, Laurence M; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A

    2015-07-01

    Androstenedione, the main circulating ovarian hormone present after menopause, has been shown to positively correlate with poor spatial memory in an ovary-intact rodent model of follicular depletion, and to impair spatial memory when administered exogenously to surgically menopausal ovariectomized rats. Androstenedione can be converted directly to estrone via the aromatase enzyme, or to testosterone. The current study investigated the hormonal mechanism underlying androstenedione-induced cognitive impairments. Young adult ovariectomized rats were given either androstenedione, androstenedione plus the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole to block conversion to estrone, androstenedione plus the androgen receptor blocker flutamide to block androgen receptor activity, or vehicle treatment, and were then administered a battery of learning and memory maze tasks. Since we have previously shown that estrone administration to ovariectomized rats impaired cognition, we hypothesized that androstenedione's conversion to estrone underlies, in part, its negative cognitive impact. Here, androstenedione administration impaired spatial reference and working memory. Further, androstenedione did not induce memory deficits when co-administered with the aromatase inhibitor, anastrozole, whereas pharmacological blockade of the androgen receptor failed to block the cognitive impairing effects of androstenedione. Anastrozole alone did not impact performance on any cognitive measure. The current data support the tenet that androstenedione impairs memory through its conversion to estrone, rather than via actions on the androgen receptor. Studying the effects of aromatase and estrogen metabolism is critical to elucidating how hormones impact women's health across the lifespan, and results hold important implications for understanding and optimizing the hormone milieu from the many endogenous and exogenous hormone exposures across the lifetime. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Diet-induced weight loss and exercise alone and in combination enhance the expression of adiponectin receptors in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, but only diet-induced weight loss enhanced circulating adiponectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Tore; Paulsen, Søren K; Bruun, Jens M

    2009-01-01

    and adiponectin receptors (AdipoR) in adipose tissue (AT) and skeletal muscle (SM). Design and Methods: Seventy-nine obese males and females were randomized into the following: 1) exercise only (12 wk of exercise without diet restriction); 2) hypocaloric diet [8 wk of very low energy diet (600 kcal/d) followed...... by 4 wk with a weight maintenance diet]; and 3) hypocaloric diet and exercise (DEX; 8 wk very low energy diet 800 kcal/d followed by 4 wk weight maintenance diet combined with exercise throughout the 12 wk). Blood samples and biopsies from sc abdominal AT and SM were collected at baseline and after 12...

  20. Ameliorative Potentials of Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L. and Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca L. on the Relative Tissue Weights of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. O. Eleazu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the ameliorating potentials of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L. and unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca L. incorporated feeds on the renal and liver growths of diabetic rats, induced with 55 and 65 mg/kg body weight of Streptozotocin. Method. The blood glucose level of the rats was measured with a glucometer, the protein and glucose and specific gravity (SPGR in the urine samples of the rats were measured using urine assay strips and urinometer respectively. The chemical composition and antioxidant screening of the test feeds were carried out using standard techniques. Results. Administration of the test feeds for 21 days to the diabetic rats of groups 4 and 5, resulted in 58.75% and 38.13% decreases in hyperglycemia and amelioration of their elevated urinary protein, glucose, SPGR, and relative kidney weights. The diabetic rats administered cocoyam incorporated feeds, had 2.71% and 19.52% increases in weight and growth rates, the diabetic rats administered unripe plantain incorporated feeds had 5.12% and 29.52% decreases in weight and growth rates while the diabetic control rats had 28.69%, 29.46%, 248.9% and 250.14% decreases in weights and growth rates. The cocoyam incorporated feeds contained higher antioxidants, minerals and phytochemicals except alkaloids than unripe plantain feed. Conclusion. Cocoyam and unripe plantain could be useful in the management of diabetic nephropathy.

  1. Hypothalamic neuropeptide gene expression during recovery from food restriction superimposed on short-day photoperiod-induced weight loss in the Siberian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Zoë A; Moar, Kim M; Logie, Tracy J; Reilly, Laura; Stevens, Valerie; Morgan, Peter J; Mercer, Julian G

    2007-09-01

    Previously, 40% food restriction of male Siberian hamsters over 21 days in short-day (SD) photoperiod induced characteristic changes in expression of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus energy balance genes; mRNAs for neuropeptide Y, agouti-related peptide, and leptin receptor were upregulated, and those of proopiomelanocortin and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript were depressed. The present study examined the effect of refeeding hamsters for 6 days (approximately 50% recovery of weight differential) or 19 days (resumption of appropriate weight trajectory). Hyperphagia continued throughout refeeding, but differences in fat pad weights and leptin levels had disappeared after 19 days. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript gene expression was depressed by prior restriction in both refed groups. The depressive effect of prior restriction on proopiomelanocortin gene expression had disappeared after 19 days of refeeding. There was no effect of prior food restriction on neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide gene expression. Expression of the anorexigenic brain-derived neurotrophic factor was downregulated in the ventromedial nucleus after SD exposure for 12 wk. In the SD food restriction study, there were effects of photoperiod on brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression but not of prior food restriction. Hypothalamic energy balance genes in the hamster respond asynchronously to return to a seasonally appropriate body weight. The achievement of this weight rather than the weight at which caloric restriction was imposed is the critical factor. The differential responses of hypothalamic energy balance genes to food restriction and refeeding are poorly characterized in any species, a critical issue given their potential relevance to human weight loss strategies that involve caloric restriction.

  2. Molecular Dynamic Analysis of Hyaluronic Acid and Phospholipid Interaction in Tribological Surgical Adjuvant Design for Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siódmiak, Jacek; Bełdowski, Piotr; Augé, Wayne K; Ledziński, Damian; Śmigiel, Sandra; Gadomski, Adam

    2017-09-04

    Tribological surgical adjuvants constitute a therapeutic discipline made possible by surgical advances in the treatment of damaged articular cartilage beyond palliative care. The purpose of this study is to analyze interactions between hyaluronic acid and phospholipid molecules, and the formation of geometric forms, that play a role in the facilitated lubrication of synovial joint organ systems. The analysis includes an evaluation of the pathologic state to detail conditions that may be encountered by adjuvants during surgical convalescence. The synovial fluid changes in pH, hyaluronic acid polydispersity, and phospholipid concentration associated with osteoarthritis are presented as features that influence the lubricating properties of adjuvant candidates. Molecular dynamic simulation studies are presented, and the Rouse model is deployed, to rationalize low molecular weight hyaluronic acid behavior in an osteoarthritic environment of increased pH and phospholipid concentration. The results indicate that the hyaluronic acid radius of gyration time evolution is both pH- and phospholipid concentration-dependent. Specifically, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine induces hydrophobic interactions in the system, causing low molecular weight hyaluronic acid to shrink and at high concentration be absorbed into phospholipid vesicles. Low molecular weight hyaluronic acid appears to be insufficient for use as a tribological surgical adjuvant because an increased pH and phospholipid concentration induces decreased crosslinking that prevents the formation of supramolecular lubricating forms. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine remains an adjuvant candidate for certain clinical situations. The need to reconcile osteoarthritic phenotypes is a prerequisite that should serve as a framework for future adjuvant design and subsequent tribological testing.

  3. Noninvasive neuromodulation targeted to the lateral prefrontal cortex induces changes in energy intake and weight loss in obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, Marci E.; Alonso-Alonso, Miguel; Piaggi, Paolo; Weise, Christopher M.; Schwartzenberg, Reiner Jumpertz-von; Reinhardt, Martin; Wassermann, Eric M.; Venti, Colleen A.; Votruba, Susanne B.; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Obesity is associated with decreased activity in the prefrontal cortex. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modifies cortical excitability and may facilitate improved control of eating. We measured energy intake (EI) and body weight in subjects who received cathodal vs. sham (study 1) and subsequent anodal vs. sham (study 2) tDCS aimed at the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (LDLPFC). METHODS Nine (3m,6f) healthy volunteers with obesity (94±15kg [M±SD]; 42±8y) were admitted as inpatients for 9d to participate in a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover experiment. Study 1: following 5d of a weight-maintaining diet, participants received cathodal or sham tDCS (2mA, 40min) on 3 consecutive mornings and then ate ad libitum from a computerized vending machine, which recorded EI. Weight was measured daily. Study 2: participants repeated the study, maintaining original assignment to active (this time anodal) and sham. RESULTS Participants tended to consume fewer kcal/d (p=0.07), significantly fewer kcal from soda (p=0.02) and fat (p=0.03) and had a greater %weight loss (p=0.009) during anodal v. cathodal tDCS. CONCLUSIONS These results indicate a role for the LDLPFC in obesity and food intake. This proof of concept study suggests, for the first time, the potential application of anodal tDCS to facilitate weight loss. PMID:26530931

  4. Effects of low calorie diet-induced weight loss on post-exercise heart rate recovery in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Maeng Kyu

    2014-06-01

    Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) after maximum exercise is a reactivation function of vagus nerve and an independent risk factor that predicts cardiovascular disease and mortality. Weight loss obtained through dietary programs has been employed as a therapy to reduce risks of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Eighteen subjects of middle aged obese men (age 44.8 ± 1.6 yrs, BMI 29.7 ± 0.5 kg/m(2)) were selected for this study. As a weight loss direction, the nutritional direction of low-calorie diet mainly consisted of carbohydrate, protein, and fat has been conducted for 3 months. Blood pressure was measured after overnight fasting, and blood samples were collected from the antecubital vein before and after weight loss program. All the pre- and post-exercise 'HRR decay constant's were assessed by using values of HRR (heart recovery rate; 2 minutes) and HR measured after reached to the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) exploited the bicycle ergometer. After the completion of weight loss program, body weight and BMI were significantly decreased, but the Heart Rate (HR) after maximum exercise and in steady state were not changed significantly (p > 0.05). The post-exercise HRR after the weight loss did not show significant changes in perspectives of 30 seconds (-16.6 ± 2.3 to -20.2 ± 2.1 beats/min, p > 0.05) and 60 seconds (-33.5 ± 3.4 to -34.6 ± 2.8 beats/min, p > 0.05) respectively but in perspectives of 90 seconds (-40.9 ± 2.6 to -48.1 ± 3.1 beats/min, p exercise, and this improvement in cardiovascular autonomic nerve system was estimated to be involved with improvements in blood glucose and maximal oxygen consumption.

  5. High-fat-diet-induced weight gain ameliorates bone loss without exacerbating AβPP processing and cognition in female APP/PS1 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhua ePeng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is negatively correlated with body mass, whereas both osteoporosis and weight loss occur at higher incidence during the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD than the age-matched non-dementia individuals. Given that there is no evidence that overweight associated with AD-type cognitive dysfunction, we hypothesized that moderate weight gain might have a protective effect on the bone loss in AD without exacerbating cognitive dysfunction. In the present study, feeding a high-fat-diet (HFD, 45% calorie from fat to female APP/PS1 transgenic mice, an AD animal model, induced weight gain. The bone mineral density, microarchitecture, and biomechanical properties of the femurs were then evaluated. The results showed that the middle-aged female APP/PS1 transgenic mice were susceptible to osteoporosis of the femoral bones and that weight gain significantly enhanced bone mass and mechanical properties. Notably, HFD was not detrimental to brain insulin signaling and AβPP processing, as well as to exploration ability and working, learning and memory performance of the transgenic mice measured by T maze and water maze, compared with the mice fed a normal fat diet (10% calorie from fat. In addition, the circulating levels of leptin but not estradiol were remarkably elevated in HFD-treated mice. These results suggest that a body weight gain induced by the HFD feeding regimen significantly improved bone mass in female APP/PS1 mice with no detriments to exploration ability and spatial memory, most likely via the action of elevated circulating leptin.

  6. Weight Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Weight Management English English Español Weight Management Obesity is a chronic condition that affects more ... Liver (NASH) Heart Disease & Stroke Sleep Apnea Weight Management Topics About Food Portions Bariatric Surgery for Severe ...

  7. miRNAs in human subcutaneous adipose tissue: Effects of weight loss induced by hypocaloric diet and exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Malene M; Davidsen, Peter K; Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    tissue from 19 individuals with severe obesity (10 women and 9 men) before and after a 15-week weight loss intervention was studied using genome-wide microarray analysis. The microarray results were validated with RT-qPCR, and pathway enrichment analysis of in silico predicted targets was performed......RNA-target relationships correlated negatively, indicating possible miRNA regulation, including miR-29a-3p and lipoprotein lipase mRNA levels. Proteins involved in lipolysis were not affected by the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Weight loss influenced several miRNAs, some of which were negatively correlated with predicted...

  8. Central Administration of 1-Deoxynojirimycin Attenuates Hypothalamic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Regulates Food Intake and Body Weight in Mice with High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongwan; Yun, Eun-Young; Quan, Fu-Shi; Park, Seung-Won; Goo, Tae-Won

    2017-01-01

    The α-glucosidase inhibitor, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), is widely used for its antiobesity and antidiabetic effects. Researchers have demonstrated that DNJ regulates body weight by increasing adiponectin levels, which affects energy intake and prevents diet-induced obesity. However, the mechanism by which centrally administered DNJ exerts anorexigenic effects has not been studied until now. We investigated the effect of DNJ in the hypothalamus of mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Results showed that intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of DNJ reduced hypothalamic ER stress, which activated the leptin-induced Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway to cause appetite suppression. We conclude that DNJ may reduce obesity by moderating feeding behavior and ER stress in the hypothalamic portion of the central nervous system (CNS).

  9. Central Administration of 1-Deoxynojirimycin Attenuates Hypothalamic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Regulates Food Intake and Body Weight in Mice with High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongwan Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The α-glucosidase inhibitor, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ, is widely used for its antiobesity and antidiabetic effects. Researchers have demonstrated that DNJ regulates body weight by increasing adiponectin levels, which affects energy intake and prevents diet-induced obesity. However, the mechanism by which centrally administered DNJ exerts anorexigenic effects has not been studied until now. We investigated the effect of DNJ in the hypothalamus of mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Results showed that intracerebroventricular (ICV administration of DNJ reduced hypothalamic ER stress, which activated the leptin-induced Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3 signaling pathway to cause appetite suppression. We conclude that DNJ may reduce obesity by moderating feeding behavior and ER stress in the hypothalamic portion of the central nervous system (CNS.

  10. Peso do baço como fator prognóstico do tratamento cirúrgico de pacientes portadores de esquistossomose mansônica Spleen weight as risk factor in the surgical treatment of patients with schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Antônio Bandeira Ferraz

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar pré-operatoriamente o peso do baço como fator prognóstico do tratamento cirúrgico de pacientes portadores de esquistossomose mansônica. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 114 pacientes, portadores de esquistossomose mansônica com antecedentes de hemorragia digestiva, submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico. Os pacientes foram divididos em três grupos: Grupo 1 - baço menor que 500 gramas (17; Grupo 2 - baço entre 500 e 1.000 gramas (58; Grupo 3 - baço acima de 1.000 gramas (39. RESULTADOS: No Grupo 1 a recidiva hemorrágica foi de 17,6%, trombose da veia porta de 5,9% e não houve mortalidade. A incidência de hiperesplenismo pré-operatório foi de 29,4% e o calibre da veia porta foi de 1,1cm. No Grupo 2 a recidiva hemorrágica foi de 15,5%, trombose da veia porta de 10,3% e a mortalidade de quatro pacientes (6,9% (dois pacientes no período pós-operatório e dois no seguimento tardio, hepatocarcinoma e hemorragia digestiva. A incidência de hiperesplenismo foi de 53,4% e o calibre médio da veia porta foi de 1,4cm. No Grupo 3 a recidiva hemorrágica foi de 12,8%, trombose da veia porta de 5,1% e uma mortalidade tardia de dois pacientes (linfoma e infarto agudo do miocárdio. A incidência de hiperesplenismo foi de 76,9% e o calibre da veia porta foi de 1,5cm. CONCLUSÕES: O peso do baço apresenta relação com o hiperesplenismo pré-operatório, calibre da veia porta e permanência hospitalar pós-operatória. Não encontramos relação com a incidência de varizes de fundo gástrico, recidiva de sangramento digestivo, trombose da veia porta, grau de fibrose periportal e dados bioquímicos.BACKGROUND: Searching for that risk factors that could commit surgical treatment of patient with schistosomiasis, the authors analyzed the spleen as a prognostic factor. METHODS: Between 1992 and 1998, 114 patients underwent splenectomy with ligation of the left gastric vein (LLGV and devascularisation of the great stomach curvature

  11. Effects of genetic strain on stress-induced weight and body fat loss in rats: Application to air pollution research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to some air pollutants is suspected of contributing to obesity. Hazelton chambers are commonly used in air pollution studies but we found unexpected reductions in body weight and body fat of rats housed in Hazelton chambers under control conditions. We suspect that stres...

  12. Effects of genetic strain on stress-induced weight and body fat loss in rats: Application to air pollution research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to some air pollutants is suspected of contributing to obesity. Hazelton chambers are commonly used in air pollution studies but we found unexpected reductions in body weight and body fat of rats housed in Hazelton chambers under control conditions. We suspect that stres...

  13. Effects of exendin-4 alone and with peptide YY(3-36) on food intake and body weight in diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidelberger, Roger D; Haver, Alvin C; Apenteng, Bettye A; Anders, Krista L; Steenson, Sharalyn M

    2011-01-01

    Significant weight loss following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) in obese humans correlates with enhanced secretion of anorexigenic gut hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)). Our aim here was to identify a dosing strategy for intraperitoneal (IP) infusion of GLP-1 homologue exendin-4 alone and with PYY(3-36) that produces a sustained reduction in daily food intake and body weight in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. We tested 12 exendin-4 strategies over 10 weeks. Exendin-4 infused during the first and last 3 h of the dark period at 15-20 pmol/h (0.15 nmol/kg/day) produced a sustained 24 ± 1% reduction in daily food intake for 17 days, and decreased body weight by 7%. In a separate group of DIO rats, none of seven dosing strategies combining exendin-4 and PYY(3-36) produced a similar reduction in daily food intake for >10 days. The subsequent decline in efficacies of exendin-4 alone and with PYY(3-36) on food intake and body weight in each experiment suggested possible receptor downregulation and tolerance to treatments. However, when treatments were discontinued for 1 day following losses in efficacies, daily food intake significantly increased. Together, these results demonstrate that (i) intermittent IP infusion of a low dose of exendin-4 can produce a relatively prolonged reduction in daily food intake and body weight in DIO rats, (ii) co-infusion of exendin-4 and PYY(3-36) does not further prolong this response, and (iii) activation of an orexigenic mechanism gradually occurs to counteract the inhibitory effects of exendin-4 alone and with PYY(3-36) on food intake and body weight.

  14. Weight losing, antihyperlipidemic and cardioprotective effects of the alkaloid fraction of Hunteria umbellata seed extract on normal and triton-induced hyperlipidemic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adejuwon; Adewale; Adeneye; Peter; Anthony; Crooks

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the weight losing, antihyperlipidemic and cardioprotective effects of the alkaloid fraction of Hunteria umbellata(H. umbellata) seed.Methods: Adult female Wistar rats(weight range: 120-150 g) were randomly divided into 4 and 5 treatment groups in the normal and triton-induced hyperlipidemic models, respectively. and were daily treated for 14 d before they were humanely sacrificed under inhaled diethyl ether anesthesia. About 5 mL of whole blood was obtained by cardiac puncture from each treated rat, from which serum for lipids assay was subsequently separated. Tissue samples of livers of treated rats were harvested and processed for histopathological analysis.Results: Repeated daily oral treatments of normal rats with 25 and 50 mg/kg/day of alkaloid fraction of H. umbellata resulted in significant(P<0.05 and P<0.001) and dose-dependent weight loss, and decreases in the serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, while significantly(P<0.001) increased the serum levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol fraction. Similarly, oral pre-treatments with 25 and 50 mg/kg/day of alkaloid fraction of H. umbellata for 14 d before induction of hyperlipidemia with triton WR-1339 significantly(P<0.01, P<0.001) and dose-dependently attenuated increases in the average body weights, serum levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol while also significantly(P<0.01, P<0.001) and dose-dependently attenuated significant(P<0.001) decrease in the serum high-density lipoproteincholesterol levels when compared to the untreated control values. However, the results obtained for 50 mg/kg of alkaloid fraction of H. umbellata in both normal and triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic rats were comparable to that recorded for 20 mg/kg of simvastatin. Similarly, oral pretreatments with 25 and 50 mg/kg/day of alkaloid fraction of H. umbellata significantly improved the histological lesions of fatty

  15. Diet-induced weight loss has chronic tissue-specific effects on glucocorticoid metabolism in overweight postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomby, A; Simonyte, K; Mellberg, C; Ryberg, M; Stimson, R H; Larsson, C; Lindahl, B; Andrew, R; Walker, B R; Olsson, T

    2015-05-01

    Tissue-specific glucocorticoid metabolism is altered in obesity, and may increase cardiovascular risk. This dysregulation is normalized by short-term calorie restriction and weight loss, an effect that varies with dietary macronutrient composition. However, tissue-specific glucocorticoid metabolism has not been studied during long-term (>6 months) dietary interventions. Therefore our aim was to test whether long-term dietary interventions, either a paleolithic-type diet (PD) or a diet according to Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR) could normalize tissue-specific glucocorticoid metabolism in overweight and obese women. Forty-nine overweight/obese postmenopausal women were randomized to a paleolithic diet or a diet according to NNR for 24 months. At baseline, 6 and 24 months anthropometric measurements, insulin sensitivity, excretion of urinary glucocorticoid metabolites in 24-hour collections, conversion of orally administered cortisone to plasma cortisol and transcript levels of 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1) in subcutaneous adipose tissue were studied. Both diet groups achieved significant and sustained weight loss. Weight loss with the PD was greater than on NNR diet after 6 months (Pdiet groups (P=0.036). Consistent with increased liver 11βHSD1, conversion of oral cortisone to cortisol increased at 6 months (P=0.023) but was unchanged compared with baseline by 24 months. Long-term weight loss in postmenopausal women has tissue-specific and time-dependent effects on glucocorticoid metabolism. This may alter local-tissue cortisol exposure contributing to improved metabolic function during weight loss.

  16. No evidence for a role of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) genes in antipsychotic-induced weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, Eva J; Tiwari, Arun K; Zai, Clement C; Chowdhury, Nabilah I; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Meltzer, Herbert Y; Kennedy, James L; Müller, Daniel J

    2014-10-30

    Antipsychotics frequently cause changes in glucose metabolism followed by development of weight gain and/or diabetes. Recent findings from our group indicated an influence of glucose-related genes on this serious side effect. With this study, we aimed to extend previous research and performed a comprehensive study on the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) and the adiponectin (ADIPOQ) genes. In 216 schizophrenic patients receiving antipsychotics for up to 14 weeks, we investigated single-nucleotide polymorphisms in or near PPARG (N=24) and ADIPOQ (N=18). Statistical analysis was done using ANCOVA in SPSS. Haplotype analysis was performed in UNPHASED 3.1.4 and Haploview 4.2. None of the PPARG or ADIPOQ variants showed significant association with antipsychotic-induced weight gain in our combined sample or in a refined subsample of patients of European ancestry treated with clozapine or olanzapine after correction for multiple testing. Similarly, no haplotype association could withstand multiple test correction. Although we could not find a significant influence of ADIPOQ and PPARG on antipsychotic-induced weight gain, our comprehensive examination of these two genes contributes to understanding the biology of this serious side effect. More research on glucose metabolism genes is warranted to elucidate their role in metabolic changes during antipsychotic treatment.

  17. Angiotensin type 1a receptors in the forebrain subfornical organ facilitate leptin-induced weight loss through brown adipose tissue thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Colin N; Morgan, Donald A; Butler, Scott D; Rahmouni, Kamal; Gurley, Susan B; Coffman, Thomas M; Mark, Allyn L; Davisson, Robin L

    2015-04-01

    Elevations in brain angiotensin-II cause increased energy expenditure and a lean phenotype. Interestingly, the metabolic effects of increased brain angiotensin-II mimic the actions of leptin, suggesting an interaction between the two systems. Here we demonstrate that angiotensin-type 1a receptors (AT1aR) in the subfornical organ (SFO), a forebrain structure emerging as an integrative metabolic center, play a key role in the body weight-reducing effects of leptin via brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. Cre/LoxP technology coupled with targeted viral delivery to the SFO in a mouse line bearing a conditional allele of the Agtr1a gene was utilized to determine the interaction between leptin and SFO AT1aR in metabolic regulation. Selective deletion of AT1aR in the SFO attenuated leptin-induced weight loss independent of changes in food intake or locomotor activity. This was associated with diminished leptin-induced increases in core body temperature, blunted upregulation of BAT thermogenic markers, and abolishment of leptin-mediated sympathetic activation to BAT. These data identify a novel interaction between angiotensin-II and leptin in the control of BAT thermogenesis and body weight, and highlight a previously unrecognized role for the forebrain SFO in metabolic regulation.

  18. Impact of Korean pine nut oil on weight gain and immune responses in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soyoung; Lim, Yeseo; Shin, Sunhye; Han, Sung Nim

    2013-10-01

    Korean pine nut oil (PNO) has been reported to have favorable effects on lipid metabolism and appetite control. We investigated whether PNO consumption could influence weight gain, and whether the PNO-induced effect would result in an improvement of immune function in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. C57BL/6 mice were fed control diets with 10% energy fat from either PNO or soybean oil (SBO), or HFDs with 45% energy fat from 10% PNO or SBO and 35% lard, 20% PNO or SBO and 25% lard, or 30% PNO or SBO and 15% lard for 12 weeks. The proliferative responses of splenocytes upon stimulation with concanavalin A (Con A) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Con A-stimulated production of interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ, and LPS-stimulated production of IL-6, IL-1β, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by splenocytes were determined. Consumption of HFDs containing PNO resulted in significantly less weight gain (17% less, P PNO consumption resulted in a higher production of IL-1β (P = 0.04). Replacement of SBO with PNO had no effect on the production of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-6, or PGE2 in mice fed with either the control diets or HFDs. In conclusion, consumption of PNO reduced weight gain in mice fed with HFD, but this effect did not result in the overall improvement in immune responses.

  19. Effects of different intermittent peptide YY (3-36) dosing strategies on food intake, body weight, and adiposity in diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidelberger, Roger D; Haver, Alvin C; Chelikani, Prasanth K; Buescher, James L

    2008-08-01

    Chronic administration of anorexigenic substances to experimental animals by injections or continuous infusion typically produces either no effect or a transient reduction in food intake and body weight. Our aim here was to identify an intermittent dosing strategy for intraperitoneal infusion of peptide YY(3-36) [PYY(3-36)] that produces a sustained reduction in daily food intake and adiposity in diet-induced obese rats. Rats (665+/-10 g body wt, 166+/-7 g body fat) with intraperitoneal catheters tethered to infusion swivels had free access to a high-fat diet. Vehicle-treated rats (n=23) had relatively stable food intake, body weight, and adiposity during the 9-wk test period. None of 15 PYY(3-36) dosing regimens administered in succession to a second group of rats (n=22) produced a sustained 15-25% reduction in daily food intake for >5 days, although body weight and adiposity were reduced across the 9-wk period by 12% (594+/-15 vs. 672+/-15 g) and 43% (96+/-7 vs. 169+/-9 g), respectively. The declining inhibitory effect of PYY(3-36) on daily food intake when the interinfusion interval was >or=3 h appeared to be due in part to an increase in food intake between infusions. The declining inhibitory effect of PYY(3-36) on daily food intake when the interinfusion interval was diet-induced obese rats.

  20. Chronic injection of pansomatostatin agonist ODT8-SST differentially modulates food intake and decreases body weight gain in lean and diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Andreas; Coskun, Tamer; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Craft, Libbey S; Alsina-Fernandez, Jorge; Wang, Lixin; Rivier, Jean; Taché, Yvette

    2011-04-11

    The aim of this study was to investigate the central actions of the stable pansomatostatin peptide agonist, ODT8-SST on body weight. ODT8-SST or vehicle was acutely (1μg/rat) injected or chronically infused (5μg/rat/d, 14d) intracerebroventricularly and daily food intake, body weight and composition were monitored. In lean rats, neither acute nor chronic ODT8-SST influenced daily food intake while body weight was reduced by 2.2% after acute injection and there was a 14g reduction of body weight gain after 14d compared to vehicle (pdiet-induced obese (DIO) rats, chronic ODT8-SST increased cumulative 2-week food intake compared to vehicle (+14%, pweight change (-11g, p0.05) compared to vehicle. In DIO rats, ODT8-SST reduced ambulatory (-27%/24h, pweight gain and lean mass independently of food intake which is likely related to growth hormone inhibition. In DIO rats, ODT8-SST reduces lean mass but promotes food intake and fat mass, indicating differential responsiveness to somatostatin under obese conditions. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Discovery of an Orally Bioavailable Benzimidazole Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) Inhibitor That Suppresses Body Weight Gain in Diet-Induced Obese Dogs and Postprandial Triglycerides in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Katsumasa; Chatelain, Ricardo; Clairmont, Kevin B; Commerford, Renee; Coppola, Gary M; Daniels, Thomas; Forster, Cornelia J; Gilmore, Thomas A; Gong, Yongjin; Jain, Monish; Kanter, Aaron; Kwak, Youngshin; Li, Jingzhou; Meyers, Charles D; Neubert, Alan D; Szklennik, Paul; Tedesco, Vivienne; Thompson, James; Truong, David; Yang, Qing; Hubbard, Brian K; Serrano-Wu, Michael H

    2017-06-08

    Modification of a gut restricted class of benzimidazole DGAT1 inhibitor 1 led to 9 with good oral bioavailability. The key structural changes to 1 include bioisosteric replacement of the amide with oxadiazole and α,α-dimethylation of the carboxylic acid, improving DGAT1 potency and gut permeability. Since DGAT1 is expressed in the small intestine, both 1 and 9 can suppress postprandial triglycerides during acute oral lipid challenges in rats and dogs. Interestingly, only 9 was found to be effective in suppressing body weight gain relative to control in a diet-induced obese dog model, suggesting the importance of systemic inhibition of DGAT1 for body weight control. 9 has advanced to clinical investigation and successfully suppressed postprandial triglycerides during an acute meal challenge in humans.

  2. Risperidone-induced polydipsia and polyphagia associated with galactorrhea, abdominal pain, and rapid weight gain in an adolescent Hispanic female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Khalid I; Briones, David F; DeVargas, Cecilia

    2007-11-01

    A 15-year-old Hispanic female was started on risperidone for new-onset psychosis. The patient responded well to the gradual dose increase but developed rapid weight gain secondary to polydipsia and polyphagia. She also began complaining of nipple discharge and griping abdominal pain on the left lower quadrant by the third week of treatment. Her prolactin level escalated to three times normal with a weight gain of 12 pounds in 16 days. Risperidone was switched to another antipsychotic. Her prolactin level then dropped to a normal level within 7 days and she lost 7 pounds in the next 2 weeks. Her abdominal pain, galactorrhea, polydipsia, and polyphagia subsided within the first few days of the cessation of risperdione.

  3. Weighted Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerman, Margareta; Branzei, Simina; Loker, David

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate clustering in the weighted setting, in which every data point is assigned a real valued weight. We conduct a theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in each of the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterising the precise conditions under which such algorithms react to weights, and classifying clustering methods into three broad categories: weight-responsive, weight-considering, and weight-robust. Our analysis raises several interesting questions and can be directly mapped to the classical unweighted setting.

  4. Dietary protein, weight loss, and weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp-Plantenga, M S; Nieuwenhuizen, A; Tomé, D; Soenen, S; Westerterp, K R

    2009-01-01

    The role of dietary protein in weight loss and weight maintenance encompasses influences on crucial targets for body weight regulation, namely satiety, thermogenesis, energy efficiency, and body composition. Protein-induced satiety may be mainly due to oxidation of amino acids fed in excess, especially in diets with "incomplete" proteins. Protein-induced energy expenditure may be due to protein and urea synthesis and to gluconeogenesis; "complete" proteins having all essential amino acids show larger increases in energy expenditure than do lower-quality proteins. With respect to adverse effects, no protein-induced effects are observed on net bone balance or on calcium balance in young adults and elderly persons. Dietary protein even increases bone mineral mass and reduces incidence of osteoporotic fracture. During weight loss, nitrogen intake positively affects calcium balance and consequent preservation of bone mineral content. Sulphur-containing amino acids cause a blood pressure-raising effect by loss of nephron mass. Subjects with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes are particularly susceptible groups. This review provides an overview of how sustaining absolute protein intake affects metabolic targets for weight loss and weight maintenance during negative energy balance, i.e., sustaining satiety and energy expenditure and sparing fat-free mass, resulting in energy inefficiency. However, the long-term relationship between net protein synthesis and sparing fat-free mass remains to be elucidated.

  5. Moderation of antipsychotic-induced weight gain by energy balance gene variants in the RUPP autism network risperidone studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmi, E L; Spilman, S L; Whelan, F; Scahill, L L; Aman, M G; McDougle, C J; Arnold, L E; Handen, B; Johnson, C; Sukhodolsky, D G; Posey, D J; Lecavalier, L; Stigler, K A; Ritz, L; Tierney, E; Vitiello, B; McCracken, J T

    2013-06-25

    Second-generation antipsychotic exposure, in both children and adults, carries significant risk for excessive weight gain that varies widely across individuals. We queried common variation in key energy balance genes (FTO, MC4R, LEP, CNR1, FAAH) for their association with weight gain during the initial 8 weeks in the two NIMH Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network trials (N=225) of risperidone for treatment of irritability in children/adolescents aged 4-17 years with autism spectrum disorders. Variants in the cannabinoid receptor (CNR)-1 promoter (P=1.0 × 10(-6)), CNR1 (P=9.6 × 10(-5)) and the leptin (LEP) promoter (P=1.4 × 10(-4)) conferred robust-independent risks for weight gain. A model combining these three variants was highly significant (P=1.3 × 10(-9)) with a 0.85 effect size between lowest and highest risk groups. All results survived correction for multiple testing and were not dependent on dose, plasma level or ethnicity. We found no evidence for association with a reported functional variant in the endocannabinoid metabolic enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase, whereas body mass index-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms in FTO and MC4R showed only trend associations. These data suggest a substantial genetic contribution of common variants in energy balance regulatory genes to individual antipsychotic-associated weight gain in children and adolescents, which supersedes findings from prior adult studies. The effects are robust enough to be detected after only 8 weeks and are more prominent in this largely treatment naive population. This study highlights compelling directions for further exploration of the pharmacogenetic basis of this concerning multifactorial adverse event.

  6. High fat diet-induced changes of mouse hepatic transcription and enhancer activity can be reversed by subsequent weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersbæk, Majken; Varticovski, Lyuba; Yang, Shutong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Epigenetic factors have been suggested to play an important role in metabolic memory by trapping and maintaining initial metabolic changes within the transcriptional regulatory machinery. In this study we fed mice a high fat diet (HFD) for seven weeks followed by additional five weeks of...... for efficient treatment of early obesity-associated changes to hepatic complications by simple weight loss intervention without persistent reprograming of the liver transcriptome....... of chow, to identify HFD-mediated changes to the hepatic transcriptional program that may persist after weight loss. Mice fed a HFD displayed increased fasting insulin levels, hepatosteatosis and major changes in hepatic gene transcription associated with modulation of H3K27Ac at enhancers......, but no significant changes in chromatin accessibility, indicating that HFD-regulated gene transcription is primarily controlled by modulating the activity of pre-established enhancers. After return to the same body weight as chow fed control mice, the fasting insulin, glucose, and hepatic triglyceride levels were...

  7. Hypersensitivity of the hippocampal CA3 region to stress-induced neurodegeneration and amyloidogenesis in a rat model of surgical menopause

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Females who enter menopause prematurely via bilateral ovariectomy (surgical menopause) have a significantly increased risk for cognitive decline and dementia. To help elucidate the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, we used an animal model of surgical menopause, long-term (10-week) bilateral ovariectomy in female rats. Herein, we demonstrate that long-term oestrogen deprivation dramatically increases sensitivity of the normally resistant hippocampal CA3 region to ischaemic stress, an effe...

  8. Triple monoamine inhibitor tesofensine decreases food intake, body weight, and striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability in diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Giessen, Elsmarieke; de Bruin, Kora; la Fleur, Susanne E; van den Brink, Wim; Booij, Jan

    2012-04-01

    The novel triple monoamine inhibitor tesofensine blocks dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine re-uptake and is a promising candidate for the treatment of obesity. Obesity is associated with lower striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability, which may be related to disturbed regulation of food intake. This study assesses the effects of chronic tesofensine treatment on food intake and body weight in association with changes in striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2/3R) availability of diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Four groups of 15 DIO rats were randomized to one of the following treatments for 28 days: 1. tesofensine (2.0 mg/kg), 2. vehicle, 3. vehicle+restricted diet isocaloric to caloric intake of group 1, and 4. tesofensine (2.0 mg/kg)+ a treatment-free period of 28 days. Caloric intake and weight gain decreased significantly more in the tesofensine-treated rats compared to vehicle-treated rats, which confirms previous findings. After treatment discontinuation, caloric intake and body weight gain gradually increased again. Tesofensine-treated rats showed significantly lower D2/3R availability in nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum than both vehicle-treated rats and vehicle-treated rats on restricted isocaloric diet. No correlations were observed between food intake or body weight and D2/3R availability. Thus, chronic tesofensine treatment leads to decreased food intake and weight gain. However, this appears not to be directly related to the decreased striatal D2/3R availability, which is mainly a pharmacological effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  9. Bedside surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus in low body weight premature infants%低体重早产儿动脉导管未闭的床旁外科治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 杨学勇; 刘宇航; 付松; 李秋平; 封志纯; 周更须

    2011-01-01

    Objective To discuss the experience of bedside surgical treatment of patent ductus arteriosus(PDA) by ligature or clip ligation for premature infants.Methods The clinical data of 25 bedside surgical ligations of PDA from Oct.2009 to Oct.2010 were retrospectively analyzed.Results All these 25 cases recovered uneventfully,no death or surgical complication occurred.ConclusionsThe PDA canbe adequately exposed by a limited left posterolateral thoracotomy.Premature ICU department could satisfy the requirement of anesthesia and surgical operation.Surgical ligation of PDA,either by ligature or clip,is a good option for premature infants with PDA.%目的 探讨内科保守治疗动脉导管未闭(patent ductus arteriosus,PDA)效果不佳的早产儿实施床旁外科手术结扎(或钳夹)的经验.方法 回顾性分析我院2009年10月至2010年10月心外科对25例行床旁动脉导管结扎(或钳夹)术的手术过程及术后转归.结论 所有行动脉导管结扎术(或钳夹术)患儿中,无术中死亡病例,术后均未出现与手术相关的并发症.结论 经左胸后外侧切口治疗早产儿PDA,术中暴露视野清晰、操作简便.层流病房可满足麻醉、术中监护及外科手术操作的需要,手术治疗效果肯定.早产儿经内科保守治疗PDA无效,或存在多系统疾病,或存在药物治疗禁忌的情况下,均应行动脉导管结扎(或钳夹)术.

  10. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN BLOOD PRESSURE AND BODY WEIGHT, SERUM LEPTIN IN HIGH CALORIE DIET-INDUCED OBESE RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a complex,multifactorial diseasethat has beenshownto be anindependent risk factorfor the development of hypertension.Large epide-miological studies have confir med the associationbet ween body weight and blood pressure.Howev-er,the pathophysiological mechanis ms have notbeen completely understood.One problem in thestudy of the mechanis ms of obesity-related hyper-tensionis the lack of a suitable ani mal model.Thegenetic models of obesity[1]may or may not develophypertension or do not mi mic the c...

  11. Effect of short-term hyperglycemia on adipose tissue fluxes of selected cytokines in vivo during multiple phases of diet-induced weight loss in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siklova, Michaela; Simonsen, Lene; Polak, Jan

    2015-01-01

    with the improvement of antilipolytic insulin sensitivity in scAT. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that short-term hyperglycemia induces an increase of the output of cytokines IL-6, IL-1Ra, and MCP-1 from adipose tissue, and this deleterious hyperglycemia effect may be attenuated by the diet-induced weight reduction......CONTEXT: Hyperglycemia is suggested to be one of the drivers of the proinflammatory state observed in obese and diabetic patients. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study was to investigate whether sc abdominal adipose tissue (scAT) could be one of the important sources of proinflammatory cytokines......-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), TNF-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), serum amyloid A, and C-reactive protein] in arterial and venous plasma were measured during each dietary phase. The insulin sensitivity of scAT in respect to the antilipolytic effect of insulin during the clamp...

  12. Catecholamine and insulin control of lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue during long-term diet-induced weight loss in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppo, Katrien; Siklová-Vitková, Michaela; Klimcáková, Eva

    2012-01-01

    at baseline and during local perfusions with adrenaline or adrenaline and phentolamine before and during the last 30 min of the clamp. Dietary intervention induced a body weight reduction and an improved insulin sensitivity. DGC progressively decreased during the clamp, and this decrease was similar during...... the different phases of the diet. The adrenaline-induced increase in DGC was higher at VLCD and LCD compared with baseline condition and returned to prediet levels at WM. In the probe with adrenaline and phentolamine, the increase in DGC was higher than that in the adrenaline probe at baseline and WM......, but it was not different at VLCD and LCD. The results suggest that the responsiveness of SCAT to adrenaline-stimulated lipolysis increases during the calorie-restricted phases due to a reduction of the α(2)-adrenoceptor-mediated antilipolytic action of adrenaline. At WM, adrenaline-stimulated lipolysis returned...

  13. Associations of exercise-induced hormone profiles and gains in strength and hypertrophy in a large cohort after weight training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel W D; Phillips, Stuart M

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between acute exercise-induced hormone responses and adaptations to high intensity resistance training in a large cohort (n = 56) of young men. Acute post-exercise serum growth hormone (GH), free testosterone (fT), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and cortisol responses were determined following an acute intense leg resistance exercise routine at the midpoint of a 12-week resistance exercise training study. Acute hormonal responses were correlated with gains in lean body mass (LBM), muscle fibre cross-sectional area (CSA) and leg press strength. There were no significant correlations between the exercise-induced elevations (area under the curve-AUC) of GH, fT and IGF-1 and gains in LBM or leg press strength. Significant correlations were found for cortisol, usually assumed to be a hormone indicative of catabolic drive, AUC with change in LBM (r = 0.29, P exercise-induced systemic hormonal responses of cortisol and GH are weakly correlated with resistance training-induced changes in fibre CSA and LBM (cortisol only), but not with changes in strength.

  14. Uncommon surgical emergencies in neonatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angotti, R; Bulotta, A L; Ferrara, F; Molinaro, F; Cerchia, E; Meucci, D; Messina, M

    2014-12-30

    Objective. Over the past decade, multiple factors have changed the pattern of neonatal surgical emergencies. An increase in prenatal screenings and the development of neonatal tertiary care centres have changed the clinical approach to these kids. Materials and methods. Between 1995 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed 34 patients with diagnosis of uncommon rare neonatal surgical emergencies at our institute. We analyzed: sex, gestational age, weight at birth, primary pathology, prenatal diagnosis, associated anomalies, age and weight at surgery, clinical presentation, start of oral feeding and hospitalization. The follow-up was performed at 6,12, 24 and 36 months. Results. There were 21 male and 13 female. The gestational age ranged between 28 and 36 weeks. The weight at birth ranged between 700 and 1400 grams. Oral feeding was started between 4th and 10th postoperative day. The average hospitalization was about 70.47 days. To date, all patients have finished the followup. They are healthy. Conclusion. The outcome of the patients with uncommon surgical emergencies is different based on the etiology. Overall survival is generally good but is influenced by the associated anomalies.

  15. Do Lactation-Induced Changes in Ghrelin, Glucagon-Like Peptide-1, and Peptide YY Influence Appetite and Body Weight Regulation during the First Postpartum Year?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Enette Larson-Meyer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether fasting and meal-induced appetite-regulating hormones are altered during lactation and associated with body weight retention after childbearing, we studied 24 exclusively breastfeeding women (BMI = 25.2 ± 3.6 kg/m2 at 4-5 weeks postpartum and 20 never-pregnant controls (BMI = 24.0 ± 3.1 kg/m2. Ghrelin, PYY, GLP-1, and appetite ratings were measured before/and 150 minutes after a standardized breakfast and 60 minutes after an ad libitum lunch. Body weight/composition were measured at 6 and 12 months. Fasting and area under-the-curve responses for appetite-regulating hormones did not differ between lactating and control groups; ghrelinacyl, however, tended to track higher after the standardized breakfast in lactating women and was higher (p6.0 kg. The retainers had greater (p<0.05 postmeal ghrelin rebound responses following breakfast. Overall these studies do not support the hypothesis that appetite-regulating hormones are altered during lactation and associated with postpartum weight retention. Altered ghrelin responses, however, deserve further exploration.

  16. Do Lactation-Induced Changes in Ghrelin, Glucagon-Like Peptide-1, and Peptide YY Influence Appetite and Body Weight Regulation during the First Postpartum Year?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Schueler, Jessica; Kyle, Erin; Austin, Kathleen J; Hart, Ann Marie; Alexander, Brenda M

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether fasting and meal-induced appetite-regulating hormones are altered during lactation and associated with body weight retention after childbearing, we studied 24 exclusively breastfeeding women (BMI = 25.2 ± 3.6 kg/m(2)) at 4-5 weeks postpartum and 20 never-pregnant controls (BMI = 24.0 ± 3.1 kg/m(2)). Ghrelin, PYY, GLP-1, and appetite ratings were measured before/and 150 minutes after a standardized breakfast and 60 minutes after an ad libitum lunch. Body weight/composition were measured at 6 and 12 months. Fasting and area under-the-curve responses for appetite-regulating hormones did not differ between lactating and control groups; ghrelinacyl, however, tended to track higher after the standardized breakfast in lactating women and was higher (p 6.0 kg. The retainers had greater (p < 0.05) postmeal ghrelin rebound responses following breakfast. Overall these studies do not support the hypothesis that appetite-regulating hormones are altered during lactation and associated with postpartum weight retention. Altered ghrelin responses, however, deserve further exploration.

  17. An Optimized IES Method and Its Inhibitory Effects and Mechanisms on Food Intake and Body Weight in Diet-Induced Obese Rats: IES for Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xinyue; Yin, Jieyun; Foreman, Robert; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2017-05-25

    This paper aims to optimize stimulation parameters and durations for intestinal electrical stimulation (IES) and to explore the effects and mechanisms of chronic IES with optimized methodology in obesity rats. Sixteen diet-induced obese (DIO) rats were tested for food intake with four different sets of IES parameters each lasting 1 week. Then, another 12 DIO rats were used to test the effect of IES on food intake with different stimulation durations. Finally, 16 DIO rats were treated with IES or sham-IES for 4 weeks. Meal patterns, food intake, and body weight were observed. Mechanisms involving gastrointestinal motility, ghrelin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were studied. (1) Acute IES with different parameters showed different inhibitory effects on food intake, and the most effective parameters were 0.6 s on, 0.9 s off, 80 Hz, 2 ms, and 4 mA with which 26.3% decrease in food intake was noted (p food intake compared with 1 or 6 h. (3) Four-week IES reduced net weight by 10.9% (p food intake and body weight in DIO rats by altering gastrointestinal motility and GLP-1. The IES methodology derived in this study may have a therapeutic potential for obesity.

  18. Four-Week Consumption of Malaysian Honey Reduces Excess Weight Gain and Improves Obesity-Related Parameters in High Fat Diet Induced Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhana Samat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies revealed the potential of honey consumption in controlling obesity. However, no study has been conducted using Malaysian honey. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of two local Malaysian honey types: Gelam and Acacia honey in reducing excess weight gain and other parameters related to obesity. The quality of both honey types was determined through physicochemical analysis and contents of phenolic and flavonoid. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced to become obese using high fat diet (HFD prior to introduction with/without honey or orlistat for four weeks. Significant reductions in excess weight gain and adiposity index were observed in rats fed with Gelam honey compared to HFD rats. Moreover, levels of plasma glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, plasma leptin and resistin, liver enzymes, renal function test, and relative organ weight in Gelam and Acacia honey treated groups were reduced significantly when compared to rats fed with HFD only. Similar results were also displayed in rats treated with orlistat, but with hepatotoxicity effects. In conclusion, consumption of honey can be used to control obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and appears to be more effective than orlistat.

  19. PREPARATION OF MICROPOROUS ULTRA HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT POLYETHYLENE (UHMWPE) BY THERMALLY INDUCED PHASE SEPARATION OF A UHMWPE/LIQUID PARAFFIN MIXTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lie Shen; Mao Peng; Fei Qiao; Jie-lai Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) with a microporous structure was prepared via thermally induced phase separation (TIPS).Liquid paraffin (LP) was used as a diluent in the preparation of microporous UHMWPE.Small angle laser light scattering (SALLS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to determine the phase separation temperatures,I.e.the cloud points and the dynamic crystallization temperatures,respectively.It was found that the cloud points were coincident with the crystallization temperatures,indicating that a solid-liquid phase separation occurred during thermal quenching of the UHMWPE/LP solution,while,no liquid-liquid phase separation above the crystallization temperature was observed.The effects of the content and the molecular weight of UHMWPE on the morphology and average pore size were investigated with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and mercury porosimetry.With the increase of the content of UHMWPE,the average pore size of the microporous material decreased and the molecular weight of UHMWPE could also influence the pore size slightly.

  20. Weight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... obese. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar. It ... use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie ...

  1. Low molecular weight guluronate prevents TNF-α-induced oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Yun-lou; Zhou, Xiao-lin; Guan, Hua-shi; Yu, Guang-li; Li, Chun-xia; Hu, Ting; Zhao, Xia; Cheng, Xiao-lei; He, Xiao-xi; Hao, Jie-jie

    2015-09-01

    Muscle wasting is associated with a variety of chronic or inflammatory disorders. Evidence suggests that inflammatory cytokines play a vital role in muscle inflammatory pathology and this may result in oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. In our study, we used microwave degradation to prepare a water-soluble low molecular weight guluronate (LMG) of 3000 Da from Fucus vesiculosus obtained from Canada, the Atlantic Ocean. We demonstrated the structural characteristics, using HPLC, FTIR and NMR of LMG and investigated its effects on oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), a cell inflammatory cytokine. The results indicated that LMG could alleviate mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, increase the activities of antioxidant enzymes (GSH and SOD), promote mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and upregulate the expression of mitochondrial respiratory chain protein in TNF-α-induced C2C12 cells. LMG supplement also increased the mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial biogenesis related genes in TNF-α-induced C2C12 cells. LMG may exert these protective effects through the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. These suggest that LMG is capable of protecting TNF-α-induced C2C12 cells against oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction.

  2. Neuroprotective property of low molecular weight fraction from B. jararaca snake venom in H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in cultured hippocampal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querobino, Samyr Machado; Carrettiero, Daniel Carneiro; Costa, Maricilia Silva; Alberto-Silva, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    In central nervous system cells, low molecular weight fractions (LMWF) from snake venoms can inhibit changes in mitochondrial membrane permeability, preventing the diffusion of cytochrome c to the cytoplasm, inhibiting the activation of pro-apoptotic factors. Here, we evaluated the neuroprotective activity of LMWF from Bothrops jararaca (Bj) snake venom in H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in cultured hippocampal cells. SDS-PAGE, FT-IR and MALDI-TOF analysis of LMWF (<14 kDa) confirmed the absence of high-molecular-weight proteins in the fraction. LMWF did not present cytotoxicity in all concentrations and time tested by MTT assay. Neuroprotection was evaluated in cells pretreated with LMWF for 4 h prior to the addition of 50 μM H2O2 for 20 h. We demonstrated that LMWF reduced the argininosuccinate synthase (AsS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD1) expressions, suggesting that this fraction as an effective neuroprotective compound that could increase the hippocampal cells viability by attenuation of oxidative stress. In addition, LMWF protects against apoptosis induced by H2O2, reducing the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-8. Overall, this study opens new perspectives for the identification of new molecules for the development of drugs applied to the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clustering problem, considering clustering tasks in which different instances may have different weights.We conduct the first extensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in both...... the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  4. Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby, taken just after he or she is born. A low birth weight is less than 5.5 pounds. A high ... weight is more than 8.8 pounds. A low birth weight baby can be born too small, too early (premature), or both. This ...

  5. Regulation of the EphA2 kinase by the low molecular weight tyrosine phosphatase induces transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikawa, Keith D; Vidale, Derika R; Van Etten, Robert L; Kinch, Michael S

    2002-10-18

    Intracellular signaling by protein tyrosine phosphorylation is generally understood to govern many aspects of cellular behavior. The biological consequences of this signaling pathway are important because the levels of protein tyrosine phosphorylation are frequently elevated in cancer cells. In the classic paradigm, tyrosine kinases promote tumor cell growth, survival, and invasiveness, whereas tyrosine phosphatases negatively regulate these same behaviors. Here, we identify one particular tyrosine phosphatase, low molecular weight tyrosine phosphatase (LMW-PTP), which is frequently overexpressed in transformed cells. We also show that overexpression of LMW-PTP is sufficient to confer transformation upon non-transformed epithelial cells. Notably, we show that the EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase is a prominent substrate for LMW-PTP and that the oncogenic activities of LMW-PTP result from altered EphA2 expression and function. These results suggest a role for LMW-PTP in transformation progression and link its oncogenic potential to EphA2.

  6. Impact of low molecular weight phthalates in inducing reproductive malfunctions in male mice: Special emphasis on Sertoli cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narender; Srivastava, Swati; Roy, Partha

    2015-05-01

    Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers in a variety of products. Since they have been identified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), effect of phthalates on human health is a major concern. In this study, we evaluated individual as well as combined mixture effects of three low molecular weight phthalates on the reproductive system of male mice, specifically on the Sertoli cell structure and function. In order to analyze the blood testes barrier (BTB) dynamics, primary culture of Sertoli cells from 3-weeks old male mice was used for mimicking typical tight junction structures. Male mice were exposed to long-term (45 days) and combined mixture of three phthalates, diethyl phthalate (DEP), diphenyl phthalate (DPP), and dimethyl isophthalate (DMIP) between pre-pubertal to adult stage. Our data showed significant decrease (p phthalates may affect male fertility by altering both structural and functional integrity of Sertoli cells in testes.

  7. Lifestyle modification induced weight loss and changes of cardiometabolic risk factors including lowering of inflammatory response in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motykova, Eva; Zlatohlavek, Lukáš; Prusikova, Martina; Lanska, Vera; Ceska, Richard; Vasickova, Ludmila; Vrablik, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased inflammation which represents a link to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is an independent marker of inflammation and atherosclerosis risk. To assess the impact of weight loss on metabolic markers of atherosclerosis including Lp-PLA2 we examined a group of Czech non-diabetic obese/overweight children exposed to a lifestyle intervention. Fourty unrelated overweight/obese non-diabetic Czech children (13.7 ± 2.1 years, average BMI at baseline 29.8 ± 2.6 kg/m2) underwent 4 weeks of lifestyle modification (reduction of energy intake to age matched optimum and supervised physical activity). Anthropometrical and biochemical variables were determined at baseline and after the intervention. Lp-PLA2 mass concentration was assessed using the ELISA kit. Wilcocson's rank test and Spearman's correlation were used for statistical analysis. A significant decrease of BMI and waist circumference was associated with significant changes of plasma lipoprotein and glycaemia levels. Mass concentration of Lp-PLA2 at the baseline was 402 ± 94 μg/ml, after the intervention 368 ± 105 μg/ml (p=0.008). Change in Lp-PLA2 was associated with triglyceride level decrease (p=0.009). Intensive lifestyle modification leading to body weight decrease results in significant changes of plasma lipoprotein levels and, also, a drop of Lp-PLA2 levels in paediatric obese patients. However, even after the intervention Lp-PLA2 concentrations in this patient group remain elevated suggesting possible increased atherosclerosis risk in later life. © 2011 Neuroendocrinology Letters

  8. [Effect of SL-1010 (sodium hyaluronate with high molecular weight) on experimental osteoarthritis induced by intra-articularly applied papain in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitoh, Y; Katsuramaki, T; Tanaka, H; Tanaka, M; Kitabayashi, N; Kataoka, M; Fujimori, S; Umemoto, J; Namba, K

    1992-07-01

    Sodium hyaluronate (HA) with a molecular weight of approximately 600,000-1,200,000 is reportedly effective against osteoarthritis (OA). However, since HA with higher molecular weight is expected to be more effective against OA, we investigated the effects of HA (SL-1010) newly produced by fermentation with a molecular weight of 1,800,000-2,100,000 on the experimental OA induced by intraarticular injection of papain, into the knee joint of the rabbit, in comparison with those of HA with a molecular weight of about 950,000 (HA-95). When 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6% papain (0.5ml) was injected into the knee joint of the animal twice with a 3-day interval, there were dose-dependent degenerative changes and a decrease in sulfated glycosaminoglycan (S-GAG) in the articular cartilage with slight synovial inflammatory changes 6 weeks after the final injection of papain. In this OA model, intraarticular application of SL-1010 slightly reduced the degeneration of articular cartilage, compared with the injections of HA-95 or saline (control). SL-1010 also caused a significant recovery in the S-GAG level which was decreased in the cartilage of the OA model, compared with the control. In addition, SL-1010 inhibited the release of 35S-GAG from the cartilage obtained from normal and OA model joints. These results suggest that SL-1010 is effective in inhibiting the degeneration of cartilage in the OA model, probably due to the recovery of the S-GAG level by reducing the release of S-GAG from the cartilage.

  9. Defense of Elevated Body Weight Setpoint in Diet-Induced Obese Rats on Low Energy Diet Is Mediated by Loss of Melanocortin Sensitivity in the Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchtman, Dirk W; Chee, Melissa J S; Doslikova, Barbora; Marks, Daniel L; Baracos, Vickie E; Colmers, William F

    2015-01-01

    Some animals and humans fed a high-energy diet (HED) are diet-resistant (DR), remaining as lean as individuals who were naïve to HED. Other individuals become obese during HED exposure and subsequently defend the obese weight (Diet-Induced Obesity- Defenders, DIO-D) even when subsequently maintained on a low-energy diet. We hypothesized that the body weight setpoint of the DIO-D phenotype resides in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), where anorexigenic melanocortins, including melanotan II (MTII), increase presynaptic GABA release, and the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) inhibits it. After prolonged return to low-energy diet, GABA inputs to PVN neurons from DIO-D rats exhibited highly attenuated responses to MTII compared with those from DR and HED-naïve rats. In DIO-D rats, melanocortin-4 receptor expression was significantly reduced in dorsomedial hypothalamus, a major source of GABA input to PVN. Unlike melanocortin responses, NPY actions in PVN of DIO-D rats were unchanged, but were reduced in neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus; in PVN of DR rats, NPY responses were paradoxically increased. MTII-sensitivity was restored in DIO-D rats by several weeks' refeeding with HED. The loss of melanocortin sensitivity restricted to PVN of DIO-D animals, and its restoration upon prolonged refeeding with HED suggest that their melanocortin systems retain the ability to up- and downregulate around their elevated body weight setpoint in response to longer-term changes in dietary energy density. These properties are consistent with a mechanism of body weight setpoint.

  10. Cross-sectional and longitudinal study protocols of the ‘ADIposity and BOne metabolism: effects of eXercise-induced weight loss in obese adolescents’ (ADIBOX) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplais, Elodie; Naughton, Geraldine; Greene, David; Pereira, Bruno; Thivel, David; Courteix, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A need exists for sustainable and clinically effective weight management interventions, suitable for preventing well-linked chronic disease such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease and some less investigated secondary conditions such as bone alteration. The ADIposity and BOne metabolism: effects of eXercise-induced weight loss in obese adolescents (ADIBOX) protocol was designed to provide a better understanding of the interaction between adipokines and bone hormones in adolescents with obesity and how a 10-month physical activity programme may affect these interactions. Methods and analysis The ADIBOX protocol combines 2 studies. The first study involves a total of 68 adolescents aged 12–16 years. This cross-sectional study will include both males and females (1:1 ratio), either living with obesity/overweight (n=34; body mass index (BMI) ≤97th centile and ≥85th centile) or normal weight (n=34; BMI<85th centile). The second study is a longitudinal study that will include 50 obese adolescent girls and track them over a period of 42 weeks. Weight loss programme will consist of a combination of physical activity and a normocaloric diet. Bone and adiposity-related measurements will be performed every 14 weeks. Both studies will assess participants' anthropometric profile, nutrition and physical activity, body composition, bone densitometry and blood markers of bone, growth and adiposity. Ethics and dissemination The ADIBOX protocol complies with the ethics guidelines for clinical research and has been approved by their respective ethics committee (Australian Catholic University Committee Ethic, Australia and Hospital Sud Est 1 committee, France). Findings from this protocol are expected to clarify the possible interactions between adiposity and bone in childhood obesity and will be disseminated at several research conferences and published articles in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number NCT02626273; Pre-results. PMID:27797988

  11. Surgical treatment for hemophilia induced contracture of Achilles tendon%血友病性跟腱挛缩症的外科治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高鹏; 翁习生; 钱文伟; 李晔; 陈峰; 范彧

    2014-01-01

    improved by surgical treatment under periopera-tive clotting factor substitution therapy in patients with hemophilia induced contracture of Achilles tendon. Objective:To explore perioperative management and outcome of hemophilia induced contracture of Achilles tendon. Methods:Between June 1998 and February 2014, 15 cases (15 feet) of hemophilia induced contracture of Achilles tendon underwent Achilles tendon lengthening, including 11 cases of hemophilia A and 4 cases of hemophilia B. Left feet was in-volved in 7 cases and right feet in 4 cases. All were males aged from 18 to 41 years (mean, 24.6 years). Disease duration ranged from 11 to 84 months (mean, 30.2 months). Preoperative American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score was 41.2±20.1, and Short Form 36 Health Survey Scale (SF-36) score was 41.4±17.7. All patients were given clotting factors for preliminary experiment and clotting factor substitution therapy was performed perioperatively. Results:The operation time was 55-75 min (mean, 61 min). Tourniquet was used in all cases and blood loss was less than 20 ml. Wounds healing was achieved in 14 patients and wound dehiscence occurred in one patient. No postoperative infection, deep vein thrombosis, or nerve injury occurred. The follow-up period ranged from 6 to 185 months in all the patients (mean, 21 months). AOFAS scores were 77.8 ± 16.7 and 79.8 ± 12.5 at 3 and 6 months after surgery, and SF-36 scores were 73.6 ± 13.8 and 77.7 ± 11.2, respectively, which were significantly different from preoperative scores (P0.05). Conclusions:For patients with hemophilia induced contracture of Achilles tendon, surgical treatment can correct deformity, release pain and improve function. Clotting factor preliminary experiment before surgery and substitution therapy in periop-erative period can reduce the risk of severe postoperative hemorrhage.

  12. Micro-surgical endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyas, S; Vere, J; Ali, Z; Harris, I

    2014-02-01

    Non-surgical endodontic retreatment is the treatment of choice for endodontically treated teeth with recurrent or residual disease in the majority of cases. In some cases, surgical endodontic treatment is indicated. Successful micro-surgical endodontic treatment depends on the accuracy of diagnosis, appropriate case selection, the quality of the surgical skills, and the application of the most appropriate haemostatic agents and biomaterials. This article describes the armamentarium and technical procedures involved in performing micro-surgical endodontics to a high standard.

  13. Surgical innovation as sui generis surgical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Mianna

    2013-12-01

    Successful innovative 'leaps' in surgical technique have the potential to contribute exponentially to surgical advancement, and thereby to improved health outcomes for patients. Such innovative leaps often occur relatively spontaneously, without substantial forethought, planning, or preparation. This feature of surgical innovation raises special challenges for ensuring sufficient evaluation and regulatory oversight of new interventions that have not been the subject of controlled investigatory exploration and review. It is this feature in particular that makes early-stage surgical innovation especially resistant to classification as 'research', with all of the attendant methodological and ethical obligations--of planning, regulation, monitoring, reporting, and publication--associated with such a classification. This paper proposes conceptual and ethical grounds for a restricted definition according to which innovation in surgical technique is classified as a form of sui generis surgical 'research', where the explicit goal of adopting such a definition is to bring about needed improvements in knowledge transfer and thereby benefit current and future patients.

  14. Catecholamine and insulin control of lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue during long-term diet-induced weight loss in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppo, Katrien; Siklová-Vitková, Michaela; Klimcáková, Eva; Polák, Jan; Marques, Marie A; Berlan, Michel; Van de Voorde, Johan; Bulow, Jens; Langin, Dominique; de Glisezinski, Isabelle; Stich, Vladimir

    2012-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution of the adrenergic and insulin-mediated regulation of lipolysis during different phases of a 6-mo dietary intervention. Eight obese women underwent a 6-mo dietary intervention consisting of a 1-mo very low-calorie diet (VLCD) followed by a 2-mo low-calorie diet (LCD) and 3-mo weight maintenance (WM) diet. At each phase of the dietary intervention, microdialysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) was performed at rest and during a 3-h hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Responses of dialysate glycerol concentration (DGC) were determined at baseline and during local perfusions with adrenaline or adrenaline and phentolamine before and during the last 30 min of the clamp. Dietary intervention induced a body weight reduction and an improved insulin sensitivity. DGC progressively decreased during the clamp, and this decrease was similar during the different phases of the diet. The adrenaline-induced increase in DGC was higher at VLCD and LCD compared with baseline condition and returned to prediet levels at WM. In the probe with adrenaline and phentolamine, the increase in DGC was higher than that in the adrenaline probe at baseline and WM, but it was not different at VLCD and LCD. The results suggest that the responsiveness of SCAT to adrenaline-stimulated lipolysis increases during the calorie-restricted phases due to a reduction of the α(2)-adrenoceptor-mediated antilipolytic action of adrenaline. At WM, adrenaline-stimulated lipolysis returned to the prediet levels. Furthermore, no direct relationship between insulin sensitivity and the diet-induced changes in the regulation of lipolysis was found.

  15. Non-surgical treatment of esophageal achalasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vito Annese; Gabrio Bassotti

    2006-01-01

    Esophageal achalasia is an infrequent motility disorder characterized by a progressive stasis and dilation of the oesophagus; with subsequent risk of aspiration,weight loss, and malnutrition. Although the treatment of achalasia has been traditionally based on a surgical approach, especially with the introduction of laparoscopic techniques, there is still some space for a medical approach. The present article reviews the non-surgical therapeutic options for achalasia.

  16. Does weight gain induce cortical and trabecular bone regain in anorexia nervosa? A two-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milos, Gabriella; Spindler, Anja; Rüegsegger, Peter; Hasler, Gregor; Schnyder, Ulrich; Laib, Andres; Gallo, Luigi M; Uebelhart, Daniel; Häuselmann, Hansjörg

    2007-11-01

    This prospective study examines bone density and structure over a two-year time period in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) under weight gain treatment. Twenty-four women with AN were examined at baseline and at two annual follow-up examinations. In 9 AN patients BMI increased whereas in 15 it remained unchanged or decreased. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed on the lumbar spine, the femoral neck and the whole hip and three-dimensional peripheral quantitative computer tomography (3D-pQCT) was performed on the ultradistal radius. ANOVAs for repeated measures were used to examine change over time in BMI and bone parameters. At baseline, patients with increased BMI had significantly higher bone density of femoral neck and total hip, and higher levels in all 3D-pQCT parameters of the ultradistal radius, compared to the group with unchanged or decreased BMI. The two groups did not differ at baseline in bone density of the spine. ANOVAs showed that bone density of the total hip increased significantly and that overall bone density (D100), the density of the trabecular area (D.Trab.) and the cortical thickness (C.Th.) in the ultradistal radius decreased significantly. Group x time interactions showed that changes over time were different in the two groups with regard to spine density and in the parameters D100, D.Trab. and C.Th. of the ultradistal radius. In the group with increased BMI the spine density dropped at the first follow-up whereas at the second follow-up it rose again to baseline. Patients with unchanged or decreased BMI showed a small but steady increase in spine density. The group changes of D100, D.Trab. and C.Th. of the ultradistal radius all followed the same pattern. Bone mineral density at all locations measured with both technologies (DXA and 3D-pQCT) did not vary according to BMI changes. The course of bone density and structure at different locations was different, and, despite weight increase, bone regain appeared to need different

  17. Identification of hub genes of pneumocyte senescence induced by thoracic irradiation using weighted gene co-expression network analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    XING, YONGHUA; ZHANG, JUNLING; LU, LU; LI, DEGUAN; WANG, YUEYING; HUANG, SONG; LI, CHENGCHENG; ZHANG, ZHUBO; LI, JIANGUO; MENG, AIMIN

    2016-01-01

    Irradiation commonly causes pneumocyte senescence, which may lead to severe fatal lung injury characterized by pulmonary dysfunction and respiratory failure. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the induction of pneumocyte senescence by irradiation remains to be elucidated. In the present study, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was used to screen for differentially expressed genes, and to identify the hub genes and gene modules, which may be critical for senescence. A total of 2,916 differentially expressed genes were identified between the senescence and non-senescence groups following thoracic irradiation. In total, 10 gene modules associated with cell senescence were detected, and six hub genes were identified, including B-cell scaffold protein with ankyrin repeats 1, translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 70 homolog A, actin filament-associated protein 1, Cd84, Nuf2 and nuclear factor erythroid 2. These genes were markedly associated with cell proliferation, cell division and cell cycle arrest. The results of the present study demonstrated that WGCNA of microarray data may provide further insight into the molecular mechanism underlying pneumocyte senescence. PMID:26572216

  18. Control of IBMIR Induced by Fresh and Cryopreserved Hepatocytes by Low Molecular Weight Dextran Sulfate Versus Heparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Elisabet; Asif, Sana; Kozarcanin, Huda; Elgue, Graciela; Meurling, Staffan; Ekdahl, Kristina N; Nilsson, Bo

    2017-01-24

    Rapid destruction of hepatocytes after hepatocyte transplantation has hampered the application of this procedure clinically. The instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR) is a plausible underlying cause for this cell loss. The present study was designed to evaluate the capacity of low molecular weight dextran sulfate (LMW-DS) to control these initial reactions from the innate immune system. Fresh and cryopreserved hepatocytes were tested in an in vitro whole-blood model using ABO-compatible blood. The ability to elicit IBMIR and the capacity of LMW-DS (100 μg/ml) to attenuate the degree of activation of the cascade systems were monitored. The effect was also compared to conventional anticoagulant therapy using unfractionated heparin (1 IU/ml). Both fresh and freeze-thawed hepatocytes elicited IBMIR to the same extent. LMW-DS reduced the platelet loss and maintained the cell counts at the same degree as unfractionated heparin, but controlled the coagulation and complement systems significantly more efficiently than heparin. LMW-DS also attenuated the IBMIR elicited by freeze-thawed cells. Therefore, LMW-DS inhibits the cascade systems and maintains the cell counts in blood triggered by both fresh and cryopreserved hepatocytes in direct contact with ABO-matched blood. LMW-DS at a previously used and clinically applicable concentration (100 μg/ml) inhibits IBMIR in vitro and is therefore a potential IBMIR inhibitor in hepatocyte transplantation.

  19. Treatment with 17β-Estradiol Reduced Body Weight and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in a High-Fat Diet-Induced Animal Model of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Wei-Jen; Huang, Chih-Yang; Jiang, Chong-He; Lin, Yueh-Min; Chung, Li-Chin; Shen, Chia-Yao; Pai, Peiying; Lin, Kuan-Ho; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Liao, Shih-Chieh

    2017-03-14

    Estrogen receptor α (ERα) and estrogen receptor β (ERβ) play important roles in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. Recently, these estrogen receptors were reconsidered as an important treatment target of obesity leading to CVD. In this study, 17β-estradiol (17β-E) replacement therapy applied to high-fat diet-induced obese C57B male mice and ovariectomized (OVX) rats were evaluated, and the protective effects against high-fat diet-induced obesity were assessed in C57B mouse hearts. The results showed that 17β-E treatment activated both ERα and ERβ, and ERβ levels increased in a dose-dependent manner in high-fat diet C57B mouse cardiomyocytes following 17β-E treatment. Notably, an almost 16% reduction in body weight was observed in the 17β-E-treated (12 μg/kg/day for 60 days) high-fat diet-induced obese C57B male mice. These results suggested that 17β-E supplements may reduce CVD risk due to obesity.

  20. Chrysobalanus icaco L. Leaves Normalizes Insulin Sensitivity and Blood Glucose and Inhibits Weight Gain in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Pollyanna A S; Araújo, Jessica M D; Cercato, Luana M; Souza, Lucas A; Barbosa, Ana Paula Oliveira; Quintans-Junior, Lucindo José; Machado, Ubiratan F; Camargo, Enilton A; Brito, Luciana C; Santos, Marcio Roberto V

    2016-02-01

    Chrysobalanus icaco L. is a medicinal plant present in the Brazilian coastline and known for its hypoglicemic and antioxidant properties. Here, we assessed the beneficial metabolic effects of the aqueous extract of C. icaco (AECI) leaves in diet-induced obese mice. Swiss mice were fed standard chow (SC used as controls) or high-fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity. After 10 weeks, mice on each diet were divided into two groups with one group used as control while the other group treated with AECI for 4 weeks resulting in four groups of mice: SC; SC treated with AECI (SC + AECI); HFD; and HFD treated with AECI (HFD + AECI). AECI was administered drinking water at about 200 mg/kg. AECI was able to normalize insulin (13,682 ± 1090 vs. 9828 ± 485 AU, P fat storage in liver (72.60 ± 3.83%, P fat intake. These findings reinforce the use of AECI in hyperglycemia and highlight the potential extract's effect in preventing weight gain and fat accumulation in liver of diet-induced obese mice.

  1. Therapeutic effect of low molecular weight chitosan containing sepia ink on ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Kang; Li, Lei; Li, Yingxin; Sui, Xianxian; Rao, Yinzhu; Wu, Jiahao; Wu, Qiuping

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the role of low molecular chitosan containing sepia ink (LMCS) in ethanol-induced (5 ml/kg) gastric ulcer in rats. Animals were divided into four groups (n = 12): normal group (Normal), negative control group (Con), experiment group (LMCS) and positive control Omeprazole group (OMZ). Gastric empty rate was detected in the first 7 days. Rats were sacrificed at 7, 14 and 21 day for histology and ELISA detections. Gastric empty was no significant differences among the groups (P > 0.05). Histological observation showed gastric mucosal LMCS treated had better healing effect. Hydroxyproline (Hyp) was significantly increased from 7 day (P gastric mucosa tissue repair, exert significant influences on oxidative and antioxidant enzyme activities and neutrophil infiltration.

  2. A hypothesis-driven association study of 28 nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes with antipsychotic-induced weight gain in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Vanessa F; Zai, Clement C; Tiwari, Arun K; Brandl, Eva J; Derkach, Andriy; Meltzer, Herbert Y; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Müller, Daniel J; Sun, Lei; Kennedy, James L

    2014-05-01

    Mitochondria are the main source of energy for neurons and have a role in many vital neuronal functions. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been described in schizophrenia, and antipsychotics such as clozapine and olanzapine have been associated with differences in gene expression in mitochondria. We investigated the hypothesis that nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes, particularly those involved in oxidative phosphorylation or involved in oxidative stress, mitochondrial biogenesis, inflammation, and apoptosis, would be associated with antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG). In total, we selected 28 genes and analyzed 60 SNPs (50 are functional), in 283 schizophrenia subjects, treated with atypical medications for up to 14 weeks. Association between AIWG (as measured by the % of weight gain from baseline) and SNP genotypes were tested using linear regression with treatment duration, baseline body weight, and medication type as covariates. We observed a significant association between rs6435326 in the NDUFS1 gene and AIWG in the subset of European patients (N=150, Pcorrected=0.02). The haplotype carrying the risk alleles of rs6435326 and two other SNPs (rs1053517 and rs1801318) in NDUFS1 was also nominally associated with percentage of weight gain (T-C-G vs A-T-A, P=0.005). In addition, stepwise linear regression was performed to select important variables predictive of the outcome, and a gene-gene interaction analysis was carried out. We observed a significant interaction between the TT risk genotype of rs6435326 in NDUFS1 and AG genotype of rs3762883 in COX18 (Pcorrected=0.001). A permutation-based test of all 60 SNPs jointly showed significant association with weight gain (P=0.02). Finally, our replication study of rs6435326, rs1053517 and rs1801318 in NDUFS1 using samples from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) showed that rs1801318 was significantly associated with AIWG (N=200, Pcorrected=0.04), and the three SNPs were

  3. The effects of diet- and diet plus exercise-induced weight loss on basal metabolic rate and acylated ghrelin in grade 1 obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes AL

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available André L Lopes,1 Ana Paula T Fayh,2,3 Luisa G de Souza Campos,4 Bruno C Teixeira,1 Randhall B Kreismann Carteri,1 Jerri L Ribeiro,4 Rogério Friedman,2 Álvaro Reischak-Oliveira1 1Exercise Research Laboratory, School of Physical Education, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 2Endocrine Unit, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 3Health Sciences College of Trairi, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Santa Cruz, RN, Brazil; 4Centro Universitário Metodista – IPA, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil Background: Diet and exercise are often prescribed as primary intervention regarding obesity-related disorders. Additionally, recent studies have shown beneficial effects of weight loss through diet and exercise in ghrelin concentrations in obese subjects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 5% weight loss on lipid profile, resting metabolic rate (RMR, and acylated ghrelin (AG using two different methods of intervention (diet or diet plus exercise. Materials and methods: Eighteen subjects (twelve women and six men aged 20–40 years with a body mass index of 30–34.9 kg/m2 (grade 1 obesity were randomized into two intervention groups: diet (n=9 or diet plus exercise (n=9. Both groups underwent treatment until 5% of the initial body weight was lost. At baseline and upon completion, RMR and AG were analyzed. Results: Both groups showed a significant decrease in body fat percentage and fat mass. The diet-plus-exercise group showed a decrease in AG (pre: 54.4±25.3 pg/mL and post: 33.2±19.1 pg/mL and an increase in RMR (pre: 1,363±379 kcal/day, post: 1,633±223 kcal/day. Conclusion: These data suggest that diet plus exercise induced weight loss and had beneficial effects on AG concentration and RMR, essential factors to ensure the benefits of a weight-loss program. Keywords: exercise therapy, diet, energy regulation, obesity

  4. Black tea high-molecular-weight polyphenol stimulates exercise training-induced improvement of endurance capacity in mouse via the link between AMPK and GLUT4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Eguchi

    Full Text Available Aerobic exercise can promote "fast-to-slow transition" in skeletal muscles, i.e. an increase in oxidative fibers, mitochondria, and myoglobin and improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism. Here, we found that mice administered Mitochondria Activation Factor (MAF combined with exercise training could run longer distances and for a longer time compared with the exercise only group; MAF is a high-molecular-weight polyphenol purified from black tea. Furthermore, MAF intake combined with exercise training increased phosphorylation of AMPK and mRNA level of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4. Thus, our data demonstrate for the first time that MAF activates exercise training-induced intracellular signaling pathways that involve AMPK, and improves endurance capacity.

  5. The role of hydroperoxides as a precursor in the radiation-induced graft polymerization of methyl methacrylate to ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Ichiro; Katsumura, Yosuke; Kudo, Hisaaki; Sekiguchi, Masayuki

    2010-06-01

    A graft polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) to ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) with Co-60 γ-ray irradiation in air at room temperature has been carried out. The grafting yields were measured as a function of the storage time (elapsed time from the end of irradiation to the start of grafting), and it was found that the yields reach at the maximum values at around several days since the end of irradiation. In order to clarify the precursor of the graft polymerization, changes of the radical yields and the carbonyl groups were measured as a function of storage time with ESR and microscopic FT-IR, respectively. From the similarities between the depth profiles of the hydroperoxide formation and the grafting products, it was concluded that the hydroperoxides can be main precursors of the grafting of the radiation-induced polymerization of MMA to UHMWPE under the given conditions.

  6. The role of hydroperoxides as a precursor in the radiation-induced graft polymerization of methyl methacrylate to ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, Ichiro, E-mail: enomoto.ichiro@iri-tokyo.j [Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Institute, KFC bldg., 12F, 1-6-1, Yokoami, Sumida-ku, Tokyo 130-0015 (Japan); School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Katsumura, Yosuke [School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata Shirane, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kudo, Hisaaki [School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Sekiguchi, Masayuki [Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Institute, KFC bldg., 12F, 1-6-1, Yokoami, Sumida-ku, Tokyo 130-0015 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    A graft polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) to ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) with Co-60 gamma-ray irradiation in air at room temperature has been carried out. The grafting yields were measured as a function of the storage time (elapsed time from the end of irradiation to the start of grafting), and it was found that the yields reach at the maximum values at around several days since the end of irradiation. In order to clarify the precursor of the graft polymerization, changes of the radical yields and the carbonyl groups were measured as a function of storage time with ESR and microscopic FT-IR, respectively. From the similarities between the depth profiles of the hydroperoxide formation and the grafting products, it was concluded that the hydroperoxides can be main precursors of the grafting of the radiation-induced polymerization of MMA to UHMWPE under the given conditions.

  7. Cross-sectional and longitudinal study protocols of the 'ADIposity and BOne metabolism: effects of eXercise-induced weight loss in obese adolescents' (ADIBOX) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplais, Elodie; Dutheil, Frédéric; Naughton, Geraldine; Greene, David; Pereira, Bruno; Thivel, David; Courteix, Daniel

    2016-10-18

    A need exists for sustainable and clinically effective weight management interventions, suitable for preventing well-linked chronic disease such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease and some less investigated secondary conditions such as bone alteration. The ADIposity and BOne metabolism: effects of eXercise-induced weight loss in obese adolescents (ADIBOX) protocol was designed to provide a better understanding of the interaction between adipokines and bone hormones in adolescents with obesity and how a 10-month physical activity programme may affect these interactions. The ADIBOX protocol combines 2 studies. The first study involves a total of 68 adolescents aged 12-16 years. This cross-sectional study will include both males and females (1:1 ratio), either living with obesity/overweight (n=34; body mass index (BMI) ≤97th centile and ≥85th centile) or normal weight (n=34; BMIcombination of physical activity and a normocaloric diet. Bone and adiposity-related measurements will be performed every 14 weeks. Both studies will assess participants' anthropometric profile, nutrition and physical activity, body composition, bone densitometry and blood markers of bone, growth and adiposity. The ADIBOX protocol complies with the ethics guidelines for clinical research and has been approved by their respective ethics committee (Australian Catholic University Committee Ethic, Australia and Hospital Sud Est 1 committee, France). Findings from this protocol are expected to clarify the possible interactions between adiposity and bone in childhood obesity and will be disseminated at several research conferences and published articles in peer-reviewed journals. NCT02626273; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Reduction of macrophage infiltration and chemoattractant gene expression changes in white adipose tissue of morbidly obese subjects after surgery-induced weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancello, Raffaella; Henegar, Corneliu; Viguerie, Nathalie; Taleb, Soraya; Poitou, Christine; Rouault, Christine; Coupaye, Muriel; Pelloux, Veronique; Hugol, Danielle; Bouillot, Jean-Luc; Bouloumié, Anne; Barbatelli, Giorgio; Cinti, Saverio; Svensson, Per-Arne; Barsh, Gregory S; Zucker, Jean-Daniel; Basdevant, Arnaud; Langin, Dominique; Clément, Karine

    2005-08-01

    In human obesity, the stroma vascular fraction (SVF) of white adipose tissue (WAT) is enriched in macrophages. These cells may contribute to low-grade inflammation and to its metabolic complications. Little is known about the effect of weight loss on macrophages and genes involved in macrophage attraction. We examined subcutaneous WAT (scWAT) of 7 lean and 17 morbidly obese subjects before and 3 months after bypass surgery. Immunomorphological changes of the number of scWAT-infiltrating macrophages were evaluated, along with concomitant changes in expression of SVF-overexpressed genes. The number of scWAT-infiltrating macrophages before surgery was higher in obese than in lean subjects (HAM56+/CD68+; 22.6 +/- 4.3 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.6%, P attraction (monocyte chemotactic protein [MCP]-1, plasminogen activator urokinase receptor [PLAUR], and colony-stimulating factor [CSF]-3) and hypoxia (hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha [HIF-1alpha]), expression of which increases in obesity and decreases after surgery, were predominantly expressed in the SVF. We show that improvement of the inflammatory profile after weight loss is related to a reduced number of macrophages in scWAT. MCP-1, PLAUR, CSF-3, and HIF-1alpha may play roles in the attraction of macrophages in scWAT.

  9. A Novel Selective Inhibitor of Delta-5 Desaturase Lowers Insulin Resistance and Reduces Body Weight in Diet-Induced Obese C57BL/6J Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashiro, Hiroaki; Takagahara, Shuichi; Tamura, Yumiko Okano; Miyahisa, Ikuo; Matsui, Junji; Suzuki, Hideo; Ikeda, Shota; Watanabe, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is now recognized as a state of chronic low-grade inflammation and is called as metabolic inflammation. Delta-5 desaturase (D5D) is an enzyme that metabolizes dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) to arachidonic acid (AA). Thus, D5D inhibition increases DGLA (precursor to anti-inflammatory eicosanoids) while decreasing AA (precursor to pro-inflammatory eicosanoids), and could result in synergistic improvement in the low-grade inflammatory state. Here, we demonstrate reduced insulin resistance and the anti-obesity effect of a D5D selective inhibitor (compound-326), an orally active small-molecule, in a high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mouse model. In vivo D5D inhibition was confirmed by determining changes in blood AA/DGLA profiles. In DIO mice, chronic treatment with compound-326 lowered insulin resistance and caused body weight loss without significant impact on cumulative calorie intake. Decreased macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue was expected from mRNA analysis. Increased daily energy expenditure was also observed following administration of compound-326, in line with sustained body weight loss. These data indicate that the novel D5D selective inhibitor, compound-326, will be a new class of drug for the treatment of obese and diabetic patients.

  10. Effect of a selective OX1R antagonist on food intake and body weight in two strains of rats that differ in susceptibility to dietary-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C L; Ishii, Y; Mendoza, T; Upton, N; Stasi, L P; Bray, G A; York, D A

    2005-11-01

    An orexin-1 receptor antagonist decreases food intake whereas orexin-A selectively induces hyperphagia to a high-fat diet. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of an orexin antagonist in two strains of rats that differ in their sensitivity to becoming obese while eating a high-fat diet. Male Osborne-Mendel (OM) and S5B/Pl (S5B) rats were treated acutely with an orexin-1 receptor antagonist (SB-334867), after adaptation to either a high-fat (56% fat energy) diet or a low-fat (10% fat energy) diet that were equicaloric for protein (24% energy). Ad libitum fed rats were injected intraperitoneally with SB-334867 at doses of 3, 10 or 30 mg/kg, or vehicle at the beginning of the dark cycle, and food intake and body weight were measured. Hypothalamic prepro-orexin and orexin-1 receptor mRNA expression were analyzed in OM and S5B rats fed at a high-fat or low-fat diet for two weeks. SB-334867 significantly decreased food intake in both strains of rats eating the high-fat diet but only in the OM rats eating the low fat diet. The effect was greatest at 12 and 24 h. Body weight was also reduced in OM rats 1d after injection of SB-334867 but not in the S5B rats. Prepro-orexin and orexin-1 receptor expression levels did not differ between strains or diets. These experiments demonstrate that an orexin antagonist (SB-334867) reduces food intake and has a greater effect in a rat strain that is susceptible to dietary-induced obesity, than in a resistant strain.

  11. Insulin-induced hypoglycemia associations with gene expression changes in liver and hypothalamus of chickens from lines selected for low or high body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Brittany B; Zhang, Wei; Bai, Shiping; Siegel, Paul B; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2014-11-01

    Chickens selected for low (LWS) or high (HWS) body weight for more than 56 generations now have a 10-fold difference in body weight at 56 days of age and correlated responses in appetite and glucose regulation. The LWS chickens are lean and some are anorexic, while the HWS are compulsive feeders and have a different threshold sensitivity of food intake and blood glucose to both central and peripheral insulin, respectively. We previously demonstrated that at 90-days of age, insulin-induced hypoglycemia was associated with reduced glucose transporter expression in the liver of both lines, and differences in expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and NPY receptor sub-type genes between LWS and HWS in the hypothalamus. The objective of this study was to determine effects of insulin-induced hypoglycemia on gene expression in the hypothalamus and liver of early post-hatch LWS and HWS chicks. On day 5 post-hatch chicks from each line were fasted for 3h and injected intraperitoneally with insulin or vehicle. At 1h post-injection, chicks were euthanized, blood glucose was measured, and hypothalamus and liver were removed. Total RNA was isolated and real time PCR performed. Insulin injection was associated with a more pronounced reduction in blood glucose in HWS compared with LWS chicks (two-way interaction; Phypothalamus (Phypothalamus of HWS than LWS (Phypothalamus of both lines (P=0.02). In the liver of both lines, insulin treatment was associated with decreased (P=0.01) GLUT2 mRNA and increased (P=0.01) GLUT1 mRNA, compared to vehicle-treated chicks. Results suggest that NPY-associated factors and glucose transporters are differentially-expressed between LWS and HWS chickens and that HWS chicks display greater sensitivity to exogenous insulin during the early post-hatch period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hernia Surgical Mesh Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Hernia Surgical Mesh Implants Hernia Surgical Mesh Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... majority of tissue used to produce these mesh implants are from a pig (porcine) or cow (bovine) ...

  13. Urogynecologic Surgical Mesh Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Urogynecologic Surgical Mesh Implants Urogynecologic Surgical Mesh Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... majority of tissue used to produce these mesh implants are from a pig (porcine) or cow (bovine). ...

  14. American Pediatric Surgical Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Pediatric Surgical Association Search for: Login Resources + For Members For Professionals For Training Program Directors For Media For ... Surgical Outcomes Surveys & Results Publications Continuing Education + ExPERT Pediatric Surgery NaT Annual Meeting CME MOC Requirements Residents / ...

  15. Optimizing surgical f

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry Mohamed Amin

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: In our study both dexmedetomidine and esmolol were effective in reducing MABP, and lowering the heart rate providing dry surgical field and ensured good surgical condition during cochlear implant surgery in pediatric patients.

  16. Abortion - surgical - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000658.htm Abortion - surgical - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. You have had a surgical abortion. This is a procedure that ends pregnancy by ...

  17. Weight loss, weight maintenance, and adaptive thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Stefan G J A; Verhoef, Sanne P M; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2013-05-01

    Diet-induced weight loss is accompanied by adaptive thermogenesis, ie, a disproportional or greater than expected reduction of resting metabolic rate (RMR). The aim of this study was to investigate whether adaptive thermogenesis is sustained during weight maintenance after weight loss. Subjects were 22 men and 69 women [mean ± SD age: 40 ± 9 y; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 31.9 ± 3.0]. They followed a very-low-energy diet for 8 wk, followed by a 44-wk period of weight maintenance. Body composition was assessed with a 3-compartment model based on body weight, total body water (deuterium dilution), and body volume. RMR was measured (RMRm) with a ventilated hood. In addition, RMR was predicted (RMRp) on the basis of the measured body composition: RMRp (MJ/d) = 0.024 × fat mass (kg) + 0.102 × fat-free mass (kg) + 0.85. Measurements took place before the diet and 8, 20, and 52 wk after the start of the diet. The ratio of RMRm to RMRp decreased from 1.004 ± 0.077 before the diet to 0.963 ± 0.073 after the diet (P after 20 wk (0.983 ± 0.063; P weight loss after 8 wk (P Weight loss results in adaptive thermogenesis, and there is no indication for a change in adaptive thermogenesis up to 1 y, when weight loss is maintained. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01015508.

  18. Weight gain induced by an isocaloric pair-fed high fat diet: a nutriepigenetic study on FASN and NDUFB6 gene promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomba, Almudena; Martínez, J Alfredo; García-Díaz, Diego F; Paternain, Laura; Marti, Amelia; Campión, Javier; Milagro, Fermín I

    2010-01-01

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that dietary macronutrient distribution plays an important role in insulin regulation, a risk factor associated to obesity, diabetes and other metabolic disorders. To assess whether the macronutrient composition of the diet could be related to obesity onset by affecting the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, we investigated in rats the metabolic effects of two pair-fed isocaloric diets: control (rich in carbohydrates) and high fat diet (rich in fat; HFD). Compared to controls, HFD induced higher weight gain and adiposity and impaired glucose tolerance, which was accompanied by a slight increase in adiponectin levels and liver steatosis. Epididymal adipose tissue expression of the fatty acid synthase (FASN) gene and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1β-subcomplex 6 (NDUFB6) were significantly reduced in HFD group. These variations in mRNA levels were accompanied by changes in the methylation patterns of several CpG islands located in the promoter region of these genes. However, no correlations were found between gene expression and the methylation status. These results suggest that high fat intake produces overweighted rats independently of total energy intake. These diets could also induce some epigenetic changes in the promoters of key genes that could influence gene expression and may be behind metabolic alterations.

  19. The defence of body weight: a physiological basis for weight regain after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumithran, Priya; Proietto, Joseph

    2013-02-01

    Although weight loss can usually be achieved by restricting food intake, the majority of dieters regain weight over the long-term. In the hypothalamus, hormonal signals from the gastrointestinal tract, adipose tissue and other peripheral sites are integrated to influence appetite and energy expenditure. Diet-induced weight loss is accompanied by several physiological changes which encourage weight regain, including alterations in energy expenditure, substrate metabolism and hormone pathways involved in appetite regulation, many of which persist beyond the initial weight loss period. Safe effective long-term strategies to overcome these physiological changes are needed to help facilitate maintenance of weight loss. The present review, which focuses on data from human studies, begins with an outline of body weight regulation to provide the context for the subsequent discussion of short- and long-term physiological changes which accompany diet-induced weight loss.

  20. Brain responses to food and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behary, Preeshila; Miras, Alexander D

    2014-09-01

    In this symposium report, we examine how functional neuroimaging has revolutionized the study of human eating behaviour. In the last 20 years, functional magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography techniques have enabled researchers to understand how the human brain regions that control homeostatic and hedonic eating respond to food in physiological and pathological states. Hypothalamic, brainstem, limbic and cortical brain areas form part of a well-co-ordinated brain system that responds to central and peripheral neuronal, hormonal and nutrient signals. Even in physiological conditions, it promotes the consumption of energy-dense food, because this is advantageous in evolutionary terms. Its function is dysregulated in the context of obesity so as to promote weight gain and resist weight loss. Pharmacological and bariatric surgical interventions might be more successful than lifestyle interventions in inducing weight loss and maintenance because, unlike dieting, they reduce not only hunger but also the reward value of food through their actions in homeostatic and hedonic brain regions. Functional neuroimaging is a research tool that cannot be used in isolation; its findings become meaningful and useful only when combined with data from direct measures of eating behaviour. The neuroimaging technology is continuously improving and is expected to contribute further to the in-depth understanding of the obesity phenotype and accelerate the development of more effective and safer treatments for the condition.

  1. High allelic burden of four obesity SNPs is associated with poorer weight loss outcomes following gastric bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, Christopher D; Wood, G Craig; Chu, Xin; Erdman, Robert; Manney, Christina H; Benotti, Peter N; Petrick, Anthony T; Strodel, William E; Mirshahi, Uyenlinh L; Mirshahi, Tooraj; Carey, David J; Gerhard, Glenn S

    2011-08-01

    Genome-wide association and linkage studies have identified multiple susceptibility loci for obesity. We hypothesized that such loci may affect weight loss outcomes following dietary or surgical weight loss interventions. A total of 1,001 white individuals with extreme obesity (BMI >35 kg/m(2)) who underwent a preoperative diet/behavioral weight loss intervention and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery were genotyped for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO), insulin induced gene 2 (INSIG2), melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 1 (PCSK1) obesity genes. Association analysis was performed using recessive and additive models with pre- and postoperative weight loss data. An increasing number of obesity SNP alleles or homozygous SNP genotypes was associated with increased BMI (P weight (P weight lost from a short-term dietary intervention and any individual obesity SNP or cumulative number of obesity SNP alleles or homozygous SNP genotypes was observed. Linear mixed regression analysis revealed significant differences in postoperative weight loss trajectories across groups with low, intermediate, and high numbers of obesity SNP alleles or numbers of homozygous SNP genotypes (P weight loss with initial BMI metabolic rate, binge eating behavior, and other clinical parameters were not associated with genotype. These data suggest that response to a surgical weight loss intervention is influenced by genetic susceptibility and BMI.

  2. Effects of low molecular weight heparin on platelet surface P-selectin expression and serum interleukin-8 production in rats with trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Xia; Hong Han; Ke-Jian Zhang; Jin Li; Guang-Song Guo; Ling-Ling Gong; Xian-Chang Zeng; Jun-Yan Liu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To observe the effects of Iow molecular weight heparin (LMWH) on platelet surface P-selectin expression and serum interleukin-8 production in rats with trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis.METHODS: Colitis was induced in female Sprauge-Dawley rats by colonic administration of 2, 4, 6-TNBS. LMWH, a dalteparin (150 U/kg, 300 U/kg) was subcutaneously administrated one hour before induction of colitis and went on once a day for 6 days. Then a half dose was given for the normal saline once a day for 14 days after treated by TNBS.Animals were sacrificed at 24 h, days 7 and 14 after induction of colitis. The colon was excised for the evaluation of macroscopic and histological findings and TNF-a immunohistochemical assay. Platelet surface P-selectin expression was determined by radioimmunoassay and serum IL-8 production was assayed by ELISA method.RESULTS: LMWH treatment in a dose of 300 U/kg for 14 days significantly improved colonic inflammation by histological examination. Serum IL-8 production in the 300 U/kg treatment group was more significantly decreased at day 14 than that at 24 h (P<0.05). However, platelet surface P-selectin expression and TNF-a staining in colonic tissue were not significantly different among the three groups.CONCLUSION: LMWH has an anti-inflammatory effect on TNBS induced colitis in rats. The effect is possibly related to inhibition of proinfiammatory cytokine IL-8, but not involved platelet surface P-selectin expression.

  3. Ischemia and reperfusion induce differential expression of calpastatin and its homologue high molecular weight calmodulin-binding protein in murine cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreejit Parameswaran

    Full Text Available In the heart, calpastatin (Calp and its homologue high molecular weight calmodulin-binding protein (HMWCaMBP regulate calpains (Calpn by inhibition. A rise in intracellular myocardial Ca2+ during cardiac ischemia activates Calpn thereby causing damage to myocardial proteins, which leads to myocyte death and consequently to loss of myocardial structure and function. The present study aims to elucidate expression of Calp and HMWCaMBP with respect to Calpn during induced ischemia and reperfusion in primary murine cardiomyocyte cultures. Ischemia and subsequently reperfusion was induced in ∼ 80% confluent cultures of neonatal murine cardiomyocytes (NMCC. Flow cytometric analysis (FACS has been used for analyzing protein expression concurrently with viability. Confocal fluorescent microscopy was used to observe protein localization. We observed that ischemia induces increased expression of Calp, HMWCaMBP and Calpn. Calpn expressing NMCC on co-expressing Calp survived ischemic induction compared to NMCC co-expressing HMWCaMBP. Similarly, living cells expressed Calp in contrast to dead cells which expressed HMWCaMBP following reperfusion. A significant difference in the expression of Calp and its homologue HMWCaMBP was observed in localization studies during ischemia. The current study adds to the existing knowledge that HMWCaMBP could be a putative isoform of Calp. NMCC on co-expressing Calp and Calpn-1 survived ischemic and reperfusion inductions compared to NMCC co-expressing HMWCaMBP and Calpn-1. A significant difference in expression of Calp and HMWCaMBP was observed in localization studies during ischemia.

  4. Joint correction of Nyquist artifact and minuscule motion-induced aliasing artifact in interleaved diffusion weighted EPI data using a composite two-dimensional phase correction procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hing-Chiu; Chen, Nan-Kuei

    2016-09-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) obtained with interleaved echo-planar imaging (EPI) pulse sequence has great potential of characterizing brain tissue properties at high spatial-resolution. However, interleaved EPI based DWI data may be corrupted by various types of aliasing artifacts. First, inconsistencies in k-space data obtained with opposite readout gradient polarities result in Nyquist artifact, which is usually reduced with 1D phase correction in post-processing. When there exist eddy current cross terms (e.g., in oblique-plane EPI), 2D phase correction is needed to effectively reduce Nyquist artifact. Second, minuscule motion induced phase inconsistencies in interleaved DWI scans result in image-domain aliasing artifact, which can be removed with reconstruction procedures that take shot-to-shot phase variations into consideration. In existing interleaved DWI reconstruction procedures, Nyquist artifact and minuscule motion-induced aliasing artifact are typically removed subsequently in two stages. Although the two-stage phase correction generally performs well for non-oblique plane EPI data obtained from well-calibrated system, the residual artifacts may still be pronounced in oblique-plane EPI data or when there exist eddy current cross terms. To address this challenge, here we report a new composite 2D phase correction procedure, which effective removes Nyquist artifact and minuscule motion induced aliasing artifact jointly in a single step. Our experimental results demonstrate that the new 2D phase correction method can much more effectively reduce artifacts in interleaved EPI based DWI data as compared with the existing two-stage artifact correction procedures. The new method robustly enables high-resolution DWI, and should prove highly valuable for clinical uses and research studies of DWI.

  5. Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate reduces body weight with regulation of multiple genes expression in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mak-Soon; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, Yangha

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antiobesity effect of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in diet-induced obese mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed on a high-fat diet for 8 weeks to induce obesity. Subsequently they were divided into 3 groups and were maintained on a high-fat control diet or high-fat diets supplemented with 0.2 or 0.5% EGCG (w/w) for a further 8 weeks. Changes in the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism and fatty acid oxidation were analyzed in white adipose tissue, together with biometric and blood parameters. Experimental diets supplemented with EGCG resulted in reduction of body weight and mass of various adipose tissues in a dose-dependent manner. EGCG diet also considerably lowered the levels of plasma triglyceride and liver lipid. In the epididymal white adipose tissue of EGCG diet-fed mice, the mRNA levels of adipogenic genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma), CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-alpha (C/EBP-alpha), regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were significantly decreased. However, the mRNA levels of carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), as well as lipolytic genes such as hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), were significantly increased. These results suggest that green tea EGCG effectively reduces adipose tissue mass and ameliorates plasma lipid profiles in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. These effects might be at least partially mediated via regulation of the expression of multiple genes involved in adipogenesis, lipolysis, beta-oxidation and thermogenesis in white adipose tissue. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Changes of seasonal morph development induced by surgical operations in pupae of the large map butterfly Araschnia burejana Bermer (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kae; Kanzaki, Koji; Hinauchi, Mami; Fujishima, Tetsuro; Islam, Abu Taher Md Fayezul; Kitazawa, Chisato; Endo, Katsuhiko; Yamanaka, Akira

    2014-06-01

    The nymphalid butterfly Araschnia burejana and the papilionid butterfly Papilio xuthus exhibit seasonal diphenism comprising spring-morphs that develop from diapause pupae and summer-morphs that develop from non-diapause pupae. The development of seasonal morphs in A. burejana is regulated by the timing of secretion of ecdysteroids for adult development, whereas that in P. xuthus is regulated by the secretion of summer-morph-producing hormone, which is present in the brains and is under control of the photoperiod. We investigated whether a cerebral factor derived from brains plays a significant role in the regulation of seasonal morph development in A. burejana using surgical operations. Pairs of chilled diapause pupae that had been chilled for more than 3 months at 4°C were joined surgically to each other and then developed into spring-morph or spring-like-morph adults. Chilled diapause pupae that were joined with 1-day-old non-diapause pupae developed into summer-morph or summer-like-morph adults. When the brains of non-diapause pupae were removed surgically 6-8 hr after pupation with and without injection of 20-hydroxyecdysone, a large portion of them developed into spring-morph or spring-like-morph adults, respectively. Furthermore, 90% of non-diapause pupae developed into spring-morph or spring-like-morph adults when the neck was ligated within 5 min after pupation. These results indicated that a cerebral factor showing summer-morph-producing hormone activity, which is secreted from the brain in the early pupal stage, in addition to 20-hydroxyecdysone for adult development, play a significant role in the determination of summer-morph development in non-diapause pupae of A. burejana.

  7. Surgical Lasers In Gynecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellhas, Helmut F.; Barnes, Alfonso E.

    1982-12-01

    Multipurpose surgical CO2 lasers marketed in the USA have been developed to be applicable to a variety of surgical procedures in many surgical fields. They are all suited for endoscopic surgical procedures and can be fitted to all standard surgical microscopes. They all can adjust the focal length of the laser beam to the different standard focal lengths of the surgical microscope which for instance in laryngoscopy is 400 mm and in colposcopy 300 mm. One laser instrument can even change the spot size in a given focal distance which is very advantageous for some microsurgical procedures (Merrimack Laboratories 820). All multipurpose surgical CO2 laser systems provide a multi-articulated surgical arm for free-hand surgery. The surgical arms are cumbersome to use but they are adapted to the surgeons needs with ingenuity. The practicality of the multi-articulated surgical arms depends mostly on the distance of the handpiece from the surgical console which now is also overbridged by the laser tube in most surgical laser system. The spot size of the beam is variable in most handpieces by interchangeable lenses which modify the focal distance of the beam and the power density. Another common feature in all systems is a coaxial He-Ne pilot light which provides a red spot which unfortunately becomes invisible in a bleeding surgical field. Most surgical laser systems have a spacial mode of TEM 00 which is essential for incisional surgery. The continuous mode of beam delivery is used for incisional surgery and also for most endoscopic procedures.

  8. Susceptibility-weighted MR imaging of radiation therapy-induced cerebral microbleeds in patients with glioma: a comparison between 3T and 7T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bian, Wei [University of California San Francisco, The UC Berkeley and UCSF Graduate Program in Bioengineering, San Francisco, CA (United States); University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, 1700 4th Street, Byers Hall Room 303, UCSF Campus Box 2532, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hess, Christopher P.; Lupo, Janine M. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, 1700 4th Street, Byers Hall Room 303, UCSF Campus Box 2532, San Francisco, CA (United States); Chang, Susan M. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Neurological Surgery, San Francisco, CA (United States); Nelson, Sarah J. [University of California San Francisco, The UC Berkeley and UCSF Graduate Program in Bioengineering, San Francisco, CA (United States); University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, 1700 4th Street, Byers Hall Room 303, UCSF Campus Box 2532, San Francisco, CA (United States); University of California San Francisco, Department of Bioengineeing and Therapeutic Sciences, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Cerebral microbleeds have been observed in normal-appearing brain tissue of patients with glioma years after receiving radiation therapy. The contrast of these paramagnetic lesions varies with field strength due to differences in the effects of susceptibility. The purpose of this study was to compare 3T and 7T MRI as platforms for detecting cerebral microbleeds in patients treated with radiotherapy using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). SWI was performed with both 3T and 7T MR scanners on ten patients with glioma who had received prior radiotherapy. Imaging sequences were optimized to obtain data within a clinically acceptable scan time. Both T2*-weighted magnitude images and SWI data were reconstructed, minimum intensity projection was implemented, and microbleeds were manually identified. The number of microbleeds was counted and compared among datasets. Significantly more microbleeds were identified on SWI than magnitude images at both 7T (p = 0.002) and 3T (p = 0.023). Seven-tesla SWI detected significantly more microbleeds than 3T SWI for seven out of ten patients who had tumors located remote from deep brain regions (p = 0.016), but when the additional three patients with more inferior tumors were included, the difference was not significant. SWI is more sensitive for detecting microbleeds than magnitude images at both 3T and 7T. For areas without heightened susceptibility artifacts, 7T SWI is more sensitive to detecting radiation therapy-induced microbleeds than 3T SWI. Tumor location should be considered in conjunction with field strength when selecting the most appropriate strategy for imaging microbleeds. (orig.)

  9. COH-SR4 reduces body weight, improves glycemic control and prevents hepatic steatosis in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Lester Figarola

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, and is one of the principal causative factors in the development of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cancer. COH-SR4 ("SR4" is a novel investigational compound that has anti-cancer and anti-adipogenic properties. In this study, the effects of SR4 on metabolic alterations in high fat diet (HFD-induced obese C57BL/J6 mice were investigated. Oral feeding of SR4 (5 mg/kg body weight. in HFD mice for 6 weeks significantly reduced body weight, prevented hyperlipidemia and improved glycemic control without affecting food intake. These changes were associated with marked decreases in epididymal fat mass, adipocyte hypertrophy, increased plasma adiponectin and reduced leptin levels. SR4 treatment also decreased liver triglycerides, prevented hepatic steatosis, and normalized liver enzymes. Western blots demonstrated increased AMPK activation in liver and adipose tissues of SR4-treated HFD obese mice, while gene analyses by real time PCR showed COH-SR4 significantly suppressed the mRNA expression of lipogenic genes such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (Srebf1, acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase (Acaca, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg, fatty acid synthase (Fasn, stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (Hmgcr, as well as gluconeogenic genes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (Pck1 and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pc in the liver of obese mice. In vitro, SR4 activates AMPK independent of upstream kinases liver kinase B1 (LKB1 and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ. Together, these data suggest that SR4, a novel AMPK activator, may be a promising therapeutic compound for treatment of obesity, fatty liver disease, and related metabolic disorders.

  10. COH-SR4 reduces body weight, improves glycemic control and prevents hepatic steatosis in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figarola, James Lester; Singhal, Preeti; Rahbar, Samuel; Gugiu, Bogdan Gabriel; Awasthi, Sanjay; Singhal, Sharad S

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, and is one of the principal causative factors in the development of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cancer. COH-SR4 ("SR4") is a novel investigational compound that has anti-cancer and anti-adipogenic properties. In this study, the effects of SR4 on metabolic alterations in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese C57BL/J6 mice were investigated. Oral feeding of SR4 (5 mg/kg body weight.) in HFD mice for 6 weeks significantly reduced body weight, prevented hyperlipidemia and improved glycemic control without affecting food intake. These changes were associated with marked decreases in epididymal fat mass, adipocyte hypertrophy, increased plasma adiponectin and reduced leptin levels. SR4 treatment also decreased liver triglycerides, prevented hepatic steatosis, and normalized liver enzymes. Western blots demonstrated increased AMPK activation in liver and adipose tissues of SR4-treated HFD obese mice, while gene analyses by real time PCR showed COH-SR4 significantly suppressed the mRNA expression of lipogenic genes such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (Srebf1), acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase (Acaca), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg), fatty acid synthase (Fasn), stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (Hmgcr), as well as gluconeogenic genes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (Pck1) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pc) in the liver of obese mice. In vitro, SR4 activates AMPK independent of upstream kinases liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ). Together, these data suggest that SR4, a novel AMPK activator, may be a promising therapeutic compound for treatment of obesity, fatty liver disease, and related metabolic disorders.

  11. 高岭土诱导大鼠脑积水模型的建立和监测%Kaolin- induced hydrocephalus in the rat: temporal sequence of changes in weight, intracranial pressure, ventriculomegaly and corpus callosum thickness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫永旭; 王伟军; 宋菡姝; 靳世辉; 高瑞庭; 初明; 蔺友志

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop models of kaolin - induced hydrocephalus in adult Wistar rats and to measure changes of body weight,intracranial pressure,ventriculomegaly and corpus callosum thickness.Methods 60 adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into experimental group and control group.In the former group,40 rats were randomly separated into 5 subgroups:group A,B,C,D and E,then were used to construct animal models of hydrocephalus by injecting 0.1 ml volume of 25% kaolin sterile solution into the cisterna Magana with the aid of a surgical microscope.Controls were trcatcd in the same way with injection of saline.Body weighing,MRI and ICP were performed at the tine point of 3 days,1,2,4 and 8 weeks after kaolin injection,respectively.Corpus callosum thickness was measured at the level of the optic chiasm.Results Hydrocephalus was induced in 23 rats whose ventricular system expauded as times went on.In hydrocephalus rats,body weight was significantly lower than in age - matched saline - injected sham controls,ICP increased rapidly on day 3 post intracisternal kaolin injection,reached a maximum on day 7,remained markedly elevated through 8 week, and had reduced corpus callosum thickness as ventricle enlargment.Conclusions Kaolin injection through cistern magna can effectively eatablish a rat model of communicating hydrocephalus.Aherations in ICP,ventriculomegaly and corpus callosum thickness occurs sequentially,and the time - course of each manifestation of hydrocephalus differs.%目的 高岭土诱导Wistar大鼠脑积水后系统监测大鼠体质量、颅内压、脑室面积和胼胝体厚度的改变.方法 雄性Wistar大鼠60只,按随机数字表顺序分为实验组(n=40)和对照组(n=20).实验组40只大鼠再随机分为A、B、C、D、E五个亚组,向枕大池内注入25%无菌高岭土混悬液0.1 ml;对照组注入等量无菌生理盐水,注入后3d、1周、2周、4周和8周后行体质量、MRI检查及颅内压监测,经视交叉切

  12. Mortality, weight loss and quality of life of patients with morbid obesity: evaluation of the surgical and medical treatment after 2 years Mortalidade, perda de peso e qualidade de vida em pacientes com obesidade mórbida: avaliação do tratamento cirúrgico e clínico após 2 anos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunther Peres Pimenta

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The surgical treatment for morbid obesity is becoming common in this country. Only a few papers reported the long-term results of the surgical approach for morbid obesity, mainly in terms of quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To compare mortality rate, weight loss, improvement of both diabetes and hypertension, and quality of life of patients from the public healthcare in Cuiabá, MT, Brazil, who underwent either medical or surgical interventions after a minimum of 2 years. METHODS: The population of this study was constituted by morbidly obese patients who initiated treatment between June 2002 and December 2006. The casuistic consisted of 89 patients submitted to medical therapy and 76 patients who underwent surgical procedures. The main variables were weight loss, improvement of hypertension and diabetes, quality of life, and mortality. RESULTS: The overall results showed that weight loss was significant in the two groups (PCONTEXTO: O tratamento cirúrgico da obesidade mórbida, vem se tornando frequente no país. Poucos trabalhos avaliaram os resultados a longo prazo do tratamento cirúrgico da obesidade mórbida, principalmente em termos de qualidade de vida. OBJETIVO: Comparar pacientes usuários do SUS em Cuiabá, MT tratados clínica ou cirurgicamente, observando taxa de mortalidade, perda de peso, evolução do diabetes e hipertensão e qualidade de vida após pelo menos 2 anos do início do tratamento. MÉTODO: A população do estudo foi constituída de obesos mórbidos pacientes da rede pública, tratados no período de junho de 2002 a dezembro de 2006. A casuística consistiu de 89 pacientes tratados clinicamente e 76 pacientes operados. As principais variáveis foram perda de peso, melhora da hipertensão e diabetes, qualidade de vida e mortalidade. RESULTADOS: Houve significativa perda de peso nos dois grupos (P<0.001, porém pacientes operados apresentaram queda significativamente maior do que o grupo clínico (P = 0

  13. Obesity-induced diet leads to weight gain, systemic metabolic alterations, adipose tissue inflammation, hepatic steatosis, and oxidative stress in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Luciana L.A.; Fortes, Nathália C.L.; Santiago, Helton C.; Caliari, Marcelo V.; Gomes, Maria A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Nowadays, the number of obese people in the world has reached alarming proportions. During the expansion of adipose tissue, a number of functions such as activation and release of cytokines and hormones may be affected. This leads the body to a pro-inflammatory pattern, which may affect the proper functioning of many tissues. Thus, studying the mechanisms by which obesity induces physiological disorders is necessary, and may be facilitated by the use of animal models, in particular rodents. We sought to characterize the metabolic and adipose tissue changes resulting from a diet rich in fats and simple sugars in gerbils. Methods We divided 14 gerbils into two experimental groups that received a diet rich in simple carbohydrates and fats with 5,86 kcal/g (OB, n = 7) or a standard diet with 4.15 kcal/g (CT; n = 7) for 11 weeks. The animals had free access to water and food. The animal weight and food consumption were measured weekly. Blood, adipose tissue and liver of each animal were collected at the end of experiment. The following parameters were determined: cholesterol (COL), triglycerides (TGL) and glycemia (GLI) in the plasma; cytokines (IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α) and hormones (adiponectin and leptin) in adipose tissue; activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), extraction and differentiation of fat and histology in liver. Results The consumption of a diet rich in simple carbohydrates and fats led to increased total body weight and increased relative weights of liver and adipose tissue. In addition, we observed increased fasting glucose levels and circulating triglycerides, along with high TNF-α production in adipose tissue and increased total fat, cholesterol and triglyceride contents in the liver, contributing to higher intensity of hepatic steatosis. On the other hand, the animals of this group showed depletion in the enzyme activity of SOD and CAT in the liver, as well as reduction of IL-10 and adiponectin levels in adipose

  14. Obesity-induced diet leads to weight gain, systemic metabolic alterations, adipose tissue inflammation, hepatic steatosis, and oxidative stress in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana L.A. Ventura

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Nowadays, the number of obese people in the world has reached alarming proportions. During the expansion of adipose tissue, a number of functions such as activation and release of cytokines and hormones may be affected. This leads the body to a pro-inflammatory pattern, which may affect the proper functioning of many tissues. Thus, studying the mechanisms by which obesity induces physiological disorders is necessary, and may be facilitated by the use of animal models, in particular rodents. We sought to characterize the metabolic and adipose tissue changes resulting from a diet rich in fats and simple sugars in gerbils. Methods We divided 14 gerbils into two experimental groups that received a diet rich in simple carbohydrates and fats with 5,86 kcal/g (OB, n = 7 or a standard diet with 4.15 kcal/g (CT; n = 7 for 11 weeks. The animals had free access to water and food. The animal weight and food consumption were measured weekly. Blood, adipose tissue and liver of each animal were collected at the end of experiment. The following parameters were determined: cholesterol (COL, triglycerides (TGL and glycemia (GLI in the plasma; cytokines (IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α and hormones (adiponectin and leptin in adipose tissue; activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT, extraction and differentiation of fat and histology in liver. Results The consumption of a diet rich in simple carbohydrates and fats led to increased total body weight and increased relative weights of liver and adipose tissue. In addition, we observed increased fasting glucose levels and circulating triglycerides, along with high TNF-α production in adipose tissue and increased total fat, cholesterol and triglyceride contents in the liver, contributing to higher intensity of hepatic steatosis. On the other hand, the animals of this group showed depletion in the enzyme activity of SOD and CAT in the liver, as well as reduction of IL-10 and adiponectin levels in

  15. Unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparin and the phosphodiesterase inhibitors, IBMX and cilostazol, block ex vivo Equid Herpesvirus type-1-induced platelet activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Stokol

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Equid herpes virus type-1 (EHV-1 is a major pathogen of horses, causing abortion storms and outbreaks of herpes virus myeloencephalopathy. These clinical syndromes are partly attributed to ischemic injury from thrombosis in placental and spinal vessels. The mechanism of thrombosis in affected horses is unknown. We have previously shown that EHV-1 activates platelets through virus-associated tissue factor-initiated thrombin generation. Activated platelets participate in thrombus formation by providing a surface to localize coagulation factor complexes that amplify and propagate thrombin generation. We hypothesized that coagulation inhibitors that suppress thrombin generation (heparins or platelet inhibitors that impede post-receptor thrombin signaling (phosphodiesterase [PDE] antagonists would inhibit EHV-1-induced platelet activation ex vivo. We exposed platelet-rich plasma collected from healthy horses to the RacL11 abortigenic and Ab4 neuropathogenic strains of EHV-1 at 1 plaque forming unit/cell in the presence or absence of unfractionated heparin (UFH, low-molecular-weight (LMWH heparin or the PDE inhibitors, 3-isobutyl-1methylxanthine (IBMX and cilostazol. We assessed platelet activation status in flow cytometric assays by measuring P-selectin expression. We found that all of the inhibitors blocked EHV-1- and thrombin-induced platelet activation in a dose-dependent manner. Platelet activation in PRP was maximally inhibited at concentrations of 0.05 U/mL UFH and 2.5 μg/mL LMWH. These concentrations represented 0.1 to 0.2 U/mL anti-Factor Xa activity measured in chromogenic assays. Both IBMX and cilostazol showed maximal inhibition of platelet activation at the highest tested concentration of 50 μM but inhibition was lower than that seen with UFH and LMWH. Our results indicate that heparin anticoagulants and strong non-selective (IBMX or isoenzyme-3 selective (cilostazol PDE antagonists inhibit ex vivo EHV-1-induced platelet activation

  16. Surgical stress delays prostate involution in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazzad Hassan

    Full Text Available Androgens control growth of prostate epithelial cells and androgen deprivation induces apoptosis, leading to prostate involution. We investigated the effects of surgical stress on prostate involution induced by androgen ablation and determined the underlying mechanisms. Androgen ablation in mice was induced by surgical castration and administration of the anti-androgenic drugs bicalutamide and MDV3100. Surgical stress was induced by sham castration under isoflurane anesthesia. Surgical stress delayed apoptosis and prostate involution induced by anti-androgenic drugs. These effects of stress were prevented by administering the selective beta2-adrenoreceptor antagonist ICI118,551 and were also blocked in BAD(3SA/WT mice expressing phosphorylation-deficient mutant BAD3SA. These results indicate that apoptosis and prostate involution in response to androgen ablation therapy could be delayed by surgical stress via the beta2-adrenoreceptor/BAD signaling pathway. Thus, surgery could interfere with androgen ablation therapy, whereas administration of beta2-adrenoreceptor antagonists may enhance its efficacy.

  17. Hypersensitivity of the hippocampal CA3 region to stress-induced neurodegeneration and amyloidogenesis in a rat model of surgical menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quan-Guang; Wang, Rui-Min; Scott, Erin; Han, Dong; Dong, Yan; Tu, Jing-Yi; Yang, Fang; Reddy Sareddy, Gangadhara; Vadlamudi, Ratna K; Brann, Darrell W

    2013-05-01

    Females who enter menopause prematurely via bilateral ovariectomy (surgical menopause) have a significantly increased risk for cognitive decline and dementia. To help elucidate the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, we used an animal model of surgical menopause, long-term (10-week) bilateral ovariectomy in female rats. Herein, we demonstrate that long-term oestrogen deprivation dramatically increases sensitivity of the normally resistant hippocampal CA3 region to ischaemic stress, an effect that was gender-specific, as it was not observed in long-term orchiectomized males. Furthermore, the enhanced damage to the CA3 region correlated with a worse cognitive outcome after ischaemic stress. Long-term ovariectomized rats also displayed a robust hyperinduction of Alzheimer's disease-related proteins in the CA3 region and a switch in amyloid precursor protein processing from non-amyloidogenic to amyloidogenic following ischaemic stress CA3 hypersensitivity also extended to an Alzheimer's disease-relevant insult, as the CA3 region of long-term ovariectomized rats was profoundly hypersensitive to the neurotoxic effects of amyloid-β1-42, the most amyloidogenic form of the amyloid-β peptide. Additional studies revealed that CA3 region hypersensitivity, Alzheimer's disease-related protein induction, and amyloidogenesis are mediated by a NADPH oxidase/superoxide/c-Jun N-terminal kinase/c-Jun signalling pathway, involving both transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms. In addition, while 17β-oestradiol replacement at the end of the long-term oestrogen deprivation period could not prevent CA3 hypersensitivity and amyloidogenesis, if 17β-oestradiol was initiated at the time of ovariectomy and maintained throughout the 10-week oestrogen deprivation period, it completely prevented these events, providing support for the 'critical window' hypothesis for oestrogen replacement therapy benefit. Collectively, these findings may help explain the increased risk of

  18. Poor efficacy of the phosphorylated high-molecular-weight neurofilament heavy subunit serum level, a biomarker of axonal damage, as a marker of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUMITANI, MASAHIKO; OGATA, TORU; NATORI, AKINA; HOZUMI, JUN; SHIMOJO, NOBUTAKE; KIDA, KUMIKO; YAMAUCHI, HIDEKO; YAMAUCHI, TERUO

    2016-01-01

    The phosphorylated form of the high-molecular-weight neurofilament heavy subunit (pNF-H) is a major structural protein in axons. The pNF-H level is elevated in the serum of certain patients with central nervous disorders, including chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment. The present study was conducted to elucidate the potential role of pNF-H as a marker of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). A total of 71 patients with early breast cancer in various stages of treatment (following 1, 3 or 7 cycles of chemotherapy, or a previous history of breast cancer chemotherapy) were assessed with a self-administered PainDETECT questionnaire [pain location, pain intensity on an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS), and various pain qualities] and a single serum pNF-H measurement. Patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of bilateral symmetric pain in the distal portions of the extremities [CIPN(+) or CIPN(−)]. The χ2 and Mann-Whitney tests were used for statistical analyses. Among the participants, only 8 patients complained of CIPN. Their pain intensity was 3.5±1.9 (mean ± standard deviation) compared with 1.5±1.8 in the CIPN(−) group (P<0.01). The NRS of numbness in the CIPN(+) group was significantly higher (2.4±1.4) than that of the CIPN(−) group (1.0±1.0). Increased pNF-H levels were observed in 37.5% of the CIPN(+) patients and in 23.8% of CIPN(−) patients (P=0.40). In conclusion, CIPN is observed in the most distal portions of the peripheral nerves that are composed of dendrites but not axons. Although serum pNF-H is a biomarker of axonal damage, it is not useful as a marker of CIPN. PMID:27284419

  19. Impacts of low-molecular-weight organic acids on aquatic behavior of graphene nanoplatelets and their induced algal toxicity and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuang; Gao, Yucheng; Wang, Se; Fang, Hao; Xu, Defu; Zhang, Fan

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of the interaction between graphene-based materials and low-molecular-weight organic acids (LOAs) is essential to understand fate and effects of graphene-based materials in the aquatic environment, but this interaction remains poorly elucidated. In this study, the effects of LOAs on the physicochemical properties of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) in an aqueous medium and on the GNP toxicity to algae were studied. The unicellular green alga Scenedesmus obliquus was exposed to GNP suspensions in the presence of benzoic acid or gallic acid at various concentrations. The GNPs had smaller hydrodynamic sizes and the GNP suspensions were more stable and had higher or lower surface zeta potentials in the presence of LOAs than when LOAs were not present. The toxic effects in S. obliquus cultures incubated with GNP suspensions containing LOAs were related to the LOA concentration, and the presence of LOAs caused three effects: stimulation, alleviation, and synergistic inhibition. The intensities of the effects mainly correlated with the LOA concentration, the extent of agglomeration, and particle-induced oxidative stress. The results indicate that the environmental fates and toxicities of GNPs are strongly affected by the binding of GNPs to LOAs.

  20. Fructans from Agave tequilana with a Lower Degree of Polymerization Prevent Weight Gain, Hyperglycemia and Liver Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Aguirre, A L; Camacho-Ruíz, R M; Gutiérrez-Mercado, Y K; Padilla-Camberos, E; González-Ávila, M; Gálvez-Gastélum, F J; Díaz-Martínez, N E; Ortuño-Sahagún, D

    2016-12-01

    Fructans from agave have received specific attention because of their highly branched fructan content. We have previously reported that the degree of polymerization (dp) influences their biological activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of unfractionated and fractionated fructans (higher and lower dps) from Agave tequilana in high-fat diet-induced (HFD) obese mice. Fructans with a lower dp (HFD+ScF) decreased weight gain by 30 %, body fat mass by 51 %, hyperglycemia by 25 % and liver steatosis by 40 %. Interestingly, unfractionated fructans (HFD+F) decreased glucose and triglycerides (TG), whereas fractionated fructans with a higher dp (HFD+LcF) decreased TG but not glucose; in contrast, HFD+ScF decreased glucose but not TG. Our findings suggest that both higher and lower dp agave fructans have complementary effects in metabolic disorders related to obesity. These findings may contribute to the development of improved food supplements with a specific ratio combination of fructans with different dps.

  1. Structural and chemical changes in ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene due to gamma radiation-induced crosslinking and annealing in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viano, A M; Spence, K E; Shanks, M A; Scott, M A; Redfearn, R D; Carlson, C W; Holm, T A; Ray, A K

    2007-01-01

    Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight-Polyethylene (UHMWPE) is the material of choice for one of the articulating surfaces in many total joint replacements, notably hip and knee prostheses. The various methods used by the orthopaedic biomaterials industry to sterilize and anneal UHMWPE components, and the resulting oxidation and crosslinking, affect the mechanical wear resistance properties in ways still unknown at the microscopic and molecular levels. Transmission electron microscopy and chemical pyrolysis were used to quantify crosslinking induced by gamma irradiation and annealing in air. Changes in lamellar stacking and the amount of crosslinking suggest two types of crosslinking: relatively unstable crosslinks in the amorphous region initially resulting from gamma irradiation which are later replaced by more thermally stable crosslinks resulting from rearrangements at the annealing temperature. Lamellar mobility, the ability of crystalline lamellae to flow in the material, is enhanced during the transition from one type of bond to the other, and this appears to optimize near eight hours of annealing time. Results from decomposition and percent crystallinity measurements provide further support for this theory.

  2. Exploration of Two Training Paradigms Using Forced Induced Weight Shifting With the Tethered Pelvic Assist Device to Reduce Asymmetry in Individuals After Stroke: Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Lauri; Khan, Moiz; Martelli, Dario; Quinn, Lori; Stein, Joel; Agrawal, Sunil

    2017-10-01

    Many robotic devices in rehabilitation incorporate an assist-as-needed haptic guidance paradigm to promote training. This error reduction model, while beneficial for skill acquisition, could be detrimental for long-term retention. Error augmentation (EA) models have been explored as alternatives. A robotic Tethered Pelvic Assist Device has been developed to study force application to the pelvis on gait and was used here to induce weight shift onto the paretic (error reduction) or nonparetic (error augmentation) limb during treadmill training. The purpose of these case reports is to examine effects of training with these two paradigms to reduce load force asymmetry during gait in two individuals after stroke (>6 mos). Participants presented with baseline gait asymmetry, although independent community ambulators. Participants underwent 1-hr trainings for 3 days using either the error reduction or error augmentation model. Outcomes included the Borg rating of perceived exertion scale for treatment tolerance and measures of force and stance symmetry. Both participants tolerated training. Force symmetry (measured on treadmill) improved from pretraining to posttraining (36.58% and 14.64% gains), however, with limited transfer to overground gait measures (stance symmetry gains of 9.74% and 16.21%). Training with the Tethered Pelvic Assist Device device proved feasible to improve force symmetry on the treadmill irrespective of training model. Future work should consider methods to increase transfer to overground gait.

  3. Adipose tissue transcriptome reflects variations between subjects with continued weight loss and subjects regaining weight 6 mo after caloric restriction independent of energy intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Márquez-Quinõnes, Adriana; Mutch, David M.; Debard, Cyrille

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying body weight evolution after diet-induced weight loss are poorly understood.......The mechanisms underlying body weight evolution after diet-induced weight loss are poorly understood....

  4. Manual of Surgical Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lidia Sánchez Sarría

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Surgical instruments are the group of tools used in surgical procedures. They are very expensive and sophisticated. Consequently, a standardized and meticulous care is essential; they should go through the decontamination, cleaning and sterilization process. These instruments are designed in order to provide surgeons with tools that help them to perform a basic surgical procedure; there are multiple variations and the design depends on their function. This paper aims at showing all surgical instruments that can be used in an operating room during surgery and are not generally included in the medical literature.

  5. Nesfatin-130-59 Injected Intracerebroventricularly Differentially Affects Food Intake Microstructure in Rats Under Normal Weight and Diet-Induced Obese Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Philip; Teuffel, Pauline; Lembke, Vanessa; Kobelt, Peter; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Hofmann, Tobias; Rose, Matthias; Klapp, Burghard F; Stengel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Nesfatin-1 is well-established to induce an anorexigenic effect. Recently, nesfatin-130-59, was identified as active core of full length nesfatin-11-82 in mice, while its role in rats remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effects of nesfatin-130-59 injected intracerebroventricularly (icv) on the food intake microstructure in rats. To assess whether the effect was also mediated peripherally we injected nesfatin-130-59 intraperitoneally (ip). Since obesity affects the signaling of various food intake-regulatory peptides we investigated the effects of nesfatin-130-59 under conditions of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Male Sprague-Dawley rats fed ad libitum with standard diet were icv cannulated and injected with vehicle (5 μl ddH2O) or nesfatin-130-59 at 0.37, 1.1, and 3.3 μg (0.1, 0.3, 0.9 nmol/rat) and the food intake microstructure assessed using a food intake monitoring system. Next, naïve rats were injected ip with vehicle (300 μl saline) or nesfatin-130-59 (8.1, 24.3, 72.9 nmol/kg). Lastly, rats were fed a high fat diet for 10 weeks and those developing DIO were icv cannulated. Nesfatin-1 (0.9 nmol/rat) or vehicle (5 μl ddH2O) was injected icv and the food intake microstructure assessed. In rats fed standard diet, nesfatin-130-59 caused a dose-dependent reduction of dark phase food intake reaching significance at 0.9 nmol/rat in the period of 4-8 h post injection (-29%) with the strongest reduction during the fifth hour (-75%), an effect detectable for 24 h (-12%, p food intake. In DIO rats fed high fat diet, nesfatin-130-59 injected icv reduced food intake in the third hour post injection (-71%), an effect due to a reduced meal frequency (-27%, p food intake in rats. The anorexigenic effect depends on the metabolic condition with increased satiation (reduction in meal size) under normal weight conditions, while in DIO rats satiety (reduction in meal frequency) is induced.

  6. Metabolite profiling of obese individuals before and after a one year weight loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geidenstam, N; Al-Majdoub, M; Ekman, M; Spégel, P; Ridderstråle, M

    2017-06-13

    We and others have previously characterized changes in circulating metabolite levels following diet-induced weight loss. Our aim was to investigate whether baseline metabolite levels and weight-loss-induced changes in these are predictive of or associated with changes in body mass index (BMI) and metabolic risk traits. Serum metabolites were analyzed with gas and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in 91 obese individuals at baseline and after participating in a 1 year non-surgical weight loss program.RESULTSA total of 137 metabolites were identified and semi-quantified at baseline (BMI 42.7±5.8, mean±s.d.) and at follow-up (BMI 36.3±6.6). Weight-loss-induced modification was observed for levels of 57 metabolites in individuals with ⩾10% weight loss. Lower baseline levels of xylitol was predictive of a greater decrease in BMI (β=0.06, Pweight loss (odds ratio (OR)=0.2, confidence interval (CI)=0.07-0.7, P=0.01). Decreases in levels of isoleucine, leucine, valine and tyrosine were associated with decrease in BMI (β>0.1, Pweight loss (isoleucine: OR=0.08, CI=0.01-0.3, leucine: OR=0.1, CI=0.01-0.6, valine: OR=0.1, CI=0.02-0.5, tyrosine: OR=0.1, CI=0.03-0.6, Pweight loss leads to mainly reduced levels of metabolites that are elevated in obese insulin resistant individuals. We identified multiple new associations with metabolic risk factors and validated several previous findings related to weight loss-mediated metabolite changes. Levels of specific metabolites, such as xylitol, may be predictive of the response to non-surgical weight loss already at baseline.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 13 June 2017; doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.124.

  7. Weighted approximation with varying weight

    CERN Document Server

    Totik, Vilmos

    1994-01-01

    A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.

  8. Effect of sibutramine on weight maintenance after weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James, W P; Astrup, A; Finer, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    Sibutramine is a tertiary amine that has been shown to induce dose-dependent weight loss and to enhance the effects of a low-calorie diet for up to a year. We did a randomised, double-blind trial to assess the usefulness of sibutramine in maintaining substantial weight loss over 2 years....

  9. Effect of sibutramine on weight maintenance after weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James, W P; Astrup, A; Finer, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    Sibutramine is a tertiary amine that has been shown to induce dose-dependent weight loss and to enhance the effects of a low-calorie diet for up to a year. We did a randomised, double-blind trial to assess the usefulness of sibutramine in maintaining substantial weight loss over 2 years....

  10. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  11. Imatinib-induced postoperative periorbital purpura: GASP (Gleevec-Associated Surgical Purpura) in a woman with imatinib-treated chronic myelogenous leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzalone, C Lane; Cohen, Philip R; Kurzrock, Razelle; Cortes, Jorge E

    2014-01-15

    Imatinib mesylate is a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor used in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Ocular side effects of imatinib include periorbital edema, which may become so severe as to obstruct the visual field. The purpose of this case study is to describe the clinical characteristics of imatinib- induced postoperative periorbital purpura. We retrospectively reviewed the medical literature using PubMed, searching the terms edema, Gleevec, imatinib, periorbital, postoperative and purpura. Patient reports and previous reviews of the subject were critically assessed and the salient features are presented. Three patients have undergone surgery to reduce the imatinib-induced periorbital edema; two of these individuals have developed imatinib-induced postoperative periorbital purpura. We recommend discontinuing imatinib usage one week prior to periorbital surgery and not resuming therapy until the eighth postoperative day.

  12. Surgical ethics and the challenge of surgical innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelos, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Surgical ethics as a specific discipline is relatively new to many. Surgical ethics focuses on the ethical issues that are particularly important to the care of surgical patients. Informed consent for surgical procedures, the level of responsibility that surgeons feel for their patients' outcomes, and the management of surgical innovation are specific issues that are important in surgical ethics and are different from other areas of medicine. The future of surgical progress is dependent on surgical innovation, yet the nature of surgical innovation raises specific concerns that challenge the professionalism of surgeons. These concerns will be considered in the following pages.

  13. Homotopy weighted colimits

    CERN Document Server

    Vokřínek, Lukáš

    2012-01-01

    Let V be a cofibrantly generated closed symmetric monoidal model category and M a model V-category. We say that a weighted colimit W*D of a diagram D weighted by W is a homotopy weighted colimit if the diagram D is pointwise cofibrant and the weight W is cofibrant in the projective model structure on [C^op,V]. We then proceed to describe such homotopy weighted colimits through homotopy tensors and ordinary (conical) homotopy colimits. This is a homotopy version of the well known isomorphism W*D=\\int^C(W\\tensor D). After proving this homotopy decomposition in general we study in some detail a few special cases. For simplicial sets tensors may be replaced up to weak equivalence by conical homotopy colimits and thus the weighted homotopy colimits have no added value. The situation is completely different for model dg-categories where the desuspension cannot be constructed from conical homotopy colimits. In the last section we characterize those V-functors inducing a Quillen equivalence on the enriched presheaf c...

  14. Recognizing surgical patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouarfa, L.

    2012-01-01

    In the Netherlands, each year over 1700 patients die from preventable surgical errors. Numerous initiatives to improve surgical practice have had some impact, but problems persist. Despite the introduction of checklists and protocols, patient safety in surgery remains a continuing challenge. This is

  15. Surgical medical record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulow, S.

    2008-01-01

    A medical record is presented on the basis of selected linguistic pearls collected over the years from surgical case records Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/15......A medical record is presented on the basis of selected linguistic pearls collected over the years from surgical case records Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/15...

  16. [Surgical treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Esper, Raúl; Muciño-Bermejo, María Jimena

    2014-01-01

    Sustained remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus and significantly improved hyperlipidemia and arterial hypertension, control has been achieves in both lean and obese patient after bariatric surgery procedures or other gastrointestinal surgical procedures. It has been demonstrated that the metabolic effects of bariatric surgery in these patients derives not only in reducing weight and caloric intake, but also endocrine changes resulting from surgical manifestation gastrointestinal tract. In this article we review the clinical outcomes of such interventions (collectively called "metabolic surgery") and the perspectives on the role that these surgeries play in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  17. Ghrelin and PYY levels in adolescents with severe obesity: effects of weight loss induced by long-term exercise training and modified food habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueugnon, Carine; Mougin, Fabienne; Nguyen, Nhu Uyen; Bouhaddi, Malika; Nicolet-Guénat, Marie; Dumoulin, Gilles

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated (a) changes in ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY) concentrations during a weight reduction programme and (b) baseline ghrelin and PYY levels as predictors of weight loss in 32 severely obese adolescents (BMI z score = 4.1). Subjects spent an academic year in an institution for childhood obesity. Fasting ghrelin and PYY, leptin, insulin levels and insulin resistance were measured at baseline (month 0) and during the programme (months 3, 6, 9). In addition, 15 normal-weight teenagers served as reference for the baseline assessments. At baseline, obese teenagers had lower ghrelin and PYY concentrations than normal-weight adolescents (P teenagers, associated with an increase in ghrelin (apparent from month 6; P adolescents with severe obesity, a long-term combination of supervised aerobic exercises and a balanced diet led to weight reduction and increased ghrelin concentrations, without any change in PYY concentrations. Moreover, baseline PYY concentrations might be considered as predictors of weight loss.

  18. Chronic vitamin A-enriched diet feeding induces body weight gain and adiposity in lean and glucose-intolerant obese rats of WNIN/GR-Ob strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyakumar, Shanmugam M; Sheril, Alex; Vajreswari, Ayyalasomayajula

    2015-11-01

    /adipose tissue-specific genes; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, stearoyl CoA desaturase 1, retinol saturase, leptin and lipoprotein lipase and vitamin A metabolic pathway genes; retinoic acid receptors, retinoid X receptors and cytochrome P450 26B1. Besides, RPWAT-lipoprotein lipase-mediated clearance of triglyceride could also have contributed to increased adiposity and improved hypertriglyceridaemia. In conclusion, chronic feeding of vitamin A-enriched diet induces weight gain and adiposity in both lean and obese rats of the WNIN/GR-Ob strain, possibly through transcriptional regulation of key adipogenic pathway genes of RPWAT, but improves dyslipidaemia. © 2015 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  19. Current evidence for a role of GLP-1 in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass-induced remission of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhee, Nicolai Alexander; Vilsbøll, T; Knop, F K

    2012-01-01

    Weight-reducing surgical procedures such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) have proven efficient as means of decreasing excess body weight. Furthermore, some studies report that up to 80% of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) undergoing RYGB experience complete remission of their T2DM......-induced remission of T2DM are lacking. This article critically evaluates the current evidence for a role of GLP-1 in RYGB-induced remission of T2DM....

  20. Surgical smoke and ultrafine particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Dennis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrocautery, laser tissue ablation, and ultrasonic scalpel tissue dissection all generate a 'surgical smoke' containing ultrafine ( Methods To measure the amount of generated particulates in 'surgical smoke' during different surgical procedures and to quantify the particle number concentration for operation room personnel a condensation particle counter (CPC, model 3007, TSI Inc. was applied. Results Electro-cauterization and argon plasma tissue coagulation induced the production of very high number concentration (> 100000 cm-3 of particles in the diameter range of 10 nm to 1 μm. The peak concentration was confined to the immediate local surrounding of the production side. In the presence of a very efficient air conditioning system the increment and decrement of ultrafine particle occurrence was a matter of seconds, with accumulation of lower particle number concentrations in the operation room for only a few minutes. Conclusion Our investigation showed a short term very high exposure to ultrafine particles for surgeons and close assisting operating personnel – alternating with longer periods of low exposure.

  1. Association between the insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) and weight gain in a German sample of antipsychotic-treated schizophrenic patients: perturbation of SREBP-controlled lipogenesis in drug-related metabolic adverse effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Hellard, S; Theisen, F M; Haberhausen, M; Raeder, M B; Fernø, J; Gebhardt, S; Hinney, A; Remschmidt, H; Krieg, J C; Mehler-Wex, C; Nöthen, M M; Hebebrand, J; Steen, V M

    2009-03-01

    Atypical antipsychotics are nowadays the most widely used drugs to treat schizophrenia and other psychosis. Unfortunately, some of them can cause major metabolic adverse effects, such as weight gain, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes. The underlying lipogenic mechanisms of the antipsychotic drugs are not known, but several studies have focused on a central effect in the hypothalamic control of appetite regulation and energy expenditure. In a functional convergent genomic approach we recently used a cellular model and demonstrated that orexigenic antipsychotics that induce weight gain activate the expression of lipid biosynthesis genes controlled by the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) transcription factors. We therefore hypothesized that the major genes involved in the SREBP activation of fatty acids and cholesterol production (SREBF1, SREBF2, SCAP, INSIG1 and INSIG2) would be strong candidate genes for interindividual variation in drug-induced weight gain. We genotyped a total of 44 HapMap-selected tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms in a sample of 160 German patients with schizophrenia that had been monitored with respect to changes in body mass index during antipsychotic drug treatment. We found a strong association (P=0.0003-0.00007) between three markers localized within or near the INSIG2 gene (rs17587100, rs10490624 and rs17047764) and antipsychotic-related weight gain. Our finding is supported by the recent involvement of the INSIG2 gene in obesity in the general population and implicates SREBP-controlled lipogenesis in drug-induced metabolic adverse effects.

  2. 抗精神病药引起体重增加的药物基因组学研究进展%Pharmacogenomics of antipsychotics induced weight gain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍海姗; 赵丽萍; 赵靖平; 陈晋东

    2013-01-01

    Weight gain is a common adverse reaction of antipsychotic treatment,and the mechanism of weight gain induced by antipsychotics is complex and uncertain,in which individual differences in genetic polymorphisms may play an important role.This paper reviewed the related genes of antipsychotics-induced weight gain.HTR2C and leptin gene are considered to be the highest risk of weight gain.Recent studies showed a growing number of genes were related to antipsychotics-induced weight gain.The paper analyzed the relationship between antipsychotic agents and weight gain from the point of pharmacogenomics research,designed to provide a theoretical basis for future clinical personalized medication.%体重增加是抗精神病药治疗中常见的不良反应,抗精神病药引起体重增加的机制复杂且不确定,个体差异与遗传多态性可能在其中发挥了重要的作用.本文综述了与抗精神病药源性体重增加的相关基因研究进展,其中HTR2C和瘦素基因被认为是引起体重增加风险最高的基因,新近的研究显示越来越多的基因被发现与抗精神病药物引起的体重增加相关.本文主要从药物基因组学的研究角度分析抗精神病药与体重增加的关系,旨在为以后临床个体化用药提供理论依据.

  3. Quality of life after diet or exercise-induced weight loss in overweight to obese postmenopausal women: The SHAPE-2 randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, van Willemijn A.M.; Palen, van der Job; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; Rozeboom, Anouk; Peters, Roelof; Wittink, Harriet; Schuit, Albertine J.; Peeters, Petra H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study investigates the effect of a modest weight loss either by a calorie restricted diet or mainly by increased physical exercise on health related quality of life (HRQoL) in overweight-to-obese and inactive postmenopausal women. We hypothesize that HRQoL improves with weight loss

  4. Quality of Life after Diet or Exercise-Induced Weight Loss in Overweight to Obese Postmenopausal Women : The SHAPE-2 Randomised Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Willemijn A. M.; van der Palen, Job; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; Rozeboom, Anouk; Peters, Roelof; Wittink, Harriet; Schuit, Albertine J.; Peeters, Petra H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study investigates the effect of a modest weight loss either by a calorie restricted diet or mainly by increased physical exercise on health related quality of life (HRQoL) in overweight-to-obese and inactive postmenopausal women. We hypothesize that HRQoL improves with weight loss

  5. Risperidone-Induced Weight Gain in Referred Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Is Associated with a Common Polymorphism in the 5-Hydroxytryptamine 2C Receptor Gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Troost, Pieter W.; Lahuis, Bertine E.; Mulder, Hans; Mulder, Erik J.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Anderson, George M.; Scahill, Lawrence; Minderaa, Ruud B.

    2010-01-01

    Weight gain is an important adverse effect of risperidone, but predictors of significant weight gain have yet to be identified in pediatric patients. Here, we investigated differences between age-and gender-normed body mass index-standardized z scores at baseline and after 8 weeks of open-label, fle

  6. Risperidone-Induced Weight Gain in Referred Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Is Associated with a Common Polymorphism in the 5-Hydroxytryptamine 2C Receptor Gene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, P.J.; Troost, P.W.; Lahuis, B.E.; Mulder, H.; Mulder, E.J.H.; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Anderson, G.M.; Scahill, L.; Minderaa, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Weight gain is an important adverse effect of risperidone, but predictors of significant weight gain have yet to be identified in pediatric patients. Here, we investigated differences between age- and gender-normed body mass index-standardized z scores at baseline and after 8 weeks of open-

  7. Quality of life after diet or exercise-induced weight loss in overweight to obese postmenopausal women: The SHAPE-2 randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Willemijn A.M.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; Rozeboom, Anouk; Peters, Roelof; Wittink, Harriet; Schuit, Albertine J.; Peeters, Petra H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study investigates the effect of a modest weight loss either by a calorie restricted diet or mainly by increased physical exercise on health related quality of life (HRQoL) in overweight-to-obese and inactive postmenopausal women. We hypothesize that HRQoL improves with weight

  8. Quality of Life after Diet or Exercise-Induced Weight Loss in Overweight to Obese Postmenopausal Women : The SHAPE-2 Randomised Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Willemijn A. M.; van der Palen, Job; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; Rozeboom, Anouk; Peters, Roelof; Wittink, Harriet; Schuit, Albertine J.; Peeters, Petra H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study investigates the effect of a modest weight loss either by a calorie restricted diet or mainly by increased physical exercise on health related quality of life (HRQoL) in overweight-to-obese and inactive postmenopausal women. We hypothesize that HRQoL improves with weight

  9. Surgical ethics: surgical virtue and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercler, Christian J

    2015-01-01

    The encounter between a patient and her surgeon is unique for several reasons. The surgeon inflicts pain upon a patient for the patient's own good. An operative intervention is irreducibly personal, such that the decisions about and performance of operations are inseparable from the idiosyncrasies of the individual surgeon. Furthermore, there is a chasm of knowledge between the patient and surgeon that is difficult to cross. Hence, training in the discipline of surgery includes the inculcation of certain virtues and practices to safeguard against abuses of this relationship and to make sure that the best interests of the patient are prioritized. The stories in this issue are evidence that in contemporary practice this is not quite enough, as surgeons reflect on instances they felt were ethically challenging. Common themes include the difficulty in communicating surgical uncertainty, patient-surgeon relationships, ethical issues in surgical training, and the impact of the technological imperative on caring for dying patients.

  10. Nesfatin-130−59 Injected Intracerebroventricularly Differentially Affects Food Intake Microstructure in Rats Under Normal Weight and Diet-Induced Obese Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Philip; Teuffel, Pauline; Lembke, Vanessa; Kobelt, Peter; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Hofmann, Tobias; Rose, Matthias; Klapp, Burghard F.; Stengel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    27%, p < 0.05), while meal size was not altered. Taken together, nesfatin-130−59 is the active core of nesfatin-11−82 and acts centrally to reduce food intake in rats. The anorexigenic effect depends on the metabolic condition with increased satiation (reduction in meal size) under normal weight conditions, while in DIO rats satiety (reduction in meal frequency) is induced. PMID:26635512

  11. Nesfatin-1(30-59 injected intracerebroventricularly differentially affects food intake microstructure in rats under normal weight and diet-induced obese conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip ePrinz

    2015-11-01

    altered. Taken together, nesfatin-1(30-59 is the active core of nesfatin-1(1-82 and acts centrally to reduce food intake in rats. The anorexigenic effect depends on the metabolic condition with increased satiation (reduction in meal size under normal weight conditions, while in DIO rats satiety (reduction in meal frequency is induced.

  12. Multiscale Surgical Telerobots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, R R; Seward, K P; Benett, W J; Tendick, F; Bentley, L; Stephan, P L

    2002-01-23

    A project was undertaken to improve robotic surgical tools for telerobotic minimally invasive surgery. The major objectives were to reduce the size of the tools to permit new surgical procedures in confined spaces such as the heart and to improve control of surgical tools by locating positional sensors and actuators at the end effector rather than external to the patient as is currently the state of the technology. A new compact end-effector with wrist-like flexibility was designed. Positional sensors based on MEMS microfabrication techniques were designed.

  13. Influence of the surgical manipulation of the colon in colonic induced carcinogenesis in rats Influencia de la manipulación quirúrgica del colon en la carcinogénesis cólica inducida en ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Noguera Aguilar

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to investigate the influence of different experimental manipulations in a model of colonic experimental carcinogenesis with pharmacological induction in the rat. Experimental design: a total of 90 Sprague-Dawley male rats, divided into three groups, were used: non-surgical (n = 30; surgical with colonic trauma (n = 20, and surgical with colo-colonic anastomosis (n = 40. Carcinogenic induction was carried out with 1-2 dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride. Colonic adenocarcinomas were identified and the number of tumors, as well as tumoral surface and percentage of tumoral surface was established. One-way ANOVA and Chi-square were employed for the statistical analysis. Results: the number of tumors was greater in the surgical group than in the control group, and tumors preferentially develop-ed around the manipulated colon. Surface and tumoral percentage were greater in the surgical group than in the control group, being also greater in the anastomosis group than in the group with colonic trauma. Within anastomosis groups, a greater tumor surface and percentage was found in the group with titanium than in the group with reabsorbable material. Conclusions: the experimental manipulation of the colon in rats enhances drug-induced colon carcingenesis. The creation of an anastomosis further increases the carcinogenic process compared with simulated anastomosis. This process is also enhanced by the quantity of suture material included in the anastomosis, and by the non-reabsorbable nature of the materials used in the anastomotic line.Objetivo: valorar la influencia de las distintas manipulaciones experimentales en un modelo de carcinogénesis cólica experimental con inducción farmacológica en la rata. Diseño experimental: se emplearon 90 ratas Sprague-Dawley macho, divididas en tres grupos: no quirúrgico (n=30; quirúrgico con traumatismo cólico (n=20, y quirúrgico con anastomosis colocólica (n=40. La inducción carcinogénica se realizó con

  14. Surgical management of venous drug-induced infective endocarditis%静脉注射吸毒者感染性心内膜炎的外科治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜巍; 辛军; 王厚强; 周伟; 李伟阳

    2009-01-01

    Objective To summarize the experience of surgical treatment of venous drug-induced infective endocarditis(IE). Methods The 17 cases of drug-induced IE were found to have valvular vegetations,16 patients had involvement of tricuspid valve, 1 mitral valve associated with ventrieular septal defect. Preoperative blood culture was positive in 8 patients. The operations included tricuspid valve repair (6 cases),tricuspid valve replacement(8 cases), mitral valve replacement and VSD closure(1 cases). Results All patients were alive and discharges. After follow-up of 6 months to 6 years, 1 case had severd tricuspid alve regurgitation, 1 had haemoptysis because of incorrect anticoagulation. Conclusions This study indicated surgical intervention is effective treatment of venous drug-induced infective endocarditis.%目的 探讨静脉注射毒品所致感染性心内膜炎的外科治疗经验.方法 17例患者静脉注射毒品史2~10年,均有心脏瓣膜赘生物;其中三尖瓣赘生物并关闭不全16例,二尖瓣赘生物并关闭不全合并室间隔缺损1例,术前血培养阳性8例.三尖瓣置换术8例,三尖瓣成形术8例,二尖瓣置换同期室间隔缺损修补术1例.术后平均随访(44.7 ±19.1)月.结果 全部患者治愈出院,心功能明显改善,随访期间抗凝不当致大咯血1例,三尖瓣重度返流1例.结论 外科手术修复受累瓣膜或置换瓣膜是治疗静脉吸毒性感染性心内膜炎的有效手段.

  15. Bone mineral density and fractures after surgical menopause : systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fakkert, Ingrid E; Teixeira, Natalia; Abma, Elske Marije; Slart, Riemer H J A; Mourits, Marian J E; de Bock, Geertruida H

    BACKGROUND: Oophorectomy is recommended to women at increased ovarian cancer risk. When performed at premenopausal age oophorectomy induces acute surgical menopause, with unwanted consequences. OBJECTIVE: To investigate bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture prevalence after surgical menopause.

  16. Bone mineral density and fractures after surgical menopause : systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fakkert, I. E.; Teixeira, N.; Abma, E. M.; Slart, R. H. J. A.; Mourits, M. J. E.; de Bock, G. H.

    Background Oophorectomy is recommended for women at increased risk for ovarian cancer. When performed at premenopausal age oophorectomy induces acute surgical menopause, with unwanted consequences. Objective To investigate bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture prevalence after surgical menopause.

  17. Effect of Hydrolyzed Protein Formula Milk Powder on Weight Gain and Recovery of Neonatus after Neonatal Surgical Intestinal Operation%水解蛋白配方奶粉对新生儿外科肠道手术后康复及体重增长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓虹

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨和研究水解蛋白配方奶粉对新生儿外科肠道手术后康复及体重增长的影响。方法:研究对象选取为2012年1月—2014年12月我院收治的41例外科肠道手术新生儿,采用数字表法随机分为观察组21例和对照组20例,在患儿监护人知情同意的情况下,给予对照组患儿开奶初期应用常规配方奶粉,观察组患儿则应用水解蛋白配方奶粉(康敏金),达到全胃肠道营养后出院,出院后仍按原配方奶粉喂养4周,对比两组患者的喂养耐受情况、达到全肠内喂养时间、住院时间及体重增长值情况。结果:观察组患儿的喂养不耐受发生率、达到全肠内喂养时间、住院时间均显著低于对照组,体重增长情况显著高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:水解蛋白配方奶粉能够有效改善外科肠道手术后新生儿的肠道功能,促进肠道吸收,提高营养供应效率,减少喂养不耐受情况的发生,与传统的配方奶粉相比更具优势,值得在临床上推广和应用。%Objective: To explore the effect of hydrolyzed protein formula milk powder on weight gain and recovery of neonatus after neonatal surgical intestinal operation. Methods: 41 Cases of neonatal intestinal surgery operation in our hospital from January 2012 to December 2014 were randomly divided into observation group and control group. Each group had 20 cases. With the guardians informed, the control group was treated with conventional formula milk powder in the early milking period and the observation group was treated with hydrolyzed protein formula milk powder (Kang Minjin). The neonatus were discharged when total enteral nutrition achieved. After discharged, the neonatus were fed according to the original formula. The feeding tolerance, full enteral feeding time, hospitalization time and weight increase value of the two groups were compared. Results: The incidence

  18. Guide to Surgical Specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have expertise in the following areas of responsibility: neonatal surgery (specialized knowledge in the surgical repair of ... and non-operative management of certain types of pain. Common conditions managed by neurologic surgeons include disorders ...

  19. Surgical Critical Care Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Surgical Critical Care Initiative (SC2i) is a USU research program established in October 2013 to develop, translate, and validate biology-driven critical care....

  20. Ambulatory Surgical Measures - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Ambulatory Surgical Center Quality Reporting (ASCQR) Program seeks to make care safer and more efficient through quality reporting. ASCs eligible for this...

  1. Ambulatory Surgical Measures - Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Ambulatory Surgical Center Quality Reporting (ASCQR) Program seeks to make care safer and more efficient through quality reporting. ASCs eligible for this...

  2. Surgical site infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and mortality as well as significant financial implications. Worldwide it has ... common nosocomial infection amongst surgical patients with up to 38% .... antibiotics as soon as the sensitivity results are available. ... Breast surgery. Staph Aureus/ ...

  3. Weight regain after slimming induced by an energy-restricted diet depends on interleukin-6 and peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma2 gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyenechea, Estibaliz; Dolores Parra, M; Alfredo Martínez, J

    2006-11-01

    Weight-loss maintenance after following an energy-restricted diet is a major problem that a number of studies are trying to characterise. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of IL-6 -174G>C and PPAR-gamma2 Pro12Ala variants on weight regulation in obese subjects receiving a low-energy diet and at 1 year after the acute slimming period. Sixty-seven volunteers (age 34.7 (SD 7.0) years; BMI 35.8 (SD 4.8) kg/m(2)) were enrolled in a 10-week dietary intervention and were contacted again 1 year after the end of this period. Body composition was measured at three times during the study. Also, PPAR-gamma2 Pro12Ala and IL-6 -174G>C polymorphisms were analysed in the participants. No statistical differences were observed depending on the genetic variants at baseline for anthropometric variables, or after the intervention. However, the C allele of the -174G>C IL-6 gene polymorphism was more frequently observed (P=0.032) in subjects with successful weight maintenance (C polymorphism gives protection against regain of weight lost. Moreover, the presence of the Ala allele of the PPARgamma-2 together with the C allele strengthens this protection. These findings support a role for these polymorphisms on weight regulation and suggest a synergetic effect of both variants on weight maintenance after following a diet to lose weight.

  4. Quantitative fluorescence using 5-aminolevulinic acid–induced protoporphyrin IX biomarker as a surgical adjunct in low-grade glioma surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Pablo A.; Jacobs, Valerie; Harris, Brent T.; Wilson, Brian C.; Leblond, Frederic; Paulsen, Keith D.; Roberts, David W.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECT Previous studies in high-grade gliomas (HGGs) have indicated that protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) accumulates in higher concentrations in tumor tissue, and, when used to guide surgery, it has enabled improved resection leading to increased progression-free survival. Despite the benefits of complete resection and the advances in fluorescence-guided surgery, few studies have investigated the use of PpIX in low-grade gliomas (LGGs). Here, the authors describe their initial experience with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)–induced PpIX fluorescence in a series of patients with LGG. METHODS Twelve patients with presumed LGGs underwent resection of their tumors after receiving 20 μg/kg of ALA approximately 3 hours prior to surgery under an institutional review board–approved protocol. Intraoperative assessments of the resulting PpIX emissions using both qualitative, visible fluorescence and quantitative measurements of PpIX concentration were obtained from tissue locations that were subsequently biopsied and evaluated histopathologically. Mixed models for random effects and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for diagnostic performance were performed on the fluorescence data relative to the gold-standard histopathology. RESULTS Five of the 12 LGGs (1 ganglioglioma, 1 oligoastrocytoma, 1 pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, 1 oligodendroglioma, and 1 ependymoma) demonstrated at least 1 instance of visible fluorescence during surgery. Visible fluorescence evaluated on a specimen-by-specimen basis yielded a diagnostic accuracy of 38.0% (cutoff threshold: visible fluorescence score ≥ 1, area under the curve = 0.514). Quantitative fluorescence yielded a diagnostic accuracy of 67% (for a cutoff threshold of the concentration of PpIX [CPpIX] > 0.0056 μg/ml, area under the curve = 0.66). The authors found that 45% (9/20) of nonvisibly fluorescent tumor specimens, which would have otherwise gone undetected, accumulated diagnostically significant levels of CPpIX that were

  5. Qualitative tissue differentiation by analysing the intensity ratios of atomic emission lines using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS): prospects for a feedback mechanism for surgical laser systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanawade, Rajesh; Mahari, Fanuel; Klämpfl, Florian; Rohde, Maximilian; Knipfer, Christian; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Adler, Werner; Schmidt, Michael; Stelzle, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The research work presented in this paper focuses on qualitative tissue differentiation by monitoring the intensity ratios of atomic emissions using 'Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy' (LIBS) on the plasma plume created during laser tissue ablation. The background of this study is to establish a real time feedback control mechanism for clinical laser surgery systems during the laser ablation process. Ex-vivo domestic pig tissue samples (muscle, fat, nerve and skin) were used in this experiment. Atomic emission intensity ratios were analyzed to find a characteristic spectral line for each tissue. The results showed characteristic elemental emission intensity ratios for the respective tissues. The spectral lines and intensity ratios of these specific elements varied among the different tissue types. The main goal of this study is to qualitatively and precisely identify different tissue types for tissue specific laser surgery. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Biophotonics published by WILEY-VCH Verlag.

  6. Differential adaptation of human gut microbiota to bariatric surgery-induced weight loss: links with metabolic and low-grade inflammation markers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Furet, Jean-Pierre; Kong, Ling-Chun; Tap, Julien; Poitou, Christine; Basdevant, Arnaud; Bouillot, Jean-Luc; Mariat, Denis; Corthier, Gérard; Doré, Joël; Henegar, Corneliu; Rizkalla, Salwa; Clément, Karine

    2010-01-01

    .... Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is one of the most efficient procedures for the treatment of morbid obesity resulting in drastic weight loss and improvement of metabolic and inflammatory status...

  7. Angiotensin type 1a receptors in the forebrain subfornical organ facilitate leptin-induced weight loss through brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin N. Young

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: These data identify a novel interaction between angiotensin-II and leptin in the control of BAT thermogenesis and body weight, and highlight a previously unrecognized role for the forebrain SFO in metabolic regulation.

  8. Serum growth hormone-binding protein in obesity: effect of a short-term, very low calorie diet and diet-induced weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Ho, K K; Kjems, L

    1996-01-01

    +/-SEM)] before and after an average weight loss of 30.3 +/- 4.6 kg and in 18 age- and sex matched normal subjects (BMI, 23.0 +/- 0.4 kg/m2) and studied the effects of a very low calorie diet over 4 days in 5 normal subjects and a subgroup of obese subjects before (n = 6) and after (n = 5) weight loss...... days of a very low calorie diet, although mean insulin levels fell significantly in the normal subgroup as well as in the obese subgroup studied after weight loss. In summary, GHBP levels are elevated in obesity, are restored to normal by massive weight loss, and are unaffected by short term...

  9. Surgical instrument similarity metrics and tray analysis for multi-sensor instrument identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Bernhard; Schellenberg, Tobias; Franke, Stefan; Dänzer, Stefan; Neumuth, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    A robust identification of the instrument currently used by the surgeon is crucial for the automatic modeling and analysis of surgical procedures. Various approaches for intra-operative surgical instrument identification have been presented, mostly based on radio-frequency identification (RFID) or endoscopic video analysis. A novel approach is to identify the instruments on the instrument table of the scrub nurse with a combination of video and weight information. In a previous article, we successfully followed this approach and applied it to multiple instances of an ear, nose and throat (ENT) procedure and the surgical tray used therein. In this article, we present a metric for the suitability of the instruments of a surgical tray for identification by video and weight analysis and apply it to twelve trays of four different surgical domains (abdominal surgery, neurosurgery, orthopedics and urology). The used trays were digitized at the central sterile services department of the hospital. The results illustrate that surgical trays differ in their suitability for the approach. In general, additional weight information can significantly contribute to the successful identification of surgical instruments. Additionally, for ten different surgical instruments, ten exemplars of each instrument were tested for their weight differences. The samples indicate high weight variability in instruments with identical brand and model number. The results present a new metric for approaches aiming towards intra-operative surgical instrument detection and imply consequences for algorithms exploiting video and weight information for identification purposes.

  10. Transgenic mice with astrocyte-targeted production of interleukin-6 are resistant to high-fat diet-induced increases in body weight and body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidalgo, Juan; Florit, Sergi; Giralt, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a major cytokine involved in both normal physiological brain functions and underlying significant neuropathology. IL-6 has been suggested to play a role in the control of body weight but the results are somewhat controversial. In this study we have challenged transgenic mi......-fat diet feeding. In summary, the present results demonstrate that brain-specific IL-6 controls body weight which may be a significant factor in physiological conditions and/or in diseases causing neuroinflammation....

  11. early weight-bearing after ankle fracture fixation: a prospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I then determined to study and compare the functional benefit of early weight- bearing as compared ... management strategies after surgical treatment which have included ..... compensation expectations or concurrent medical comorbidity were ...

  12. Do patients lose weight after total knee replacement?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schwartsmann, Carlos Roberto; Borges, Alexandre Moreira; Freitas, Geraldo Luiz Schuck de; Migon, Eduardo Zaniol; Oliveira, Gustavo Kaempf de; Rodrigues, Marcos Wainberg

    2017-01-01

    ...) tend to maintain or gain weight after the procedure, which would result in increased wear of the prosthesis and new surgical interventions in a smaller period of time in comparison with patients...

  13. 3D Surgical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  14. Anxiety in veterinary surgical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Jensen, Asger Lundorff

    2012-01-01

    The surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and this can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether veterinary students' level of anxiety is higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course and if pre-surgical training...... in a Surgical Skills Lab (SSL) has an anxiety reducing effect. Investigations were carried out as a comparative study and a parallel group study. Potential participants were fourth-year veterinary students who attended a surgical course (Basic Surgical Skills) and a non-surgical course (Clinical Examination...... and 28 students from 2010). Our results show that anxiety levels in veterinary students are significantly higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course (p...